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Sample records for perfil hormonal sexual

  1. Hormone-independent pathways of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    New observations over the last 25 years of hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms have gradually and unequivocally overturned the dogma, arising from Jost's elegant experiments in the mid-1900s, that all somatic sex dimorphisms in vertebrates arise from the action of gonadal hormones. Although we know that Sry, a Y-linked gene, is the primary gonadal sex determinant in mammals, more recent analysis in marsupials, mice, and finches has highlighted numerous sexual dimorphisms that are evident well before the differentiation of the testis and which cannot be explained by a sexually dimorphic hormonal environment. In marsupials, scrotal bulges and mammary primordia are visible before the testis has differentiated due to the expression of a gene(s) on the X chromosome. ZZ and ZW gynandromorph finches have brains that develop in a sexually dimorphic way dependent on their sex chromosome content. In genetically manipulated mice, it is the X chromosomes, not the gonads, that determine many characters including rate of early development, adiposity, and neural circuits. Even spotted hyenas have sexual dimorphisms that cannot be simply explained by hormonal exposure. This review discusses the recent findings that confirm that there are hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms well before the gonads begin to produce their hormones. PMID:24577198

  2. Human sexuality, sex hormones, and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Morris, George L; Vanderkolk, Colleen

    2005-12-01

    The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), including the production of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prolactin, and the concentrations and metabolism of its end products, such as estrogen, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone, appear to be modified in many people with epilepsy. Effects of the disorder itself and effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) both appear to contribute to these hormonal alterations, which may be associated with sexual dysfunction. Focal epileptic discharges from the temporal lobe may affect HPA function, as is suggested by the normalization of androgen levels seen in men with temporal lobe epilepsy who become seizure-free after surgery. Hepatic enzyme-inducing AEDs such as carbamazepine and phenytoin may be most clearly linked to altered metabolism of sex steroid hormones, but valproic acid, an enzyme inhibitor, has also been implicated in the causation of reproductive endocrine abnormalities. Polycystic ovaries and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are widely believed to be common in women with epilepsy, but the actual prevalence and the pathogenesis of PCOS in this population are disputed. Hormonal changes and sexual dysfunction need to be addressed in any comprehensive approach to epilepsy management, as well as any comprehensive epilepsy research program. Avoidance of enzyme-inducing AEDs and achievement of freedom from seizures as the goal of treatment are strongly recommended.

  3. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  4. Sexually dimorphic actions of glucocorticoids: beyond chromosomes and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matthew; Ramamoorthy, Sivapriya; Cidlowski, John A

    2014-05-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a well-documented phenomenon that is observed at all levels of the animal kingdom. Historically, sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) have been implicated as key players in a wide array of pathologies displaying sexual dimorphism in their etiology and progression. While these hormones clearly contribute to sexually dimorphic diseases, other factors may be involved in this phenomenon as well. In particular, the stress hormone cortisol exerts differential effects in both males and females. The underlying molecular basis for the sexually dimorphic actions of glucocorticoids is unknown but clearly important to understand, since synthetic glucocorticoids are the most widely prescribed medication for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and hematological cancers in humans. PMID:24739020

  5. Organizational actions of sex hormones on sexual partner preference.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, E; Mansukhani, V; Thompson, R; Yang, S

    1997-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in copulatory behavior results from organizational actions of sex steroids (permanent effects of sex steroids occurring during early development). Reproductive success depends not only on copulatory behavior, but also on mate choice, which is often sexually dimorphic as well. The clearest example is sexual partner preference: the preference of males for female sexual partners and females for males. Are organizational hormone actions responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preference? The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is a potentially valuable species for addressing this question, because the birds form life-long socially monogamous pair bonds. In one experiment, both early estrogen treatment (injection with estradiol benzoate-EB-for the first 2 weeks posthatch) and unisex housing during juvenile development independently resulted in a preference for females over males in two-choice tests, and only females that experienced both EB treatment and unisex living were more likely than controls to pair with other females in colony tests. In a second experiment, females injected with an estrogen synthesis inhibitor for the first week posthatch preferred to spend time near females instead of males in two-choice tests, unlike control females. These experiments suggest that sexual partner preference may result from organizational hormone actions in this pair-bonding species. Possible neural mechanisms or sites that could underly hormonal organization of sexual partner preference in birds and mammals include the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area, the corticomedial amygdala, and its avian homologue nucleus taeniae of the archistriatum, the septum, and peripheral sensory processes.

  6. Hormones and sexuality in postmenopausal women: a psychophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Laan, E; van Lunsen, R H

    1997-06-01

    Sexual function, including vaginal atrophy, and hormonal status, were studied in 42 naturally postmenopausal women. Vaginal pulse amplitude and subjective sexual responses during self-induced erotic fantasy and during erotic films were compared with responses of a small number of premenopausal women. As predicted, vaginal atrophy was related to estrogens but not to complaints of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. No significant relationship was found between hormones and sexual function. Unexpectedly, most of the few correlations that did reach significance involved prolactin. The fact that prolactin was negatively associated with sexual desire, sexual arousal and vaginal lubrication during sexual activity, suggests that psychosocial factors are more important than hormone levels in postmenopausal sexual function. Comparisons with a number of premenopausal women revealed that although postmenopausal women displayed lower vaginal pulse amplitude responses prior to erotic stimulation than the premenopausal women, this difference disappeared during subsequent erotic stimulation. We argued that this finding can be interpreted as being supportive of the notion that complaints of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia should not be attributed to vaginal atrophy associated with menopause. Rather, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia seem to reflect sexual arousal problems. PMID:9219109

  7. Hormonal predictors of women's extra-pair vs. in-pair sexual attraction in natural cycles: Implications for extended sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Nicholas M; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Gangestad, Steven W

    2016-02-01

    In naturally cycling women, Roney and Simmons (2013) examined hormonal correlates of their desire for sexual contact. Estradiol was positively associated, and progesterone negatively associated, with self-reported desire. The current study extended these findings by examining, within a sample of 33 naturally cycling women involved in romantic relationships, hormonal correlates of sexual attraction to or interests in specific targets: women's own primary partner or men other than women's primary partner. Women's sexual interests and hormone (estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone) levels were assessed at two different time points. Whereas estradiol levels were associated with relatively greater extra-pair sexual interests than in-pair sexual interests, progesterone levels were associated with relatively greater in-pair sexual interests. Both hormones specifically predicted in-pair sexual desire, estradiol negatively and progesterone positively. These findings have implications for understanding the function of women's extended sexuality - their sexual proceptivity and receptivity outside the fertile phase, especially during the luteal phase.

  8. Investigation of sexual dimorphisms through mouse models and hormone/hormone-disruptor treatments.

    PubMed

    Ipulan, Lerrie Ann; Raga, Dennis; Suzuki, Kentaro; Murashima, Aki; Matsumaru, Daisuke; Cunha, Gerald; Yamada, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in mouse reproductive tissues is observable in adult, post-natal, and embryonic stages. The development of sexually dimorphic tissues starts with an ambisexual structure. It is followed by sex-specific organogenesis as guided by different signaling pathways that occur from late embryonic stages. The measurement of the anogenital distance (AGD), and the observation of the external genitalia are practical ways to distinguish male and female pups at birth and thereafter. Careful observation of the morphological or histological features and the molecular signatures of the external genitalia and perineum enable identification of sex or feminization/masculinization of embryos. Aberrations in hormone signaling via castration or treatment with hormones or hormone disruptors result in dysmorphogenesis of reproductive tissues. Several hormone disruptors have been used to modulate different aspects of hormone action through competitive inhibition and exogenous hormone treatment. Concomitantly, the vast advancement of conditional mutant mouse analysis leads to the frequent utilization of Cre recombination technology in the study of reproductive/urogenital tissue development. Mouse Cre-lines that are tissue-specific and cell-specific are also effective tools in identifying the molecular mechanisms during sexually dimorphic development. Cre-lines applicable to different cell populations in the prostate, seminal vesicles, testis and ovaries, and mammary glands are currently being utilized. In the external genitalia and perineum, Cre lines that examine the signaling pathways of cells of endodermal, ectodermal, and mesenchymal origin reveal the roles of these tissues in the development of the external genitalia. The interaction of hormones and growth factors can be examined further through a variety of techniques available for researchers. Such cumulative information about various technologies is summarized. PMID:26651426

  9. Sexual healing in patients with prostate cancer on hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Schover, Leslie R

    2015-01-01

    Since prostate cancer becomes more common with age, at least one-third of men have sexual problems at diagnosis. All localized treatments for prostate cancer greatly increase the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, which include loss of desire, erectile dysfunction, and changes in orgasm. Even men on active surveillance have a higher rate of problems than matched peers without prostate cancer. However, men given androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) have the worst rates of sexual dysfunction. Even after 3 to 4 months of ADT, men's desire for sex is decreased and irreversible damage may occur to the erectile tissue in the penis. Erections do not recover in about one-half of men, even if ADT is discontinued. Although intermittent ADT allows some recovery of sexual function, serum testosterone requires 9 to 12 months off ADT to recover. Again, one-half of men have permanent erectile dysfunction. If ADT causes atrophy of the erectile tissue, blood leaks out of the venous system during erection. This syndrome is difficult to treat except with surgery to implant a penile prosthesis. Despite the high rate of sexual problems in men on ADT, a small group stays sexually active and is able to have reliable erections. To improve men's sexual satisfaction on ADT, it may be important to educate them about getting extra mental and physical sexual stimulation, as well as using penile rehabilitation during hormone therapy. Information on reaching orgasm and coping with problems such as dry orgasm, pain with orgasm, and urinary incontinence during sex also should be provided. PMID:25993223

  10. Sexual Differentiation of Behavior in Monkeys: Role of Prenatal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Kim; Hassett, Janice M.

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical debate over the relative contributions of nature and nurture to sexual differentiation of behavior has increasingly moved towards an interactionist explanation requiring both influences. In practice, however, nature and nurture have often been seen as separable, influencing human clinical sex assignment decisions, sometimes with disastrous consequences. Decisions about sex assignment of children born with intersex conditions have been based almost exclusively on the appearance of the genitals and how other’s reactions to the gender role of the assigned sex affects individual gender socialization. Effects of the social environment and gender expectations in human cultures are ubiquitous, overshadowing potential underlying biological contributions in favor of the more observable social influences. Recent work in nonhuman primates showing behavioral sex differences paralleling human sex differences, including toy preferences, suggests that less easily observed biological factors also influence behavioral sexual differentiation in both monkeys and humans. We review research, including Robert W. Goy’s pioneering work with rhesus monkeys which manipulated prenatal hormones at different gestation times and demonstrated that genital anatomy and specific behaviors are independently sexually differentiated. Such studies demonstrate that for a variety of behaviors, including juvenile mounting and rough play, individuals can have the genitals of one sex but show the behavior more typical of the other sex. We describe another case, infant distress vocalizations, where maternal responsiveness is best accounted for by the mother’s response to the genital appearance of her offspring. Together these studies demonstrate that sexual differentiation arises from complex interactions where anatomical and behavioral biases, produced by hormonal and other biological processes, are shaped by social experience into the behavioral sex differences that distinguish males

  11. Quantitative assessment of female sexual motivation in the rat: Hormonal control of motivation.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jennifer A; Becker, Jill B

    2012-03-15

    While a good deal of information has been garnered in the last few decades regarding the neural and hormonal control of female sexual behavior, literature elucidating these mechanisms with respect to female sexual motivation has been scarce. We believe that one reason for this is the lack of a standardized paradigm that will quantify female sexual motivation while allowing for sexual interaction to occur. Here we describe a two-chambered apparatus that utilizes operant responding (nose poking) to quantify female sexual motivation. During the test, the female exhibits nose pokes to gain access to a sexually active male, with whom she is allowed to mate. Therefore, this apparatus allows for examination of sexual behavior as well as quantification of sexual motivation by assessing the number of nose pokes the female will exhibit within a fixed interval to gain access to the male. We report that hormone priming significantly increases sexual motivation in the female as indicated by the number of nose pokes she will exhibit to gain access to the male. Additionally, hormone primed females enter the male compartment after a shorter period and spend more time in direct contact with the male compared to when they are not hormone primed. In contrast, when females are not hormone primed they spend more time in view, but out of reach, of the male. This paradigm will help to advance the study of female sexual motivation, providing a method for quantifiable assessment of female sexual motivation while allowing for sexual activity to occur.

  12. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  13. Hormonal modulation of extinction responses induced by sexual steroid hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Arancibia, S; Vazquez-Pereyra, F

    1994-01-01

    A functional interrelation between the nervous and endocrine systems has been established. However, few studies have dealt with the effects of sexual steroids on learning and memory. The aim of this work was to determine whether sexual steroid hormones could modulate the extinction response of a passive avoidance conditioning in rats. Male Wistar rats, randomly assigned to five groups, two controls and three experimental groups, were submitted to a one-trial passive avoidance conditioning and tested for their retention 24 hr after and during 10 weeks. One control group received no treatment at all, the other received vegetable oil, and the three experimental received 20 mg of testosterone enanthate, 0.8 mg estradiol valerate, or 4 mg nandrolone decanoate, respectively. All substances were applied in a 0.3 ml volume, 24 hours before training and before testing for retention each week during 10 weeks. Results indicate that the extinction process is modulated by these hormones, since testosterone and estradiol facilitate extinction, whereas the anabolic androgen produced a resistance to the extinction process.

  14. Both cell-autonomous mechanisms and hormones contribute to sexual development in vertebrates and insects.

    PubMed

    Bear, Ashley; Monteiro, Antónia

    2013-08-01

    The differentiation of male and female characteristics in vertebrates and insects has long been thought to proceed via different mechanisms. Traditionally, vertebrate sexual development was thought to occur in two phases: a primary and a secondary phase, the primary phase involving the differentiation of the gonads, and the secondary phase involving the differentiation of other sexual traits via the influence of sex hormones secreted by the gonads. In contrast, insect sexual development was thought to depend exclusively on cell-autonomous expression of sex-specific genes. Recently, however, new evidence indicates that both vertebrates and insects rely on sex hormones as well as cell-autonomous mechanisms to develop sexual traits. Collectively, these new data challenge the traditional vertebrate definitions of primary and secondary sexual development, call for a redefinition of these terms, and indicate the need for research aimed at explaining the relative dependence on cell-autonomous versus hormonally guided sexual development in animals.

  15. Purification and Characterization of the Hormone Initiating Sexual Morphogenesis in Volvox carteri f. nagariensis Iyengar

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Richard C.; Jaenicke, Lothar

    1974-01-01

    In Volvox carteri f. nagariensis male spheroids secrete into the medium a sexual hormone which controls the initiation of the developmental pathway leading to the formation of sexual embryos. In the absence of the hormone asexual embryos are formed. Analysis of the highly purified hormone indicates that it is a glycoprotein of 27,500-30,000 daltons, composed of one peptide chain, which has a typical composition except for a relatively low content of tryptophan. The glycosidic moiety, which accounts for about 45% of the weight of the molecule, consists of pentoses, hexoses, and amino hexoses. In the bioassay the highly purified hormone stimulates 100% formation of sexual embryos at a concentration of 10-10 g/liter and 14.4% sexual embryos at 10-11 g/liter (3 × 10-16 M). The activity is remarkably thermostable and resistant to different denaturing procedures. PMID:4524613

  16. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis. PMID:26894583

  17. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  18. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

    PubMed

    Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12), and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results

  19. The Study of Gonadal Hormonal Abnormalities and Sexual Dysfunction in HIV Positive Females: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Kallikadavil, Abithraj; Shivaswamy, Rajendraprasad; Menon, Vineetha Bharathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Every endocrine gland has been reported to be affected at varying rates in HIV. HIV is a highly stigmatized chronic disease with a substantial co-occurrence of mental and sexual health problems; however the sexual health problems in women have not been extensively studied. Aim To study the gonadal hormonal abnormalities and sexual dysfunction in HIV positive female patients and its possible association. Materials and Methods This descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine at a tertiary care hospital from September 2013 to August 2015. The study group included 50 diagnosed HIV-positive patients. They were also subjected to specific questions regarding sexual dysfunction by female counselors using female sexual function index. Visits of the subjects were scheduled independent of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal levels (free testosterone, FSH, LH) were measured. Results Out of 50 patients, 26 patients in our study had sexual dysfunction (52%). Patients with age group between 30-39 years had the maximum sexual dysfunction compared to the other groups (<0.001). Patients with a CD4 count between 200 and 499 had the maximum sexual dysfunction (<0.02). Mean duration of HIV in the study was 30 months in sexual dysfunction group which was significant (p<0.005). Hormonal levels were found to be in normal range. All the study patients reported desire, arousal and lubrication problems whereas orgasm and satisfaction problems were noted in 60% patients with pain reported in 52%. Conclusion We identified that although the hormonal levels were in the normal range, they were comparatively in the lower range in the dysfunction group than the non-dysfunctional group. Both free testosterone and FSH levels were low indicating involvement of the pituitary rather than the gonads. We also conclude that duration of HIV and also level of CD4 count is related to sexual dysfunction. PMID:27190860

  20. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun

    2006-04-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed. PMID:16706106

  1. Female hormone influences on sexual assaults in Northern Ireland from 2002 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Patricia; Hall, Janet; Grills, Claire; Moore, Tara

    2011-10-01

    In Northern Ireland 1 in every 454 women of 13 years and over during 2008/09 reported to police that they had suffered a sexual assault. This study considered the possibility that women may be more likely to be victims of sexual assault during the fertile phase of their reproductive cycle. Evolutionary psychology suggests that women would have suffered more negative consequences if sexually assaulted when fertile and that specific psychological mechanisms may have evolved in women to combat male coercion. Female behaviours towards men vary across the reproductive cycle and men's behaviour towards women may vary also as a result of changes in female hormones. Hormones play a major role in producing the characteristic cyclical changes throughout a woman's reproductive life. This study is the first study of female hormone influences on sexual assaults. The data for the study was collated retrospectively from the records of 105 females with regular, spontaneous menstrual cycles. These females alleged recent sexual assault and were examined in Belfast during the period 2002-2009. The study concluded that young girls in the middle of their cycle, i.e. the fertile phase, were most at risk of sexual assault. It is possible that both sexes are sensitive to signs, albeit subtle behavioural signs, indicating high risk of conception. PMID:21907935

  2. Steroid hormones and CNS sexual dimorphisms modulate symptom expression in Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peterson, B S; Leckman, J F; Scahill, L; Naftolin, F; Keefe, D; Charest, N J; Cohen, D J

    1992-11-01

    We present our hypothesis that various steroid hormones play an important role in the symptom expression of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (TS) and that androgenic hormones, in particular, are likely to exacerbate symptoms of the disorder. We review the clinical evidence supporting our hypothesis. Sex steroids establish brain sexual dimorphisms early in CNS development, and we suggest mechanisms whereby androgenic and other hormonal changes later in human development might act at dimorphic brain regions to influence the natural history of TS. Finally, we discuss the various ways in which neuroendocrine studies might assist in genetic and neurobiologic research programs in TS.

  3. Women's Performance on Sexually Dimorphic Tasks: The Effect of Hormonal Fluctuations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duell, Lanora J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of hormonal fluctuations on women's performance on sexually dimorphic cognitive tasks. Thirty-six participants were recruited through introduction to psychology courses at three colleges. Participants were assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability III (WJ III COG), which is a commonly-used, widely…

  4. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  5. Chemical and Hormonal Effects on STAT5b-Dependent Sexual Dimorphism of the Liver Transcriptome.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth hormone (GH)-activated transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is a key regulator of sexually dimorphic gene expression in the liver. Suppression of hepatic STAT5b signaling is associated with lipid metabolic dysfunction leadi...

  6. Sexual differentiation of the adolescent rodent brain: hormonal influences and developmental mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Janice M; Sisk, Cheryl L; DonCarlos, Lydia L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexual differentiation is the process by which the nervous system becomes structurally and functionally dissimilar in females and males. In mammals, this process has been thought to occur during prenatal and early postnatal development, when a transient increase in testosterone secretion masculinizes and defeminizes the developing male nervous system. Decades of research have led to the views that structural sexual dimorphisms created during perinatal development are passively maintained throughout life, and that ovarian hormones do not play an active role in feminization of the nervous system. Furthermore, perinatal testosterone was thought to determine sex differences in neuron number by regulating cell death and cell survival, and not by regulating cell proliferation. As investigations of neural development during adolescence became more prominent in the late 20th century and revealed the extent of brain remodeling during this time, each of these tenets has been challenged and modified. Here we review evidence from the animal literature that 1) the brain is further sexually differentiated during puberty and adolescence; 2) ovarian hormones play an active role in the feminization of the brain during puberty; and 3) hormonally modulated, sex-specific addition of new neurons and glial cells, as well as loss of neurons, contribute to sexual differentiation of hypothalamic, limbic, and cortical regions during adolescence. This architectural remodeling during the adolescent phase of sexual differentiation of the brain may underlie the known sex differences in vulnerability to addiction and psychiatric disorders that emerge during this developmental period.

  7. Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. Methods Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in 20 women taking oral contraceptives (OC group) and 20 not using OCs (control group). Outcome measures were adapted from questionnaires of menstrual cycle-related symptoms, physical activity, and interpersonal relations. Testing occurred during menstruation (T1), mid-cycle (T2), and during the luteal phase (T3). Changes in behavior were assessed across time points and between groups. Additionally, correlations between hormones and socio-behavioral characteristics were determined. Results Physical discomfort and sleep disturbances peaked at T1 for both groups. Exercise levels and overall socio-sexual interest did not change across the menstrual cycle for both groups combined. However, slight mid-cycle increases in general and physical attraction were noted among the control group, whereas the OC group experienced significantly greater socio-sexual interest across all phases compared to the control group. Associations with hormones differed by group and cycle phase. The estrogens were correlated with socio-sexual and physical variables at T1 and T3 in the control group; whereas progesterone, cortisol, and DHEAS were more closely associated with these variables in the OC group across test times. The direction of influence further varies by behavior, group, and time point. Among naturally cycling women, higher concentrations of estradiol and estriol are associated with lower attraction scores at T1 but higher scores at T3. Among OC users, DHEAS and progesterone

  8. Influence of Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Health Beliefs on Sexual Orientation Disparities in Papanicolaou Test Use

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosario, Margaret; Kahn, Jessica A.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Reproductive health screenings are a necessary part of quality health care. However, sexual minorities underutilize Papanicolaou (Pap) tests more than heterosexuals do, and the reasons are not known. Our objective was to examine if less hormonal contraceptive use or less positive health beliefs about Pap tests explain sexual orientation disparities in Pap test intention and utilization. Methods. We used multivariable regression with prospective data gathered from 3821 females aged 18 to 25 years in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Results. Among lesbians, less hormonal contraceptive use explained 8.6% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 36.1% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Less positive health beliefs associated with Pap testing explained 19.1% of the disparities in Pap test intention. Together, less hormonal contraceptive use and less positive health beliefs explained 29.3% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 42.2% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Conclusions. Hormonal contraceptive use and health beliefs, to a lesser extent, help to explain sexual orientation disparities in intention and receipt of a Pap test, especially among lesbians. PMID:23763393

  9. Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction.

  10. Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-01-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

  11. Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

  12. Sexual dimorphism of stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction: the corticotropin releasing hormone perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas V.

    1995-01-01

    This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h) CRH gene: (1) a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic glucocorticoid administration in clinical practice and (2) a heuristic diagram to illustrate the proposed modulation of the stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction by steroid hormones, from the perspective of the CRH system. PMID:18475634

  13. Isolation of a sexual sporulation hormone from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Champe, S P; el-Zayat, A A

    1989-01-01

    Psi factor is a substance produced by Aspergillus nidulans that induces premature sexual sporulation. Chromatographic analysis of psi-active extracts showed that psi activity resides in several different forms. Two of the forms, psiA1 and psiB1, have been isolated and have been shown to have closely similar compositions. The most abundant form, psiA1, reacts with alcohols in acidic solution by the addition of one entire molecule of the alcohol. This reaction, which is reversible, suggests that psiA1 may be a lactone whose ring is opened by alcohol addition. At high concentration, psiA1 is antagonistic to the response exhibited by the other forms of psi, but this antagonism is lost by the alcoholic derivatives. At least one unpurified psi species can be converted to psiA1 by acid catalysis. We suggest that psiA1 may be the metabolic precursor of at least some of the other more active psi components and that this conversion during Aspergillus development may be part of the process that triggers sexual sporulation. Images PMID:2661541

  14. Masturbation Frequency and Sexual Function Domains Are Associated With Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels Across the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huiyong; Avis, Nancy E.; Greendale, Gail A.; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether reproductive hormones are related to sexual function during the menopausal transition. Design: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiethnic cohort study of the menopausal transition located at seven US sites. At baseline, the 3302 community-based participants, aged 42–52, had an intact uterus and at least one ovary and were not using exogenous hormones. Participants self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, Chinese, or Japanese. At baseline and at each of the 10 follow-up visits, sexual function was assessed by self-administered questionnaires, and blood was drawn to assay serum levels of T, estradiol, FSH, SHBG, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported frequency of masturbation, sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, and pain during intercourse. Results: Masturbation, sexual desire, and arousal were positively associated with T. Masturbation, arousal, and orgasm were negatively associated with FSH. Associations were modest. Estradiol was not related to any measured sexual function domain. Pain with intercourse was not associated with any hormone. Conclusions: Reproductive hormones were associated with sexual function in midlife women. T was positively associated, supporting the role of androgens in female sexual function. FSH was negatively associated, supporting the role of menopausal status in female sexual function. The modest associations in this large study suggest that the relationships are subtle and may be of limited clinical significance. PMID:25412335

  15. Fetal hormones and the brain: Effect on sexual dimorphism of behavior-A review.

    PubMed

    Money, J; Ehrhardt, A A

    1971-09-01

    Experimental animal studies of the influence of prenatally or neonatally administered sex hormones on subsequent manifestations of sexual behavior implicate an organizing action of sex hormones and related substances on the brain, probably in the region of the hypothalamus. The rule would appear to be that female-male bipotentiality applies initially, prior to the influence of any sex hormone in the course of brain development. Bipotentiality would appear to persist when the early hormonal environment is feminine, so that either the feminine or the masculine component of mating behavior can be elicited in adulthood, dependent, among other things, on whether the eliciting hormone is estrogen or androgen. Bipotentiality is resolved in favor of unipolar masculinity of mating behavior if the early hormonal influence at the critical differentiating period is androgenic. The feminine component is then inhibited. Once this is accomplished, the feminine component will, in many, though perhaps not all species, be elicited only under special conditions, for example, direct brain stimulation, or not at all. In the course of normal differentiation, the initial completeness of inhibition of feminine potential varies across species. Thus, it is more complete in the rat than the hamster. In man it is probably not very complete, and is perhaps individually variable, as well. PMID:24179069

  16. Neurotransmitter, opiodergic system, steroid-hormone interaction and involvement in the replacement therapy of sexual disorders.

    PubMed

    Frajese, G; Lazzari, R; Magnani, A; Moretti, C; Sforza, V; Nerozzi, D

    1990-11-20

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are the neurotransmitters most directly involved in sexual activity. DA plays a stimulatory role while 5-HT has an inhibitory effect. The two monoaminergic systems modulate the secretion of many hormones (GnRH, LH, testosterone, prolactin and endorphins) involved in sexual functional capacity. Furthermore, hormones influence synthesis and storage of brain neurotransmitters. Impotence can often be associated to clinical depression and altered neurotransmitter function. Moreover, stress represents an unbalance between various neurotransmitter systems and can induce impotence especially when disorders of the endorphinic system are present. Replacement therapy is based upon the understanding of these basic concepts. Impotence due to an underlying depressive illness must be treated with dopaminergic antidepressant drugs; while in stressful conditions a good response to the naloxone test is the preliminary criterion to subsequent naltrexone treatment. When a hormonal deficiency has been proved, the hormone replacement therapy is of course highly effective (gonadotropins in hypogonadotropic syndromes, testosterone in aging, etc.). Finally, idiopathic impotence could be treated by DA agonist and/or 5-HT antagonist drugs either alone or better yet in association with psychotherapy.

  17. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue.

  18. Neurotransmitter, opiodergic system, steroid-hormone interaction and involvement in the replacement therapy of sexual disorders.

    PubMed

    Frajese, G; Lazzari, R; Magnani, A; Moretti, C; Sforza, V; Nerozzi, D

    1990-11-20

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are the neurotransmitters most directly involved in sexual activity. DA plays a stimulatory role while 5-HT has an inhibitory effect. The two monoaminergic systems modulate the secretion of many hormones (GnRH, LH, testosterone, prolactin and endorphins) involved in sexual functional capacity. Furthermore, hormones influence synthesis and storage of brain neurotransmitters. Impotence can often be associated to clinical depression and altered neurotransmitter function. Moreover, stress represents an unbalance between various neurotransmitter systems and can induce impotence especially when disorders of the endorphinic system are present. Replacement therapy is based upon the understanding of these basic concepts. Impotence due to an underlying depressive illness must be treated with dopaminergic antidepressant drugs; while in stressful conditions a good response to the naloxone test is the preliminary criterion to subsequent naltrexone treatment. When a hormonal deficiency has been proved, the hormone replacement therapy is of course highly effective (gonadotropins in hypogonadotropic syndromes, testosterone in aging, etc.). Finally, idiopathic impotence could be treated by DA agonist and/or 5-HT antagonist drugs either alone or better yet in association with psychotherapy. PMID:1979499

  19. Central Effects of Camphor on GnRH and Sexual Hormones in Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Aghajanpour, Seyed Mohsen; Mousavi Kani, Seyedeh Narges; Pourbagher, Roghieh; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Esmaili, Mohsen; Yoonesi, Ali Asghar; Zarghami, Amin; Alinezhad, Farid

    2012-01-01

    In Persian traditional medicine is believed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) is a suppressor of sexual behaviors. This study examined the central effects of camphor on sexual hormones (LH, FSH and testosterone) and GnRH plasma levels in male rat. Male Wistar rats weighing 250-260gr were selected and divided into control (no treatment), sham (ICV injection of EtOH 10%) and treatment (ICV injection of camphor in three doses 4, 20, 40 µg/ 10µl in alcohol) groups. The serum samples were used for assaying of GnRH, LH, FSH and testosterone. There were no significant differences in the levels of hormones between the groups of study. Despite the central administration of camphor in hypothalamus - pituitary - gonad (HPG) axis, no significant differences were seen in sex hormone`s levels compared to the control. With this finding, it can be concluded that camphor may not effectively handle the axis via central pathway. These data recommend further studies of camphor on the HPG axis. PMID:24551777

  20. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competit...

  1. Building a scientific framework for studying hormonal effects on behavior and on the development of the sexually dimorphic nervous system

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...

  2. Sexually dimorphic expression of pituitary glycoprotein hormones in a sex-changing fish (Pseudolabrus sieboldi).

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kohei; Mine, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is involved in gonadal sex change in socially controlled sex-changing fish. However, the specific secretion profiles of pituitary gonadotropins (GtHs) in this type of fish are not known. To address this fundamental question, we demonstrated that the diurnal secretion patterns of GtHs differ distinctly between males and females in a socially controlled sex-changing fish. We analyzed the pituitary mRNA levels of glycoprotein hormone subunits (i.e., the common alpha-subunit and specific beta-subunits follicle-stimulating hormone beta, luteinizing hormone beta, and thyroid-stimulating hormone beta) in the wrasse Pseudolabrus sieboldi, which is a model fish that exhibits accurate diurnal rhythms of gametogenesis in both males and females. Northern blots clearly showed that each subunit gene exhibits a diurnal rhythm of expression in the pituitary and that the expression patterns differ distinctly between the sexes. Our results suggest that oogenesis and spermatogenesis in this hermaphroditic fish are regulated differentially through the distinct secretion patterns of pituitary glycoprotein hormones. This study also provides direct evidence of the sexual plasticity of pituitary GtH secretion in a socially controlled sex-changing fish.

  3. Sexual transfer of the steroid hormone 20E induces the postmating switch in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Mitchell, Sara N.; Mameli, Enzo; Want, Elizabeth J.; Mariezcurrena Anton, Ainhoa; Serrao, Aurelio; Baldini, Francesco; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2014-01-01

    Female insects generally mate multiple times during their lives. A notable exception is the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which after sex loses her susceptibility to further copulation. Sex in this species also renders females competent to lay eggs developed after blood feeding. Despite intense research efforts, the identity of the molecular triggers that cause the postmating switch in females, inducing a permanent refractoriness to further mating and triggering egg-laying, remains elusive. Here we show that the male-transferred steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a key regulator of monandry and oviposition in An. gambiae. When sexual transfer of 20E is impaired by partial inactivation of the hormone and inhibition of its biosynthesis in males, oviposition and refractoriness to further mating in the female are strongly reduced. Conversely, mimicking sexual delivery by injecting 20E into virgin females switches them to an artificial mated status, triggering egg-laying and reducing susceptibility to copulation. Sexual transfer of 20E appears to incapacitate females physically from receiving seminal fluids by a second male. Comparative analysis of microarray data from females after mating and after 20E treatment indicates that 20E-regulated molecular pathways likely are implicated in the postmating switch, including cytoskeleton and musculature-associated genes that may render the atrium impenetrable to additional mates. By revealing signals and pathways shaping key processes in the An. gambiae reproductive biology, our data offer new opportunities for the control of natural populations of malaria vectors. PMID:25368171

  4. The effects of prenatal sex steroid hormones on sexual differentiation of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Karaismailoğlu, Serkan; Erdem, Ayşen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical gender-related differences in the brain occur prenatally. The sexual differences in the brain are affected by sex steroid hormones, which play important roles in the differentiation of neuroendocrine system and behavior. Testosterone, estrogen and dihydrotestosterone are the main steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The structural and behavioral differences in the female and male brains are observed in many animal species; however, these differences are variable between species. Animal and human (in vivo imaging and postmortem) studies on sex differences in the brain have shown many differences in the local distribution of the cortex, the gray-white matter ratio, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, hypothalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, limbic system and neurotransmitter systems. This review aims to evaluate the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical differences in the female and male brains and to assess the effect of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones on the developing brain. PMID:24592097

  5. At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

    2013-01-01

    N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

  6. Linking steroid hormone levels to sexual maturity index and energy reserves in Nereis diversicolor from clean and polluted estuaries.

    PubMed

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations.

  7. Hormone replacement with 17β-estradiol plus dihydrotestosterone restores male sexual behavior in rats treated neonatally with clomipramine.

    PubMed

    Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Soria-Fregozo, Cesar; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela; González, Marisela Hernández; Vázquez-Palacios, Gonzalo; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

    2014-11-01

    Male sexual behavior (MSB) in rodents, in both its consummatory and motivational components, is regulated by hormones such as testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone. In experiments, neonatal treatment with clomipramine (CMI; a serotonin reuptake inhibitor) reproduces some of the signs of depression in adult age, including reduced sexual behavior manifested in a lower percentage of subjects that mount, intromit and ejaculate, although their testosterone levels were not altered. However, the effect of this treatment on estrogen levels and the consequences of hormone substitution using 17β-estradiol and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone on the expression of male sexual behavior are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of neonatal treatment with CMI on plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels, and the role of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone in altering the consummatory and motivational components of sexual behavior in male rats. To this end, it analyzed the copulatory parameters and sexual incentive motivation (SIM) of rats treated with CMI under two conditions: basal and post-hormone replacements. Neonatal treatment with CMI did not affect plasma testosterone or 17β-estradiol concentrations, but did decrease both the consummatory component and sexual motivation according to the results of the SIM test. These aspects were recovered after administering 17β-estradiol +5-α-dihydrotestosterone, but not testosterone.

  8. The hormonal regulation of color changes in the sexually dichromatic frog Buergeria robusta.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zih-Jing; Lue, Sheng-I; Tsai, May-Jywan; Yu, Teng-Lang; Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Lee, Chia-Hun; Huang, Wei-Tung; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-01-01

    During the breeding season, dynamic changes in body coloration are regularly observed in the male brown tree frog Buergeria robusta. This study investigated the hypothesis that this sexual dichromatism in male B. robusta is mediated through hormonal regulation. Frogs were exogenously injected with testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2). This manipulation revealed that the body coloration (hue, brightness, and saturation) of the male frog increased significantly (i.e., the brilliant yellow color developed) in response to T but not in response to E2. Concurrently, the levels of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the pituitary gland were reduced in frogs whose coloration was pale brown on a yellow background. In particular, the weakest expressions of BDNF, PACAP, and PACAP type II receptors (VPAC-1R) were found in male frogs with a brilliant yellow body color during the breeding season regardless of background color. These changes may decrease α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone production associated with the PACAP receptors (VPAC-1R), resulting in the aggregation of black pigment in melanophores and the production of a brilliant yellow body color. The effects of hormones on skin coloration were further examined in isolated skin in vitro. The results of this investigation showed that the dispersion of xanthophores was stimulated by T or prolactin (PRL) and that the melanophores were aggregated by melatonin (MEL) but not by E2. Furthermore, yellow pigments in the xanthophores were significantly dispersed following the PRL+T treatment. In the T+MEL, PRL+MEL, and T+PRL+MEL treatments, xanthophores were dispersed, and melanophores were aggregated and subsequently moved to the low spongiosum layer of the dorsal skin, causing the increase in yellow coloration. These results reveal that multiple hormones play major roles in the regulation of the brilliant yellow coloration of male B. robusta by

  9. Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Reduces Sexual Motivation But Not Lordosis Behavior In Female Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Piekarski, David J.; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Iwasa, Takeshi; Legan, Sandra J.; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems that lie upstream of GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH; also known as RFamide related peptide-3) and kisspeptin, are potent inhibitory and excitatory modulators of GnRH, respectively, participate in the timing of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and ovulation. Whether these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormonetreated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids and kisspeptin cell activation. Together, these data point to GnIH as an important modulator of female proceptive sexual behavior and motivation, independent of downstream alterations in sex steroid production. PMID:23827890

  10. The relationship between circulating kisspeptin and sexual hormones levels in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Kotani, Masato; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

    2015-03-13

    The kisspeptin (metastin) is an endogenous peptide, which regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin was detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH was not. Previously, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in male healthy subjects and patients with hypogonadism using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate a normal range in healthy males and clinical implications of kisspeptin in male hypogonadism. We suggested that the plasma kisspeptin levels were received feedback from testosterone. In this study, we focused female subjects and elucidated the relationship between menstrual cycle and plasma kisspeptin levels to understand kisspeptin-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. We measured plasma kisspeptin levels in eight female volunteers. The plasma kisspeptin levels in female are significantly higher than those in male. There are no significant correlation between plasma kisspeptin levels and sexual hormones. We revealed that the kisspeptin might stimulate a start of menstruation as a trigger, and progress menstruation covered for weakened ovarian function. We suggest that kisspeptin may be closely related with menstrual cycle and that the measurement of plasma kisspeptin levels is useful for understanding of reproductive system.

