Celiberti, Simone; Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Peric, Tanja; Melillo, Alessandro; Robbe, Domenico
The data about chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) reproduction are limited and in some cases discordant. The aim of this study was to monitor the sexual hormone fluctuation by fecal progesterone level and colpocytology analysis by vaginal smears in order to evaluate the different phases of the oestrus cycle. Twenty-four non pregnant chinchillas aged from 1 to 4 years old and subdivided in three groups were monitored. In contrast with findings reported in other study, the high values of progesterone recorded in autumn suggested the presence of a ciclicity also in this period. The data indicate that chinchilla presents a continuous cycle.
Banks, A; Gartrell, N K
This paper critically reviews the studies which explore a possible causal relationship between sex hormones and the development of sexual orientation. Early studies focused on hormone measurements in adult men and women. While definitive interpretations are hindered by methodological problems, the studies as a whole do not support a causal relationship between postnatal hormone levels and sexual orientation. More recently, a theory that prenatal hormone levels produce varying degrees of brain androgenization and subsequent dimorphic sex role behavior has consistently been supported by studies in lower mammals. Attempts to generalize the causes of sexual orientation from animals to humans have been controversial. Efforts to measure the estrogen feedback as an indication of brain androgenization have produced inconsistent results. Studies of men and women who experienced defect in hormone metabolism (i.e., CAH and testicular feminization) have not found a concurrent increase in homosexual behavior. Overall, the data do not support a causal connection between hormones and human sexual orientation.
Zouboulis, C C; Chen, W-C; Thornton, M J; Qin, K; Rosenfield, R
The skin locally synthesizes significant amounts of sexual hormones with intracrine or paracrine actions. The local level of each sexual steroid depends upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors. Sebocytes express very little of the key enzyme, cytochrome P450c17, necessary for synthesis of the androgenic prohormones dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, however, these prohormones can be converted by sebocytes and sweat glands, and probably also by dermal papilla cells, into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Five major enzymes are involved in the activation and deactivation of androgens in skin. Androgens affect several functions of human skin, such as sebaceous gland growth and differentiation, hair growth, epidermal barrier homeostasis and wound healing. Their effects are mediated by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor. Changes of isoenzyme and/or androgen receptor levels may have important implications in the development of hyperandrogenism and the associated skin diseases such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, estrogens have been implicated in skin aging, pigmentation, hair growth, sebum production and skin cancer. Estrogens exert their actions through intracellular receptors or via cell surface receptors, which activate specific second messenger signaling pathways. Recent studies suggest specific site-related distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in human skin. In contrast, progestins play no role in the pathogenesis of skin disorders. However, they play a major role in the treatment of hirsutism and acne vulgaris, where they are prescribed as components of estrogen-progestin combination pills and as anti-androgens. These combinations enhance gonadotropin suppression of ovarian androgen production. Estrogen-progestin treatment can reduce the need for shaving
Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.
Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (<18 years: adjusted odds ratio (ORadj)=2.04), black (ORadj=1.78), and married or living with a partner (ORadj=1.82). Compared to copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094
Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoffrey
New observations over the last 25 years of hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms have gradually and unequivocally overturned the dogma, arising from Jost's elegant experiments in the mid-1900s, that all somatic sex dimorphisms in vertebrates arise from the action of gonadal hormones. Although we know that Sry, a Y-linked gene, is the primary gonadal sex determinant in mammals, more recent analysis in marsupials, mice, and finches has highlighted numerous sexual dimorphisms that are evident well before the differentiation of the testis and which cannot be explained by a sexually dimorphic hormonal environment. In marsupials, scrotal bulges and mammary primordia are visible before the testis has differentiated due to the expression of a gene(s) on the X chromosome. ZZ and ZW gynandromorph finches have brains that develop in a sexually dimorphic way dependent on their sex chromosome content. In genetically manipulated mice, it is the X chromosomes, not the gonads, that determine many characters including rate of early development, adiposity, and neural circuits. Even spotted hyenas have sexual dimorphisms that cannot be simply explained by hormonal exposure. This review discusses the recent findings that confirm that there are hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms well before the gonads begin to produce their hormones.
Schal, C; Chiang, A S
Many animals exhibit specific behaviors associated with sexual receptivity only when they are reproductively competent. In insects with gonadal maturation cycles, these behaviors usually coincide with ovarian maturation. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), regulates female reproductive physiology. Various experimental manipulations, including ablation of the CA, therapy with JH analogs, CA denervation, ovariectomy, and changing nutrient quality, coupled with time-lapse video recording, support the hypothesis that JH also controls female sexual receptivity. A re-examination of the role of the CA in the maturation of male sexual readiness shows that, while sexual behavior develops in the absence of JH in both B. germanica and Supella longipalpa, JH accelerates the expression of sexual readiness.
Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined.
Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined. PMID:21693676
Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius
Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.
Gonadal hormones regulate the ability to copulate in most mammalian species, but not in primates because copulatory ability has been emancipated from hormonal control. Instead, gonadal hormones primarily influence sexual motivation. This separation of mating ability from hormonally modulated mating interest allows social experience and context to powerfully influence the expression of sexual behavior in nonhuman primates, both developmentally and in adulthood. For example, male rhesus monkeys mount males and females equally as juveniles, but mount females almost exclusively as adults. Having ejaculated with a female better predicted this transition to female mounting partners than did increased pubertal testosterone (T). It is proposed that increased pubertal T stimulates male sexual motivation, increasing the male's probability of sexual experience with females, ultimately producing a sexual preference for females. Eliminating T in adulthood reduces male sexual motivation in both humans and rhesus monkeys, but does not eliminate the capacity to engage in sex. In male rhesus monkeys the effects of reduced androgens on sexual behavior vary with social status and sexual experience. Human sexual behavior also varies with hormonal state, social context, and cultural conventions. Ovarian hormones influence female sexual desire, but the specific sexual behaviors engaged in are affected by perceived pregnancy risk, suggesting that cognition plays an important role in human sexual behavior. How the physical capacity to mate became emancipated from hormonal regulation in primates is not understood. This emancipation, however, increases the importance of motivational systems and results in primate sexual behavior being strongly influenced by social context.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Hormone Replacement Therapies HRT Human Performance Laboratory HPL Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder HSDD...in reproductive status based on changes in reproductive hormones including estradiol (i.e., estrogen), progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone...Self-Schemas & Menopause 79 (i.e., complications). Blood samples of 20mL from each participant were collected in two test tubes containing a
Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen
The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study.
Jaffe, C A; Ocampo-Lim, B; Guo, W; Krueger, K; Sugahara, I; DeMott-Friberg, R; Bermann, M; Barkan, A L
Sexually dimorphic growth hormone (GH) secretory pattern is important in the determination of gender-specific patterns of growth and metabolism in rats. Whether GH secretion in humans is also sexually dimorphic and the neuroendocrine mechanisms governing this potential difference are not fully established. We have compared pulsatile GH secretion profiles in young men and women in the baseline state and during a continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I). During the baseline study, men had large nocturnal GH pulses and relatively small pulses during the rest of the day. In contrast, women had more continuous GH secretion and more frequent GH pulses that were of more uniform size. The infusion of rhIGF-I (10 microg/kg/h) potently suppressed both spontaneous and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-induced GH secretion in men. In women, however, rhIGF-I had less effect on pulsatile GH secretion and did not suppress the GH response to GHRH. These data demonstrate the existence of sexual dimorphism in the regulatory mechanisms involved in GH secretion in humans. The persistence of GH responses to GHRH in women suggests that negative feedback by IGF-I might be expressed, in part, through suppression of hypothalamic GHRH. PMID:9649569
Döhler, K D
In summary, a number of studies have shown that not only estrogenic and androgenic steroids and their antagonists influence sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain but also drugs which stimulate or inhibit the adrenergic, the serotoninergic, or the cholinergic system in the developing brain. The present knowledge on the possible participation of neurotransmitter systems in sexual differentiation of the brain and their mode of interaction in this process perinatally with gonadal steroids is still rather limited. Sexual differentiation of the central nervous system is a complex integrated process, which relies on proper chronological and quantitative interactions of various endocrine and neuroendocrine mediators. Any disturbance of this delicate endogenous hormonal balance during ontogenetic development, e.g. by means of environmental influences, can result in permanent manifestation of anatomic and functional sexual deviations. A large number of man-made chemicals that have been released into the environment have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system of animals and humans. They do so because they mimick the effects of natural hormones or neurotransmitters by recognizing their binding sites, or they antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones or neurotransmitters by blocking their interaction with their physiological binding sites. Interaction of environmental endocrine disruptors with animals or humans during ontogeny may have deleterious effects on the differentiation of reproductive structures and functions, rendering the individuals in question permanently incapable to reproduce and, thus, endangering survival of the species.
Azurmendi, Pablo J; Oddo, Elisabet M; Toledo, Jorge E; Martin, Rodolfo S; Ibarra, Fernando R; Arrizurieta, Elvira E
The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG) that follows uninephrectomy (uNx) is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa) were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50%) while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/ min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p < 0.05. Cell size (protein or RNA/DNA) was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content) was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.
Landi, Nicola; Lombardi, Ilaria; Manfredini, Daniele; Casarosa, Elena; Biondi, Katya; Gabbanini, Massimo; Bosco, Mario
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sexual hormones in a young adult population affected by articular forms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), measuring 17beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels. In the study, we included 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I group II diagnosis of disk displacement and/or group III diagnosis of arthralgia, osteoarthritis or osteoarhrosis, and 32 healthy controls. In female patients, blood samples were collected in follicular and luteal phases of the same menstrual cycle, while only one blood sample was drawn in male patients. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were determined using a radioimmunoassay and the comparison between the two groups was performed using a t test. Regarding estradiol, our results showed significantly higher serum levels in patients affected by TMD than in healthy controls, both in males (p < 0.01) and in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in females (p < 0.05), while no difference was found for progesterone serum levels. Considering the multifactorial etiology of TMD and the hypothesis that some joint tissues (e.g., bone, cartilage, collagen, proteins) could be a target for sexual hormones, these data suggest that high serum estrogen levels might be implicated in the physiopathology of TMD.
Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.
Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…
... affect many different processes, including Growth and development Metabolism - how your body gets energy from the foods you eat Sexual function Reproduction Mood Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the ...
The distinction between the ability to copulate and the desire to copulate is used to understand species differences in hormonal regulation of female sexual behavior. Evidence is presented demonstrating that ovarian hormones modulate female sexual motivation in both rodent and primate females. The thesis is developed that rodent females differ from primate females primarily in their dependence upon hormones for the ability to mate. Thus, apparent differences between the two groups of females in the extent to which hormones control copulatory behavior does not stem from differences in hormonal regulation of female sexual motivation but from the physical ability of primate, but not rodent, females to mate without hormonal stimulation. This emancipation of the ability to copulate from hormonal influence makes female sexual motivation the primary regulator of mating in primates. Dependence upon female sexual motivation means that the copulatory behavior of primate females is easily influenced by their physical and social environment. Because primate females can mate without hormonal input, female sexual initiation, not copulation, is argued to be the only valid indicator of female sexual motivation.
Bear, Ashley; Monteiro, Antónia
The differentiation of male and female characteristics in vertebrates and insects has long been thought to proceed via different mechanisms. Traditionally, vertebrate sexual development was thought to occur in two phases: a primary and a secondary phase, the primary phase involving the differentiation of the gonads, and the secondary phase involving the differentiation of other sexual traits via the influence of sex hormones secreted by the gonads. In contrast, insect sexual development was thought to depend exclusively on cell-autonomous expression of sex-specific genes. Recently, however, new evidence indicates that both vertebrates and insects rely on sex hormones as well as cell-autonomous mechanisms to develop sexual traits. Collectively, these new data challenge the traditional vertebrate definitions of primary and secondary sexual development, call for a redefinition of these terms, and indicate the need for research aimed at explaining the relative dependence on cell-autonomous versus hormonally guided sexual development in animals.
Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy; Adams, Sarah; Murillo, Vanessa; Martinez, Monique
These experiments were designed to determine if prior sexual experience reduced the negative effect of mild stress on female sexual behavior. In the first experiment, ovariectomized rats were hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone for 3 consecutive weeks during which they received six mating experiences in a male's home cage or received no sexual experience. The next week, females were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate two days before a 5 min restraint. Both groups were resistant to the negative effects of the stressor. In the second experiment, females received 0, 1, 2, or 3 weeks of 10 μg estradiol benzoate and were restrained on the fourth week after priming with 10 μg estradiol benzoate. Rats without prior hormonal priming showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint but prior priming with estradiol benzoate reduced this effect. In the third experiment, rats received 3 weeks of hormonal priming with estradiol benzoate and progesterone with or without sexual experience. An additional group received no sexual experience or hormonal priming. Females were then given a 3-week hormone vacation before testing in the restraint paradigm. All groups showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint. The fourth experiment was identical to the third except that sexual experience in the male's cage and in a pacing apparatus were compared. There was no effect of either type of sexual experience on the response to restraint. Possible mechanisms responsible for effects of prior hormonal priming are presented and the absence of an effect of sexual experience is discussed in comparison to findings in male rats.
Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka
Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.
Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka
Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis. PMID:26894583
Sterling, R J; Sharp, P J; Klandorf, H; Harvey, S; Lea, R W
Changes in concentrations of plasma luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), androgen, growth hormone (GH), prolactin (Prl), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured during growth and sexual maturation in broiler cockerels reared in continuous light to 7 weeks and 14 h light/d thereafter. Concentrations of LH and FSH began to increase between 13 and 15 weeks, while those of androgens increased between 16 and 17 weeks. FSH concentration increased faster than that of LH. Concentrations of GH and Prl were high at 3 weeks; that of GH decreasing progressively between 3 and 14 weeks of age and thereafter remaining low, while that of Prl was low between 5 and 9 weeks, relatively high between 10 and 13 weeks, and then temporarily decreasing before increasing progressively during sexual maturation. Concentrations of T3 and T4 were higher in juvenile than in adult birds.
Goldey, Katherine L; Avery, Lanice R; van Anders, Sari M
Research links explicit sexuality (e.g., physical attraction and pleasure) to high testosterone (T) and nurturance (loving contact) to low T. Engaging in sexual fantasy, which can include explicit sexual and nurturant elements, increases T in women but not in men. We examined whether individual differences in the explicit sexual and nurturant content of fantasy were linked with T or with estradiol (E2). In addition, we explored whether fantasy content differed or overlapped by gender/sex. Participants (26 women, 23 men) provided saliva samples for hormones before and after imagining a self-defined positive sexual encounter and responding to open-ended questions about the situation they imagined. We systematically content-coded responses for explicit sexual and nurturant content. In men, lower inclusion of nurturant content predicted larger T responses to fantasy. Fantasy content was not linked with T in women or with E2 in women or men. Women and men did not differ significantly in explicit sexual and nurturant content. Our findings suggest that individual experiences of fantasy as more or less nurturant affect T in men, provide support for the Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds, and highlight the value of integrating hormones and content analysis to investigate research questions relevant to sexuality and gender/sex.
Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun
Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed.
Bear, Ashley; Prudic, Kathleen L.
It is well established that steroid hormones regulate sexual behavior in vertebrates via organizational and activational effects. However, whether the organizational/activational paradigm applies more broadly to the sexual behavior of other animals such as insects is not well established. Here we describe the hormonal regulation of a sexual behavior in the seasonally polyphenic butterfly Bicyclus anynana is consistent with the characteristics of an organizational effect. By measuring hormone titer levels, quantifying hormone receptor gene expression in the brain, and performing hormone manipulations, we demonstrate steroid hormone signaling early in pupal development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in B. anynana. These findings suggest the organizational/activational paradigm may be more highly conserved across animal taxa than previously thought. PMID:28328961
Bear, Ashley; Prudic, Kathleen L; Monteiro, Antónia
It is well established that steroid hormones regulate sexual behavior in vertebrates via organizational and activational effects. However, whether the organizational/activational paradigm applies more broadly to the sexual behavior of other animals such as insects is not well established. Here we describe the hormonal regulation of a sexual behavior in the seasonally polyphenic butterfly Bicyclus anynana is consistent with the characteristics of an organizational effect. By measuring hormone titer levels, quantifying hormone receptor gene expression in the brain, and performing hormone manipulations, we demonstrate steroid hormone signaling early in pupal development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in B. anynana. These findings suggest the organizational/activational paradigm may be more highly conserved across animal taxa than previously thought.
The growth hormone (GH)-activated transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is a key regulator of sexually dimorphic gene expression in the liver. Suppression of hepatic STAT5b signaling is associated with lipid metabolic dysfunction leadi...
Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.
Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…
Duell, Lanora J.
This study examined the effect of hormonal fluctuations on women's performance on sexually dimorphic cognitive tasks. Thirty-six participants were recruited through introduction to psychology courses at three colleges. Participants were assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability III (WJ III COG), which is a commonly-used, widely…
Kauffman, Alexander S
The nervous system (both central and peripheral) is anatomically and physiologically differentiated between the sexes, ranging from gender-based differences in the cerebral cortex to motoneuron number in the spinal cord. Although genetic factors may play a role in the development of some sexually differentiated traits, most identified sex differences in the brain and behavior are produced under the influence of perinatal sex steroid signaling. In many species, the ability to display an estrogen-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is sexually differentiated, yet the specific neural population(s) that allows females but not males to display such estrogen-mediated "positive feedback" has remained elusive. Recently, the Kiss1/kisspeptin system has been implicated in generating the sexually dimorphic circuitry underlying the LH surge. Specifically, Kiss1 gene expression and kisspeptin protein levels in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus of the hypothalamus are sexually differentiated, with females displaying higher levels than males, even under identical hormonal conditions as adults. These findings, in conjunction with accumulating evidence implicating kisspeptins as potent secretagogues of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), suggest that the sex-specific display of the LH surge (positive feedback) reflects sexual differentiation of AVPV Kiss1 neurons. In addition, developmental kisspeptin signaling via its receptor GPR54 appears to be critical in males for the proper sexual differentiation of a variety of sexually dimorphic traits, ranging from complex social behavior to specific forebrain and spinal cord neuronal populations. This review discusses the recent data, and their implications, regarding the bi-directional relationship between the Kiss1 system and the process of sexual differentiation.
Background Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. Methods Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in 20 women taking oral contraceptives (OC group) and 20 not using OCs (control group). Outcome measures were adapted from questionnaires of menstrual cycle-related symptoms, physical activity, and interpersonal relations. Testing occurred during menstruation (T1), mid-cycle (T2), and during the luteal phase (T3). Changes in behavior were assessed across time points and between groups. Additionally, correlations between hormones and socio-behavioral characteristics were determined. Results Physical discomfort and sleep disturbances peaked at T1 for both groups. Exercise levels and overall socio-sexual interest did not change across the menstrual cycle for both groups combined. However, slight mid-cycle increases in general and physical attraction were noted among the control group, whereas the OC group experienced significantly greater socio-sexual interest across all phases compared to the control group. Associations with hormones differed by group and cycle phase. The estrogens were correlated with socio-sexual and physical variables at T1 and T3 in the control group; whereas progesterone, cortisol, and DHEAS were more closely associated with these variables in the OC group across test times. The direction of influence further varies by behavior, group, and time point. Among naturally cycling women, higher concentrations of estradiol and estriol are associated with lower attraction scores at T1 but higher scores at T3. Among OC users, DHEAS and progesterone
Piccoli, Valentina; Foroni, Francesco; Carnaghi, Andrea
Two studies address the role of hormonal shift across menstrual cycle in female dehumanization of other women. In Study 1, normally ovulating women (NOW) and women who use hormonal contraceptives (HCW) are compared in terms of how much they dehumanize other women and two other control targets (men and elderly people). In NOW, the level of dehumanization of other women, but not of men and elderly people, increases as the conception risk is enhanced. HCW do not show this pattern of results. In Study 2, we investigate the level of dehumanization of other women and of intra-sexual competition. Findings concerning dehumanization replicate those of Study 1. Intra-sexual competition increases with the rise of conception risk only in NOW. In addition, dehumanization is significantly associated with intra-sexual competition in NOW but not in HCW. Together, these studies demonstrate that dehumanization of women is elicited by menstrual cycle-related processes and associated with women's mate-attraction goals.
Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C
The physical attractiveness of faces is positively correlated with both behavioral and neural measures of their motivational salience. Although previous work suggests that hormone levels modulate women's perceptions of others' facial attractiveness, studies have not yet investigated whether hormone levels also modulate the motivational salience of facial characteristics. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between within-subject changes in women's salivary hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio) and within-subject changes in the motivational salience of attractiveness and sexual dimorphism in male and female faces. The motivational salience of physically attractive faces in general and feminine female faces, but not masculine male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high testosterone levels. Additionally, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces in general and attractive female faces, but not attractive male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high estradiol-to-progesterone ratios. These results provide the first evidence that the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism is modulated by within-woman changes in hormone levels.
Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli
Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction.
Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas V.
This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h) CRH gene: (1) a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic glucocorticoid administration in clinical practice and (2) a heuristic diagram to illustrate the proposed modulation of the stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction by steroid hormones, from the perspective of the CRH system. PMID:18475634
KESEBİR, Sermin; TOPRAK, Burak; BAYKARAN, Burak; HARİRİ, Aytül; BİLİCİ, Mustafa
Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the differences between lithium and atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine and olanzapine) with regard to their effects on sexual functions and hormonal variables and to assess the findings in term of gender differences, in patients with bipolar disorder. Method 28 female and 29 male patients diagnosed as having bipolar disorder type I according to the DSM-IV, using lithium or quetiapine and quetiapine+lithium or olanzapine and olanzapine+lithium were evaluated consecutively. Being in remission period and given informed consent were set as inclusion criteria in these cases. Interviews with the patients were carried out using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and SKIP-TURK. Sexual functions and satisfaction were evaluated with the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). Blood samples of the patients were taken in order to determine prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), and free testosterone (T) levels. Results GRISS scores in male patients were higher than in female patients (p=.001). The number of manic, depressive and total episodes, and functionality levels were similar between the treatment groups, both in female and male patients. No differences were found between treatment modalities in terms of hormone levels both in female and male patients. Among females, ASEX scores of the patients treated with lithium monotherapy were less than the ones treated with quetiapine and olanzapine. Among patients with quetiapine monotherapy, GRISS scores in male patients were higher than in female patients. Conclusion There are some evidences showing gender-based differences in the side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Future studies with a specific focus on this topic are needed in order to have a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of gender differences.
Jansson, J O; Edén, S; Isaksson, O
The secretory pattern of GH in the mature rat is sexually differentiated. In male rats GH is secreted in pulses occurring at regular 3- to 4-h intervals. In females the pulses are lower and plasma GH levels between the pulses are higher than in males. The continuous presence of testosterone appears to be necessary to maintain low basal GH levels in adult male rats. Neonatal, but not prepubertal, gonadectomy decreases GH pulse height in adult male rats to female levels. Administration of testosterone neonatally to castrated animals returns GH pulse height to normal suggesting that neonatal testicular androgen secretion is one determinant for GH pulse height in adult male rats. Administration of testosterone neonatally or during adult life to neonatally ovariectomized rats also produces higher GH pulses. In contrast to testosterone, estrogens elevate basal plasma GH levels and suppress the GH pulses under some conditions. Estrogens may stimulate basal GH secretion by acting directly on the pituitary. The physiological significance of the secretory pattern of GH has been investigated in hypophysectomized rats by simulating different plasma patterns of GH. The results suggest that high, infrequent GH pulses with low plasma GH levels in between (i.e. a masculine plasma GH pattern) promotes growth more effectively than an intermediate, rather constant level of plasma GH (i.e. a feminine plasma GH pattern). Since male sex steroids masculinize the secretory pattern of GH and have only minor growth-promoting effects in hypophysectomized animals it appears that the growth promoting effect of androgens is indirect and is due to an altered secretory pattern of GH. Presumably, neonatal androgen secretion stimulates body growth during adult life by irreversibly masculinizing the secretory pattern of GH. In contrast, estrogens appear to influence body growth by mechanisms that are mainly independent of the secretory pattern of GH. Evidence is accumulating that the secretory
Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M
A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue.
Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competit...
There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...
Ott, Mary A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Ofner, Susan; Tu, Wanzhu; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Mood and sexual interest changes are commonly cited reasons for discontinuing hormonal contraceptives. Data, however, are inconsistent and limited to adult users. We examined associations of hormonal contraceptive use with mood and sexual interest among adolescents. We recruited 14-17 year old women primary care clinics and followed them longitudinally for up to 41 months. Participants completed face-to-face interviews quarterly and two 12 week periods of daily diary collection per year. On daily diaries, participants recorded positive mood, negative mood, and sexual interest. We classified 12 week diary periods as “stable OCP use,” “non-use,” “initiated use,” “stopped use,” and “DMPA use” based on self-report of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use from medical charts. Diary periods were the unit of analysis. Participants could contribute more than one diary period. We analyzed data using linear models with a random intercept and slope across weeks in a diary period, an effect for contraceptive group, and an adjustment for age at the start of a diary period. Mean weekly positive mood was higher in diary periods characterized by stable OCP use, compared to other groups. Mean weekly negative mood was lower in diary periods characterized by stable OCP use and higher in periods characterized by DMPA use. Periods characterized by stable OCP use additionally showed less mood variation than other groups. Changes in mood among adolescent hormonal contraceptive users differed from those anticipated for adult users. Attention to adolescent-specific changes in mood and sexual interest may improve contraceptive adherence. PMID:18288601
Karaismailoğlu, Serkan; Erdem, Ayşen
Most of the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical gender-related differences in the brain occur prenatally. The sexual differences in the brain are affected by sex steroid hormones, which play important roles in the differentiation of neuroendocrine system and behavior. Testosterone, estrogen and dihydrotestosterone are the main steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The structural and behavioral differences in the female and male brains are observed in many animal species; however, these differences are variable between species. Animal and human (in vivo imaging and postmortem) studies on sex differences in the brain have shown many differences in the local distribution of the cortex, the gray-white matter ratio, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, hypothalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, limbic system and neurotransmitter systems. This review aims to evaluate the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical differences in the female and male brains and to assess the effect of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones on the developing brain. PMID:24592097
Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M; Faure, Denis
N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications.
Kant, L; Yilmaz, O; Taskiran, D; Kulali, B; Furedy, J J; Demirgören, S; Pögün, S
Recent studies using the water maze (WM) found marked sex differences in behavioral strategy employed in place learning tasks in adult rats. When a change in the platform position is introduced following learning the place of a platform (visible or hidden) in a different position, female rats escape to the newly positioned visible platform faster than males. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in place learning, and there are regional sex differences in its stable metabolites, NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-), in rat brain. Furthermore, NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels are sensitive to ovariectomy in female rats. The effect of sex hormones on brain development and function is well documented. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of ovariectomy and hormonal manipulations on cognitive performance in a WM task designed to test differences in behavioral strategy in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=48) of both sexes. Some of the females rats were ovariectomised and received either hormone replacement (estrogen or progesterone alone or in combination) or the vehicle. Cortical and hippocampal NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels were determined after behavioral testing. There were no group differences in cognitive ability or non-cognitive factors such as motivation or swim speed. Males and intact females differed in their cognitive style, but hormonal manipulations in female rats did not affect this relative use of behavioral strategy. There was a correlation between performance on the trial where sex differences were most prominent and NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels in the cortex. Our results suggest that the activational effects of circulating gonadal hormones do not play a major role in sexually dimorphic cognitive styles.
Schořálková, Tereza; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubička, Lukáš
In vertebrates, male-typical sexual behavior (MSB) is largely controlled by gonadal androgens, however, the mechanism of this control is believed to vary among species. During immediate activation MSB is tightly correlated with circulating levels of androgens, while the organization of MSB by a hormonal event at a specific developmental period, early in ontogeny or during puberty, has been postulated in other lineages. Here, we put forward an alternative concept of "temporal organization". Under temporal organization longer exposure to circulating androgens is needed for the onset of MSB, which can continue for a long time after the levels of these hormones drop. We tested this concept through long-term monitoring of MSB in females and castrated males of the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) in response to experimental changes in testosterone levels. Several weeks of elevated testosterone levels were needed for the full expression of MSB in both treatment groups and MSB diminished only slowly and gradually after the supplementation of exogenous testosterone ended. Moreover, despite receiving the same application of the hormone both the progressive onset and the cessation of MSB were significantly slower in experimental females than in castrated males. We suggest that the concept of temporal organization of MSB can parsimoniously explain several earlier discrepancies and debatable conclusions on the apparent variability in the hormonal control of MSB in vertebrates, which were based on behavioral testing at a few subjectively selected time points. We conclude that long-term and continuous behavioral testing after hormonal manipulations is needed to understand the regulation of MSB in vertebrates.
Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C
The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations.
Shen, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Liu, Ding-Zhen; Wang, De-Hua
Parker's sperm competition model predicts a negative relationship between pre-copulatory (social status) and post-copulatory (sperm quality and quantity) sexually selected traits, however, empirical studies have revealed considerable inconsistency in this relationship. We hypothesized that there was a trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits, and hormones (corticosterone, CORT; testosterone, T) orchestrate this relationship. In this study, we measured energetic parameters in the dominant-subordinate Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), whose relationship was established under chronic social encounters in a neutral arena, and then tested the relationship between their social status and sperm quality and quantity. Our results showed that dominant males initiated attack sooner and displayed more aggression, self-grooming and locomotion behaviors in daily social encounters across seven consecutive days. Dominant gerbils also had more and better quality of sperm than that of subordinate males, yet showed no significant differences in energy intake and RMR in comparison with subordinate individuals. In addition, dominant males had higher concentrations of serum T than subordinate males, whereas the concentrations of CORT showed a reverse pattern. The frequency and duration of aggression (indicative of social status) increased with elevated T concentrations. Sperm quality in terms of number and activity were associated with higher concentrations of serum T in dominant gerbils, whereas small sperm counts and poor-quality sperm were associated with relatively higher concentrations of serum CORT in subordinate gerbils. Together, our data indicated that there was no trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits but hormones orchestrated the relationship between these traits in male Mongolian gerbils.
Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Soria-Fregozo, Cesar; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela; González, Marisela Hernández; Vázquez-Palacios, Gonzalo; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda
Male sexual behavior (MSB) in rodents, in both its consummatory and motivational components, is regulated by hormones such as testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone. In experiments, neonatal treatment with clomipramine (CMI; a serotonin reuptake inhibitor) reproduces some of the signs of depression in adult age, including reduced sexual behavior manifested in a lower percentage of subjects that mount, intromit and ejaculate, although their testosterone levels were not altered. However, the effect of this treatment on estrogen levels and the consequences of hormone substitution using 17β-estradiol and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone on the expression of male sexual behavior are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of neonatal treatment with CMI on plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels, and the role of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone in altering the consummatory and motivational components of sexual behavior in male rats. To this end, it analyzed the copulatory parameters and sexual incentive motivation (SIM) of rats treated with CMI under two conditions: basal and post-hormone replacements. Neonatal treatment with CMI did not affect plasma testosterone or 17β-estradiol concentrations, but did decrease both the consummatory component and sexual motivation according to the results of the SIM test. These aspects were recovered after administering 17β-estradiol +5-α-dihydrotestosterone, but not testosterone.
Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J; Iwasa, Takeshi; Legan, Sandra J; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J
Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems that lie upstream of GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH; also known as RFamide related peptide-3) and kisspeptin, are potent inhibitory and excitatory modulators of GnRH, respectively, that participate in the timing of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and ovulation. Whether these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormone-treated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids and kisspeptin cell activation. Together, these data point to GnIH as an important modulator of female proceptive sexual behavior and motivation, independent of downstream alterations in sex steroid production.
Waxman, D J; Pampori, N A; Ram, P A; Agrawal, A K; Shapiro, B H
Plasma growth hormone (GH) profiles are sexually differentiated in many species and regulate the sex-dependence of peripubescent growth rates and liver function, including steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 expression, by mechanisms that are poorly understood. By use of an external pump to deliver to hypophysectomized rats pulses of rat GH of varying frequency and amplitude, a critical element for liver discrimination between male and female GH patterns was identified. Liver expression of the male-specific steroid 2 alpha (or 16 alpha)-hydroxylase P450, designated CYP2C11, was stimulated by GH at both physiological and nonphysiological pulse amplitudes, durations, and frequencies, provided that an interpulse interval of no detectable GH was maintained for at least 2.5 hr. This finding suggests that hepatocytes undergo an obligatory recovery period after stimulation by a GH pulse. This period may be required to reset a GH-activated intracellular signaling pathway or may relate to the short-term absence of GH receptors at the hepatocyte surface after a cycle of GH binding and receptor internalization. These requirements were distinguished from those necessary for the stimulation by GH of normal male growth rates in hypophysectomized rats, indicating that different GH responses and, perhaps, different GH-responsive tissues recognize distinct signaling elements in the sexually dimorphic patterns of circulating GH.
Vasundhera, Chauhan; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gupta, Nandita
Background and Objectives: 46 XY disorders of sexual development (DSD) cover a wide spectrum of phenotypes ranging from unambiguous female genitalia to ambiguous male genitalia with hypospadias or dysgenetic gonads. Management of these patients depends on the cause of DSD, degree of feminization, age at presentation, and gender orientation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation and management of patients with 46XY DSD at our center. Patients and Methods: All new and old patients of 46XY DSD attending the endocrine OPD in a period of 16 months were included in this study. Clinical, cytogenetic, hormonal, and radiological evaluation were done to identify the cause of DSD. Results: Among 19 patients, eight were diagnosed with disorders of gonadal development (one with complete gonadal dysgenesis, four with partial gonadal dysgenesis, two with congenital bilateral anorchia, and one with ovotesticular DSD) and eight with disorders of androgen synthesis and action (one with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome [AIS], three with partial AIS and four with 5α reductase deficiency). In three patients, a definitive diagnosis could not be made. Conclusions: Management of patients with DSD depends on etiology, gender assignment, gender orientation, hormonal treatment, genital surgery, and consequent psychosocial implications. Due to the overlapping clinical and biochemical parameters in different subsets of DSD, only a preliminary etiological diagnosis can be made in some cases. Genetic studies with long-term follow-up are required for an accurate diagnosis. PMID:27186544
Males and females of most mammalian species depend on chemosignals to find, attract and evaluate mates and, in most cases, these appetitive sexual behaviors are strongly modulated by activational and organizational effects of sex steroids. The neural circuit underlying chemosensory-mediated pre- and peri-copulatory behavior involves the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), medial preoptic area (MPOA) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), each area being subdivided into interconnected chemoreceptive and hormone-sensitive zones. For males, MA-BNST connections mediate chemoinvestigation whereas the MA-MPOA pathway regulates copulatory initiation. For females, MA-MPOA/BNST connections also control aspects of precopulatory behavior whereas MA-VMH projections control both precopulatory and copulatory behavior. Significant gaps in understanding remain, including the role of VMH in male behavior and MPOA in female appetitive behavior, the function of cortical amygdala, the underlying chemical architecture of this circuit and sex differences in hormonal and neurochemical regulation of precopulatory behavior.