  11. Clinical, hormonal and radiological profile of 46XY disorders of sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Vasundhera, Chauhan; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: 46 XY disorders of sexual development (DSD) cover a wide spectrum of phenotypes ranging from unambiguous female genitalia to ambiguous male genitalia with hypospadias or dysgenetic gonads. Management of these patients depends on the cause of DSD, degree of feminization, age at presentation, and gender orientation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation and management of patients with 46XY DSD at our center. Patients and Methods: All new and old patients of 46XY DSD attending the endocrine OPD in a period of 16 months were included in this study. Clinical, cytogenetic, hormonal, and radiological evaluation were done to identify the cause of DSD. Results: Among 19 patients, eight were diagnosed with disorders of gonadal development (one with complete gonadal dysgenesis, four with partial gonadal dysgenesis, two with congenital bilateral anorchia, and one with ovotesticular DSD) and eight with disorders of androgen synthesis and action (one with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome [AIS], three with partial AIS and four with 5α reductase deficiency). In three patients, a definitive diagnosis could not be made. Conclusions: Management of patients with DSD depends on etiology, gender assignment, gender orientation, hormonal treatment, genital surgery, and consequent psychosocial implications. Due to the overlapping clinical and biochemical parameters in different subsets of DSD, only a preliminary etiological diagnosis can be made in some cases. Genetic studies with long-term follow-up are required for an accurate diagnosis. PMID:27186544

  12. Chemical and Hormonal Effects on STAT5b-Dependent Sexual Dimorphism of the Liver Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Keiyu; Waxman, David J.; Corton, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-activated transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is a key regulator of sexually dimorphic gene expression in the liver. Suppression of hepatic STAT5b signaling is associated with lipid metabolic dysfunction leading to steatosis and liver cancer. In the companion publication, a STAT5b biomarker gene set was identified and used in a rank-based test to predict both increases and decreases in liver STAT5b activation status/function with high (≥ 97%) accuracy. Here, this computational approach was used to identify chemicals and hormones that activate (masculinize) or suppress (feminize) STAT5b function in a large, annotated mouse liver and primary hepatocyte gene expression compendium. Exposure to dihydrotestosterone and thyroid hormone caused liver masculinization, whereas glucocorticoids, fibroblast growth factor 15, and angiotensin II caused liver feminization. In mouse models of diabetes and obesity, liver feminization was consistently observed and was at least partially reversed by leptin or resveratrol exposure. Chemical-induced feminization of male mouse liver gene expression profiles was a relatively frequent phenomenon: of 156 gene expression biosets from chemically-treated male mice, 29% showed feminization of liver STAT5b function, while <1% showed masculinization. Most (93%) of the biosets that exhibited feminization of male liver were also associated with activation of one or more xenobiotic-responsive receptors, most commonly constitutive activated receptor (CAR) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Feminization was consistently associated with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) but not other lipogenic transcription factors linked to steatosis. GH-activated STAT5b signaling in mouse liver is thus commonly altered by diverse chemicals, and provides a linkage between chemical exposure and dysregulated gene expression

  13. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  14. Hormone-dependent aggression in male rats is proportional to serum testosterone concentration but sexual behavior is not.

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Watson, N V; Gorzalka, B B; Walsh, M L

    1990-09-01

    Male hooded rats were castrated and implanted with Silastic capsules (1.57 mm i.d.; 3.18 mm o.d.) having a testosterone-filled space 0, 7, 22, 60, or 90 mm long. All animals were returned to their original group cages for a three-week period to allow hormone concentrations and behavioral tendencies to stabilize. Each male was then housed with an intact female in a large cage. Aggression by the male toward an unfamiliar male was tested at weekly intervals for three weeks. Sexual behavior with an estrogen/progesterone-primed ovariectomized female was tested on each of the subsequent two weeks. Serum testosterone was measured during the following week. The frequency of aggression was correlated with serum testosterone concentration up to the normal level and did not increase with higher serum testosterone concentrations. In contrast, sexual behavior was virtually absent in animals with no testosterone replacement and normal in all other groups. These results demonstrate a clear dissociation in the dependence of hormone-dependent aggression and sexual behavior on serum testosterone concentration. In a male cohabiting with a female, sexual experience activates hormone-dependent aggression toward an unfamiliar male but the level of aggression that develops depends on the serum testosterone concentration in the resident male.

  15. Changes in sexual function and gonadal axis hormones after switching to aripiprazole in male schizophrenia patients: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Lee, Moon-Soo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Joe, Sook-Haeng

    2012-07-01

    Antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction is a common problem in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of switching to aripiprazole on sexual dysfunction and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male patients with schizophrenia. In this prospective, open-label study, the participants were 10 male schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, risperidone, amisulpride, and olanzapine. Before and after switching to aripiprazole, they were assessed on the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale, and hormonal levels were measured. Our results showed a significant improvement in the severity of sexual dysfunction, especially in 'ease of sexual arousal' and 'penile erection,' as measured by the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale total scores after switching to aripiprazole (χ(2) = 12.45 and P = 0.002). The serum prolactin level decreased significantly after switching to aripiprazole (χ(2) = 11.14 and P = 0.004), but the changes in the total testosterone level were not significant (χ(2) = 4.75 and P = 0.93). Our results suggest that sexual dysfunction in schizophrenia patients seems to improve after switching to aripiprazole from other atypical antipsychotics (risperiodone, amisulpride, or olanzapine). This may be associated with a change in dopamine and serotonin transmissions and a decrease in the serum prolactin concentration.

  16. DEHP (DI-N-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE), WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION, INDUCES DOSE DEPENDENT DECREASES IN FETAL TESTIS GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEHP (di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate), when administered during sexual differentiation, induces dose dependent decreases in fetal testis gene expression and steroid hormone synthesis.
    Vickie S. Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Kathy Bobseine, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and ...

  17. Erectile Dysfunction and Sexual Hormone Levels in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels.

  18. Association of Hormonal Contraceptive Use With Reduced Levels of Depressive Symptoms: A National Study of Sexually Active Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M.; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008), focusing on women aged 25–34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25–34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (β = −1.04, 95% confidence interval: −1.73, −0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440

  19. Endogenous reproductive hormones and nocturnal rhythms in partner preference and sexual behavior of ATD-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J; van Ophemert, J; Timmerman, M A; de Jong, F H; Slob, A K

    1995-10-01

    Male rats received subcutaneously silastic capsules, containing the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD), shortly after birth. Control males were given silastic capsules containing cholesterol. The capsules were removed at the age of 21 days. In adulthood, blood serum was collected early and late in the dark phase of the light/dark cycle (experiment I). Testosterone and luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) fluctuated nocturnally, both in ATD and control males, with highest levels late in the dark phase. FSH levels were significantly higher in ATD males. Nocturnal levels of inhibin, a selective suppressor of pituitary FSH secretion, also fluctuated in both ATD and control males, with lowest levels late in the dark phase. In experiment II, ATD and control males were tested for partner preference behavior in a three-compartment box (choice: sexually active male vs. estrous female) early and late in the dark phase. When gonadally intact, ATD males, but not controls, showed a clear nocturnal rhythmicity in partner preference behavior and sexual behavior. Early in the dark phase, such ATD males preferred the vicinity of and interaction with a sexually active male. Late in the dark phase, this preference for the active male shifted to a preference for the estrous female. Control males preferred the estrous female. After castration and subsequent treatment with testosterone via silastic capsules, which ensured constant blood serum levels, ATD males continued to show their nocturnal rhythms in partner preference behavior and in sexual behavior. Thus, the underlying mechanism of the nocturnal rhythmicity phenomenon is an organizational effect of neonatal ATD treatment rather than an activational effect of fluctuating serum hormone levels.

  20. Puberty and Girls' Sexuality: Why Hormones Are Not the Complete Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Sontag, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of puberty on changes in girls' feelings about their bodies and their sexuality is discussed. We present a model of girls' sexuality development that incorporates puberty, self, and peer systems. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Jorgenson, Laura C.; Smith, Jennifer M.; Aldag, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA) versus control (CN) subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine) factors also showed highly (p < 0.001) significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p = 0.012), and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.176). After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation. PMID:26693225

  2. Differential neural responses to child and sexual stimuli in human fathers and non-fathers and their hormonal correlates

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Rilling, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of paternal caregiving for positive child development, little is known about the neural changes that accompany the transition to fatherhood in humans, or about how changes in hormone levels affect paternal brain function. We compared fathers of children aged 1–2 with non-fathers in terms of hormone levels (oxytocin and testosterone), neural responses to child picture stimuli, and neural responses to visual sexual stimuli. Compared to non-fathers, fathers had significantly higher levels of plasma oxytocin and lower levels of plasma testosterone. In response to child picture stimuli, fathers showed stronger activation than non-fathers within regions important for face emotion processing (caudal middle frontal gyrus [MFG]), mentalizing (temporo-parietal junction [TPJ]) and reward processing (medial orbitofrontal cortex [mOFC]). On the other hand, non-fathers had significantly stronger neural responses to sexually provocative images in regions important for reward and approach-related motivation (dorsal caudate and nucleus accumbens). Testosterone levels were negatively correlated with responses to child stimuli in the MFG. Surprisingly, neither testosterone nor oxytocin levels predicted neural responses to sexual stimuli. Our results suggest that the decline in testosterone that accompanies the transition to fatherhood may be important for augmenting empathy toward children. PMID:24882167

  3. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Masi, Alfonse T; Rehman, Azeem A; Jorgenson, Laura C; Smith, Jennifer M; Aldag, Jean C

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA) versus control (CN) subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine) factors also showed highly (p < 0.001) significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p = 0.012), and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.176). After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation. PMID:26693225

  4. Short-Period Influence of Chronic Morphine Exposure on Serum Levels of Sexual Hormones and Spermatogenesis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnia, Hasan; Akhavan Rezayat, Alireza; Hoseyni, Mahmood; Sharifi, Nooriye; Khajedalooee, Mohhamad; Akhavan Rezayat, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased rates of addiction and its broad societal complications are well known. One of the most important systems that may malfunction in drug abusers is the reproductive system, and evaluating patients for this potential risk may lead to increased awareness. Materials and Methods Thirty 60-day-old male rats were divided into control and target groups. The target group underwent 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of morphine twice a day while the control group underwent normal saline injections (at the same dosage). After 60 days, the rats were anesthetized, and after blood sampling, they underwent bilateral orchiepididymectomy. Histological and hormonal evaluations were performed on the samples. Results Levels of sex hormonal features and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced in the target group compared to the control group. LH levels showed a meaningful decrease in the target group, but FSH and testosterone levels did not. On histological section analysis, mature sperm were meaningfully decreased in the target group. Conclusions Chronic use of opioids may lead to alterations in sexual features and sexual hormones. Therefore, opioids have the potential to cause infertility. These changes may result from the effect of the drugs on the hypophysis or hypothalamus, the direct effect of the drugs on the seminiferous tubules, or a combination of both. The findings suggest that public awareness about addiction may cause decreased infertility rates. PMID:27713869

  5. A hormone-related female anti-aphrodisiac signals temporary infertility and causes sexual abstinence to synchronize parental care

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Katharina C.; Stökl, Johannes; Schweizer, Rebecca; Vogel, Heiko; Ayasse, Manfred; Ruther, Joachim; Steiger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The high energetic demand of parental care requires parents to direct their resources towards the support of existing offspring rather than investing into the production of additional young. However, how such a resource flow is channelled appropriately is poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the physiological mechanisms coordinating parental and mating effort in an insect exhibiting biparental care. We show a hormone-mediated infertility in female burying beetles during the time the current offspring is needy and report that this temporary infertility is communicated via a pheromone to the male partner, where it inhibits copulation. A shared pathway of hormone and pheromone system ensures the reliability of the anti-aphrodisiac. Female infertility and male sexual abstinence provide for the concerted investment of parental resources into the existing developing young. Our study thus contributes to our deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive parental decisions. PMID:27002429

  6. A hormone-related female anti-aphrodisiac signals temporary infertility and causes sexual abstinence to synchronize parental care.

    PubMed

    Engel, Katharina C; Stökl, Johannes; Schweizer, Rebecca; Vogel, Heiko; Ayasse, Manfred; Ruther, Joachim; Steiger, Sandra

    2016-03-22

    The high energetic demand of parental care requires parents to direct their resources towards the support of existing offspring rather than investing into the production of additional young. However, how such a resource flow is channelled appropriately is poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the physiological mechanisms coordinating parental and mating effort in an insect exhibiting biparental care. We show a hormone-mediated infertility in female burying beetles during the time the current offspring is needy and report that this temporary infertility is communicated via a pheromone to the male partner, where it inhibits copulation. A shared pathway of hormone and pheromone system ensures the reliability of the anti-aphrodisiac. Female infertility and male sexual abstinence provide for the concerted investment of parental resources into the existing developing young. Our study thus contributes to our deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive parental decisions.

  7. Same-sex sexual partner preference in hormonally and neurologically unmanipulated animals.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L

    2002-01-01

    Proximate and ultimate biological theories for understanding sexual behavior predict that sexual dimorphism in sexual partner preference should be ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. A review of the literature found evidence for same-sex sexual partner preference in a small number of species (female pukekos, cows, domestic rams, female Uganda kobs, female Japanese macaques). Thus, theoretical predictions concerning the development and evolution of sexual partner preference appear to hold true except for a handful of exceptional species. Why individuals in some animal species exhibit same-sex sexual partner preference remains the object of debate. At a proximate level, domestic rams that exhibit same-sex sexual partner preference have been shown to differ in certain aspects of their neurobiology and physiology from rams that do not exhibit such a preference. It remains unclear, however, as to whether these differences are produced by sex-atypical perinatal exposure to androgens and their estrogenic metabolites. At an ultimate level, numerous functional hypotheses for same-sex sexual partner preference have been tested in female Japanese macaques but have failed to receive support. Understanding why same-sex sexual partner preference evolves in some species may involve abandoning a strictly functional perspective and, instead, approaching the issue from the perspective of each species' unique evolutionary history.

  8. Testicular hormones do not regulate sexually dimorphic Pavlovian fear conditioning or perforant-path long-term potentiation in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Anagnostaras, S G; Maren, S; DeCola, J P; Lane, N I; Gale, G D; Schlinger, B A; Fanselow, M S

    1998-04-01

    We recently reported that Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal perforant-path long-term potentiation (LTP) are sexually dimorphic in rats. Males show greater contextual fear conditioning, which depends on the hippocampus, as well as greater hippocampal LTP. In order to examine the role of circulating gonadal hormones in adult male rats, animals were castrated in two experiments, and Pavlovian fear conditioning and in vivo perforant-path LTP were examined. It was found that sexually-dimorphic LTP and fear conditioning are not regulated by the activational effects of testicular hormones in adult male rats. That is, in every respect, castrated male rats were similar to intact male rats in Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal LTP. It is likely that sexual dimorphism in this system is established earlier in development by the organizational effects of gonadal hormones.

  9. [The effect of recombinant somatotropin hormone on the secretion of ovarian hormones in sexually mature swine in vivo and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Nitray, J; Sirotkin, A V; Poltársky, J; Bulla, J

    1993-01-01

    The development of recombinant somatotropic hormone (STH) creates a prerequisite for a wide application of exogenous stimulation of meat and milk performance of cows and pigs. Reproduction effect and its mechanism is till now restricted by a lack of complex information though there are several studies of principal character and basic effects of STH on reproduction process are also known. The result of some experimental studies, quoted in scientific literature, was a hypothesis that STH effect is accompanied by increased production of so-called insulin-like growth factors. Moreover, it is known that these factors have a steroidogenic effect. A hypothesis of STH action, just by means of insulin-like growth factors, was expressed on the basis of the above mentioned fact. Our study was aimed at the analysis of the effect of recombinant porcine somatotropic hormone (rpSTH, Research and Development, Pittman-Moore, Inc.; Terre Haute, Indiana, the U.S.A., LG-COMP-1776/93) on the dynamics of progesterone, cAMP, cGMP concentrations in the blood plasma of sexually mature gilts with surgically introduced permanent canula in v. jugularis. Gilts of early and medium follicular stages of the oestrous cycle (found laparoscopically) without any developmental or any other anomalies in reproductive organs. Blood samples were collected each 15 minutes in the period of 30 minutes before and 150 minutes after rpSTH application (5 mg per gilt). The control of gilts was administered 0.9% NaCl solution under the same conditions. Blood plasma samples collected and processed were stored not earlier than after radioimmunoassay of substances. A part of the study was to analyze different rpSTH doses (1-100,000 ng/ml) on granulosis cells on gilts' ovaries obtained after slaughtering of sexually mature gilts without any visible changes in the reproductive system. Granulosis cells were separated after aspiration of follicles of the size 2 to 5 mm without marked paleness, after thrice resuspending

  10. Expression patterns of gonadotropin hormones and their receptors during early sexual differentiation in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongwei; Ijiri, Shigeho; Wu, Quan; Kobayashi, Tohru; Li, Shuang; Nakaseko, Taro; Adachi, Shinji; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2012-11-01

    In Nile tilapia, sex-specific expression of foxl2 and cyp19a1a in XX gonads and dmrt1 in XY gonads at 5-6 days after hatching (dah) is critical for differentiation of the gonads into either ovaries or testes. The factors triggering sexually dimorphic expression of these genes are unknown, and whether the gonadotropin hormones are involved in early gonadal sex differentiation of the Nile tilapia has been unclear. In the present study, we determined the precise timing of expression of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the pituitary and that of their receptors (fshra and lhcgrbb) in the undifferentiated gonad in both XX and XY tilapia fry by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Expression of fshb mRNA and Fsh protein in the pituitary was detected from the first sampling day (3 dah) to 25 dah in both XX and XY tilapia larvae without sexual dimorphism and increased gradually after 25 dah in the pituitary. fshra mRNA was expressed beginning 5 dah and was present at significantly higher levels in XX gonads than in the XY gonads at 6-25 dah. These results indicate that the level of Fsh protein in the pituitary was not critical for differentiation of gonads into ovaries or testes, but the expression level of its receptor, fshra, in undifferentiated gonads appeared to be involved in determining gonadal sexual differentiation. Based on these observations, it is likely that in XX gonads, up-regulation of fshra may be necessary to induce cyp19a1a expression, which stimulates estradiol-17beta (E(2)) production and subsequent ovarian differentiation. On the other hand, lhb mRNA was not detected until 25 dah in the pituitaries of both sexes, and sexual dimorphism in lhcgrbb mRNA levels appeared later (10-25 dah) than that of fshra in the gonads, indicating the limited role of LH and lhcgrbb in gonadal differentiation of the Nile tilapia.

  11. Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Klingerman, Candice M.; Williams, Wilbur P.; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396

  12. The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on growth hormone secretion and hepatic sexual dimorphism in male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the activities of several sexually dimorphic hepatic proteins was investigated in male rats by feeding a nutritionally adequate liquid diet supplemented with either ethanol or dextrimaltose. Two androgen-responsive proteins served as markers of masculine hepatic function. A high capacity, moderate affinity male estrogen-binding protein (MEB) is found only in male rat liver cytosol and this activity was significantly reduced in all animals consuming ethanol at a dose of 5% by volume. The estrogen metabolizing enzyme estrogen 2-hydroxylase was also significantly reduced in male rats fed ethanol. Two proteins having higher activity in female compared to male liver were chosen as indicators of feminization: ceruloplasmin and 5[alpha]-reductase. Ceruloplasmin activity was increased after long term feeding of ethanol, but not after shorter durations of alcohol consumption. The 5a-reductase activity was not significantly affected by any of the alcohol feeding studies. Serum testosterone levels were not significantly decreased after ethanol consumption. After 30 or 60 days of ethanol ingestion, serum estradiol was elevated 34% and 40%. The reversibility of ethanol effects was determined by a gradual withdrawal of alcohol from the diet. The effect of ethanol consumption on sex-specific patterns of growth hormone secretion was examined. The secretory pattern of alcohol-fed rats was not feminized; after ethanol ingestion, the frequency of growth hormone pulses was unchanged. An increase in pulse height and mean growth hormone concentration was observed after 60 days of ethanol consumption. This results constitutes a change away from rather than toward the characteristics of a female secretory pattern. The feminization of activities of the male estrogen binding protein and of estrogen 2-hydroxylase in male rat liver after chronic ethanol consumption are not apparently related to a feminization of growth hormone secretion pattern.

  13. Reproductive hormone monitoring of dugongs in captivity: detecting the onset of sexual maturity in a cryptic marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Elizabeth A; Blanshard, Wendy H; Barnes, Andrew D; Gilchrist, Sam; Keeley, Tamara; Chua, Jayce; Lanyon, Janet M

    2013-08-01

    Determining the reproductive status of long-term captive animals is essential because the onset of sexual maturity and reproductive activity may necessitate changes in husbandry requirements. This study reports on the first multi-year reproductive hormone monitoring program for captive dugongs of both sexes using feces. Fecal samples were collected from one male (Pig) over 9 years (4-13.2y of age; n=288 samples, 0.8±0.1 samples per week from July 2007 to February 2012) and one female (Wuru) over 7 years (from neonate to 6.9 y; n=171 samples, 0.5±0.1 samples per week from July 2007 to February 2012), and from one solitary female dugong (Gracie) over 10 months (10.5-11.3y of age; n=54 samples, 1.1±0.2 sample per week from September 2008 to June 2009). Using enzyme-immunoassay, fecal progesterone (fP) and estradiol-17β (fE) concentrations were assayed in the two captive females, and testosterone (fT) concentration in the captive male, and compared these to concentrations in wild dugongs. Female Wuru exhibited increasing fP concentrations at 5+ y, indicating early onset of ovarian cycling typical of non-pregnant adult females. Female Gracie maintained basal fP concentrations consistent with wild immature dugongs, indicating that she had not reached puberty by 11y. Nutritional plane may account for differences in age at sexual maturity in these female dugongs. At age 3-4y, Wuru had fE concentrations 1.4 times greater than maximum concentrations recorded in all wild females, and these concentrations were coincident with a period of rapid weight gain. For the male Pig, increasing fT concentrations at 9y provided early indications of puberty. Pig's tusks erupted by 11y, and sexual maturity (indicated by spermatic semen) was confirmed by 12.8y. Identification of sexual maturation prompted two trials of a male contraceptive treatment using the GnRH agonist, deslorelin (9.4mg administered in 2010 and 15.6mg in 2011). Testosterone production was not significantly

  14. The effects of embryonic treatments with gonadal hormones on sexually dimorphic behavior of chicks.

    PubMed

    Sayag, N; Robinzon, B; Snapir, N; Arnon, E; Grimm, V E

    1991-06-01

    In order to study the role of sex steroids in the differentiation of chick behavior, two groups of experiments were carried out. The first part of the study documented sexual dimorphisms in three behavioral measures in chicks: open-field activity, flocking response, and masculine sexual behavior activated by testosterone (crowing, waltzing, and mating attempts). In the second part, possible organizing influences on these sexually dimorphic behaviors were examined. Male and female embryos were injected with estradiol benzoate (EB) or testosterone propionate (TP). Treatment of males with EB or TP demasculinized all three behaviors. None of the steroid treatments had any effect on the behavior of the females. Plasma testosterone levels of the chicks were not affected by any of these treatments, either before or after testosterone activation. Comb weight was reduced by treatment of male embryos with EB and increased by TP in female embryos, which suggests different mechanism for the development of somatic and behavioral characteristics. The results suggest that exogenous T or E given embryonically can exert similar effects on both sexual behavior and nonreproductive activity of chicks. PMID:2066077

  15. Synchronous vitellogenin expression and sexual maturation during migration are negatively correlated with juvenile hormone levels in Mythimna separata

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hai-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Annual migration of pests between different seasonal habitats can lead to serious crop damage. Reproductive immaturity is generally associated with the migratory process (oogenesis-flight syndrome), but the mechanism of reproductive development during migration varies unpredictably. Here, the vitellogenin gene (MsVg) and three key regulatory enzyme genes (MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe) related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and degradation were identified and characterized in Mythimna separata. The relative expression of MsVg varied significantly in response to seasonal changes and was significantly correlated with stages of ovarian development. The relatively low levels of JH titer did not differ significantly in male moths but slightly increased in female adults during the migratory season, which was consistent with changes in mRNA levels for MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe. JH titer was negatively associated with relative seasonal levels of vitellogenin mRNA transcripts and with ovarian development in migrating M. separata. The synchrony of MsVg expression with sexual maturation highlighted the potential of MsVg transcript levels to serve as an index to monitor the adult reproductive status. In addition, the level of JH and sexual maturity were correlated with the extent of JH in regulating the MsVg expression and reproduction during seasonal northern and southern migration. PMID:27629246

  16. Pulsatile and sexually dimorphic secretion of luteinizing hormone in the human infant on the day of birth.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, F; Devlieger, H; Veldhuis, J D

    1992-11-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is operational and sexually dimorphic in the mammalian fetus and newborn. We examined the dynamics of human luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in five male and three female infants on the day of birth, after 34-41 wk of gestation. The infants were polycythemic, and blood samples were obtained every 20 min for 160 to 360 min during a therapeutic, standardized, isovolumetric, partial exchange transfusion. Serum LH was measured by an immunoradiometric assay that does not cross-react with human chorionic gonadotropin. The serum profiles of LH presented a striking sex dimorphism with elevated LH levels in male compared with female newborns. Deconvolution analysis of all male LH profiles was consistent with a high-frequency, pulsatile secretory pattern. Testosterone, measured in a pooled serum sample of each infant, was 10-fold higher in male than in female newborns. These results document pulsatile and sexually dimorphic secretion of LH in the human infant as early as the first day of postnatal life. It is possible that the augmented LH secretion in the male newborn participates in the neonatal rise of the serum testosterone concentration.

  17. Synchronous vitellogenin expression and sexual maturation during migration are negatively correlated with juvenile hormone levels in Mythimna separata.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hai-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Annual migration of pests between different seasonal habitats can lead to serious crop damage. Reproductive immaturity is generally associated with the migratory process (oogenesis-flight syndrome), but the mechanism of reproductive development during migration varies unpredictably. Here, the vitellogenin gene (MsVg) and three key regulatory enzyme genes (MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe) related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and degradation were identified and characterized in Mythimna separata. The relative expression of MsVg varied significantly in response to seasonal changes and was significantly correlated with stages of ovarian development. The relatively low levels of JH titer did not differ significantly in male moths but slightly increased in female adults during the migratory season, which was consistent with changes in mRNA levels for MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe. JH titer was negatively associated with relative seasonal levels of vitellogenin mRNA transcripts and with ovarian development in migrating M. separata. The synchrony of MsVg expression with sexual maturation highlighted the potential of MsVg transcript levels to serve as an index to monitor the adult reproductive status. In addition, the level of JH and sexual maturity were correlated with the extent of JH in regulating the MsVg expression and reproduction during seasonal northern and southern migration. PMID:27629246

  18. Association of Sex Hormones With Sexual Function, Vitality, and Physical Function of Symptomatic Older Men With Low Testosterone Levels at Baseline in the Testosterone Trials

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Glenn R.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Wang, Christina; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Molitch, Mark E.; Farrar, John T.; Cella, David; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A.; Cifelli, Denise; Crandall, Jill P.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Fluharty, Laura; Gill, Thomas M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Pahor, Marco; Resnick, Susan M.; Storer, Thomas W.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan; Tabatabaie, Vafa; Hou, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction, low vitality, and poor physical function increases with aging, as does the prevalence of low total and free testosterone (TT and FT) levels. However, the relationship between sex hormones and age-related alterations in older men is not clear. Objective: To test the hypotheses that baseline serum TT, FT, estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are independently associated with sexual function, vitality, and physical function in older symptomatic men with low testosterone levels participating in the Testosterone Trials (TTrials). Design: Cross-sectional study of baseline measures in the TTrials. Setting: The study was conducted at 12 sites in the United States. Participants: The 788 TTrials participants were ≥ 65 years and had evidence of sexual dysfunction, diminished vitality, and/or mobility disability, and an average of two TT < 275 ng/dL. Interventions: None. Main Outcome Measures: Question 4 of Psychosocial Daily Questionnaire (PDQ-Q4), the FACIT-Fatigue Scale, and the 6-minute walk test. Results: Baseline serum TT and FT, but not E2 or SHBG levels had small, but statistically significant associations with validated measures of sexual desire, erectile function, and sexual activity. None of these hormones was significantly associated within or across trials with FACIT-Fatigue, PHQ-9 Depression or Physical Function-10 scores, or gait speed. Conclusions: FT and TT levels were consistently, independently, and positively associated, albeit to a small degree, with measures of sexual desire, erectile function, and sexual activity, but not with measures of vitality or physical function in symptomatic older men with low T who qualified for the TTrials. PMID:25548978

  19. A Genome-Wide Survey of Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Drosophila miRNAs Identifies the Steroid Hormone-Induced miRNA let-7 as a Regulator of Sexual Identity

    PubMed Central

    Fagegaltier, Delphine; König, Annekatrin; Gordon, Assaf; Lai, Eric C.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Shcherbata, Halyna R.

    2014-01-01

    MiRNAs bear an increasing number of functions throughout development and in the aging adult. Here we address their role in establishing sexually dimorphic traits and sexual identity in male and female Drosophila. Our survey of miRNA populations in each sex identifies sets of miRNAs differentially expressed in male and female tissues across various stages of development. The pervasive sex-biased expression of miRNAs generally increases with the complexity and sexual dimorphism of tissues, gonads revealing the most striking biases. We find that the male-specific regulation of the X chromosome is relevant to miRNA expression on two levels. First, in the male gonad, testis-biased miRNAs tend to reside on the X chromosome. Second, in the soma, X-linked miRNAs do not systematically rely on dosage compensation. We set out to address the importance of a sex-biased expression of miRNAs in establishing sexually dimorphic traits. Our study of the conserved let-7-C miRNA cluster controlled by the sex-biased hormone ecdysone places let-7 as a primary modulator of the sex-determination hierarchy. Flies with modified let-7 levels present doublesex-related phenotypes and express sex-determination genes normally restricted to the opposite sex. In testes and ovaries, alterations of the ecdysone-induced let-7 result in aberrant gonadal somatic cell behavior and non-cell-autonomous defects in early germline differentiation. Gonadal defects as well as aberrant expression of sex-determination genes persist in aging adults under hormonal control. Together, our findings place ecdysone and let-7 as modulators of a somatic systemic signal that helps establish and sustain sexual identity in males and females and differentiation in gonads. This work establishes the foundation for a role of miRNAs in sexual dimorphism and demonstrates that similar to vertebrate hormonal control of cellular sexual identity exists in Drosophila. PMID:25081570

  20. A genome-wide survey of sexually dimorphic expression of Drosophila miRNAs identifies the steroid hormone-induced miRNA let-7 as a regulator of sexual identity.

    PubMed

    Fagegaltier, Delphine; König, Annekatrin; Gordon, Assaf; Lai, Eric C; Gingeras, Thomas R; Hannon, Gregory J; Shcherbata, Halyna R

    2014-10-01

    MiRNAs bear an increasing number of functions throughout development and in the aging adult. Here we address their role in establishing sexually dimorphic traits and sexual identity in male and female Drosophila. Our survey of miRNA populations in each sex identifies sets of miRNAs differentially expressed in male and female tissues across various stages of development. The pervasive sex-biased expression of miRNAs generally increases with the complexity and sexual dimorphism of tissues, gonads revealing the most striking biases. We find that the male-specific regulation of the X chromosome is relevant to miRNA expression on two levels. First, in the male gonad, testis-biased miRNAs tend to reside on the X chromosome. Second, in the soma, X-linked miRNAs do not systematically rely on dosage compensation. We set out to address the importance of a sex-biased expression of miRNAs in establishing sexually dimorphic traits. Our study of the conserved let-7-C miRNA cluster controlled by the sex-biased hormone ecdysone places let-7 as a primary modulator of the sex-determination hierarchy. Flies with modified let-7 levels present doublesex-related phenotypes and express sex-determination genes normally restricted to the opposite sex. In testes and ovaries, alterations of the ecdysone-induced let-7 result in aberrant gonadal somatic cell behavior and non-cell-autonomous defects in early germline differentiation. Gonadal defects as well as aberrant expression of sex-determination genes persist in aging adults under hormonal control. Together, our findings place ecdysone and let-7 as modulators of a somatic systemic signal that helps establish and sustain sexual identity in males and females and differentiation in gonads. This work establishes the foundation for a role of miRNAs in sexual dimorphism and demonstrates that similar to vertebrate hormonal control of cellular sexual identity exists in Drosophila.

  1. Sexual differentiation of the mechanism controlling pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone contributes to sexual differences in the timing of puberty in sheep.

    PubMed

    Claypool, L E; Foster, D L

    1990-02-01

    Sexual differences in the regulation of tonic luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion were examined in immature female and male sheep (eight each, including six pairs of female/male twins). After gonadectomy of lambs at 2 weeks of age, Silastic capsules filled with estradiol, a primary central feedback steroid in both females and males, were implanted every 3 weeks for 3 days, and then removed, so that the pattern of LH secretion could be repeatedly determined in the same individuals both with and without steroid feedback. Implanted capsules yielded circulating steroid levels of 2-5 pg/ml. Circulating LH concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay in blood samples collected at 12-min intervals for 4 h immediately before estradiol was implanted, and again, immediately before it was removed 3 days later. In male lambs, a decrease in responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to inhibition by estradiol began at 8-11 weeks, as evidenced by the progressive increase in mean LH concentrations and frequency of LH pulses. This correlated temporally with the onset of spermatogenesis in intact male controls (n = 8). In females, a similar decrease in responsiveness did not occur until 26-29 weeks of age, corresponding to the onset of ovulatory cycles in intact female controls (n = 6). In the absence of estradiol implants, LH pulse frequencies were higher in male lambs than in female lambs between 5 and 35 weeks of age. There was no further increase in LH pulse frequency in the absence of the gonads in either sex during the pubertal period. These findings suggest that the mechanism regulating tonic LH secretion in developing lambs is sexually differentiated in its responsiveness to inhibition by estradiol. This differentiation also occurs at a more fundamental steroid-independent level, but any causal relationship between the higher steroid-independent LH pulse frequency and the lower responsiveness to estradiol negative feedback in males is not evident. We hypothesize

  2. The role of sexual steroid hormones in the direct stimulation by Kisspeptin-10 of the secretion of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin from bovine anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, A Ahmed; Saito, H; Sawada, T; Yaegashi, T; Goto, Y; Nakajima, Y; Jin, J; Yamashita, T; Sawai, K; Hashizume, T

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify the effect of Kisspeptin-10 (Kp10) on the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL) from bovine anterior pituitary (AP) cells and evaluate the ability of sex steroids to enhance the sensitivity of gonadotropic and lactotropic cells to Kp10. AP cells prepared from 7-week-old male calves were incubated for 12h with estradiol (E(2); 10(-8)M), progesterone (P(4); 10(-8)M), testosterone (T; 10(-8)M), or vehicle only (control), and then for 2h with Kp10 (10(-6)M). The amounts of LH, FSH and PRL released into the culture medium after the 2-h incubation period were examined. Kp10 significantly stimulated the secretion of LH from the AP cells treated with E(2) and T (P<0.05), but not from the P(4)-treated cells. In contrast, Kp10 had no effect on the secretion of FSH regardless of the steroid treatment. Kp10 significantly stimulated the secretion of PRL (P<0.05), the sexual steroid hormones having no effect. The LH- or FSH-releasing response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 10(-8)M) and PRL-releasing response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; 10(-8)M) were significantly greater than those to Kp10 (P<0.05). The present results suggest that E(2) and T, but not P(4), enhance the sensitivity of gonadotropic cells to the secretion of LH in response to Kp10. However, Kp10 had no stimulatory effect on the secretion of FSH regardless of the effect of sex steroids. Kp10 directly stimulates the secretion of PRL from the pituitary cells, and sex steroids do not enhance the sensitivity of lactotropic cells to Kp10. Furthermore, the LH- and FSH-releasing effect and the PRL-releasing effect of Kp10 are less potent than that of GnRH and TRH, respectively.

  3. Maternal deprivation has sexually dimorphic long-term effects on hypothalamic cell-turnover, body weight and circulating hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Viveros, María-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Díaz, Francisca; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) has numerous outcomes, including modulation of neuroendocrine functions. We previously reported that circulating leptin levels are reduced and hypothalamic cell-turnover is affected during MD, with some of these effects being sexually dimorphic. As leptin modulates the development of hypothalamic circuits involved in metabolic control, we asked whether MD has long-term consequences on body weight, leptin levels and the expression of neuropeptides involved in metabolism. Rats were separated from their mother for 24h starting on postnatal day (PND) 9 and sacrificed at PNDs 13, 35 and 75. In both sexes MD reduced body weight, but only until puberty, while leptin levels were unchanged at PND 35 and significantly reduced at PND 75. Adiponectin levels were also reduced at PND 75 in females, while testosterone levels were reduced in males. At PND 13, MD modulated cell-turnover markers in the hypothalamus of males, but not females and increased nestin, a marker of immature neurons, in both sexes, with males having higher levels than females and a significantly greater rise in response to MD. There was no effect of MD on hypothalamic mRNA levels of the leptin receptor or metabolic neuropeptides or the mRNA levels of leptin and adiponectin in adipose tissue. Thus, MD has long-term effects on the levels of circulating hormones that are not correlated with changes in body weight. Furthermore, these endocrine outcomes are different between males and females, which could be due to the fact that MD may have sexually dimorphic effects on hypothalamic development.

  4. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

  5. Sexual differentiation of the copulatory neuromuscular system in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): normal ontogeny and manipulation of steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Melissa M; Wade, Juli

    2005-09-01

    The copulatory neuromuscular system of green anoles is sexually dimorphic and differentiates during embryonic development, although details of the process were unknown. In Experiment 1, we determined the time course of normal ontogeny. Both male and female embryos possessed bilateral copulatory organs (hemipenes) and associated muscles until incubation day 13; the structures completely regressed in female embryos by incubation day 19 (total incubation 34 days). In Experiment 2, we treated eggs with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, or vehicle on both incubation days 10 and 13 to determine whether these steroid hormones mediate sexual differentiation. These time points fall between gonadal differentiation, which was determined in Experiment 1 to complete before day 10, and regression of the peripheral copulatory system in females. Tissue was collected on the day of hatching. Gonads were classified as testes or ovaries; presence versus absence of hemipenes and muscles, and the number and size of copulatory motoneurons were determined. Copulatory system morphology of vehicle-treated animals matched their gonadal sex. Hemipenes and muscles were absent in estradiol-treated animals, and androgens rescued the hemipenes and muscles in most females. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone treatment also caused hypertrophy of the hemipenes, which were everted in animals treated with these steroids. Copulatory motoneurons, assessed on the day of hatching in both experiments, were not dimorphic in size or number. Steroid treatment significantly increased motoneuron size and number overall, but no significant differences were detected in pairwise comparisons. These data demonstrate that differentiation of peripheral copulatory neuromuscular structures occurs during embryonic development and is influenced by gonadal steroids (regression by estradiol and enhancement by androgens), but associated motoneurons do not differentiate until later in life.

  6. Anti-Müllerian hormone: a new actor of sexual dimorphism in pituitary gonadotrope activity before puberty

    PubMed Central

    Garrel, Ghislaine; Racine, Chrystèle; L’Hôte, David; Denoyelle, Chantal; Guigon, Céline J.; di Clemente, Nathalie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) contributes to male sexual differentiation and acts on gonads of both sexes. Identification of AMH receptivity in both pituitary and brain has led to the intriguing idea that AMH participates to the hypothalamic-pituitary control of reproduction, however in vivo experimental evidence is still lacking. We show that AMH stimulates secretion and pituitary gene expression of the gonadotropin FSH in vivo in rats. AMH action is sex-dependent, being restricted to females and occurring before puberty. Accordingly, we report higher levels of pituitary AMH receptor transcripts in immature females. We show that AMH is functionally coupled to the Smad pathway in LβT2 gonadotrope cells and dose-dependently increases Fshb transcript levels. Furthermore, AMH was shown to establish complex interrelations with canonical FSH regulators as it cooperates with activin to induce Fshb expression whereas it reduces BMP2 action. We report that GnRH interferes with AMH by decreasing AMH receptivity in vivo in females. Moreover, AMH specifically regulates FSH and not LH, indicating that AMH is a factor contributing to the differential regulation of gonadotropins. Overall, our study uncovers a new role for AMH in regulating gonadotrope function and suggests that AMH participates in the postnatal elevation of FSH secretion in females. PMID:27030385

  7. 4-Dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase from Mucor mucedo, an enzyme of the sexual hormone pathway: purification, and cloning of the corresponding gene.

    PubMed

    Czempinski, K; Kruft, V; Wöstemeyer, J; Burmester, A

    1996-09-01

    We have purified the NADP-dependent 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase from the zygomycete Mucor mucedo. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of trisporic acid, the sexual hormone of zygomycetes, which induces the first steps of zygophore development. Protein was obtained from the (-) mating type of M. mucedo after induction with trisporic acid, and purified by gel filtration and affinity chromatography steps. On SDS-PAGE a band with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa was ascribed to the enzyme. After transferring onto PVDF membranes the protein was digested with endoprotease Lys-C, and several peptides were sequenced. Oligonucleotides derived from protein sequence data were used for PCR amplification of genomic M. mucedo DNA. The PCR fragment was used as probe for isolation of the corresponding cDNA and complete genomic DNA clones. Comparison of protein and DNA sequence data showed that the cloned fragment corresponded to the purified protein. Search for similarity with protein sequences of the Swiss-Prot database revealed a relationship to enzymes belonging to the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. Southern-blot analysis of genomic DNA with the labelled cloned fragment detected a single-copy gene in both mating types of M. mucedo. PCR with genomic DNA from other zygomycetes gave rise to several fragments. Hybridization analysis with the cloned M. mucedo fragment showed that a fragment of similar length cross-hybridized in Blakeslea trispora (Choanephoraceae) as well as in Parasitella parasitica and Absidia glauca (Mucoraceae). The promoter region of the gene contains DNA elements with similarity to a cAMP-regulated gene of Dictyostelium discoideum.

  8. Raging Hormones and Powerful Cars: The Construction of Men's Sexuality in School Sex Education and Popular Adolescent Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, Mariamne H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses issues of men's sexuality in the context of school sex education, and analyzes units on human reproduction in secondary biology textbooks. Compares official school knowledge about men's sexuality with alternative sources, including progressive books and the films of John Hughes, to explore the overlapping and contradictory discourses…

  9. Sex hormone receptors in the hypothalamus and their role in sexual differentiation of the male rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shishkina, I.V.; Babichev, V.N.; Ozol', L.Yu.

    1986-09-01

    In this investigation, changes in the level of receptors for sex hormones in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats were studied on the first through fifth days of postnatal life, and the results obtained were compared with the levels of luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in the peripheral blood in order to discover any correlation between these parameters. 2,4,6,7,-/sup 3/H-estradiol-17..beta.. and 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H-testosterone were used as labeled hormones. The values of the association constant and concentration of specific binding sites for estradiol and testosterone in hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats during neonatal development is shown. It is found that in male rats on the first day after birth, receptors for estradiol and testosterone are present and they enable the action both of the testicular hormone and that of estradiol to be realized.

  10. Sexually dimorphic expression of gonadotropin subunits in the pituitary of protogynous honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra): evidence that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) induces gonadal sex change.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Alam, Mohammad Ashraful; Horiguchi, Ryo; Shimizu, Akio; Nakamura, Masaru

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is involved in gonadal sex change in sex-changing teleosts. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we focused on the distinct roles of two gonadotropins (GTHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), in the protogynous hermaphrodite teleost, honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra). First, we investigated the expression pattern of mRNAs for GTH subunits (cga, fshb, and lhb) in the pituitaries from fish at the different sexual phases. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that fhsb mRNA levels in the female pituitary were low. However, fshb transcripts increased dramatically in association with testis development. In contrast, levels of cga and lhb mRNAs did not significantly vary during sex change. In addition, immunohistochemical observations of Fshb- and Lhb-producing cells in the pituitary, through the use of specific antibodies for detections of teleost GTH subunits, were consistent with sexually dimorphic expression of Fshb. In order to identify the role of GTH in gonad of honeycomb grouper, we treated females with bovine FSH (50 or 500 ng/fish) or LH (500 ng/fish) in vivo. After 3 wk, FSH treatments induced female-to-male sex change and up-regulated endogenous androgen levels and fshb transcripts, whereas LH treatment had no effect on sex change. These results suggest that FSH may trigger the female-to-male sex change in honeycomb grouper.

  11. Current hormonal contraceptive use predicts female extra-pair and dyadic sexual behavior: evidence based on Czech National Survey data.

    PubMed

    Klapilová, Kateřina; Cobey, Kelly D; Wells, Timothy; Roberts, S Craig; Weiss, Petr; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-10

    Data from 1155 Czech women (493 using oral contraception, 662 non-users), obtained from the Czech National Survey of Sexual Behavior, were used to investigate evolutionary-based hypotheses concerning the predictive value of current oral contraceptive (OC) use on extra-pair and dyadic (in-pair) sexual behavior of coupled women. Specifically, the aim was to determine whether current OC use was associated with lower extra-pair and higher in-pair sexual interest and behavior, because OC use suppresses cyclical shifts in mating psychology that occur in normally cycling women. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression and negative binomial models were used to test associations between OC use and these sexual measures, controlling for other relevant predictors (e.g., age, parity, in-pair sexual satisfaction, relationship length). The overall incidence of having had an extra-pair partner or one-night stand in the previous year was not related to current OC use (the majority of the sample had not). However, among the women who had engaged in extra-pair sexual behavior, OC users had fewer one-night stands than non-users, and tended to have fewer partners, than non-users. OC users also had more frequent dyadic intercourse than non-users, potentially indicating higher commitment to their current relationship. These results suggest that suppression of fertility through OC use may alter important aspects of female sexual behavior, with potential implications for relationship functioning and stability.

  12. Sexual dysfunction in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Morrell, M J

    1991-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction may arise more frequently in men and women with epilepsy than with other chronic illnesses, manifesting primarily as diminished sexual desire and potency. Studies using retrospective self-report of sexual attitude and behavior find an incidence of sexual dysfunction ranging from 14-66%. Sexual dysfunction may be more common in partial than in generalized epilepsies. Sexual dysfunction in epilepsy may result from a disturbance in social or psychological factors affecting sexual responsiveness. Alternatively, epileptiform discharges may disrupt the function of structures mediating sexual behavior, particularly the limbic cortex, or alter the release of hypothalamic or pituitary hormones. Antiepileptic drugs modulate hormone release from the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and may have direct inhibitory effects on sexual behavior. Evidence both supports and refutes each of these etiologies in the sexual dysfunction seen with epilepsy. Specific evaluation and treatment protocols for patients with sexual dysfunction are available.

  13. Hormonal monitoring of age at sexual maturation in female Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in their family groups.

    PubMed

    Dettling, A; Pryce, C R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not sexual maturation is attained in the family group in captive-born Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) and if so, at what age and body weight. To monitor ovarian activity in 14 female Goeldi's monkeys, urinary content of pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (PdG) was determined using radioimmunoassay. Urinary samples were collected between the ages of 6 and 70 weeks. Subjects became sexually mature while still housed in their family groups, at a median age of 57 weeks (48-< 70 weeks). Median body weight at the age of sexual maturity was 473 g (N=10; 420-543 g). This corresponded to 90% of the median non-pregnant body weight of breeding females in our colony (526 g, N=8). Therefore, Goeldi's monkey is similar to Leontopithecus but different from Cebuella, Callithrix, and Saguinus, in terms of daughters ovulating in the family group and at a relatively young age.

  14. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. PMID:26449161

  15. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels.

  16. Effects of Long-Term Flutamide Treatment During Development on Sexual Behaviour and Hormone Responsiveness in Rams.

    PubMed

    Roselli, C E; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Estill, C T

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone exposure during midgestation differentiates neural circuits controlling sex-specific behaviours and patterns of gonadotrophin secretion in male sheep. Testosterone acts through androgen receptors (AR) and/or after aromatisation to oestradiol and binding to oestrogen receptors. The present study assessed the role of AR activation in male sexual differentiation. We compared rams that were exposed to the AR antagonist flutamide (Flu) throughout the critical period (i.e. days 30-90 of gestation) to control rams and ewes that received no prenatal treatments. The external genitalia of all Flu rams were phenotypically female. Testes were positioned s.c. in the inguinal region of the abdomen, exhibited seasonally impaired androgen secretion and were azospermic. Flu rams displayed male-typical precopulatory and mounting behaviours but could not intromit or ejaculate because they lacked a penis. Flu rams exhibited greater mounting behaviour than control rams and, similar to controls, showed sexual partner preferences for oestrous ewes. Neither control, nor Flu rams responded to oestradiol treatments with displays of female-typical receptive behaviour or LH surge responses, whereas all control ewes responded as expected. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus in Flu rams was intermediate in volume between control rams and ewes and significantly different from both. These results indicate that prenatal anti-androgen exposure is not able to block male sexual differentiation in sheep and suggest that compensatory mechanisms intervene to maintain sufficient androgen stimulation during development.

  17. Effects of Long-Term Flutamide Treatment During Development on Sexual Behaviour and Hormone Responsiveness in Rams.

    PubMed

    Roselli, C E; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Estill, C T

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone exposure during midgestation differentiates neural circuits controlling sex-specific behaviours and patterns of gonadotrophin secretion in male sheep. Testosterone acts through androgen receptors (AR) and/or after aromatisation to oestradiol and binding to oestrogen receptors. The present study assessed the role of AR activation in male sexual differentiation. We compared rams that were exposed to the AR antagonist flutamide (Flu) throughout the critical period (i.e. days 30-90 of gestation) to control rams and ewes that received no prenatal treatments. The external genitalia of all Flu rams were phenotypically female. Testes were positioned s.c. in the inguinal region of the abdomen, exhibited seasonally impaired androgen secretion and were azospermic. Flu rams displayed male-typical precopulatory and mounting behaviours but could not intromit or ejaculate because they lacked a penis. Flu rams exhibited greater mounting behaviour than control rams and, similar to controls, showed sexual partner preferences for oestrous ewes. Neither control, nor Flu rams responded to oestradiol treatments with displays of female-typical receptive behaviour or LH surge responses, whereas all control ewes responded as expected. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus in Flu rams was intermediate in volume between control rams and ewes and significantly different from both. These results indicate that prenatal anti-androgen exposure is not able to block male sexual differentiation in sheep and suggest that compensatory mechanisms intervene to maintain sufficient androgen stimulation during development. PMID:27005749

  18. The effect of seasonal variation on sexual behaviors in males and its correlation with hormone levels: a prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Uslu, Mehmet; Arslan, Omer Erkam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We examined the effect of seasonal variation on sexual behavior and its relationship with testosterone levels. The existence of the inhibiting effect of cold stress on sexual behavior and testosterone levels was our hypothesis. Material and methods A total of 80 cases, aged between 20 and 35 years old, were enrolled. Blood samples for testosterone, FSH, LH, and prolactin were obtained twice from each participant at the same time of day (before 10 am). The first samples were taken in January and February, the months which have the average lowest heat days (-15.9°C and -14.6°C, respectively) in our region. The second samples were taken in July and August, which has the average highest heat days (25.4°C and 26.1°C, respectively) in our region. Two times IIEFs (International Index of Erectil Function) were fulfilled at the same day of taking blood samples. The frequency of sexual thoughts and ejaculation were questioned by asking “How many times did you imagine having sex?’’ and “How many times did you ejaculate in a week?”. The body mass index of the participants in the study was calculated in the winter and in the summer. Results There were significant differences in terms of IIEF scores, frequency of sexual thoughts and ejaculations, BMI (Body mass index), and both testosterone and FSH levels between the winter and summer measurements. We did not find any significant differences with regards to prolactin and LH levels. Conclusions Although testosterone levels are within normal limits in both seasons, its level in cold months is less than in hot months. Testosterone levels can change according to the season. The impact of cold seasons in particular should be taken into account when evaluating testosterone levels and sexual status, as well as the other influences (social, cultural). PMID:27729996

  19. Effects of Exenatide on Metabolic Changes, Sexual Hormones, Inflammatory Cytokines, Adipokines, and Weight Change in a DHEA-Treated Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingjun; Ji, Cheng; Jin, Lu; Bi, Yan; Feng, Wenhuan; Li, Ping; Shen, Shanmei; Zhu, Dalong

    2016-09-01

    Insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism are the main features of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Low-grade inflammation is also involved in PCOS. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of exenatide on metabolic changes, sexual hormones, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and weight changes in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-treated rat model. After the model was produced by daily subcutaneous injections of DHEA, rats were given metformin (265 mg/kg), exenatide (10 μg/kg), and saline (1 mL). One group served as a control group. Blood samples and ovarian tissues were removed and prepared for biochemical and hormonal analyses. Exenatide significantly reduced body weight and insulin, testosterone, interleukin 6 (IL-6), PEDF, and visfatin levels. Exenatide also ameliorated changes in ovarian morphology, as evidenced by decreased numbers of cystic follicles and various follicles and elevated numbers of granular cell layers. The effects observed with exenatide were comparable to those observed with metformin. This study has provided evidence that exenatide may be efficient in the treatment of PCOS.

  20. Juvenile hormone-stimulated synthesis of acyl-glycerols and vitamin E in female accessory sexual glands of the fire bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Pavel; Cvacka, Josef; Sláma, Karel

    2009-09-01

    Secretory cells of the female accessory sexual glands (AG) of P. apterus grow and produce yellow oily exocrine secretion in response to stimulation by endogenous juvenile hormone (JH) or exogenous treatments by JH analogues. The secretion determines the property of future egg shells by coating the chorion surface of the oocytes that are passing individually through the common uterus during oviposition. Diapausing females with a physiologically inhibited endocrine system or females with artificially removed hormonal sources show inactive ovaries and empty AG without the secretory products. Ovary-ectomised females with the intact neuroendocrine system develop hypertrophic AG loaded with the oily secretion. This shows that there is no direct dependence between formation of the oily secretion in AG and ovarian growth. Chemical analysis of the secretory products revealed the presence of acetylated glycerols, with the most abundant stearoyl-diacetyl-glycerol, stearoyl-acetyl-propionyl-glycerol, and the corresponding derivatives of arachidonic acid. In addition to this, the JH-activated secretory cells of AG also produced gamma- and delta-tocopherols. The possible antioxidant or antimutagenic action of these vitamin E compounds in insect reproduction has been emphasized.

  1. Effects of Exenatide on Metabolic Changes, Sexual Hormones, Inflammatory Cytokines, Adipokines, and Weight Change in a DHEA-Treated Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingjun; Ji, Cheng; Jin, Lu; Bi, Yan; Feng, Wenhuan; Li, Ping; Shen, Shanmei; Zhu, Dalong

    2016-09-01

    Insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism are the main features of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Low-grade inflammation is also involved in PCOS. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of exenatide on metabolic changes, sexual hormones, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and weight changes in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-treated rat model. After the model was produced by daily subcutaneous injections of DHEA, rats were given metformin (265 mg/kg), exenatide (10 μg/kg), and saline (1 mL). One group served as a control group. Blood samples and ovarian tissues were removed and prepared for biochemical and hormonal analyses. Exenatide significantly reduced body weight and insulin, testosterone, interleukin 6 (IL-6), PEDF, and visfatin levels. Exenatide also ameliorated changes in ovarian morphology, as evidenced by decreased numbers of cystic follicles and various follicles and elevated numbers of granular cell layers. The effects observed with exenatide were comparable to those observed with metformin. This study has provided evidence that exenatide may be efficient in the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26917422

  2. The influence of ovarian factors on the somatostatin-growth hormone system during the postnatal growth and sexual development in lambs.

    PubMed

    Wańkowska, Marta; Polkowska, Jolanta; Misztal, Tomasz; Romanowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of ovarian hormones on somatostatin in the hypothalamic neurons and growth hormone (GH) secretion during the postnatal growth and development of sheep. The study was performed on 9-week-old (infantile) lambs that were ovary-intact (OVI) or ovariectomized (OVX) at 39 days of age, and on 16-week-old (juvenile) lambs that were OVI or OVX at 88 days of age. Hormones in neurons and somatotropic cells were assayed with immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Following ovariectomy, immunoreactive somatostatin was more abundant (p<0.05) in the hypothalamus of infantile lambs, whereas in juvenile lambs it was more abundant (p<0.05) in the periventricular nucleus but reduced (p<0.01) in the median eminence. In contrast to somatostatin in the hypothalamus, the content of immunoreactive GH in the hypophysis was less in OVX infantile lambs, but greater in OVX juvenile lambs (p<0.05). Basal blood serum concentrations of GH were greater (p<0.05) in OVX infantile lambs, whereas in OVX juvenile lambs, mean and basal concentrations of GH and amplitude of GH pulses were less than in OVI lambs (p<0.05). The postnatal increase in body weight was greatest in middle-late infancy (p<0.01). The body weight did not differ (p>0.05) between OVI and OVX lambs. In conclusion, ovarian factors may inhibit the GH secretion in infantile lambs but enhance the GH secretion in juvenile lambs. Transition to puberty, as related to the growth rate, appears to be due mainly to change in gonadal influence on the somatostatin neurosecretion. A stimulation of somatostatin output in the median eminence by gonadal factors in infancy is followed by a stimulation of somatostatin accumulation after infancy. Thus, ovarian factors modulate mechanisms within the somatotropic system of lambs to synchronize the somatic growth with sexual development.

  3. The effect of stress and stress hormones on dynamic colour-change in a sexually dichromatic Australian frog.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Christina; Narayan, Edward J; Wild, Francis; Wild, Clyde H; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-06-01

    Rapid colour changes in vertebrates have fascinated biologists for centuries, herein we demonstrate dynamic colour change in an anuran amphibian, the stony creek frog (Litoria wilcoxii), which turns from brown to bright (lemon) yellow during amplexus. We show this by comparing the colour of baseline (unpaired males) and amplecting (paired) males. We also investigate the possible role of stress and stress hormones on this colour change. Frogs were subjected to four different levels of stressors (handling, toe-clipping, saline injection and adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] injection) and the colour change was measured using digital photography. A comparison of baseline colour and stress hormone (corticosterone) levels was also conducted to give further insight to this topic. From the images, the Red Blue Green (RGB) colour values were calculated, and a principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a single colour metric (the major axis) as an index of colour in the visible spectrum. A moderate stressor (toe-clipping) led to a significant change in colour (within 10 min) similar to that of amplecting males. Surprisingly, neither a mild stressor (handling and saline injection) nor the maximum stressor (handling and ACTH injection) led to a lightening response. This study confirms that the dynamic male colour change in this species in response to medium stressors adds new knowledge to the understanding of the functional mechanisms of dynamic colour change in amphibians.

  4. Ontogenic expression profiles of gonadotropins (fshb and lhb) and growth hormone (gh) during sexual differentiation and puberty onset in female zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiting; Ge, Wei

    2012-03-01

    In the zebrafish model, the ontogenic expression profiles of all pituitary hormones have been reported except gonadotropins, partly because they are not supposed to be expressed in the embryonic stage. The spatiotemporal expression patterns of gonadotropins, namely follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh), in this species therefore remain largely unknown. As the master hormones controlling reproduction, the information on this issue would be valuable for understanding the roles of gonadotropins in early sexual development. Using double-colored fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), this study was undertaken to analyze the ontogenic expression patterns of FSHbeta (fshb) and LHbeta (lhb) subunits in the zebrafish pituitary, with particular emphasis on the stage of sexual differentiation (∼25-30 dpf [days postfertilization]) and puberty onset (∼45 dpf). As a control, growth hormone (gh) was also examined throughout the study. The zebrafish were collected at different time points of early development, including 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 38, 48, and 53 dpf. The head of each fish, including the brain and pituitary, was sampled for double-colored FISH analysis, whereas the body was fixed for histological examination of sex and gonadal developmental stage. Our results showed that the expression of fshb started much earlier than that of lhb, with its mRNA signal detectable (∼2-3 cells per pituitary) shortly after hatching (4 dpf). In contrast, lhb expression became detectable much later, at the time of sex differentiation (∼25 dpf). In female zebrafish, the first morphological sign for puberty is the first wave of follicle transition from the primary growth to previtellogenic stage, which occurs around 45 dpf and is marked by the appearance of cortical alveoli in the oocytes. Interestingly, the number of lhb-expressing cells was very low (∼5-6 cells per pituitary) before this transition

  5. Active immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in Chinese male pigs: effects of dose on antibody titer, hormone levels and sexual development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xian Y; Turkstra, Johan A; Meloen, Rob H; Liu, Xian Y; Chen, Fa Q; Schaaper, Wim M M; Oonk, H B; Guo, Da Z; van de Wiel, Dick F M

    2002-04-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal dose of a GnRH vaccine for immunocastration of Chinese male pigs, based on immune, endocrine and testicular responses. Forty-two crossbred (Chinese Yanan x Large White) male pigs were randomly assigned to one of the five treatments as follows: (I) 0 microg (control, n=8); (II) 10 microg (n=8); (III) 62.5 microg (n=8); (IV) 125 microg (n=8); (V) 250 microg (n=10), D-Lys6-GnRH tandem dimer (TDK) peptide equivalent of conjugate (TDK-OVA), using Specol as the adjuvant. Pigs were immunized at 13 and 21 weeks of age and were slaughtered at 31 weeks of age. Blood samples for antibody titer and hormone assays were collected at 13, 21, 24 and 31 weeks of age. At these time-points, testis size was also measured. At slaughter, testis weight was recorded and fat samples were collected for androstenone assay. Four animals, one out of each immunized group, responded poorly to the immunization (non-responders). At slaughter, serum testosterone and LH levels, fat androstenone levels and testis size/weight of these non-responders were similar to those in control animals. Antibody titers of non-responders were substantially lower (P<0.05) than in other immunized pigs. For the animals that responded well to the immunization (immunocastrated pigs), serum testosterone and LH levels, fat androstenone levels and testis size or weight were reduced (P<0.05) as compared to either controls or non-responders, at all doses tested. There was a significant effect of dose of TDK-OVA on antibody titers. The overall mean antibody titers in the 62.5 or 125 microg dose group (53.6 and 50.5% binding, respectively) were significantly higher than in the 10 or 250 microg group (39.2 and 40.24% binding, respectively). At slaughter, there was a significant dose effect on testis size or weight and on serum testosterone levels, but there was no dose effect on serum LH levels and fat androstenone levels. Testis size or weight in the 10 microg group was

  6. Body fat mass, body fat distribution, and pubertal development: a longitudinal study of physical and hormonal sexual maturation of girls.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, C M; Thijssen, J H; Bruning, P F; Van den Brande, J L; Zonderland, M L; Erich, W B

    1992-08-01

    The rate at which girls progress through the stages of puberty in relation to body fat mass and body fat distribution and its relation to their hormonal profiles was studied. Sixty-eight schoolgirls participated in a longitudinal study during 3 yr. The girls were divided into subgroups with increasing skinfold thicknesses and waist-hip ratio. They were also grouped depending on Tanner's breast development classification (M2 and M3). The age at M2 was only marginally correlated with the menarcheal age, but the age at M2 and the time interval from that age to menarche was negatively correlated. Age at the onset of puberty was not related to body fat mass or distribution. The rate of pubertal development after pubertal stage M3 was negatively related to the body fat mass. Age at M2 was only correlated with estrone (E1), while the rate of pubertal development was associated with higher FSH, E1, estradiol (E2), the fraction of E2 that was not bound to sex-hormone-binding globulin (non-sex-hormone-binding globulin bound E2) and androstenedione plasma levels at the onset of puberty. Body fat distribution, rather than body fat mass was related to the total and the non-sex-hormone-binding globulin bound plasma levels of E2 and testosterone at the onset of puberty. Changes in body fat distribution in early female puberty were chiefly related to the waist circumferences. We found no evidence that body fat mass or body fat distribution triggers the onset of puberty. Body fat distribution was related to early pubertal endocrine activity. Body fat mass was negatively related to the rate of pubertal development toward menarche, but no clear indications for an endocrine-related process is found. We conclude that onset of puberty and menarche are not parallel pubertal events, and that early pubertal plasma E1, E2 and androstenedione levels are predictors for the rate of pubertal development toward menarche. We propose that the control of the onset of puberty and maturation of the

  7. Maternal endocrine adaptation throughout pregnancy to nutrient manipulation: consequences for sexually dimorphic programming of thyroid hormones and development of their progeny.

    PubMed

    Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; Kennaway, D J; Hernandez-Medrano, J; Perry, V E A

    2015-03-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction during critical windows of fetal development alters postnatal growth, often in a sexually dimorphic manner. Intrauterine growth restriction is frequently characterized by accelerated growth and increased adiposity in later life. Thyroid hormones are implicated as part of the mechanism involved in this scenario via their actions within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. We fed high (H = 240%) and low (L = 70%) levels of recommended daily crude protein intake during the first and second trimesters of gestation to beef heifers to investigate effects to their progeny's plasma concentrations of free and total triiodothyronine (FT3 and TT3) and thyroxine (FT4 and TT4) from birth until weaning at 191 days of age (n = 68). The study design was a two-by-two factorial. For male progeny, exposure to maternal diets low in protein during the first trimester of gestation resulted in greater FT4 at birth (P < 0.05) which was subsequent to lower concentrations of leptin in maternal plasma at 271 days of gestation compared with their high-protein-exposed counterparts. These same animals went on to have greater milk intake during the latter half of the lactation period (P < 0.05) and exhibited faster rates of average daily gain (ADG) relative to birth weight during this time (P < 0.05). For all progeny, independent of sex, exposure to low-protein maternal diets during the second trimester of gestation resulted in greater FT3 relative to TT3 at birth. Because FT3 at birth and 29 days was positively associated with ADG (P < 0.05) and ADG relative to birth weight (P < 0.05), it is proposed that FT3 plays an integral role in catch-up growth in the bovine as per other species. Protein intake during the first and second trimesters of gestation has a sexually dimorphic effect on progeny plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, and these changes are associated with altered milk intake and postnatal growth pathway. PMID:25492373

  8. Effect of Age, Duration of Exposure, and Dose of Atrazine on Sexual Maturation and the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Female Sprague–Dawley Rat

    PubMed Central

    Breckenridge, Charles B.; Coder, Pragati Sawhney; Tisdel, Merrill O.; Simpkins, James W.; Yi, Kun Don; Foradori, Chad D.; Handa, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) was administered daily by gavage to pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0, 6.25, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day, either during gestation, lactation and post-weaning (G/L/PW cohort) to F1 generation female offspring or only from postnatal day (PND 21) until five days after sexual maturation (vaginal opening) when the estrogen-primed, luteinizing hormone (LH) surge was evaluated (PW cohort). Additional subgroups of F1 females received the vehicle or ATZ from PND 21–133 or from PND 120–133. Slight reductions in fertility and the percentage of F1 generation pups surviving to PND 21 in the gestationally exposed 50 mg/kg dose group were accompanied by decreased food intake and body weight of dams and F1 generation offspring. The onset of puberty was delayed in of the F1 generation G/L/PW females at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day. F1 generation females in the PW high-dose ATZ group also experienced a delay in the onset of puberty. ATZ had no effect on peak LH or LH AUC in ovariectomized rats 5 days after sexual maturation, irrespective of whether the F1 generation females were treated from gestation onward or only peripubertally. There was no effect of ATZ treatment on the estrous cycle, peak LH or LH AUC of F1 generation females exposed from gestation through to PND 133 or only for two weeks from PND 120–133. These results indicate that developing females exposed to ATZ are not more sensitive compared to animals exposed to ATZ as young adults. PMID:26439775

  9. Effect of Age, Duration of Exposure, and Dose of Atrazine on Sexual Maturation and the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Female Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, Charles B; Sawhney Coder, Pragati; Tisdel, Merrill O; Simpkins, James W; Yi, Kun Don; Foradori, Chad D; Handa, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) was administered daily by gavage to pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0, 6.25, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day, either during gestation, lactation and post-weaning (G/L/PW cohort) to F1 generation female offspring or only from postnatal day (PND 21) until five days after sexual maturation (vaginal opening) when the estrogen-primed, luteinizing hormone (LH) surge was evaluated (PW cohort). Additional subgroups of F1 females received the vehicle or ATZ from PND 21-133 or from PND 120-133. Slight reductions in fertility and the percentage of F1 generation pups surviving to PND 21 in the gestationally exposed 50 mg/kg dose group were accompanied by decreased food intake and body weight of dams and F1 generation offspring. The onset of puberty was delayed in of the F1 generation G/L/PW females at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day. F1 generation females in the PW high-dose ATZ group also experienced a delay in the onset of puberty. ATZ had no effect on peak LH or LH AUC in ovariectomized rats 5 days after sexual maturation, irrespective of whether the F1 generation females were treated from gestation onward or only peripubertally. There was no effect of ATZ treatment on the estrous cycle, peak LH or LH AUC of F1 generation females exposed from gestation through to PND 133 or only for two weeks from PND 120-133. These results indicate that developing females exposed to ATZ are not more sensitive compared to animals exposed to ATZ as young adults.

  10. The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus.

    PubMed

    Csányi, Adrienn; Bóta, Judit; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Robert; Ducza, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen. PMID:27556454

  11. 17alpha-ethinylestradiol alters reproductive behaviors, circulating hormones, and sexual morphology in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Salierno, James D; Kane, Andrew S

    2009-05-01

    Ecologically relevant indicators of endocrine disruption in fish must be linked with measures of reproductive success. The ability of male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to compete for, maintain, and defend a spawning substrate is paramount to reproductive success. The present study quantified alterations in male fathead minnow reproductive behaviors after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 10, 20, or 40 ng/L) of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) for 21 d. A video-based behavioral quantification system examined changes in male-male competitive behaviors (chasing and head-butting) and ability of males to maintain spawning substrates (nibbling and scrubbing). Behaviors analyzed included time under the spawning substrate, frequency of substrate cleaning, and conspecific aggression. Plasma hormone levels (11-ketotestosterone [11-KT], testosterone, and estradiol [E2]), vitellogenin (VTG), secondary male characteristics (tubercle count and dorsal nape pad rank), gonadosomatic index (GSI), and gonad histology also were evaluated. Exposure to 40 ng/L of EE2 decreased the ability of exposed males to compete with control males for spawning substrates (p = 0.09). Furthermore, exposed males displayed reduced frequency of substrate cleaning activities as well as chasing male competitors (p < or = 0.05). 11-Ketotestosterone, testosterone, and E2 were lower, and VTG was notably higher, in EE2-exposed males compared with control males (p < or = 0.03). 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol exposure in males also was associated with reductions in tubercles; lower GSI, gonadal maturity ranks, and number of resorbed tubercles; and presence of an ovipositor (p < or = 0.001). These data reveal alterations in male reproductive behavior that coincide with decreased hormone levels and secondary sex characteristics. Behavioral endpoints to discern potential ecological consequences in fish exposed to low concentrations of endocrine-disrupting chemicals may provide sensitive and

  12. The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Csányi, Adrienn; Bóta, Judit; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Robert; Ducza, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen. PMID:27556454

  13. Testosterone and Sexual Function.

    PubMed

    Gannon, John R; Walsh, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone and sexual function are related. Current evidence suggests that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) may improve sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction in men who are hypogonadal, mixed, or eugonadal have all been examined through numerous studies. The most recent large analysis showed an overall improvement in sexual function outcomes in men treated with TRT. This improvement is difficult to measure and seems to differ based on the baseline hormonal status of the patient at the beginning of treatment. PMID:27132579

  14. Asymmetry within and around the human planum temporale is sexually dimorphic and influenced by genes involved in steroid hormone receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Zwiers, Marcel P; Wittfeld, Katharina; Teumer, Alexander; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Hoogman, Martine; Hagoort, Peter; Fernandez, Guillen; Buitelaar, Jan; van Bokhoven, Hans; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Franke, Barbara; Fisher, Simon E; Grabe, Hans J; Francks, Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The genetic determinants of cerebral asymmetries are unknown. Sex differences in asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT), that overlaps Wernicke's classical language area, have been inconsistently reported. Meta-analysis of previous studies has suggested that publication bias established this sex difference in the literature. Using probabilistic definitions of cortical regions we screened over the cerebral cortex for sexual dimorphisms of asymmetry in 2337 healthy subjects, and found the PT to show the strongest sex-linked asymmetry of all regions, which was supported by two further datasets, and also by analysis with the FreeSurfer package that performs automated parcellation of cerebral cortical regions. We performed a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis of PT asymmetry in a pooled sample of 3095 subjects, followed by a candidate-driven approach which measured a significant enrichment of association in genes of the 'steroid hormone receptor activity' and 'steroid metabolic process' pathways. Variants in the genes and pathways identified may affect the role of the PT in language cognition. PMID:25239853

  15. A Novel Population of Inner Cortical Cells in the Adrenal Gland That Displays Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen-Che Jeff; Kraft, Cary; Moy, Nicole; Ng, Lily

    2015-01-01

    The development of the adrenal cortex involves the formation and then subsequent regression of immature or fetal inner cell layers as the mature steroidogenic outer layers expand. However, controls over this remodeling, especially in the immature inner layer, are incompletely understood. Here we identify an inner cortical cell population that expresses thyroid hormone receptor-β1 (TRβ1), one of two receptor isoforms encoded by the Thrb gene. Using mice with a Thrbb1 reporter allele that expresses lacZ instead of TRβ1, β-galactosidase was detected in the inner cortex from early stages. Expression peaked at juvenile ages in an inner zone that included cells expressing 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a marker of the transient, so-called X-zone in mice. The β-galactosidase-positive zone displayed sexually dimorphic regression in males after approximately 4 weeks of age but persisted in females into adulthood in either nulliparous or parous states. T3 treatment promoted hypertrophy of inner cortical cells, induced some markers of mature cortical cells, and, in males, delayed the regression of the TRβ1-positive zone, suggesting that TRβ1 could partly divert the differentiation fate and counteract male-specific regression of inner zone cells. TRβ1-deficient mice were resistant to these actions of T3, supporting a functional role for TRβ1 in the inner cortex. PMID:25774556

  16. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum sexual hormone levels and internal derangement of temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Madani, A S; Shamsian, A A; Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Fathi-Moghadam, F; Sabooni, M R; Mirmortazavi, A; Golmohamadi, M

    2013-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are defined as clinical conditions that involve the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or both. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in menstruating women affected by internal derangement of the TMJ. A total of 142 women (mean age 30·2 ± 6·7) who referred to medical diagnostic laboratory of Iranian Academic Centre for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, were enrolled during 2007 and 2008. Forty-seven individuals had disc displacement with reduction (Group IIa) according to Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD Axis I diagnosis. Radioimmunoassay was used for the detection of serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in all 142 subjects. The mean progesterone level was significantly higher in control group (11·6 ± 10·4 ng mL(-1) ) compared to women with TMD (8·4 ± 6·8 ng mL(-1) , P = 0·03). No significant difference was found in two groups regarding 17β-oestradiol level. Lower progesterone level in women with TMD can suggest the more important role of this hormone in the development of the disorder.

  17. Anti-Müllerian Hormone Is Required for Chicken Embryonic Urogenital System Growth but Not Sexual Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Luke S; Ayers, Katie; Cutting, Andrew D; Doran, Timothy J; Sinclair, Andrew H; Smith, Craig A

    2015-12-01

    In mammals, the primary role of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during development is the regression of Müllerian ducts in males. These structures otherwise develop into fallopian tubes, oviducts, and upper vagina, as in females. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. In mammals, AMH expression is controlled partly by the transcription factor, SOX9. However, in the chicken, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9 , leading to the view that AMH may lie upstream of SOX9 and play a more central role in avian testicular development. To help define the role of AMH in chicken gonad development, we suppressed AMH expression in chicken embryos using RNA interference. In males, AMH knockdown did not affect the expression of key testis pathway genes, and testis cords developed normally. However, a reduction in the size of the mesonephros and gonads was observed, a phenotype that was evident in both sexes. This growth defect occurred as a result of the reduced proliferative capacity of the cells of these tissues, and male gonads also had a significant reduction in germ cell numbers. These data suggest that although AMH does not directly contribute to testicular or ovarian differentiation, it is required in a sex-independent manner for proper cell proliferation and urogenital system growth.

  18. The Interaction between a Sexually Transferred Steroid Hormone and a Female Protein Regulates Oogenesis in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male–female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria. PMID:24204210

  19. [Sexual reproduction in animals].

    PubMed

    Jordana, R; Herrea, L

    1974-01-01

    Both asexual and sexual reproduction are described, with most attention given the latter, and all basic aspects of reproduction are discussed including gender, gametogenesis, genes and chromosomes, fecundation, and hormonal control. Female and male reproductive hormones and their modes of operation are given special attention. Innate reproductive and sexual behavior in various species is detailed and a discussion of the role of sexual attraction in human and animal reproduction is included. Contraception and abortion are described as human efforts to separate sexuality and reproduction unique in the biological world.

  20. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  1. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  2. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  3. The neurophysiology of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Schober, Justine M; Pfaff, Donald

    2007-09-01

    Our understanding of the process and initiation of sexual arousal is being enhanced by both animal and human studies, inclusive of basic science principles and research on clinical outcomes. Sexual arousal is dependent on neural (sensory and cognitive) factors, hormonal factors, genetic factors and, in the human case, the complex influences of culture and context. Sexual arousal activates the cognitive and physiologic processes that can eventually lead to sexual behavior. Sexual arousal comprises a particular subset of central nervous system arousal functions which depend on primitive, fundamental arousal mechanisms that cause generalized brain activity, but are manifest in a sociosexual context. The neurophysiology of sexual arousal is seen as a bidirectional system universal to all vertebrates. The following review includes known neural and genomic mechanisms of a hormone-dependent circuit for simple sex behavior. New information about hormone effects on causal steps related to sex hormones' nuclear receptor isoforms expressed by hypothalamic neurons continues to enrich our understanding of this neurophysiology.

  4. Expression of the putative gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor, NPFFR1, in the anterior pituitary gland of the gilt is affected by age and sexual maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) purportedly suppresses secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) by acting through a G-protein coupled receptor (NPFFR1) in the anterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus. The objective of these studies was to determine if expression of mRNA for NPFFR1 in the reprod...