Oshida, Keiyu; Waxman, David J.; Corton, J. Christopher
The growth hormone (GH)-activated transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is a key regulator of sexually dimorphic gene expression in the liver. Suppression of hepatic STAT5b signaling is associated with lipid metabolic dysfunction leading to steatosis and liver cancer. In the companion publication, a STAT5b biomarker gene set was identified and used in a rank-based test to predict both increases and decreases in liver STAT5b activation status/function with high (≥ 97%) accuracy. Here, this computational approach was used to identify chemicals and hormones that activate (masculinize) or suppress (feminize) STAT5b function in a large, annotated mouse liver and primary hepatocyte gene expression compendium. Exposure to dihydrotestosterone and thyroid hormone caused liver masculinization, whereas glucocorticoids, fibroblast growth factor 15, and angiotensin II caused liver feminization. In mouse models of diabetes and obesity, liver feminization was consistently observed and was at least partially reversed by leptin or resveratrol exposure. Chemical-induced feminization of male mouse liver gene expression profiles was a relatively frequent phenomenon: of 156 gene expression biosets from chemically-treated male mice, 29% showed feminization of liver STAT5b function, while <1% showed masculinization. Most (93%) of the biosets that exhibited feminization of male liver were also associated with activation of one or more xenobiotic-responsive receptors, most commonly constitutive activated receptor (CAR) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Feminization was consistently associated with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) but not other lipogenic transcription factors linked to steatosis. GH-activated STAT5b signaling in mouse liver is thus commonly altered by diverse chemicals, and provides a linkage between chemical exposure and dysregulated gene expression
Asadi, Fardin; Mohseni, Mehran; Dadashi Noshahr, Karim; Soleymani, Fariba Haj; Jalilvand, Ahmad; Heidari, Azam
Despite an increasing surge in application of nanoparticles in industries, there is a serious lack of information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. The present study investigated effects of molybdenum nanoparticles (Mo NPs) injected intraperitoneally into Sprague-Dawley rats at different doses of Mo NPs (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg BW per day) during a period of 28 days. Hematological and biochemical parameters as well as sexual hormones and histopathological examinations of the liver and testis were assessed and compared with control group. The results showed that the serum levels of testosterone decreased significantly in both groups of 10 and 15 mg (Mo NPs)/kg BW in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). However, there were insignificant differences observed in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and hematological parameters when compared with the control group (p > 0.05). The results of liver enzymes showed that serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) decreased significantly in both dosage groups of 5 and 10 mg/kg BW (Mo NPs) when compared with the control group (p < 0.05), and significant decrease obtained in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at dose of 5 mg/kg BW in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). The histopathological examination of testis showed a decrease in number of Leydig cells. Also, the number of chronic inflammatory cells increased in portal triad and parenchyma in liver tissue of rats exposed to Mo NPs.
DEHP (di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate), when administered during sexual differentiation, induces dose dependent decreases in fetal testis gene expression and steroid hormone synthesis.
Vickie S. Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Kathy Bobseine, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and ...
Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao
In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels.
McGlothlin, Joel W; Neudorf, Diane L H; Casto, Joseph M; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D
Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males.
McGlothlin, Joel W.; Neudorf, Diane L. H.; Casto, Joseph M.; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D.
Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males. PMID:15306336
Mao, Jun; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel
Data on growth and sexual maturation among boys from the rural Western Cape in South Africa is limited. A cross-sectional study of 269 school boys was conducted testing for serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2); height, weight and body mass index (BMI); sexual maturity (using Tanner Stages) and a questionnaire (demographic and medical history). The median age at pubertal onset (Tanner Stage 2) and Tanner Stage 5 was 11.6 and 14.7 years, respectively. The median testicular volume was 5.5 mL at Tanner Stage 2 increasing from 2.5 mL at Tanner Stage 1 to 14.7 mL at Tanner Stage 5. Height and weight measurements were <25th & 50th percentile references at Tanner Stages 1–3. Controlling for confounders, serum FSH and LH increased (p < 0.05) from Tanner Stage 1 to 4 (by 4.1 and 3 mL respectively), and serum testosterone and estradiol increased after Tanner Stage 2 (by 12.7 nmol/L and 59.5 pmol/L respectively). These results indicate some delays in pubertal development of boys in the rural Western Cape when compared to boys from other settings possibly due to nutritional, socio-economic and environmental exposures. Changes in serum hormone levels were consistent with other populations. Initiatives to improve nutrition amongst Western Cape rural communities are recommended. PMID:27916832
This study examined the relationships of prenatal transportation stress (PNS) with cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone secretion before and after gonadotrophin releashing hormone (GnRH) stimulation of sexually mature Brahman bulls derived from the calf crop of 96 Brahman cows (48 co...
Kuramochi, Asami; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Kaneko, Toyoji; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko
In tilapia, hormone treatment during the period of sexual differentiation can alter the phenotype of the gonads, indicating that endocrine factors can cause gonadal sex reversal. However, the endocrine mechanism underlying sex reversal of reproductive behaviors remains unsolved. In the present study, we detected sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type III (GnRH3) neurons in Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Our immunohistochemical observations showed sex differences in the number of GnRH3 immunoreactive neurons in mature tilapia; males had a greater number of GnRH3 neurons in the terminal ganglion than females. Treatment with androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) or methyltestosterone), but not that with 17β-estradiol, increased the number of GnRH3 neurons in females to a level similar to that in males. Furthermore, male-specific nest-building behavior was induced in 70% of females treated with 11-KT within two weeks after the onset of the treatment. These results indicate androgen-dependent regulation of GnRH3 neurons and nest-building behavior, suggesting that GnRH3 is importantly involved in sex reversal of male-specific reproductive behavior.
Graber, Julia A.; Sontag, Lisa M.
The psychosocial impact of puberty on changes in girls' feelings about their bodies and their sexuality is discussed. We present a model of girls' sexuality development that incorporates puberty, self, and peer systems. (Contains 2 figures.)
Pal, Aruna; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Chatterjee, Paresh Nath
The decline in the male reproductive ability in terms of sexual behavior and seminal traits might lead to nonavailability of required number of bulls in a progeny testing program. The present study was conducted in 493 crossbred cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) bulls to study polymorphisms of growth hormone (GH) gene and its association with seminal and sexual behavioral characteristics. A 428-base pair fragment of GH gene spanning over the fourth exon, fourth intron, and fifth exon was amplified and digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Bulls were found to be polymorphic, with two variants, LL and LV, and higher genotypic frequency for LL being 0.88. Twelve nucleotide changes and a single nonsynonymous substitution of Leucine by Valine were observed from GH1 (L) to GH2 (V). Statistical analysis revealed that the genotype of the GH gene had a significant effect on libido score, reaction time, Flehmen response, requirement of mounting stimulus, sperm mass activity, number of semen doses per collection, individual fresh sperm motility, postthaw sperm motility, acrosome integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling test, live and dead count, total morphological abnormality, and head abnormality of sperm in crossbred bulls. Growth hormone gene might be considered a candidate gene for seminal and sexual behavioral traits in crossbred cattle.
Ahmadnia, Hasan; Akhavan Rezayat, Alireza; Hoseyni, Mahmood; Sharifi, Nooriye; Khajedalooee, Mohhamad; Akhavan Rezayat, Arash
Background Increased rates of addiction and its broad societal complications are well known. One of the most important systems that may malfunction in drug abusers is the reproductive system, and evaluating patients for this potential risk may lead to increased awareness. Materials and Methods Thirty 60-day-old male rats were divided into control and target groups. The target group underwent 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of morphine twice a day while the control group underwent normal saline injections (at the same dosage). After 60 days, the rats were anesthetized, and after blood sampling, they underwent bilateral orchiepididymectomy. Histological and hormonal evaluations were performed on the samples. Results Levels of sex hormonal features and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced in the target group compared to the control group. LH levels showed a meaningful decrease in the target group, but FSH and testosterone levels did not. On histological section analysis, mature sperm were meaningfully decreased in the target group. Conclusions Chronic use of opioids may lead to alterations in sexual features and sexual hormones. Therefore, opioids have the potential to cause infertility. These changes may result from the effect of the drugs on the hypophysis or hypothalamus, the direct effect of the drugs on the seminiferous tubules, or a combination of both. The findings suggest that public awareness about addiction may cause decreased infertility rates. PMID:27713869
Juster, Robert-Paul; Almeida, Daniel; Cardoso, Christopher; Raymond, Catherine; Johnson, Philip Jai; Pfaus, James G; Mendrek, Adrianna; Duchesne, Annie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J
This study assessed sexual orientation and psychobiological stress indices in relation to salivary sex hormones as part of a well-validated laboratory-based stress paradigm. Participants included 87 healthy adults that were on average 25 years old who self-identified as lesbian/bisexual women (n=20), heterosexual women (n=21), gay/bisexual men (n=26), and heterosexual men (n=20). Two saliva samples were collected fifteen minutes before and fifteen minutes after exposure to a modified Trier Social Stress Test to determine testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations via enzyme-immune assaying. Mean sex hormones were further tested in association to stress indices related to cortisol systemic output (area under the curve with respect to ground) based on ten measures throughout the two-hour visit, allostatic load indexed using 21 biomarkers, and perceived stress assessed using a well-validated questionnaire. Results revealed that lesbian/bisexual women had higher overall testosterone and progesterone concentrations than heterosexual women, while no differences were found among gay/bisexual men in comparison to heterosexual men. Lesbian/bisexual women and heterosexual men showed positive associations between mean estradiol concentrations and allostatic load, while gay/bisexual men and heterosexual women showed positive associations between mean testosterone and cortisol systemic output. In summary, sex hormone variations appear to vary according to sexual orientation among women, but also as a function of cortisol systemic output, allostatic load, and perceived stress for both sexes.
Engel, Katharina C.; Stökl, Johannes; Schweizer, Rebecca; Vogel, Heiko; Ayasse, Manfred; Ruther, Joachim; Steiger, Sandra
The high energetic demand of parental care requires parents to direct their resources towards the support of existing offspring rather than investing into the production of additional young. However, how such a resource flow is channelled appropriately is poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the physiological mechanisms coordinating parental and mating effort in an insect exhibiting biparental care. We show a hormone-mediated infertility in female burying beetles during the time the current offspring is needy and report that this temporary infertility is communicated via a pheromone to the male partner, where it inhibits copulation. A shared pathway of hormone and pheromone system ensures the reliability of the anti-aphrodisiac. Female infertility and male sexual abstinence provide for the concerted investment of parental resources into the existing developing young. Our study thus contributes to our deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive parental decisions. PMID:27002429
Engel, Katharina C; Stökl, Johannes; Schweizer, Rebecca; Vogel, Heiko; Ayasse, Manfred; Ruther, Joachim; Steiger, Sandra
The high energetic demand of parental care requires parents to direct their resources towards the support of existing offspring rather than investing into the production of additional young. However, how such a resource flow is channelled appropriately is poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the physiological mechanisms coordinating parental and mating effort in an insect exhibiting biparental care. We show a hormone-mediated infertility in female burying beetles during the time the current offspring is needy and report that this temporary infertility is communicated via a pheromone to the male partner, where it inhibits copulation. A shared pathway of hormone and pheromone system ensures the reliability of the anti-aphrodisiac. Female infertility and male sexual abstinence provide for the concerted investment of parental resources into the existing developing young. Our study thus contributes to our deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive parental decisions.
Babaei-Balderlou, Farrin; Khazali, Homayoun
Background: The hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have facilitative effects on reproductive behavior in mammals. Ghrelin as a starvation hormone has an inhibitory effect on HPG axis’ function. Hence, it is postulated that ghrelin may reduce the sexual behavior through inhibiting of HPG axis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ghrelin and its antagonist, [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6, on sexual behavior and LH beta-subunit gene expression in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 128 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Each group was further subdivided into eight subgroups (n=8 rats/subgroup) including the animals that received saline, ghrelin (2, 4 or 8 nmol), [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 (5 or 10 nmol) or co-administration of ghrelin (4 nmol) and [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 (5 or 10 nmol) through the stereotaxically implanted cannula into the third cerebral ventricle. The sexual behavior of male rats encountering with females and the hypo-physeal LH beta-subunit gene expression were evaluated at two different groups. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Ghrelin injection (4 and 8 nmol) significantly (p<0.01) increased the latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation as well as the post-ejaculatory interval. Also, 4 and 8 nmol ghrelin significantly (p<0.05) increased the number of mount and decreased the number of ejaculation. In co-administrated groups, [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 antagonized the effects of ghrelin. Ghrelin injection (4 and 8 nmol) reduced the LH beta-subunit gene expression while pretreatment with [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 improved the gene expression. Conclusion: Ghrelin decreased the sexual behavior and LH beta-subunit gene expression in male rats, whereas [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 antagonizes these effects. PMID:27141463
Brotman, Rebecca M; Ravel, Jacques; Bavoil, Patrik M; Gravitt, Patti E; Ghanem, Khalil G
The female and male reproductive tracts are complex eco-systems where immune cells, hormones, and microorganisms interact. The characteristics of the reproductive tract mucosa are distinct from other mucosal sites. Reproductive tract mucosal immune responses are compartmentalized, unique, and affected by resident bacterial communities and sex hormones. The female and male genital microbiomes are complex environments that fluctuate in response to external and host-associated stimuli. The female vaginal microbiota play an important role in preventing colonization by pathogenic organisms. Sex hormones and their duration of exposure affect the composition and stability of the microbiome as well as systemic and mucosal immune responses. In addition to the characteristics of the pathogen they are targeting, successful vaccines against sexually transmitted pathogens must take into account the differences between the systemic and mucosal immune responses, the compartmentalization of the mucosal immune responses, the unique characteristics of the reproductive tract mucosa, the role of the mucosal bacterial communities, the impact of sex hormones, and the interactions among all of these factors.
HUANG, VICTORIA; HEMMINGS, HUGH C.; CREWS, DAVID
Dopaminergic activity is both associated with sociosexual exposure and modulated by sexual experience and hormonal state across vertebrate taxa. Mature leopard geckos, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination, have dopaminoceptive nuclei that are influenced by their embryonic environment and sensitive to adult hormonal manipulation. In this study, we exposed hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures to conspecifics and measured their sociosexual investigation, as well as phosphorylated DARPP-32 at Threonine 34 (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity as a marker for D1 dopamine receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, and preoptic area. Social investigation time by males of different incubation temperatures was modulated in opposite directions by exogenous androgen treatment. Males exposed to novel stimuli spent a greater proportion of time investigating females of different incubation temperatures. The time spent investigating females was positively correlated to pDARPP-32 immunoreactivity in the preoptic area. This is the first study quantifying pDARPP-32 in a lizard species, and suggests the protein as a potential marker to measure differences in the dopaminergic pathway in a social setting with consideration of embryonic environment and hormonal state. PMID:25351686
Carter, D A; Saridaki, E; Lightman, S L
The plasma OT increment following stress in rats is sexually dimorphic, females exhibiting greater responses than males. We have investigated the role of neonatal androgen secretion in determining the sex-typical level of response. Castration of male pups either surgically or functionally (GnRH antagonist treatment) within either 2 h or 5 days of birth did not elevate the OT responses of adult males. In contrast, androgenization of female pups (testosterone, 1.25 mg/pup) within 5 days of birth markedly reduced the OT stress responses of adults to a level insignificantly different to males. The results show that neonatal androgens can exert organizational effects on OT regulatory mechanisms. Since neonatal castration was ineffective it would appear that a prenatal defeminization or masculinization event determines OT stress responsiveness in males.
Klingerman, Candice M; Williams, Wilbur P; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J
We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH.
Klingerman, Candice M.; Williams, Wilbur P.; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.
We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396
Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.
Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935
Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F
Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency.
The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the activities of several sexually dimorphic hepatic proteins was investigated in male rats by feeding a nutritionally adequate liquid diet supplemented with either ethanol or dextrimaltose. Two androgen-responsive proteins served as markers of masculine hepatic function. A high capacity, moderate affinity male estrogen-binding protein (MEB) is found only in male rat liver cytosol and this activity was significantly reduced in all animals consuming ethanol at a dose of 5% by volume. The estrogen metabolizing enzyme estrogen 2-hydroxylase was also significantly reduced in male rats fed ethanol. Two proteins having higher activity in female compared to male liver were chosen as indicators of feminization: ceruloplasmin and 5[alpha]-reductase. Ceruloplasmin activity was increased after long term feeding of ethanol, but not after shorter durations of alcohol consumption. The 5a-reductase activity was not significantly affected by any of the alcohol feeding studies. Serum testosterone levels were not significantly decreased after ethanol consumption. After 30 or 60 days of ethanol ingestion, serum estradiol was elevated 34% and 40%. The reversibility of ethanol effects was determined by a gradual withdrawal of alcohol from the diet. The effect of ethanol consumption on sex-specific patterns of growth hormone secretion was examined. The secretory pattern of alcohol-fed rats was not feminized; after ethanol ingestion, the frequency of growth hormone pulses was unchanged. An increase in pulse height and mean growth hormone concentration was observed after 60 days of ethanol consumption. This results constitutes a change away from rather than toward the characteristics of a female secretory pattern. The feminization of activities of the male estrogen binding protein and of estrogen 2-hydroxylase in male rat liver after chronic ethanol consumption are not apparently related to a feminization of growth hormone secretion pattern.
Burgess, Elizabeth A; Blanshard, Wendy H; Barnes, Andrew D; Gilchrist, Sam; Keeley, Tamara; Chua, Jayce; Lanyon, Janet M
Determining the reproductive status of long-term captive animals is essential because the onset of sexual maturity and reproductive activity may necessitate changes in husbandry requirements. This study reports on the first multi-year reproductive hormone monitoring program for captive dugongs of both sexes using feces. Fecal samples were collected from one male (Pig) over 9 years (4-13.2y of age; n=288 samples, 0.8±0.1 samples per week from July 2007 to February 2012) and one female (Wuru) over 7 years (from neonate to 6.9 y; n=171 samples, 0.5±0.1 samples per week from July 2007 to February 2012), and from one solitary female dugong (Gracie) over 10 months (10.5-11.3y of age; n=54 samples, 1.1±0.2 sample per week from September 2008 to June 2009). Using enzyme-immunoassay, fecal progesterone (fP) and estradiol-17β (fE) concentrations were assayed in the two captive females, and testosterone (fT) concentration in the captive male, and compared these to concentrations in wild dugongs. Female Wuru exhibited increasing fP concentrations at 5+ y, indicating early onset of ovarian cycling typical of non-pregnant adult females. Female Gracie maintained basal fP concentrations consistent with wild immature dugongs, indicating that she had not reached puberty by 11y. Nutritional plane may account for differences in age at sexual maturity in these female dugongs. At age 3-4y, Wuru had fE concentrations 1.4 times greater than maximum concentrations recorded in all wild females, and these concentrations were coincident with a period of rapid weight gain. For the male Pig, increasing fT concentrations at 9y provided early indications of puberty. Pig's tusks erupted by 11y, and sexual maturity (indicated by spermatic semen) was confirmed by 12.8y. Identification of sexual maturation prompted two trials of a male contraceptive treatment using the GnRH agonist, deslorelin (9.4mg administered in 2010 and 15.6mg in 2011). Testosterone production was not significantly
Brito, L F C; Barth, A D; Rawlings, N C; Wilde, R E; Crews, D H; Boisclair, Y R; Ehrhardt, R A; Kastelic, J P
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects offeed restriction during calfhood on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, and testosterone, and on sexual development in bulls. Eight beef bull calves received a control diet from 10 to 70 weeks of age. An additional 16 calves had restricted feed (75% of control) from 10 to 26 weeks of age (calfhood), followed by either control or high nutrition (n=8/group) during the peripubertal period until 70 weeks of age. Restricted feed during calfhood inhibited the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator, reduced the pituitary response to GnRH, impaired testicular steroidogenesis, delayed puberty, and reduced testicular weight at 70 weeks of age, regardless of the nutrition during the peripubertal period. Restricted feed reduced serum IGF-I concentrations, but concentrations of leptin, insulin, and GH were not affected. In conclusion, restricted feed during calfhood impaired sexual development in bulls due to adverse effects on every level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis and these effects were not overcome by supplemental feeding during the peripubertal period. Furthermore, based on temporal associations, the effects of restricted feed on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis might be mediated by serum IGF-I concentrations. These results supported the hypotheses that the pattern of LH secretion during the early gonadotropin rise during calfhood is the main determinant of age of puberty in bulls and that gonadotropin-independent mechanisms involved in testicular growth during the peripubertal period are affected by previous LH exposure.
Xiao, Hai-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming
Annual migration of pests between different seasonal habitats can lead to serious crop damage. Reproductive immaturity is generally associated with the migratory process (oogenesis-flight syndrome), but the mechanism of reproductive development during migration varies unpredictably. Here, the vitellogenin gene (MsVg) and three key regulatory enzyme genes (MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe) related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and degradation were identified and characterized in Mythimna separata. The relative expression of MsVg varied significantly in response to seasonal changes and was significantly correlated with stages of ovarian development. The relatively low levels of JH titer did not differ significantly in male moths but slightly increased in female adults during the migratory season, which was consistent with changes in mRNA levels for MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe. JH titer was negatively associated with relative seasonal levels of vitellogenin mRNA transcripts and with ovarian development in migrating M. separata. The synchrony of MsVg expression with sexual maturation highlighted the potential of MsVg transcript levels to serve as an index to monitor the adult reproductive status. In addition, the level of JH and sexual maturity were correlated with the extent of JH in regulating the MsVg expression and reproduction during seasonal northern and southern migration. PMID:27629246
Fagegaltier, Delphine; König, Annekatrin; Gordon, Assaf; Lai, Eric C; Gingeras, Thomas R; Hannon, Gregory J; Shcherbata, Halyna R
MiRNAs bear an increasing number of functions throughout development and in the aging adult. Here we address their role in establishing sexually dimorphic traits and sexual identity in male and female Drosophila. Our survey of miRNA populations in each sex identifies sets of miRNAs differentially expressed in male and female tissues across various stages of development. The pervasive sex-biased expression of miRNAs generally increases with the complexity and sexual dimorphism of tissues, gonads revealing the most striking biases. We find that the male-specific regulation of the X chromosome is relevant to miRNA expression on two levels. First, in the male gonad, testis-biased miRNAs tend to reside on the X chromosome. Second, in the soma, X-linked miRNAs do not systematically rely on dosage compensation. We set out to address the importance of a sex-biased expression of miRNAs in establishing sexually dimorphic traits. Our study of the conserved let-7-C miRNA cluster controlled by the sex-biased hormone ecdysone places let-7 as a primary modulator of the sex-determination hierarchy. Flies with modified let-7 levels present doublesex-related phenotypes and express sex-determination genes normally restricted to the opposite sex. In testes and ovaries, alterations of the ecdysone-induced let-7 result in aberrant gonadal somatic cell behavior and non-cell-autonomous defects in early germline differentiation. Gonadal defects as well as aberrant expression of sex-determination genes persist in aging adults under hormonal control. Together, our findings place ecdysone and let-7 as modulators of a somatic systemic signal that helps establish and sustain sexual identity in males and females and differentiation in gonads. This work establishes the foundation for a role of miRNAs in sexual dimorphism and demonstrates that similar to vertebrate hormonal control of cellular sexual identity exists in Drosophila.
Mani, S. K.; Allen, J. M. C.; Clark, J. H.; Blaustein, J. D.; O'Malley, B. W.
Estrogen and progesterone modulate gene expression in rodents by activation of intracellular receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate neuronal networks that control female sexual behavior. However, the neurotransmitter dopamine has been shown to activate certain steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. A dopamine receptor stimulant and a D_1 receptor agonist, but not a D_2 receptor agonist, mimicked the effects of progesterone in facilitating sexual behavior in female rats. The facilitatory effect of the neurotransmitter was blocked by progesterone receptor antagonists, a D_1 receptor antagonist, or antisense oligonucleotides to the progesterone receptor. The results suggest that in rodents neurotransmitters may regulate in vivo gene expression and behavior by means of cross-talk with steroid receptors in the brain.
McCarthy, M. M.; Nugent, B. M.
It has been long established that hormones exert enduring influences on the developing brain that direct the reproductive response in adulthood, although the cellular mechanisms by which organisational effects are maintained have not been determined satisfactorily. Recent interest in epigenetic modifications to the nervous system has highlighted the potential for hormone-induced changes to the genome that could endure for the lifespan but not be transmitted to the next generation. Preliminary evidence suggests that this is indeed possible because sex differences in the histone code and in the methylation of CpGs in the promoters of specific genes have been identified and, at times, functionally correlated with behaviour. The present review provides an overview of epigenetic processes and discusses the current state-of-the-art, and also identifies future directions. PMID:23919286
Torres-Chávez, Karla E; Fischer, Luana; Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Fávaro-Moreira, Nadia Cristina; Obando-Pereda, Gustavo Alberto; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Tambeli, Claudia Herrera
Temporomandibular joint pain-related conditions are generally characterized by local inflammation; however, little studies have focused on the role of gonadal hormones in the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines. Therefore, we asked whether gonadal steroid hormones affect formalin-induced cytokines expression in the rat temporomcandibular joint. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 was significantly higher in males than in diestrus and proestrus females and was decreased by orchiectomy and restored by testosterone replacement. The expression of IL-6 was significantly higher in diestrus and proestrus females than in males, and was decreased by ovariectomy and restored by estradiol or progesterone administration. We conclude that testosterone increases the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and CINC-1, and estradiol and progesterone increase the expression of IL-6. New clinical approaches based on inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators are starting to supplant traditional immunosuppressive therapies and gonadal hormones may influence their effectiveness or clinical dosage.
The role of sexual steroid hormones in the direct stimulation by Kisspeptin-10 of the secretion of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin from bovine anterior pituitary cells.
Ezzat, A Ahmed; Saito, H; Sawada, T; Yaegashi, T; Goto, Y; Nakajima, Y; Jin, J; Yamashita, T; Sawai, K; Hashizume, T
The aims of the present study were to clarify the effect of Kisspeptin-10 (Kp10) on the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL) from bovine anterior pituitary (AP) cells and evaluate the ability of sex steroids to enhance the sensitivity of gonadotropic and lactotropic cells to Kp10. AP cells prepared from 7-week-old male calves were incubated for 12h with estradiol (E(2); 10(-8)M), progesterone (P(4); 10(-8)M), testosterone (T; 10(-8)M), or vehicle only (control), and then for 2h with Kp10 (10(-6)M). The amounts of LH, FSH and PRL released into the culture medium after the 2-h incubation period were examined. Kp10 significantly stimulated the secretion of LH from the AP cells treated with E(2) and T (P<0.05), but not from the P(4)-treated cells. In contrast, Kp10 had no effect on the secretion of FSH regardless of the steroid treatment. Kp10 significantly stimulated the secretion of PRL (P<0.05), the sexual steroid hormones having no effect. The LH- or FSH-releasing response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 10(-8)M) and PRL-releasing response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; 10(-8)M) were significantly greater than those to Kp10 (P<0.05). The present results suggest that E(2) and T, but not P(4), enhance the sensitivity of gonadotropic cells to the secretion of LH in response to Kp10. However, Kp10 had no stimulatory effect on the secretion of FSH regardless of the effect of sex steroids. Kp10 directly stimulates the secretion of PRL from the pituitary cells, and sex steroids do not enhance the sensitivity of lactotropic cells to Kp10. Furthermore, the LH- and FSH-releasing effect and the PRL-releasing effect of Kp10 are less potent than that of GnRH and TRH, respectively.
Holmes, Melissa M; Wade, Juli
The copulatory neuromuscular system of green anoles is sexually dimorphic and differentiates during embryonic development, although details of the process were unknown. In Experiment 1, we determined the time course of normal ontogeny. Both male and female embryos possessed bilateral copulatory organs (hemipenes) and associated muscles until incubation day 13; the structures completely regressed in female embryos by incubation day 19 (total incubation 34 days). In Experiment 2, we treated eggs with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, or vehicle on both incubation days 10 and 13 to determine whether these steroid hormones mediate sexual differentiation. These time points fall between gonadal differentiation, which was determined in Experiment 1 to complete before day 10, and regression of the peripheral copulatory system in females. Tissue was collected on the day of hatching. Gonads were classified as testes or ovaries; presence versus absence of hemipenes and muscles, and the number and size of copulatory motoneurons were determined. Copulatory system morphology of vehicle-treated animals matched their gonadal sex. Hemipenes and muscles were absent in estradiol-treated animals, and androgens rescued the hemipenes and muscles in most females. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone treatment also caused hypertrophy of the hemipenes, which were everted in animals treated with these steroids. Copulatory motoneurons, assessed on the day of hatching in both experiments, were not dimorphic in size or number. Steroid treatment significantly increased motoneuron size and number overall, but no significant differences were detected in pairwise comparisons. These data demonstrate that differentiation of peripheral copulatory neuromuscular structures occurs during embryonic development and is influenced by gonadal steroids (regression by estradiol and enhancement by androgens), but associated motoneurons do not differentiate until later in life.
Sancho-Knapik, Sara; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Gascón, Sonia; Romanos, Eduardo; Martínez-Beamonte, Roberto; Navarro, María A; Surra, Joaquín C; Arnal, Carmen; Osada, Jesus
The expression of Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) has been found to be associated with the lipid droplets in liver. Here, we studied the expression of Syt1 in Apoe-deficient mice receiving cholesterol, Western diet, squalene, and oleanolic acid. We also studied the influence of sex and impact of surgical castration. Dietary cholesterol increased hepatic Syt1 expression, an effect that was enhanced when cholesterol was combined with saturated fat present in a Western diet. This potentiation was modified by the administration of 10 mg/kg oleanolic acid or 1 g/kg squalene. Females fed chow or Western diet showed higher levels of hepatic Syt1 expression as compared to male mice on the same diet. Surgical castration of males did not modify the Syt1 expression; however, ovariectomy led to decreased levels. The data show that hepatic Syt1 expression is influenced by diet and hormonal milieu.
Hiraishi, Kai; Sasaki, Shoko; Shikishima, Chizuru; Ando, Juko
The second to fourth digit ratio has been argued to reflect prenatal hormonal influences and is reportedly associated with various psychological and behavioral traits, such as sexual orientation, cognitive abilities, and personality. We examined genetic and environmental influences on the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) using a Japanese twin sample (N=300). The genetic analysis showed substantial additive genetic influences for both right and left hand 2D:4D. The rest of the variance was explained mainly by environmental influences not shared within twin pairs. These findings were, in general, in accordance with preceding studies with primarily Caucasian twin samples. The bivariate genetic analysis revealed that the additive genetic influences were largely shared between the right and left hand, while the non-shared environmental influences were largely unique to each hand. Results from a comparison of opposite-sex and same-sex twins were not significant, although they were in the predicted direction according to the prenatal hormone transfer hypothesis. Female monozygotic twin pairs discordant in sexual orientation showed significant within-pair differences in left hand 2D:4D, where non-heterosexual twins had lower (more masculinized) 2D:4D. In addition, we found that non-heterosexual male MZ twins had larger (more feminized) 2D:4D than their heterosexual co-twins. These results suggest the existence of non-shared environmental influences that affect both 2D:4D and sexual orientation.
... how past experiences may be affecting your current sexuality. Glossary Depression: Feeling of sadness for periods of at least 2 weeks. Dyspareunia: Pain with intercourse. Estrogen: A female hormone produced in the ovaries. Hormones: Substances produced ...
Shishkina, I.V.; Babichev, V.N.; Ozol', L.Yu.
In this investigation, changes in the level of receptors for sex hormones in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats were studied on the first through fifth days of postnatal life, and the results obtained were compared with the levels of luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in the peripheral blood in order to discover any correlation between these parameters. 2,4,6,7,-/sup 3/H-estradiol-17..beta.. and 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H-testosterone were used as labeled hormones. The values of the association constant and concentration of specific binding sites for estradiol and testosterone in hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats during neonatal development is shown. It is found that in male rats on the first day after birth, receptors for estradiol and testosterone are present and they enable the action both of the testicular hormone and that of estradiol to be realized.
Klapilová, Kateřina; Cobey, Kelly D; Wells, Timothy; Roberts, S Craig; Weiss, Petr; Havlíček, Jan
Data from 1155 Czech women (493 using oral contraception, 662 non-users), obtained from the Czech National Survey of Sexual Behavior, were used to investigate evolutionary-based hypotheses concerning the predictive value of current oral contraceptive (OC) use on extra-pair and dyadic (in-pair) sexual behavior of coupled women. Specifically, the aim was to determine whether current OC use was associated with lower extra-pair and higher in-pair sexual interest and behavior, because OC use suppresses cyclical shifts in mating psychology that occur in normally cycling women. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression and negative binomial models were used to test associations between OC use and these sexual measures, controlling for other relevant predictors (e.g., age, parity, in-pair sexual satisfaction, relationship length). The overall incidence of having had an extra-pair partner or one-night stand in the previous year was not related to current OC use (the majority of the sample had not). However, among the women who had engaged in extra-pair sexual behavior, OC users had fewer one-night stands than non-users, and tended to have fewer partners, than non-users. OC users also had more frequent dyadic intercourse than non-users, potentially indicating higher commitment to their current relationship. These results suggest that suppression of fertility through OC use may alter important aspects of female sexual behavior, with potential implications for relationship functioning and stability.
Henningsen, A D; Murru, F L; Rasmussen, L E L; Whitaker, B R; Violetta, G C
Levels of reproductively-related steroids were determined in captive male sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus, maintained at two institutions: SeaWorld Adventure Park Orlando and the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Sexual conflicts were absent at the former, but were documented at the latter. Serum titers of 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone were determined via radioimmunoassay in adult male sharks from 1988 to 2000. Sampling overlap between the two institutions occurred for 3 months of the year, but steroid concentrations were compared only for April due to the occurrence of sexual conflicts in the sharks at the National Aquarium in Baltimore in that month. For April, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were significantly higher in the SeaWorld males, and progesterone was significantly higher in the National Aquarium in Baltimore males, while estradiol was not significantly different. Steroid levels were also determined from serial samples taken monthly over 17 months from three male sharks and one female shark at the National Aquarium in Baltimore in 2001-2002 and were compared with corresponding observed sexual conflicts. The steroid levels obtained showed distinct annual hormonal cycles in the male sharks and corroborated a biennial cycle for the single serially-sampled female shark. Furthermore, the steroid levels for individual males correlated with sexual conflicts as well as their position within the male dominance hierarchy. As this species is depleted in some regions globally, insight into the steroid profile of mature sand tiger sharks is important for a greater understanding of the relationship between their reproductive physiology and behavior, and may aid in captive management and reproduction.
Clayton, Anita H; Harsh, Veronica
Women experience multiple changes in social and reproductive statuses across the life span which can affect sexual functioning. Various phases of the sexual response cycle may be impacted and can lead to sexual dysfunction. Screening for sexual problems and consideration of contributing factors such as neurobiology, reproductive life events, medical problems, medication use, and depression can help guide appropriate treatment and thereby improve the sexual functioning and quality of life of affected women. Treatment options include psychotropic medications, hormone therapy, and psychotherapy.
Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías
Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels.