  5. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  6. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA,...

  7. The physiological basis of human sexual arousal: neuroendocrine sexual asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2005-04-01

    Normal sexual arousal and response suppose an integrated process involving both physiological and psychological processes. However, the current understanding of sexual arousal does not provide a coherent model that accounts for the integration of multiple physiological systems that subsequently generate a coordinated sexual response at both the spinal peripheral and cerebral central levels. Herein we suggest a model that involves both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during sexual arousal via the two classes of gonadal hormones, androgens and oestrogens. We discuss the manner in which gonadal hormones may activate such a system, transforming pre-pubertal (non-erotic) genital stimulation to post-pubertal erogenization of stimulation and subsequent sexual arousal. Finally, we indicate that the different balance of androgens and oestrogens in men and women may generate asymmetric effects on each of the components of the autonomic nervous system, thereby explaining some of the differences in patterns of sexual arousal and the responses cycle across the sexes. PMID:15811068

  8. Hormones talking

    PubMed Central

    Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Reyes-Olalde, J. Irepan; Ramos-Cruz, Daniela; Lozano-Sotomayor, Paulina; Zúñiga-Mayo, Victor M.; de Folter, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The proper development of fruits is important for the sexual reproduction and propagation of many plant species. The fruit of Arabidopsis derives from the fertilized gynoecium, which initiates at the center of the flower and obtains its final shape, size, and functional tissues through progressive stages of development. Hormones, specially auxins, play important roles in gynoecium and fruit patterning. Cytokinins, which act as counterparts to auxins in other plant tissues, have been studied more in the context of ovule formation and parthenocarpy. We recently studied the role of cytokinins in gynoecium and fruit patterning and found that they have more than one role during gynoecium and fruit patterning. We also compared the cytokinin response localization to the auxin response localization in these organs, and studied the effects of spraying cytokinins in young flowers of an auxin response line. In this addendum, we discuss further the implications of the observed results in the knowledge about the relationship between cytokinins and auxins at the gynoecium. PMID:23072997

  9. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    PubMed

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  10. [Sexual behavior in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Macchione, C; Tamietti, E

    1993-10-01

    With the improvement of quality life in the elderly of technologically developed countries, sexuality has become an important aspect of aging. In the elderly there is a progressive decline of organic functions; the decrease of sexual and procreating activity is linked with the impaired male hormonal production. The four stages of sexual function are modified: 1. delayed erection; 2. plateau prolongation; 3. orgasm modifications; 4. fast penis detumescence. In addition to organic impairment, aesthetic, social, environmental and psychological factors can restrict sexual activity, as well as past sexual experiences and co-morbidity. There are specific aspects concerning sexuality in the elderly, such as the increased chances of public relations and emotional involvement, the more intense psychic activity and the stronger process of removal and sublimation of impulses. In conclusion the best way to deal with sexuality in the elderly is the multidimensional assessment. PMID:8252083

  11. [Sexuality in overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    The association between obesity and sexual dysfunction has been described in many studies. Neurobiological, hormonal, vascular and mental disturbances are the main reasons in male and in female gender. Sexual interest and desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, painful intercourse and premature ejaculation can be involved. Data for prevalence of sexual function disturbances in obese people are scarce and most studies were small. For screening of sexual function we recommend the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-Score, which contains 15 Items for males and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), which contains 19 items for females. Treatment of sexual function disturbances include lifestyle changes with an increase of physical activity, weight control, healthy eating and smoking cessation. Testosterone substitution in cases of real hypogonadism and treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors are well documented treatment options in male individuals. New treatment options for female patients with variable effectiveness are fibanserin, testosterone, bupropione and oxytocin. PMID:26811242

  12. Treatment of true precocious puberty with a potent luteinizing hormone-releasing factor agonist: effect on growth, sexual maturation, pelvic sonography, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Styne, D M; Harris, D A; Egli, C A; Conte, F A; Kaplan, S L; Rivier, J; Vale, W; Grumbach, M M

    1985-07-01

    We used the LHRH agonist D-Trp6-Pro6-N-ethylamide LHRH (LHRH-A) to treat 19 children (12 girls and 7 boys) with true precocious puberty. Fourteen patients had idiopathic true precocious puberty, 4 had a hamartoma of the tuber cinereum, and 1 had a hypothalamic astrocytoma. Basal gonadotropin secretion and responses to native LHRH decreased within 1 week of initiation LHRH-A therapy, and sex steroid secretion decreased within 2 weeks to or within the prepubertal range. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the uterus indicated a postmenarchal size and shape in all 11 girls studied before treatment, which reverted to prepubertal size and configuration in 5 girls during LHRH-A therapy. The enlarged ovaries decreased in size and the multiple ovarian follicular cysts regressed. Sexual characteristics ceased advancing or reverted toward the prepubertal state in all patients receiving therapy for 6-36 months. All 5 girls with menarche before therapy had no further menses. Three girls had hot flashes after LHRH-A-induced reduction of the plasma estradiol concentration. Height velocity, SDs above the mean height velocity for age, and SDs above the mean height for age decreased during LHRH-A therapy; the velocity of skeletal maturation decreased after 12 months of LHRH-A therapy and was sustained during continued therapy over 18-36 months. In 4 patients, a subnormal growth rate (less than 4.5 cm/yr) occurred during LHRH-A therapy. Six patients had cutaneous reactions of LHRH-A, but no demonstrable circulating antibodies to LHRH-A. In 2 patients in whom LHRH-A therapy was discontinued because of skin reactions, precocious sexual maturation resumed at the previous rate for the ensuing 6-12 months; subsequently, they were desensitized to LHRH-A, and during a second course of therapy, their secondary sexual development and sex steroid levels again quickly decreased. LHRH-A proved an effective and safe treatment for true precocious puberty in boys as well as girls with central

  13. Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2013-01-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441

  14. [Migrant adolescents and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Renteria, Saira-Christine

    2012-06-13

    Besides its emotional, hormonal and physical components, sexuality has also an important social function. Analyzing these interactions in immigrant adolescents who are challenged at the same time by developmental changes and modified cultural and social rules--especially if they differ from the rules assimilated during childhood--might help professionals to access better comprehension. Personal experience, individual and external resources, whether they are family oriented or professional, are prone to influence on behavior, perception and outcome related to sexual health. The subject is discussed on the base of scientific literature and medical practice.

  15. Modular genetic control of sexually dimorphic behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohong; Coats, Jennifer K.; Yang, Cindy F.; Wang, Amy; Ahmed, Osama M.; Alvarado, Maricruz; Izumi, Tetsuro; Shah, Nirao M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone are essential for sexually dimorphic behaviors in vertebrates. However, the hormone-activated molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of the underlying neural circuits remain poorly defined. We have identified numerous sexually dimorphic gene expression patterns in the adult mouse hypothalamus and amygdala. We find that adult sex hormones regulate these expression patterns in a sex-specific, regionally-restricted manner, suggesting that these genes regulate sex typical behaviors. Indeed, we find that mice with targeted disruptions of each of four of these genes (Brs3, Cckar, Irs4, Sytl4) exhibit extremely specific deficits in sex specific behaviors, with single genes controlling the pattern or extent of male sexual behavior, male aggression, maternal behavior, or female sexual behavior. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that various components of sexually dimorphic behaviors are governed by separable genetic programs. PMID:22304924

  16. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  17. Opiate use and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Mirin, S M; Meyer, R E; Mendelson, J H; Ellingboe, J

    1980-08-01

    Although opiate addicts often equate the drug experience with sexual orgasm, diminished libido and impaired sexual performance are common sequelae of chronic use. Early clinical studies suggested that opiates may interfere with sex hormone secretion. The authors carried out three sequential studies which demonstrated that heroin use in man results in acute suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary followed by a secondary drop in plasma testosterone levels. The time course of these neuroendocrine events correlates well with the tension-reducing effects of heroin and suggests that drive reduction is an important component of opiate reinforcement. PMID:6774622

  18. Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the preference between NNRTIs and PIs for the initial treatment of HIV infection: Perfil-es study.

    PubMed

    Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Hevia, Henar; Palazuelos, Marta; Ledesma, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    The Perfil-es study demonstrated that, while non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) is more frequently used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected naïve patients, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r)-based regimens are the preferred option in patients with advanced infectious stages or high baseline viral load. The present analysis focused on the second phase of the Perfil-es study, where sociodemographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected from patients starting NNRTI- or PI/r-based regimens in order to identify factors that could influence the choice of initial ART. Patients' characteristics were compared by both bivariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 642 patients were evaluated. The main transmission group was men who have sex with men (MSM) (48%), and 24% of patients were coinfected with hepatitis B or C. Patients with cardiovascular risk accounted for 56%, and 15% had a neuropsychiatric history. Anxiolytics (29%), antidepressants (18%) and methadone (18%) were the most frequent concomitant medications. The use of PI/r-based regimens was more frequent in older patients, childbearing potential women patients coinfected with hepatitis B or C, and those with cardiovascular risk and a neuropsychiatric history. The presence of a neuropsychiatric disorder (OR: 1.912; CI 95%: 1.146-3.191; p < .05) and the use of concomitant medication (OR: 1.736; CI 95%: 1.204-2.502; p < .01) were identified as independent factors associated with the selection of PI/r-based regimens. MSM sexual conduct was the only independent factor related to the selection of NNRTI-based ART (OR: 0.699; CI 95%: 0.504-0.970; p < .05). Neither the physicians' characteristics nor the geographical area where HIV patients were attended influenced the choice of ART. In conclusion, patients' comorbidity, pregnancy potential and lifestyle seem to influence the choice of ART. Neuropsychiatric

  19. Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the preference between NNRTIs and PIs for the initial treatment of HIV infection: Perfil-es study.

    PubMed

    Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Hevia, Henar; Palazuelos, Marta; Ledesma, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    The Perfil-es study demonstrated that, while non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) is more frequently used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected naïve patients, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r)-based regimens are the preferred option in patients with advanced infectious stages or high baseline viral load. The present analysis focused on the second phase of the Perfil-es study, where sociodemographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected from patients starting NNRTI- or PI/r-based regimens in order to identify factors that could influence the choice of initial ART. Patients' characteristics were compared by both bivariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 642 patients were evaluated. The main transmission group was men who have sex with men (MSM) (48%), and 24% of patients were coinfected with hepatitis B or C. Patients with cardiovascular risk accounted for 56%, and 15% had a neuropsychiatric history. Anxiolytics (29%), antidepressants (18%) and methadone (18%) were the most frequent concomitant medications. The use of PI/r-based regimens was more frequent in older patients, childbearing potential women patients coinfected with hepatitis B or C, and those with cardiovascular risk and a neuropsychiatric history. The presence of a neuropsychiatric disorder (OR: 1.912; CI 95%: 1.146-3.191; p < .05) and the use of concomitant medication (OR: 1.736; CI 95%: 1.204-2.502; p < .01) were identified as independent factors associated with the selection of PI/r-based regimens. MSM sexual conduct was the only independent factor related to the selection of NNRTI-based ART (OR: 0.699; CI 95%: 0.504-0.970; p < .05). Neither the physicians' characteristics nor the geographical area where HIV patients were attended influenced the choice of ART. In conclusion, patients' comorbidity, pregnancy potential and lifestyle seem to influence the choice of ART. Neuropsychiatric

  20. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basic HIV/AIDS information and resources for prevention LGBT Health Information for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health ...

  1. Sensitive periods for hormonal programming of the brain.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Geert J; Fields, Christopher T; Peters, Nicole V; Whylings, Jack; Paul, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    During sensitive periods, information from the external and internal environment that occurs during particular phases of development is relayed to the brain to program neural development. Hormones play a central role in this process. In this review, we first discuss sexual differentiation of the brain as an example of hormonal programming. Using sexual differentiation, we define sensitive periods, review cellular and molecular processes that can explain their restricted temporal window, and discuss challenges in determining the precise timing of the temporal window. We then briefly review programming effects of other hormonal systems and discuss how programming of these systems interact with sexual differentiation.

  2. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    PubMed

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. PMID:27041639

  3. A biologic perspective on sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Pillard, R C; Bailey, J M

    1995-03-01

    Sexual orientation may be defined as the sustained erotic attraction to members of one's own gender, the opposite gender, or both--homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual, respectively. Interest in sexual orientation is as old as the science of psychology, yet many fundamental issues remain unresolved. This article reviews research in the development and psychopathology of sexual orientation as well as the results of family and twin studies. Research in genetic linkage, sex hormones, and brain differences also is discussed. PMID:7761309

  4. [Do hormones determine our fate?].

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, A

    1994-01-01

    The hormonal system is a communication system between cells and organs. Hence it is not surprising that it influences almost all physiological functions and, at least partially, our behaviour and fate. The sexual phenotype is determined by the sex hormones. Normally, the phenotype is in accordance with gonadal and genetic sex, but occasionally, as a consequence of enzymatic defects in the biosynthesis of sex hormones or of androgen resistance, gonadal and genetic sex are in discordance with the phenotype, the latter determining generally the civil sex and the sex of rearing. Whereas the gender role is generally determined by the sex of rearing and the phenotype, itself under hormonal influence, homo- and transsexuality constitute notorious exceptions to this rule. Although several authors consider homo- and transsexuality to be the consequence of an impairment in androgenic impregnation in the perinatal period, there are at present no convincing arguments for an hormonal origin for either homo- or transsexuality, although such a possibility can't be excluded either. Besides their role in psychosexual behaviour, sex hormones play also a role in our life expectancy. Indeed, although maximal life expectancy of man is genetically determined, a major determinant of individual life expectancy is cardiovascular pathology. The latter is partly responsible for the difference in life expectancy between men and women, cardiovascular mortality increasing rapidly at menopause and being halved by oestrogen replacement therapy. Also atherogenesis as such is, to a large extend, under hormonal control. Indeed insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism, which develop as a corollary of the aging process, is an important cause of atherosclerosis as well as of hypertension. Other hormones also play an important role in our behaviour. We can mention here the role of the thyroid hormones in the physical and mental development of children as well as in the regression of the intellectual

  5. A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (β: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

  6. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders.

  7. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dose of glucose. Growth hormone stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) . ... regular intervals for years afterward to monitor GH production and to detect tumor recurrence. Other blood tests ...

  8. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... based lubricants include petroleum jelly, baby oil, or mineral oil. Oil-based types should not be used ... caused by low levels of these hormones. Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus. Menopause: The time in a ...

  9. Hormones in the seminal plasma. Cortisol.

    PubMed

    Abbaticchio, G; Giorgino, R; Urago, M; Gattuccio, F; Orlando, G; Jannì, A

    1981-09-01

    The data from previous studies on the seminal concentrations of proteic hormones result in the hypothesis that there exists a selective filter for these hormones, which is between the systemic circulation and the male genital canal. Previous data regarding sexual steroids are insufficient to verify if such a filter system also operates in the case of hormones of minor molecular weight. It would appear that the study of cortisol, a non-sexual steroid, will be more useful. The concentrations of this hormone in the peripheric blood (176 +/- 59, mean +/- ds, ng/ml) prove to be much greater than in the seminal plasma (20 +/- 9.6). No significant differences are found between normozoospermic and oligo-azoospermic subjects, either in the blood (173 +/- 184 +/- 53), or in the seminal plasma (21 +/- 12 versus 20 +/- 8). These data would seem to support the hypothesis under discussion.

  10. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  11. Survivorship: Sexual Dysfunction (Female), Version 1.2013

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B.; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; McCabe, Mary S.; McVary, Kevin T.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O’Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment, especially hormonal therapy and therapy directed toward the pelvis, can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. Thus, sexual dysfunction is common in survivors and can cause increased distress and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for female sexual problems, including those related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. PMID:24586080

  12. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ...

  13. Sexual Dysfunction Due to Psychotropic Medications.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H; Alkis, Andrew R; Parikh, Nishant B; Votta, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    Sexual functioning is important to assess in patients with psychiatric illness as both the condition and associated treatment may contribute to sexual dysfunction (SD). Antidepressant medications, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antianxiety agents may be associated with SD related to drug mechanism of action. Sexual adverse effects may be related to genetic risk factors, impact on neurotransmitters and hormones, and psychological elements. Effective strategies to manage medication-induced sexual dysfunction are initial choice of a drug unlikely to cause SD, switching to a different medication, and adding an antidote to reverse SD. Appropriate interventions should be determined on a clinical case-by-case basis. PMID:27514298

  14. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  15. Types of hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ... Menopause symptoms include: Hot flashes Night sweats Sleep problems Vaginal dryness Anxiety Moodiness Less interest in sex ...

  16. Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lisa; Mann, Janice; McMahon, Sharon; Wong, Thomas

    2004-08-25

    HEALTH ISSUE: Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. KEY FINDINGS: Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15-24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.

  17. Sex Hormones and Tendon.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood. The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet, in active young female athletes, physiological high concentration of estrogen may enhance the risk of injuries due to reduced fibrillar crosslinking and enhanced joint laxity. In men, testosterone can enhance tendon stiffness due to an enhanced tendon collagen turnover and collagen content, but testosterone has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens. PMID:27535256

  18. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  19. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  20. Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Reviriego, C

    2014-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment. PMID:25187905

  1. Sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Hosken, David J; House, Clarissa M

    2011-01-25

    Sexual selection is a concept that has probably been misunderstood and misrepresented more than any other idea in evolutionary biology, confusion that continues to the present day. We are not entirely sure why this is, but sexual politics seems to have played its role, as does a failure to understand what sexual selection is and why it was initially invoked. While in some ways less intuitive than natural selection, sexual selection is conceptually identical to it, and evolution via either mechanism will occur given sufficient genetic variation. Recent claims that sexual selection theory is fundamentally flawed are simply wrong and ignore an enormous body of evidence that provides a bedrock of support for this major mechanism of organic evolution. In fact it is partly due to this solid foundation that current research has largely shifted from documenting whether or not sexual selection occurs, to addressing more complex evolutionary questions. PMID:21256434

  2. Compulsory sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emens, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws.

  3. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  4. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  5. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  6. PERFILS: a program for the quantitative treatment of footprinting data.

    PubMed

    Salas, X; Portugal, J

    1993-10-01

    PERFILS, a computer program written in Borland TurboPascal, performs quantitative analysis of footprinting experiments using any IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. The program uses the height of the bands obtained from densitometric scanning of footprinting autoradiographs to calculate a differential cleavage plot. Such a plot displays, on a logarithmic scale, the difference of susceptibility of a DNA fragment to DNase I, or any other cleaving agent, in the presence of any ligand versus the sequence. PERFILS calculates the fractional cleavage values for control and ligand, giving a table of values for each internucleotidic bond and rendering the differential cleavage plot in only a few seconds. PMID:8293335

  7. Growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Martin; Strasburger, Christian J

    2010-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a proteohormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It acts through binding to the hGH receptor, inducing either direct effects or initiating the production of insulin-like growth-factor I (IGF-I), the most important mediator of hGH effects. Growth hormone is primarily known to promote longitudinal growth in children and adolescents, but has also various important metabolic functions throughout adult life. Effects of hGH on the adult organism are well established from studies with recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in growth hormone deficient subjects. In this particular group of patients, replacement of hGH leads to increased lipolysis and lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvements in VO(2max), and maximal power output. Although extrapolation from these findings to the situation in well trained healthy subjects is impossible, and controlled studies in healthy subjects are scarce, abuse of hGH seems to be popular among athletes trying to enhance physical performance. Detection of the application of rhGH is difficult, especially because the amino acid sequence of rhGH is identical to the major 22,000 Da isoform of hGH normally secreted by the pituitary. Furthermore, some physiological properties of hGH secretion also hindered the development of a doping test: secreted in a pulsatile manner, it has a very short half-life in circulation, which leads to highly variable serum levels. Concentration alone therefore cannot prove the exogenous administration of hGH.Two approaches have independently been developed for the detection of hGH doping: The so-called "marker approach" investigates changes in hGH-dependent parameters like IGF-I or components of bone and collagen metabolism, which are increased after hGH injection. In contrast, the so-called "isoform approach" directly analyses the spectrum of molecular isoforms in circulation: the pituitary gland secretes a spectrum of homo- and heterodimers and - multimers of a variable

  8. Androgen deprivation treatment of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Houts, Frederick W; Taller, Inna; Tucker, Douglas E; Berlin, Fred S

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are underutilized in patients seeking diminution of problematic sexual drives. This chapter reviews the literature on surgical castration of sex offenders, anti-androgen use and the rationale for providing androgen deprivation therapy, rather than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or more conservative interventions, for patients with paraphilias and excessive sexual drive. Discussions of informed consent, side effects, contraindications and case examples are provided.

  9. Androgen deprivation treatment of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Houts, Frederick W; Taller, Inna; Tucker, Douglas E; Berlin, Fred S

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are underutilized in patients seeking diminution of problematic sexual drives. This chapter reviews the literature on surgical castration of sex offenders, anti-androgen use and the rationale for providing androgen deprivation therapy, rather than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or more conservative interventions, for patients with paraphilias and excessive sexual drive. Discussions of informed consent, side effects, contraindications and case examples are provided. PMID:22005210

  10. [Incretin hormones].

    PubMed

    Cáp, J

    2011-04-01

    Incretin hormones are peptides that are secreted from endocrine cell of gastrointestinal tract after nutrient ingestion and stimulate insulin secretion. Glucosodependent Insulinotropic Peptide--GIP is released from K-cells of duodenum and proximal jejunum, recently GIP synthesis has been proved in pancreatic alpha cells. Besides the incretin effect causes GIP increased lipogenesis and decreased lipolysis in fat tissue, increased bone formation and decreased resorption and has protective and proliferative effect on CNS neurons. Both GIP agonists (to treat diabetes) and antagonist (to treat obesity) are being studied. Another incretin hormone is derived in intestinal I-cells by posttranslational processing of proglucagon--glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). GLP-1 stimulates insuline production and inhibits glucagon secretion, exerts proliferative and antiapoptotic effect on beta-cells. Via receptors on vagal nerve and central mechanisms decreases food intake and decreases body weight. By deceleration of gastric emptying it attenuates increases in meal-associated blood glucose levels. It exerts cardioprotective effects. GLP-1 receptors have been proved in liver recently but decreased liver glucose production and increased glucose uptake by liver and muscle are mediated indirectly by altering insulin and glucagons levels. GLP-2 stimulates enterocytes proliferation, up-regulates intestinal nutrient transport, improves intestinal barrier function, and inhibits gastric and intestinal motility. GLP-2 also reduces bone resorption. PMID:21612069

  11. Sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  12. A dual physiological character for sexual function: libido and sexual pheromones.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G

    2009-12-01

    Human sexual response is a complex function involving many cerebral, spinal and peripheral aspects; the last are relatively known and benefit from good pharmacological control, as in the case of erectile dysfunction. Spinal cord sexual reflexes also have a good theoretical and experimental description. There is minimal understanding of the cerebral sexual processes (libido, sexual arousal, orgasm). The initial perspective was that the cerebral areas implied in sexuality exert descending stimulatory and inhibitory influences on spinal cord sexual centres/reflexes. This was a wrong supposition, which inhibited progress in this subject, with a considerable impact on a subject's individual and social life. A new approach to sexual function arises from the idea that simple neurological structures can support only simple functions, while a more complex function requires correspondingly complex anatomical structures. For this reason the spinal cord would not be able to realise the integration of multiple (spinal and psychosensorial) stimuli into a unique and coherent ejaculation response. Consequently, all mechanisms implied in human sexuality would be cerebral processes, ejaculation reflexes ascending in evolution to the cerebral level. This new evolutionary concept was developed after 2001 in five distinct articles on the cerebral duality of sexual arousal, sexual hormones, ejaculation and serotonergic receptors. During this period other published results suggested a possible cerebral duality for sexual pheromones and libido in humans. All these dual physiological aspects are integrated in this review into one neurophysiological model, thus trying to further develop the new concepts of sexual function and perhaps relational behaviour. In conclusion, ejaculation is a dual cerebral process with arousal sensation (hormonally modulated) and libido perception (pheromonally modulated) as the afferent part. Two neurophysiological axes could exist in both men and women. In this

  13. A dual physiological character for sexual function: libido and sexual pheromones.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G

    2009-12-01

    Human sexual response is a complex function involving many cerebral, spinal and peripheral aspects; the last are relatively known and benefit from good pharmacological control, as in the case of erectile dysfunction. Spinal cord sexual reflexes also have a good theoretical and experimental description. There is minimal understanding of the cerebral sexual processes (libido, sexual arousal, orgasm). The initial perspective was that the cerebral areas implied in sexuality exert descending stimulatory and inhibitory influences on spinal cord sexual centres/reflexes. This was a wrong supposition, which inhibited progress in this subject, with a considerable impact on a subject's individual and social life. A new approach to sexual function arises from the idea that simple neurological structures can support only simple functions, while a more complex function requires correspondingly complex anatomical structures. For this reason the spinal cord would not be able to realise the integration of multiple (spinal and psychosensorial) stimuli into a unique and coherent ejaculation response. Consequently, all mechanisms implied in human sexuality would be cerebral processes, ejaculation reflexes ascending in evolution to the cerebral level. This new evolutionary concept was developed after 2001 in five distinct articles on the cerebral duality of sexual arousal, sexual hormones, ejaculation and serotonergic receptors. During this period other published results suggested a possible cerebral duality for sexual pheromones and libido in humans. All these dual physiological aspects are integrated in this review into one neurophysiological model, thus trying to further develop the new concepts of sexual function and perhaps relational behaviour. In conclusion, ejaculation is a dual cerebral process with arousal sensation (hormonally modulated) and libido perception (pheromonally modulated) as the afferent part. Two neurophysiological axes could exist in both men and women. In this

  14. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  15. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  16. Endocrine control of sexual behavior in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Arimune; Kobayashi, Makito

    2010-02-01

    Sexual behavior is one of the most profound events during the life cycle of animals that reproduce sexually. After completion of gonadal development that is mediated by various hormones, oviparous teleosts perform a suite of behaviors, often termed as spawning behavior. This is particularly important for teleosts that have their gametes fertilized externally as the behavior patterns ensures the close proximity of both sexes for gamete release, fusion and ultimately the production of offspring. As in other vertebrates, sexual behavior of fish is also under the control of hormones. Testicular androgen is a requirement for male sexual behavior to occur in most fish species that have been studied. Unlike tetrapods, however, ovarian estrogen does not appear to be essential for the occurrence of female sexual behavior for fish that have their gametes fertilized externally. Prostaglandins produced in the ovary after ovulation act as a trigger in some teleosts to induce female sexual behavior. Potentiating effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the brain on sexual behavior are reported in some species. Under endocrine regulation, male and female fish exhibit gender-typical behavior during spawning, but in some fish species there is also some plasticity in their sexual behavior. Sex changing fish can perform both male-typical and female-typical sexual behaviors during their lifetime and this sexual plasticity can also be observed in non-sex changing fish when undergoing hormonal treatment. Although the neuroanatomical basis is not clear in fish, results of field and laboratory observations suggest that some teleosts possess a sexually bipotential brain which can regulate two types of behaviors unlike most other vertebrates which have a discrete sex differentiation of their brain and can only perform gender-typical sexual behavior.

  17. Deciding about hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

  18. Sexual function of the ageing male.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maseroli, Elisa; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2013-08-01

    With the progressive increase in the proportion of older people, there is an increasing interest in characterizing the modifications of sexual health and the effect of its perturbations as a function of the aging process. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the age-dependent modifications of male sexual function and their interaction with general health and age-dependent modification of endocrine function. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function. Despite this evidence, several studies have indicated that, with advancing age, normal erections are not an absolute prerequisite to remain sexually active. Good physical health, the availability of a partner, and a regular and stable pattern of sexual activity earlier in life predict the maintenance of sexual activity in old age. Conversely, there are no convincing data that hormonal changes, associated with aging, have a primary role in underlying changes in sexual function in healthy aging men. Nonetheless, sexual dysfunctions especially in elderly people are poor investigated. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many primary care physicians. In addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor. This situation often results in sexual issues not being adequately addressed thus resulting in depression, social withdrawal and delayed diagnosis of underlying medical conditions often resulting in forthcoming cardiovascular events. Education and permission from a health care professional may help to alter such misconceptions. Information from physicians regarding normal age-related changes in sexuality and encouragement, together with advice on how to continue meaningful sexual relations, may play a key role in altering such negative attitudes. PMID:24054932

  19. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person is biologically male or female), gender identity (how people identify themselves as male, female or ... positive health benefits, such as reducing stress, improving self-esteem, and cardiovascular health. A person’s physical sexual ...

  20. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Sexual Health Basic Facts & Information All adults, including older people, ... the opportunity to enjoy a satisfying and fulfilling sex life. In fact, most of them do, even ...

  1. Sexual dysfunction in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tamás, Várkonyi; Kempler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to summarize the etiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and possible treatment options of sexual dysfunction in diabetic patients of both sexes. Details of dysfunction in diabetic women are less conclusive than in men due to the lack of standardized evaluation of sexual function in women. Male sexual dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes, including abnormalities of orgasmic/ejaculatory function and desire/libido in addition to penile erection. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among diabetic men varies from 35% to 75%. Diabetes-induced ED has a multifactorial etiology including metabolic, neurologic, vascular, hormonal, and psychological components. ED should be regarded as the first sign of cardiovascular disease because it can be present before development of symptomatic coronary artery disease, as larger coronary vessels better tolerate the same amount of plaque compared to smaller penile arteries. The diagnosis of ED is based on validated questionnaires and determination of functional and organic abnormalities. First-, second- and third-line therapy may be applied. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor treatment from the first-line options leads to smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum and enhancement in blood flow, resulting in erection during sexual stimulus. The use of PDE-5 inhibitors in the presence of oral nitrates is strictly contraindicated in diabetic men, as in nondiabetic subjects. All PDE-5 inhibitors have been evaluated for ED in diabetic patients with convincing efficacy data. Second-line therapy includes intracavernosal, trans- or intraurethral administration of vasoactive drugs or application of a vacuum device. Third-line therapies are the implantation of penile prosthesis and penile revascularization. PMID:25410225

  2. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation.

  3. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  4. Sexuality in eating disorders patients: etiological factors, sexual dysfunction and identity issues. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community appears to be less interested in sexuality of eating disorders (EDs) as compared to other psychiatric or medical comorbidities. However, a clear association between sexual problems and ED psychopathology was reported from different perspectives. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the general approach of the scientific literature toward the topic of sexuality and EDs. In particular, four different categories of research have been individuated, encompassing the role of puberty, and sexual abuse in the pathogenesis of the disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and the association between sexual orientation and EDs psychopathology. Timing of puberty with its hormonal consequences and the changes in the way persons perceive their own body represent a crucial period of life for the onset of the disorder. Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse are well-recognized risk factors for the development of ED, determining a worse long-term outcome. Recent research overcome the approach that considers sexual activity of EDs patients, in terms of hypersexuality and dangerous sexual behaviors, considering the sexuality of EDs persons in terms of sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm and pain. Results from this line of research are promising, and describe a clear relationship between sexual dysfunction and the core psychopathological features of EDs, such as body image disturbances. Finally, the analysis of the literature showed an association between sexual orientation and gender dysphoria with EDs psychopathology and pathological eating behaviors, confirming the validity of research developing new models of maintaining factors of EDs related to the topic of self-identity. PMID:26812878

  5. Sexuality in eating disorders patients: etiological factors, sexual dysfunction and identity issues. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community appears to be less interested in sexuality of eating disorders (EDs) as compared to other psychiatric or medical comorbidities. However, a clear association between sexual problems and ED psychopathology was reported from different perspectives. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the general approach of the scientific literature toward the topic of sexuality and EDs. In particular, four different categories of research have been individuated, encompassing the role of puberty, and sexual abuse in the pathogenesis of the disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and the association between sexual orientation and EDs psychopathology. Timing of puberty with its hormonal consequences and the changes in the way persons perceive their own body represent a crucial period of life for the onset of the disorder. Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse are well-recognized risk factors for the development of ED, determining a worse long-term outcome. Recent research overcome the approach that considers sexual activity of EDs patients, in terms of hypersexuality and dangerous sexual behaviors, considering the sexuality of EDs persons in terms of sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm and pain. Results from this line of research are promising, and describe a clear relationship between sexual dysfunction and the core psychopathological features of EDs, such as body image disturbances. Finally, the analysis of the literature showed an association between sexual orientation and gender dysphoria with EDs psychopathology and pathological eating behaviors, confirming the validity of research developing new models of maintaining factors of EDs related to the topic of self-identity.

  6. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  7. Epilepsy, sex hormones, and antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Mattson, R H; Cramer, J A

    1985-01-01

    Many factors associated with hormone function have an impact on the course of epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy may have disturbances in sexual function such as anovulatory cycles in women and decreased libido and potency in men. Data indicate seizures, especially those arising in the limbic system, may influence the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Antiepileptic drugs also influence sexual function through direct brain effects as well as through induced changes in pharmacokinetics of the sex steroid hormones. Pregnancy has been reported to be a time of increased seizures; however, this has often been associated with low drug levels, for reasons that include inadequate drug dose, possible changes in pharmacokinetics, and noncompliance. Some evidence suggests that hormones affect seizure frequency. Changes in seizures during the menstrual cycle (catamenial epilepsy) have been found in some women: seizures were fewer during the luteal phase but increased when progesterone levels declined. Some improvement in seizure frequency has been shown in pilot studies using medroxyprogesterone acetate, a synthetic progesterone. Current concepts of the interrelationship among epilepsy, sex hormones, and antiepileptic drugs are discussed.

  8. Sexual Education and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…

  9. [Sexual profile of women with cervical cytology in a first level unit].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Palacios-Rodríguez, Raúl Gabriel; Guzmán-Solorio, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el perfil sexual de las mujeres conforma un conjunto de componentes que juega un papel fundamental en la aparición del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) o del cáncer cervicouterino (CACU). Se buscó determinar el perfil sexual de un grupo de mujeres con citología cervical en una unidad de primer nivel del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social del Estado de México. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron mujeres que acudieron para detección citológica de tumor maligno del cuello uterino. Se les entrevistó para obtener características sociodemográficas y ginecoobstétricas. El análisis estadístico se hizo con prueba exacta de Fisher, chi cuadrada de Mantel-Haenszel, y correlación de Spearman.

  10. Analysis of natural-occurring and synthetic sexual hormones in sludge-amended soils by matrix solid-phase dispersion and isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Pérez, Rosa A; Tadeo, José L

    2013-03-29

    A sensitive analytical method is presented for the simultaneous determination of four synthetic estrogens and six steroid hormones in sludge-amended soil. The method employs matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry injecting a large volume sample (10μL) after trimethylsilyl derivatization, using the solvent vent mode. It affords good resolution, high sensitivity and reproducibility and freedom from interferences even from complex matrices as soil amended with sewage sludge. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 10 to 300pgg(-1) with testosterone and progesterone having the highest limits. Soil amended with sewage sludge was spiked at 2, 10, 25 and 50ngg(-1) and the recoveries after MSPD with acetonitrile:methanol (90:10, v/v), ranged from 80 to 110% with relative standard deviations ≤9%. The method was applied to the analysis of six soil samples collected from agricultural plots and forested fields that had been amended with sewage sludge using isotopically labeled surrogates. Three of the synthetic estrogens studied were found at least in one of the six samples analyzed and trans-androsterone and estrone were the only natural hormones detected, although at very low levels (≤0.4ngg(-1)). PMID:23465128

  11. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology.

  12. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

  13. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland. PMID:27149714

  14. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland.

  15. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other.

  16. Review: neuroestrogen regulation of socio-sexual behavior of males

    PubMed Central

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is thought that estrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized by the action of aromatase in the brain from testosterone activates male socio-sexual behaviors, such as aggression and sexual behavior in birds. We recently found that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by directly activating aromatase and increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA). The POA is thought to be the most critical site of aromatization and neuroestrogen action for the regulation of socio-sexual behavior of male birds. We concluded that GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by increasing neuroestrogen concentration beyond its optimal concentration in the brain for expression of socio-sexual behavior. On the other hand, it has been reported that dopamine and glutamate, which stimulate male socio-sexual behavior in birds and mammals, inhibit the activity of aromatase in the POA. Multiple studies also report that the activity of aromatase or neuroestrogen is negatively correlated with changes in male socio-sexual behavior in fish, birds, and mammals including humans. Here, we review previous studies that investigated the role of neuroestrogen in the regulation of male socio-sexual behavior and reconsider the hypothesis that neuroestrogen activates male socio-sexual behavior in vertebrates. It is considered that basal concentration of neuroestrogen is required for the maintenance of male socio-sexual behavior but higher concentration of neuroestrogen may inhibit male socio-sexual behavior. PMID:25352775

  17. Preparation of an active recombinant peptide of crustacean androgenic gland hormone.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Atsuro; Hasegawa, Yuriko; Nishiyama, Makoto; Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Ko, Rinkei; Kurihara, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Shogo; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-03-01

    In crustaceans, male sexual characteristics are induced by a hormone referred to as androgenic gland hormone. We have recently cloned a candidate cDNA in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. In order to prove that this cDNA encodes the hormone, recombinant single-chain precursor molecules consisting of B chain, C peptide and A chain were produced using both baculovirus and bacterial expression systems. Neither recombinant precursors showed activity. Digestion of only the precursor carrying a glycan moiety with lysyl endopeptidase gave a heterodimeric peptide with hormonal activity by removing a part of C peptide. These results indicate that the cDNA encodes the hormone. PMID:11836008

  18. Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Swaab, Dick F

    2007-09-01

    During the intrauterine period the human brain develops in the male direction via direct action of a boy's testosterone, and in the female direction through the absence of this hormone in a girl. During this time, gender identity (the feeling of being a man or a woman), sexual orientation, and other behaviors are programmed. As sexual differentiation of the genitals takes places in the first 2 months of pregnancy, and sexual differentiation of the brain starts during the second half of pregnancy, these two processes may be influenced independently of each other, resulting in transsexuality. This also means that in the case of an ambiguous gender at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the same degree of masculinization of the brain. Differences in brain structures and brain functions have been found that are related to sexual orientation and gender.

  19. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same age. The child will have normal intelligence in most cases. In older children, puberty may ... hormones cause the body to make. Tests can measure these growth factors. Accurate growth hormone deficiency testing ...

  20. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of ... Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of ...

  1. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  2. Hormones and Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Hormones and Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, is a main cause of ... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ...

  3. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Vasopressin; AVP Formal name: Antidiuretic Hormone; Arginine Vasopressin Related tests: Osmolality , BUN , Creatinine , Sodium , ... should know? How is it used? The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) test is used to help detect, diagnose, ...

  4. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  5. Are hormonal contraceptive users more likely to misreport unprotected sex? Evidence from a biomarker validation study in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Ralph, Lauren J.; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48%) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45% vs. 67%, P=0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. PMID:24619603

  6. Are hormonal contraceptive users more likely to misreport unprotected sex? Evidence from a biomarker validation study in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Padian, Nancy S; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48 %) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45 vs. 67 %, P = 0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. PMID:24619603

  7. Dysregulation of male sex hormones in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.

  8. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one ... hormones that control the other structures in the endocrine system. The amount of these regulating hormones stays about ...

  9. [Growth hormone treatment update].

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Short stature in children is a common cause for referral to pediatric endocrinologists, corresponding most times to normal variants of growth. Initially growth hormone therapy was circumscribed to children presenting growth hormone deficiency. Since the production of recombinant human hormone its use had spread to other pathologies.

  10. Recent advances in the management of sexual precocity in girls.

    PubMed

    Schriock, E A; Martin, M C

    1991-12-01

    Sexual precocity has important psychosocial implications for the prematurely developing child, as well as being associated in some cases with significant pathology. Conscientious evaluation and initiation of effective therapy can have a significant impact on improving long-term outcome. The differentiation between complete sexual precocity with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and incomplete sexual precocity without activation of the central reproductive system is of paramount importance. In incomplete sexual precocity, the sex steroids are of exogenous, adrenal, or gonadal origin. Premature adrenarche presents with the early development of pubic hair only and must be distinguished from adrenal hyperplasia or an androgen-secreting neoplasm, which may be associated with accelerated growth, advanced bone age, and virilization. When incomplete sexual precocity involves the ovary, ovarian tumors must be considered. Other causes of incomplete sexual precocity include hypothyroidism and gonadotropin-independent precocity such as McCune-Albright syndrome. Complete sexual precocity or precocious puberty of central origin is diagnosed in girls by gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge yielding a stimulated luteinizing hormone peak greater than 15 IU/L. Radiologic evaluation of the central axis is necessary. Treatment of precocious puberty relies on the use of potent agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone that reversibly suppress the prematurely activated pituitary. Depot preparations are efficacious. Early initiation and careful monitoring of treatment can reduce physical signs of development, improve the likelihood for normal adult height, and postpone normal pubertal progression to a more appropriate age.

  11. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  12. Who, what, where, when (and maybe even why)? How the experience of sexual reward connects sexual desire, preference, and performance.

    PubMed

    Pfaus, James G; Kippin, Tod E; Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Gelez, Hélène; Afonso, Veronica M; Ismail, Nafissa; Parada, Mayte

    2012-02-01

    Although sexual behavior is controlled by hormonal and neurochemical actions in the brain, sexual experience induces a degree of plasticity that allows animals to form instrumental and Pavlovian associations that predict sexual outcomes, thereby directing the strength of sexual responding. This review describes how experience with sexual reward strengthens the development of sexual behavior and induces sexually-conditioned place and partner preferences in rats. In both male and female rats, early sexual experience with partners scented with a neutral or even noxious odor induces a preference for scented partners in subsequent choice tests. Those preferences can also be induced by injections of morphine or oxytocin paired with a male rat's first exposure to scented females, indicating that pharmacological activation of opioid or oxytocin receptors can "stand in" for the sexual reward-related neurochemical processes normally activated by sexual stimulation. Conversely, conditioned place or partner preferences can be blocked by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. A somatosensory cue (a rodent jacket) paired with sexual reward comes to elicit sexual arousal in male rats, such that paired rats with the jacket off show dramatic copulatory deficits. We propose that endogenous opioid activation forms the basis of sexual reward, which also sensitizes hypothalamic and mesolimbic dopamine systems in the presence of cues that predict sexual reward. Those systems act to focus attention on, and activate goal-directed behavior toward, reward-related stimuli. Thus, a critical period exists during an individual's early sexual experience that creates a "love map" or Gestalt of features, movements, feelings, and interpersonal interactions associated with sexual reward.

  13. Was sind hormone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  14. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  15. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus.

  16. Sexuality and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  17. Neuroendocrine contributions to sexual partner preference in birds.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    A majority of birds are socially monogamous, providing exceptional opportunities to discover neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying preferences for opposite-sex partners where the sexes form extended affiliative relationships. Zebra finches have been the focus of the most systematic program of research to date in any socially monogamous animal. In this species, sexual partner preference can be partially or largely sex reversed with hormone manipulations during early development, suggesting a role for organizational hormone actions. This same conclusion emerges from research with Japanese quail, which do not form long-term pairs. In zebra finches, social experience manipulations during juvenile development also can sex reverse partner preference, either alone or in combination with an early hormone manipulation. Although there are several candidate brain regions where neural mechanisms could underlie these effects of hormones or social experience, the necessary research has not yet been done to determine their involvement. The neuroendocrinology of avian sexual partner preference is still frontier territory.

  18. Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Julia Jill K

    2002-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) may occur in up to one-third of adult women in the US. The essential feature of female HSDD is a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. The evaluation of female HSDD generally requires careful and thoughtful consideration of the patient and the multitude of factors that impact on the various components of adult female sexual desire. Several female reproductive life experiences may uniquely affect sexual desire. These events include menstrual cycles, hormonal contraceptives, postpartum states and lactation, oophorectomy and hysterectomy, and perimenopausal and postmenopausal states. Sexual dysfunctions in women have strong positive associations with low feelings of physical and emotional satisfaction and low feelings of happiness. Thus, female HSDD can greatly impact on quality of life. In this article, treatment options are discussed with special attention to significant reproductive life events that may impact on sexual desire in adult women. Depending on the particular phase of reproductive life that a woman is experiencing, different recommendations are made. Various options in the treatment of HSDD in women include lifestyle changes, treatment of coexisting medical or psychiatric disorders, switching or discontinuing medications that could impact on sexual desire, hormone therapy and marital therapy. Clinical trials are presently underway to assess medications that may potentially benefit female patients with HSDD.

  19. Military Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... used by VA to refer to experiences of sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment that a Veteran ... make an estimate of the actual rates of sexual assault and harassment experiences among all individuals serving in ...

  20. Human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Strobl, J S; Thomas, M J

    1994-03-01

    The study of human growth hormone is a little more than 100 years old. Growth hormone, first identified for its dramatic effect on longitudinal growth, is now known to exert generalized effects on protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Additional roles for growth hormone in human physiology are likely to be discovered in the areas of sleep research and reproduction. Furthermore, there is some indication that growth hormone also may be involved in the regulation of immune function, mental well-being, and the aging process. Recombinant DNA technology has provided an abundant and safe, albeit expensive, supply of human growth hormone for human use, but the pharmacological properties of growth hormone are poor. Most growth hormone-deficient individuals exhibit a secretory defect rather than a primary defect in growth hormone production, however, and advances in our understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone secretion have established the basis for the use of drugs to stimulate release of endogenously synthesized growth hormone. This promises to be an important area for future drug development. PMID:8190748

  1. Transient sexual precocity and ovarian cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, A J; De Bruyn, R; Grant, D B

    1985-01-01

    Nine girls presenting under the age of 7 years with unsustained sexual precocity are described. Large ovarian cysts were detected by ultrasound in three and laparotomy in one. In two girls the symptoms resolved after surgical removal of the cyst; the other seven had spontaneous remission of symptoms, but in two of these transient breast development and bleeding recurred: further ovarian cyst formation was found in one of these patients. Endocrine studies performed before resolution of the cysts showed raised plasma oestradiol concentrations (64 to 440 pmol/l) in three girls and no appreciable rise in plasma luteinising hormone after gonadotrophin releasing hormone stimulation in two. We conclude that ovarian cyst formation with spontaneous resolution may cause transient sexual precocity in girls, and that ultrasound examination is an effective means of diagnosing and following these patients. Images Figure p820-b PMID:3901933

  2. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Swaab, Dick F; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    During the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. In this way, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation are programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation.

  3. Effects of zinc deficiency upon pituitary function in sexually mature and immature male rats.

    PubMed

    Root, A W; Duckett, G; Sweetland, M; Reiter, E O

    1979-06-01

    Serum pituitary levels of growth hormone (GH), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured in sexually mature (adult) and sexually immature (juvenile) male rats who had been deprived of dietary zinc for 15 and 7 weeks, respectively. When compared to pair-fed control rats receiving a zinc supplemented diet, both the adult and juvenile zinc deficient rats had significantly lower body weights, tail lengths and ventral prostate weights. The testes of the sexually immature rats were also smaller than those of the pair-fed animals. In sexually mature, zinc deficient rats serum concentrations of GH and testosterone were significantly lower and serum LH levels significantly higher than in ad libitum fed control rats. Pituitary and hypothalamic levels of other hormones did not differ from values recorded in control animals. In sexually immature zinc deficient rats serum concentrations of GH were also significantly depressed; pituitary content and concentration of LH and pituitary and serum levels of FSH were significantly increased over control values. No discernible effects of zinc deficiency upon hyplthalamic content of LH-releasing hormone or serum concentrations of PRL or TSH were recorded in juvenile rats. Zinc deficiency has minimal effects upon the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of sexually mature rats. In sexually immature males, zinc deprivation leads to impairment of gonadal growth and increased synthesis and/or secretion of the pituitary gonadotropins.

  4. The Sexual Acceptability of Contraception: Reviewing the Literature and Building a New Concept.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jenny A; Smith, Nicole K

    2016-01-01

    How contraceptives affect women's sexual well-being is critically understudied. Fortunately, a growing literature focuses on sexual aspects of contraception, especially hormonal contraception's associations with libido. However, a more holistic approach to contraceptive sexual acceptability is needed to capture the full range of women's sexual experiences. We conducted a narrative literature review of this topic, working with an original sample of 3,001 citations published from 2005 to 2015. In Part 1, we draw from a subset of this literature (264 citations) to build a new conceptual model of sexual acceptability. Aspects include macro factors (gender, social inequality, culture, and structure), relationship factors (dyadic influences and partner preferences), and individual factors (sexual functioning, sexual preferences, such as dis/inhibition, spontaneity, pleasure, the sexual aspects of side effects, such as bleeding, mood changes, sexual identity and sexual minority status, and pregnancy intentions). In Part 2, we review the empirical literature on the sexual acceptability of individual methods (103 citations), applying the model as much as possible. Results suggest contraceptives can affect women's sexuality in a wide variety of positive and negative ways that extend beyond sexual functioning alone. More attention to sexual acceptability could promote both women's sexual well-being and more widespread, user-friendly contraceptive practices. PMID:26954608

  5. The Sexual Acceptability of Contraception: Reviewing the Literature and Building a New Concept

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Smith, Nicole K.

    2016-01-01

    How contraceptives affect women’s sexual well-being is critically understudied. Fortunately, a growing literature focuses on sexual aspects of contraception, especially hormonal contraception’s associations with libido. However, a more holistic approach to contraceptive sexual acceptability is needed to capture the full range of women’s sexual experiences. We conducted a narrative literature review of this topic, working with an original sample of 3,001 citations published from 2005 to 2015. In Part 1, we draw from a subset of this literature (264 citations) to build a new conceptual model of sexual acceptability. Aspects include macro factors (gender, social inequality, culture, and structure), relationship factors (dyadic influences and partner preferences), and individual factors (sexual functioning, sexual preferences, such as dis/inhibition, spontaneity, pleasure, the sexual aspects of side effects, such as bleeding, mood changes, sexual identity and sexual minority status, and pregnancy intentions). In Part 2, we review the empirical literature on the sexual acceptability of individual methods (103 citations), applying the model as much as possible. Results suggest contraceptives can affect women’s sexuality in a wide variety of positive and negative ways that extend beyond sexual functioning alone. More attention to sexual acceptability could promote both women’s sexual well-being and more widespread, user-friendly contraceptive practices. PMID:26954608

  6. Sexual behavior of mares.

    PubMed

    Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2007-06-01

    The mare is seasonally polyestrus, having an anovulatory period during the short light days of late fall and early winter, and beginning to ovulate as the days become longer during the winter. The complete estrus cycle is typically about 3 weeks, with 5 to 7 days of estrus and approximately 2 weeks of diestrus. When a mare lives within the natural social structure of the horse, i.e. a family band with several adult mares and one or more stallions, estrus is characterized by repeatedly approaching the stallion, frequent urination, deviating the tail away from the perineum, and standing still with the hind limbs spread apart. Diestrus is characterized by avoidance of an approaching stallion, and aggression toward the stallion, such as squealing, striking, and kicking, if he persists in attempting to court the diestrus mare. However, mares and stallions with long-term social relationships will often rest together, graze together and groom each other, all without sexual interactions. Hormonally, estrous behavior in the mare is initiated by estradiol that is secreted by the follicle, while estrous behavior is suppressed by progesterone, secreted by the corpus luteum. Mares are unusual among the ungulates in that they periodically exhibit estrous behavior during the anovulatory period. This is probably due to the release of estrogenic steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex. The display of sexual behavior by the mare throughout the year is thought to facilitate maintenance of the horse's social structure, in which the male remains with a group of females year round, in contrast with most ungulates in which the females and males only come together during the mating season. PMID:17488645

  7. Hormones and endometrial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Areege; Tempest, Nicola; Parkes, Christina; Alnafakh, Rafah; Makrydima, Sofia; Adishesh, Meera; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2016-02-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the Western World with an alarmingly increasing incidence related to longevity and obesity. Ovarian hormones regulate normal human endometrial cell proliferation, regeneration and function therefore are implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis directly or via influencing other hormones and metabolic pathways. Although the role of unopposed oestrogen in the pathogenesis of EC has received considerable attention, the emerging role of other hormones in this process, such as androgens and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) is less well recognised. This review aims to consolidate the current knowledge of the involvement of the three main endogenous ovarian hormones (oestrogens, progesterone and androgens) as well as the other hormones in endometrial carcinogenesis, to identify important avenues for future research. PMID:26966933

  8. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior. PMID:949223

  9. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.

  10. Headaches and hormones.

    PubMed

    Pakalnis, Ann; Gladstein, Jack

    2010-06-01

    It is clear that hormones play an important role in modulating and exacerbating headaches. From an epidemiologic standpoint, we know that before puberty, incidence of new headache is similar for boys and girls. By age 18, however, most new cases of migraine occur in young women. The role of sex hormones in headache is described in the context of pubertal development. Obesity and Pseudotumor also impact headache through hormonal influences. Menstrual migraine will often present in the teenage years. Oral contraceptives may worsen or ameliorate headache. This article will introduce these concepts and help the reader become familiar with the role of hormones in headache.

  11. Sexual and reproductive health in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Shari; Mulhall, John; Nelson, Christian; Kelvin, Joanne; Dickler, Maura; Carter, Jeanne

    2013-12-01

    As patients live longer after cancer diagnosis and treatment, attention to symptoms and quality of life (QoL) are of increasing importance both during treatment and throughout survivorship. Two complications of multi-modal cancer treatment that can profoundly affect both men and women are sexual dysfunction and infertility. Survivors at highest risk for treatment-related sexual dysfunction are those with tumors that involve the sexual or pelvic organs and those whose treatment affects the hormonal systems mediating sexual function. Sexual dysfunction may not abate without appropriate intervention. Therefore, early identification and treatment strategies are essential. Likewise, multiple factors contribute to the risk of infertility from cancer treatment and many cancer patients of reproductive age would prefer to maintain their fertility, if possible. Fortunately, advances in reproductive technology have created options for young newly diagnosed patients to preserve their ability to have a biologic child. This paper will focus on the sexual and reproductive problems encountered by cancer survivors and discuss some treatment options.

  12. Multidimensional sexual perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects. PMID:23842783

  13. Maternal treatment with picrotoxin in late pregnancy improved female sexual behavior but did not alter male sexual behavior of offspring.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Maria M; Scanzerla, Kayne K; Chamlian, Mayra; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Felicio, Luciano F

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory investigated the effects of picrotoxin (PT), a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist administered during several perinatal periods, on the sexual behavior of male and female rats. We observed that the time of perinatal exposure to PT is critical to determine either facilitation or impairment of sexual behavior. The present study evaluated the effects of prenatal administration of a single dose of PT on gestation day 18 of dams (the first critical period of male brain sexual differentiation) on sexual behavior of male and female offspring. Thus, female Wistar rats were mated with males and, on gestation day 18, received 0.6 mg/kg of PT or 0.9% saline solution subcutaneously. On postnatal day 1, the offspring were weighed and several measures of sexual development were assessed. The sexual behaviors and the general activity in the open field of adult male and ovariectomized, hormone-treated female rats were observed. On comparison with the control group, maternal PT treatment: (i) did not alter the maternal weight, pup weight, anogenital distance, or male and female general activity; (ii) increased female sexual behavior, that is, decreased the latencies to first mount, first lordosis, and tenth lordosis, and the percentage of females presenting lordosis; and (iii) did not alter male sexual behavior. It is suggested that prenatal PT exposure interfered with epigenetic mechanisms related to the development of sex differences in the brain, leading to the observed sexually dimorphic effects on sexual behavior.

  14. [Female sexual dysfunction: a systematic overview of classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Marthol, H; Hilz, M J

    2004-03-01

    Sexual dysfunction is defined as "disturbances in sexual desire and in the psychophysiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty". The female sexual response cycle consists of three phases: desire, arousal, and orgasm. Various organs of the external and internal genitalia, e.g. vagina, clitoris, labia minora, vestibular bulbs, pelvic floor muscles and uterus, contribute to female sexual function. During sexual arousal, genital blood flow and sensation are increased. The vaginal canal is moistened (lubrication). During orgasm, there is rhythmical contraction of the uterus and pelvic floor muscles. Within the central nervous system, hypothalamic, limbic-hippocampal structures play a central role for sexual arousal. Sexual arousal largely depends on the sympathetic nervous system. Moreover, nonadrenergic/noncholinergic neurotransmitters (NANC), e.g. vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO), are involved in smooth muscle relaxation and enhancement of genital blood flow. Furthermore, various hormones may influence female sexual function. Estrogen has a significant role in maintaining vaginal mucosal epithelium as well as sensory thresholds and genital blood flow. Androgens primarily affect sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and the overall sense of well-being. The internationally accepted classification of female sexual dysfunction consists of hypoactive sexual desire disorders, sexual aversion disorders, sexual arousal disorders, orgasmic disorders and sexual pain disorders. Vascular insufficiency, e.g. due to atherosclerosis, and neurologic diseases, e.g. diabetic neuropathy, are major causes of sexual dysfunction. Additionally, sexual dysfunction may be due to changes in hormonal levels, medications with sexual side effects or of psychological origin. For the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction, a detailed history should be taken initially, followed by a physical examination

  15. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  16. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  17. Sexuality and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanctuary, Gerald

    The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

  18. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Nancy A.

    1988-01-01

    Three situations of sexual harassment, typical of the complaints received by various departments and offices on all Indiana University campuses, are presented. According to the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs, "academic sexual harassment is the use of authority to emphasize the sexuality or sexual identity of a student in…

  19. Sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sinisi, A A; Pasquali, D; Notaro, A; Bellastella, A

    2003-01-01

    In humans, like as in other mammals, the gonads, the internal genital ducts, and the external genital structures all develop from bipotential embryologic tissues. Male or female phenotype develops through a cascade of processes which initiate with sex determination and follow with sex differentiation. The karyotype (46, XY or 46, XX) of the embryo (genetic sex) determines whether primordial gonad differentiates into a testis or an ovary, respectively (gonadal differentiation). A Y-related gene, SRY, acts as a switch signal for testis differentiation. Testis development process involves several steps controlled by other non-OY-linked genes, such as Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1), EMX2, LIM1, steroidogenic factor 1(SF-1), SRY box-related gene 9 (SOX9). Since other genes, such as Wnt-4 and DAX-1, are necessary for the initiation of female pathway in sex determination, female development cannot be considered a default process. Hormonal production of differentiated gonads is relevant for differentiation of the internal and external genitalia during fetal life, and for the development of secondary sex characteristics at puberty. Antimullerian hormone (AMH) secreted by Sertoli cells inhibits the development of female internal genitalia (tube, uterus, upper part of vagina); testosterone secreted by Leydig cells induces stabilization of wolffian ducts and development of internal male genitalia. Differentiation of external male genitalia requires the transformation of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by 5alpha reductase type 2 expressed in genital skin and urogenital sinus. The effects of androgens occur in presence of functional androgen receptor (AR) protein. Mutations of genes coding for steroidogenic enzymes, AMH, AMH receptor, AR and 5alpha reductase are all associated with impairment of sex differentiation and result in genital ambiguity. PMID:12834017

  20. Sexual dysfunction in the older woman: an overview of the current understanding and management.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kathleen E; Berman, Jennifer R

    2004-01-01

    of women with sexual complaints should include a detailed psychological, social and medical history and thorough physical examination including a hormonal profile. Current treatment options are dependent on the diagnosis and include physical therapy, psychological counselling, hormonal supplements, medication changes and sexual devices. There has also been a burgeoning interest in investigational medications for female sexual dysfunction, from centrally acting (e.g. serotonin agonists) to peripheral, localised treatment (e.g. vasodilating creams). The area of female sexuality and sexual dysfunction has been undergoing important critical changes within the last 10 years. Researchers and clinicians are continuing to recognise the need to try and understand both the psychological and physiological aspects of the female sexual experience and how they influence one another. PMID:15287824

  1. [Transsexual wish and and cis-sexual defense].

    PubMed

    Sigusch, V

    1995-01-01

    The desire of trans-sexual patients to appropriate the physical attributes of the opposite sex via hormone treatment or surgery confronts psychoanalysis and sex research with problems that are not only psychological in nature. Sigusch uses the term "defence" here not only in a technical sense but also in an epistemological, discourse-analytic and disposition-analytic register. The general dispositions determining the reality of gender and gender difference are "cis-sexual" in nature. The polarity they display extends to the physical and manifests itself in the form of sexual binarism. The author coins the consciously neologistic term "cis-sexual" to describe individuals where physical gender and gender identity are completely and "naturally" co-extensive. Only the realization that "second-nature" is in reality primary can trigger the detotalization of so-called trans-sexuality that Sigusch is concerned to call into question. PMID:7480808

  2. PERCEPTION OF THE MOLTING HORMONE 20-HYDROXECDYSONE BY HOMARUS AMERICANUS: LOCALIZATION OF STEROID RECEPTORS AND EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...

  3. Sexual function and affect in parkinsonian men treated with L-dopa.

    PubMed

    Brown, E; Brown, G M; Kofman, O; Quarrington, B

    1978-12-01

    Using psychiatric interviews, sexual and affect rating scales, hormonal studies, and neurologic assessment, the authors assessed the effect of L-dopa treatment on men with Parkinson's disease. Patients demonstrated variable affect changes. Approximately one-half of the patients reported an increased sexual interest that was not related to improvement in locomotor function. Hormonal factors appeared to be involved. The findings suggest that male parkinsonian patients who possess an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis experience increased sexual function related to L-dopa treatment.

  4. Women's interest in visual sexual stimuli varies with menstrual cycle phase at first exposure and predicts later interest.

    PubMed

    Wallen, Kim; Rupp, Heather A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated whether women's interest in visual sexual stimuli varied with their hormonal state. Viewing times of 30 women, 15 normal cycling (NC) and 15 oral contracepting (OC), to sexually explicit photos were measured at three different times. NC women were tested during their menstrual, periovulatory, and luteal phases, and OC women were tested at equivalent temporal intervals. Subjects viewed stimuli as long as desired, thus viewing time measured subject interest. Subjective ratings of stimulus sexual attractiveness were obtained on each test. There was no overall relationship between menstrual cycle phase and viewing time. However the participant's menstrual cycle phase during first exposure to sexual stimuli predicted subsequent interest in sexual stimuli during the next two tests. NC women who first viewed stimuli during their periovulatory phase looked longer at the sexual stimuli across all sessions than did women first tested in their luteal phase. OC women first exposed to the sexual stimuli during menstruation looked longer at the stimuli across all sessions than did OC women first exposed at other test phases. Neither current test phase nor initial cycle phase influenced subjective ratings. Women had increased interest in sexual stimuli across all sessions if first exposed to sexual stimuli when endogenous estrogens were most likely highest. These data suggest that women's interest in visual sexual stimuli is modulated by hormones such that the hormonal condition at first exposure possibly determines the stimuli's emotional valence, markedly affecting subsequent interest in sexual stimuli. PMID:20034495

  5. Sexuality and Islam.

    PubMed

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.

  6. Hormone replacement in disorders of sex development: Current thinking.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Jacqueline; Zacharin, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Congenital disruptions of sex hormone production lead to wide-ranging developmental and physiological effects in individuals who have atypical chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex. Aberrant developmental sex hormone exposure causes disorders of genital anatomy, attainment of secondary sexual characteristics and has long-term effects on metabolism, fertility and psychological functioning. Principles in the management of disorders of sex development (DSD) aim to improve physiological health and long-term outcome, as well as development of male or female sexual anatomy. Concerns raised by DSD patient advocacy groups about beneficence and autonomy with respect to prescribed hormone treatments and avoidance of unnecessary genital and gonadal surgery have demanded greater informed consent and attention to long-term outcome. Hormone treatment is influenced by underlying clinical diagnosis and by factors such as sex of rearing and gender identity of the affected individual. We describe diagnostic criteria for different DSDs, clinical considerations in management protocols, together with current concepts and detailed practical hormone treatments for male and female individuals with DSD. Gender identity issues requiring multidisciplinary consensus, ethical consideration and informed consent or assent from the young person are also addressed.

  7. Immunoendocrinology: faulty hormonal imprinting in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2014-06-01

    Hormonal imprinting is an epigenetic process which is taking place perinatally at the first encounter between the developing hormone receptors and their target hormones. The hormonal imprinting influences the binding capacity of receptors, the hormone synthesis of the cells, and other hormonally regulated functions, as sexual behavior, aggressivity, empathy, etc. However, during the critical period, when the window for imprinting is open, molecules similar to the physiological imprinters as synthetic hormone analogs, other members of the hormone families, environmental pollutants, etc. can cause faulty imprinting with life-long consequences. The developing immune system, the cells of which also have receptors for hormones, is very sensitive to faulty imprinting, which causes alterations in the antibody and cytokine production, in the ratio of immune cells, in the defense against bacterial and viral infections as well as against malignant tumors. Immune cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells) are also producing hormones which are secreted into the blood circulation as well as are transported locally (packed transport). This process is also disturbed by faulty imprinting. As immune cells are differentiating during the whole life, faulty imprinting could develop any time, however, the most decisive is the perinatal imprinting. The faulty imprinting is inherited to the progenies in general and especially in the case of immune system. In our modern world the number and amount of artificial imprinters (e.g. endocrine disruptors and drugs) are enormously increasing. The effects of the faulty imprinters most dangerous to the immune system are shown in the paper. The present and future consequences of the flood of faulty imprintings are unpredictable however, it is discussed.

  8. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Growth hormone induced in vitro proliferation, sprouting, tube formation, and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells, and the mitogenic effect was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 or -3 activation. Growth hormone also inhibited serum starvation-induced lymphatic endothelial cell apoptosis. No major alterations of lymphatic vessels were detected in the normal skin of bovine growth hormone-transgenic mice. However, transgenic delivery of growth hormone accelerated lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the granulation tissue of full-thickness skin wounds, and intradermal delivery of growth hormone resulted in enlargement and enhanced proliferation of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in wild-type mice. These results identify growth hormone as a novel lymphangiogenic factor. PMID:18583315

  9. Sexual interest, attitudes, knowledge, and sexual history in relation to sexual behavior in the institutionalized aged.

    PubMed

    White, C B

    1982-02-01

    Although the idea that sexuality is a lifelong need is gaining greater research support and greater acceptability to the general public, few consider the institutionalized aged as having sexual needs or being able to benefit from sexual intimacy. The research presented here indicates that sexual activity in the institutionalized aged is related to their attitudes and behavior toward sexuality and to their sexual interest level and prior frequency of sexual activity. Institutionalized aged persons evidence sexual needs and do engage in sexual behavior.

  10. Hormones and autoimmunity: animal models of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wilder, R L

    1996-05-01

    Hormones, particularly those involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and -adrenal axes (HPG and HPA), play important roles in various animal models of autoimmunity such as systemic lupus erythematosus in mice and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice and rats, and the streptococcal cell wall, adjuvant and avridine arthritis models in rats. Intimately linked to the subject of hormones and autoimmunity are gender, sex chromosomes and age. The importance of these factors in the various animal models is emphasized in this chapter. Several major themes are apparent. First, oestrogens promote B-cell dependent immune-complex mediated disease (e.g. lupus nephritis) but suppress T-cell dependent pathology (CIA in mice and rats), and vice versa. Second, testosterone's effects are complicated and depend on species and disease model. In rats, testosterone suppresses both T-cell and B-cell immunity. In mice, the effects are complex and difficult to interpret, e.g. they tend to enhance CIA arthritis and suppress lupus. Sex chromosome/sex hormone interactions are clearly involved in generating these complicated effects. Third, studies in Lewis and Fischer F344 rats exemplify the importance of corticosteroids, corticotrophin releasing hormone and the HPA axis in the regulation of inflammation and the predisposition to autoimmune diseases. Fourth, the HPA axis is intimately linked to the HPG axis and is sexually dimorphic. Oestrogens stimulate higher corticosteroid responses in females. The animal model data have major implications for understanding autoimmunity in humans. In particular, adrenal and gonadal hormone deficiency is likely to facilitate T-cell dependent diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, while high oestrogen levels or effects, relative to testosterone, are likely to promote B-cell dependent immune-complex-mediated diseases such as lupus nephritis.

  11. Interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormones.

    PubMed

    Svalheim, Sigrid; Sveberg, Line; Mochol, Monika; Taubøll, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are known to have endocrine side effects in both men and women. These can affect fertility, sexuality, thyroid function, and bone health, all functions of major importance for well-being and quality of life. The liver enzyme inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs), like phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine, and also valproate (VPA), a non-EIAED, are most likely to cause such side effects. AED treatment can alter the levels of different sex hormones. EIAEDs increase sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in both men and women. Over time, this elevation can lead to lower levels of bioactive testosterone and estradiol, which may cause menstrual disturbances, sexual problems, and eventually reduced fertility. VPA can cause weight gain in both men and women. In women, VPA can also lead to androgenization with increased serum testosterone concentrations, menstrual disturbances, and polycystic ovaries. Lamotrigine has not been shown to result in endocrine side effects. The newer AEDs have not yet been thoroughly studied, but case reports indicate that some of these drugs could also be suspected to cause such effects if endocrine changes commence after treatment initiation. It is important to be aware of possible endocrine side effects of AEDs as they can have a major impact on quality of life, and are, at least partly, reversible after AED discontinuation.

  12. Interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormones.

    PubMed

    Svalheim, Sigrid; Sveberg, Line; Mochol, Monika; Taubøll, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are known to have endocrine side effects in both men and women. These can affect fertility, sexuality, thyroid function, and bone health, all functions of major importance for well-being and quality of life. The liver enzyme inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs), like phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine, and also valproate (VPA), a non-EIAED, are most likely to cause such side effects. AED treatment can alter the levels of different sex hormones. EIAEDs increase sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in both men and women. Over time, this elevation can lead to lower levels of bioactive testosterone and estradiol, which may cause menstrual disturbances, sexual problems, and eventually reduced fertility. VPA can cause weight gain in both men and women. In women, VPA can also lead to androgenization with increased serum testosterone concentrations, menstrual disturbances, and polycystic ovaries. Lamotrigine has not been shown to result in endocrine side effects. The newer AEDs have not yet been thoroughly studied, but case reports indicate that some of these drugs could also be suspected to cause such effects if endocrine changes commence after treatment initiation. It is important to be aware of possible endocrine side effects of AEDs as they can have a major impact on quality of life, and are, at least partly, reversible after AED discontinuation. PMID:25797888

  13. Parental Sexual Attitudes, Family Sexual Communication, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    Some researchers have reported that when parents are the main source of sex education, their adolescent children are less likely to engage in premarital sexual activity and are more likely to use effective contraception. This study used the variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes (liberal or conservative) to categorize 349 college…

  14. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction

  15. Sex hormone-related and growth hormone-related alopecias.

    PubMed

    Schmeitzel, L P

    1990-11-01

    Canine endocrine dermatoses are characterized by bilateral symmetrical alopecia. Although growth hormone-related and sex hormone-related dermatoses are less common than hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism, they are important causes of hormonal skin disease. Several new syndromes associated with growth and sex hormones recently have been described.

  16. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  17. Inappropriate sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Philo, S W; Richie, M F; Kaas, M J

    1996-11-01

    Inappropriate sexual behavior, or sexually aggressive behavior, is a term which encompasses a variety of behaviors, including obscene gesturing, touching or hugging another person, exposing body parts or disrobing, and masturbating in public. Inappropriate sexual behavior often elicits feelings of anxiety, embarrassment, or unease in the caregiver and the result is often disruption in continuity of care for the patient. The cause of inappropriate sexual behavior varies among individuals and careful assessment of the etiology of the behavior is the first essential step in intervening. Nursing interventions focus upon providing opportunities for expression of appropriate sexual behavior while attempting to extinguish inappropriate sexual behavior.

  18. [Hormone treatment of pedophilia].

    PubMed

    Vanderschueren, D M

    1997-01-01

    Pedophilia is only one of the sexual deviations that can be treated by chemical castration and it is presently unclear whether pedophilia responds better or worse to this therapy in sexual offenders. Antiandrogens are most often used for chemical castration. With respect to the treatment of sexual deviations, LH-antagonists or the combination of antiandrogens and LH-agonists were not studied very extensively. Long-term effects and side-effects of chemical castration are also presently unclear. Although, there is some indication that recidivism will decrease following chemical castration, its use is limited by a high refusal and drop-out rate. The indications of chemical castration in the treatment of sexual deviation raises important ethical questions.

  19. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: • Pharmaceutical products. These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

  20. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: Pharmaceutical products . These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy(a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

  1. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  2. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to closely replicate normal thyroid functioning. Pure, synthetic thyroxine (T4) works in the same way as ... needing thyroid hormone replacement (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). Pure synthetic thyroxine (T4), taken once daily by mouth, successfully ...

  3. [Advances in hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Villanueva Egan, Luis Alberto; Pichardo Cuevas, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    This review provides an update regarding newer options in hormonal contraception that include the progestin-releasing intrauterine system, the contraceptive patch and ring, the single rod progestin-releasing implant, extended and emergency oral contraception and recent advances in hormonal male contraception. These methods represent a major advancement in this field, allowing for the development of more acceptable, safety and effective birth control regimens.

  4. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fridlyand, Leonid E.; Tamarina, Natalia A.; Schally, Andrew V.; Philipson, Louis H.

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggest that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications. PMID:27777568

  5. Precocious puberty associated with neurofibromatosis and optic gliomas. Treatment with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue.

    PubMed

    Laue, L; Comite, F; Hench, K; Loriaux, D L; Cutler, G B; Pescovitz, O H

    1985-11-01

    Seven children with central precocious puberty and either neurofibromatosis and/or optic gliomas were referred to the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md, for evaluation and treatment with the long-acting luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) D-Trp6-Pro9-NEt-LHRH. Only six of the seven children chose to receive treatment. Four children presented with neurofibromatosis, three of whom also had optic gliomas; the remaining three children had isolated optic gliomas, without other neurocutaneous stigmas. All had central precocious puberty mediated by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Six months of LHRHa therapy caused suppression of gonadotropin and sex steroid levels, stabilization or regression of secondary sexual characteristics, and decreases in growth velocity and the rate of bone age maturation. We conclude that LHRHa therapy is effective in the treatment of central precocious puberty secondary to neurofibromatosis and/or optic gliomas.

  6. [Sexuality in aging].

    PubMed

    Berner, Yitshal N

    2002-07-01

    During aging, impairment in many physiological functions is manifested. This is exhibited in sexual functioning, which is an intricate interaction involving a number of systems: endocrinal, motor, sensor, physical and sensual. Sexual activity is a component of the well-being of the individual, while sexuality is part of self-identity at any age. Sexual activity is a primary base to human relations, and it is a basic right of every person in society. Sexuality and sexual activity are considered to be part of youth, hence, the combination of sexuality and aging is considered strange. In many instances, sexual activity in the elderly is considered exceptional and possibly requiring certain intervention of the society establishment. Recent technological advances enable sexual activity, despite physiological and even anatomical shortcomings. Knowledge of the changes in sexual activity with aging, as well as having open communication on the subject, are the best tools for maintaining sexual activity with appropriate limitation during aging. The purpose of this short review is to present the different aspects of sexuality and sexual activity in aging.

  7. Treatment with thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses.

  8. A bihormonal model of normal sexual stimulation; the etiology of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Motofei, I G

    2001-07-01

    The physiological sexual excitation is mediated both by the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system. The antagonism between testosterone (Tt) and estrogens (Es) as well as the fact that the dynamics of the sexual excitation in the male are antagonistic to those in the female are nowadays well-known; hence, the hypothesis was emitted that the sympathoparasympathetic sexual excitation is bihormonal mediated, consisting in a very active sexual hormone associated with a weak antagonistic hormone. Most studies show a serotonergic (ejaculatory) involvement in premature ejaculation (PE). Nevertheless, an effective treatment of PE is rather difficult with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs and other clinical data even suggest that changes in PE actually involve at first the sexual excitation process and only secondly the ejaculation reflex.Thus, a therapeutic model for PE is set up, starting from the physiological aspects described and from the presumed pathophysiological mechanism in PE. PMID:11421633

  9. Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

  10. Mediators of sexual revictimization risk in adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  11. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine Sexual dysfunction and infertility What is sexual dysfunction and how common is ... and 40% of women. For couples dealing with infertility, it is even more common. Often, people ignore ...

  12. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... Healthcare Providers: Sexual Transmission of Zika Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  14. Sexual Problems in Women

    MedlinePlus

    There are many problems that can keep a woman from enjoying sex. They include Lack of sexual ... concerns about marriage or relationship problems. For some women, the problem results from past sexual trauma. Occasional ...

  15. Children and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Susan Miller

    1991-01-01

    Presents a newsletter that discusses methods parents can use to handle sexual questions or behavior in young children. An accompanying letter to parents addresses young children's sexual behavior and ways parents can respond to this behavior. (GH)

  16. Symptoms: Menopause, Infertility, and Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Barton, Debra L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    By 2022, the number of survivors is expected to grow to nearly 18 million. Therefore, addressing acute and chronic negative sequelae of a cancer diagnosis and its treatments becomes a health imperative. For women with a history of breast cancer, one of the common goals of treatment and prevention of recurrence is to reduce circulating concentrations of estradiol, especially in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Hormone deprivation after a diagnosis of breast cancer impacts physiological targets other than in the breast tissue and can result in unwanted side effects, all of which can negatively impact quality of life and function and cause distress. Symptoms that are most strongly linked by evidence to hormone changes after cancer diagnosis and treatment include hot flashes, night sweats, sleep changes, fatigue, mood changes, and diminishing sexual function, including vaginal atrophy (decreased arousal, dryness and dyspareunia), infertility, decreased desire and negative self-image. Weight gain and resulting body image changes are often concomitants of the abrupt onset of treatment-induced menopause. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly review what is known about the advent of premature menopause in women treated for breast cancer, menopausal symptoms that are exacerbated by endocrine treatments for breast cancer, and the associated concerns of hot flashes and related menopausal symptoms, sexual health and fertility issues. We will discuss limitations in the current research and propose strategies that address current limitations in order to move the science forward. PMID:26059933

  17. An Overview of Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stier, William F., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

  18. Effects of prenatal stress on sexual partner preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Meek, Leslie R; Schulz, Kalynn M; Keith, Courtney A

    2006-09-30

    Three-month old, male Swiss Webster mice were born to either control dams or dams who had been prenatally stressed with light, heat, noise and handling during the last week of gestation. As adults, male offspring were tested on sexual partner preference and sexual behavior (mounting, intromissions and lordosis) with a sexually experienced male stimulus animal and a stimulus estrous female. In comparison to males born to control dams, prenatally stressed males showed a sexual partner preference for the sexually active male as demonstrated by a negative partner preference score, more and longer visits to the male's compartment, fewer and shorter visits to the female's compartment and longer latencies to and lower frequencies of mounts and intromissions of females. In addition, stressed males showed a greater frequency of lordosis and a higher lordosis quotient than did control males. This study is the first to investigate the effects of prenatal stress alone, without hormonal manipulation, on sexual partner preference using both a partner preference paradigm and measures of sexual behavior such as mounting, intromissions and lordosis. These findings support the suggestion that prenatal stress alone is enough to significantly affect sexual partner preference in male mice.