Fabre-Nys, C; Martin, G B
When estrous behavior is induced in ovariectomized ewes by subjecting them to progestagen priming followed by a dose of estrogen large enough to guarantee estrus in all animals, an abnormally long period of estrus in induced, suggesting that the regime of steroid replacement needs modification. Using quantitative tests for proceptivity and receptivity, we studied the patterns of sexual behavior of intact ewes and then attempted to reproduce them in the same animals after they had been ovariectomized. We used various combinations of exogenous estrogen, androgen, and progestagen and compared the behavioral responses with an endocrine response, the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). In intact ewes, sexual behavior and the LH surge were closely synchronized and their characteristics differed slightly between the middle and the end of the breeding season. Proceptive behavior was not greatly affected by the frequency of tests, but the duration of receptivity was significantly reduced by frequent testing. In ovariectomized ewes, we found that: (a) progesterone priming is essential for normal patterns of receptive and proceptive behavior, and for synchronizing the behavioral and endocrine responses to estrogen; (b) androgens do not play a major role in the control of either receptive or proceptive behavior; and (c) the inclusion of a low dose of estrogen with the progestagen in the 'priming' regime improves the responses to estradiol-17 beta. Under these conditions, the timing, intensity and duration of the behavior are very close to those observed in the same ewes when they were intact and cycling spontaneously.
Brito, Leonardo F C; Barth, Albert D; Rawlings, Norm C; Wilde, Randal E; Crews, Denny H; Mir, Priya S; Kastelic, John P
The objective of the present study was to characterize the effects of nutrition on circulating concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, and testosterone during sexual development in bulls. Nutrition regulated the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis through effects on the GnRH pulse generator in the hypothalamus and through direct effects on the testes. Pituitary function (gonadotropin secretion after GnRH challenge) was not affected by nutrition. However, nutrition affected LH pulse frequency and basal LH concentration during the early gonadotropin rise (10-26 weeks of age). There were close temporal associations between changes in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and changes in LH pulse frequency, suggesting a role for IGF-I in regulating the early gonadotropin rise in bulls. The peripubertal increase in testosterone concentration was delayed in bulls with lesser serum IGF-I concentrations (low nutrition), suggesting a role for IGF-I in regulating Leydig cell function. Serum IGF-I concentrations accounted for 72 and 67% of the variation in scrotal circumference and paired-testes volume, respectively (at any given age), indicating that IGF-I may regulate testicular growth. Bulls with a more sustained elevated LH pulse frequency during the early gonadotropin rise (high nutrition) had greater testicular mass at 70 weeks of age relative to the control group (medium nutrition), despite no differences in metabolic hormone concentrations after 26 weeks of age. Therefore, gonadotropin-independent mechanism regulating testicular growth might be dependent on previous gonadotropin milieu.
Wańkowska, Marta; Polkowska, Jolanta; Misztal, Tomasz; Romanowicz, Katarzyna
The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of ovarian hormones on somatostatin in the hypothalamic neurons and growth hormone (GH) secretion during the postnatal growth and development of sheep. The study was performed on 9-week-old (infantile) lambs that were ovary-intact (OVI) or ovariectomized (OVX) at 39 days of age, and on 16-week-old (juvenile) lambs that were OVI or OVX at 88 days of age. Hormones in neurons and somatotropic cells were assayed with immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Following ovariectomy, immunoreactive somatostatin was more abundant (p<0.05) in the hypothalamus of infantile lambs, whereas in juvenile lambs it was more abundant (p<0.05) in the periventricular nucleus but reduced (p<0.01) in the median eminence. In contrast to somatostatin in the hypothalamus, the content of immunoreactive GH in the hypophysis was less in OVX infantile lambs, but greater in OVX juvenile lambs (p<0.05). Basal blood serum concentrations of GH were greater (p<0.05) in OVX infantile lambs, whereas in OVX juvenile lambs, mean and basal concentrations of GH and amplitude of GH pulses were less than in OVI lambs (p<0.05). The postnatal increase in body weight was greatest in middle-late infancy (p<0.01). The body weight did not differ (p>0.05) between OVI and OVX lambs. In conclusion, ovarian factors may inhibit the GH secretion in infantile lambs but enhance the GH secretion in juvenile lambs. Transition to puberty, as related to the growth rate, appears to be due mainly to change in gonadal influence on the somatostatin neurosecretion. A stimulation of somatostatin output in the median eminence by gonadal factors in infancy is followed by a stimulation of somatostatin accumulation after infancy. Thus, ovarian factors modulate mechanisms within the somatotropic system of lambs to synchronize the somatic growth with sexual development.
Kindermann, Christina; Narayan, Edward J; Wild, Francis; Wild, Clyde H; Hero, Jean-Marc
Rapid colour changes in vertebrates have fascinated biologists for centuries, herein we demonstrate dynamic colour change in an anuran amphibian, the stony creek frog (Litoria wilcoxii), which turns from brown to bright (lemon) yellow during amplexus. We show this by comparing the colour of baseline (unpaired males) and amplecting (paired) males. We also investigate the possible role of stress and stress hormones on this colour change. Frogs were subjected to four different levels of stressors (handling, toe-clipping, saline injection and adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] injection) and the colour change was measured using digital photography. A comparison of baseline colour and stress hormone (corticosterone) levels was also conducted to give further insight to this topic. From the images, the Red Blue Green (RGB) colour values were calculated, and a principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a single colour metric (the major axis) as an index of colour in the visible spectrum. A moderate stressor (toe-clipping) led to a significant change in colour (within 10 min) similar to that of amplecting males. Surprisingly, neither a mild stressor (handling and saline injection) nor the maximum stressor (handling and ACTH injection) led to a lightening response. This study confirms that the dynamic male colour change in this species in response to medium stressors adds new knowledge to the understanding of the functional mechanisms of dynamic colour change in amphibians.
Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; Kennaway, D J; Hernandez-Medrano, J; Perry, V E A
Maternal nutrient restriction during critical windows of fetal development alters postnatal growth, often in a sexually dimorphic manner. Intrauterine growth restriction is frequently characterized by accelerated growth and increased adiposity in later life. Thyroid hormones are implicated as part of the mechanism involved in this scenario via their actions within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. We fed high (H = 240%) and low (L = 70%) levels of recommended daily crude protein intake during the first and second trimesters of gestation to beef heifers to investigate effects to their progeny's plasma concentrations of free and total triiodothyronine (FT3 and TT3) and thyroxine (FT4 and TT4) from birth until weaning at 191 days of age (n = 68). The study design was a two-by-two factorial. For male progeny, exposure to maternal diets low in protein during the first trimester of gestation resulted in greater FT4 at birth (P < 0.05) which was subsequent to lower concentrations of leptin in maternal plasma at 271 days of gestation compared with their high-protein-exposed counterparts. These same animals went on to have greater milk intake during the latter half of the lactation period (P < 0.05) and exhibited faster rates of average daily gain (ADG) relative to birth weight during this time (P < 0.05). For all progeny, independent of sex, exposure to low-protein maternal diets during the second trimester of gestation resulted in greater FT3 relative to TT3 at birth. Because FT3 at birth and 29 days was positively associated with ADG (P < 0.05) and ADG relative to birth weight (P < 0.05), it is proposed that FT3 plays an integral role in catch-up growth in the bovine as per other species. Protein intake during the first and second trimesters of gestation has a sexually dimorphic effect on progeny plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, and these changes are associated with altered milk intake and postnatal growth pathway.
Csányi, Adrienn; Bóta, Judit; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Robert; Ducza, Eszter
Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen. PMID:27556454
Huang, Chen-Che Jeff; Kraft, Cary; Moy, Nicole; Ng, Lily; Forrest, Douglas
The development of the adrenal cortex involves the formation and then subsequent regression of immature or fetal inner cell layers as the mature steroidogenic outer layers expand. However, controls over this remodeling, especially in the immature inner layer, are incompletely understood. Here we identify an inner cortical cell population that expresses thyroid hormone receptor-β1 (TRβ1), one of two receptor isoforms encoded by the Thrb gene. Using mice with a Thrb(b1) reporter allele that expresses lacZ instead of TRβ1, β-galactosidase was detected in the inner cortex from early stages. Expression peaked at juvenile ages in an inner zone that included cells expressing 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a marker of the transient, so-called X-zone in mice. The β-galactosidase-positive zone displayed sexually dimorphic regression in males after approximately 4 weeks of age but persisted in females into adulthood in either nulliparous or parous states. T3 treatment promoted hypertrophy of inner cortical cells, induced some markers of mature cortical cells, and, in males, delayed the regression of the TRβ1-positive zone, suggesting that TRβ1 could partly divert the differentiation fate and counteract male-specific regression of inner zone cells. TRβ1-deficient mice were resistant to these actions of T3, supporting a functional role for TRβ1 in the inner cortex.
Huang, Chen-Che Jeff; Kraft, Cary; Moy, Nicole; Ng, Lily
The development of the adrenal cortex involves the formation and then subsequent regression of immature or fetal inner cell layers as the mature steroidogenic outer layers expand. However, controls over this remodeling, especially in the immature inner layer, are incompletely understood. Here we identify an inner cortical cell population that expresses thyroid hormone receptor-β1 (TRβ1), one of two receptor isoforms encoded by the Thrb gene. Using mice with a Thrbb1 reporter allele that expresses lacZ instead of TRβ1, β-galactosidase was detected in the inner cortex from early stages. Expression peaked at juvenile ages in an inner zone that included cells expressing 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a marker of the transient, so-called X-zone in mice. The β-galactosidase-positive zone displayed sexually dimorphic regression in males after approximately 4 weeks of age but persisted in females into adulthood in either nulliparous or parous states. T3 treatment promoted hypertrophy of inner cortical cells, induced some markers of mature cortical cells, and, in males, delayed the regression of the TRβ1-positive zone, suggesting that TRβ1 could partly divert the differentiation fate and counteract male-specific regression of inner zone cells. TRβ1-deficient mice were resistant to these actions of T3, supporting a functional role for TRβ1 in the inner cortex. PMID:25774556
Guadalupe, Tulio; Zwiers, Marcel P; Wittfeld, Katharina; Teumer, Alexander; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Hoogman, Martine; Hagoort, Peter; Fernandez, Guillen; Buitelaar, Jan; van Bokhoven, Hans; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Franke, Barbara; Fisher, Simon E; Grabe, Hans J; Francks, Clyde
The genetic determinants of cerebral asymmetries are unknown. Sex differences in asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT), that overlaps Wernicke's classical language area, have been inconsistently reported. Meta-analysis of previous studies has suggested that publication bias established this sex difference in the literature. Using probabilistic definitions of cortical regions we screened over the cerebral cortex for sexual dimorphisms of asymmetry in 2337 healthy subjects, and found the PT to show the strongest sex-linked asymmetry of all regions, which was supported by two further datasets, and also by analysis with the FreeSurfer package that performs automated parcellation of cerebral cortical regions. We performed a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis of PT asymmetry in a pooled sample of 3095 subjects, followed by a candidate-driven approach which measured a significant enrichment of association in genes of the 'steroid hormone receptor activity' and 'steroid metabolic process' pathways. Variants in the genes and pathways identified may affect the role of the PT in language cognition.
Madani, A S; Shamsian, A A; Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Fathi-Moghadam, F; Sabooni, M R; Mirmortazavi, A; Golmohamadi, M
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are defined as clinical conditions that involve the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or both. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in menstruating women affected by internal derangement of the TMJ. A total of 142 women (mean age 30·2 ± 6·7) who referred to medical diagnostic laboratory of Iranian Academic Centre for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, were enrolled during 2007 and 2008. Forty-seven individuals had disc displacement with reduction (Group IIa) according to Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD Axis I diagnosis. Radioimmunoassay was used for the detection of serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in all 142 subjects. The mean progesterone level was significantly higher in control group (11·6 ± 10·4 ng mL(-1) ) compared to women with TMD (8·4 ± 6·8 ng mL(-1) , P = 0·03). No significant difference was found in two groups regarding 17β-oestradiol level. Lower progesterone level in women with TMD can suggest the more important role of this hormone in the development of the disorder.
Lambeth, Luke S; Ayers, Katie; Cutting, Andrew D; Doran, Timothy J; Sinclair, Andrew H; Smith, Craig A
In mammals, the primary role of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during development is the regression of Müllerian ducts in males. These structures otherwise develop into fallopian tubes, oviducts, and upper vagina, as in females. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. In mammals, AMH expression is controlled partly by the transcription factor, SOX9. However, in the chicken, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9 , leading to the view that AMH may lie upstream of SOX9 and play a more central role in avian testicular development. To help define the role of AMH in chicken gonad development, we suppressed AMH expression in chicken embryos using RNA interference. In males, AMH knockdown did not affect the expression of key testis pathway genes, and testis cords developed normally. However, a reduction in the size of the mesonephros and gonads was observed, a phenotype that was evident in both sexes. This growth defect occurred as a result of the reduced proliferative capacity of the cells of these tissues, and male gonads also had a significant reduction in germ cell numbers. These data suggest that although AMH does not directly contribute to testicular or ovarian differentiation, it is required in a sex-independent manner for proper cell proliferation and urogenital system growth.
Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia
Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male–female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria. PMID:24204210
Rajendren, G; Li, X
Changes in connectivity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system are believed to occur during the transition from juvenile to adulthood in females. Experiments were designed to investigate whether there is any difference in the number of galanin inputs to GnRH cells located in the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis-rostral preoptic area (OVLT-rPOA) between juvenile (2 weeks old) and adult (10 weeks old) female mice. Triple label immunofluorescence staining of brain sections for galanin, GnRH and the presynaptic vesicle marker synaptophysin coupled with confocal microscopy was employed to identify galanin synapses to GnRH perikarya. The number of galanin synapses to GnRH cells and the proportion of GnRH cells with galanin input were significantly higher in adults than in juvenile mice. In adult mice, the proportions of GnRH cells with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 galanin synapses/cell were comparable to each other whereas in the juveniles the vast majority of them received no galanin synaptic input. A greater number of galanin synapses in adult as compared with juvenile female mice suggests a functional role for galanin in the maturation of the GnRH system.
Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia
Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male-female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria.
Legraverend, C; Mode, A; Westin, S; Ström, A; Eguchi, H; Zaphiropoulos, P G; Gustafsson, J A
The onset of the sexually dimorphic pattern of GH secretion and increased hepatic GH-binding capacity in rats at puberty is temporally correlated with the developmental induction of three hepatic cytochrome P-450s with steroid hydroxylase activity, P-450 IIC11, P-450 IIC12, and P-450 IIC13, and one cytochrome P-450 with vitamin A hydroxylase activity, P-450 IIC7. In this study we demonstrate that expression of the 2C11, 2C12, and 2C13 genes is modulated by GH at the level of transcriptional initiation both in vivo and in primary cultures of adult hepatocytes. In an effort to define the minimum sequence responsible for the inductive effects of GH, we have analyzed the ability of a 0.7-kilobase fragment isolated from the 5'-flank of the 2C12 gene, including the natural promoter, to drive transcription of a 320-basepair G-less cassette in vitro. We were unable to detect any substantial difference in RNA polymerase-II-dependent transcriptional efficiency toward the 2C12 promoter between liver nuclear extracts from normal and hypophysectomized rats of both sexes. This observation supports the assumption that the sequence information contained between bases -700 and 1 is sufficient to support basal transcription of the 2C12 gene. Sequence information residing 5' or 3' of the 0.7-kilobase 5'-flank or a higher ordered chromatin structure may be necessary for the sex-specific transcriptional activation of the 2C12 gene.
Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto
In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor
Khaksari, Mohammad; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad; Bibak, Bahram
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of female sexual hormones on intestinal and serum cytokines following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adult female rats were ovariectomized and distributed among the following 9 groups: (i) sham trauma, (ii) TBI (Marmarou's method), (iii) vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide) treated, (iv) estrogen (E2) treated, (v) progesterone (P) treated, (vi) treated with E2+P, (vii) propylpyrazole triol (PPT) treated, (viii) diarylpropionitrile (DPN) treated, and (ix) control. PPT and DPN are estrogen receptor αand β agonists, respectively. Serum and intestinal levels of interleukin (IL)-1β were increased by TBI (P < 0.001). The level of intestinal IL-1β was increased in the group treated with E2 (P < 0.001). There was a reduction in serum IL-1β (P < 0.01) and an increase in intestinal IL-1β level (P < 0.001) in the PPT-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group. TBI reduced serum IL-6 (P < 0.01) and increased intestinal IL-6 (P < 0.001). Serum IL-6 was increased in the group treated with E2 (P < 0.001), P (P < 0.001), E2+P (P < 0.01), and DPN (P < 0.001) after TBI; however, intestinal IL-6 was higher in the E2-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group (P < 0.01). Intestinal tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was increased by TBI (P < 0.001). Progesterone decreased serum TNF-α (P < 0.01). Intestinal TNF-α in the E2 (P < 0.01), E2+P (P < 0.001), and PPT (P < 0.001) treatment groups was less than in the vehicle-treated group. In conclusion, estrogen influences the intestinal levels of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular TNF-α, mediated through estrogen receptor α.
Santillo, Alessandra; Falvo, Sara; Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena; Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella
The brain of amphibians contains all the key enzymes of steroidogenesis and has a high steroidogenic activity. In seasonally-breeding amphibian species brain steroid levels fluctuate synchronously with the reproductive cycle. Here we report a study of gene expression of StAR protein, key steroidogenic enzymes and sex hormone receptors in the telencephalon (T) and diencephalon-mesencephalon (D-M) of male and female reproductive and post-reproductive Pelophylax esculentus, a seasonally breeding anuran amphibian. Significant differences in gene expression were observed between (a) the reproductive and post-reproductive phase, (b) the two brain regions and (c) male and female frogs. During the reproductive phase, star gene expression increased in the male (both T and D-M) but not in the female brain. Seasonal fluctuations in expression levels of hsd3b1, hsd17b1, srd5a1 and cyp19a1 genes for neurosteroidogenic enzymes occurred in D-M region of both sexes, with the higher levels in reproductive period. Moreover, the D-M region generally showed higher levels of gene expression than the T region in both sexes. Gene expression was higher in females than males for most genes, suggesting higher neurosteroid production in female brain. Seasonal and sex-linked changes were also observed in gene expression for androgen (ar) and estrogen (esr1, esr2) receptors, with the males showing the highest ar levels in reproductive phase and the highest esr1 and esr2 levels in post-reproductive phase; in contrast, females showed the maximum expression for all three genes in reproductive phase. The results are the first evidence for seasonal changes and sexual dimorphism of gene expression of the neurosteroidogenic pathway in amphibians.
Introduction Weight gain and fat accumulation are predisposing factors of PCOS. Life-style modification, including increasing physical activity, is the first line approach in managing PCOS. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of exercise intensity on weight changes, androstenedione and free testosterone level in female rats with estradiol valerate induced PCOS. Method and materials 40 female Wistar rats were selected (180 ± 20 g). They had every 2 to 3 consecutive estrous cycles during 12 to 14 days. The study was approved by ethical committee of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. The first two groups were divided into control (n = 10) and polycystic (n = 30) that were induced PCOS by estradiol valerate injection after 60 days. The polycystic groups were divided into three groups of sham (n = 10), experiment group with low-intensity exercise (pco + l.exe) (n = 10) and experiment group with moderate intensity exercise (pco + m.exe) (n = 10). Exercises were performed during 6 sessions of 60 minutes per week for 8 weeks. (Moderate intensity: 28 m/min-70%–75%VO2Max. Low intensity (20 m/min-50%–55%VO2Max) running at 0 slope, 1 h/day, 6 days/week). ANOVA and LSD test were used for data analysis. Results In the present study, no significant differences were found in the decrease of total weights of rats. And also androstenedione level changes in experiment groups were higher compared to control group but no significant differences were found, also free testosterone level was significantly higher than the observer group. Conclusion According to weight changes and sexual hormones (Free testosterone and androstenedione) exercise training especially with low intensity may improve symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:24708600
Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...
Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Teal, Peter E A; Sivinski, John; García-Medel, Darío; Anzures-Dadda, Alberto
The juvenile hormone (JH) analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other tropical Anastrepha species (Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha striata) reared on natural hosts and exhibiting contrasting life histories. In the case of A. ludens, we worked with two populations that derived from Casimiroa greggii (ancestral host, larvae feed on seeds) and Citrus paradisi (exotic host, larvae feed on pulp). We found that the effects of methoprene, when they occurred, varied according to species and, in the case of A. ludens, according to larval host. For example, in the case of the two A. ludens populations the effect of methoprene on first appearance of male calling behavior and number of copulations was only apparent in flies derived from C. greggii. In contrast, males derived from C. paradisi called and mated almost twice as often and females started to lay eggs almost 1 day earlier than individuals derived from C. greggii, but in this case there was no significant effect of treatment (methoprene) only a significant host effect. There were also significant host and host by treatment interactions with respect to egg clutch size. A. ludens females derived from C. paradisi laid significantly more eggs per clutch and total number of eggs than females derived from C. greggii. With respect to the multiple species comparisons, the treatment effect was consistent for A. ludens, occasional in A. serpentina (e.g., calling by males, clutch size), and not apparent in the cases of A. obliqua and A. striata. Interestingly, with respect to clutch size, in the cases of A. ludens and A. serpentina, the treatment effect followed opposite directions: positive in the case of A. ludens and negative in the case of A. serpentina. We center our discussion on two hypotheses
The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 ). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.
Pfaus, J G; Kippin, T E; Centeno, S
Sexual behavior is directed by a sophisticated interplay between steroid hormone actions in the brain that give rise to sexual arousability and experience with sexual reward that gives rise to expectations of competent sexual activity, sexual desire, arousal, and performance. Sexual experience allows animals to form instrumental associations between internal or external stimuli and behaviors that lead to different sexual rewards. Furthermore, Pavlovian associations between internal and external stimuli allow animals to predict sexual outcomes. These two types of learning build upon instinctual mechanisms to create distinctive, and seemingly "automated," patterns of sexual response. This article reviews the literature on conditioning and sexual behavior with a particular emphasis on incentive sequences of sexual behavior that move animals from distal to proximal with regard to sexual stimuli during appetitive phases of behavior and ultimately result in copulatory interaction and mating during consummatory phases of behavior. Accordingly, the role of learning in sexual excitement, in behaviors that bring about the opportunity to mate, in courtship and solicitation displays, in sexual arousal and copulatory behaviors, in sexual partner preferences, and the short- and long-term influence of copulatory experience on sexual and reproductive function is examined. Although hormone actions set the stage for sexual activity by generating the ability of animals to become sexually excited and aroused, it is each animal's unique experience with sexual behavior and sexual reward that molds the strength of responses made toward sexual incentives.
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) purportedly suppresses secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) by acting through a G-protein coupled receptor (NPFFR1) in the anterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus. The objective of these studies was to determine if expression of mRNA for NPFFR1 in the reprod...
Sexuality is innate within all women to a greater or lesser extent, and is affected by a number of extrinsic factors that occur in the menopausal transition. Assessing hormone status is difficult as evidence exists that sex hormones may differ between ethnic groups, and that bio-assays may be insensitive at lower testosterone levels. Data are available on the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction, but results from cross-sectional studies differ from those of longitudinal studies. The original traditional models of human sexual response have been challenged, and new models have been defined which show more complex interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Definitions of sexual dysfunction have been redefined. There are a limited number of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of drugs to improve sexual function. These include sildenafil citrate, tibolone and hormone replacement therapy. Randomized controlled trials on testosterone replacement in naturally and/or surgically menopausal patients with female sexual dysfunction have been criticized for a high placebo response rate and short duration. This chapter seeks to put sexuality into perspective and to define both function and dysfunction.
... Statistics Resources on infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date Sexually ... Health Answers to women's and men's reproductive concerns Sexual Violence Prevention Sexual violence affects all people, particularly women ...
Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
A controlled seven-month study was conducted in six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS) to assess post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) performance in relation to WRAS water exchange rate. Unexpectedly high numbers of precocious sexually mature fish were observed in all WRAS...
Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir
Due to the over-harvesting and deterioration of wild populations, the ever-growing crustacean market is increasingly reliant on aquaculture, driving the need for better management techniques. Since most cultured crustacean species exhibit sexually dimorphic growth patterns, the culture of monosex populations (either all-male or all-female) is a preferred approach for gaining higher yields, with the ecological benefit of reducing the risk of invasion by the cultured species. Sexual manipulations may also render sustainable solutions to the environmental problems caused by the presence of invasive crustacean species with detrimental impacts ranging from aggressive competition with native species for food and shelter, to affecting aquaculture facilities and harvests and causing structural damage to river banks. Recent discoveries of androgenic gland (AG)-specific insulin-like peptides (IAGs) in crustaceans and the ability to manipulate them and their encoding transcripts (IAGs) have raised the possibility of sexually manipulating crustacean populations. Sexual manipulation is already a part of sustainable solutions in fish aquaculture and in the bio-control of insect pest species, and attempts are also being made to implement it with crustaceans. As recently exemplified in a commercially important prawn species, IAG silencing, a temporal, non-genetically modifying and non-transmissible intervention, has enabled the production of non-breeding all-male monosex populations that are the progeny of sexually reversed males ('neo-females'). IAG manipulations-based biotechnologies therefore have the potential to radically transform the entire industry. We review here how this proof of concept could be broadened to meet both aquacultural and environmental needs. We include the major cultured decapod crustacean groups and suggest a sustainable solution for the management of invasive and pest crustacean species. We also review the key considerations for devising a
Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Aging-related hormone changes in men — sometimes called male menopause — are different from those ... to erectile dysfunction and other sexual issues. Make healthy lifestyle choices. Eat a healthy diet and include physical ...
Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro
The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.
... and conditions Caregiving Wellness Staying active Mental health Sexual health Sexual difficulties Protecting yourself Safety and abuse Falls ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging Sexual difficulties Learn more about men's ...
Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra
The association between obesity and sexual dysfunction has been described in many studies. Neurobiological, hormonal, vascular and mental disturbances are the main reasons in male and in female gender. Sexual interest and desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, painful intercourse and premature ejaculation can be involved. Data for prevalence of sexual function disturbances in obese people are scarce and most studies were small. For screening of sexual function we recommend the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-Score, which contains 15 Items for males and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), which contains 19 items for females. Treatment of sexual function disturbances include lifestyle changes with an increase of physical activity, weight control, healthy eating and smoking cessation. Testosterone substitution in cases of real hypogonadism and treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors are well documented treatment options in male individuals. New treatment options for female patients with variable effectiveness are fibanserin, testosterone, bupropione and oxytocin.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment.
... estrogen , a hormone that helps control the menstrual cycle . Changing estrogen levels can bring on symptoms such ... two hormones—estrogen and progesterone —control your menstrual cycle. These hormones are made by the ovaries . Estrogen ...
Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith
Sexual medicine has become an integrated part of womens' health care. Physicians need therefore communication skills to talk about sexuality with their female patients and a knowledge about models of human sexuality, about classification systems, and diagnostic and therapeutic concepts and processes. The diagnostic reaches from a clear description of the sexual problem to an exploration of the conditioning factors. These can be differentiated into biological factors, intraindividual and interpersonal psychological factors and sociocultural factors. These factors can become effective as predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. The therapeutic process is based on several steps. The basic step consists in psychoeducation and basic counselling. Therapy usually includes the combination of pharmacologic intervention (hormones, PDE5) and specific psychotherapeutic techniques (sensate focus, cognitive techniques, couple counselling).
Disruption of Zebrafish Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (fshr) But Not Luteinizing Hormone Receptor (lhcgr) Gene by TALEN Leads to Failed Follicle Activation in Females Followed by Sexual Reversal to Males.
Zhang, Zhiwei; Lau, Shuk-Wa; Zhang, Lingling; Ge, Wei
Gonadotropins are primary hormones that control vertebrate reproduction. In a recent study, we analyzed the impacts of FSH and LH on zebrafish reproduction by disrupting FSH and LH-β genes (fshb and lhb) using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technology. Using the same approach, we successfully deleted FSH and LH receptor genes (fshr and lhcgr) in the present study. In contrast to the deficiency of its cognate ligand FSH, the fshr-deficient females showed a complete failure of follicle activation with all ovarian follicles arrested at the primary growth-previtellogenic transition, which is the marker for puberty onset in females. Interestingly, after blockade at the primary growth stage for varying times, all females reversed to males, and all these males were fertile. In fshr-deficient males, spermatogenesis was normal in adults, but the initiation of spermatogenesis in juveniles was retarded. In contrast to fshr, the deletion of the lhcgr gene alone caused no obvious phenotypes in both males and females; however, double mutation of fshr and lhcgr resulted in infertile males. In summary, our results in the present study showed that Fshr was indispensable to folliculogenesis and the disruption of the fshr gene resulted in a complete failure of follicle activation followed by masculinization into males. In contrast, lhcgr does not seem to be essential to zebrafish reproduction in both males and females. Neither Fshr nor Lhcgr deficiency could phenocopy the deficiency of their cognate ligands FSH and LH, which is likely due to the fact that Fshr can be activated by both FSH and LH in the zebrafish.
Faubion, Stephanie S; Loprinzi, Charles L; Ruddy, Kathryn J
Cancer survivors often experience symptoms related to hormone deprivation, including vasomotor symptoms, genitourinary symptoms, and sexual health concerns. These symptoms can occur due to natural menopause in midlife women, or they can be brought on by oncologic therapies in younger women or men. We searched PubMed for English-language studies from January 1990 through January 2016 to identify relevant articles on the management of hormone deprivation symptoms, including vasomotor, genitourinary, and sexual symptoms in patients with cancer. The search terms used included hormone deprivation, vasomotor symptoms, hot flash, vaginal dryness, sexual dysfunction, and breast cancer. This manuscript provides a comprehensive description of data supporting the treatment of symptoms associated with hormone deprivation.
Woodley, Sarah K; Lacy, Eva L
Stressors that are chronic have clear suppressive effects on reproductive behaviors in both males and females. Stressors that are acute have effects on reproductive behavior that are less clear. We measured the effects of an acute bout of handling in laboratory-housed male and female Ocoee salamanders (Desmognathus ocoee), a species with a prolonged mating season. Handling resulted in decreased locomotory activity and elevated plasma corticosterone, a hallmark of the vertebrate stress response. Handling also decreased plasma testosterone in males and elevated plasma estradiol in females. Despite the handling-induced changes in hormone levels, handling had minimal impact on courtship and mating. Other species in which reproduction is insensitive to acute stressors may live in extreme environments with limited reproductive opportunities, whereas Ocoee salamanders live in a relatively temperate environment with multiple reproductive opportunities. Together, these data indicate that an allostatic response to a stressor can alter locomotory activity and elevate corticosterone without suppressing nonessential behaviors like courtship and mating in a species in which reproductive opportunities can occur over a period of multiple months. The lack of reproductive suppression in Ocoee salamanders might be due to the low energetic cost of courtship and mating in this species combined with potentially elevated energetic stores, highlighting the importance of considering energy budgets when making predictions about behavioral effects of acute stressors.
Besides its emotional, hormonal and physical components, sexuality has also an important social function. Analyzing these interactions in immigrant adolescents who are challenged at the same time by developmental changes and modified cultural and social rules--especially if they differ from the rules assimilated during childhood--might help professionals to access better comprehension. Personal experience, individual and external resources, whether they are family oriented or professional, are prone to influence on behavior, perception and outcome related to sexual health. The subject is discussed on the base of scientific literature and medical practice.
Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...
... Reproductive System Gynecomastia Help! Is This My Body? Male Reproductive System When Will I Start Developing? Why Are My ... Erection When Waking Up? Is My Penis Normal? Male Reproductive System Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual ...
... Irregular. What's Going On? Pap Smears Pelvic Exams Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual ... My Monthly Cycle Go Back to Normal With PCOS Treatment? For Guys Can I Stop Myself From ...
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... healthy and enjoyable sex life at any age. Sex and aging Can older adults remain sexually active? ... from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into ...
Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H
Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441
Lembè, Dieudonné Massoma; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, G. F.
Background: Lepidium meyenii is a plant, which has been used in folk medicine to treat infertility and to increase sexual desire. However, few reports have investigated the administration of this plant with other plants having the same properties. Objective: The present investigation was designed to evaluate whether the combination of Lepidium meyenii and Fagara tessmannii can improve spermatogenesis and testosterone level in rats. Materials and Method: Twenty male rats were treated daily for 2 weeks with the hydroalcoholic extract of Fagara tessmannii and Lepidium meyenii (Fag + MN) as follow: (vehicle), (0.01 g + 0.5 mg), (0.1 g + 5 mg) and (1 g+ 50 mg)/kg BW. Results: At doses Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, the weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and testis significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the weight of epididymis and testis significantly increased (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. We noticed a significant increase of the number of spermatids/test (P < 0.05), epididymis sperm count (P < 0.05), and DSP/test of the rats at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg while at dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, sperm count was reduced in male organs, particularly in vas deferens (P < 0.05) and epididymis (P < 0.001). The serum testosterone concentration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at lowest dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg. However, at highest dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the serum testosterone concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05). The length of stage VII-VIII and IX-I of the seminiferous tubule significantly (P < 0.05) increased while the length of stage II-VI significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. Conclusion: The results indicated that the combination of Lepidium meyenii (Black Maca) with Fagara tessmannii can improve male reproductive organs activities. PMID:24497748
... health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about infertility Sexually transmitted diseases Chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease Medicines that affect sexual desire or performance
... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...
Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos
GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders.
... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...
Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.
BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607
Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A
Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes.
Bolour, Sheila Y; Braunstein, Glenn D
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is the most common cause of sexual dysfunction in women. According to a national survey, approximately a third of all women experience low sexual desire. The etiology of the disorder is often multifactorial. Research in treatment options for hypoactive sexual desire disorder is limited. In this article, treatment options including sex therapy, hormone therapy (estrogen, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, tibolone), non-hormonal medical therapies (buproprion, buspirone, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, amantadine and apomorphine) and herbal therapies (Avlimil(R), Arginmax(R), Zestra(R), yohimbine and Ginkgo biloba) are reviewed.
Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.
This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.
Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.
Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647
Tobet, Stuart; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Hartshorn, Cheryl; Aurand, Emily; Stratton, Matthew; Kumar, Pankaj; Searcy, Brian; McClellan, Kristy
Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in development to generate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms in brain. Relevant mechanisms may include neurogenesis, cell migration, cell differentiation, cell death, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. On a molecular level, there are several ways to categorize factors that drive brain development. These range from the actions of transcription factors in cell nuclei that regulate the expression of genes that control cell development and differentiation, to effector molecules that directly contribute to signaling from one cell to another. In addition, several peptides or proteins in these and other categories might be referred to as “biomarkers” of sexual differentiation with undetermined functions in development or adulthood. While a majority of sex differences are revealed as a direct consequence of hormone actions, some may only be revealed following genetic or environmental disruption. Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation. PMID:19207813
McCarthy, M M; Albrecht, E D
Investigation into the hormonal control of sexual behavior has a rich and extensive history. For many researchers currently active in the field, the physiological psychologist Frank A. Beach is recognized as the modern father of the study of hormones and behavior. His publication of the seminal book Hormones and Behavior-A Survey of Interrelationships Between Endocrine Secretions and Patterns of Overt Response, published in 1948, was a compilation of the previous 20 years of research establishing that gonadal secretions acted in the brain and modulated behavior. The question of precisely how hormones can alter brain functioning in a coordinated fashion and profoundly influence the patterns of behavioral responsiveness remains unanswered. As with many research areas, application of new techniques and approaches to the problem reveals additional layers of complexity and previously unimagined relationships between hormones, brain, and behavior. In addition, with the increasing understanding that the brain is a target organ for steroids, the implications of the ramifications of this steroid sensitivity have broadened. The hormonal regulation of sexual behavior is not an isolated aspect of steroid action in the brain; rather, it is one component of a host of physiological responses influenced by steroids. These include such diverse responses as anxiety, aggression, feeding, and learning and memory. An appreciation of the diverse effects of steroids has emerged from studies on sexual behavior, and a mutually beneficial relationship between this and other aspects of behavioral neuroscience has flourished and endured. As with all of neuroscience, this research area has been dynamic and progressive and has additionally benefited from a long history of comparative and integrative approaches to animal behavior.