  19. Effects of prenatal stress on sexual partner preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Meek, Leslie R; Schulz, Kalynn M; Keith, Courtney A

    2006-09-30

    Three-month old, male Swiss Webster mice were born to either control dams or dams who had been prenatally stressed with light, heat, noise and handling during the last week of gestation. As adults, male offspring were tested on sexual partner preference and sexual behavior (mounting, intromissions and lordosis) with a sexually experienced male stimulus animal and a stimulus estrous female. In comparison to males born to control dams, prenatally stressed males showed a sexual partner preference for the sexually active male as demonstrated by a negative partner preference score, more and longer visits to the male's compartment, fewer and shorter visits to the female's compartment and longer latencies to and lower frequencies of mounts and intromissions of females. In addition, stressed males showed a greater frequency of lordosis and a higher lordosis quotient than did control males. This study is the first to investigate the effects of prenatal stress alone, without hormonal manipulation, on sexual partner preference using both a partner preference paradigm and measures of sexual behavior such as mounting, intromissions and lordosis. These findings support the suggestion that prenatal stress alone is enough to significantly affect sexual partner preference in male mice. PMID:16844154

  20. Schooling & Sexualities: Teaching for a Positive Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskey, Louise, Ed.; Beavis, Catherine, Ed.

    This collection of papers contains a Foreword by Jane Kenway, an Introduction by Louise Laskey and Catherine Beavis, and four sections. Section 1, Schools and the Social Construction of Sexuality, contains 3 chapters: (1) Power and Partnership? Challenging the Sexual Construction of Schooling (D. Denborough); (2) Where Do You Draw the Line?…

  1. BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HYPOACTIVE SEXUAL DESIRE IN WOMEN: A NARRATIVE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Malary, Mina; Khani, Soghra; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a mental response to sexual stimuli, sexual desire determines human sexual behavior and represents the cognitive capacity of sexual stimulation, so that avoiding sexual activity has a very negative effect on the discharge of intimacy and joy in couple’s relationship and threatens the stability relationship, which can finally end in sexual dissatisfaction and divorce; it may even affect the reproduction. This study, reviews the literature on biopsychosocial determinants of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women in childbearing ages. Method: The search was done from January to March 2015 by the use of the data bases ProQuest, Pubmed, CINAHL, Ovid and Medline and the words sexual desire, related factors and biopsychosocial determinants were used as free text words. The words reduce sexual desire, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, dyadic relationship, biopsychosocial factors and women were used as keywords in the search. Also, the articles focusing on any aspects of sexual desire such as biological, social and psychological factors and relationship factors alone or integrated, were included in the study. The articles which specifically targeted the hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pregnant and lactating women and also the articles targeting biopsychosocial factors related to other types of sexual function disorder such as arousal disorder, orgasm disorder and dyspareunia, were all excluded from this study. Findings: After reviewing the literature, the findings were categorized in three main class of effect of biologic factors on sexual desire and sexual hypoactivity, the effect of psychological factors on sexual desire and the effect of cultural factors and couple’s relationship on sexual desire, each of these domains cover a wide range (such as hormonal changes, chronic diseases, psychological difficulties (perceived stress, anxiety, depression). Incompatibility of couples, the spouse’s sexual function disorder) which may overlap. Because

  2. [Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes].

    PubMed

    Forga, L; Anda, E; Martínez de Esteban, J P

    2005-01-01

    We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and, more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1) It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2) It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3) It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone), ectopic Cushing's syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP). PMID:16155618

  3. Components of Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  4. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D'Ann

    1986-01-01

    In a recent BEST (Bureau of Evaluative Studies and Testing, Indiana University, Bloomington) survey, 10 percent of Indiana University women who responded had experienced some form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in education is any attention of a sexual nature from an instructor or professor which makes a student uncomfortable in class or…

  5. Chronic kidney disease and the involvement of estrogen hormones in its pathogenesis and progression.

    PubMed

    Gluhovschi, Gh; Gluhovschi, A; Anastasiu, D; Petrica, Ligia; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Velciov, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The kidney is under the influence of sexual hormones. Estrogens have a favourable role in the progression of some chronic renal diseases. Estrogen hormones act upon the nephron component cells, regulating several processes going on at this level. One of the most important actions of the estrogens is represented by the protective effect on the kidneys, estrogens attenuating glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Thus, estrogens have nephroprotective effects. Phosphorus-calcium metabolism disturbances during chronic kidney disease are influenced by numerous regulatory factors: parathormone, vitamin D fibroblast growth factor, 23. Estrogens play an important part in disturbances of the phosphorus-calcium metabolism, co-operating with these factors. They exert favourable effects on renal osteodystrophy, the main consequence of phosphorus-calcium disturbances. Hormonal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is clinically accompanied by sexual dysfunction that influences the life quality of these patients. In advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, especially in dialysed patients, these sexual dysfunctions can be more evident. Hormonal replacement therapy and estrogen therapy- receptor modulating therapy have an important role in correcting hormonal dysfunctions manifest in chronic kidney disease. Caution is necessary in case of a would-be pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease, given its risks and the complexity of the problem. Renal transplantation corrects to a great extent hormonal dysfunctions in chronic kidney disease. PMID:23326957

  6. Sex steroids, sexual behavior, and selection attention for erotic stimuli in women using oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G M; Sherwin, B B

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between sex steroids and sexual behavior was examined in 19 oral contraceptive users. Retrospective assessment of sexual attitudes were obtained and women completed daily ratings of sexual behavior and well-being for 28 days. Plasma levels of free testosterone (T), estradiol, and progesterone were measured at weekly intervals. In addition, women performed a novel selective attention task designed to measure the strength of the tendency to be distracted by sexual stimuli. Multiple regression analyses using average sexual behavior variables as dependent variables, and hormone levels sexual attitudes and well-being as predictor variables, showed that free T was strongly and positively associated with sexual desire, sexual thoughts, and anticipation of sexual activity. A role for T in attention to sexual stimuli was also supported by the positive correlation between free T and the bias for sexual stimuli in a subgroup of women. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that T may enhance cognitive aspects of women's sexual behavior. PMID:8493300

  7. The Effect of Camphor on Sex Hormones Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn’t received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

  8. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions.

  9. Reproductive hormones and bone.

    PubMed

    Nicks, Kristy M; Fowler, Tristan W; Gaddy, Dana

    2010-06-01

    Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates secretion of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which directly regulate ovarian function. Pituitary FSH can modulate osteoclast development, and thereby influence bone turnover. Pituitary oxytocin and prolactin effects on the skeleton are not merely limited to pregnancy and lactation; oxytocin stimulates osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, whereas prolactin exerts skeletal effects in an age-dependent manner. Cyclic levels of inhibins and estrogen suppress FSH and LH, respectively, and also suppress bone turnover via their suppressive effects on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. However, continuous exposure to inhibins or estrogen/androgens is anabolic for the skeleton in intact animals and protects against gonadectomy-induced bone loss. Alterations of one hormone in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis influence other bone-active hormones in the entire feedback loop in the axis. Thus, we propose that the action of the HPG axis should be extended to include its combined effects on the skeleton, thus creating the HPG skeletal (HPGS) axis.

  10. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  11. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  12. Thyroid hormone resistance.

    PubMed

    Olateju, Tolulope O; Vanderpump, Mark P J

    2006-11-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited syndrome of reduced end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormone. Patients with RTH have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations and normal or slightly elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Despite a variable clinical presentation, the common characteristic clinical features are goitre but an absence of the usual symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. Patients with RTH can be classified on clinical grounds alone into either generalized resistance (GRTH), pituitary resistance (PRTH) or combined. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene are responsible for RTH and 122 different mutations have now been identified belonging to 300 families. With the exception of one family found to have complete deletion of the TRbeta gene, all others have been demonstrated to have minor alterations at the DNA level. The differential diagnosis includes a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and the presence of endogenous antibodies directed against thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Failure to differentiate RTH from primary thyrotoxicosis has resulted in the inappropriate treatment of nearly one-third of patients. Although occasionally desirable, no specific treatment is available for RTH; however, the diagnosis allows appropriate genetic counselling. PMID:17132274

  13. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  14. Transsexuals' sexual stories.

    PubMed

    Schrock, Douglas P; Reid, Lori L

    2006-02-01

    When viewed through a popular cultural lens, male-to-female transsexuals' sexual biographies can appear to indicate male transvestitism, heterosexuality, or homosexuality rather than transsexuality. How do transsexuals subvert such implications and construct transsexual identities? Drawing on K. Plummer's (1995) approach to sexual stories, we examine how nine male-to-female transsexuals construct their sexual pasts to accomplish what sociologists call "identity work." Interviewees used gendered sexual scripts, cultural discourse on the biological basis of male sexual arousal, and a discourse of therapeutic individualism to narratively defetishize autoerotic crossdressing, queer straight sex, refashion transvestic sex, and straighten out gay sex.

  15. Sexual Misconduct and Enactment

    PubMed Central

    Plakun, Eric M.

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by “bad” clinicians against patients who are “victims,” this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

  16. Sexual misconduct and enactment.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct.

  17. Sexual misconduct and enactment.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

  18. Necrophilia and sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-03-01

    A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered.

  19. Dialysis and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Beal-Lloyd, Donna; Groh, Carla J

    2012-01-01

    End stage renal disease is a major health issue in the United States. Dialysis, the major form of renal replacement therapy, has physical and psychological implications that can have a major impact on both men's and women's sexuality and sexual performance. Nurses are in a key position to assist men and women on dialysis to develop healthy and realistic approaches to their sexuality. This article reviews the literature on dialysis and sexuality, and recommends nursing interventions that can assist persons on dialysis achieve the level of sexual intimacy and satisfaction they desire. PMID:23061112

  20. Changes in Sexual Roles and Quality of Life for Gay Men after Prostate Cancer: Challenges for Sexual Health Providers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Tae L.; Coon, David W.; Kowalkowski, Marc A.; Zhang, Karen; Hersom, Justin I.; Goltz, Heather H.; Wittmann, Daniela A.; Latini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gay men with prostate cancer (GMPCa) may have differential health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sexual health outcomes than heterosexual men with prostate cancer (PCa), but existing information is based on clinical experience and small studies. Aims Our goals were to: (i) describe HRQOL and examine changes in sexual functioning and bother; (ii) explore the psychosocial aspects of sexual health after PCa; and (iii) examine whether there were significant differences on HRQOL and sexual behavior between GMPCa and published norms. Methods A convenience sample of GMPCa completed validated disease-specific and general measures of HRQOL, ejaculatory function and bother, fear of cancer recurrence, and satisfaction with prostate cancer care. Measures of self-efficacy for PCa management, illness intrusiveness, and disclosure of sexual orientation were also completed. Where possible, scores were compared against published norms. Main Outcome Measures Main outcome measures were self-reported sexual functioning and bother on the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index. Results Compared with norms, GMPCa reported significantly worse functioning and more severe bother scores on urinary, bowel, hormonal symptom scales (Ps < 0.015–0.0001), worse mental health functioning (P < 0.0001), greater fear of cancer recurrence (P < 0.0001), and were more dissatisfied with their PCa medical care. However, GMPCa reported better sexual functioning scores (P < 0.002) compared with norms. Many of the observed differences met criteria for clinical significance. Physical functioning HRQOL and sexual bother scores were similar to that of published samples. GMPCa tended to be more “out” about their sexual orientation than other samples of gay men. Conclusions GMPCa reported substantial changes in sexual functioning after PCa treatment. They also reported significantly worse disease-specific and general HRQOL, fear of recurrence, and were less satisfied with their medical care than

  1. Sexual activity and aging.

    PubMed

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. PMID:23540950

  2. Hormonal therapy for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Scott J; Harden, Cynthia L

    2011-08-01

    In 2011, there are greater than 20 antiepileptic medications available. These medications work by modulating neuronal excitability. Reproductive hormones have been found to have a role in the pathogenesis and treatment of seizures by also altering neuronal excitability, especially in women with catamenial epilepsy. The female reproductive hormones have in general opposing effects on neuronal excitability; estrogens generally impart a proconvulsant neurophysiologic tone, whereas the progestogens have anticonvulsant effects. It follows then that fluctuations in the levels of serum progesterone and estrogen throughout a normal reproductive cycle bring about an increased or decreased risk of seizure occurrence based upon the serum estradiol/progesterone ratio. Therefore, using progesterone, its metabolite allopregnanolone, or other hormonal therapies have been explored in the treatment of patients with epilepsy. PMID:21451944

  3. Bioidentical hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Ko, Marcia G; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2011-07-01

    The change in hormonal milieu associated with perimenopause and menopause can lead to a variety of symptoms that can affect a woman's quality of life. Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is an effective, well-tolerated treatment for these symptoms. However, combined HT consisting of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been associated with an increased number of health risks when compared with conjugated equine estrogen alone or placebo. As a result, some women are turning to alternative hormonal formulations known as compounded bioidentical HT because they perceive them to be a safer alternative. This article defines compounded bioidentical HT and explores the similarities and differences between it and US Food and Drug Administration-approved HT. We will examine the major claims made by proponents of compounded bioidentical HT and recommend strategies for management of patients who request bioidentical HT from physicians.

  4. The development of female sexual behavior requires prepubertal estradiol.

    PubMed

    Brock, Olivier; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2011-04-13

    The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions. However, in a previous study, female aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to estradiol, showed deficient male-oriented partner preference and lordosis behaviors in response to adult ovarian hormones, raising the possibility that estradiol may contribute to the development of these female sexual behaviors. In the present experiments, administering estradiol prepubertally [between postnatal day 15 (P15) and P25] significantly enhanced the ability of ArKO female mice to display lordosis behavior in response to ovarian hormones administered later in adulthood, whereas treatment with estradiol over an earlier postnatal period (P5-P15) had no such effect. Treatment of ArKO females with estradiol between P15 and P25 also rescued their later preference to approach distal cues from an intact male over an estrous female. ArKO females also displayed significantly less female-directed (male-typical) mounting behavior than wild-type control females when treated with testosterone in adulthood. Prepubertal estradiol treatment failed to reverse this deficit in ArKO females, whereas earlier postnatal estradiol augmented later mounting in both genotypes. Our results provide new evidence for an organizing role of prepubertal estradiol in the development of neural mechanisms that control female-typical sexual behavior.

  5. Sexual self-schemas, sexual dysfunction, and the sexual responses of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-04-01

    Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses during laboratory exposure to sexual stimuli. In a community sample of women with (N = 48) and without (N = 48) a history of CSA, we tested (1) the mediation of negative affect on the relation between sexual self-schemas and sexual function/satisfaction, (2) the mediation of negative affect in the relation between CSA and sexual function/satisfaction, and (3) the mediation of sexual self-schemas in the relation between a history of CSA and negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. We found that more Embarrassed/Conservative and less Romantic/Passionate sexual self-schemas predicted negative affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli which, in turn, predicted levels of sexual satisfaction. The lower sexual satisfaction of CSA survivors was partially mediated by higher reports of negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. However, negative affect prior to sexual stimuli was not mediated by the sexual self-schemas of CSA survivors. Thus, although sexual self-schemas predicted sexual satisfaction, they did not predict variance in negative affect prior to sexual videos experienced by women with a history of CSA. PMID:21140286

  6. Drugs and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Marino, Antonio G; Mento, Carmela; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between drugs and sexual behavior in a sample of polydrug substance abusers recruited from several Italian therapeutic communities; participants were 90 polydrug substance abusers (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, inhalants, marijuana/sedatives or hallucinogens abusers) who were compared with 90 nonsubstance-abusing individuals. Sexual behavior was measured by the Italian version of the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM), a questionnaire that assesses different kind of sexual attitudes. Results showed that drug-abusing individuals are particularly inclined to search for sexual intercourse and are open to different kinds of sexual experiences; however, they have difficulties in establishing committed and deep relationships with their partners, showing signs of inhibition, affective detachment or anger. Their sexual lives are also surrounded by negative emotions, disturbing thoughts and maladjusted behaviors. The importance of integrating sexual problems into therapeutic strategies is discussed. PMID:23457886

  7. Stimulation of sexual behavior in the male rat by galanin-like peptide.

    PubMed

    Fraley, G S; Thomas-Smith, S E; Acohido, B V; Steiner, R A; Clifton, D K

    2004-12-01

    Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a recently described neuropeptide, which shares a partial sequence identity with galanin but is derived from a separate gene. Central injections of GALP stimulate the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and induce the expression of Fos in several brain areas known to regulate male sexual behavior in the rat. We postulated that GALP may also stimulate sexual behavior in concert with its stimulatory effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we administered GALP, galanin, or the vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) alone to sexually experienced male rats and assessed the effects of these agents on sexual behavior. We observed that compared to aCSF alone, GALP significantly increased all aspects of male-typical sexual behavior, whereas galanin inhibited all of these same behaviors. To examine whether the stimulatory effects of GALP on sexual behavior were mediated by GALP's stimulatory effects on the HPG axis, we castrated the same male rats and repeated the behavioral experiment. We found that GALP maintained its inductive action on male-typical sexual behaviors in the castrated animals, suggesting that the effects of GALP on sexual behavior are not the result of GALP's ability to stimulate testosterone secretion. These observations suggest that GALP neurons are part of the hypothalamic circuitry controlling sexual behavior in the male rat.

  8. Relevance of non-human animal studies to the understanding of human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Agmo, Anders; Ellingsen, Ellinor

    2003-07-01

    There are several reasons for studying sexual behavior in animals other than the human. Prominent among these is probably the use of sexual behavior as a model system for analyzing hormone actions on the brain. In this kind of study, lordosis behavior in the female rat has frequently been used as the behavioral end-point. Recently, the mouse has become a popular subject because of the availability of strains lacking estrogen or progesterone receptors. Animal sexual behavior is also studied for its own sake by biologists, by agricultural scientists and by those interested in the management of wildlife resources. Finally, there are some researchers interested in human sexual behavior who prefer to approach their problems through studies in non-human subjects, as they thereby gain access to techniques of experimentation impossible in human subjects. This is particularly important when the neurobiological basis of sexual behavior is the subject of study. Two striking similarities between humans and other mammals are the hormone dependency of sexual motivation and the fundamentally bisexual organization of the nervous system. In addition, animal studies have revealed how learning with sexual reinforcement can be an important determinant of sexual behavior. The role of learning has been largely ignored in human studies, and this has led to many misconceptions. Paramount among these is the idea that sexual behavior is associated with reproduction. PMID:12914594

  9. Male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, E

    2010-01-01

    The principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis has been established over the last three decades. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Current clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel, DMPA, or nestorone. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. PMID:20839093

  10. Chronic stress and sexual function in women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic stress is known to have negative effects on reproduction, but little is known about how it affects the sexual response cycle. The present study examined the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and the mechanisms that mediate this relationship. Aim To test the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and identify mechanisms that may explain this relationship. We predicted that women experiencing high levels of chronic stress would show lower levels of genital arousal & DHEAS and higher levels of cortisol and cognitive distraction compared to women with average levels of stress. Methods Women who were categorized as high in chronic stress (high stress group, n = 15) or average in chronic stress (average stress group; n = 15) provided saliva samples and watched an erotic film while having their genital and psychological arousal measured. Main Outcome Measures Main outcome measures were vaginal pulse amplitude, psychological arousal, salivary cortisol, salivary DHEAS, and heart rate and compared them between women with high and average levels of chronic stress. Results Women in the high stress group had lower levels of genital, but not psychological arousal, had higher levels of cortisol, and reported more distraction during the erotic film than women in the average stress group. The main predictor of decreased genital sexual arousal was participants’ distraction scores. Conclusions High levels of chronic stress were related to lower levels of genital sexual arousal. Both psychological (distraction) and hormonal (increased cortisol) factors were related to the lower levels of sexual arousal seen in women high in chronic stress, but distraction was the only significant predictor when controlling for other variables. PMID:23841462

  11. Steroid hormones, stress and the adolescent brain: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Brown, G R; Spencer, K A

    2013-09-26

    Steroid hormones, including those produced by the gonads and the adrenal glands, are known to influence brain development during sensitive periods of life. Until recently, most brain organisation was assumed to take place during early stages of development, with relatively little neurogenesis or brain re-organisation during later stages. However, an increasing body of research has shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to steroid hormone exposure during adolescence (broadly defined as the period from nutritional independence to sexual maturity). In this review, we examine how steroid hormones that are produced by the gonads and adrenal glands vary across the lifespan in a range of mammalian and bird species, and we summarise the evidence that steroid hormone exposure influences behavioural and brain development during early stages of life and during adolescence in these two taxonomic groups. Taking a cross-species, comparative perspective reveals that the effects of early exposure to steroid hormones depend upon the stage of development at birth or hatching, as measured along the altricial-precocial dimension. We then review the evidence that exposure to stress during adolescence impacts upon the developing neuroendocrine systems, the brain and behaviour. Current research suggests that the effects of adolescent stress vary depending upon the sex of the individual and type of stressor, and the effects of stress could involve several neural systems, including the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Experience of stressors during adolescence could also influence brain development via the close interactions between the stress hormone and gonadal hormone axes. While sensitivity of the brain to steroid hormones during early life and adolescence potentially leaves the developing organism vulnerable to external adversities, developmental plasticity also provides an opportunity for the developing organism to respond to current circumstances and for behavioural

  12. Steroid hormones, stress and the adolescent brain: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Brown, G R; Spencer, K A

    2013-09-26

    Steroid hormones, including those produced by the gonads and the adrenal glands, are known to influence brain development during sensitive periods of life. Until recently, most brain organisation was assumed to take place during early stages of development, with relatively little neurogenesis or brain re-organisation during later stages. However, an increasing body of research has shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to steroid hormone exposure during adolescence (broadly defined as the period from nutritional independence to sexual maturity). In this review, we examine how steroid hormones that are produced by the gonads and adrenal glands vary across the lifespan in a range of mammalian and bird species, and we summarise the evidence that steroid hormone exposure influences behavioural and brain development during early stages of life and during adolescence in these two taxonomic groups. Taking a cross-species, comparative perspective reveals that the effects of early exposure to steroid hormones depend upon the stage of development at birth or hatching, as measured along the altricial-precocial dimension. We then review the evidence that exposure to stress during adolescence impacts upon the developing neuroendocrine systems, the brain and behaviour. Current research suggests that the effects of adolescent stress vary depending upon the sex of the individual and type of stressor, and the effects of stress could involve several neural systems, including the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Experience of stressors during adolescence could also influence brain development via the close interactions between the stress hormone and gonadal hormone axes. While sensitivity of the brain to steroid hormones during early life and adolescence potentially leaves the developing organism vulnerable to external adversities, developmental plasticity also provides an opportunity for the developing organism to respond to current circumstances and for behavioural

  13. [The current status and risk evaluation of the use of hormone preparations in food producing animals].

    PubMed

    Karg, H

    1990-01-01

    Three groups of hormonal agents are currently in discussion for meat and milk production: sexual hormone active anabolics and beta-agonists, the latter acting as lipidmodulators to produce lean meat (for example, Clenbuterol, Salbutamol). Biologically active residues can result from illegal treatment only under exceptional circumstances. The analytical control measures, particularly for babyfood production, are of a very high standard in thr FRG and guarantee the safety of the products. The growth hormone that enhances milk yield has no importance as it is orally inactive.

  14. [Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].

    PubMed

    Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered.

  15. Developmental and Functional Effects of Steroid Hormones on the Neuroendocrine Axis and Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Zubeldia-Brenner, L; Roselli, C E; Recabarren, S E; Gonzalez Deniselle, M C; Lara, H E

    2016-07-01

    This review highlights the principal effects of steroid hormones at central and peripheral levels in the neuroendocrine axis. The data discussed highlight the principal role of oestrogens and testosterone in hormonal programming in relation to sexual orientation, reproductive and metabolic programming, and the neuroendocrine mechanism involved in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype. Moreover, consistent with the wide range of processes in which steroid hormones take part, we discuss the protective effects of progesterone on neurodegenerative disease and the signalling mechanism involved in the genesis of oestrogen-induced pituitary prolactinomas. PMID:27262161

  16. [Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].

    PubMed

    Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413

  17. Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Perrett, D I; Lee, K J; Penton-Voak, I; Rowland, D; Yoshikawa, S; Burt, D M; Henzi, S P; Castles, D L; Akamatsu, S

    1998-08-27

    Testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics in males may signal immunological competence and are sexually selected for in several species. In humans, oestrogen-dependent characteristics of the female body correlate with health and reproductive fitness and are found attractive. Enhancing the sexual dimorphism of human faces should raise attractiveness by enhancing sex-hormone-related cues to youth and fertility in females, and to dominance and immunocompetence in males. Here we report the results of asking subjects to choose the most attractive faces from continua that enhanced or diminished differences between the average shape of female and male faces. As predicted, subjects preferred feminized to average shapes of a female face. This preference applied across UK and Japanese populations but was stronger for within-population judgements, which indicates that attractiveness cues are learned. Subjects preferred feminized to average or masculinized shapes of a male face. Enhancing masculine facial characteristics increased both perceived dominance and negative attributions (for example, coldness or dishonesty) relevant to relationships and paternal investment. These results indicate a selection pressure that limits sexual dimorphism and encourages neoteny in humans. PMID:9732869

  18. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  19. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  20. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  1. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  2. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  3. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  4. [Andrological status of adolescents and its connection to anthropometric and hormonal descriptions in the students of technical college group].

    PubMed

    Lutov, Iu V; Seliatitskaia, V G; Epanchintseva, E A; Riabichenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the interrelation of andrological status with anthropometric and hormonal descriptions for age-specific features discovery of male sexual system pathological states at technical college students. 147 adolescents aged 15-17 years old were examined. Only 41 of them were found to have no abnormalities in their genital system development; in 35 adolescents sexual development was delayed; and 97 adolescents were found to have various andrological diseases (varicocele, phimosis, gynecomastia, testicular asymmetry, etc.) or clinical signs for development of these diseases. In 26 adolescences delayed sexual development was combined with the andrological pathology. The normal andrological status was usually accompanied with the highest frequency of low values of anthropometric indicators and indices that reflect the influence of various hormonal systems on the bodily constitution, as well as expressed anthropometricheterogeneity. In adolescents with andrological pathology or clinical signs for its development, in all anthropometric parameters the higher values were seen more frequently than low values against the background of highest group anthropometric homogeneity. Summative anthropometric characteristics of the adolescents group with delayed sexual development were between those of the adolescents groups with normal andrological status and andrological pathology The number of correlational relationships of anthropometric and hormonal indicators with the levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosteronesulphate was the lowest in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status as compared to their peers with delayed sexual development and andrological pathology. Only in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status the correlation analysis of data showed physiological influence of sexual hormones on anthropometric indicators. Thus, lower influence of sexual system hormones during this ontogenesis stage

  5. [Andrological status of adolescents and its connection to anthropometric and hormonal descriptions in the students of technical college group].

    PubMed

    Lutov, Iu V; Seliatitskaia, V G; Epanchintseva, E A; Riabichenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the interrelation of andrological status with anthropometric and hormonal descriptions for age-specific features discovery of male sexual system pathological states at technical college students. 147 adolescents aged 15-17 years old were examined. Only 41 of them were found to have no abnormalities in their genital system development; in 35 adolescents sexual development was delayed; and 97 adolescents were found to have various andrological diseases (varicocele, phimosis, gynecomastia, testicular asymmetry, etc.) or clinical signs for development of these diseases. In 26 adolescences delayed sexual development was combined with the andrological pathology. The normal andrological status was usually accompanied with the highest frequency of low values of anthropometric indicators and indices that reflect the influence of various hormonal systems on the bodily constitution, as well as expressed anthropometricheterogeneity. In adolescents with andrological pathology or clinical signs for its development, in all anthropometric parameters the higher values were seen more frequently than low values against the background of highest group anthropometric homogeneity. Summative anthropometric characteristics of the adolescents group with delayed sexual development were between those of the adolescents groups with normal andrological status and andrological pathology The number of correlational relationships of anthropometric and hormonal indicators with the levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosteronesulphate was the lowest in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status as compared to their peers with delayed sexual development and andrological pathology. Only in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status the correlation analysis of data showed physiological influence of sexual hormones on anthropometric indicators. Thus, lower influence of sexual system hormones during this ontogenesis stage

  6. Thyroid hormones and bone development.

    PubMed

    Combs, C E; Nicholls, J J; Duncan Bassett, J H; Williams, G R

    2011-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical determinants of postnatal skeletal development. Thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in children results in severe abnormalities of linear growth and bone maturation. These clinical observations have been recapitulated in mutant mice and these models have facilitated studies of the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action in the developing skeleton. In this review, we consider in detail the direct and indirect effects of thyroid hormone on bone and the molecular mechanisms involved.

  7. Hormones of choice: the neuroendocrinology of partner preference in animals.

    PubMed

    Henley, C L; Nunez, A A; Clemens, L G

    2011-04-01

    Partner preference behavior can be viewed as the outcome of a set of hierarchical choices made by an individual in anticipation of mating. The first choice involves approaching a conspecific verses an individual of another species. As a rule, a conspecific is picked as a mating partner, but early life experiences can alter that outcome. Within a species, an animal then has the choice between a member of the same sex or the opposite sex. The final choice is for a specific individual. This review will focus on the middle choice, the decision to mate with either a male or a female. Available data from rats, mice, and ferrets point to the importance of perinatal exposure to steroid hormones in the development of partner preferences, as well as the importance of activational effects in adulthood. However, the particular effects of this hormone exposure show species differences in both the specific steroid hormone responsible for the organization of behavior and the developmental period when it has its effect. Where these hormones have an effect in the brain is mostly unknown, but regions involved in olfaction and sexual behavior, as well as sexually dimorphic regions, seem to play a role. One limitation of the literature base is that many mate or 'partner preference studies' rely on preference for a specific stimulus (usually olfaction) but do not include an analysis of the relation, if any, that stimulus has to the choice of a particular sexual partner. A second limitation has been the almost total lack of attention to the type of behavior that is shown by the choosing animal once a 'partner' has been chosen, specifically, if the individual plays a mating role typical of its own sex or the opposite sex. Additional paradigms that address these questions are needed for better understanding of partner preferences in rodents. PMID:21377487

  8. Hormones of choice: the neuroendocrinology of partner preference in animals.

    PubMed

    Henley, C L; Nunez, A A; Clemens, L G

    2011-04-01

    Partner preference behavior can be viewed as the outcome of a set of hierarchical choices made by an individual in anticipation of mating. The first choice involves approaching a conspecific verses an individual of another species. As a rule, a conspecific is picked as a mating partner, but early life experiences can alter that outcome. Within a species, an animal then has the choice between a member of the same sex or the opposite sex. The final choice is for a specific individual. This review will focus on the middle choice, the decision to mate with either a male or a female. Available data from rats, mice, and ferrets point to the importance of perinatal exposure to steroid hormones in the development of partner preferences, as well as the importance of activational effects in adulthood. However, the particular effects of this hormone exposure show species differences in both the specific steroid hormone responsible for the organization of behavior and the developmental period when it has its effect. Where these hormones have an effect in the brain is mostly unknown, but regions involved in olfaction and sexual behavior, as well as sexually dimorphic regions, seem to play a role. One limitation of the literature base is that many mate or 'partner preference studies' rely on preference for a specific stimulus (usually olfaction) but do not include an analysis of the relation, if any, that stimulus has to the choice of a particular sexual partner. A second limitation has been the almost total lack of attention to the type of behavior that is shown by the choosing animal once a 'partner' has been chosen, specifically, if the individual plays a mating role typical of its own sex or the opposite sex. Additional paradigms that address these questions are needed for better understanding of partner preferences in rodents.

  9. Sexual play and its functional significance in the domestic sheep (Ovis aries L.).

    PubMed

    Orgeur, P; Signoret, J P

    1984-07-01

    All the patterns of male sexual behavior were present from the first week of age in male and female lambs. The frequency of this sexual play increased considerably during the first month of life, and returned to a low level until early puberty. These behavioral changes could not be correlated with any hormonal changes. Rearing the lambs in the absence of adult females, in all-male groups or in physical isolation until weaning at 3 months of age, was without consequence for adult sexual behavior. However, despite the low level of sexual-like interactions during the pre and early pubertal period, i.e., between 3 and 6 months of age, the sexual segregation had a clear adverse effect on the development of the copulatory activity: the occurrence of the first copulation was delayed. However, after the first mating, the level of sexual activity was not affected by the treatment. PMID:6542231

  10. Masculinity, Femininity, Androgyny and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockford, Marcia; Galbraith, Gary G.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between masculinity, feminity, and androgyny and measures of sexual behavior, attitudes and knowledge. Sexual attitudes and knowledge were assessed by use of the Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test, and sexual behavior was assessed by means of the Sexual Experiences Inventory. Subjects…

  11. Survivorship: Sexual Dysfunction (Male), Version 1.2013

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B.; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; McCabe, Mary S.; McVary, Kevin T.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O’Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Various anticancer treatments, especially those directed toward the pelvis, can damage blood vessels and reduce circulation of blood to the penis and/or damage the autonomic nervous system, resulting in higher rates of erectile dysfunction in survivors than in the general population. In addition, hormonal therapy can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for male sexual problems, namely erectile dysfunction. PMID:24616541

  12. [Hormonal contraception in autoimmpne diseases].

    PubMed

    Matyszkiewicz, Anna; Jach, Robert; Rajtar-Ciosek, Agnieszka; Basta, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The onset and the course of autoimmune diseases is influenced among other factors by the sex hormones. Hormonal contraception might affect the course of the autoimmune disease. The paper summarises the manner of save application of hormonal contraception in patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:27526427

  13. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  14. Sexual conflict in hermaphrodites.

    PubMed

    Schärer, Lukas; Janicke, Tim; Ramm, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Hermaphrodites combine the male and female sex functions into a single individual, either sequentially or simultaneously. This simple fact means that they exhibit both similarities and differences in the way in which they experience, and respond to, sexual conflict compared to separate-sexed organisms. Here, we focus on clarifying how sexual conflict concepts can be adapted to apply to all anisogamous sexual systems and review unique (or especially important) aspects of sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals. These include conflicts over the timing of sex change in sequential hermaphrodites, and in simultaneous hermaphrodites, over both sex roles and the postmating manipulation of the sperm recipient by the sperm donor. Extending and applying sexual conflict thinking to hermaphrodites can identify general evolutionary principles and help explain some of the unique reproductive diversity found among animals exhibiting this widespread but to date understudied sexual system. PMID:25237131

  15. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  16. Oxytocin in the male: an old hormone growing sexy with age.

    PubMed

    McGregor, G P; Lang, R E

    2001-01-01

    It has long been a mystery of oxytocin research that males have similar levels of the hormone in their blood as females, but there is no known function associated with this. This review brings together some diverse literature to point out a possible role of oxytocin in the context of stress and sexuality.

  17. EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS) ON FETAL TESTES HORMONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) on Fetal Testes Hormone Production
    CS Lambright, VS Wilson, JR Furr, CJ Wolf, N Noriega, LE Gray, Jr
    US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC 27711

    Exposure to EDCs during critical periods of fetal sexual development can have...

  18. Pubertal hormones, the adolescent brain, and the maturation of social behaviors: Lessons from the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kalynn M; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2006-07-25

    Conventional wisdom holds that gonadal steroid hormones organize and sexually differentiate neural circuits perinatally, and at puberty they activate these circuits to facilitate expression of social behaviors. Using the Syrian hamster to study the role of pubertal hormones in behavioral maturation, we have found that pubertal hormones also organize the adolescent brain. Initial studies revealed that male reproductive behavior cannot be activated by gonadal steroids prepubertally, indicating that the brain acquires behavioral responsiveness during adolescence. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that the presence of gonadal hormones during adolescence masculinize and defeminize behavioral responses of males to hormones in adulthood. Preliminary data also suggest that ovarian hormones defeminize but do not masculinize behavioral responses of females to hormones in adulthood. Furthermore, pubertal hormones program the adult expression of agonistic behaviors that are both steroid-dependent and steroid-independent in adulthood. Thus, the interaction between pubertal hormones and the adolescent brain is key for the maturation of adult social behaviors, and perturbations in the timing of this interaction have long-lasting consequences on adult behavior.

  19. The Sexual Acceptability of Intrauterine Contraception: A Qualitative Study of Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Ryder, Kristin; Skarda, Grace; Koepsel, Erica; Bennett, Eliza A.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT The IUD is extremely effective but infrequently used by young adult women, who disproportionately experience unintended pregnancies. Research has not examined how IUD use may affect sexuality, which could in turn affect method acceptability, continuation and marketing efforts. METHODS Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted in 2014 with 50 women between the ages of 18 and 29—either University of Wisconsin students or women from the surrounding community who received public assistance—to explore their thoughts about whether and how IUD use can affect sexual experiences. A modified grounded theory approach was used to identify common themes in terms of both experienced and anticipated sexual acceptability of the IUD. RESULTS Six themes emerged: Security (IUD’s efficacy can reduce sexual inhibition), spontaneity (IUD can allow for free-flowing sex), sexual aspects of bleeding and cramping (IUD’s side effects can affect sex), scarcity of hormones (IUD has little or no hormones, and reduces libido less than hormonal methods such as the pill), string (IUD’s string can detract from a partner’s sexual experience) and stasis (IUD use can have no impact on sex). Some reported sexual aspects of IUD use were negative, but most were positive and described ever-users’ method satisfaction and never-users’ openness to use the method. DISCUSSION Future research and interventions should attend to issues of sexual acceptability: Positive sexual aspects of the IUD could be used promotionally, and counseling about sexual concerns could increase women’s willingness to try the method. PMID:26280666

  20. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory.

  1. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.

  2. Sexual Behavior Pattern and Related Factors in Women with Breast Cancer in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Sanaz; Dashti, Forouzandeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the most of treatment team efforts focused on the maintaining patient’s life, attention to sexual issues don’t be considered. This stud is designed to determine the sexual behavior pattern and related factors in women with breast cancer. Methods: This descriptive- correlation study was performed on 90 women that diagnosed with breast Cancer that was admitted to Sayed-Al-Shohada hospital of Isfahan in 2010. Sampling method was available (non- random sampling) and Sexual Behavior Pattern determined with 3 domains: sexual identity, sexual role and sexual function. Data collection tools, was a questionnaire that made by the researcher and was used after determining the validity and reliability. For data analysis, was used of Descriptive- analytic statistics, frequency and ANOVA and Pearson correlation analytical tests in the SPSS statistical software (version 16). Results: Cases had 60% of Desirable sexual identity, 50% of Desirable sexual role, 40% Desirable sexual function and were be able to play 47.61% Desirable sexual behavior. Participants that their husbands had Elementary education had more desirable sexual behavior (p<0.031). Cases that were homemaker had more desirable Sexual behavior than of were working and retired (p<0.023). Non-surgical treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy had a negative impact on sexual behavior (p<0.014). Conclusion: Study of sexual behavior pattern that is one of the important aspects of health, Provide valuable information to nurses and medical team and will be enhance the quality of provided services. Adopt appropriate strategies and interventions to promote sexual health, breast cancer is recommended. PMID:26925917

  3. Prime time sexual harrassment.

    PubMed

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves. PMID:12294811

  4. Sexually Transmitted Proctitis

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Gavin W.; Kim, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    There are many different sexually transmitted infections that can cause proctitis. Recognition of the common symptoms with anoscopic examination is crucial in accurate diagnosis of the pathogen. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of more than one inciting pathogen. Treatment should be prompt and extended to sexual partners who have been exposed to the disease. Effective treatment can alleviate the discomfort and potentially serious complications associated with sexually transmitted proctitides. This article illustrates and discusses the clinical presentations, diagnostic pearls, and treatments of sexually transmitted proctitides. PMID:26034402

  5. Uncovering Sexual Problems

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, May

    1977-01-01

    While patients frequently make it difficult for us to uncover their sexual concerns, a much greater difficulty is due to physicians' unwillingness to deal with this subject. Physicians need to acquire basic knowledge about human sexuality as well as skills in making patients feel comfortable and open. A non-judgmental attitude is essential. The physician will also be able to anticipate and prevent sexual distress by education. Expertise must be developed in differentiating those problems requiring referral for specialized sexual counselling from those which the family physician can handle. PMID:21304865

  6. Crossover sexual offenses.

    PubMed

    Heil, Peggy; Ahlmeyer, Sean; Simons, Dominique

    2003-10-01

    Crossover sexual offenses are defined as those in which victims are from multiple age, gender, and relationship categories. This study investigates admissions of crossover sexual offending from sex offenders participating in treatment who received polygraph testing. For 223 incarcerated and 266 paroled sexual offenders, sexual offenses were recorded from criminal history records and admissions during treatment coupled with polygraph testing. The majority of incarcerated offenders admitted to sexually assaulting both children and adults from multiple relationship types. In addition, there was a substantial increase in offenders admitting to sexually assaulting victims from both genders. In a group of incarcerated offenders who sexually assaulted children, the majority of offenders admitted to sexually assaulting both relatives and nonrelatives, and there was a substantial increase in the offenders admitting to assaulting both male and female children. Although similar trends were observed for the sample of parolees, the rates were far less dramatic. Parolees appeared to have greater levels of denial, had participated in fewer treatment sessions, and perceived greater supervision restrictions as a result of admitting additional offenses. These findings support previous research indicating that many sexual offenders do not exclusively offend against a preferred victim type. PMID:14571530

  7. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  8. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  9. Can Ayahuasca and sleep loss change sexual performance in male rats?

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, T A; Polesel, D N; Matos, G; Garcia, V A; Costa, J L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000μgmL(-1)) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500μgmL(-1) compared with CTRL-500μgmL(-1) group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response. PMID:25256159

  10. Guidelines for Teaching about Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Nurse educators who are comfortable with their own sexuality, have sensitive and perceptive communication skills, and are knowledgeable about sexual health are best equipped to integrate sexuality education into the nursing curriculum. (SK)

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 ... D. (2005). Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident- ...

  12. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

  13. Acne: hormonal concepts and therapy.

    PubMed

    Thiboutot, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition observed in the medical community. Although we know that hormones are important in the development of acne, many questions remain unanswered regarding the mechanisms by which hormones exert their effects. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), estrogens such as estradiol, and other hormones, including growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), may be important in acne. It is not known whether these hormones are taken up from the serum by the sebaceous gland, whether they are produced locally within the gland, or whether a combination of these processes is involved. Finally, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which these hormones exert their influence on the sebaceous gland have not been fully elucidated. Hormonal therapy is an option in women with acne not responding to conventional treatment or with signs of endocrine abnormalities. PMID:15556729

  14. Hormones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pratap; Magon, Navneet

    2012-01-01

    The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug's safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus PMID:23661874

  15. Biosimilar growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Saenger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is expiring, biosimilars or follow-on -protein products (FOPP's) have emerged. Biosimilar drugs are cheaper than the originator/comparator drug. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Biosimilar soamtropin has been approved in both the US and Europe. The scientific viability of biosimilar drugs and especially growth hormone has been proven by several rigorously conducted clinical trials. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 y for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones which served as reference comparators. The Obama Administration appears to be committed to establish innovative pathways for the approval of biologics and biosimilars in the US. The cost savings in health care expenditures will be substantial as the global sales of biologics have reached $ 93 billion in 2009.

  16. An XX female with sexual infantilism, absent gonads, and lack of Müllerian ducts.

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, G; Zárate, A; Guzmán-Toledano, R; Canales, E S; Jiménez, M

    1976-01-01

    A patient with a 46,XX chromosome constitution showed the following main characteristics: lack of secondary sexual development, female external genitalia with absence of vagina, no gonadal structures, and complete lack of internal genitalia. This is a variant of the gonadal agenesis syndrome so far only described in association with and XY chromosome component. Endrocinology demonstrated that in the absence of gonadal feedback the pituitary responsiveness to synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone was increased. Images PMID:1271429

  17. Thyroid metabolism in the recessive sex-linked dwarf female chicken. 1. Age related changes in thyroid hormone synthesis and circulating thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, R R; Brown, R G

    1975-03-01

    Age related changes in the levels of circulating thyroid hormones as well as the type of hormones synthesized in the thyroid glands from normal and sex-linked recessive dwarf, female chickens were studied. The impact of the presence of the dwarf gene on the parameters measured was minimal but significant alterations in the types of hormones produced in the thyroid gland with increasing age were observed. As the birds approached sexual maturity, the synthesis of triiodothyronine increased sharply such that the ratio of triiodothyronine (T3): tetraiodothyronine (T4) was approximately 15:1. This was in contrast to the T3:T4 ratio of younger birds which was approximately 0.7:1.0. This shift in hormone synthesis was reflected in relatively more circulating T3 in laying hens when compared with younger birds. It was also noted that four week old dwarf birds had higher circulating T3 values than those found for the normals.

  18. Conservative Christianity, partnership, hormones, and sex in late life.

    PubMed

    Das, Aniruddha; Nairn, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Using nationally representative data from the 2005-2006 U.S. National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, this study queried relationship, sexual, and sex hormone patterns among married evangelical women and men aged 57-85, relative to those in other religions. Results suggested that despite potentially more unequal gender roles, evangelical older women may have better marital quality, perhaps due to the recent transformation of their male counterparts into authoritative, yet-supportive, "soft patriarchs." Correspondingly, these women, especially those with greater subjective religiosity or more support from a spouse, reported consistently better sexual outcomes than their counterparts in other religions. In addition, they also had lower estradiol, whether due to psychobiological effects of their better relationships or self-selection of those with differential hormone levels into particular partnership patterns. While older men in these communities also experienced more satisfactory marriages, and had lower androgens (testosterone, DHEA), their relational assets were less uniformly matched by better sexual outcomes, perhaps reflecting a gender disparity in the linkage between these factors.

  19. Psychological, social, and spiritual effects of contraceptive steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E

    2015-08-01

    Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of "the pill" there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, "hook-ups," cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided. PMID:26912936

  20. Psychological, social, and spiritual effects of contraceptive steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of “the pill” there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, “hook-ups,” cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided. PMID:26912936

  1. Parental Non-verbal Sexual Communication: Its Relationship to Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Guilt.

    PubMed

    Joffe, H; Franca-Koh, A C

    2001-01-01

    The study explores the link between remembered non-verbal sexual communication in the home, current sexual behaviours and feelings of sexual guilt, among a sample of young British men and women. Non-verbal sexual communication encapsulates: openness about nudity in the home; the showing of affection between parents; signs of parental sexual activity and contraceptive use; and intimation of mother's menstruation. One hundred and thirty-seven young adults completed questionnaires measuring remembered parental non-verbal sexual communication, current sexual behaviour and sexual guilt. Higher levels of parental non-verbal sexual communication were found to be linked to: earlier onset of sexual activity, fewer sexual partners and lower feelings of aspects of sexual guilt. The findings are discussed in terms of how to advance this area of study. PMID:22049235

  2. NMDA receptors in the medial zona incerta stimulate luteinizing hormone and prolactin release.

    PubMed

    Bregonzio, Claudia; Moreno, Griselda N; Cabrera, Ricardo J; Donoso, Alfredo O

    2004-06-01

    1. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the interaction between the glutamatergic/NMDA and dopaminergic systems in the medial zona incerta on the control of luteinizing hormone and prolactin secretion and the influence of reproductive hormones. 2. Proestrus and ovariectomized rats were primed with estrogen and progesterone to induce high or low levels of luteinizing hormone and prolactin. 2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, an NMDA receptor antagonist, and dopamine were injected in the medial zona incerta. Blood samples were withdrawn every hour between 1,600 and 2,000 hours or 2,200 hours via intracardiac catheter from conscious rats. Additional groups of animals injected with the NMDA receptor antagonist were killed 1 or 4 h after injection. Dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were measured in different hypothalamic regions. 3. 2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid blocked the ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge in proestrus rats. 2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid also blocked the increase in luteinizing hormone induced by ovarian hormones in ovariectomized rats, an effect that was partially reversed by dopamine injection. Conversely, the increased release of luteinizing hormone and prolactin induced by dopamine was prevented by 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid. We found that the NMDA antagonist injection decreased the dopaminergic activity--as evaluated by the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio--in the medio basal hypothalamus and increased in the preoptic area. 4. Our results show an stimulatory role of NMDA receptors on the ovulatory luteinizing hormone release and on luteinizing hormone release induced by sexual hormones and demonstrate that the stimulatory effect of dopamine on luteinizing hormone and prolactin is mediated by the NMDA receptors. These results suggest a close interaction between the glutamatergic and dopaminergic incertohypothalamic systems on the control of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release

  3. [Sexual violence. Towards a healthy sexuality].

    PubMed

    Londono Velez, A

    1998-06-01

    Different forms of violence against women and girls reflect existing inequalities between men and women and between adults and children, as well as concepts of masculinity based on aggressiveness and exercise of force as means of affirming virility. Such forms of masculinity manifest themselves through sexual violence. Women who remain in violent relationships are paralyzed by the lack of a self-defense mechanism, by economic and psychic dependence, and by low self-esteem resulting from a long history of submission. Violence against women and girls consists in a series of behaviors, beliefs, and practices aimed at compromising the full exercise of their rights, often with societal tolerance. Sexual violence represents an assault on basic human rights and on the victims' personality, body, and conscience, and on the conscience of their families and even their communities. A number of measures should be taken to eliminate sexual violence, including sex education within the family, school, and elsewhere. PMID:12348803

  4. Attraction to male pheromones and sexual behaviour show different regulatory mechanisms in female mice.

    PubMed

    Moncho-Bogani, Jose; Lanuza, Enrique; Lorente, Maria José; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando

    2004-05-01

    In rodents, female sexual behaviour is under hormonal control. The attraction females show for male-derived nonvolatile chemicals (pheromones) can be regarded as the first step of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether this attraction is also modulated by sexual steroids. To test this possibility, ovariectomized adult female mice with no experience of chemical signals from adult males were randomly assigned to four groups that received oil (control), progesterone, estradiol (E) or estradiol+progesterone (E+P) injections, respectively. Females were then tested for their attraction to male-soiled bedding and, subsequently, for their proceptive behaviour when confronted to adult males. Females showed attraction to male-soiled bedding irrespective of the hormonal treatment, whereas only those females treated with E or E+P showed proceptive behaviour. Therefore, in contrast to proceptive and copulatory behaviour, the female attraction to male pheromones is independent of sexual steroids, thus indicating that those parts of the vomeronasal system involved in this attraction do not respond to steroids. In summary, sexual behaviour in female mice can be seen as a two-step process. First, females are attracted by male pheromones, a process which is independent of their hormonal status. After encountering the males, females show proceptive behaviour only in estrous, when fertilization is more likely. The attraction exerted by male sexual pheromones promotes female autostimulation that might ensure anticipatory endocrine changes leading to ovulation by the time of sexual intercourse.

  5. Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100 mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150 mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

  6. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  7. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  8. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  9. Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugliano, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…

  10. Teaching Sexuality through Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragin, Becca

    2015-01-01

    A central project of feminism has been raising awareness of the role cultural formations of sexuality play in women's inequality (Ritzenhoff and Hermes). Feminists who regularly include discussions of sexuality in their teaching are familiar with the pedagogical challenges of the subject as well as its importance. This article is intended for…

  11. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.

  12. Sexual Murderers' Implicit Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Anthony; Fisher, Dawn; Ward, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Interviews with 28 sexual murderers were subjected to grounded theory analysis. Five implicit theories (ITs) were identified: dangerous world, male sex drive is uncontrollable, entitlement, women as sexual objects, and women as unknowable. These ITs were found to be identical to those identified in the literature as being present in rapists. The…

  13. Sexuality, Power, and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Nancy C. M.

    The source of contemporary attitudes toward sexuality, power, and politics is found in the literature of the ancient Greeks, specifically, Plato's "Republic" and "Symposium," Aristotle's "Politics," and the plays of Aeschylus and Aristophanes. The "Symposium" can be read as an account of how sexuality can be incorporated into the public life of…

  14. Hypoactive Sexual Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.

    1977-01-01

    Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…

  15. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  16. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  17. Your Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaginal dryness and lead to pain during intercourse. • Stress and anxiety • Relationship problems • Illness, including depression • Past negative sexual ... alcohol, smoking, illegal drug use, and medical conditions. Anxiety, stress, problems with your partner, and past negative sexual ...

  18. Literacy and Sexual Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr; MuQaribu, Mudhillun

    2003-01-01

    Calls for more attention to literacy teaching practices and teacher education that acknowledge sexual identity and orientation as key aspects of youth identity development. Discusses experience-based pedagogy and classroom interactions around sexual identities and texts. Notes the need for research and scholarship in the field of literacy and…

  19. Schizophrenia and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Bernard H.

    1971-01-01

    Generally, the schizophrenic is far less active sexually than the rest of the population, and gets less satisfaction out of such activity. Just as he gives up in other areas he eventually abdicates his sexual role, withdrawing from temptations that seem to promise torment. (Author)

  20. Myths of Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that sexuality education needs to take into account the myths by which teachers educate and students learn. Defines myth as a narrative, paradigm, or vision. Argues that myth provides depth to sexuality education, but that existing myths serve the purpose poorly. Proposes alternative narratives to the dominant myth. (DSK)

  1. A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic nucleus in a macaque species with frequent female-female mounting and same-sex sexual partner preference.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L; Pfaus, James G

    2005-02-28

    In some captive and free-ranging populations, unmanipulated female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) routinely court, mount (with pelvic thrusting), compete for, and even prefer, on occasion, certain female sexual partners over certain males. The goal of this study was to determine if the cytoarchitecture of the dorsocentral portion of the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc), was male-typical in female Japanese macaques drawn from one such population. The AHdc is located in the medial preoptic anterior hypothalamus (MPO-AH), a region of the brain that is known to regulate sexual behaviour in primates. Despite their potential for male-typical sexual behaviour and sexual partner preference, our female subjects did not possess male-typical AHdc. The AHdc was significantly larger in males than it was in females, a difference that could be attributed to the significantly larger number of neurons in the male AHdc compared to that of the females. The AHdc of female Japanese macaques were no more male-typical in size than those of female rhesus macaques, a closely related sister species in which females rarely exhibit male-typical sexual behaviour. Although the AHdc may be involved in the regulation of sexual behaviour, this study indicates that a male-typical AHdc is not a prerequisite for the expression of male-typical sexual behaviour and sexual partner preference in Japanese macaques. This study is the first to examine the relationship between sex-atypical sexual activity and the cytoarchitecture of a hypothalamic nucleus in hormonally unmanipulated females.

  2. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  3. Sexual Desire Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

  4. Challenges in sexual medicine.

    PubMed

    Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2012-09-01

    The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field, in an effort to improve the lives of our patients, who wait for effective therapies. PMID:22777290

  5. Addictive sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Myers, W A

    1994-01-01

    Case material is presented from two patients suffering from addictive sexual behavior. The term addiction is used because of the intense, driven quality of the behavior and because of its mood-elevating effects. Psychodynamically, the patients' sexual acts helped to undo feelings of rejection at the hands of their mothers and to enhance feelings of lovability and of self-esteem. The behavior also helped to neutralize powerful feelings of rage toward the mother. In one patient, the acts also helped to ease inner turmoil related to an underlying attention deficit disorder. I speculate that some adults with addictive sexual behavior may have underlying attention deficit disorders. In both my patients, the sexual behaviors served the self-regulatory function of alleviating inner feelings of anhedonia and depression. When they decreased their sexual activities during the course of the treatment, they required adjunctive antidepressant medication. The underlying meaning of the medication and countertransference attitudes toward such patients are explored.

  6. Zebrafish pituitary gene expression before and after sexual maturation.

    PubMed

    He, Wenxia; Dai, Xiangyan; Chen, Xiaowen; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2014-06-01

    Sexual maturation and somatic growth cessation are associated with adolescent development, which is precisely controlled by interconnected neuroendocrine regulatory pathways in the endogenous endocrine system. The pituitary gland is one of the key regulators of the endocrine system. By analyzing the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptome before and after sexual maturation, in this study, we characterized the global gene expression patterns in zebrafish pituitaries at 45 and 90 days post-fertilization (dpf). A total of 15 043 annotated genes were expressed in the pituitary tissue, 3072 of which were differentially expressed with a greater than or equal to twofold change between pituitaries at 45 and 90 dpf. In the pituitary transcriptome, the most abundant transcript was gh. The expression levels of gh remained high even after sexual maturation at 90 dpf. Among the eight major pituitary hormone genes, lhb was the only gene that exhibited a significant change in its expression levels between 45 and 90 dpf. Significant changes in the pituitary transcripts included genes involved in the regulation of immune responses, bone metabolism, and hormone secretion processes during the juvenile-sexual maturity transition. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was carried out to verify the RNA-seq transcriptome results and demonstrated that the expression patterns of the eight major pituitary hormone genes did not exhibit a significant gender difference at 90 dpf. For the first time, we report the quantitative global gene expression patterns at the juvenile and sexual maturity stages. These expression patterns may account for the dynamic neuroendocrine regulation observed in body metabolism.

  7. A lophotrochozoan-specific nuclear hormone receptor is required for reproductive system development in the planarian.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Marla E; Collins, James J; Newmark, Phillip A

    2014-12-01

    Germ cells of sexually reproducing organisms receive an array of cues from somatic tissues that instruct developmental processes. Although the nature of these signals differs amongst organisms, the importance of germline-soma interactions is a common theme. Recently, peptide hormones from the nervous system have been shown to regulate germ cell development in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea; thus, we sought to investigate a second class of hormones with a conserved role in reproduction, the lipophilic hormones. In order to study these signals, we identified a set of putative lipophilic hormone receptors, known as nuclear hormone receptors, and analyzed their functions in reproductive development. We found one gene, nhr-1, belonging to a small class of functionally uncharacterized lophotrochozoan-specific receptors, to be essential for the development of differentiated germ cells. Upon nhr-1 knockdown, germ cells in the testes and ovaries fail to mature, and remain as undifferentiated germline stem cells. Further analysis revealed that nhr-1 mRNA is expressed in the accessory reproductive organs and is required for their development, suggesting that this transcription factor functions cell non-autonomously in regulating germ cell development. Our studies identify a role for nuclear hormone receptors in planarian reproductive maturation and reinforce the significance of germline-soma interactions in sexual reproduction across metazoans.

  8. Off-label use of hormones as an antiaging strategy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Samaras, Nikolaos; Papadopoulou, Maria-Aikaterini; Samaras, Dimitrios; Ongaro, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Given demographic evolution of the population in modern societies, one of the most important health care needs is successful aging with less frailty and dependency. During the last 20 years, a multitude of anti-aging practices have appeared worldwide, aiming at retarding or even stopping and reversing the effects of aging on the human body. One of the cornerstones of anti-aging is hormone replacement. At present, women live one third of their lives in a state of sex-hormone deficiency. Men are also subject to age-related testosterone decline, but andropause remains frequently under-diagnosed and under-treated. Due to the decline of hormone production from gonads in both sexes, the importance of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in steroid hormone production increases with age. However, DHEA levels also decrease with age. Also, growth hormone age-associated decrease may be so important that insulin growth factor-1 levels found in elderly individuals are sometimes as low as those encountered in adult patients with established deficiency. Skin aging as well as decreases in lean body mass, bone mineral density, sexual desire and erectile function, intellectual activity and mood have all been related to this decrease of hormone production with age. Great disparities exist between recommendations from scientific societies and actual use of hormone supplements in aging and elderly patients. In this article, we review actual data on the effects of age related hormone decline on the aging process and age-related diseases such as sarcopenia and falls, osteoporosis, cognitive decline, mood disorders, cardiovascular health and sexual activity. We also provide information on the efficiency and safety of hormone replacement protocols in aging patients. Finally, we argue on future perspectives of such protocols as part of everyday practice. PMID:25092967

  9. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.

  10. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships. PMID:26301436

  11. Breast cancer and sexuality: multi-modal treatment options.

    PubMed

    Krychman, Michael L; Katz, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The sexual consequences of breast cancer and its treatments are well known and previously reviewed. Alterations in body image, with or without breast reconstruction, changes in sexual self-esteem and self-efficacy, vulvovaginal atrophy as a result of chemotherapy and/or adjuvant hormone therapy, and loss of libido secondary to dyspareunia and body image issues are common in survivors of breast cancer. Medications that are prescribed for long-term use including those in the class of aromatase inhibitors can have far-reaching implications on quality of life by contributing to vulvar and vaginal atrophic changes. While this is an important issue, there are few widely accepted treatments that have been evaluated for efficacy and safety for these sexual challenges in the breast cancer population. However, progress is being made in finding new and innovative solutions for many of the sexual problems faced by breast cancer survivors and their partners. Many institutions are now compelled to address survivorship concerns and addressing sexuality and intimacy are paramount issues in survivorship care. In this article, we present the evidence for the multimodal approach to the management of sexuality concerns in the breast cancer survivor. Pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and psychosocial interventions will be reviewed. PMID:22151953

  12. Neuropeptides and central control of sexual behaviour from the past to the present: a review.

    PubMed

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction.

  13. Neuropeptides and central control of sexual behaviour from the past to the present: a review.

    PubMed

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction. PMID:23851261

  14. Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

  15. Changes in Women's Sexual Behavior Following Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliramich, Aimee N.; Gray, Matt J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity…

  16. Neuroendocrinology of Sexual Plasticity in Teleost Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, John

    2010-01-01

    The study of sex differences has produced major insights into the organization of animal phenotypes and the regulatory mechanisms generating phenotypic variation from similar genetic templates. Teleost fishes display the greatest diversity of sexual expression among vertebrate animals. This diversity appears to arise from diversity in the timing of sex determination and less functional interdependence among the components of sexuality relative to tetrapod vertebrates. Teleost model systems therefore provide powerful models for understanding gonadal and non-gonadal influences on behavioral and physiological variation. This review addresses socially controlled sex change and alternate male phenotypes in fishes. These sexual patterns are informative natural experiments that illustrate how variation in conserved neuroendocrine pathways can give rise to a wide range of reproductive adaptations. Key regulatory factors underlying sex change and alternative male phenotypes that have been identified to date include steroid hormones and the neuropeptides GnRH and arginine vasotocin, but genomic approaches are now implicating a diversity of other influences as well. PMID:20176046

  17. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  18. Sanctification of sexuality: implications for newlyweds' marital and sexual quality.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Krystal M; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-10-01

    Research on the intersection of sexuality, religion, and spirituality has primarily examined whether global levels of religiousness (e.g., service attendance) deter premarital and extramarital sexual activity. Virtually no empirical work has addressed whether specific spiritual beliefs about sexuality enhance marital sexuality. Using a community sample of 83 individuals married between 4 and 18 months, we found that greater perceptions of sexuality as sanctified predicted greater marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, sexual intimacy, and spiritual intimacy beyond global religiousness and demographics. The findings open a new line of research on religion and family life, and extend theories on the possible benefits of the sanctification of intimate relationships.

  19. Pediatric stress: hormonal mediators and human development.

    PubMed

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Kino, Tomoshige; Souvatzoglou, Emmanuil; Chrousos, George P

    2003-01-01

    (defective glucocorticoid-negative feedback, cognition), and the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system (dysthymia, novelty-seeking, addictive behaviors), hyperactivation of the HPA axis (hypercortisolism), suppression of reproductive, growth, thyroid and immune functions, and changes in pain perception. These changes may be accompanied by abnormal childhood, adolescent and adult behaviors, including excessive fear ('inhibited child syndrome') and addictive behaviors, dysthymia and/or depression, and gradual development of components of the metabolic syndrome X, including visceral obesity and essential hypertension. Prenatal stress exerted during the period of sexual differentiation may be accompanied by impairment of this process with behavioral and/or somatic sequelae. The vulnerability of individuals to develop varying degrees and/or components of the above life-long syndrome is defined by as yet unidentified genetic factors, which account for up to 60% of the variance. CRH has marked kindling and glucocorticoids have strong consolidating properties, hence both of these hormones are crucial in development and can alone produce the above syndrome. CRH and glucocorticoids may act in synergy, as in acoustic startle, while glucocorticoids may suppress or stimulate CRH, as in the hypothalamus and amygdala, respectively. A CRH type 1 receptor antagonist, antalarmin, inhibits both the development and expression of conditioned fear in rats, and has anxiolytic properties in monkeys. Profound stressors, such as those from sexual abuse, may elicit the syndrome in older children, adolescents and adults. Most frequently, chronic dysthymia and/or depression may develop in association with gastrointestinal complaints and/or the premenstrual tension syndrome. A lesser proportion of individuals may develop the classic posttraumatic stress disorder, which is characterized by hypocortisolism and intrusive and avoidance symptoms; in younger individuals it may present as dissociative

  20. What is sexual addiction?

    PubMed

    Levine, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125

  1. Hormones and psychosexual differentiation: implications for the management of intersexuality, homosexuality and transsexuality.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Bahlburg, H F

    1982-11-01

    During fetal development of subprimate mammals, sexual differentiation of the genitals and of specific sex-dimorphic brain systems depends on androgens; corresponding sex differences are displayed in prepubertal behaviours as well as in behaviours that depend on activation by pubertal hormones. In human beings, fetal hormones play the same role in genital differentiation. Hormone-dependent structural brain changes are also very likely but have not yet been demonstrated. The corresponding effects of fetal hormones on childhood behaviour have been found both in subhuman primates and in man, while the evidence concerning later behaviour, including sexual orientation, is not yet clear. The development of gender identity in humans is a cognitive process that has no counterpart in animal behaviour and is unlikely to be based on a specific hormone-sensitive brain system. It appears that the hormone-dependent variations of sex-dimorphic behaviour in childhood can be accommodated within either gender identity, provided that the child's physical appearance is gender adequate and the parental (or other caregivers') rearing style does not interfere with typical gender role development. In intersex individuals, changes in gender identity seem to occur primarily when genital and/or general physical appearance are in conflict with the assigned gender and/or when rearing has been ambiguous. The available descriptions of such changes do not seem compatible with a primarily neuroendocrine explanation. Thus, decisions on sex assignment and reassignment of intersex patients need to be based on expected social and sexual functioning, and the clinical management of such patients must minimize the risk of ambiguous rearing and of the development of a gender-incongruent physical appearance. The development of a sexual orientation in humans as hetero- or homosexual does not seem to depend on pubertal hormones. The evidence for a role of fetal hormones is suggestive, but the issue is not

  2. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. PMID:27347891

  3. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  4. Research in Human Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Joan; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding sexual problems." (LBH)

  5. Sexual Harassment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truax, Anne; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An article and three responses on sexual harassment in higher education are presented: "Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: What We've Learned" (Anne Truax); "Who Is Responsible for Sexual Harassment?" (Barbara G. Taylor); "The Feminist-Unionist Dilemma" (Sherna Berger Gluck); and "Sexual Harassment and Academic Power" (Loralee MacPike). (MLW)

  6. Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

  7. Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

    This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

  8. Sex hormone replacement in disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Wiebke; Bertelloni, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may have impaired sex steroid production or their gonads removed before, during or after adolescence, thus requiring hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to induce puberty and/or maintain secondary sexual characteristics, to optimize bone health, and to promote physical and social well-being. Oestrogens are usually used for this purpose in persons reared as females (eventually combined with progestins if a uterus is present) and androgens in those reared as males. An alternative therapy for women with ascertained complete androgen insensitivity syndrome could be testosterone, because this is the main sex steroid hormone secreted by their gonads, but this approach remains to be better explored. Few sound evidence-based data are available to guide HRT administration at puberty and in adulthood in individuals with DSD, but recent data and new formulations may give better perspectives for the future.

  9. Anomalies in the hormonal status of athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Köpf-Maier, P; Mboneko, V F

    1990-01-01

    The serum levels of hormones that are known to influence growth, development, and differentiation of the skin and its appendages were analyzed in female haired (NMRI) and nude (NMRI, nu/nu) mice. Whereas the concentrations of testosterone, prolactin, and triiodothyronine did not differ in nude animals from those found in normal mice of the same age in the anestrous phase of the sexual cycle, the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and thyroxine were found in female nude mice at significantly lower levels than in normally haired animals. These results point to a hormonal situation that contributes to the poor fertility of homozygous (nu/nu) female mice and may promote impairment of growth and differentiation of skin and hair, resulting in the macroscopic nudity of athymic, nude mice. PMID:2370246

  10. Sexual selection and speciation.

    PubMed

    Panhuis, T M.; Butlin, R; Zuk, M; Tregenza, T

    2001-07-01

    The power of sexual selection to drive changes in mate recognition traits gives it the potential to be a potent force in speciation. Much of the evidence to support this possibility comes from comparative studies that examine differences in the number of species between clades that apparently differ in the intensity of sexual selection. We argue that more detailed studies are needed, examining extinction rates and other sources of variation in species richness. Typically, investigations of extant natural populations have been too indirect to convincingly conclude speciation by sexual selection. Recent empirical work, however, is beginning to take a more direct approach and rule out confounding variables.

  11. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.

  12. [Sexual abuse of minors].

    PubMed

    Hayez, J Y

    1991-01-01

    The author gives a definition of sexual abuse on minors, emphasizing its more frequent occurrence inside the family (incest) than outside. He describes the countertransference reactions induced by this type of abuse, especially in professional teams who tend to put each other in a position of rivalry. Next, he sketches the pathogeny of sexual abuse, the clinical signs and the long term effects. The author deduces what should be the first signs of sexual abuse and proposes a pattern of diagnosis. Finally, he explains a management model, of the crisis and the follow-up of this difficult situation. PMID:1670411

  13. AIDS and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Smith, L L; Lathrop, L M

    1993-01-01

    The sexual behaviours placing an individual at risk for HIV infection are those also placing him/her at risk for gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis B, chlamydia and unplanned pregnancy. This article proposes that approaches to HIV prevention must be included within a broad context of human sexuality. To address disease prevention in the absence of including people's relationships, social, behavioural and emotional needs is futile. Compartmentalization, denial of risk by various populations, and societal barriers are all factors to be overcome in the fight against HIV transmission. Specific strategies involved in a comprehensive approach are outlined under the categories of predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors contributing to healthy sexual behaviour. PMID:8481861

  14. [Depression and sexual disorders].

    PubMed

    Ducrocq, F

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays, we talk more and more often about sexual disorders, and depression in one of the possible etiologies of them. Depression could lead to sexual disorders or induce them indirectly. Paradoxically, depression treatments, such as tricyclic antidepressant or SSRI could induce this kind of disorder. Tianeptine, the only molecule representative of this pharmacological class, has proved its good acceptability on the libido, as shown by the results of a meta-analysis. The respect of the sexual function is essential to obtain a good observance of the antidepressant treatment.

  15. AIDS and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Smith, L L; Lathrop, L M

    1993-01-01

    The sexual behaviours placing an individual at risk for HIV infection are those also placing him/her at risk for gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis B, chlamydia and unplanned pregnancy. This article proposes that approaches to HIV prevention must be included within a broad context of human sexuality. To address disease prevention in the absence of including people's relationships, social, behavioural and emotional needs is futile. Compartmentalization, denial of risk by various populations, and societal barriers are all factors to be overcome in the fight against HIV transmission. Specific strategies involved in a comprehensive approach are outlined under the categories of predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors contributing to healthy sexual behaviour.

  16. [Sexuality and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    de Molina Román, M R; Salvador Carulla, L; Foras Eroles, F

    1994-09-01

    The sex behaviour of patients suffering from schizophrenia has been largely overlooked. This study is aimed at describing the pattern of sexual responses and conducts in 113 inpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R). A high rate of sexual dysfunction was found in both males (62.9%) and females (50%). These rates are higher than found in other previous studies. The possible cause factors of sexual dysfunctions in this group of patients and the methodological problems related to this type of study are reviewed.

  17. Hormone and immune response, with special reference to steroid hormone 1. A short review.

    PubMed

    Seiki, K; Sakabe, K; Kawashima, I; Fujii-Hanamoto, H

    1990-05-01

    Substantial evidence has been accumulated to support the gonadal regulation of immune functions. They are mainly based on the following observations: i) the existence of sexual dimorphism in immune response, ii) alteration of immune response by gonadectomy or sex steroid replacement, iii) alteration of immune response during pregnancy, and iv) existence of sex steroid receptors in the thymus tissue which affect T cell function through thymic hormones produced in the gland. In the present study, we have tried to review some of this evidence by adding our own findings. We also referred to the experimental findings which show that the thymus, brain and gonads are close-related functionally, and form a functional axis, the so-called "hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-thymic" axis which is of great importance not only because it regulates immune response, but because its influence may extend to other organ system within the living body.

  18. The evolving sexual health paradigm: transforming definitions into sexual health practices.

    PubMed

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Sexual health is an evolving paradigm that integrates a positive approach to sexuality with existing public health policy and practice for reducing the burdens of sexually transmitted infections, including those due to HIV. The sexual health paradigm rests in commitment to sexual rights, sexual knowledge, sexual choice, and sexual pleasure, as well as key elements of sexuality addressed by sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual function, and sexual behaviors. The sexual health paradigm offers new approaches to supporting general health and well being while reducing the burdens of sexual diseases and their consequences. PMID:24088679

  19. Human leptin: from an adipocyte hormone to an endocrine mediator.

    PubMed

    Wauters, M; Considine, R V; Van Gaal, L F

    2000-09-01

    Leptin is a mainly adipocyte-secreted protein that was discovered 5 years ago. Most of the research following this discovery focused on the role of leptin in body weight regulation, aiming to illuminate the pathophysiology of human obesity. However, more and more data are emerging that leptin is not only important in the regulation of food intake and energy balance, but that it also has a function as a metabolic and neuroendocrine hormone. It is now clear that it is especially involved in glucose metabolism, as well as in normal sexual maturation and reproduction. Besides this, interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, thyroid and GH axes and even with haematopoiesis and the immune system have also been described. It has been shown that leptin secretion by the adipocyte is partly regulated by other hormones, such as insulin, cortisol, and sex steroids, mainly testosterone. Also, other hormones like thyroid hormone and GH are possibly involved in leptin synthesis. Leptin itself exerts effects on different endocrine axes, mainly on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and on insulin metabolism, but also on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, thyroid and GH axes. Leptin may thus be considered a new endocrine mediator, besides its obvious role in body weight regulation.

  20. Extrapituitary growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S

    2010-12-01

    Pituitary somatotrophs secrete growth hormone (GH) into the bloodstream, to act as a hormone at receptor sites in most, if not all, tissues. These endocrine actions of circulating GH are abolished after pituitary ablation or hypophysectomy, indicating its pituitary source. GH gene expression is, however, not confined to the pituitary gland, as it occurs in neural, immune, reproductive, alimentary, and respiratory tissues and in the integumentary, muscular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems, in which GH may act locally rather than as an endocrine. These actions are likely to be involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells and tissues prior to the ontogeny of the pituitary gland. They are also likely to complement the endocrine actions of GH and are likely to maintain them after pituitary senescence and the somatopause. Autocrine or paracrine actions of GH are, however, sometimes mediated through different signaling mechanisms to those mediating its endocrine actions and these may promote oncogenesis. Extrapituitary GH may thus be of physiological and pathophysiological significance.

  1. Bovine Parathyroid Hormone: Amino Acid Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, H. Bryan; Ronan, Rosemary

    1970-01-01

    Bovine parathyroid hormone has been isolated in homogeneous form, and its complete amino acid sequence determined. The bovine hormone is a single chain, 84 amino acids long. It contains amino-terminal alanine, and carboxyl-terminal glutamine. The bovine parathyroid hormone is approximately three times the length of the newly discovered hormone, thyrocalcitonin, whose action is reciprocal to parathyroid hormone. Images PMID:5275384

  2. UV-radiation-induced electron emission by hormones. Hypothesis for specific communication mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getoff, Nikola

    2009-11-01

    The highlights of recently observed electron emission from electronically excited sexual hormones (17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and the phytohormone genistein in polar media are briefly reviewed. The electron yield, Q(e aq-), dependence from substrate concentration, hormone structure, polarity of solvent, absorbed energy and temperature are discussed. The hormones reactivity with e aq- and efficiency in electron transfer ensure them the ability to communicate with other biological systems in an organism. A hypothesis is presented for the explanation of the mechanisms of the distinct recognition of signals transmitted by electrons, originating from different types of hormones to receiving centres. Biological consequences of the electron emission in respect to cancer are mentioned.

  3. Effect of a long-lasting gonadotrophin hormone-releasing hormone agonist in six cases of severe male paraphilia.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, F; Cordier, B; Kuhn, J M

    1993-06-01

    Six men with severe paraphilia had been treated with depot gonadotrophin luteinizing releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) (triptorelin 3.75 mg per month intramuscularly). In 5 cases, the treatment ended their deviant sexual behavior and markedly decreased their sexual fantasies and activities without further significant side effects than those related to hypoandrogenism. This clinical improvement was parallel to the gradual decrease of plasma testosterone level to castration values within the first month. The beneficial effect of this treatment had been maintained at follow-up varying from 7 months to 3 years. One patient interrupted the treatment at the end of the first year and relapsed within 10 weeks. GnRHa treatment, which leads to reversible castration, may constitute a promising treatment of paraphilic behavior and may favor the possibility of concurrent psychotherapy.