Emens, Elizabeth F
Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws.
Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K
Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.
The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”
Dunn, S F; Gilchrist, V J
Estimates are that one in four women will be sexually assaulted at some time during her life. For the victim, it is a life-changing, traumatic event. This paper reviews both the immediate and long-term care of the sexual assault victim. For the victim seen immediately after the assault, physicians must provide empathic, nonjudgmental care that puts the victim back in control of her life. It is essential that the physician provide continued support for the victim and her family through the recovery process. The medical presentations that should prompt the physician to inquire about undisclosed sexual assault and the social and cultural myths that promote sexual assault are reviewed.
Grant, L M; Demetriou, E
The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.
Heinisch, Gilad; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Knapp, Jessica M.; Gordin, Hillel; Lutcavage, Molly E.
We introduce a novel endocrine approach for assessing the unresolved matter of the timing of sexual maturation in western Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), a highly migratory population whose status remains uncertain. Ratios of follicle stimulating hormone to luteinizing hormone, a sexual maturity indicator, in all ABFT ≥134 cm curved fork length (CFL) were <0.4, similar to Mediterranean spawners, indicating that western ABFT mature at considerably smaller sizes and at a much younger age than currently assumed (≥185 cm CFL). PMID:25431301
National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year, Washington, DC.
This document considers sexual preference as it specifically relates to women. Divided into two parts, the document presents a fact sheet about lesbianism and contains a workshop resource guide on sexual preference. The fact sheet, arranged in a question-answer format, focuses on the following concerns: (1) lesbianism as a woman's issue; (2) legal…
Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A
Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.
Lenz, Kathryn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.
Steroid hormones of gonadal origin act on the neonatal brain, particularly the hypothalamus, to produce sex differences that underlie copulatory behavior. Neuroanatomical sex differences include regional volume, cell number, connectivity, morphology, physiology, neurotransmitter phenotype and molecular signaling, all of which are determined by the action of steroid hormones, particularly by estradiol in males, and are established by diverse downstream effects. Sex differences in distinct hypothalamic regions can be organized by the same steroid hormone, but the direction of a sex difference is often specific to one region or cell type, illustrating the wide range of effects that steroid hormones have on the developing brain. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the downstream mechanisms through which gonadal hormones sexually differentiate the brain, but gaps remain in establishing the precise relationship between changes in neuronal morphology and behavior. A complete understanding of sexual differentiation will require integrating the diverse mechanisms across multiple brain regions into a functional network that regulates behavioral output. PMID:21143664
Schover, Leslie R
As more people achieve long-term survival after cancer, sexual dysfunction and infertility have increasingly been recognized as negative consequences that impact quality of life. Sexual dysfunction is a frequent long-term side effect of cancer treatment, but damage to different underlying physiological systems is salient in men versus women. Men frequently have erectile dysfunction (ED) related to damage to the autonomic nervous system and/or reduced circulation of blood to the penis. Hormonal impairment of sexual function is less common. Women, in contrast, are able to overcome damage to autonomic nerves if genital tissues remain structurally intact and estrogenized. Female sexual dysfunction is frequently associated with sudden premature ovarian failure or direct effects of radiation fibrosis or scar tissue causing pain with sexual activity. The lack of validated interventions for sexual rehabilitation after cancer is a major problem, as is finding cost-effective ways of providing services. Concerns about fertility are also a major source of distress to people treated for cancer during childhood or young adulthood, yet many young survivors do not recall any discussion about future childbearing potential with their oncology team. Since fertility preservation is becoming more practical for both men and women, producing patient and professional educational materials and developing professional practice guidelines should be high priorities for oncology societies.
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Tamás, Várkonyi; Kempler, Peter
We aimed to summarize the etiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and possible treatment options of sexual dysfunction in diabetic patients of both sexes. Details of dysfunction in diabetic women are less conclusive than in men due to the lack of standardized evaluation of sexual function in women. Male sexual dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes, including abnormalities of orgasmic/ejaculatory function and desire/libido in addition to penile erection. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among diabetic men varies from 35% to 75%. Diabetes-induced ED has a multifactorial etiology including metabolic, neurologic, vascular, hormonal, and psychological components. ED should be regarded as the first sign of cardiovascular disease because it can be present before development of symptomatic coronary artery disease, as larger coronary vessels better tolerate the same amount of plaque compared to smaller penile arteries. The diagnosis of ED is based on validated questionnaires and determination of functional and organic abnormalities. First-, second- and third-line therapy may be applied. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor treatment from the first-line options leads to smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum and enhancement in blood flow, resulting in erection during sexual stimulus. The use of PDE-5 inhibitors in the presence of oral nitrates is strictly contraindicated in diabetic men, as in nondiabetic subjects. All PDE-5 inhibitors have been evaluated for ED in diabetic patients with convincing efficacy data. Second-line therapy includes intracavernosal, trans- or intraurethral administration of vasoactive drugs or application of a vacuum device. Third-line therapies are the implantation of penile prosthesis and penile revascularization.
Satta, Ersilia; Magno, Carlo; Galì, Alessandro; Inferrera, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele; Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Domenico
Few studies address alteration of sexual function in women with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Quality of life surveys suggest that discussion of sexual function and other reproductive issues are of psychosocial assessment and that education on sexual function in the setting of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CKD is widely needed. Pharmacologic therapy with estrogen/progesterone and androgens along with glycemic control, correction of anemia, ensuring adequate dialysis delivery, and treatment of underlying depression are important. Changes in lifestyle such as smoking cessation, strength training, and aerobic exercises may decrease depression, enhance body image, and have positive impacts on sexuality. Many hormonal abnormalities which occur in women with diabetes and CKD who suffer from chronic anovulation and lack of progesterone secretion may be treated with oral progesterone at the end of each menstrual cycle to restore menstrual cycles. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem reported by women with diabetes and CKD. Sexual function can be assessed in women, using the 9-item Female Sexual Function Index, questionnaire, or 19 items. It is important for nephrologists and physicians to incorporate assessment of sexual function into the routine evaluation protocols. PMID:25276130
Satta, Ersilia; Magno, Carlo; Galì, Alessandro; Inferrera, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele; Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Domenico
Few studies address alteration of sexual function in women with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Quality of life surveys suggest that discussion of sexual function and other reproductive issues are of psychosocial assessment and that education on sexual function in the setting of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CKD is widely needed. Pharmacologic therapy with estrogen/progesterone and androgens along with glycemic control, correction of anemia, ensuring adequate dialysis delivery, and treatment of underlying depression are important. Changes in lifestyle such as smoking cessation, strength training, and aerobic exercises may decrease depression, enhance body image, and have positive impacts on sexuality. Many hormonal abnormalities which occur in women with diabetes and CKD who suffer from chronic anovulation and lack of progesterone secretion may be treated with oral progesterone at the end of each menstrual cycle to restore menstrual cycles. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem reported by women with diabetes and CKD. Sexual function can be assessed in women, using the 9-item Female Sexual Function Index, questionnaire, or 19 items. It is important for nephrologists and physicians to incorporate assessment of sexual function into the routine evaluation protocols.
Salas, X; Portugal, J
PERFILS, a computer program written in Borland TurboPascal, performs quantitative analysis of footprinting experiments using any IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. The program uses the height of the bands obtained from densitometric scanning of footprinting autoradiographs to calculate a differential cleavage plot. Such a plot displays, on a logarithmic scale, the difference of susceptibility of a DNA fragment to DNase I, or any other cleaving agent, in the presence of any ligand versus the sequence. PERFILS calculates the fractional cleavage values for control and ligand, giving a table of values for each internucleotidic bond and rendering the differential cleavage plot in only a few seconds.
HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding
Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu
This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation.
Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario
The scientific community appears to be less interested in sexuality of eating disorders (EDs) as compared to other psychiatric or medical comorbidities. However, a clear association between sexual problems and ED psychopathology was reported from different perspectives. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the general approach of the scientific literature toward the topic of sexuality and EDs. In particular, four different categories of research have been individuated, encompassing the role of puberty, and sexual abuse in the pathogenesis of the disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and the association between sexual orientation and EDs psychopathology. Timing of puberty with its hormonal consequences and the changes in the way persons perceive their own body represent a crucial period of life for the onset of the disorder. Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse are well-recognized risk factors for the development of ED, determining a worse long-term outcome. Recent research overcome the approach that considers sexual activity of EDs patients, in terms of hypersexuality and dangerous sexual behaviors, considering the sexuality of EDs persons in terms of sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm and pain. Results from this line of research are promising, and describe a clear relationship between sexual dysfunction and the core psychopathological features of EDs, such as body image disturbances. Finally, the analysis of the literature showed an association between sexual orientation and gender dysphoria with EDs psychopathology and pathological eating behaviors, confirming the validity of research developing new models of maintaining factors of EDs related to the topic of self-identity.
Nappi, R E
Sexuality is a critical issue at menopause for many women. Several biological, psychological and socio-relational factors are related to women's sexual health and they may negatively affect the entire sexual response cycle, inducing significant changes in desire, arousal, orgasm and satisfaction. Age- and menopause-related events may impair the integrity of multiple biological systems involved in the normal sexual response of women, including hormonal environment, neuromuscular substrates and vascular supplies. Sex hormones, namely low levels of estradiol, physical and mental well-being and, very importantly, feelings for partner are extremely relevant for women's sexuality in natural menopause. Even a significant lack of androgens, as more frequently occurs in surgical menopause, has a negative impact on women's desire and sexual responsiveness. Sexual history and clinical evaluation may help doctors to accurately diagnose sexual symptoms causing personal and relational distress and to identify the best therapeutic approach.
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Karaca, P; Desailloud, R
Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Nieva, M. F.; Rodriguez, M. V.; Pintado, O. I.
Se calcula el perfil instrumental para el telescopio de 2,15m del CASLEO con EBASIM. Para ello se usaron flats de cielo y el espectro solar FTS de Kurucz. El método, que se puede utilizar para otras configuraciones instrumentales, es convolucionar ambos espectros para obtener los coeficientes de corrección.
Randall, Valerie Anne
Hair's importance for insulation and camouflage or human communication means that hairs need to change with season, age or sexual development. Regular, regenerating hair follicle growth cycles produce new hairs which may differ in colour and/or size, e.g., beard development. Hormones of the pineal-hypothalamus-pituitary axis coordinate seasonal changes, while androgens regulate most sexual aspects with paradoxically different effects depending on body site; compare beard growth and balding! Hormones affect follicular mesenchymal-epithelial interactions altering growing time, dermal papilla size and dermal papilla cell, keratinocyte and melanocyte activity. Greater understanding of these mechanisms should improve treatments for poorly controlled hair disorders, alopecia and hirsutism.
Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio
The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409
Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C
Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.
Prilepskaia, V N
Effective contraceptives contribute to the regulation of births, protect the health of women, reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and gynecological diseases, and prevent abortion-related complications. Complications after abortion average 30%, and among primigravidas the rate reaches 45%. Abortion can result in sterility and in the inability to carry out the pregnancy. Oral contraceptives (OCs) are used by 150 million globally. In new preparations ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) are the most common components. In the 2-phase and 3-phase preparations Sequilar, Anteovin, and lipid profile safe Triquilar the gestagen component was reduced 40%. Continuin and Famulen are minipills, and Postinor is a postcoital contraceptive. Absolute contraindications of OCs include thromboembolytic diseases, severe cardiovascular system diseases, liver disorders, cirrhosis, cerebral vascular diseases, grave diabetes, jaundice, and malignant tumors of the mammae and sexual organs. Rigevidon, Triquilar, and Trisiston have high steroid content with minimal side effects. The protective effect of OCs are: 2-3 times lower risk of inflammation of the small pelvis, lower risk of malignant and benign ovarian tumors that lasts even after discontinuation, uterine cancer prevention (antiproliferation effect on the endometrium and inhibition of mitotic activity of the myometrium), and reduced risk of benign breast neoplasms. The finding that estrogen-induced risk of breast cancer increases with longterm contraceptive use in young nulliparas has not been persuasively proven. The optimal duration of uninterrupted OC use is 1-1.5 years. Monophasic estrogen-gestagen preparations include Bisecurin, Non-Ovlon, Ovidon, Rigevidon, Minisiston, and Demulen with low dosages of EE, LNG, norethisterone acetate, and diacetate ethonodiol. Norplant is a subdermal silastic capsule with effectiveness for up to 5 years.
Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F
During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland.
Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.
Lephart, Edwin D; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Lund, Trent D
Because of their protective effects in age-related diseases and hormone-dependent cancers, the use of phytoestrogens (isoflavones) as 'natural' remedies has gained prominence. Isoflavones are estrogen mimics that bind estrogen receptors and act like natural selective estrogen receptors modulators. However, limited data exists regarding the influence of soy-derived dietary isoflavones in brain. This brief review will address these topics and examine the influence of dietary isoflavones on sexually dimorphic hypothalamic nuclei. We have observed that altering the isoflavone content within diet significantly affects both the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (a structure that is larger in males than in females) and the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (a structure that is larger in females than in males). Specifically, when animals were switched from phytoestrogen-rich to a phytoestrogen-free diet the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area was decreased in males (no alterations were detected in females). Conversely, when the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was examined, volume changes were recorded in males and females opposite to the patterns observed for the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Given the practical limitations of examining the effects of dietary phytoestrogens in the human brain, it is important to establish comparative data sets to elucidate phytoestrogen's hormone action and potentially its beneficial brain health effects.
Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Pérez, Rosa A; Tadeo, José L
A sensitive analytical method is presented for the simultaneous determination of four synthetic estrogens and six steroid hormones in sludge-amended soil. The method employs matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry injecting a large volume sample (10μL) after trimethylsilyl derivatization, using the solvent vent mode. It affords good resolution, high sensitivity and reproducibility and freedom from interferences even from complex matrices as soil amended with sewage sludge. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 10 to 300pgg(-1) with testosterone and progesterone having the highest limits. Soil amended with sewage sludge was spiked at 2, 10, 25 and 50ngg(-1) and the recoveries after MSPD with acetonitrile:methanol (90:10, v/v), ranged from 80 to 110% with relative standard deviations ≤9%. The method was applied to the analysis of six soil samples collected from agricultural plots and forested fields that had been amended with sewage sludge using isotopically labeled surrogates. Three of the synthetic estrogens studied were found at least in one of the six samples analyzed and trans-androsterone and estrone were the only natural hormones detected, although at very low levels (≤0.4ngg(-1)).
Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi
It is thought that estrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized by the action of aromatase in the brain from testosterone activates male socio-sexual behaviors, such as aggression and sexual behavior in birds. We recently found that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by directly activating aromatase and increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA). The POA is thought to be the most critical site of aromatization and neuroestrogen action for the regulation of socio-sexual behavior of male birds. We concluded that GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by increasing neuroestrogen concentration beyond its optimal concentration in the brain for expression of socio-sexual behavior. On the other hand, it has been reported that dopamine and glutamate, which stimulate male socio-sexual behavior in birds and mammals, inhibit the activity of aromatase in the POA. Multiple studies also report that the activity of aromatase or neuroestrogen is negatively correlated with changes in male socio-sexual behavior in fish, birds, and mammals including humans. Here, we review previous studies that investigated the role of neuroestrogen in the regulation of male socio-sexual behavior and reconsider the hypothesis that neuroestrogen activates male socio-sexual behavior in vertebrates. It is considered that basal concentration of neuroestrogen is required for the maintenance of male socio-sexual behavior but higher concentration of neuroestrogen may inhibit male socio-sexual behavior. PMID:25352775
... grow older. By Mayo Clinic Staff As you age, sex isn't the same as it was in ... work for you and your partner. At any age, emotional issues can affect your sexuality. Many older couples report greater satisfaction with their sex life because they have fewer distractions, more time ...
... lack of interest loss of orgasm worry or anxiety that interferes with sex reduced frequency of sex physical obstacles arising from a disease or health condition. The Most Common Types of Sexual Problems in Older Adults For women, age-related changes due to menopause include: lack ...
Ghizzani, A; Razzi, S; Fava, A; Sartini, A; Picucci, K; Petraglia, F
The deeper understanding of female physiology changed the perspective used to evaluate sexual difficulties. Systems like: vascular, neurological, biochemical, and endocrine are investigated as their modifications for aging or medical conditions may alter the sexual responsivity of women. New data imply that pharmacological interventions may become suitable for women. Gonadal steroids influence mood, wellbeing, and genital physiology but evidence of actions is controversial. Hormone imbalance provokes symptoms that may also derive from other conditions. Clinicians must exclude dismetabolism, depression and family crisis before diagnosing gonadal problems. The female androgen insufficiency syndrome was defined in July 2001 as altered mood, memory and wellbeing, and loss of desire. Estrogen maintains wellbeing and healthy genitals, influencing mood and sexuality. Progesterone provokes tension and nervousness, causing premenstrual syndrome. Hormone replacement is indicated in the treatment of endocrine deficiency. In research projects women receiving one preparation containing androgen reported improvement of mood, and arousal. Sildenafil cures approximately 25% of sexually dysfunctional, menopausal patients; being more effective with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and consistently active against the block of antidepressants on orgasm. Added to psychiatric regimens, sildenafil ameliorates excitement. Sex therapy helps patients change behavior, overcome anger, communicate needs and redefine sex. We strongly believe that such crucial aspects must be addressed in therapy, even when the etiology is organic.
Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.
Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with diabetes mellitus. Vascular, neurological and hormonal alterations are involved in this complication. Many studies showed altered endothelium-dependent and neurogenic relaxations in corpus cavernosum from diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). This finding has been associated with a lack of nitric oxyde (NO) production and a significant increase in NO synthase (NOS) binding sites in penile tissues, induced by diabetes. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) concur to diabetic vascular complications by quenching NO activity and by increasing the expression of mediators of vascular damage such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), possessing permeabilizing and neoangiogenic effects, and endothelin-1 (ET-1), with vaso-constricting and mitogenic action. Moreover, the differential gene expression for various growth factors in penile tissues may be involved in the pathophysiology of ED associated with diabetes. Neuropathy is also likely to be an important cause of diabetic ED: morphological alterations of autonomic nerve fibers in cavernosal tissue of patients with diabetic ED have been demonstrated. Finally, androgens enhance nNOS gene expression in the penile corpus cavernosum of rats, suggesting that they play a role in maintaining NOS activity. However, sexual dysfunctions in women with diabetes has received less attention in clinical research. Several studies suggest an increased prevalence of deficient vaginal lubrication, making sexual intercourse unpleasant. Sexual dysfunction is associated with lower overall quality of marital relation and more depressive symptoms in diabetic women.
von Sydow, K
Research on female sexuality in middle and old age (50-90 years) is reviewed. The descriptive results of the studies published up to now are summarized according to the dimensions of sexual activity (e.g. intercourse, tenderness, masturbation) and interest. The influence of various factors on female sexuality in middle and old age is critically discussed, namely health/body (health; general changes in sexual reactions; menopause), society (population structure; "double standard of aging"; historical-biographical influences) and couple relationship. Altogether, female sexuality is highly variable. The most prevalent psychosexual problems of older women are not the classic medical complaints (e.g. dyspareunia, insufficient lubrication) but a lack of tenderness and of sexual contact. The effect of the hormonal changes of the menopause is smaller than the effect of psychological, society- and partner-related factors. The so-called "Hormone replacement therapy" does not have significant effects on most sexual dimensions.
Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Palacios-Rodríguez, Raúl Gabriel; Guzmán-Solorio, José Antonio
INTRODUCCIÓN: el perfil sexual de las mujeres conforma un conjunto de componentes que juega un papel fundamental en la aparición del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) o del cáncer cervicouterino (CACU). Se buscó determinar el perfil sexual de un grupo de mujeres con citología cervical en una unidad de primer nivel del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social del Estado de México. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron mujeres que acudieron para detección citológica de tumor maligno del cuello uterino. Se les entrevistó para obtener características sociodemográficas y ginecoobstétricas. El análisis estadístico se hizo con prueba exacta de Fisher, chi cuadrada de Mantel-Haenszel, y correlación de Spearman.
Fortenberry, J Dennis
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan.
El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M
Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.
... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... to hormones! Download our Free App! Understand the endocrine system and its related conditions with our 3D Patient ...
... dosage of the medicine. Serious side effects of growth hormone treatment are rare. Common side effects include: Headache Fluid ... years. The rate of growth then slowly decreases. Growth hormone therapy does not work for all children. Left untreated, ...
... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F
It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus.
Thyroid hormone resistance syndromes are a group of genetic conditions characterized by decreased tissue sensitivity to thyroid hormones. Three syndromes, in which resistance to hormone action is respectively due to mutations in the gene encoding for thyroid hormone receptor TRβ, impaired T4 and T3 transport, and impaired conversion of T4 to T3 mediated by deiodinases. An updated review of each of these forms of resistance is provided, and their pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical approaches are discussed.
Fiddler, M.; Pergament, E.
Human sexual differentiation is customarily depicted as a series of embryonic events that lead to male and female gonadal development and differential hormone expression that have behavioral as well as biological outcomes. The salient components of these events are the differential expression of two hormones - testosterone and Muellerian inhibiting substance - and the SRY gene, regulating, in turn, the transcription of other genes and culminating in male differentiation. Sex determination, then, is generally described as initially proceeding down a path toward female development unless the bipotential, indifferent gonad is modified toward male development by genes on the Y chromosome. 28 refs.
Short stature in children is a common cause for referral to pediatric endocrinologists, corresponding most times to normal variants of growth. Initially growth hormone therapy was circumscribed to children presenting growth hormone deficiency. Since the production of recombinant human hormone its use had spread to other pathologies.
Tobet, S; Knoll, J G; Hartshorn, C; Aurand, E; Stratton, M; Kumar, P; Searcy, B; McClellan, K
Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in the brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in development to generate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms in brain. Relevant mechanisms may include neurogenesis, cell migration, cell differentiation, cell death, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. On a molecular level, there are several ways to categorize factors that drive brain development. These range from the actions of transcription factors in cell nuclei that regulate the expression of genes that control cell development and differentiation, to effector molecules that directly contribute to signalling from one cell to another. In addition, several peptides or proteins in these and other categories might be referred to as 'biomarkers' of sexual differentiation with undetermined functions in development or adulthood. Although a majority of sex differences are revealed as a direct consequence of hormone actions, some may only be revealed after genetic or environmental disruption. Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation.
Büdefeld, Tomaž; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdič, Gregor
Summary Sex differences in brain morphology have been described in a number of species including humans. Gonadal hormones were shown to provide a major influence on brain sexual differentiation more than 50 years ago. A growing number of studies is providing evidence for roles of genetic factors, in particular sex chromosome complement, on brain sexual differentiation in mammals. In this review, hormone-independent brain sexual differentiation, with the emphasis on mice with a disruption of the SF-1 gene (SF-1 knockout, SF-1 KO) are discussed. PMID:21887123
O, W S; Short, R V; Renfree, M B; Shaw, G
The classical view of mammalian sexual differentiation is that a gene on the Y chromosome transforms the indifferent gonad into a testis. The Leydig cells then secrete androgen which stimulates the development of the male reproductive tract, and the Sertoli cells secrete Mullerian inhibitory substance which inhibits the development of the female reproductive tract. In the absence of a testis, the Mullerian duct develops into the Fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina. Thus the whole of sexual differentiation is thought to be hormonally mediated as a consequence of this initial genetic determination of gonadal sex. We have found evidence in a marsupial mammal for extensive sexual dimorphisms which precede any morphological differentiation of the gonads. Thus the classical view of mammalian sexual differentiation may have over-emphasized the role of testicular hormones, and overlooked earlier genetic effects.
... pressure), excessive alcohol use or vaginal infections can cause sexual problems. Depression, relationship problems or abuse (current or past abuse) can also cause sexual dysfunction.You may have less sexual desire ...
Yaylali, G F; Tekekoglu, S; Akin, F
Both overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for sexual dysfunction in men, but the relationship between sexual function and amount of body fat in females is still obscure. There are few reported studies in women assessing the relationship between female sexual function index (FSFI) and body weight. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among obese and overweight women. A total of 45 obese and overweight and 30 age-matched voluntary healthy women serving as a control group were evaluated by a detailed medical and sexual history, including the FSFI questionnaire. Serum prolactin, cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone-SO(4) (DHEA-S), testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured. No significant difference was observed between controls and patients in terms of the FSH, LH, estradiol, free thyroxine and thyrotropin (TSH), testosterone and DHEA-S levels. The comparison of total FSFI scores between patients and controls showed no significant difference (P=0.74). As the FSFI score of
Clinical reports on successful hormonal treatment of climacteric or menopausal sexual dysfunctions are in contradiction with the lack of oestrous phenomena in humans as well as with the results of double-blind studies finding no objective proof for the alleged hormonal influence. A review of recent studies on the topic showed, that apart from a critical threshold, hormones exert no influence on sexual behaviour that would go beyond the alleviation of vasomotoric or genital menopausal symptoms or their consequences. However, psychosocial and relational factors play a major role in sexual dysfunctions generally and at this age of the "empty nest" and a doctor-patient relationship based on trust may well help in coping with them. Finally, a (new?) understanding of genital sexuality as a concise body-language or literally an incarnation of the relationship is advocated and may add a new dimension and quality to a couple's sex life.
DeVore, Heather K; Sachs, Carolyn J
Sexual assault is a problem that permeates all socioeconomic classes and impacts hundreds of thousands in the United States and millions worldwide. Most victims do not report the assault; those that do often present to an emergency department. Care must encompass the patients' physical and emotional needs. Providers must be cognizant regarding handling of evidence and possible legal ramifications. This article discusses the emergency medicine approach to history taking, physical examination, evidence collection, chain of custody, psychological and medical treatment, and appropriate follow-up. Special circumstances discussed include intimate partner violence, male examinations, pediatric examinations, suspect examinations, and drug-facilitated assaults.
Higgins, Jenny A.; Smith, Nicole K.
How contraceptives affect women’s sexual well-being is critically understudied. Fortunately, a growing literature focuses on sexual aspects of contraception, especially hormonal contraception’s associations with libido. However, a more holistic approach to contraceptive sexual acceptability is needed to capture the full range of women’s sexual experiences. We conducted a narrative literature review of this topic, working with an original sample of 3,001 citations published from 2005 to 2015. In Part 1, we draw from a subset of this literature (264 citations) to build a new conceptual model of sexual acceptability. Aspects include macro factors (gender, social inequality, culture, and structure), relationship factors (dyadic influences and partner preferences), and individual factors (sexual functioning, sexual preferences, such as dis/inhibition, spontaneity, pleasure, the sexual aspects of side effects, such as bleeding, mood changes, sexual identity and sexual minority status, and pregnancy intentions). In Part 2, we review the empirical literature on the sexual acceptability of individual methods (103 citations), applying the model as much as possible. Results suggest contraceptives can affect women’s sexuality in a wide variety of positive and negative ways that extend beyond sexual functioning alone. More attention to sexual acceptability could promote both women’s sexual well-being and more widespread, user-friendly contraceptive practices. PMID:26954608
Morris, John S; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
Steroid hormones signaling before and after birth sexually differentiates neuronal circuitry. Additionally, steroid hormones released during adolescence can also have long lasting effects on adult behavior and neuronal circuitry. As adolescence is a critical period for the organization of the nervous system by steroid hormones it may also be a sensitive period for the effects of social experience on adult phenotype. Our previous study indicated that early adolescent sexual activity altered mood and prefrontal cortical morphology but to a much smaller extent if the sexual experience happened in late adolescence. In humans, both substance abuse disorders and mood disorders greatly increase during adolescence. An association among both age of first sexual activity and age of puberty with both mood and substance disorders has been reported with alcohol being the most commonly abused drug in this population. The goal of this experiment was do determine whether sexual experience early in adolescent development would have enduring effects on adult affective and drug-seeking behavior. Compared to sexually inexperienced hamsters and those that experienced sex for the first time in adulthood, animals that mated at 40 days of age and were tested either 40 or 80 days later significantly increased depressive- but not anxiety-like behaviors and increased self-administration of saccharine-sweetened ethanol. The results of this study suggest that an isolated, though highly relevant, social experience during adolescence can significantly alter depressive-like behavior and alcohol self-administration in adulthood.
Stoller, R J
Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.
Himmerich, H; Steinberg, H
This study retells key aspects of the history of the idea of hormone-based classification and therapy concepts in psychiatry. Different contributions to the history are not only represented from a historical, but also from a current medico-scientific perspective. One of the oldest, yet ethically most problematic, indications concerning hormonal methods to modify undesirable behaviour and sexuality was castration, which was widely used in the 20th century to "cure" homosexuality. Felix Platter, whose concept was humoral-pathological in nature, documented the first postpartum psychosis in the German-speaking countries, the pathogenesis of which according to present-day expertise is brought about by changes in female hormones. The concept of an "endocrine psychiatry" was developed at the beginning of the 20th century. Some protagonists for neuroendocrinology are highlighted, such as Paul Julius Möbius around 1900 or, in the 1950s, Manfred Bleuler, the nestor of this new discipline. Only the discovery of the hormones as such and the development of technologies like radioimmunassay to measure and quantify these hormone changes in mental illnesses allowed investigating these conditions properly. Ever since hormone-based therapeutic and classification concepts have played an important role, above all, in sexual, affective and eating disorders as well as alcohol dependence.
Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma
Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects.
Bernardi, Maria M; Scanzerla, Kayne K; Chamlian, Mayra; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Felicio, Luciano F
Previous studies from our laboratory investigated the effects of picrotoxin (PT), a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist administered during several perinatal periods, on the sexual behavior of male and female rats. We observed that the time of perinatal exposure to PT is critical to determine either facilitation or impairment of sexual behavior. The present study evaluated the effects of prenatal administration of a single dose of PT on gestation day 18 of dams (the first critical period of male brain sexual differentiation) on sexual behavior of male and female offspring. Thus, female Wistar rats were mated with males and, on gestation day 18, received 0.6 mg/kg of PT or 0.9% saline solution subcutaneously. On postnatal day 1, the offspring were weighed and several measures of sexual development were assessed. The sexual behaviors and the general activity in the open field of adult male and ovariectomized, hormone-treated female rats were observed. On comparison with the control group, maternal PT treatment: (i) did not alter the maternal weight, pup weight, anogenital distance, or male and female general activity; (ii) increased female sexual behavior, that is, decreased the latencies to first mount, first lordosis, and tenth lordosis, and the percentage of females presenting lordosis; and (iii) did not alter male sexual behavior. It is suggested that prenatal PT exposure interfered with epigenetic mechanisms related to the development of sex differences in the brain, leading to the observed sexually dimorphic effects on sexual behavior.
Blecher, S.R. )
Mutant mice in which chromosomal complement and hormonal profile were discordant were studied. It appeared that the Y-chromosomally determined male-larger sexual dimorphism of tooth size seen in humans was not present in mice. It was concluded that the finding of smaller molars in males than in females was due to hormonal rather than chromosomal factors.
Daskalos, C T
Researchers traditionally have assumed that sex reassignment procedures do not change sexual orientation. Of 20 transsexuals of various types that were interviewed, 6 heterosexual male-to-female transsexual respondents reported that their sexual orientation had changed since transitioning from male to female. These respondents stated that before transitioning they had been sexually orientated towards females. After transitioning, these same respondents reported that they were sexually orientated towards males. Five of the six respondents reported having various sexual encounters with males since transitioning. The respondents explained the changes in their sexual orientation as part of their emerging female gender identities. Three of the respondents claimed that the use of female hormones played a role in changing their sexual orientation. It did not appear that the respondents' post-transitional sexual attractions towards males were similar to autogynephilic images and fantasies described by Blanchard (1991).
Changes in plasma inhibin A levels during sexual maturation in the female chicken and the effects of active immunization against inhibin alpha-subunit on reproductive hormone profiles and ovarian function.
Lovell, T M; Knight, P G; Groome, N P; Gladwell, R T
Inhibins and activins are firmly implicated in the control of pituitary FSH secretion and ovarian follicular development in mammals. As in mammals, inhibin A and activin A are expressed in the preovulatory follicles of birds, and a defined ovulation cycle for inhibin A has recently been demonstrated in the laying hen. To investigate further the role of inhibin-related proteins in developing pullets, circulating concentrations of inhibin A, inhibin B, total immunoreactive inhibin alpha-subunit (ir-alpha), activin A, LH, FSH, and progesterone were measured from the juvenile state through to sexual maturity in 22 birds. In the 11 birds assigned to control groups, plasma inhibin A levels were low from 7 to 13 wk of age rising about threefold to a peak at Week 19 after which levels fell slightly to a plateau level characteristic of adult hens. Plasma inhibin A levels were negatively correlated with FSH (r = -0. 33; P: < 0.001) and positively correlated with progesterone (r = 0. 67; P: < 0.001) and ir-alpha (r = 0.53; P: < 0.001). Plasma ir-alpha levels were much higher than inhibin A levels although the relative differences varied with age. Plasma levels of inhibin B and activin A were below assay detection limits at all times. The remaining group of 11 birds was actively immunized (IMM) against a synthetic chicken inhibin alpha-subunit peptide (amino acids 1-26). The IMM generated circulating antibodies that bound native bovine inhibin A but altered neither plasma FSH nor progesterone levels relative to control birds at any stage of development nor the timing of first oviposition in week 19. Apart from a transient decline 1 wk after primary IMM, plasma LH concentrations did not differ from controls. Comparison of the numbers and size-class distribution of ovarian follicles at 29 wk showed an approximate twofold increase in the number of 8- to 9.9-mm-diameter follicles (control; 1.82 +/- 0.44 vs. IMM; 3.91 +/- 0.89; P: < 0.05), a size class that corresponds to follicles
Heritage, Jeannette G.; West, W. Beryl
Approximately 50% of American marriages have some sexual dysfunction. Because sexuality is an important part of a person's life, counselors should be sensitive to sexual concerns of their clients. Taking an adequate sex history and highlighting problem areas may increase counseling efficiency. When counselors teach courses on human sexuality, they…
The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…
Portelli, C J
Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care.
Military Sexual Trauma What is military sexual trauma (MST)? Military sexual trauma, or MST, is the term used by VA to refer to experiences of sexual assault ... that a Veteran experienced during his or her military service. The definition used by the VA comes ...
Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.
This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
Spigarelli, Michael G
Sexual orientation has been defined as the patterns of sexual thoughts, fantasies, and attractions that an individual has toward other persons of the same or opposite gender. Throughout childhood and approaching adolescence, children try to understand their own sexuality and sexual orientation in the context of the society in which they live. Typically, this attempt to understand first occurs in thoughts of a sexual nature and later through actions, usually before sexual orientation is clearly defined. How these experiences are handled, by the individual and close friends and relatives, helps to define how an individual views and accepts their sexual orientation ultimately as an adult.
Salama, S; Boitrelle, F; Gauquelin, A; Jaoul, M; Albert, M; Bailly, M; Wainer, R; Veluire, M
Following the recent medical innovations, it is now possible to disassociate sexuality and reproduction. With contraception, people can have free sexuality without the fear of an unexpected pregnancy. Frequently, Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), with in vitro fertilization, can obtain a pregnancy without intercourse. There are three major problems concerning infertility and sexuality. Firstly, infertility because of a sexual disorder; secondly, sexual disorder induced by infertility diagnosis; thirdly, sexual disorder induced by ART. Praticians should be aware of possible existence of sexual problems to allow the couple to express them. Once diagnosed, these troubles can be treated by the pratician himself or the couple has to be referred to a psychologist or a sexologist.
Blackstein, Martin Elliot
Hormonal therapy is the first systemic therapy to have been used successfully in the treatment of cancer. Developments in steroid hormone receptor assays in the last decade have resulted in the first predictable assays for cancer therapy. The role of hormones, in both the development and treatment of breast, prostate and uterine cancer, is reviewed. Because hormonal therapy is generally a less toxic palliative treatment than other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy and radiation), it has been used for malignancies such as malignant melanoma, hypernephroma, and carcinoid. PMID:21278945
Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.
Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827
Warne, Garry L; Grover, Sonia; Zajac, Jeffrey D
Hormonal therapy forms part of the treatment of every intersex condition. For some conditions, such as salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hormonal replacement therapy is life saving because hormones necessary for survival (cortisol and aldosterone) are replaced. In contrast, other hormones such as androgens or mineralocorticoids are secreted in excessive amounts in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to an enzyme imbalance, and the role of hormonal therapy is to suppress the unwanted hormone excess by exerting negative feedback. For patients with one of the many causes of hypogonadism, sex hormone replacement therapy may be prescribed to stimulate sexual development: growth of a hypoplastic penis in a young boy, pubertal changes (male or female), psychosexual development, and adult sexual behavior. It has equally important and highly beneficial effects on bone mineral density. Hormonal therapy is also used to treat the unborn child. For the last 20 years, prenatal dexamethasone treatment administered to the pregnant woman has been used to prevent the development of ambiguous genitalia in females with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Outcome studies show this treatment to be well tolerated and, in general, efficacious. Intersex conditions are, however, difficult to treat because they may intrinsically perturb complex aspects of the person's gender identity, gender-role behavior, sexual orientation, sexual functioning, and psychologic adjustment. Furthermore, decisions made about the sex of an infant by doctors and parents do not always turn out to be correct; the person may grow up feeling uncertain about his or her gender identity, or worse still, harbor a sense of outrage about their life and treatment experiences. Such a person will have definite views about hormonal therapy when the time comes and skillful counseling will be needed. A vigorous debate about ethical aspects of current medical practices relating to intersex conditions has been waged for the last
Van Den Ende, H.
When stimulated by equivalent amounts of progametangia-inducing hormones, cultures of the minus mating type of Blakeslea trispora produce about the same quantities of carotenoids as mated cultures of the fungus, which suggests that the stimulation of carotene synthesis during the sexual activity of mated cultures is the result of hormonal action. These hormones were isolated and purified. From spectroscopic analysis of purified samples, it appears that the hormones are identical with trisporic acids B and C. When both mating types of B. trispora were cultivated in one vessel but were kept apart by membrane filters, the formation of sex hormones was not inhibited. Physical contact between the mating types is obviously not required for the induction of sexual activity. The sex hormones also formed in combined cultures of B. trispora-plus and Zygorhynchus moelleri (a homothallic species), but not in combined cultures of B. trispora-minus and Z. moelleri. This is evidence for the hypothesis that the hormones are produced by B. trispora-plus only. PMID:5686001
This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.
Wallen, Kim; Rupp, Heather A
This study investigated whether women's interest in visual sexual stimuli varied with their hormonal state. Viewing times of 30 women, 15 normal cycling (NC) and 15 oral contracepting (OC), to sexually explicit photos were measured at three different times. NC women were tested during their menstrual, periovulatory, and luteal phases, and OC women were tested at equivalent temporal intervals. Subjects viewed stimuli as long as desired, thus viewing time measured subject interest. Subjective ratings of stimulus sexual attractiveness were obtained on each test. There was no overall relationship between menstrual cycle phase and viewing time. However the participant's menstrual cycle phase during first exposure to sexual stimuli predicted subsequent interest in sexual stimuli during the next two tests. NC women who first viewed stimuli during their periovulatory phase looked longer at the sexual stimuli across all sessions than did women first tested in their luteal phase. OC women first exposed to the sexual stimuli during menstruation looked longer at the stimuli across all sessions than did OC women first exposed at other test phases. Neither current test phase nor initial cycle phase influenced subjective ratings. Women had increased interest in sexual stimuli across all sessions if first exposed to sexual stimuli when endogenous estrogens were most likely highest. These data suggest that women's interest in visual sexual stimuli is modulated by hormones such that the hormonal condition at first exposure possibly determines the stimuli's emotional valence, markedly affecting subsequent interest in sexual stimuli.
Clayton, Anita H
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined as a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. The dysfunction cannot be better accounted for by another psychiatric disorder (except another sexual dysfunction) and must not be due exclusively to the physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. HSDD occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women in the USA and its prevalence appears to be similar in Europe. A number of potential causative and contributory factors to low sexual desire have been identified, reflecting the interplay among hormonal, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors. One theory is that sexual desire is controlled in the brain by a balance between inhibitory and excitatory factors. In general, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role in sexual desire, whereas serotonin, prolactin, and opioids play an inhibitory role. It is hypothesized that decreased sexual desire may be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A greater understanding of the complex pathophysiology of HSDD would improve the identification and management of women for whom low sexual desire is a concern.
There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...
Comninos, Alexander N.; Wall, Matthew B.; Demetriou, Lysia; Shah, Amar J.; Clarke, Sophie A.; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Nesbitt, Alexander; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Prague, Julia K.; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Salem, Victoria; Nijher, Gurjinder M.; Jayasena, Channa N.; Tanner, Mark; Bassett, Paul; Mehta, Amrish; Rabiner, Eugenii A.; Hönigsperger, Christoph; Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Wilson, Steven Ray; Brown, Rachel C.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Dhillo, Waljit S.
BACKGROUND. Sex, emotion, and reproduction are fundamental and tightly entwined aspects of human behavior. At a population level in humans, both the desire for sexual stimulation and the desire to bond with a partner are important precursors to reproduction. However, the relationships between these processes are incompletely understood. The limbic brain system has key roles in sexual and emotional behaviors, and is a likely candidate system for the integration of behavior with the hormonal reproductive axis. We investigated the effects of kisspeptin, a recently identified key reproductive hormone, on limbic brain activity and behavior. METHODS. Using a combination of functional neuroimaging and hormonal and psychometric analyses, we compared the effects of kisspeptin versus vehicle administration in 29 healthy heterosexual young men. RESULTS. We demonstrated that kisspeptin administration enhanced limbic brain activity specifically in response to sexual and couple-bonding stimuli. Furthermore, kisspeptin’s enhancement of limbic brain structures correlated with psychometric measures of reward, drive, mood, and sexual aversion, providing functional significance. In addition, kisspeptin administration attenuated negative mood. CONCLUSIONS. Collectively, our data provide evidence of an undescribed role for kisspeptin in integrating sexual and emotional brain processing with reproduction in humans. These results have important implications for our understanding of reproductive biology and are highly relevant to the current pharmacological development of kisspeptin as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with common disorders of reproductive function. FUNDING. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Wellcome Trust (Ref 080268), and the Medical Research Council (MRC). PMID:28112678
Hewitt, Jacqueline; Zacharin, Margaret
Congenital disruptions of sex hormone production lead to wide-ranging developmental and physiological effects in individuals who have atypical chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex. Aberrant developmental sex hormone exposure causes disorders of genital anatomy, attainment of secondary sexual characteristics and has long-term effects on metabolism, fertility and psychological functioning. Principles in the management of disorders of sex development (DSD) aim to improve physiological health and long-term outcome, as well as development of male or female sexual anatomy. Concerns raised by DSD patient advocacy groups about beneficence and autonomy with respect to prescribed hormone treatments and avoidance of unnecessary genital and gonadal surgery have demanded greater informed consent and attention to long-term outcome. Hormone treatment is influenced by underlying clinical diagnosis and by factors such as sex of rearing and gender identity of the affected individual. We describe diagnostic criteria for different DSDs, clinical considerations in management protocols, together with current concepts and detailed practical hormone treatments for male and female individuals with DSD. Gender identity issues requiring multidisciplinary consensus, ethical consideration and informed consent or assent from the young person are also addressed.
Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).
Hormonal imprinting is an epigenetic process which is taking place perinatally at the first encounter between the developing hormone receptors and their target hormones. The hormonal imprinting influences the binding capacity of receptors, the hormone synthesis of the cells, and other hormonally regulated functions, as sexual behavior, aggressivity, empathy, etc. However, during the critical period, when the window for imprinting is open, molecules similar to the physiological imprinters as synthetic hormone analogs, other members of the hormone families, environmental pollutants, etc. can cause faulty imprinting with life-long consequences. The developing immune system, the cells of which also have receptors for hormones, is very sensitive to faulty imprinting, which causes alterations in the antibody and cytokine production, in the ratio of immune cells, in the defense against bacterial and viral infections as well as against malignant tumors. Immune cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells) are also producing hormones which are secreted into the blood circulation as well as are transported locally (packed transport). This process is also disturbed by faulty imprinting. As immune cells are differentiating during the whole life, faulty imprinting could develop any time, however, the most decisive is the perinatal imprinting. The faulty imprinting is inherited to the progenies in general and especially in the case of immune system. In our modern world the number and amount of artificial imprinters (e.g. endocrine disruptors and drugs) are enormously increasing. The effects of the faulty imprinters most dangerous to the immune system are shown in the paper. The present and future consequences of the flood of faulty imprintings are unpredictable however, it is discussed.
Stimmel, Glen L; Gutierrez, Mary A
Sexual dysfunction is a frequently encountered comorbid condition in patients with many medical and psychiatric conditions, such as epilepsy and depression. Most depressed patients experience some type of sexual dysfunction, decreased sexual desire being the most common. The association of sexual dysfunction with epilepsy is less clear. Changes in sex hormone levels are common in patients with epilepsy and may be attributable to the disease or to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Sexual dysfunction associated with depression or epilepsy is generally treated according to standard guidelines for the management of sexual disorders, since data from special populations are not available. The most common forms of female sexual dysfunction are lack of sexual desire and difficulty achieving orgasm. There are no approved pharmacotherapies for female hypoactive sexual desire disorder or female orgasmic disorder. Female sexual arousal disorder is treated with estrogen replacement therapy when indicated or vaginal lubricants. The most common male sexual dysfunction disorders are premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor drugs are now the first-line treatment for erectile dysfunction, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and topical anesthetic creams are nonapproved but effective treatments for premature ejaculation. Testosterone and aromatase inhibitors have been used investigationally to treat sexual dysfunction in men taking AEDs. Patient education and follow-up appointments are essential to ensure optimal outcomes of pharmacologic treatments for sexual dysfunction.
Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha
India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263
Bertelloni, Silvano; Dati, Eleonora; Baroncelli, Giampiero I; Hiort, Olaf
Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) represents a main disorder of sex development. Women with CAIS may have their gonads removed before, during or after adolescence, thus requiring hormonal replacement therapy to induce puberty and/or maintain secondary sexual characteristics, to optimize bone mass accrual, and to promote physical and social well-being. Usually estrogens are used for this purpose, but formulations and doses should be better defined in multicentric prospective studies. Some women started testostosterone as hormonal replacement therapy, but this practice remains anecdotal. Bone health remains a crucial aspect in the management of persons with CAIS, but few sound data are available to guide clinical practice.
Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N
Research on multidimensional sexual perfectionism differentiates four forms: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. Self-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to themselves as sexual partners; partner-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to their sexual partner; partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that their sexual partner imposes perfectionistic standards on them; and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that society imposes such standards on them. Previous studies found partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism to be maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with a negative sexual self-concept and problematic sexual behaviors, but only examined cross-sectional relationships. The present article presents the first longitudinal study examining whether multidimensional sexual perfectionism predicts changes in sexual self-concept and sexual function over time. A total of 366 women aged 17-69 years completed measures of multidimensional sexual perfectionism, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and sexual function (cross-sectional data). Three to six months later, 164 of the women completed the same measures again (longitudinal data). Across analyses, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism emerged as the most maladaptive form of sexual perfectionism. In the cross-sectional data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism showed positive relationships with sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and intercourse pain, and negative relationships with sexual esteem, desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasmic function. In the longitudinal data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism predicted increases in sexual anxiety and decreases in sexual esteem, arousal, and lubrication over time. The findings suggest that partner-prescribed sexual
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a multifactorial set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological, medical and psychological factors that can have major impact on self-esteem, quality of life, mood and relationships. Studies indicate that FSD is commonly seen in women who report a low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and in women with male partners who have erectile dysfunction. This complexity of FSD is augmented by the presence of chronic disease. Negative sexual effects are widely reported in studies of women with chronic diseases (such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cancer, spinal cord injury, lupus, rheumatic diseases, Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and chronic pain) as compared to a general healthy female population. Physical problems, emotional problems and partnership difficulties arising from disease-related stress contribute to less active and less enjoyable sex life. Chronic pain, fatigue, low self-esteem as well as use of medications might reduce sexual function. These effects of chronic diseases on female sexual function still remain largely unstudied. The study by Manor and Zohar published in this issue of Harefuah draws our attention to the sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer and examines their needs for information regarding their sexual function. In the absence of definite treatment evidence, psychological counseling, improved vaginal lubrication, low dose of hormonal therapy can be used to relieve FSD. Physicians must consider integrating diagnosis of their female patients' sexual needs and dysfunction, especially women with chronic diseases. Patients' education and counseling may contribute to a better quality of life in spite of their chronic disease.
... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... include: PTSD and anxiety. Depression and thoughts of suicide. Sexual anxiety and disorders, including having too many ...
Corbett, Susan Miller
Presents a newsletter that discusses methods parents can use to handle sexual questions or behavior in young children. An accompanying letter to parents addresses young children's sexual behavior and ways parents can respond to this behavior. (GH)
... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...
... are some symptoms related to sexual trauma in boys and men? Particularly when the assailant is a ... those who do not. Emotional Disorders Men and boys who have been sexually assaulted are more likely ...
Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Considering testosterone therapy to help you feel younger and more vigorous as you age? ... 01, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/testosterone-therapy/art-20045728 . ...
Stier, William F., Jr.
Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…
Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life. PMID:21248971
Laskey, Louise, Ed.; Beavis, Catherine, Ed.
This collection of papers contains a Foreword by Jane Kenway, an Introduction by Louise Laskey and Catherine Beavis, and four sections. Section 1, Schools and the Social Construction of Sexuality, contains 3 chapters: (1) Power and Partnership? Challenging the Sexual Construction of Schooling (D. Denborough); (2) Where Do You Draw the Line?…
Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana
The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexual attitudes accounted for differences in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges. Results indicated differences in sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual behaviors among males were influenced by their sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality, while for females, their sexual behaviors were mostly influenced by their sexual attitudes. College health professionals can use these findings when discussing sexual practices with students.
... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy(a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a doctor’s instructions). ... that bioidentical hormones, whether prepared by a compounding pharmacy or pharmaceutical company, are safer to use than ...
... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a doctor’s instructions). ... that bioidentical hormones, whether prepared by a compounding pharmacy or pharmaceutical company, are safer to use than ...
... the participating organizations that have assisted in its reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products
... abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. DUB is more common in teenagers or in women who are approaching menopause. DUB is unpredictable. The bleeding may be very heavy or light and can occur often or randomly.
... under the skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names GH test Images Growth hormone stimulation test - series References Ali O. Hyperpituitarism, tall stature, and overgrowth ...
Laue, L; Comite, F; Hench, K; Loriaux, D L; Cutler, G B; Pescovitz, O H
Seven children with central precocious puberty and either neurofibromatosis and/or optic gliomas were referred to the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md, for evaluation and treatment with the long-acting luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) D-Trp6-Pro9-NEt-LHRH. Only six of the seven children chose to receive treatment. Four children presented with neurofibromatosis, three of whom also had optic gliomas; the remaining three children had isolated optic gliomas, without other neurocutaneous stigmas. All had central precocious puberty mediated by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Six months of LHRHa therapy caused suppression of gonadotropin and sex steroid levels, stabilization or regression of secondary sexual characteristics, and decreases in growth velocity and the rate of bone age maturation. We conclude that LHRHa therapy is effective in the treatment of central precocious puberty secondary to neurofibromatosis and/or optic gliomas.
In a recent BEST (Bureau of Evaluative Studies and Testing, Indiana University, Bloomington) survey, 10 percent of Indiana University women who responded had experienced some form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in education is any attention of a sexual nature from an instructor or professor which makes a student uncomfortable in class or…
Berman, J R; Adhikari, S P; Goldstein, I
Female sexual dysfunction is a significant age-related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women in the United States. The female sexual response cycle is initiated by neurotransmitter-mediated vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle relaxation resulting in increased pelvic blood flow, vaginal lubrication, and clitoral and labial engorgement. These mechanisms are mediated by a combination of neuromuscular and vasocongestive events. Physiological impairments that interfere with the normal female sexual response bring about complaints associated with diminished sexual arousal, libido, vaginal lubrication, genital sensation, and ability to achieve orgasm. Therapy aimed at restoring hormone levels as well as genital blood flow will be discussed.
Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.
Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases. PMID:28117293
Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron
A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and
Fridlyand, Leonid E.; Tamarina, Natalia A.; Schally, Andrew V.; Philipson, Louis H.
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggest that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications. PMID:27777568
role of gonadal hormones in the regulation of Pavlovian fear conditioning and its extinction. Pavlovian fear conditioning and its extinction serve...learning in Pavlovian fear conditioning involves training with the presentation of an innocuous stimulus (the conditioned stimulus – CS) that is associated...GD, Schlinger BA, Fanselow MS (1998) Testicular hormones do not regulate sexually dimorphic Pavlovian fear conditioning or perforant- path long-term
Plakun, E M
Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct.
Plakun, Eric M.
Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by “bad” clinicians against patients who are “victims,” this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431
Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J
A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered.
Houman, Justin; Feng, Tom; Eilber, Karyn S; Anger, Jennifer T
Female sexual dysfunction affects approximately 40% of women (Sexual problems and distress in United States women: prevalence and correlates; Shifren et al., Obstet Gynecol, 112(5): 970-978, 2008). Due to its multi-factorial etiology, a wide variety of treatments are available that address specific symptoms, but no treatment exists that treats the overall disorder. Significant strides have recently been made in an effort to treat the plethora of symptoms associated with this disorder. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of recent research on the available treatments for female sexual dysfunction. We discuss novel agents such as flibanserin, as well as various mechanical devices and hormonal treatments aimed at the specific subtypes of female sexual dysfunction.
Simon, James A
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is thought to be the most prevalent form of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), affecting up to 1 in 10 US women. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) as persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and thoughts, and/or desire for, or receptivity to, sexual activity, which causes personal distress or interpersonal difficulties and is not caused by a medical condition or drug. This definition has recently received criticism and recommendations for changes encompass the inclusion of duration, intensity, and frequency, and the elimination of distress as a diagnostic criterion. More recently, it has been suggested that arousal and desire be combined into one disorder for the upcoming DSM-V. Causes of low desire include chronic medical conditions, medications, surgeries, and psychosocial factors, but not necessarily increased age; both pre- and postmenopausal women can have HSDD, although the frequency appears to vary by age. Sexual function requires the complex interaction of multiple neurotransmitters and hormones, both centrally and peripherally, and sexual desire is considered the result of a complex balance between inhibitory and excitatory pathways in the brain. For example, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role, whereas serotonin and prolactin are inhibitory. Thus, decreased sexual desire could be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A number of validated self-report and clinician-administered instruments are available for assessing female sexual function; however, most have been used primarily in clinical research trials. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener (DSDS) was developed for practicing clinicians who are neither trained nor specialized in FSD to assist in making an accurate diagnosis of
Hart, Tae L.; Coon, David W.; Kowalkowski, Marc A.; Zhang, Karen; Hersom, Justin I.; Goltz, Heather H.; Wittmann, Daniela A.; Latini, David M.
Introduction Gay men with prostate cancer (GMPCa) may have differential health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sexual health outcomes than heterosexual men with prostate cancer (PCa), but existing information is based on clinical experience and small studies. Aims Our goals were to: (i) describe HRQOL and examine changes in sexual functioning and bother; (ii) explore the psychosocial aspects of sexual health after PCa; and (iii) examine whether there were significant differences on HRQOL and sexual behavior between GMPCa and published norms. Methods A convenience sample of GMPCa completed validated disease-specific and general measures of HRQOL, ejaculatory function and bother, fear of cancer recurrence, and satisfaction with prostate cancer care. Measures of self-efficacy for PCa management, illness intrusiveness, and disclosure of sexual orientation were also completed. Where possible, scores were compared against published norms. Main Outcome Measures Main outcome measures were self-reported sexual functioning and bother on the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index. Results Compared with norms, GMPCa reported significantly worse functioning and more severe bother scores on urinary, bowel, hormonal symptom scales (Ps < 0.015–0.0001), worse mental health functioning (P < 0.0001), greater fear of cancer recurrence (P < 0.0001), and were more dissatisfied with their PCa medical care. However, GMPCa reported better sexual functioning scores (P < 0.002) compared with norms. Many of the observed differences met criteria for clinical significance. Physical functioning HRQOL and sexual bother scores were similar to that of published samples. GMPCa tended to be more “out” about their sexual orientation than other samples of gay men. Conclusions GMPCa reported substantial changes in sexual functioning after PCa treatment. They also reported significantly worse disease-specific and general HRQOL, fear of recurrence, and were less satisfied with their medical care than
Andersen, Monica L; Alvarenga, Tathiana F; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Hachul, Helena C; Tufik, Sergio
Testosterone has been the focus of several investigations and review studies in males, but few have addressed its effects on sleep and sexual function, despite evidence of its androgenic effects on circadian activity in both sexes. Studies have been conducted to understand how sleeping increases (and how waking decreases) testosterone levels and how this rhythm can be related to sexual function. This review addresses the inter-relationships among testosterone, sexual function and sleep, including sleep-disordered breathing in both sexes, specifically its effects related to sleep deprivation. In addition, hormonal changes in testosterone that occur in the gonadal and adrenal axis with obstructive sleep apnea and other conditions of chronic sleep deprivation, and which consequently affect sexual life, have also been explored. Nevertheless, hormone-associated sleep disruptions occur across a lifetime, particularly in women. The association between endogenous testosterone and sex, sleep and sleep disturbances is discussed, including the results of clinical trials as well as animal model studies. Evidence of possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this relationship is also described. Unraveling the associations of sex steroid hormone concentrations with sleep and sexual function may have clinical implications, as sleep loss reduces testosterone levels in males, and low sex steroid hormone concentrations have been associated with sexual dysfunction.
McCarthy, MARGARET M.
The developing brain is highly sensitive to the organizing effects of steroids of gonadal origin in a process referred to as sexual differentiation. Early hormone effects prime the brain for adult sensitivity to the appropriate hormonal milieu, maximizing reproductive fitness via coordinated physiology and behavior. Animal models, in particular rodents, have provided insight into general principles and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of brain differentiation. Cellular endpoints influenced by steroids in the developing brain include neurogenesis, migration, apoptosis, dendritic growth, and synaptic patterning. Important roles for prostaglandins, endocanabinoids, and epigenetics are among the many cellular mediators of hormonal organization. Transference of general principles of brain sexual differentiation to humans relies on observations of individuals with genetic anomalies that either increase or decrease hormone exposure and sensitivity. The physiology and behavior of individuals with XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) has not been considered in the context of sexual differentiation of the brain, most likely due to the delay in diagnoses and highly variable presentation. The behavioral phenotype and impairments in the domains of speech and language that are characteristic of individuals with XXY is consistent with the reduced androgen production associated with the syndrome. Hormone replacement appears effective in restoring some deficits and impact may be further improved by increased understanding of the hormonally mediated sexual differentiation of the brain. PMID:23335108
Stayton, W R
The health professional can be helpful to the adolescent, the adolescent's family, and the community through participating in and initiating local sex education programs. Religious settings provide a great potential for sexuality education within a value framework. A helpful curriculum will include the meaning of sexuality; developing a positive concept of sexuality, and a healthy sexual identity; present the issues of adolescent sexuality, including the various health issues; and an understanding of quality relationships within the family and among peers. If health professions and the community religious institutions can joint together, they can reach the goals of most programs in human sexuality, namely, "learning to appreciate our sexuality as a positive potential for self-expression, fulfillment and intimacy; respect for the personhood and well-being of others; and responsible decision-making."
Gluhovschi, Gh; Gluhovschi, A; Anastasiu, D; Petrica, Ligia; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Velciov, Silvia
The kidney is under the influence of sexual hormones. Estrogens have a favourable role in the progression of some chronic renal diseases. Estrogen hormones act upon the nephron component cells, regulating several processes going on at this level. One of the most important actions of the estrogens is represented by the protective effect on the kidneys, estrogens attenuating glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Thus, estrogens have nephroprotective effects. Phosphorus-calcium metabolism disturbances during chronic kidney disease are influenced by numerous regulatory factors: parathormone, vitamin D fibroblast growth factor, 23. Estrogens play an important part in disturbances of the phosphorus-calcium metabolism, co-operating with these factors. They exert favourable effects on renal osteodystrophy, the main consequence of phosphorus-calcium disturbances. Hormonal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is clinically accompanied by sexual dysfunction that influences the life quality of these patients. In advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, especially in dialysed patients, these sexual dysfunctions can be more evident. Hormonal replacement therapy and estrogen therapy- receptor modulating therapy have an important role in correcting hormonal dysfunctions manifest in chronic kidney disease. Caution is necessary in case of a would-be pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease, given its risks and the complexity of the problem. Renal transplantation corrects to a great extent hormonal dysfunctions in chronic kidney disease.
Ehrhardt, A A; Meyer-Bahlburg, H F
Naturally occurring endocrine syndromes and the offspring from steroid-treated pregnancies are the major sources of evidence for a role of prenatal hormones in psychosexual development in man. Effects of prenatal androgens have been established for the sex-dimorphic behaviour clusters of energy expenditure (increased), parenting rehearsal (decreased), peer associations (shifted to male), and grooming-related behaviour (decreased); most of the information was obtained on the syndrome of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and in progestin-induced female hermaphroditism. Studies of children and adults exposed prenatally to exogenous oestrogens and/or progestagens suggest slight demasculinizing effects but cannot yet be considered conclusive. Gender identity is largely dependent on the sex of rearing; a direct role of prenatal hormones in its formation has not been shown. The evidence for the role of prenatal hormones in the development of sexual orientation is inconclusive.
Wheeler, Michael J
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has long been associated with sexual differentiation in the fetus where in the male it suppresses the development of the female reproductive tracts. More recently it has been shown to be secreted in low concentrations by the granulosa cells of the adult and related to follicular development in the ovary. A number of laboratories are now measuring this hormone as part of IVF treatment and in the investigation of polycystic ovarian disease in particular. Early immunoassays for this hormone were not stable and currently laboratories are using the assay sold by Beckman Coulter, Inc., the AMH Gen II ELISA. This assay has been developed from two commercial assays purchased by Beckman and is reported to be precise and convenient. It is the assay described here.
Brown-Borg, Holly M.
There is a growing body of literature focusing on the somatotropic axis and regulation of aging and longevity. Many of these reports derive data from multiple endocrine mutants, those that exhibit both elevated growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) or deficiencies in one or both of these hormones. In general, both spontaneous and genetically engineered GH and IGF-1 deficiencies have lead to small body size, delayed development of sexual maturation and age-related pathology, and life span extension. In contrast, characteristics of high circulating GH included larger body sizes, early puberty and reproductive senescence, increased cancer incidence and reduced life span when compared to wild-type animals with normal plasma hormone concentrations. This information, along with that found in multiple other species, implicates this anabolic pathway as the major regulator of longevity in animals. PMID:18674587
Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor
Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery.
Perrett, D I; Lee, K J; Penton-Voak, I; Rowland, D; Yoshikawa, S; Burt, D M; Henzi, S P; Castles, D L; Akamatsu, S
Testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics in males may signal immunological competence and are sexually selected for in several species. In humans, oestrogen-dependent characteristics of the female body correlate with health and reproductive fitness and are found attractive. Enhancing the sexual dimorphism of human faces should raise attractiveness by enhancing sex-hormone-related cues to youth and fertility in females, and to dominance and immunocompetence in males. Here we report the results of asking subjects to choose the most attractive faces from continua that enhanced or diminished differences between the average shape of female and male faces. As predicted, subjects preferred feminized to average shapes of a female face. This preference applied across UK and Japanese populations but was stronger for within-population judgements, which indicates that attractiveness cues are learned. Subjects preferred feminized to average or masculinized shapes of a male face. Enhancing masculine facial characteristics increased both perceived dominance and negative attributions (for example, coldness or dishonesty) relevant to relationships and paternal investment. These results indicate a selection pressure that limits sexual dimorphism and encourages neoteny in humans.
Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi
The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions.
Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.
Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.
In in vitro experiments, active transport of thyroid hormones had been repeatedly demonstrated. The membrane transporters for thyroid hormones which have been identified include the organic anion transporting polypeptide, heterodimeric amino acid transporters and the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) which are the focus of this chapter. The gene encoding MCT8 which was identified as a specific thyroid hormone transporter is located on chromosome Xq13.2. The expression pattern of MCT8 indicates that MCT8 plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system by transporting thyroid hormone into neurons as its main target cells. Mutational analysis of the MCT8 gene revealed mutations or deletions in the MCT8 gene in unrelated male patients with severe psychomotor retardation and biochemical findings consistent with thyroid hormone resistance. Indeed, thyroid function tests in patients with MCT8 mutations demonstrated marked elevations of serum T3 (in the thyrotoxic range), a significant decrease in serum T4 or fT4 and normal to elevated TSH levels.
Amory, J K
Efforts are underway to develop additional forms of contraception for men. The most promising approach to male contraceptive development involves the administration of exogenous testosterone (T). When administered to a man, T functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary, thereby depriving the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis. After 2-3 months of treatment, low levels of these gonadotropins lead to markedly decreased sperm counts and effective contraception in a majority of men. Hormonal contraception with exogenous T has proven to be free from serious adverse effects and is well tolerated by men. In addition, sperm counts uniformly normalize when the exogenous T is discontinued. Thus, male hormonal is safe, effective and reversible; however, spermatogenesis is not suppressed to zero in all men, meaning that some diminished potential for fertility persists. Because of this recent studies have combined T with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing antagonists to further suppress pituitary gonadotropins and optimize contraceptive efficacy. Current combinations of T and progestogens completely suppress spermatogenesis without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with significant suppression in the remainder of individuals. Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable T, which can be administered every 8 weeks, combined with progestogens, administered either orally or by long-acting implant, have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible and effective hormonal contraceptive for men.
Ratner, Elena S; Foran, Kelly A; Schwartz, Peter E; Minkin, Mary Jane
Matters of sexuality and intimacy greatly impact quality of life of patients with gynecologic cancers. Vast amount of evidence exists showing that cancer dramatically impacts woman's sexuality, sexual functioning, intimate relationships and sense of self. Sexual functioning can be affected by illness, pain, anxiety, anger, stressful circumstances and medications. There is a growing acknowledgement that these needs are not being appropriately addressed by providers. With improvements in early detection, surgery and adjuvant therapy for gynecologic cancer, long term survival and cure are becoming possible. Quality of life is thus becoming a major issue for patients. Patients suffer from hot flashes, difficulty sleeping, loss of libido and intimacy, all resulting in significant morbidity and loss of quality of life. Using hormone replacement therapy in gynecologic cancer survivors is a topic a great debate. While limited studies are available to date, retrospective cohort reviews show no reported differences in overall or disease-free survival in patients using hormone replacements vs. controls in patients with ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, cervical, vaginal or vulva cancer. Since safety of using HRT remains controversial and prospective studies are lacking, providers need to be able to provide alternatives to HRT. Centrally acting agents such as antiseizure agent gabapentin and selective serotonine re-uptake inhibitors, such as venlafaxine and fluoxitine have been demonstrated to show effectiveness in treating vasomotor symptoms and are easily tolerated. To address cardiovascular and osteoporosis risks of post-menopausal status, exercise, healthy diet, bisphosphonates, raloxifen and statins have been found to be effective. Psychotherapy plays an essential part in management of these issues. Review of the literature reveals recent trends among health psychologists to utilize psychoeducational interventions that include combined elements of cognitive and
SEXISM , SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism , Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Sexual Harassment .........................................................................................2 Sexism
The brain is a sexually dimorphic organ. Little is known about molecular mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. The classical hypothesis of brain sexual differentiation suggests that a perinatal surge of organizational sex hormones secreted from the gonad leads to irreversible changes in morphology of the brain, followed by pubertal hormones that activate neural networks to express sex-specific behavioral phenotypes. However, recent studies propose that sex hormones are not the sole factor to establish sexual dimorphism in the brain. Since mammalian sex strictly relies on sex chromosome complement, i.e., XY for males and XX for females, intrinsic genetic differences between XY and XX cells are strong candidates for the cause of sexual dimorphism. Several genes on the Y chromosome are expressed in the male brain and may act in a dominant manner. Among these Y-linked genes, the testis-determining gene Sry is of particular interest. Although SRY is known to function as a transcriptional activator triggering testicular genetic pathway, several lines of evidence suggest that it also acts as an epigenetic regulator. This chapter provides a basic overview of mammalian sex determination and brain sexual differentiation. It summarizes current evidence of brain-specific epigenetic gene regulations in mammals and other species, and explores the common features between them. Potential roles of Sry during brain sexual development are described and prospects of this research field are discussed.
Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer
There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701
Zych, Sławomir; Szatkowska, Iwona; Czerniawska-Piatkowska, Ewa
The substantial improvement in the studies on a very complicated mechanism-- growth hormone signaling in a cell, has been noted in last decade. GH-induced signaling is characterized by activation of several pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the signal transducer and activator of transcription and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3) pathways. This review shows a current model of the growth hormone receptor dimerization, rotation of subunits and JAK2 kinase activation as the initial steps in the cascade of events. In the next stages of the signaling process, the GH-(GHR)2-(JAK2)2 complex may activate signaling molecules such as Stat, IRS-1 and IRS-2, and particularly all cascade proteins that activate MAP kinase. These pathways regulate basal cellular functions including target gene transcription, enzymatic activity and metabolite transport. Therefore growth hormone is considered as a major regulator of postnatal growth and metabolism, probably for mammary gland growth and development too.
Schlienger, J L; Perrin, A E; Grunenberger, F; Goichot, B
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and fatigue without biological detectable disturbances. The mechanisms of this disease are unknown. It has been postulated that it can be the consequence of a chronic stress mediated mainly through the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. These fields have been extensively studied. Results were scattered and non convincing. A reduction of growth hormone and IGF-1 levels described in a third of patients has led to a double blind random clinical trial with biogenetic growth hormone. Results were equivocal . Other hormonal systems are grossly normals and circadian rhythms are unaltered. Despite some arguments in favour of a CRH neurons hyperactivity, these results are not able to consolide a particular physiopathological mechanism and to argument for a new therapeutic approach. Many of the abnormalities may be the consequence of psychological disturbances.
Schover, Leslie R; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E
Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options.
Brown, G R; Spencer, K A
Steroid hormones, including those produced by the gonads and the adrenal glands, are known to influence brain development during sensitive periods of life. Until recently, most brain organisation was assumed to take place during early stages of development, with relatively little neurogenesis or brain re-organisation during later stages. However, an increasing body of research has shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to steroid hormone exposure during adolescence (broadly defined as the period from nutritional independence to sexual maturity). In this review, we examine how steroid hormones that are produced by the gonads and adrenal glands vary across the lifespan in a range of mammalian and bird species, and we summarise the evidence that steroid hormone exposure influences behavioural and brain development during early stages of life and during adolescence in these two taxonomic groups. Taking a cross-species, comparative perspective reveals that the effects of early exposure to steroid hormones depend upon the stage of development at birth or hatching, as measured along the altricial-precocial dimension. We then review the evidence that exposure to stress during adolescence impacts upon the developing neuroendocrine systems, the brain and behaviour. Current research suggests that the effects of adolescent stress vary depending upon the sex of the individual and type of stressor, and the effects of stress could involve several neural systems, including the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Experience of stressors during adolescence could also influence brain development via the close interactions between the stress hormone and gonadal hormone axes. While sensitivity of the brain to steroid hormones during early life and adolescence potentially leaves the developing organism vulnerable to external adversities, developmental plasticity also provides an opportunity for the developing organism to respond to current circumstances and for behavioural
Seto, Michael C; Lalumière, Martin L; Harris, Grant T; Chivers, Meredith L
On average, rapists show greater relative genital responses to rape stories than do nonrapists in the laboratory. It has been suggested that this robust group difference is explained by the fact that many rapists are sexually sadistic. It is not clear, however, what the critical cues underlying rapists' genital responses are, because rape stories used in previous research include a mix of sadistic cues of violence and victim injury as well as cues of victim resistance and nonconsent. The present study was conducted to identify the critical cues producing self-identified sadists' sexual responses, and thereby to test sexual sadism as an explanation of rapists' arousal pattern. The present study was also conducted to develop a new phallometric test for sexual sadism for research and clinical applications, given evidence of poor diagnostic reliability and validity. Eighteen self-identified male sadists, 22 men with some sadistic interests who did not meet all of our sadist criteria, and 23 nonsadists (all recruited from the community) were compared in their genital and subjective responses to a new set of stories that disentangle violence/injury cues from resistance/nonconsent cues. The three groups differed in both their genital and subjective responses: using indices of relative responding, sadists responded significantly more to cues of violence/injury than nonsadists and men with some sadistic interests. The group difference for cues of nonconsent was not significant. The results suggest that sexual sadism primarily involves arousal to violence/injury in a sexual context rather than resistance/nonconsent.
... Isolated growth hormone deficiency Educational Resources (10 links) Boston Children's Hospital CLIMB: Growth Hormone Deficiency Information Sheet (PDF) Disease InfoSearch: Isolated growth hormone deficiency ...
Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel
The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered.
Huffman, Laura B.; Hartenbach, Ellen M.; Carter, Jeanne; Rash, Joanne K.; Kushner, David M.
Objective The diagnosis and treatment of gynecologic cancer can cause short- and long-term negative effects on sexual health and quality of life (QoL). The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive overview of the sexual health concerns of gynecologic cancer survivors and discuss evidence-based treatment options for commonly encountered sexual health issues. Methods A comprehensive literature search of English language studies on sexual health in gynecologic cancer survivors and the treatment of sexual dysfunction was conducted in MEDLINE databases. Relevant data are presented in this review. Additionally, personal and institutional practices are incorporated where relevant. Results Sexual dysfunction is prevalent among gynecologic cancer survivors as a result of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy--negatively impacting QoL. Many patients expect their healthcare providers to address sexual health concerns, but most have never discussed sex-related issues with their physician. Lubricants, moisturizers, and dilators are effective, simple, non-hormonal interventions that can alleviate the morbidity of vaginal atrophy, stenosis, and pain. Pelvic floor physical therapy can be an additional tool to address dyspareunia. Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to be beneficial to patients reporting problems with sexual interest, arousal, and orgasm. Conclusion Oncology providers can make a significant impact on the QoL of gynecologic cancer survivors by addressing sexual health concerns. Simple strategies can be implemented into clinical practice to discuss and treat many sexual issues. Referral to specialized sexual health providers may be needed to address more complex problems. PMID:26556768
Carey, J Chris
Many drugs may have effects on sexual function. Sexual function is complex and psychological and relationship issues are likely to have greater impacts on sexual function in women than drugs. Although it is important to understand the effects of drugs on sexual function, physicians should use caution in "medicalization" of sexual function in women .
Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran
Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…
Denlinger, Crystal S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B.; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; McCabe, Mary S.; McVary, Kevin T.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O’Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah
Various anticancer treatments, especially those directed toward the pelvis, can damage blood vessels and reduce circulation of blood to the penis and/or damage the autonomic nervous system, resulting in higher rates of erectile dysfunction in survivors than in the general population. In addition, hormonal therapy can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for male sexual problems, namely erectile dysfunction. PMID:24616541
Abdool, Zeelha; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H
Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause distress to the individual (not her partner). Sexual dysfunction is classified as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain. However, in the postpartum period the most common disorder appears to be that of sexual pain as a consequence of perineal trauma. Health care workers need to be made aware of this silent affliction as sexual morbidity can have a detrimental effect on a women's quality of life impacting on her social, physical and emotional well-being.
Ebrahim, Irshaad Osman
Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a viable defence on the basis of automatism. The behaviours that occur during sleepwalking can be highly complex and include sexual behaviour of all types. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (also called sexsomnia, sleep sex) is considered a variant of sleepwalking disorder as the overwhelming majority of people with Sexsomnia have a history of parasomnia and a family history of sleepwalking. Sexual behaviour during a sleep automatism can vary from explicit sexual vocalisations, to violent masturbation, to complex sexual acts including anal, oral and vaginal penetration. A recent case in England is reported where the defendant was acquitted on 3 charges of rape on the basis of automatism due to somnambulistic sexual behaviour.
Schärer, Lukas; Janicke, Tim; Ramm, Steven A.
Hermaphrodites combine the male and female sex functions into a single individual, either sequentially or simultaneously. This simple fact means that they exhibit both similarities and differences in the way in which they experience, and respond to, sexual conflict compared to separate-sexed organisms. Here, we focus on clarifying how sexual conflict concepts can be adapted to apply to all anisogamous sexual systems and review unique (or especially important) aspects of sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals. These include conflicts over the timing of sex change in sequential hermaphrodites, and in simultaneous hermaphrodites, over both sex roles and the postmating manipulation of the sperm recipient by the sperm donor. Extending and applying sexual conflict thinking to hermaphrodites can identify general evolutionary principles and help explain some of the unique reproductive diversity found among animals exhibiting this widespread but to date understudied sexual system. PMID:25237131
Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Lutov, Iu V; Seliatitskaia, V G; Epanchintseva, E A; Riabichenko, T I
The purpose of this investigation was to study the interrelation of andrological status with anthropometric and hormonal descriptions for age-specific features discovery of male sexual system pathological states at technical college students. 147 adolescents aged 15-17 years old were examined. Only 41 of them were found to have no abnormalities in their genital system development; in 35 adolescents sexual development was delayed; and 97 adolescents were found to have various andrological diseases (varicocele, phimosis, gynecomastia, testicular asymmetry, etc.) or clinical signs for development of these diseases. In 26 adolescences delayed sexual development was combined with the andrological pathology. The normal andrological status was usually accompanied with the highest frequency of low values of anthropometric indicators and indices that reflect the influence of various hormonal systems on the bodily constitution, as well as expressed anthropometricheterogeneity. In adolescents with andrological pathology or clinical signs for its development, in all anthropometric parameters the higher values were seen more frequently than low values against the background of highest group anthropometric homogeneity. Summative anthropometric characteristics of the adolescents group with delayed sexual development were between those of the adolescents groups with normal andrological status and andrological pathology The number of correlational relationships of anthropometric and hormonal indicators with the levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosteronesulphate was the lowest in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status as compared to their peers with delayed sexual development and andrological pathology. Only in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status the correlation analysis of data showed physiological influence of sexual hormones on anthropometric indicators. Thus, lower influence of sexual system hormones during this ontogenesis stage
Straw, Fiona; Porter, Charlotte
Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs. For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others. Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment. Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods
The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.
Gray, Peter B
The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory.
Kieren, Dianne; Cumming, Ceinwen E.; Cumming, David C.
The discouraging results of early efforts to educate the public about sexually transmitted diseases indicated that the goals of STD preventive action must be longer term and must change attitudes and behaviour as well as educate. They must also avoid an ostrich mentality about the sexual involvement of young people. This article examines more recent approaches to teaching about sexuality in general and STD prevention in particular. PMID:21221351
Alvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto
A monographic type, bibliographic and hemerographic study on the sexuality in couples with fertility problems is presented. The study is based on the Rubio Aurioles' model of human sexuality, and the four holones (reproductivity, eroticism, affective bonds, gender) in couples with fertility problems are described. A review of clinical studies on the prevailing sexuality in this kind of couples and some theoretical reflections are also presented.
Higgins, Jenny A.; Ryder, Kristin; Skarda, Grace; Koepsel, Erica; Bennett, Eliza A.
CONTEXT The IUD is extremely effective but infrequently used by young adult women, who disproportionately experience unintended pregnancies. Research has not examined how IUD use may affect sexuality, which could in turn affect method acceptability, continuation and marketing efforts. METHODS Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted in 2014 with 50 women between the ages of 18 and 29—either University of Wisconsin students or women from the surrounding community who received public assistance—to explore their thoughts about whether and how IUD use can affect sexual experiences. A modified grounded theory approach was used to identify common themes in terms of both experienced and anticipated sexual acceptability of the IUD. RESULTS Six themes emerged: Security (IUD’s efficacy can reduce sexual inhibition), spontaneity (IUD can allow for free-flowing sex), sexual aspects of bleeding and cramping (IUD’s side effects can affect sex), scarcity of hormones (IUD has little or no hormones, and reduces libido less than hormonal methods such as the pill), string (IUD’s string can detract from a partner’s sexual experience) and stasis (IUD use can have no impact on sex). Some reported sexual aspects of IUD use were negative, but most were positive and described ever-users’ method satisfaction and never-users’ openness to use the method. DISCUSSION Future research and interventions should attend to issues of sexual acceptability: Positive sexual aspects of the IUD could be used promotionally, and counseling about sexual concerns could increase women’s willingness to try the method. PMID:26280666
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Everett, Bethany G
The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.
Rashidi, Sanaz; Dashti, Forouzandeh
Background: Despite the most of treatment team efforts focused on the maintaining patient’s life, attention to sexual issues don’t be considered. This stud is designed to determine the sexual behavior pattern and related factors in women with breast cancer. Methods: This descriptive- correlation study was performed on 90 women that diagnosed with breast Cancer that was admitted to Sayed-Al-Shohada hospital of Isfahan in 2010. Sampling method was available (non- random sampling) and Sexual Behavior Pattern determined with 3 domains: sexual identity, sexual role and sexual function. Data collection tools, was a questionnaire that made by the researcher and was used after determining the validity and reliability. For data analysis, was used of Descriptive- analytic statistics, frequency and ANOVA and Pearson correlation analytical tests in the SPSS statistical software (version 16). Results: Cases had 60% of Desirable sexual identity, 50% of Desirable sexual role, 40% Desirable sexual function and were be able to play 47.61% Desirable sexual behavior. Participants that their husbands had Elementary education had more desirable sexual behavior (p<0.031). Cases that were homemaker had more desirable Sexual behavior than of were working and retired (p<0.023). Non-surgical treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy had a negative impact on sexual behavior (p<0.014). Conclusion: Study of sexual behavior pattern that is one of the important aspects of health, Provide valuable information to nurses and medical team and will be enhance the quality of provided services. Adopt appropriate strategies and interventions to promote sexual health, breast cancer is recommended. PMID:26925917
... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...
ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...
... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...
Exton, M S; Krüger, T H; Bursch, N; Haake, P; Knapp, W; Schedlowski, M; Hartmann, U
This current study examined the effect of a 3-week period of sexual abstinence on the neuroendocrine response to masturbation-induced orgasm. Hormonal and cardiovascular parameters were examined in ten healthy adult men during sexual arousal and masturbation-induced orgasm. Blood was drawn continuously and cardiovascular parameters were constantly monitored. This procedure was conducted for each participant twice, both before and after a 3-week period of sexual abstinence. Plasma was subsequently analysed for concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, prolactin, luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentrations. Orgasm increased blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines and prolactin. These effects were observed both before and after sexual abstinence. In contrast, although plasma testosterone was unaltered by orgasm, higher testosterone concentrations were observed following the period of abstinence. These data demonstrate that acute abstinence does not change the neuroendocrine response to orgasm but does produce elevated levels of testosterone in males.
Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi
A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677
Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader
Cognitive models suggest that attention processes maintain sexual dysfunction. However, few published studies have examined attention bias, and even fewer have studied female participants with sexual dysfunction. Using the Female Sexual Function Index, the authors classified undergraduates as experiencing sexual dysfunction (n = 28) or not (n = 28). The authors assessed whether participants showed attention bias for sexual words using a modified dot-probe task. As expected, female participants with sexual dysfunction showed an attention bias to sexual words, whereas control participants did not. The authors discuss implications for models of sexual dysfunction and clinical intervention.
For several decades, hormone replacement therapies have been prescribed to women, not only to prevent disease but to improve the sexual functioning of menopausal women. The medical promotion of continued sexual activity in a woman's post-reproductive years is exported to locations outside of North America and Europe, which provides an opportunity to critically examine the cultural roots that have informed expert biomedical representations. This ethnographic study examined menopause and social class in Oaxaca de Juarez, Mexico using interviews, questionnaires, and textual analysis. The research found that biomedicine in conjunction with the pharmaceutical industry promoted culturally constructed gender hierarchies under the guise of optimal menopausal health. However, women's actual experience of gender and sexuality in mid-life diverged significantly from these expert representations. Themes that emerged in interviews and questionnaires included the importance of motherhood in old age, diminished sexual desire as not problematic, and greater sexual freedom at a post-reproductive age. Ultimately, biomedical discourse was not the sole arbiter of appropriate menopausal womanhood and femininity.
Alvarenga, T A; Polesel, D N; Matos, G; Garcia, V A; Costa, J L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L
The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000μgmL(-1)) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500μgmL(-1) compared with CTRL-500μgmL(-1) group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response.
Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) on Fetal Testes Hormone Production
CS Lambright, VS Wilson, JR Furr, CJ Wolf, N Noriega, LE Gray, Jr
US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC 27711
Exposure to EDCs during critical periods of fetal sexual development can have...
The basic principles of those behaviourist approaches are: - Treatment of the couple, no matter which partner is apparently "responsible" for the sexual problem, and mutual involvement of both partners. - Sexual information and education regarding the cycle of sexual response, anatomy, biology, and sexual techniques. - Changing negative attitudes vis-à-vis sexuality. - Elimination of sexual anxieties. - Improvement of verbal and corporal communication within the couple. - Learning to know oneself and others better--Initiation to psychological attention and observation.
Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi
Plant hormones are for a long time known to act as chemical messengers in the regulation of physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence. Furthermore, plant hormones simultaneously coordinate physiological responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To study the hormonal regulation of physiological processes, three main approaches have been used (1) exogenous application of hormones, (2) correlative studies through measurements of endogenous hormone levels, and (3) use of transgenic and/or mutant plants altered in hormone metabolism or signaling. A plant hormone profiling method is useful to unravel cross talk between hormones and help unravel the hormonal regulation of physiological processes in studies using any of the aforementioned approaches. However, hormone profiling is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in plant tissues. In this chapter, a sensitive, rapid, and accurate method to quantify all the five "classic" classes of plant hormones plus other plant growth regulators, such as jasmonates, salicylic acid, melatonin, and brassinosteroids is described. The method includes a fast and simple extraction procedure without time consuming steps as purification or derivatization, followed by optimized ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This protocol facilitates the high-throughput analysis of hormone profiling and is applicable to different plant tissues.
Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.
Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…
Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Pluripotent and multipotent stem cells with differentiation potential to neural phenotypes have been described and characterized in the last decades. Embryonic stem cells, as well as neural stem cells from developing and adult nervous system, can differentiate into different types of neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Although the initially identified actions of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone are related to sexual reproductive functions, recent evidence shows that these steroid hormones modulate development, physiology and survival of nerve cells. Furthermore, neurosteroids can be synthesized in the developing and adult nervous system. A description of the molecular modulatory actions of sex steroid hormones on the Central Nervous System is presented. The main focus of this review is to summarize the described effects of steroid hormones (progesterone, allopregnanolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol and androgens) on cell parameters relevant to stem cells, both in vitro and in vivo. The overall conclusion is that steroid hormones influence stem cell behavior by several mechanisms, namely regulation of gene expression by binding to their cognate receptors, activation of intracellular pathways involving kinases or intracellular calcium signaling, and modulation of receptors for neurotransmitters; in some instances, these hormones can substitute or modulate the action of growth factors, and also directly influence self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation or cell death of neurogenic stem cells.
Kashian, Donna R; Dodson, Stanley I
Daphnia (Crustacea) are extensively used as model organisms in ecotoxicology; however, little is known regarding their endocrine system. This study examines Daphnia vulnerability to vertebrate hormones. Twelve natural or synthetic vertebrate hormones were screened for activity on developmental and reproductive processes in Daphnia magna. Natural hormones tested included: beta-estradiol, gonadotropin, hydrocortisone, insulin, melatonin, progesterone, somatostatin, testosterone, and thyroxine at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 microg/L. Synthetic hormones tested included diethylstilbestrol (estrogenic), R-1881 (androgen), and ICI-182,780 (antiestrogen); all hormones were screened with a 6-d assay. Additionally, progesterone, insulin, testosterone, and thyroxine were screened for 25 d. Diethylstilbestrol decreased D. magna growth rate while thyroxine increased it. Short-term testosterone exposure reduced D. magna fecundity; however, long-term exposure did not, potentially indicating testosterone hydroxylation with long-term exposure. Hormones commonly considered sex-hormones (estrogens and androgens) in vertebrates do not appear to control sexual differentiation in D. magna; however, several vertebrate hormones do affect reproduction and development in D. magna making D. magna a potentially useful tool in monitoring for the presence of these hormones or compounds that mimic them.
Pécoud, P; Pralong, F; Bauquis, O; Stiefel, F
Gender identity disorder is defined as a permanent desire to relieve one's own sexual features to acquire the sexual features and line to life of the opposite sex. The diagnosis is based on the psychiatric evaluation and treatment on an interdisciplinary approach by endocrinologists, surgeons and psychiatrists, and can be conceptualized into distinct phases: diagnostic evaluation, real life experience, hormonal treatment and surgery. Multiples challenges have to be faced, especially by the psychiatrist who follows the patient during the whole process.
Both, Stephanie; Spiering, Mark; Everaerd, Walter; Laan, Ellen
Sexual excitement can be seen as an action disposition. In this study sexual arousal was expected to generate sexual action and to increase interest and responsiveness to sexual stimuli. In two experiments, male and female participants were exposed to a neutral or a sexual film. We measured genital and subjective responses to the film, and sexual behavior following the laboratory visit. In Experiment 2, film exposure was followed by a task in which participants rated the sexual arousability of neutral and sexual pictures. Rating time of the sexual pictures served as an index for sexual interest. Responsiveness to the sexual pictures was measured by modulation of spinal tendinous (T) reflexes. Sexual activity, but not sexual desire, was higher for participants in the sexual film condition than for participants in the neutral condition. Sexual interest and responsiveness to still pictures were not higher for participants in the sexual film condition than for those in the neutral film condition. In addition, men who saw the neutral film showed a greater responsiveness to still pictures than men who saw the sexual film. The results support the view of sexual arousal as an emotional state generating action tendencies and actual sexual behavior.
Lorenz, Tierney K.; Worthman, Carol M.; Vitzthum, Virginia J.
Background and objectives: We examined a mechanism that may coordinate trade-offs between reproduction and immune response in healthy women, namely, changes in inflammation across the ovarian cycle. Methodology: We investigated C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammation marker, across two consecutive ovarian cycles in 61 Bolivian women. Participants provided saliva samples every other day, and dried blood spots on 5–6 days spread across weeks 2–3 of each cycle. Cycles were characterized as ovulatory/anovulatory based on profiles of reproductive hormones. Participants also reported whether they were sexually partnered with a male or sexually abstinent during the study. Results: High early-cycle, but not late-cycle, CRP was associated with anovulation. High inflammation at the end of one cycle was not associated with anovulation in the subsequent cycle. Among ovulatory cycles, women with sexual partners had significantly lower CRP at midcycle, and higher CRP at follicular and luteal phases; in contrast, sexually abstinent women had little cycle-related change in CRP. In anovulatory cycles, partnership had no effect on CRP. CRP varied significantly with socioeconomic status (higher in better-off than in poorer women). Conclusions and implications: These findings suggest that the cycle-specific effect of inflammation on ovarian function may be a flexible, adaptive mechanism for managing trade-offs between reproduction and immunity. Sociosexual behavior may moderate changes in inflammation across the ovarian cycle, suggesting that these shifts represent evolved mechanisms to manage the trade-offs between reproduction and immunity. Clinically, these findings support considering both menstrual cycle phase and sexual activity in evaluations of pre-menopausal women’s CRP concentrations. PMID:26675298
Gavassa, Sat; Silva, Ana C; Stoddard, Philip K
Hormones mediate sexually selected traits including advertisement signals. Hormonal co-regulation links the signal to other hormonally-mediated traits such that the tighter the integration, the more reliable the signal is as a predictor of those other traits. Androgen administration increases the duration of the communication signal pulse in both sexes of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio. To determine whether the duration of the signal pulse could function as an honest indicator of androgen levels and other androgen-mediated traits, we measured the variation in sex steroids, signal pulse duration, and sexual development throughout the breeding season of B. gauderio in marshes in Uruguay. Although the sexes had different hormone titres and signal characteristics, in both sexes circulating levels of the androgens testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were strongly related to signal pulse duration. Consequently, signal pulse duration can serve as an honest indicator of circulating androgens in males and females alike. Additionally, through phenotypic integration, signal pulse duration also predicts other sexual traits directly related to androgen production: gonad size in males and estradiol (E2) levels in females. Our findings show that tight hormonal phenotypic integration between advertisement signal and other sex steroid-mediated traits renders the advertisement signal an honest indicator of a suite of reproductive traits.
Holmes, Melissa M.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Goldman, Sharry L.; Seney, Marianne L.; Forger, Nancy G.
Sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system has been studied intensively for over 25 years. Most of what we know, however, comes from work on relatively non-social species in which direct reproduction (i.e., production of offspring) is virtually the only route to reproductive success. In social species, an individual’s inclusive fitness may include contributions to the gene pool that are achieved by supporting the reproductive efforts of close relatives; this feature is most evident in eusocial organisms. Here, we review what is known about neuroendocrine mechanisms, sexual differentiation, and effects of social status on the brain and spinal cord in two eusocial mammals: the naked mole-rat and Damaraland mole-rat. These small rodents exhibit the most rigidly organized reproductive hierarchy among mammals, with reproduction suppressed in a majority of individuals. Our findings suggest that eusociality may be associated with a relative lack of sex differences and a reduced influence of gonadal hormones on some functions to which these hormones are usually tightly linked. We also identify neural changes accompanying a change in social and reproductive status, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the evolution of sex differences and the neuroendocrinology of reproductive suppression. PMID:19416733
Duldt, Bonnie W.
Sexual harassment in the workplace, specifically in nursing, is discussed. The impact of sexual harassment, characteristics of those commonly involved, the need for changing attitudes of men and women in the workplace, the factor of power in relationships, and ways to avoid legal suits are all examined. (CT)
A central project of feminism has been raising awareness of the role cultural formations of sexuality play in women's inequality (Ritzenhoff and Hermes). Feminists who regularly include discussions of sexuality in their teaching are familiar with the pedagogical challenges of the subject as well as its importance. This article is intended for…
Moje, Elizabeth Birr; MuQaribu, Mudhillun
Calls for more attention to literacy teaching practices and teacher education that acknowledge sexual identity and orientation as key aspects of youth identity development. Discusses experience-based pedagogy and classroom interactions around sexual identities and texts. Notes the need for research and scholarship in the field of literacy and…
Giugliano, John R.
In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…
Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)
McCaughtry, Nate; Dillon, Suzanna; Jones, Elizabeth; Smigell, Sara
American schools, especially their physical education and sport programs, provide some of the most hostile social geographies in all of society for gay youth. With the aim of transforming schools toward more democratic and sexuality sensitive institutions, this paper reviews the literature on sexuality and education. In the review, three themes,…
Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.
Kaplan, Helen S.
Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…
Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.
An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…
... 866-284-4107 (TDD: 800-877-8339) American Sexual Health Association Phone Number: 800-227-8922 Planned Parenthood ... 866-284-4107 (TDD: 800-877-8339) American Sexual Health Association Phone Number: 800-227-8922 Planned Parenthood ...
In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...
In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…
This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.
Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…
Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L
Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors.
Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lim, Lis Sa Elissa; Loy, Chong Jin; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Yong, E L
Abnormal sexual differentiation and other reproductive abnormalities in marine animals indicate the presence in seawater of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) that perturb the function of the sex hormone signaling pathways. However, most studies to date have reported on EDC effects in freshwater and sewage samples, and there is a paucity of bioassay data on the effects of EDCs in marine waters. Our aims in this study were to devise robust methodologies suitable for extracting potential EDCs and to measure their summated effects on activities of androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in marine samples from Singapore's coastal waters. In this study, we examined the ability of C18, hydrophilic and lipophilic balance, and diol cartridges to extract potential EDCs from seawater samples. Extracts from C18 cartridges exhibited the highest sex hormone bioactivities in reporter gene assays based on a human cell line expressing AR, ER-alpha, and ER-beta. Examination of extracts from 20 coastal locations showed high androgenic and estrogenic agonist activities in confined clusters closest to the main island of Singapore. Sex hormone activity declined rapidly in clusters farther from the main coastline and in more open waters. Unexpectedly, surface and mid-depth samples from the confined high-activity clusters, in the presence of hormone, exhibited AR and ER-alpha activities that were 200-900% higher than those observed for the cognate hormone alone. This enhanced sex hormone activity suggests that analyses of complex seawater mixtures may uncover unusual bioactivities that may not be obvious by studying individual compounds. Our data present a "snapshot" of the sex hormone disruptor activity in Singapore's marine environment and indicate that C18 extraction for EDCs used in conjunction with reporter gene bioassays represents a robust and sensitive methodology for measuring summated androgenic and estrogenic activities in seawater. PMID
Alempijević, Djordje; Savić, Slobodan; Stojanović, Jovan; Spasić, Andjelka
In line with the fact that there is little information regarding drug facilitated sexual assault in national medical literature, the authors aimed to prepare a review of the phenomenon based on available international references. Therefore we offered a definition of the concept of sexual assault, and rape in particular. Consent and ability for valid consent for sexual intercourse were defined as well. A review contains discussion about the basic elements of a concept of drug-facilitated sexual assault. There is also available information in regard to pharmacology of common data rape drugs, i.e. flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and ketamine. We indicate the utmost importance of prompt collecting of biological samples for toxicological screening in patients who are suspected victims of drug facilitated sexual assault.
Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.
Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118
Inelmen, Emine Meral; Sergi, Giuseppe; Girardi, Agostino; Coin, Alessandra; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Cardin, Fabrizio; Manzato, Enzo
Aging-related physical changes do not necessarily lead to a decline in sexual functioning: good physical and mental health, a positive attitude toward sex in later life, and access to a healthy partner are associated with continued sexual activity, and regular sexual expression is associated with good physical and mental health. However, it is usually assumed that older adults do not have sexual desires, and elderly people often find it difficult to discuss this topic with their doctor. There are many potential barriers concerning sexuality in older age: the lack of a healthy sexual partner, depression, the monotony of a repetitive sexual relationship, a spouse's physical unattractiveness, hormone variability, and illness and/or iatrogenic factors. Adaptive coping strategies can considerably mitigate the impact of such factors, however, and one way of contributing to breaking down barriers and taboos is undoubtedly to ensure that physicians are willing to discuss their patients' sexual history. The aim of this review was to explore the barriers and taboos to sexual expression in seniors, to propose strategies to foster this aspect of their lives, and to help physicians investigate the sexual history of their elderly patients.
Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John
Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.
Manlove, Jennifer; Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry
By using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine how adolescent relationship characteristics, partner attributes, and sexual relationship histories are associated with contraceptive use and consistency, incorporating random effects to control for respondent-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses show that teens' contraceptive use patterns vary across relationships. Teens with more-homogamous partners, with more-intimate relationships, and who communicate about contraception before sex have greater odds of contraceptive use and/or consistency. Teens in romantic relationships, and who are older when engaging in sex for the first time, have greater odds of ever using contraceptives but reduced odds of always using contraceptives. Teens continue habits from previous relationships: teens with experience practicing contraceptive consistency and females who previously have used hormonal contraceptive methods are better able to maintain consistency in subsequent relationships. Also, relationship and partner characteristics are less important for females who previously used hormonal methods.
Koo, Abraham J.K.; Howe, Gregg A.
Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic wound responses through distinct cell autonomous and nonautonomous pathways. In both pathways, bioactive JAs are recognized by an F-box protein-based receptor system that couples hormone binding to ubiquitin-dependent degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins. These results provide a new framework for understanding how plants recognize and respond to tissue injury. PMID:19695649
Krychman, Michael L; Katz, Anne
The sexual consequences of breast cancer and its treatments are well known and previously reviewed. Alterations in body image, with or without breast reconstruction, changes in sexual self-esteem and self-efficacy, vulvovaginal atrophy as a result of chemotherapy and/or adjuvant hormone therapy, and loss of libido secondary to dyspareunia and body image issues are common in survivors of breast cancer. Medications that are prescribed for long-term use including those in the class of aromatase inhibitors can have far-reaching implications on quality of life by contributing to vulvar and vaginal atrophic changes. While this is an important issue, there are few widely accepted treatments that have been evaluated for efficacy and safety for these sexual challenges in the breast cancer population. However, progress is being made in finding new and innovative solutions for many of the sexual problems faced by breast cancer survivors and their partners. Many institutions are now compelled to address survivorship concerns and addressing sexuality and intimacy are paramount issues in survivorship care. In this article, we present the evidence for the multimodal approach to the management of sexuality concerns in the breast cancer survivor. Pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and psychosocial interventions will be reviewed.
Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka
Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.
Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka
Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation. PMID:25479554
Vignozzi, L; Corona, G; Forti, G; Jannini, E A; Maggi, M
Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosomal aberration among men, with estimated prevalence of about 1 in 500 newborn males. The classical phenotype of KS is widely recognized, but many affected subjects present only very mild signs. While the association between KS and infertility has been well documented, few studies have investigated sexual function in the KS patients. In the present paper we reviewed studies addressed to emotional processing and sexual function in KS. We searched the following databases Medline, Pubmed, Embase, for Klinefelter's syndrome, sexuality. We focus on the peculiar contribution of genetic and hormonal background, which characterizes sexual dysfunction in KS. Abnormal structure and function of the emotional brain circuits have been described in KS. These alterations were less pronounced when the patients underwent to testosterone replacement therapy suggesting that they were mediated by testosterone deficiency. Accordingly, clinical studies indicate that sexual dysfunctions, eventually present in KS, are not specifically associated with the syndrome but are related to the underlying hypogonadism. In conclusion, androgen deficiency more than chromosomal abnormality is the major pathogenic factor of sexual dysfunction in KS.
Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E
Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of "the pill" there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, "hook-ups," cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided.
Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E.
Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of “the pill” there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, “hook-ups,” cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided. PMID:26912936
Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria
Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction.
Morgan, Elizabeth M.
Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…
Goettsch, Stephen L.
Reviews eight current human sexuality textbooks for both their general organization and substantive content. Addresses specifically the content areas of sexual response cycle; sexual disfunction; acquaintance rape; AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases; extramarital sex; abortion; homosexuality; and pornography. Identifies as a recurring fault…
Rothbaum, Fred; Grauer, Avery; Rubin, David J.
Explores sexually oriented behaviors of children ages 3 to 5 to ascertain the range of children's sexually oriented behaviors, and reviews related studies to help parents and teachers address them. Finds that children's normal sexual behaviors comprise a broad spectrum. Provides a model for viewing children's sexuality and recommendations for…
Roved, Jacob; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis
Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses. In our review of the literature, we find that estrogen and progesterone enhance type 2 and suppress type 1 responses in females, whereas testosterone suppresses type 2 responses and shows an inconsistent pattern for type 1 responses in males. When we combine these patterns of generally immunosuppressive and immunoenhancing effects of the sex hormones, our results imply that the sex differences in immune responses should be particularly strong in immune functions associated with type 2 responses, and less pronounced with type 1 responses. In general the hormone-mediated sex differences in immune responses may lead to genetic sexual conflicts on immunity. Thus, we propose the novel hypothesis that sexually antagonistic selection may act on immune genes shared by the sexes, and that the strength of this sexually antagonistic selection should be stronger for type 2- as compared with type 1-associated immune genes. Finally, we put the consequences of sex hormone-induced effects on immune responses into behavioral and ecological contexts, considering social mating system, sexual selection, geographical distribution of hosts, and parasite abundance.
Ju, Qiang; Tao, Tao; Hu, Tingting; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap; Al-Khuzaei, Safaa; Chen, WenChieh
The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor-dependent genomic effect of dihydrotestosterone on sebocytes is confirmed. Further evidence supports the PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1/mTOR signaling in the involvement of the interplay between androgens, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and hyperglycemic diet in acne. Androgens not only regulate embryology and lipogenesis/sebum synthesis in sebocytes but also influence inflammation in acne. Genetic studies indicate that regulation of the androgen receptor is an important factor in severe acne. Further studies are required to understand the effect of estrogen and progesterone on sebaceous gland and comedogenesis, considering the change of acne in pregnancy and postmenopausal acne. Special attention should be paid to nonobese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome. In spite of extensive gynecologic experience in the use of combined oral contraceptives for acne, evidence based on dermatologic observation should be intensified.
Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.
Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer
Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders.
Bonthuis, Paul J.; Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.
Sex differences in the brain and behavior are primarily attributed to dichotomous androgen exposure between males and females during neonatal development, as well as adult responses to gonadal hormones. Here we tested an alternative hypothesis and asked if sex chromosome complement influences male copulatory behavior, a standard behavior for studies of sexual differentiation. We used two mouse models with non-canonical associations between chromosomal and gonadal sex. In both models, we found evidence for sex chromosome complement as an important factor regulating sex differences in the expression of masculine sexual behavior. Counter intuitively, males with two X-chromosomes were faster to ejaculate and display more ejaculations than males with a single X. Moreover, mice of both sexes with two X-chromosomes displayed increased frequencies of mounts and thrusts. We speculate that expression levels of a yet to be discovered gene(s) on the X-chromosome may affect sexual behavior in mice and perhaps in other mammals. PMID:22349083
Russell, Darren B
With many parts of the world seeing an aging cohort of people living with HIV (PLHIV), it is becoming clear that some organ systems in these individuals are at a greater risk of disease. There are effects on sexual functioning in aging PLHIV, with many studies finding higher levels of sexual dysfunction in HIV-positive individuals compared with those who are HIV-negative. HIV itself, along with antiretroviral agents, may cause dysfunction. Treatment involves making an assessment of the dysfunction and using the usual methods available, although treatment may be complicated by hormonal deficiencies in HIV-positive individuals, along with the effects of antiretroviral therapy, and drug interactions involving such medications. Furthermore, the issue of HIV transmission needs to be addressed in those seeking treatment for sexual dysfunction.
Buster, John E
Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation.
Tharp, Marla E.; Collins, James J.; Newmark, Phillip A.
Germ cells of sexually reproducing organisms receive an array of cues from somatic tissues that instruct developmental processes. Although the nature of these signals differs amongst organisms, the importance of germline-soma interactions is a common theme. Recently, peptide hormones from the nervous system have been shown to regulate germ cell development in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea; thus, we sought to investigate a second class of hormones with a conserved role in reproduction, the lipophilic hormones. In order to study these signals, we identified a set of putative lipophilic hormone receptors, known as nuclear hormone receptors, and analyzed their functions in reproductive development. We found one gene, nhr-1, belonging to a small class of functionally uncharacterized lophotrochozoan-specific receptors, to be essential for the development of differentiated germ cells. Upon nhr-1 knockdown, germ cells in the testes and ovaries fail to mature, and remain as undifferentiated germline stem cells. Further analysis revealed that nhr-1 mRNA is expressed in the accessory reproductive organs and is required for their development, suggesting that this transcription factor functions cell non-autonomously in regulating germ cell development. Our studies identify a role for nuclear hormone receptors in planarian reproductive maturation and reinforce the significance of germline-soma interactions in sexual reproduction across metazoans. PMID:25278423
Samaras, Nikolaos; Papadopoulou, Maria-Aikaterini; Samaras, Dimitrios; Ongaro, Filippo
Given demographic evolution of the population in modern societies, one of the most important health care needs is successful aging with less frailty and dependency. During the last 20 years, a multitude of anti-aging practices have appeared worldwide, aiming at retarding or even stopping and reversing the effects of aging on the human body. One of the cornerstones of anti-aging is hormone replacement. At present, women live one third of their lives in a state of sex-hormone deficiency. Men are also subject to age-related testosterone decline, but andropause remains frequently under-diagnosed and under-treated. Due to the decline of hormone production from gonads in both sexes, the importance of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in steroid hormone production increases with age. However, DHEA levels also decrease with age. Also, growth hormone age-associated decrease may be so important that insulin growth factor-1 levels found in elderly individuals are sometimes as low as those encountered in adult patients with established deficiency. Skin aging as well as decreases in lean body mass, bone mineral density, sexual desire and erectile function, intellectual activity and mood have all been related to this decrease of hormone production with age. Great disparities exist between recommendations from scientific societies and actual use of hormone supplements in aging and elderly patients. In this article, we review actual data on the effects of age related hormone decline on the aging process and age-related diseases such as sarcopenia and falls, osteoporosis, cognitive decline, mood disorders, cardiovascular health and sexual activity. We also provide information on the efficiency and safety of hormone replacement protocols in aging patients. Finally, we argue on future perspectives of such protocols as part of everyday practice.
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.
This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…
Incontinence is anything that inhibits the expression of sexuality. Male problems like premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunctions are forms of incontinence. The inability to retain ejaculation or maintain erection long enough to give pleasure to the partner generates feelings of shame and guilt which weaken virility. Feminine sexual dysfunctions like loss of desire, anorgasmia and vaginismus are results of excessive continence due to negative familial and religious education, moral and social values. The sexologist's task is first to find out the origins of the sexual trouble then to propose an adequate treatment.
de Molina Román, M R; Salvador Carulla, L; Foras Eroles, F
The sex behaviour of patients suffering from schizophrenia has been largely overlooked. This study is aimed at describing the pattern of sexual responses and conducts in 113 inpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R). A high rate of sexual dysfunction was found in both males (62.9%) and females (50%). These rates are higher than found in other previous studies. The possible cause factors of sexual dysfunctions in this group of patients and the methodological problems related to this type of study are reviewed.
Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S
Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.
Di Nucci, Ezio
This paper argues against Appel's recent proposal-in this journal-that there is a fundamental human right to sexual pleasure, and that therefore the sexual pleasure of severely disabled people should be publicly funded-by thereby partially legalising prostitution. An alternative is proposed that does not need to pose a new positive human right; does not need public funding; does not need the legalisation of prostitution; and that would offer a better experience to the severely disabled: charitable non-profit organisations whose members would voluntarily and freely provide sexual pleasure to the severely disabled.
Pluchino, N; Drakopoulos, P; Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Wenger, J M; Petignat, P; Genazzani, A R
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester, DHEAS, are the most abundant steroid hormones in the humans. However, their physiological significance, their mechanisms of action and their possible roles as treatment are not fully clarified. Biological actions of DHEA(S) in the brain involve neuroprotection, neurite growth, neurogenesis and neuronal survival, apoptosis, catecholamine synthesis and secretion, as well as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiglucocorticoid effects. In addition, DHEA affects neurosteroidogenis and endorphin synthesis/release. We also demonstrated in a model of ovariectomized rats that DHEA therapy increases proceptive behaviors, already after 1 week of treatment, affecting central function of sexual drive. In women, the analyses of clinical outcomes are far from being conclusive and many issues should still be addressed. Although DHEA preparations have been available in the market since the 1990s, there are very few definitive reports on the biological functions of this steroid. We demonstrate that 1 year DHEA administration at the dose of 10mg provided a significant improvement in comparison with vitamin D in sexual function and in frequency of sexual intercourse in early postmenopausal women. Among symptomatic women, the spectrum of symptoms responding to DHEA requires further investigation, to define the type of sexual symptoms (e.g. decreased sexual function or hypoactive sexual desire disorder) and the degree of mood/cognitive symptoms that could be responsive to hormonal treatment. In this regard, our findings are promising, although they need further exploration with a larger and more representative sample size. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Essential role of DHEA.
Fortenberry, J Dennis
Sexual health is an evolving paradigm that integrates a positive approach to sexuality with existing public health policy and practice for reducing the burdens of sexually transmitted infections, including those due to HIV. The sexual health paradigm rests in commitment to sexual rights, sexual knowledge, sexual choice, and sexual pleasure, as well as key elements of sexuality addressed by sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual function, and sexual behaviors. The sexual health paradigm offers new approaches to supporting general health and well being while reducing the burdens of sexual diseases and their consequences.
Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh
Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058
Munoz, Jose A; Swan, Kenneth G
Disorders of sexual differentiation have proven difficult to treat not only because of physicians' lack of understanding regarding the determinants of sexual orientation, but also because of the psychological impact associated with sexual dysfunction. Patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome not only must undergo gonadectomy after puberty, requiring post-gonadectomy hormonal replacement, but also can suffer from underdeveloped, blind vaginal pouches. As a result, sexual intercourse is compromised. Many attempts have been made throughout medical history to correct the vaginal defect, including surgical and nonsurgical approaches, each with its own technical difficulties and complications. Presently, consensus regarding the optimal time for intervention is when the patient is ready to begin sexual life. However, the optimal surgical approach has not been established. In general, nonsurgical vaginal dilatation, like the Frank and Ingram methods, should be followed by surgical interventions, such as described by McIndoe, Vecchietti, and intestinal transplantation, in case of failure of the more conservative procedures.
Harris, Allyssa L
Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention.
Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim
Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women’s sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women’s sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women’s sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women’s sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women’s sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women’s sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced. PMID:26589379
Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim
Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women's sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a possible cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women's sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women's sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women's sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women's sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women's sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced.
O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R
Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices.
Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.
Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105
Adaikan, P G; Srilatha, B
Declining testosterone (T) in an aging male offsets the equilibrium between androgen and oestrogen (oestradiol, E(2)) with a resultant increase in E(2)-T ratio. Similar functional hormone imbalance is existent in clinical states of hypogonadism and is likely to arise from exposure of males to environmental oestrogens. The pathophysiological significance of this derangement on erectile function, hitherto unknown, was estimated in sexually mature male rats following acute and chronic treatment with oestrogen. A total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into control and two treatment groups, administered 0.01 and 0.1 mg of oestradiol through oral gavage daily for 1 week (n=30, acute study) and 12 weeks (n=30, long-term study), respectively. Sexual activity in the presence of hormonally primed female rats and intracavernous pressure (ICP) response to electrical stimulation estimated treatment-induced changes, which were correlated with hormone levels and penile morphology at 12 weeks. Following two to five-fold elevation in serum E(2) levels (and simultaneous reduction in testosterone), there was a significant prolongation of mount, intromission, ejaculation latencies and some decrease in frequencies. The ICP response to nerve stimulation was also impaired in all the treated groups. Histologically, trichrome staining highlighted the cavernosal connective tissue hyperplasia in the long-term study groups. Results of this investigation indicate that oestradiol causes pathophysiological changes in erectile function. These observations provide an indirect evidence for the possible sexual health hazards in man upon inadvertent exposure to environmental oestrogens, ageing and derangement of E(2)-T ratio.
... other mental health conditions, such as depression, extreme stress and anxiety Neglect or lie to your partner and family, harming or destroying meaningful relationships Accumulate financial debts buying pornography and sexual services Contract HIV, ...
... Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act Resources Business ... Depression Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Schizophrenia Substance Use Suicide Prevention I am a... Returning Veteran Veteran in ...
... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... for a long period of time. Thoughts about suicide are also common. Studies estimate that one in ...
Simons, Jeffrey; Carey, Michael P.
Ten years of research that has provided data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is reviewed. A thorough review of the literature identified 52 studies that have been published in the 10 years since an earlier review by Spector and Carey (1990). Community samples indicate a current prevalence of 0 - 3% for male orgasmic disorder, 0 - 5% for erectile disorder, and 0 - 3% for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Pooling current and 1-year figures provides community prevalence estimates of 7 - 10% for female orgasmic disorder and 4 - 5% for premature ejaculation. Stable community estimates of the current prevalence for the other sexual dysfunctions remain unavailable. Prevalence estimates obtained from primary care and sexuality clinic samples are characteristically higher. Although a relatively large number of studies have been conducted since Spector and Carey’s (1990) review, the lack of methodological rigor of many studies limits the confidence that can be placed in these findings. PMID:11329727
... C. §2256(8)) defines child pornography as any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video, picture or ... sexually explicit conduct, where the: Production of the visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging ...
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English EspaÃ±ol PortuguÃªs ... 1 page] Portuguese [PDF - 1 page] Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...
Sulak, Patricia J
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) constitute a major health burden in the United States, causing pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, chronic pelvic pain, genital lesions, genital neoplasms, adverse pregnancy outcomes, immune system dysfunction, liver disease, and even death. STDs disproportionately affect adolescents and young adults. Of the estimated 15 million STDs that occur annually each year in the United States, 4 million are among adolescents and 6 million among young adults. The current epidemic is complicated by the high asymptomatic carrier state associated with most STDs and the inadequate protection of condoms in preventing transmission. Sexually active individuals, particularly adolescents, must be educated on the ramifications of early onset of sexual activity and the health consequences of multiple sexual partners.
... of becoming involved with others. The anger and stress that victims feel may lead to eating disorders and depression. Some even think about or attempt suicide. Sexual violence is also linked to negative health ...
... Longer: Men Recovering from Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse by Mike Lew, Foreword by Ellen Bass. (1990). ... Heroic Men: A Man's Guide to Recovering from Child Abuse by Daniel Jay Sonkin and Lenore E. A. ...
Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...
... to decision-making, cultural norms, peer pressures, relationships, social skills and opportunities. Positioning sexuality within the context of community life requires the development of personal values and adult responsibilities. An ideal curriculum will ensure that individuals with ...
... Possibly, a drop in levels of testosterone, which women produce in small amounts, after removal of the ovaries* Psychological and Emotional Causes Mental distress: stress, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, past sexual abuse, fear of unwanted pregnancy Relationship ...
It is intented to show two apparently antithetic poles: Sexuality and Death, in fact interpenetrate themselves, disguising the fear of death, or the desire to die, Eros' world. Different expressions of culture are analyzed, especially the one known as The Profane Time, the time for work, which is characterized by the submission to interdicts (prohibitions) and, on the other hand, the Time for Joy or The Sacred Time, characterized by the transgression of such prohibitions. Its relationship with the interdicts'violations in the sexual as well as in the death arena is analyzed in order to connect the human being's fear in the presence of the unrestraint, the overflow and the abandonment of the time established for work that would imply free sexuality. The latter is connected with some conclusions that could be considered useful in the field of Sexual Therapies, with a certain critical look at the mechanist settlement applied to those treatments.
Lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health is neglected in much Government policy and practice in England and Wales. This paper examines lesbian and bisexual women's negotiation of sexual health, drawing on findings from a small research project. Themes explored include invisibility and lack of information, influences on decision-making and sexual activities and experiences of services and barriers to sexual healthcare. Key issues of importance in this respect are homophobic and heterosexist social contexts. Drawing on understandings of lesbian, gay and bisexual human rights, sexual rights and sexual citizenship, it is argued that these are useful lenses through which to examine and address lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health and related inequalities.
Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice
Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development.
Stout, E. Paige; La Clair, James J.; Snell, Terry W.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Kubanek, Julia
Steroids play fundamental roles regulating mammalian reproduction and development. Although sex steroids and their receptors are well characterized in vertebrates and several arthropod invertebrates, little is known about the hormones and receptors regulating reproduction in other invertebrate species. Evolutionary insights into ancient endocrine pathways can be gained by elucidating the hormones and receptors functioning in invertebrate reproduction. Using a combination of genomic analyses, receptor imaging, ligand identification, target elucidation, and exploration of function through receptor knockdown, we now show that comparable progesterone chemoreception exists in the invertebrate monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas, suggesting an ancient origin of the signal transduction systems commonly associated with the development and integration of sexual behavior in mammals. PMID:20547846
Many older people enjoy an active sex life although they are likely to experience problems relating to poor health or lack of understanding from healthcare professionals. Health issues include male sexual dysfunction resulting from medication and conditions such as diabetes, vascular disease or prostatic surgery. Older women may experience urogenital atrophy causing dryness, itching and pain on intercourse. Psychological problems such as depression are also associated with poor sexual function.
Auer, Thomas O; Benton, Richard
The sexual behavior of Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding paradigm to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of sophisticated animal actions. We discuss recent advances in our knowledge of the genetic hardwiring of the underlying neuronal circuitry, and how pertinent sensory cues are differentially detected and integrated in the male and female brain. We also consider how experience influences these circuits over short timescales, and the evolution of these pathways over longer timescales to endow species-specific sexual displays and responses.
Cervical infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Herpes simplex virus are some of the most common sexually transmitted infections. They are often asymptomatic, and therefore the patient is at risk of developing complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. It is important to recognize cervicitis, investigate it appropriately, and provide early treatment. Sexual partners must also be located and offered therapy to prevent re-infection in the index patient. PMID:21248969
Dennerstein, L; Burrows, G
A search of the literature has been carried out to determined how oral contraceptives affect sexuality in women. Some studies featured a high incidence of loss of libido. This could perhaps be attributed to preparations containing progestational compounds. However, no adequate double-blind trial has confirmed this observation. Some psychological and pharmacological aspects of contraceptions are discussed. More research is needed to ascertain why women often lose their sexual interest when taking oral contraceptives.
McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura
There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs.
McNulty, James K.; Widman, Laura
There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145
Ho, Winnie W.; Rack, Jessie M.; Smith, G. Troy
Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon river basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327
O’Mara, Daniel M.; Aschner, Michael
Thyroid hormones are essential for cellular metabolism, growth, and development. In particular, an adequate supply of thyroid hormones is critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Thyroid hormone tissue activation and inactivation in brain, liver, and other tissues is controlled by the deiodinases through the removal of iodine atoms. Selenium, an essential element critical for deiodinase activity, is sensitive to mercury and, therefore, when its availability is reduced, brain development might be altered. This review addresses the possibility that high exposures to the organometal, methylmercury (MeHg), may perturb neurodevelopmental processes by selectively affecting thyroid hormone homeostasis and function. PMID:18716716
Colson, M-H; Lechevallier, E; Rambeaud, J-J; Alimi, J-C; Faix, A; Gravis, G; Hannoun-Levi, J-M; Quintens, H; Rébillard, X; Droupy, S
All treatments of prostate cancer have a negative effect on both sexuality and male fertility. There is a specific profile of changes in the fields of quality of life, sexual, urinary, bowel and vitality according to the treatment modalities chosen. Maintain a satisfying sex is the main concern of a majority of men facing prostate cancer and its treatment. It is essential to assess the couple's sexuality before diagnosis of prostate cancer in order to deliver complete information and to consider early and appropriate treatment options at the request of the couple. Forms of sexuality sexual preference settings stored (orgasm) may, when the erection is not yet recovered, be an alternative to the couple to maintain intimacy and complicity. In all cases, a specific management and networking will in many cases to find a satisfactory sexuality. Consequences of the treatment on male fertility should be part of the information of patients with prostate cancer and their partners. The choice of treatment must take into account the desire of paternity of the couple. A semen analysis with sperm cryopreservation before any therapy should be routinely offered in men with prostate cancer, particularly among men under 55, with a partner under 43 years old or without children. If the desire for parenthood among couples, sperm cryopreservation before treatment and medical assisted reproduction are recommended.
Lechan, Ronald M; Fekete, Csaba
Iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2, and D3) comprise a family of selenoproteins that are involved in the conversion of thyroxine (T(4)) to active triiodothyronine (T(3)), and also the inactivation of both thyroid hormones. The deiodinase enzymes are of critical importance for the normal development and function of the central nervous system. D1 is absent from the human brain, suggesting that D2 and D3 are the two main enzymes involved in the maintenance of thyroid hormone homeostasis in the central nervous system, D2 as the primary T(3)-producing enzyme, and D3 as the primary inactivating enzyme. While the coordinated action of D2 and D3 maintain constant T(3) levels in the cortex independently from the circulating thyroid hormone levels, the role of deiodinases in the hypothalamus may be more complex, as suggested by the regulation of D2 activity in the hypothalamus by infection, fasting and changes in photoperiod. Tanycytes, the primary source of D2 activity in the hypothalamus, integrate hormonal and probably neuronal signals, and under specific conditions, may influence neuroendocrine functions by altering local T(3) tissue concentrations. This function may be of particular importance in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis during fasting and infection, and in the regulation of appetite and reproductive function. Transient expression of D3 in the preoptic region during a critical time of development suggests a special role for this deiodinase in sexual differentiation of the brain.
Ha, Nathan Q
At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.
Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...
González-Tokman, Daniel M; Munguía-Steyer, Roberto; González-Santoyo, Isaac; Baena-Díaz, Fernanda S; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex
The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) states that hormones enhance sexual trait expression but impair immunity. Previous tests of the ICHH have been hampered by experimental design problems. Here, we report on an experimental test of the ICHH that includes manipulations of both hormones and infections in males of the territorial damselfly, Hetaerina americana, with accurate survival measurements. We conducted a fully factorial experiment subjecting each individual to one of three topical treatments: methoprene (a juvenile hormone analog), acetone, or control, and one of three injection treatments: bacteria, PBS, or control. We measured survival of manipulated males in both the wild and in captivity. As predicted, survival was most heavily impaired in methoprene-bacteria males than in the other groups in the wild, and no survival differences emerged in captive animals. This result confirms that survival is one cost an animal pays for increased hormonal levels. This corroborates theoretical predictions of the ICHH.
The highlights of recently observed electron emission from electronically excited sexual hormones (17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and the phytohormone genistein in polar media are briefly reviewed. The electron yield, Q(e aq-), dependence from substrate concentration, hormone structure, polarity of solvent, absorbed energy and temperature are discussed. The hormones reactivity with e aq- and efficiency in electron transfer ensure them the ability to communicate with other biological systems in an organism. A hypothesis is presented for the explanation of the mechanisms of the distinct recognition of signals transmitted by electrons, originating from different types of hormones to receiving centres. Biological consequences of the electron emission in respect to cancer are mentioned.
Hartfelder, Klaus; de Oliveira Tozetto, Sibele; Rachinsky, Anna
Juvenile hormone synthesis in drone larvae of the honey bee was measured by an in vitro radiochemical assay. The developmental profile of corpora allata activity in male larvae showed considerable differences from queen larvae, the presumptive reproductive females, and was comparable to workers, the sterile female morph. Drone and worker larvae, however, differed drastically in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, as revealed by the addition of farnesoic acid to the culture medium. This precursor stimulated juvenile hormone synthesis of drone glands nearly eightfold, whereas in worker larvae it is known to lead to an accumulation of methyl farnesoate. The sex-specific differences in endocrine activity indicate a role for juvenile hormone in the expression of genetically determined sexually dimorphic characters during metamorphosis, a role not currently accounted for in models describing endocrine regulation of insect development.
Slabbekoorn, D; van Goozen, S H; Sanders, G; Gooren, L J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T
It has been proposed that gender identity and sexual orientation are influenced by the prenatal sex steroid milieu. Human dermatoglyphics and brain asymmetry have also been ascribed to prenatal hormone levels. This study investigated dermatoglyphics (total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry) in 184 male-to-female transsexuals and 110 female-to-male transsexuals. In a subgroup, the relationship between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and spatial ability was tested. All investigations included controls. For all subjects hand preference and sexual orientation were noted. We hypothesized that the dermatoglyphics of male-to-female transsexuals would show similarities with control women and those of female-to-male transsexuals with control men. Our results showed a trend for a sex difference in total ridge count (P<.1) between genetic males and females, but no difference in directional asymmetry was found. Contrary to our expectations, the total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry of transsexuals were similar to their genetic sex controls. Additionally, directional asymmetry was neither related to sexual orientation, nor to different aspects of spatial ability. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate that our chosen dermatoglyphic variables, total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry are related to gender identity and sexual orientation in adult transsexuals. Hence, we found no support for a prenatal hormonal influence on these characteristics, at least insofar as dermatoglyphics may be regarded as a biological marker of organizing hormonal effects.
Sapire, K E
Sex education provides a means to reduce the growing incidence of sexual abuse and of sexually transmitted diseases. Knowledge, which differs from permission, may protect. Sex education needs to provide factual information about anatomy and physiology and sexual development and responses. Further, it must guide young people towards healthy attitudes that develop concern and respect for others. This should enable them to make sound decisions about sexual behavior based on both knowledge and understanding of their own sexual identity and interpersonal relationships. The recent research shows that teenagers exposed to sex education are no more likely to engage in sexual intercourse than are other adolescents, and those who become sexually active are more likely to use a contraceptive method at 1st intercourse and are slightly less likely to experience premarital pregnancies. The nonuse of contraceptives is related to ignorance, lack of awareness of the consequences of sexual activity, and inaccessibility of suitable services. Consequently, young people need help to learn about the risks of pregnancy, how to avoid unwanted pregnancy, and where to go for counseling and services before they become sexually active. The provision of contraceptives must be made to meet the needs of adolescents. Formal sex education should be given in schools only with parental knowledge and cooperation. Youth leaders can influence young people positively by teaching about health and hygiene and promoting responsible attitudes toward sex and religion. Doctors and nurses have a unique opportunity to provide counseling throughout their patients' lives. The Department of Health (Capetown, South Africa) has appointed 445 nurses who oversee the youth program. They give sex education at schools, teaching colleges, youth camps, and at clinics. They also provide individual and group counseling for never pregnant, pregnant, and parent adolescents and their parents and partners at 8 youth health
Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Beccaria, Gavin; Inder, Warrick J; Vitetta, Luis
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract on sex hormones and sexual function in healthy menstruating women who reported low sexual drive. This short term, single site, double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 80 women, aged 20 to 49 years. Participants were randomised to either an oral dose of a standardised T. foenum-graecum seed extract (libifem) at a dose of 600 mg/day or placebo over two menstrual cycles. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, progesterone, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex hormone binding globulin and cholesterol were measured at baseline and 8 weeks. The individual aspects of sexual function were measured using the Derogatis interview for sexual functioning and female sexual function index self-administered questionnaires. Stress, fatigue and quality of the relationship with partner were also measured using the PSS (Perceived Stress Scale), MFI-20 (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and DAS (Dyadic Adjustment Scale) quality of life measures, respectively. There was a significant increase in free testosterone and E2 in the active group as well as sexual desire and arousal compared with the placebo group. The results indicate that this extract of T. foenum-graecum may be a useful treatment for increasing sexual arousal and desire in women.
Mayer, Julie Ann; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Widelitz, Randall
Different epithelial organs form as a result of epithelial - mesenchymal interactions and share a common theme modulated by variations (Chuong edit. In Molecular Basis of Epithelial Appendage Morphogenesis, 1998). One of the major modulators is the sex hormone pathway that acts on the prototype signaling pathway to alter organ phenotypes. Here we focus on how the sex hormone pathway interfaces with epithelia morphogenesis related signaling pathways. We first survey these sex hormone regulated morphogenetic processes in various epithelial organs. Sexual dimorphism of hairs and feathers has implications in sexual selection. Diseases of these pathways result in androgenic alopecia, hirsutism, henny feathering, etc. The growth and development of mammary glands, prostate glands and external genitalia essential for reproductive function are also dependent on sex hormones. Diseases affecting these organs include congenital anomalies and hormone dependent type of breast and prostate cancers. To study the role of sex hormones in new growth in the context of system biology / pathology, an in vivo model in which organ formation starts from stem cells is essential. With recent developments (Yu et al., The morphogenesis of feathers. Nature 420:308–312, 2002), the growth of tail feathers in roosters and hens has become a testable model in which experimental manipulations are possible. We show exemplary data of differences in their growth rate, proliferative cell population and signaling molecule expression. Working hypotheses are proposed on how the sex hormone pathways may interact with growth pathways. It is now possible to test these hypotheses using the chicken model to learn fundamental mechanisms on how sex hormones affect organogenesis, epithelial organ cycling, and growth related tumorigenesis. PMID:15617560
Winters, Jason; Christoff, Kalina; Gorzalka, Boris B
The literature on dysregulated sexuality, whether theoretical, clinical or empirical, has failed to differentiate the construct from high sexual desire. In this study, we tested three hypotheses which addressed this issue. A sample of 6458 men and 7938 women, some of whom had sought treatment for sexual compulsivity, addiction or impulsivity, completed an online survey comprised of various sexuality measures. Men and women who reported having sought treatment scored significantly higher on measures of dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire. For men, women, and those who had sought treatment, dysregulated sexuality was associated with increased sexual desire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor model, indicating that, in both male and female participants, dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire variables loaded onto a single underlying factor. The results of this study suggest that dysregulated sexuality, as currently conceptualized, labelled, and measured, may simply be a marker of high sexual desire and the distress associated with managing a high degree of sexual thoughts, feelings, and needs.
Berenbaum, S A; Meyer-Bahlburg, H F L
Understanding psychological development in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) is important for optimizing their clinical care and for identifying paths to competence and health in all individuals. In this paper, we focus on psychological outcomes likely to be influenced by processes of physical sexual differentiation that may be atypical in DSD, particularly characteristics related to being male or female (those that show sex differences in the general population, gender identity, and sexuality). We review evidence suggesting that (a) early androgens facilitate several aspects of male-typed behavior, with large effects on activity interests, and moderate effects on some social and personal behaviors (including sexual orientation) and spatial ability; (b) gender dysphoria and gender change occur more frequently in individuals with DSD than in the general population, with rates varying in relation to syndrome, initial gender assignment, and medical treatment; and (c) sexual behavior may be affected by DSD through several paths related to the condition and treatment, including reduced fertility, physical problems associated with genital ambiguity, social stigmatization, and hormonal variations. We also consider limitations to current work and challenges to studying gender and sexuality in DSD. We conclude with suggestions for a research agenda and a proposed research framework.
Miner, Martin; Sadovsky, Richard; Buster, John E
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and is thus frequently encountered in the primary care provider and OB/GYN practices. Causes of low sexual desire may be hormonal, neurologic, vascular, psychologic, or a result of illness/surgery or medications. The condition is often left untreated because both women and clinicians feel embarrassed to bring up the topic and believe that there is no available treatment. The use of short, validated questionnaires, such as the Decreased Sexual Desire Screener, to be completed in the waiting room, can open up discussion between provider and patient. In addition, 2 other algorithms are designed for clinicians who are not specifically trained in FSD and can help in diagnosing and managing a broad range of conditions related to FSD. Treatment for low desire consists primarily of patient education and counseling, as well as treatment of underlying comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, or cancer. While testosterone products are approved in Europe for use in surgically postmenopausal women with HSDD, in the United States, no pharmacologic treatments are approved for the treatment of HSDD or any FSD. Testosterone products are being used off-label, but questions remain about their efficacy and safety in pre- and postmenopausal women. This article gives an overview of HSDD in clinical practice and provides 3 case descriptions to illustrate the treatment of low sexual desire in women with diverse histories.
Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.
Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. PMID:21195074
Jeffcoate, W J; Matthews, R W; Edwards, C R; Field, L H; Besser, G M
The anti-androgen, cyproterone acetate, was administered in a dose of 100 mg/day to eight adult male sexual offenders for 21-31 days. Serum testosterone fell to subnormal levels within 7 days and remained low for 6-28 days after treatment was stopped. The fall in testosterone was accompanied by a fall in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and a rise in serum prolactin. All subjects experienced a decrease in libido and in frequency of masturbation. The probable mechanisms of action of cyproterone acetate are discussed, as is its potential role in the management of sexual offenders. These studies suggest that measurement of serum testosterone could be used as an index of compliance in sexual offenders treated with cyproterone acetate who are released on parole.
Brown, Jane D
The mainstream mass media (television, magazines, movies, music, and the Internet) provide increasingly frequent portrayals of sexuality. We still know relatively little about how this content is used and how it affects sexual beliefs and behaviors. The few available studies suggest that the media do have an impact because the media keep sexual behavior on public and personal agendas, media portrayals reinforce a relatively consistent set of sexual and relationship norms, and the media rarely depict sexually responsible models. More longitudinal research, especially with early adolescents is needed to learn more about how media content is attended to, interpreted, and incorporated into developing sexual lives.
Weaker immune responses are often observed in males compared to females. Since female hormones have proinflammatory properties and androgens have potent immunomodulatory effects, this sexual dimorphism in the immune response seems to be hormone dependent. Despite our current knowledge about the effect of sex hormones on immune cells, definition of the factors driving the sex differences in immunoclinical outcomes, such as the diminished response to infection and vaccination observed in men or the higher rates of autoimmunity observed in females, remains elusive. Recently, systems approaches to immune function have started to suggest a way toward establishing this connection. Such studies promise to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sexual dimorphism observed in the human immune system.
Handy, Ariel B.; Jackowich, Robyn A.; Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas Wayne; Wassersug, Richard J.
Introduction Some men seek castration outside a clear medical need. This study explored how their sexuality changed after castration. Aim To explore changes in preferred gender(s) of sexual attraction, fantasy, and relationships in voluntarily castrated men with or without gonadal hormone therapy. Methods A questionnaire was posted at http://www.eunuch.org that yielded data on men who had been voluntarily castrated physically (n = 198) or chemically (n = 96). Main Outcome Measures Respondents were asked to report retrospectively on their sexuality, including their sexual activity and which gender(s) they were sexually attracted to, fantasized about, or had sexual relations with 6 months to 1 year before and after castration. Results A substantial proportion of men remained sexually active after castration; 37% had sex at least several times per week. Most respondents did not report a change in preferred gender(s) of attraction (65%, n = 181), fantasies (62%, n = 169), or sexual relationships (66%, n = 163), although approximately 20% to 30% of respondents did report such changes and 8% to 11% became non-sexual after castration. Respondents who were attracted to and fantasized about “only men” or who had sexual relationship with “only women” before castration were the least likely to report a change subsequent to castration. Respondents who were taking neither supplemental testosterone nor estrogen were more likely to report (i) becoming attracted to no one, (ii) fantasizing about no one, and (iii) becoming sexually inactive. Conclusion Sexual changes in voluntarily castrated men vary and can be influenced by various factors including the use of supplemental testosterone or estrogen therapy. PMID:26944778
Golenberg, Edward M; West, Nicholas W
Most models for dioecy in flowering plants assume that dioecy arises directly from hermaphroditism through a series of independent feminizing and masculinizing mutations that become chromosomally linked. However, dioecy appears to evolve most frequently through monoecious grades. The major genetic models do not explain the evolution of unisexual flowers in monoecious and submonoecious populations, nor do they account for environmentally induced sexual plasticity. In this review, we explore the roles of environmental stress and hormones on sex determination, and propose a model that can explain the evolution of dioecy through monoecy, and the mechanisms of environmental sex determination. Environmental stresses elicit hormones that allow plants to mediate the negative effects of the stresses. Many of these same hormones are involved in the regulation of floral developmental genes. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms whereby these hormones interact and can act as switchpoints in regulatory pathways. Consequently, differential concentrations of plant hormones can regulate whole developmental pathways, providing a mechanism for differential development within isogenic individuals such as seen in monoecious plants. Sex-determining genes in such systems will evolve to generate clusters of coexpressed suites. Coexpression rather than coinheritance of gender-specific genes will define the sexual developmental fate. Therefore, selection for gender type will drive evolution of the regulatory sequences of such genes rather than their synteny. Subsequent mutations to hyper- or hyposensitive alleles within the hormone response pathway can result in segregating dioecious populations. Simultaneously, such developmental systems will remain sensitive to external stimuli that modify hormone responses.
Derzko, C.; Elliott, S.; Lam, W.
Treatment with aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women with breast cancer has been shown to reduce or obviate invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or curettage associated with tamoxifen-induced endometrial abnormalities. The side effect of upfront aromatase inhibitors, diminished estrogen synthesis, is similar to that seen with the natural events of aging. The consequences often include vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes) and vaginal dryness and atrophy, which in turn may result in cystitis and vaginitis. Not surprisingly, painful intercourse (dyspareunia) and loss of sexual interest (decreased libido) frequently occur as well. Various interventions, both non-hormonal and hormonal, are currently available to manage these problems. The purpose of the present review is to provide the practitioner with a wide array of management options to assist in treating the sexual consequences of aromatase inhibitors. The suggestions in this review are based on recent literature and on the recommendations set forth both by the North American Menopause Association and in the clinical practice guidelines of the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Canada. The complexity of female sexual dysfunction necessitates a biopsychosocial approach to assessment and management alike, with interventions ranging from education and lifestyle changes to sexual counselling, pelvic floor therapies, sexual aids, medications, and dietary supplements—all of which have been reported to have a variable, but often successful, effect on symptom amelioration. Although the use of specific hormone replacement—most commonly local estrogen, and less commonly, systemic estrogen with or without an androgen, progesterone, or the additional of an androgen in an estrogenized woman (or a combination)—may be highly effective, the concern remains that in patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer, including those receiving anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapies, the use of these hormones may be
Derzko, C; Elliott, S; Lam, W
Treatment with aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women with breast cancer has been shown to reduce or obviate invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or curettage associated with tamoxifen-induced endometrial abnormalities. The side effect of upfront aromatase inhibitors, diminished estrogen synthesis, is similar to that seen with the natural events of aging. The consequences often include vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes) and vaginal dryness and atrophy, which in turn may result in cystitis and vaginitis. Not surprisingly, painful intercourse (dyspareunia) and loss of sexual interest (decreased libido) frequently occur as well. Various interventions, both non-hormonal and hormonal, are currently available to manage these problems. The purpose of the present review is to provide the practitioner with a wide array of management options to assist in treating the sexual consequences of aromatase inhibitors. The suggestions in this review are based on recent literature and on the recommendations set forth both by the North American Menopause Association and in the clinical practice guidelines of the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Canada. The complexity of female sexual dysfunction necessitates a biopsychosocial approach to assessment and management alike, with interventions ranging from education and lifestyle changes to sexual counselling, pelvic floor therapies, sexual aids, medications, and dietary supplements-all of which have been reported to have a variable, but often successful, effect on symptom amelioration. Although the use of specific hormone replacement-most commonly local estrogen, and less commonly, systemic estrogen with or without an androgen, progesterone, or the additional of an androgen in an estrogenized woman (or a combination)-may be highly effective, the concern remains that in patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer, including those receiving anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapies, the use of these hormones may be
Walker, Lauren M; Tran, Susan; Robinson, John W
Men with prostate cancer (PCa) frequently undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), typically in the form of a depot injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa). LHRHa are associated with many adverse effects (eg, hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, loss of muscle mass, osteopenia, metabolic syndrome), which drastically impact patient quality of life. This literature review, which includes a comprehensive table documenting prevalence rates, provides a quick reference for health care professionals involved in the care of men undergoing ADT with LHRHa. Primary sources were acquired from PubMed using the search terms "androgen deprivation therapy" and each potentially adverse effect (eg, "androgen deprivation therapy and hot flashes"). Commonly cited review articles were also examined for citations of original studies containing prevalence rates. More than 270 articles were reviewed. In contrast to many existing reviews, rates are cited exclusively from original sources. The prevalence rates, obtained from original sources, suggest that more than half of documented adverse effects are experienced by as many as 40% or more of patients. A critique of the literature is also provided. Although there is a vast literature of both original and review articles on specific adverse effects of LHRHa, the quality of research on prevalence rates for some adverse effects is subpar. Many review articles contain inaccuracies and do not cite original sources. The table of prevalence rates will serve as a quick reference for health care providers when counseling patients and will aid in the development of evidence-based patient education materials.
Bell, Suzanne; Reissing, Elke D
The aim of this study was to use the dual control model of sexual response (DCM) to investigate variation in sexual well-being among women 50 years of age and older. Data from 185 women 50 years of age and older (M = 59.46, SD = 6.96) were used to examine the relationships between sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) and their lower-order factors to indicators of sexual well-being (i.e., sexual functioning, satisfaction, distress, frequency of sexual activity, and breadth of sexual behavior). Possible moderating factors were also explored. Independently, SE and SI were associated with the majority of the indicators of sexual well-being, and the directions of associations were consistent with the tenets of the DCM. SE and SI lower-order factors were significant predictors of sexual function, satisfaction, and frequency of sexual activity. Sexual distress was predicted more strongly by SI factors and breadth of sexual behavior by one SE lower-order factor (arousability). Partner physical and mental health and participant's own mental health were identified as moderating variables of these associations. Findings of this study are discussed considering the contribution of the DCM to understanding the role of diversity in older women's sexual well-being.
Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.
The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...
Caldwell, Michael F
This study compares the recidivism patterns of a cohort of 249 juvenile sexual offenders and 1,780 non-sexual offending delinquents who were released from secured custody over a two and one half year period. The prevalence of sex offenders with new sexual offense charges during the 5 year follow-up period was 6.8%, compared to 5.7% for the non-sexual offenders, a non-significant difference. Juvenile sex offenders were nearly ten times more likely to have been charged with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense. Eighty-five percent of the new sexual offenses in the follow-up period were accounted for by the non-sex offending delinquents. None of the 54 homicides (including three sexual homicides) was committed by a juvenile sex offender. The implications of the results for recent public policy trends that impose restrictions that are triggered by a sexual offense adjudication are discussed.
... and satisfying sex life doesn't happen by magic. It takes self-reflection and candid communication. Although ... lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/womens-sexual-health/art-20047771 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...
Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, Petr; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav
Plant hormones act as chemical messengers in the regulation of myriads of physiological processes that occur in plants. To date, nine groups of plant hormones have been identified and more will probably be discovered. Furthermore, members of each group may participate in the regulation of physiological responses in planta both alone and in concert with members of either the same group or other groups. The ideal way to study biochemical processes involving these signalling molecules is 'hormone profiling', i.e. quantification of not only the hormones themselves, but also their biosynthetic precursors and metabolites in plant tissues. However, this is highly challenging since trace amounts of all of these substances are present in highly complex plant matrices. Here, we review advances, current trends and future perspectives in the analysis of all currently known plant hormones and the associated problems of extracting them from plant tissues and separating them from the numerous potentially interfering compounds.
Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219
Neufeld, Jacob A; Klingbeil, Fred; Bryen, Diane Nelson; Silverman, Brett; Thomas, Anila
Regardless of what our beliefs about sex and disability may be, as health care providers we can promote the health and well being of our patients with disabilities in several ways. First and perhaps foremost, physical and programmatic barriers to accessing general health care including routine gynecologic care must be dramatically reduced. The promise of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act must be aggressively extended to our health care system to ensure equal access to routine health care for all. Second, knowledge of community resources that can support the healthy development and exercise of responsible and satisfying sexuality is critical. For example, health care providers should know about adaptive and assistive technologies as well as the use of personal care assistants to support the healthy although sometimes nontypical expression of one's sexuality. Centers for Independent Living are community resources that are often underutilized by the medical profession. These centers--run by and for people with disabilities--are likely resources and allies for providing education, role models, and peer mentoring around relationships, intimacy, sexuality, sexual expression, and parenting with a disability. Finally, sex education is a must and should include the following: Basic facts of life, reproduction, and sexual intercourse; Human growth and development Human reproduction and anatomy Self-pleasuring/masturbation and the use of sexual aids Intimacy and privacy Pregnancy and child birth Contraception and abortion Family life and parenthood Sexual response and consensual sex Sexual orientation Sexual abuse HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The question should not be whether sex education is provided to persons with disabilities, but rather how it is most effectively provided. Health sex education must include the development of effective communication skills, decision-making skills, assertiveness, and the ability to say "no." It must
... United States reported experiencing an attempted or completed rape at some time in their lives. Sexual violence, ... the CDC .* Military Sexual Trauma VA refers to sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment during military service ...
... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms and changes ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...
Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.
Introduction There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed. Aims To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations. Methods An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008. Main Outcome Measures All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]). Results There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005). Conclusion In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the
Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY
The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602
Pulit, Sara L; Karaderi, Tugce; Lindgren, Cecilia M
Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life. Though sexual dimorphism is subtle in early stages of life, it is attenuated in puberty and during menopause. This phenomenon could be, at least in part, due to the influence of sex hormones on the trait. Findings from recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for various measures of body fat distribution (including waist-to-hip ratio, hip or waist circumference, trunk fat percentage and the ratio of android and gynoid fat percentage) emphasize the strong sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of fat distribution traits. Importantly, sexual dimorphism is not observed for overall obesity (as assessed by body mass index or total fat percentage). Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. Research that specifically focuses on sexual dimorphism in fat distribution can provide novel insights into human physiology and into the development of obesity and its comorbidities, as well as yield biological clues that will aid in the improvement of disease prevention and treatment.
De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy; Beerten, Ruth; Selvaggi, Gennaro; De Sutter, Petra; Hoebeke, Piet; Monstrey, Stan; Vansteenwegen, Alfons; Rubens, Robert
A long-term follow-up study of 55 transsexual patients (32 male-to-female and 23 female-to-male) post-sex reassignment surgery (SRS) was carried out to evaluate sexual and general health outcome. Relatively few and minor morbidities were observed in our group of patients, and they were mostly reversible with appropriate treatment. A trend toward more general health problems in male-to-females was seen, possibly explained by older age and smoking habits. Although all male-to-females, treated with estrogens continuously, had total testosterone levels within the normal female range because of estrogen effects on sex hormone binding globulin, only 32.1% reached normal free testosterone levels. After SRS, the transsexual person's expectations were met at an emotional and social level, but less so at the physical and sexual level even though a large number of transsexuals (80%) reported improvement of their sexuality. The female-to-males masturbated significantly more frequently than the male-to-females, and a trend to more sexual satisfaction, more sexual excitement, and more easily reaching orgasm was seen in the female-to-male group. The majority of participants reported a change in orgasmic feeling, toward more powerful and shorter for female-to-males and more intense, smoother, and longer in male-to-females. Over two-thirds of male-to-females reported the secretion of a vaginal fluid during sexual excitation, originating from the Cowper's glands, left in place during surgery. In female-to-males with erection prosthesis, sexual expectations were more realized (compared to those without), but pain during intercourse was more often reported.
Pulit, Sara L.; Karaderi, Tugce
Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life. Though sexual dimorphism is subtle in early stages of life, it is attenuated in puberty and during menopause. This phenomenon could be, at least in part, due to the influence of sex hormones on the trait. Findings from recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for various measures of body fat distribution (including waist-to-hip ratio, hip or waist circumference, trunk fat percentage and the ratio of android and gynoid fat percentage) emphasize the strong sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of fat distribution traits. Importantly, sexual dimorphism is not observed for overall obesity (as assessed by body mass index or total fat percentage). Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. Research that specifically focuses on sexual dimorphism in fat distribution can provide novel insights into human physiology and into the development of obesity and its comorbidities, as well as yield biological clues that will aid in the improvement of disease prevention and treatment. PMID:28073971
Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Juanita M. Firestone Richard J. Harris DEFENSE EQUAL...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 09/30/2011 Technical Report Summer 2011 Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual ...Harassment and Sexual Assault Dr. Juanita M. Firestone and Dr. Richard J. Harris Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) 366 Tuskegee
Rosen, Raymond C
Despite the high prevalence of sexual problems in women, relatively few clinical trials have been conducted to date of either vasoactive drugs (e.g., sildenafil, apomorphine) or hormone replacement therapy or a combination of the two on sexual function problems in women. This article addresses the key conceptual and methodological issues to be addressed in clinical trials, particularly in the area of response outcomes or efficacy assessment. In particular, the use of self-report questionnaires and event-log or diary-based responses as primary outcome variables or endpoints in clinical trials is considered. Physiological measures, such as the vaginal photoplethysmograph probe, are being used in early proof of concept studies. There may be some value in the use of these measures for proof-of-concept and early dose-finding studies. Physiological measures are not used in large-scale, multicenter clinical trials, where patient-based or diary measures are clearly preferable. Clinical trials in this area should also make use of the new consensus classification system for female sexual dysfunction in determining inclusion and exclusion criteria for the trial.
Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.
Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.
Brown, W A; Heninger, G
Eight male volunteers who viewed selected control, suspense, and erotic films experienced significant changes in affect that were limited to fatigue, anxiety, and sexual arousal, respectively. All subjects showed free fatty acid elevations with the suspense and erotic films and those subjects with the most anxiety and sexual arousal showed cortisol elevation with the suspense and erotic films, respectively. Growth hormone elevations occurred independently of cortisol elevations and were not clearly related to film or affect. Thus, activation of the pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathetic nervous systems appears to occur not in relation to a specific dysphoric state but rather with nonspecific affective arousal.
Argent, A. C.; And Others
The presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 96 children, ages 23 months to 14 years, in Cape Town, South Africa, was linked to sexual abuse in 67 percent of patients. It is recommended that symptomatic prepubertal children with STDs should be investigated for sexual abuse. (Author/SW)
Luria, Mijal; Byers, E Sandra; Voyer, Susan D; Mock, Moshe
This study examined the motivations for entering the field and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of an international group of sexuality professionals. Participants were 252 individuals attending the XVII World Congress of Sexology who completed a questionnaire in English, Spanish or French. Most participants' reported professional rather than personal motivations for entering the field in addition to interest. On average, participants reported little sexual communication with their parents as children. About one-third had experienced unwanted sexual activity as a child. Participants were mostly accepting of a range of sexual activities, although they were less accepting of some behaviors than of others. Twelve of the participants who had engaged in sexual activity with a casual or anonymous partner in the previous 2 years had not used a condom consistently. Participants reported high sexual satisfaction and good sexual communication with their partner. Nevertheless, 45% of the women and 35% of the men reported regularly experiencing one or more sexual problems. Few participants reported that their profession affected their sexual functioning negatively; in contrast most reported that it had positive effects on their sexual functioning. These results suggest that there are few differences between sexuality professionals and the general public.
Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.
This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…
From the child conception to the early years of life, couples generally present less sexual activity. Parenthood constraints are a burden for the couple's relationships. Generally, persistent sexual difficulties six months after delivery, despite those generated by depression or altered health raise the question of an alteration in the quality of the couple's relationships and lack of satisfaction of the mother with her partner's involvement in family life. Numerous parameters can be implied, especially with persistent trouble of desire, such as fatigue, body image problems and libido lessening of the partner due to modifications of his status. Women who presented sexual difficulties before pregnancy remain the same. In all cases, appropriate information can avoid the intimacy's difficulties and contribute to maintain pleasure and intimacy even when vaginal penetration remains difficult.
Maypole, Donald E.; Skaine, Rosemarie
Reviews the literature on sexual harassment to determine the issues the problem raises, its social contexts, and the resources available to working women. Examined the implications of sexual harassment for social work practice, policy, and research. (JAC)
... Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more likely ... time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex is ...
Kaplan, Helen S.; Sager, Clifford J.
When not understood as normal consequences of growth and aging, sexual fluctuations can be the source of personal and marital distress. Discussed are sexual behavior norms as they change from infancy to old age. (Author/CJ)
Coombs, Robert H.
Since talking about sex is difficult, even those with minor sexual problems or no problems at all sometimes go through life wondering about their sexual adequacy. A few well placed questions could in most cases relieve their concerns. (Author)
De Santis, Joseph P.; Valdes, Beatriz; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Gattamorta, Karina A.
Background/Significance High rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) related to high risk sexual behaviors are a public health problem in the U.S. Hispanics have the second highest rates of HIV infection among racial/ethnic minorities. Previous research with Hispanic men has identified a number of factors that influence sexual risk and render Hispanic men at risk for HIV/STIs. These factors vary by sexual orientation. Despite these differences in sexual risk by sexual orientation, no study to date has compared the sexual behaviors of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the sexual behaviors of a sample of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Method A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 Hispanic men in South Florida, 80 heterosexual and 83 MSM. Participants completed measures of sexual health, sexual behaviors, and demographics. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners during the previous 3 months, condom usage during the previous 3 months, HIV testing history, and substance use during sex. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of certain STIs. Implications Hispanic men as a population may engage in high risk sexual behaviors that place them at risk for HIV/STIs. More research is needed to develop both culturally tailored and sexual orientation appropriate interventions to assist Hispanic men reduce high risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25663832
van Anders, Sari M
Sexual orientation typically describes people's sexual attractions or desires based on their sex relative to that of a target. Despite its utility, it has been critiqued in part because it fails to account for non-biological gender-related factors, partnered sexualities unrelated to gender or sex, or potential divergences between love and lust. In this article, I propose Sexual Configurations Theory (SCT) as a testable, empirically grounded framework for understanding diverse partnered sexualities, separate from solitary sexualities. I focus on and provide models of two parameters of partnered sexuality--gender/sex and partner number. SCT also delineates individual gender/sex. I discuss a sexual diversity lens as a way to study the particularities and generalities of diverse sexualities without privileging either. I also discuss how sexual identities, orientations, and statuses that are typically seen as misaligned or aligned are more meaningfully conceptualized as branched or co-incident. I map out some existing identities using SCT and detail its applied implications for health and counseling work. I highlight its importance for sexuality in terms of measurement and social neuroendocrinology, and the ways it may be useful for self-knowledge and feminist and queer empowerment and alliance building. I also make a case that SCT changes existing understandings and conceptualizations of sexuality in constructive and generative ways informed by both biology and culture, and that it is a potential starting point for sexual diversity studies and research.
Markle, William; Conti, Tracey; Kad, Manjusha
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases, remain a growing worldwide problem and public health issue. This article covers the epidemiology of STIs, the history and physical findings, screening guidelines, and the general plan to combat STIs. Prevention is discussed using the latest information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other references. Infections discussed from the standpoint of cause, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical disease, diagnosis, and treatment include gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, chancroid, Herpes simplex, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, Herpes papilloma virus, Molluscum contagiosum, and pubic lice.
Snoeren, Eelke M S
Three different phases can be distinguished in rats' sexual cycle, the introductory (precopulatory), the copulatory and the executive (ejaculatory) phases. In this review, a new analysis of existing pharmacological data is made, both in male and female rats, in which the different aspects of sexual behavior are taken into account. An effort is made to distinguish pharmacological effects on sexual behavior from a possible physiological role of noradrenaline. In addition, new data on the role of α2-adrenoceptors on female sexual behavior is presented. The new analysis suggests that noradrenaline has a stimulatory role on the executive phase of male sexual behavior, while the introductory and copulatory phases remain unaffected. Adrenoceptors play a role in the regulation of sexual behavior in the medial preoptic area and the lateral septum. In female rats, noradrenaline also does not play a vital role in the introductory phase. Only the lordosis behavior of the copulatory phase is sometimes affected by adrenergic agents, but only under a certain hormonal condition. The medial preoptic area, the ventromedial nucleus, the arcuate ventromedial nucleus and median eminence are involved in the regulation of female sexual behavior. The new data suggest that α2-adrenoceptors play no major role on any indices of female sexual behavior.
Rupp, Heather A; James, Thomas W; Ketterson, Ellen D; Sengelaub, Dale R; Ditzen, Beate; Heiman, Julia R
During the postpartum period, women experience significant changes in their neuroendocrine profiles and social behavior compared to before pregnancy. A common experience with motherhood is a decrease in sexual desire. Although the lifestyle and peripheral physiological changes associated with parturition might decrease a woman's sexual interest, we hypothesized that there are also hormone-mediated changes in women's neural response to sexual and infant stimuli with altered reproductive priorities. We predicted that amygdala activation to sexually arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum versus nulliparous women, and altered with intranasal oxytocin administration. To test this, we measured amygdala activation using fMRI in response to sexually arousing pictures, infant pictures, and neutral pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Half of the women received a dose of exogenous oxytocin before scanning. As predicted, nulliparous women subjectively rated sexual pictures to be more arousing, and infant pictures to be less arousing, than did postpartum women. However, nulliparous women receiving the nasal oxytocin spray rated the infant photos as arousing as did postpartum women. Right amygdala activation was lower in postpartum versus nulliparous women in response to sexual, infant, and neutral images, suggesting a generalized decrease in right amygdala responsiveness to arousing images with parturition. There was no difference in right amygdala activation with nasal spray application. Postpartum women therefore appear to experience a decrease in sexual interest possibly as a feature of a more generalized decrease in amygdala responsiveness to arousing stimuli.
Ngun, Tuck C; Vilain, Eric
Sexual orientation is one of the largest sex differences in humans. The vast majority of the population is heterosexual, that is, they are attracted to members of the opposite sex. However, a small but significant proportion of people are bisexual or homosexual and experience attraction to members of the same sex. The origins of the phenomenon have long been the subject of scientific study. In this chapter, we will review the evidence that sexual orientation has biological underpinnings and consider the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. We will first discuss studies that show that sexual orientation has a genetic component. These studies show that sexual orientation is more concordant in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic ones and that male sexual orientation is linked to several regions of the genome. We will then highlight findings that suggest a link between sexual orientation and epigenetic mechanisms. In particular, we will consider the case of women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). These women were exposed to high levels of testosterone in utero and have much higher rates of nonheterosexual orientation compared to non-CAH women. Studies in animal models strongly suggest that the long-term effects of hormonal exposure (such as those experienced by CAH women) are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. We conclude by describing a hypothetical framework that unifies genetic and epigenetic explanations of sexual orientation and the continued challenges facing sexual orientation research.
Pfaus, James G; Shadiack, Annette; Van Soest, Tanya; Tse, Maric; Molinoff, Perry
Disorders of sexual desire affect an estimated 30% of women in North America and Europe, with etiologies based on interpersonal, personal, and physiological factors. There are currently no pharmacological agents approved for use in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. This is due, in part, to a focus on the effects of experimental drugs on reflexive components of sexual behavior, such as lordosis, in animal models. Here we report that PT-141, a peptide analogue of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone that binds to central melanocortin receptors, selectively stimulates solicitational behaviors in the female rat. This occurs without affecting lordosis, pacing, or other sexual behaviors. PT-141 did not cause generalized motor activation, nor did it affect the perception of sexual reward. A selective pharmacological effect on appetitive sexual behavior in female rats has not been reported previously, and indicates that central melanocortin systems are important in the regulation of female sexual desire. Accordingly, PT-141 may be the first identified pharmacological agent with the capability to treat female sexual desire disorders.
Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth
This study used the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to assess whether characteristics of females' sexual partners, relationships, and choice of contraceptive methods were associated with contraceptive use patterns within their first sexual relationship. White, black, and Hispanic females under age 25 (N=915) provided retrospective information on sexual activity and contraceptive use for first sexual relationships that occurred between 1991 and 1995. Females with older sexual partners and with same race/ethnicity partners (among Hispanics) had reduced odds of ever using contraception and/or uninterrupted use. Longer sexual relationships were associated with higher odds of ever using contraception but lower odds of uninterrupted use. Females who were older at first sex, who used hormonal methods (among whites), or who switched to more effective methods during their first sexual relationships had higher odds of ever using contraception and/or uninterrupted use. In contrast, switching to less effective methods during a first sexual relationship was associated with reduced odds of uninterrupted use.
Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D
Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain.
Mokkonen, Mikael; Crespi, Bernard J
We review the hypothesized and observed effects of two of the major forms of genomic conflicts, genomic imprinting and sexual antagonism, on human health. We focus on phenotypes mediated by peptide and steroid hormones (especially oxytocin and testosterone) because such hormones centrally mediate patterns of physical and behavioral resource allocation that underlie both forms of conflict. In early development, a suite of imprinted genes modulates the human oxytocinergic system as predicted from theory, with paternally inherited gene expression associated with higher oxytocin production, and increased solicitation to mothers by infants. This system is predicted to impact health through the incompatibility of paternal-gene and maternal-gene optima and increased vulnerability of imprinted gene systems to genetic and epigenetic changes. Early alterations to oxytocinergic systems have long-term negative impacts on human psychological health, especially through their effects on attachment and social behavior. In contrast to genomic imprinting, which generates maladaptation along an axis of mother-infant attachment, sexual antagonism is predicted from theory to generate maladaptation along an axis of sexual dimorphism, modulated by steroid and peptide hormones. We describe evidence of sexual antagonism from studies of humans and other animals, demonstrating that sexually antagonistic effects on sex-dimorphic phenotypes, including aspects of immunity, life history, psychology, and behavior, are commonly observed and lead to forms of maladaptation that are demonstrated, or expected, to impact human health. Recent epidemiological and psychiatric studies of schizophrenia in particular indicate that it is mediated, in part, by sexually antagonistic alleles. The primary implication of this review is that data collection focused on (i) effects of imprinted genes that modulate the oxytocin system, and (ii) effects of sexually antagonistic alleles on sex-dimorphic, disease
Mokkonen, Mikael; Crespi, Bernard J
We review the hypothesized and observed effects of two of the major forms of genomic conflicts, genomic imprinting and sexual antagonism, on human health. We focus on phenotypes mediated by peptide and steroid hormones (especially oxytocin and testosterone) because such hormones centrally mediate patterns of physical and behavioral resource allocation that underlie both forms of conflict. In early development, a suite of imprinted genes modulates the human oxytocinergic system as predicted from theory, with paternally inherited gene expression associated with higher oxytocin production, and increased solicitation to mothers by infants. This system is predicted to impact health through the incompatibility of paternal-gene and maternal-gene optima and increased vulnerability of imprinted gene systems to genetic and epigenetic changes. Early alterations to oxytocinergic systems have long-term negative impacts on human psychological health, especially through their effects on attachment and social behavior. In contrast to genomic imprinting, which generates maladaptation along an axis of mother–infant attachment, sexual antagonism is predicted from theory to generate maladaptation along an axis of sexual dimorphism, modulated by steroid and peptide hormones. We describe evidence of sexual antagonism from studies of humans and other animals, demonstrating that sexually antagonistic effects on sex-dimorphic phenotypes, including aspects of immunity, life history, psychology, and behavior, are commonly observed and lead to forms of maladaptation that are demonstrated, or expected, to impact human health. Recent epidemiological and psychiatric studies of schizophrenia in particular indicate that it is mediated, in part, by sexually antagonistic alleles. The primary implication of this review is that data collection focused on (i) effects of imprinted genes that modulate the oxytocin system, and (ii) effects of sexually antagonistic alleles on sex-dimorphic, disease
Quinsey, Vermon L
People discover rather than choose their sexual interests. The process of discovery typically begins before the onset of puberty and is associated with an increase in the secretion of sex hormones from the adrenal glands. However, the determinants of the direction of sexual interest, in the sense of preferences for the same or opposite sex, are earlier. These preferences, although not manifest until much later in development, appear to be caused by the neural organizational effects of intrauterine hormonal events. Variations in these hormonal events likely have several causes and two of these appear to have been identified for males. One cause is genetic and the other involves the sensitization of the maternal immune system to some aspect of the male fetus. It is presently unclear how these two causes relate to each other. The most important question for future research is whether preferences for particular-aged partners and parts of the male courtship sequence share causes similar to those of erotic gender orientation.
Davis, Melanie J.
The author describes her development from being her religious congregation's sexuality educator to completing doctoral studies and finding her place in the professional sexuality education community. She equates sexuality education to a ministry that reaches out to those in need of knowledge.
This document provides a review of recent, state-of-the-art literature concerning the nature, extent, dynamics, and effects of child sexual abuse and examines America's preventive intervention and treatment efforts for child sexual abuse. After an extensive presentation of the problems of defining terms in sexual abuse, these topics are discussed:…
Taverner, William J.
The term "sexual health" is often used in sexuality education without any concrete, operational definition, and students are left to ascertain the meaning for themselves. In the absence of a clear definition, students may adopt diverse or narrow understandings of this vague term, without learning the full scope of everything that sexual health…
From desire to orgasm, sexuality, in women and men, is underpinned by a complex organic, psychological and emotional function. Sexual dysfunction encompasses diverse aetiologies, including chronic diseases and iatrogenesis resulting from medication or surgery. The effects of a chronic disease can have an impact on all phases of the sexual response.
From desire to orgasm, sexuality, in women and men, is underpinned by a complex organic, psychological and emotional function. Sexual dysfunction encompasses diverse aetiologies, including chronic diseases and iatrogenesis resulting from medication or surgery. The effects of a chronic disease can have an impact on all phases of the sexual response.
Peplau, Letitia Anne; And Others
The patterning of sexual interaction in male-female dyads and the links between sexual behavior and emotional intimacy were investigated as part of a two-year study of college dating couples. Traditional sexual role playing was found to be common. (Author/AM)
Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…
Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…
Carmichael, Joan; And Others
Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding…
Kula, K; Słowikowska-Hilczer, J
Normal human development requires the compatibility between genetic sex (sex chromosomes), sex of gonades (tests or ovaries), genitalia (external and internal sex organs), somatic features (body characteristics) and psychic sex. The psychic sex, called frequently gender, consist of gender identity (self-estimation), gender role (objective estimation) and sexual orientation (hetero- or homosexual). It was believed that the psychic gender depends only on socio-environmental influences such as rearing, learning and individual choice. Although, the process of sexual differentiation of human brain is not completely elucidated, it has became recently evident that endogenous hormones more then socio-environmental factors influence gender differences. Experimental studies on animals revealed that transient action of sex steroids during perinatal period of life is crucial for the dymorphism of sexual behavior (male or female) in adulthood. It seems, that also in the human male neonates testosterone produced by testes perinatally takes the main role in the irreversible masculinization of the brain i.e. creation of the differences vs. female brain. The evaluation of patients with disturbances of sexual differentiation of external genitalia (the lack of the testosterone transformation into 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone in peripheral tissues of men or the inborn excess of androgens in women with the congenital adrenal hyperplasia) has served as a useful clinical model for understanding factors, affecting the formation of gender. In these individuals the formal sex established according to genetic sex and somatic sex may be incompatible with gender identity and role. However, it has been found that the female gender identity is most frequently associated with the presence of ovaries or the lack of gonads (gonadal dysgenesis), while the male gender identity appear most frequently in the presence of testicular tissue irrespective of female or hermaphrodite (intersex) phenotype. In
Smith, Glenn; King, Michael
This study aimed to investigate how people manage their sexuality when practicing naturism in the United Kingdom (UK). Thirty-nine self-identified naturists from across the UK were interviewed. Sexuality, when practicing naturism, was found often to be suppressed through the use of rules, geographical isolation and thoughts and behaviour. Some participants found ways of exploring and enjoying their sexuality by keeping feelings hidden and/or seeking out more sympathetic naturist environments. Naturist environments may offer a unique space in which to explore aspects of our sexuality that are currently pathologised, criminalised or commercialised. This has important implications for sexual health policy and promotion.
Lau, On Sun; Deng, Xing Wang
Light is an important environmental signal that regulates diverse growth and developmental processes in plants. In these light-regulated processes, multiple hormonal pathways are often modulated by light to mediate the developmental changes. Conversely, hormone levels in plants also serve as endogenous cues in influencing light responsiveness. Although interactions between light and hormone signaling pathways have long been observed, recent studies have advanced our understanding by identifying signaling integrators that connect the pathways. These integrators, namely PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), PIF4, PIF3-LIKE 5 (PIL5)/PIF1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), are key light signaling components and they link light signals to the signaling of phytohormones, such as gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), auxin and cytokinin, in regulating seedling photomorphogenesis and seed germination. This review focuses on these integrators in illustrating how light and hormone interact.
Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.
Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…
Durbak, Amanda; Yao, Hong; McSteen, Paula
Hormone signaling plays diverse and critical roles during plant development. In particular, hormone interactions regulate meristem function and therefore control formation of all organs in the plant. Recent advances have dissected commonalities and differences in the interaction of auxin and cytokinin in the regulation of shoot and root apical meristem function. In addition, brassinosteroid hormones have recently been discovered to regulate root apical meristem size. Further insights have also been made into our understanding of the mechanism of crosstalk among auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in axillary meristems.
To assess whether hormone replacement therapy influences longevity, an analysis was made of published life tables allowing for the calculation of the relative benefit of hormone replacement therapy on longevity in men with late onset hypogonadism and in post-menopausal women. It was found that testosterone replacement therapy of men suffering from late onset hypogonadism increased survival rate by 9-10% in 5 years, similar to that of eugonadal, non-LOH men with normal endogenous testosterone secretion. Oestrogen replacement therapy resulted in increased survival by 2.6% in 5 years. It is concluded that hormone replacement therapy increases longevity.
Vandale-Toney, S; Conde-González, C J
The large majority of women who acquire Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are in their childbearing years and are current or potential users of contraceptive methods. Certain STDs augment women's risk for HIV due to damage which these diseases produce in the integrity of the epithelial lining of the vagina and the vulva. There also exists evidence that some contraceptive methods, such as the intrauterine device and certain hormonal products, may increase the risk of HIV and other STDs. Condoms and spermicides offer good levels of protection against these diseases, but are not highly effective contraceptives. The interrelations among these risks are important and create a great problem for women's reproductive health. Moreover, the high vulnerability of the female population for these diseases is also related to a variety of social factors which are referred to as gender relations (power of females in society relative to that of females). Among the gender-related inequalities which affect women are their lack of power to successfully control many aspects of sexual relations. Another problem has to do with the fact that there are no highly reliable female controlled methods for preventing infection by HIV and other STDs. Improvement in the reproductive health care of women depends on the development of new disease prevention products and structural changes in the delivery of care, as well as continued research efforts on the interrelations among contraceptive methods, HIV and other STD.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Personality traits, namely neuroticism, have been suggested as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction in heterosexual samples. However, no evidence was found regarding homosexual samples. This study aimed to analyze the differences on personality traits between heterosexual and homosexual men and women with and without sexual problems. Participants were 285 individuals (142 men, 143 women) who completed a web-based survey. Participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptomatology Inventory, and questions regarding sexual problems. The groups of men and women with and without sexual problems were matched for sociodemographic variables. A 2 (Group) × 2 (Sexual Orientation) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted separately for each gender. Results indicated a significant main effect for group and for sexual orientation in male and female samples. Men with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism, whereas women with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion when compared with healthy controls, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, gay men scored higher on neuroticism and lesbian women scored higher on conscientiousness compared with the heterosexual groups. The present findings emphasize the central role of neuroticism on sexual problems in both men and women regardless of sexual orientation.
Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly; Kohfeldt, Danielle
Sexual education plays an essential role in preventing unplanned pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). School-based sexual education programs, in particular, may be well positioned to address social factors that are empirically linked to negative sexual health outcomes, such as traditional social norms surrounding gender and sexuality. However, youth are seldom granted access to sexual education programs that explicitly address these issues. This study presents findings from a pretest-posttest survey of a sexual education program that did. It was designed for eighth graders (N=95) in the context of a school-community collaboration. The study assessed the links between several components of sexual empowerment, including gender ideology, sexual knowledge, and contraceptive beliefs. Findings link participation in the sexual education program to more progressive attitudes toward girls and women, less agreement with hegemonic masculinity ideology, and increases in sexual health and resource knowledge. Structural equation models suggest that traditional attitudes toward women were significantly related to hegemonic masculinity ideology among both boys and girls, which was in turn negatively related to safer contraceptive beliefs.