  4. Increasing women's sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women's sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a possible cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women's sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women's sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women's sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women's sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women's sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced. PMID:26589379

  5. Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices.

  6. Perceptions of low agency and high sexual openness mediate the relationship between sexualization and sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Blake, Khandis R; Bastian, Brock; Denson, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the saturation of popular Western culture by female hypersexualization. We provide data showing that men have more sexually aggressive intentions toward women who self-sexualize, and that self-sexualized women are vulnerable to sexual aggression if two qualifying conditions are met. Specifically, if perceivers view self-sexualized women as sexually open and lacking agency (i.e., the ability to influence one's environment), they harbor more sexually aggressive intentions and view women as easier to sexually victimize. In Experiment 1, male participants viewed a photograph of a woman whose self-sexualization was manipulated through revealing versus non-revealing clothing. In subsequent experiments, men and women (Experiment 2) and men only (Experiment 3) viewed a photograph of a woman dressed in non-revealing clothing but depicted as open or closed to sexual activity. Participants rated their perceptions of the woman's agency, then judged how vulnerable she was to sexual aggression (Experiments 1 and 2) or completed a sexually aggressive intentions measure (Experiment 3). Results indicated that both men and women perceived self-sexualized women as more vulnerable to sexual aggression because they assumed those women were highly sexually open and lacked agency. Perceptions of low agency also mediated the relationship between women's perceived sexual openness and men's intentions to sexually aggress. These effects persisted even when we described the self-sexualized woman as possessing highly agentic personality traits and controlled for individual differences related to sexual offending. The current work suggests that perceived agency and sexual openness may inform perpetrator decision-making and that cultural hypersexualization may facilitate sexual aggression. Aggr. Behav. 42:483-497, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848102

  7. Intra-pituitary relationship of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during pubertal development in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Nadia; Corriero, Aldo; Santamaria, Nicoletta; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Vassallo-Aguis, Robert; de la Gándara, Fernando; Meiri-Ashkenazi, Iris; Zlatnikov, Vered; Gordin, Hillel; Bridges, Christopher R; Rosenfeld, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    As part of the endeavor aiming at the domestication of Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT; Thunnus thynnus), first sexual maturity in captivity was studied by documenting its occurrence and by characterizing the key hormones of the reproductive axis: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The full length sequence encoding for the related hormone β-subunits, bftFSHβ and bftLHβ, were determined, revealing two bftFSHβ mRNA variants, differing in their 5' untranslated region. A quantitative immuno-dot-blot assay to measure pituitary FSH content in BFT was developed and validated enabling, for the first time in this species, data sets for both LH and FSH to be compared. The expression and accumulation patterns of LH in the pituitary showed a steady increase of this hormone, concomitant with fish age, reaching higher levels in adult females compared to males of the same age class. Conversely, the pituitary FSH levels were elevated only in 2Y and adult fish. The pituitary FSH to LH ratio was consistently higher (>1) in immature than in maturing or pubertal fish, resembling the situation in mammals. Nevertheless, the results suggest that a rise in the LH storage level above a minimum threshold may be an indicator of the onset of puberty in BFT females. The higher pituitary LH levels in adult females over males may further support this notion. In contrast three year-old (3Y) males were pubertal while cognate females were still immature. However, it is not yet clear whether the advanced puberty in the 3Y males was a general feature typifying wild BFT populations or was induced by the culture conditions. Future studies testing the effects of captivity and hormonal treatments on precocious maturity may allow for improved handling of this species in a controlled environment which would lead to more cost-efficient farming.

  8. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

  9. Sexual Scripts and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Black Heterosexual Men: Development of the Sexual Scripts Scale

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  10. The dermatoglyphic characteristics of transsexuals: is there evidence for an organizing effect of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Slabbekoorn, D; van Goozen, S H; Sanders, G; Gooren, L J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T

    2000-05-01

    It has been proposed that gender identity and sexual orientation are influenced by the prenatal sex steroid milieu. Human dermatoglyphics and brain asymmetry have also been ascribed to prenatal hormone levels. This study investigated dermatoglyphics (total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry) in 184 male-to-female transsexuals and 110 female-to-male transsexuals. In a subgroup, the relationship between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and spatial ability was tested. All investigations included controls. For all subjects hand preference and sexual orientation were noted. We hypothesized that the dermatoglyphics of male-to-female transsexuals would show similarities with control women and those of female-to-male transsexuals with control men. Our results showed a trend for a sex difference in total ridge count (P<.1) between genetic males and females, but no difference in directional asymmetry was found. Contrary to our expectations, the total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry of transsexuals were similar to their genetic sex controls. Additionally, directional asymmetry was neither related to sexual orientation, nor to different aspects of spatial ability. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate that our chosen dermatoglyphic variables, total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry are related to gender identity and sexual orientation in adult transsexuals. Hence, we found no support for a prenatal hormonal influence on these characteristics, at least insofar as dermatoglyphics may be regarded as a biological marker of organizing hormonal effects.

  11. Sexual Counseling and Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Zwi

    1976-01-01

    The Ob/Gyn Department of Rambam University, Haifa, Israel, recently established a Center for Sexual Counseling, Therapy and Education. The Center's concept and format of therapy, and some preliminary observations, are presented. (Author)

  12. The Sexual Assault Examination

    PubMed Central

    Hargot, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their wellbeing, and treating them sympathetically. The kit provides information on consent, taking the sexual assault history, recording the patient's emotional status, and treatment guidelines. It also contains equipment and instructions on collecting clothing and body evidence, and on the genital and anal examination. The collection of good forensic evidence can decrease the need for doctors and nurses to testify in court. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21274059

  13. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  14. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  15. [Sexuality and death].

    PubMed

    Sapetti, Adrián

    2006-01-01

    It is intented to show two apparently antithetic poles: Sexuality and Death, in fact interpenetrate themselves, disguising the fear of death, or the desire to die, Eros' world. Different expressions of culture are analyzed, especially the one known as The Profane Time, the time for work, which is characterized by the submission to interdicts (prohibitions) and, on the other hand, the Time for Joy or The Sacred Time, characterized by the transgression of such prohibitions. Its relationship with the interdicts'violations in the sexual as well as in the death arena is analyzed in order to connect the human being's fear in the presence of the unrestraint, the overflow and the abandonment of the time established for work that would imply free sexuality. The latter is connected with some conclusions that could be considered useful in the field of Sexual Therapies, with a certain critical look at the mechanist settlement applied to those treatments.

  16. Understanding Sexual Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective factors. Step 3: Develop and test prevention strategies Using information gathered in research, CDC develops and evaluates strategies ... or technical help so communities can adopt these strategies. For more information on sexual violence prevention activities at CDC, please ...

  17. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  18. Sexuality in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... for your partner. It also benefits your physical health by reducing stress and making you feel good about yourself. As you age, your sexual health will change. But growing older doesn’t have ...

  19. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Transgender People Teaching Your Child Tolerance STDs Understanding Early ... and Romance Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Transgender People Sexual Attraction and Orientation Contact Us Print ...

  20. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  1. The sexual assault examination.

    PubMed

    Hargot, L A

    1985-04-01

    The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their wellbeing, and treating them sympathetically. The kit provides information on consent, taking the sexual assault history, recording the patient's emotional status, and treatment guidelines. It also contains equipment and instructions on collecting clothing and body evidence, and on the genital and anal examination. The collection of good forensic evidence can decrease the need for doctors and nurses to testify in court.

  2. Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents.

  3. Rooster feathering, androgenic alopecia, and hormone dependent tumor growth: What is in common?

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Julie Ann; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Widelitz, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Different epithelial organs form as a result of epithelial - mesenchymal interactions and share a common theme modulated by variations (Chuong edit. In Molecular Basis of Epithelial Appendage Morphogenesis, 1998). One of the major modulators is the sex hormone pathway that acts on the prototype signaling pathway to alter organ phenotypes. Here we focus on how the sex hormone pathway interfaces with epithelia morphogenesis related signaling pathways. We first survey these sex hormone regulated morphogenetic processes in various epithelial organs. Sexual dimorphism of hairs and feathers has implications in sexual selection. Diseases of these pathways result in androgenic alopecia, hirsutism, henny feathering, etc. The growth and development of mammary glands, prostate glands and external genitalia essential for reproductive function are also dependent on sex hormones. Diseases affecting these organs include congenital anomalies and hormone dependent type of breast and prostate cancers. To study the role of sex hormones in new growth in the context of system biology / pathology, an in vivo model in which organ formation starts from stem cells is essential. With recent developments (Yu et al., The morphogenesis of feathers. Nature 420:308–312, 2002), the growth of tail feathers in roosters and hens has become a testable model in which experimental manipulations are possible. We show exemplary data of differences in their growth rate, proliferative cell population and signaling molecule expression. Working hypotheses are proposed on how the sex hormone pathways may interact with growth pathways. It is now possible to test these hypotheses using the chicken model to learn fundamental mechanisms on how sex hormones affect organogenesis, epithelial organ cycling, and growth related tumorigenesis. PMID:15617560

  4. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

  5. Características del viento en estrellas Be derivadas del perfil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, R.; Cidale, L.

    El estudio teórico de perfiles Hα y su variabilidad en estrellas Be ha sido frecuentemente desarrollado en base a modelos de envolturas circunestelares inhomogéneas, donde la geometría del material es responsable de la forma del perfil dependiendo de la dirección de observación. Nosotros damos una interpretación alternativa y proponemos que la mayoría de las propiedades de esta línea tienen origen en la base de un viento estelar y de una estructura cromosférica anexa a la fotósfera. Encontramos que típicos perfiles Hα en Be, como son los llamados pole-on y winebottle, pueden ser reproducidos cualitativamente sin recurrir a la existencia de una envoltura asimétrica. Analizamos como la línea Hα permite identificar la posible estructura del viento en la región donde éste se inicia.

  6. Recent advances in hormonal contraception

    PubMed Central

    Li, HW Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews some of the new studies regarding new hormonal contraceptive formulations (e.g., Yaz, Qlaira®, extended-cycle or continuous combined contraceptives, subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive). Recent data on the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and bone health are also reviewed. PMID:21173872

  7. Female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Erdogan; Fynes, Michelle

    2008-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a common problem with detrimental effects on woman's quality of life. It also has an economical and societal impact. It is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain, which lead to personal distress. The etiology of sexual dysfunction is frequently multifactorial as it relates to general physical and mental well-being, quality of relationship, past sexual functioning, social class, education, employment, life stressors, personality factors, the presence of a sexual partner, and partner's age and health. It is very important to adopt the most efficient approach to gather information, and this may be achieved via standardized questionnaires or open-ended questions. Therapy should be tailored according to the patient's needs and may involve a multidisciplinary team approach including psychosexual counselor/sexologist/therapist and the physician. There is still more work needed to optimize the care of women with this problem. Priority should be given to international standardization and training of health care professionals.

  8. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  9. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  11. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    PubMed

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, Petr; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    Plant hormones act as chemical messengers in the regulation of myriads of physiological processes that occur in plants. To date, nine groups of plant hormones have been identified and more will probably be discovered. Furthermore, members of each group may participate in the regulation of physiological responses in planta both alone and in concert with members of either the same group or other groups. The ideal way to study biochemical processes involving these signalling molecules is 'hormone profiling', i.e. quantification of not only the hormones themselves, but also their biosynthetic precursors and metabolites in plant tissues. However, this is highly challenging since trace amounts of all of these substances are present in highly complex plant matrices. Here, we review advances, current trends and future perspectives in the analysis of all currently known plant hormones and the associated problems of extracting them from plant tissues and separating them from the numerous potentially interfering compounds.

  12. [Leptin: adipocyte hormone].

    PubMed

    Castagna, L; De Gregorio, T; Allegra, A; Buemi, M; Corsonello, A; Bonanzinga, S; Catanoso, M; Ceruso, D; Corica, F

    1998-04-01

    The authors reviewed the most recent literature on leptin, a protein produced by adipocytes which exerts its action on hypothalamus, modifying eating behavior and inhibiting the lust for food consumption. This one appeared to be the main, if not the only, physiologic action of leptin. Later leptin has been acknowledged a major role in the homeostasis. The regulation of the synthesis, and the mechanisms by which the protein modulates both food intake and energetic balance have been evaluated, and the hypotheses on the regulatory function exerted by leptin on the homeostasis, by acting on neuroendocrine system, on sexual maturity and fertility, on the sympathetic nervous system, on hemopoiesis and hydroelectrolytic balance have been discussed, some of which being already supported by experimental evidences.

  13. Growth hormone neurosecretory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bercu, B B; Diamond, F B

    1986-08-01

    The basis for understanding clinical disorders in the neuroregulation of GH secretion is derived from the complexity of the CNS-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Studies in animals and humans demonstrate an anatomic, physiological and pharmacological evidence for neurosecretory control over GH secretion including neurohormones (GRH, somatostatin), neurotransmitters (dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, histaminergic, GABAergic), and neuropeptides (gut hormones, opioids, CRH, TRH, etc). The observation of a defect in the neuroregulatory control of GH secretion in CNS-irradiated humans and animals led to the hypothesis of a disorder in neurosecretion, GHND, as a cause for short stature. We speculate that in this heterogeneous group of children a disruption in the neurotransmitter-neurohormonal functional pathway could modify secretion ultimately expressed as poor growth velocity and short stature.

  14. Daily variations in urinary excretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone in idiopathic isosexual precocity.

    PubMed

    Penny, R; Olambiwonnu, N O; Frasier, S D

    1977-01-01

    The 24-hour urinary excretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was determined for 30 days in an 8.3-year-old girl with isosexual precocity and for 25 days in a normal 11.9-year-old girl. The pattern of daily variation in urinary LH and FSH excretion observed in the girl with sexual precocity was similar to that of the normal menstrual cycle. The LH and FSH midcycle peaks were 132.5 IU/24 hours and 26.3 IU/24 hours, respectively. Excluding the midcycle peak, the daily excretion of LH was 28.4 +/- 9.3 (SD) IU/24 hours, and the excretion of FSH was 8.9 +/- 1.9 (SD) IU/24 hours, values comparable to those of normal adult females. In contrast, the daily excretion of LH in the normal 11.9-year-old girl was 6.9 +/- 1.1 (SD) IU/24 hours and FSH excretion was 3.9 +/- 0.9 (SD) IU/24 hours. No LH or FSH surge was observed. The data are consistent with early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in idiopathic isosexual precocity.

  15. Hormonal interactions and gene regulation can link monoecy and environmental plasticity to the evolution of dioecy in plants.

    PubMed

    Golenberg, Edward M; West, Nicholas W

    2013-06-01

    Most models for dioecy in flowering plants assume that dioecy arises directly from hermaphroditism through a series of independent feminizing and masculinizing mutations that become chromosomally linked. However, dioecy appears to evolve most frequently through monoecious grades. The major genetic models do not explain the evolution of unisexual flowers in monoecious and submonoecious populations, nor do they account for environmentally induced sexual plasticity. In this review, we explore the roles of environmental stress and hormones on sex determination, and propose a model that can explain the evolution of dioecy through monoecy, and the mechanisms of environmental sex determination. Environmental stresses elicit hormones that allow plants to mediate the negative effects of the stresses. Many of these same hormones are involved in the regulation of floral developmental genes. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms whereby these hormones interact and can act as switchpoints in regulatory pathways. Consequently, differential concentrations of plant hormones can regulate whole developmental pathways, providing a mechanism for differential development within isogenic individuals such as seen in monoecious plants. Sex-determining genes in such systems will evolve to generate clusters of coexpressed suites. Coexpression rather than coinheritance of gender-specific genes will define the sexual developmental fate. Therefore, selection for gender type will drive evolution of the regulatory sequences of such genes rather than their synteny. Subsequent mutations to hyper- or hyposensitive alleles within the hormone response pathway can result in segregating dioecious populations. Simultaneously, such developmental systems will remain sensitive to external stimuli that modify hormone responses.

  16. Influence of a Specialized Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract (Libifem), on Testosterone, Estradiol and Sexual Function in Healthy Menstruating Women, a Randomised Placebo Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Beccaria, Gavin; Inder, Warrick J; Vitetta, Luis

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract on sex hormones and sexual function in healthy menstruating women who reported low sexual drive. This short term, single site, double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 80 women, aged 20 to 49 years. Participants were randomised to either an oral dose of a standardised T. foenum-graecum seed extract (libifem) at a dose of 600 mg/day or placebo over two menstrual cycles. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, progesterone, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex hormone binding globulin and cholesterol were measured at baseline and 8 weeks. The individual aspects of sexual function were measured using the Derogatis interview for sexual functioning and female sexual function index self-administered questionnaires. Stress, fatigue and quality of the relationship with partner were also measured using the PSS (Perceived Stress Scale), MFI-20 (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and DAS (Dyadic Adjustment Scale) quality of life measures, respectively. There was a significant increase in free testosterone and E2 in the active group as well as sexual desire and arousal compared with the placebo group. The results indicate that this extract of T. foenum-graecum may be a useful treatment for increasing sexual arousal and desire in women. PMID:25914334

  17. Sex hormones modulate the immune response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA in CBA/Ca mice.

    PubMed

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Morales-Rodríguez, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility to malaria differs between females and males, and this sexual dimorphism may have important implications for the effects of vaccines and drugs. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating these sexual differences. Because the main differences between sexes are dictated by sex hormones, we studied the effect of gonadal steroids on immune responses to malaria in CBA/Ca mice. We decreased sex hormones levels by gonadectomy and evaluated the splenic index and the cells involved in the immune response, including T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK(+)), B cells and macrophages (Mac-3(+)) in the spleens of female and male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. In addition, we measured antibody and cytokine levels in blood. Gonadectomy increased T(+) and B(+) splenic cells in both sexes but increased Mac-3(+) cells only in male mice. By contrast, gonadectomy decreased the NK(+) cell population only in male mice. In general, female mice developed higher antibody levels than males. Contrary to our expectations, gonadectomy increased the synthesis of IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG in female mice, indicating negative regulation of antibody production by female sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) only in female mice, suggesting that female sex hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. This work demonstrates that the levels of sex hormones affect the immune response and should be considered when designing malaria vaccines.

  18. Hormonal adaptation to real and simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Strollo, F; Strollo, G; More, M; Bollanti, L; Ciarmatori, A; Longo, E; Quintiliani, R; Mambro, A; Mangrossa, N; Ferretti, C

    1998-07-01

    The authors provide an overview of relevant results from endocrine studies in astronauts before, during, and after space flight. The hormonal systems examined are the water-electrolyte regulation, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, the growth hormone-insulin like growth factor 1-prolactin system, hormones which affect bone turnover, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and the endocrine pancreas. Hormones studied include renin, aldosterone, vasopressin, atrial natriuretic factor, cortisol, testosterone, lutenizing hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, glucose, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone, calcitonin, active D3, and parathyroid hormone.

  19. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  20. Sexual dimorphism in immunity: improving our understanding of vaccine immune responses in men.

    PubMed

    Furman, David

    2015-03-01

    Weaker immune responses are often observed in males compared to females. Since female hormones have proinflammatory properties and androgens have potent immunomodulatory effects, this sexual dimorphism in the immune response seems to be hormone dependent. Despite our current knowledge about the effect of sex hormones on immune cells, definition of the factors driving the sex differences in immunoclinical outcomes, such as the diminished response to infection and vaccination observed in men or the higher rates of autoimmunity observed in females, remains elusive. Recently, systems approaches to immune function have started to suggest a way toward establishing this connection. Such studies promise to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sexual dimorphism observed in the human immune system.

  1. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  2. Reproductive and sexual dysfunction in men with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Montouris, Georgia; Morris, George L

    2005-12-01

    Disturbances of reproductive and sexual health are common in people with epilepsy. Their etiology is not well understood but appears to be multifactorial, and both epilepsy itself and drugs used to treat it are implicated. Physiologically, sex steroid hormone levels, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and testicular function can be affected in men with epilepsy. Psychosocial complications associated with epilepsy can also affect reproductive health and sexuality. Clinicians need to investigate such problems carefully, both because of their multifactorial nature and because patients and physicians alike may often fail to recognize or be reluctant to acknowledge them; in particular, patients whose epilepsy had its onset before puberty may lack subjective awareness of impairments of sexual response and function. Treatments for reproductive and sexual dysfunction in men with epilepsy have been inadequately studied. Modalities such as medications for erectile dysfunction and surgery may be useful. Therapy with exogenous testosterone and an aromatase inhibitor may be helpful for men with epilepsy and sexual dysfunction due to testosterone deficiency.

  3. Sexual reward induces Fos in the cerebellum of female rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Pfaus, James G; Miquel, Marta; Manzo, Jorge; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2011-02-01

    The cerebellum is generally considered a neural structure specialized in motor control and recent imaging data suggest its role in sexual behavior. Herein, we analyzed the pattern of Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in the cerebellum of female rats allowed to pace copulation as a model of sexual reward in rodents. Ovariectomized, hormone-primed, sexually naïve females formed three groups: Pacing, Nonpacing and Control. Pacing occurred in arenas bisected by a middle divider that allowed only females to control sexual interaction with stud males. For nonpaced copulation the divider was removed, and control females were allowed to pace in chambers without a male. Fos-IR was analyzed in granule and Purkinje layers of the 10 cerebellar lobules, and in the fastigial deep nucleus (FDN). Results indicated that Pacing females expressed more Fos-IR in the granule layer compared to Nonpacing and Controls, and more Fos-IR in Purkinje compared to Nonpacing. No differences were observed in FDN. Such response cannot be explained with motor activity because Pacing females moved less in general. We discuss the role of the cerebellum and its connections in the sexual reward induced by pacing. PMID:21059365

  4. Gender development and sexuality in disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, S A; Meyer-Bahlburg, H F L

    2015-05-01

    Understanding psychological development in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) is important for optimizing their clinical care and for identifying paths to competence and health in all individuals. In this paper, we focus on psychological outcomes likely to be influenced by processes of physical sexual differentiation that may be atypical in DSD, particularly characteristics related to being male or female (those that show sex differences in the general population, gender identity, and sexuality). We review evidence suggesting that (a) early androgens facilitate several aspects of male-typed behavior, with large effects on activity interests, and moderate effects on some social and personal behaviors (including sexual orientation) and spatial ability; (b) gender dysphoria and gender change occur more frequently in individuals with DSD than in the general population, with rates varying in relation to syndrome, initial gender assignment, and medical treatment; and (c) sexual behavior may be affected by DSD through several paths related to the condition and treatment, including reduced fertility, physical problems associated with genital ambiguity, social stigmatization, and hormonal variations. We also consider limitations to current work and challenges to studying gender and sexuality in DSD. We conclude with suggestions for a research agenda and a proposed research framework.

  5. Management of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal breast cancer patients taking adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Derzko, C.; Elliott, S.; Lam, W.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women with breast cancer has been shown to reduce or obviate invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or curettage associated with tamoxifen-induced endometrial abnormalities. The side effect of upfront aromatase inhibitors, diminished estrogen synthesis, is similar to that seen with the natural events of aging. The consequences often include vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes) and vaginal dryness and atrophy, which in turn may result in cystitis and vaginitis. Not surprisingly, painful intercourse (dyspareunia) and loss of sexual interest (decreased libido) frequently occur as well. Various interventions, both non-hormonal and hormonal, are currently available to manage these problems. The purpose of the present review is to provide the practitioner with a wide array of management options to assist in treating the sexual consequences of aromatase inhibitors. The suggestions in this review are based on recent literature and on the recommendations set forth both by the North American Menopause Association and in the clinical practice guidelines of the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Canada. The complexity of female sexual dysfunction necessitates a biopsychosocial approach to assessment and management alike, with interventions ranging from education and lifestyle changes to sexual counselling, pelvic floor therapies, sexual aids, medications, and dietary supplements—all of which have been reported to have a variable, but often successful, effect on symptom amelioration. Although the use of specific hormone replacement—most commonly local estrogen, and less commonly, systemic estrogen with or without an androgen, progesterone, or the additional of an androgen in an estrogenized woman (or a combination)—may be highly effective, the concern remains that in patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer, including those receiving anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapies, the use of these hormones may be

  6. Gender Preference in the Sexual Attractions, Fantasies, and Relationships of Voluntarily Castrated Men

    PubMed Central

    Handy, Ariel B.; Jackowich, Robyn A.; Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas Wayne; Wassersug, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Some men seek castration outside a clear medical need. This study explored how their sexuality changed after castration. Aim To explore changes in preferred gender(s) of sexual attraction, fantasy, and relationships in voluntarily castrated men with or without gonadal hormone therapy. Methods A questionnaire was posted at http://www.eunuch.org that yielded data on men who had been voluntarily castrated physically (n = 198) or chemically (n = 96). Main Outcome Measures Respondents were asked to report retrospectively on their sexuality, including their sexual activity and which gender(s) they were sexually attracted to, fantasized about, or had sexual relations with 6 months to 1 year before and after castration. Results A substantial proportion of men remained sexually active after castration; 37% had sex at least several times per week. Most respondents did not report a change in preferred gender(s) of attraction (65%, n = 181), fantasies (62%, n = 169), or sexual relationships (66%, n = 163), although approximately 20% to 30% of respondents did report such changes and 8% to 11% became non-sexual after castration. Respondents who were attracted to and fantasized about “only men” or who had sexual relationship with “only women” before castration were the least likely to report a change subsequent to castration. Respondents who were taking neither supplemental testosterone nor estrogen were more likely to report (i) becoming attracted to no one, (ii) fantasizing about no one, and (iii) becoming sexually inactive. Conclusion Sexual changes in voluntarily castrated men vary and can be influenced by various factors including the use of supplemental testosterone or estrogen therapy. PMID:26944778

  7. Diabetes Mellitus-Associated Functional Hypercortisolism Impairs Sexual Function in Male Late-Onset Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Tirabassi, G; Corona, G; Lamonica, G R; Lenzi, A; Maggi, M; Balercia, G

    2016-01-01

    Functional hypercortisolism is generated by conditions able to chronically activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and has been proven to have a negative role in several complications. However, no study has evaluated the possible influence of diabetes mellitus-associated functional hypercortisolism on male hypogonadism and sexual function. We aimed to identify any association of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation measures with testosterone and sexual function in men simultaneously affected by diabetes mellitus and late-onset hypogonadism. Fifteen diabetes mellitus and late-onset hypogonadism subjects suffering from functional hypercortisolism and fifteen diabetes mellitus and late-onset hypogonadism subjects who were free of functional hypercortisolism were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, hormonal, and sexual parameters were considered. Hypercortisolemic subjects showed higher values of body mass index, waist, and glycated hemoglobin and lower ones of testosterone compared to normocortisolemic ones. All sexual parameters, except for orgasmic function, were significantly worse in hypercortisolemic than in normocortisolemic subjects. Hypercortisolemic patients showed higher values of cortisol after dexamethasone and urinary free cortisol as well as a lesser ACTH response after corticotropin releasing hormone test (ACTH area under curve) compared to normocortisolemic ones. No significant association was found at Poisson regression analysis between hormonal and sexual variables in normocortisolemic patients. In hypercortisolemic subjects, negative and significant associations of cortisol response after corticotropin releasing hormone (cortisol area under curve) with erectile function (β: -0.0008; p: 0.015) and total international index of erectile function score (β: -0.0006; p: 0.001) were evident. This study suggests for the first time the impairing influence of the dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis on sexual function in

  8. The impact of sexual trauma on sexual desire and function.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Barry; Farr, Emily

    2011-01-01

    The field of sexual trauma is one of the most controversial and value-laden in mental health. The three factors which most affect adult sexual desire and function are the type of sexual trauma, how the sexual incidents were dealt with at the time and, most important, whether the person views her/himself as a survivor or victim. The assessment and treatment program described focuses on couple sex therapy with a special focus on processing the sexual trauma, honoring the person's veto and being 'partners in healing'. The core therapeutic theme is valuing intimate, erotic sexuality, which reinforces being a proud survivor rather than a shameful, anxious or angry victim. It is crucial to create a relapse prevention program to ensure that the person with the sexual trauma history continues to experience the positive roles of adult couple sexuality. PMID:22005207

  9. Duration of oral contraceptive use predicts women's initial and subsequent subjective responses to sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Renfro, Kaytlin J; Rupp, Heather; Wallen, Kim

    2015-09-01

    Recent work suggests that a woman's hormonal state when first exposed to visual sexual stimuli (VSS) modulates her initial and subsequent responses to VSS. The present study investigated whether women's initial hormonal state was related to their subjective ratings of VSS, and whether this relationship differed with VSS content. We reanalyzed previously collected data from 14 naturally cycling (NC) women and 14 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs), who subjectively rated VSS at three hormonal time-points. NC women's ratings of 216 unique sexual images were collected during the menstrual, periovulatory, and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles, and OC women's ratings were collected at comparable time-points across their pill-cycles. NC women's initial hormonal state was not related to their ratings of VSS. OC women's initial hormonal state predicted their ratings of VSS with minimal contextual information and of images depicting female-to-male oral sex. Specifically, women who entered the study in the third week of their pill-cycle (OC-3 women) rated such images as less attractive at all testing sessions than did all other women. OC-3 women were also the only women to rate decontextualized VSS as unattractive at all testing sessions. These results corroborate previous studies in which women's initial hormonal state was found to predict subsequent interest in sexual stimuli. Future work, with larger samples, should more directly investigate whether OC-3 women's negative assessment of specific types of VSS reflects a reaction to the laboratory environment or a broader mechanism, wherein OC women's sexual interests decrease late in their pill-cycle.

  10. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse - children ... are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser ... or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such as: ...

  11. Early adolescents' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Porter, C P; Ronis, D L; Oakley, D J; Guthrie, B J; Killion, C

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in early adolescents' intimate behaviors and the initiation of sexual intercourse over a one-year time period. The changes are interpreted within the context of recent progress in understanding the development of early adolescents. Public school students in sixth and ninth grades of selected schools in a midwestern industrial city were studied in two waves of data collection. A total of 106 students provided data for the second year, allowing comparisons of their Time 2 with their Time 1 responses. Five of eight intimate behaviors studied increased in frequency during the year. Also, the adolescents' perceived benefits of having sexual intercourse increased and perceived costs decreased during the follow-up year. Increases in the frequency of intimate behaviors but not changes in their perceptions of the benefits and costs predicted whether or not students had initiated sexual intercourse during the follow-up period. These findings support current understanding of early adolescence as a time of incremental learning about intimacy and about sexual relationships. The findings suggest that preventing early sexual intercourse may require understanding the specific behavioral competencies related to healthful development of intimacy. Pediatric nurses can be leaders in providing the necessary counseling and education to young adolescents, their families, and their communities.

  12. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schover, Leslie R.; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options. PMID:26217165

  13. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Schover, Leslie R; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2014-06-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options. PMID:26217165

  14. The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Sexuality and Sexual Practices in North American Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed. Aims To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations. Methods An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008. Main Outcome Measures All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]). Results There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005). Conclusion In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the

  15. Plant hormone signaling lightens up: integrators of light and hormones.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Deng, Xing Wang

    2010-10-01

    Light is an important environmental signal that regulates diverse growth and developmental processes in plants. In these light-regulated processes, multiple hormonal pathways are often modulated by light to mediate the developmental changes. Conversely, hormone levels in plants also serve as endogenous cues in influencing light responsiveness. Although interactions between light and hormone signaling pathways have long been observed, recent studies have advanced our understanding by identifying signaling integrators that connect the pathways. These integrators, namely PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), PIF4, PIF3-LIKE 5 (PIL5)/PIF1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), are key light signaling components and they link light signals to the signaling of phytohormones, such as gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), auxin and cytokinin, in regulating seedling photomorphogenesis and seed germination. This review focuses on these integrators in illustrating how light and hormone interact.

  16. Luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin: distinguishing unique physiologic roles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Janet; Smitz, Johan

    2014-03-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are integral components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, which controls sexual maturation and functionality. In the absence of signaling through their shared receptor, fetal sexual differentiation and post-natal development cannot proceed normally. Although they share a high degree of homology, the physiologic roles of these hormones are unique, governed by differences in expression pattern, biopotency and regulation. Whereas LH is a key regulator of gonadal steroidogenesis and ovulation, hCG is predominantly active in pregnancy and fetal development. Emerging evidence has revealed endogenous functions not previously ascribed to hCG, including participation in ovulation and fertilization, implantation, placentation and other activities in support of successful pregnancy. Spontaneous and induced mutations in LH, hCG and their mutual receptor have contributed substantially to our understanding of reproductive development and function. The lack of naturally occurring, functionally significant mutations in the β-subunit of hCG reinforce its putative role in establishment of pregnancy. Rescue of reproductive abnormalities resulting from aberrant gonadotropin signaling is possible in certain clinical contexts, depending on the nature of the underlying defect. By understanding the physiologic roles of LH and hCG in normal and pathologic states, we may better harness their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential.

  17. Review. Do hormonal control systems produce evolutionary inertia?

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2008-05-12

    Hormonal control systems are complex in design and well integrated. Concern has been raised that these systems might act as evolutionary constraints when animals are subject to anthropogenic environmental change. Three systems are examined in vertebrates, especially birds, that are important for assessing this possibility: (i) the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, (ii) the activational effects of sex steroids on mating effort behaviour, and (iii) sexual differentiation. Consideration of how these systems actually work that takes adequate account of the brain's role and mechanisms suggests that the first two are unlikely to be impediments to evolution. The neural and molecular networks that regulate the HPG provide both phenotypic and evolutionary flexibility, and rapid evolutionary responses to selection have been documented in several species. The neuroendocrine and molecular cascades for behaviour provide many avenues for evolutionary change without requiring a change in peripheral hormone levels. Sexual differentiation has some potential to be a source of evolutionary inertia in birds and could contribute to the lack of diversity in certain reproductive (including life history) traits. It is unclear, however, whether that lack of diversity would impede adaptation to rapid environmental change given the role of behavioural flexibility in avian reproduction.

  18. Sex hormones have pervasive effects on thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumont-Lagacé, Maude; St-Pierre, Charles; Perreault, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate at the systems-level, the effect of sex hormones on thymic epithelial cells (TECs). To this end, we sequenced the transcriptome of cortical and medullary TECs (cTECs and mTECs) from three groups of 6 month-old mice: males, females and males castrated at four weeks of age. In parallel, we analyzed variations in the size of TEC subsets in those three groups between 1 and 12 months of age. We report that sex hormones have pervasive effects on the transcriptome of TECs. These effects were exquisitely TEC-subset specific. Sexual dimorphism was particularly conspicuous in cTECs. Male cTECs displayed low proliferation rates that correlated with low expression of Foxn1 and its main targets. Furthermore, male cTECs expressed relatively low levels of genes instrumental in thymocyte expansion (e.g., Dll4) and positive selection (Psmb11 and Ctsl). Nevertheless, cTECs were more abundant in males than females. Accumulation of cTECs in males correlated with differential expression of genes regulating cell survival in cTECs and cell differentiation in mTECs. The sexual dimorphism of TECs highlighted here may be mechanistically linked to the well-recognized sex differences in susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26250469

  19. Psychiatric disorders and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2015-01-01

    Sexual problems are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. They may be caused by the psychopathology of the psychiatric disorder but also by its pharmacotherapy. Both positive symptoms (e.g., psychosis, hallucinations) as well as negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) of schizophrenia may negatively interfere with interpersonal and sexual relationships. Atypical antipsychotics have fewer sexual side-effects than the classic antipsychotics. Mood disorders may affect libido, sexual arousal, orgasm, and erectile function. With the exception of bupropion, agomelatine, mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amineptine, and moclobemide, all antidepressants cause sexual side-effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may particularly delay ejaculation and female orgasm, but also can cause decreased libido and erectile difficulties. SSRI-induced sexual side-effects are dose-dependent and reversible. Very rarely, their sexual side-effects persist after SSRI discontinuation. This is often preceded by genital anesthesia. Some personality characteristics are a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Also patients with eating disorders may suffer from sexual difficulties. So far, research into psychotropic-induced sexual side-effects suffers from substantial methodologic limitations. Patients tend not to talk with their clinician about their sexual life. Psychiatrists and other doctors need to take the initiative to talk about the patient's sexual life in order to become informed about potential medication-induced sexual difficulties. PMID:26003261

  20. Hormone signaling in plant development.

    PubMed

    Durbak, Amanda; Yao, Hong; McSteen, Paula

    2012-02-01

    Hormone signaling plays diverse and critical roles during plant development. In particular, hormone interactions regulate meristem function and therefore control formation of all organs in the plant. Recent advances have dissected commonalities and differences in the interaction of auxin and cytokinin in the regulation of shoot and root apical meristem function. In addition, brassinosteroid hormones have recently been discovered to regulate root apical meristem size. Further insights have also been made into our understanding of the mechanism of crosstalk among auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in axillary meristems.

  1. Gut hormones in tropical malabsorption.

    PubMed Central

    Besterman, H S; Cook, G C; Sarson, D L; Christofides, N D; Bryant, M G; Gregor, M; Bloom, S R

    1979-01-01

    Concentrations of various gut hormones were measured after a test breakfast in eight patients with severe tropical malabsorption and 12 controls. The patients with tropical malabsorption had greatly raised basal plasma motilin and enteroglucagon concentrations, but their postprandial release of both gastric inhibitory polypeptide and insulin was significantly reduced. The pattern of gut hormone release differed from that found in coeliac disease. The measurement of gut hormones, each of which has a specific site and function, thus throws new light on the pathophysiology of tropical malabsorption and may suggest approaches of treatment. PMID:519400

  2. Role of androgen, estrogen and sexual experience on the female rat's partner preference.

    PubMed

    Vega Matuszczyk, J; Larsson, K

    1991-07-01

    Virgin ovariectomized rats were implanted with Silastic tubings containing estradiol (E2, 5 mm), testosterone (T, 30 mm), dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 30 mm), or injected daily SC with the synthetic nonaromatizable androgen, methyltrienelone (R 1881, 5 mg.kg-1) daily for three weeks. Animals were tested for partner preference behavior (staying in the vicinity of a sexually active male, an estrous female or staying elsewhere) before and after they had been tested for feminine and masculine sexual behavior. All naive androgen-treated groups showed a male-oriented preference, while the naive E2-treated females did not show any consistent partner preference. Sexual experience abolished the male-directed orientation of the androgen-treated groups while E2 treatment induced a male-directed orientation. E2-treated females spent significantly longer time elsewhere in both tests compared to the other groups which might be due to insufficient levels of E2. Feminine sexual behavior was seen after treatment with E2 or T but not after treatment with DHT or R 1881. It was concluded, 1) that the effect of treatment with an androgen on the partner preference behavior differs according to whether the females are virgins or sexually experienced, and 2) the effect of the hormone treatment on the partner preference behavior is independent of whether the hormone stimulates feminine sexual behavior.

  3. Sexual dysfunction in chronic liver disease: is liver transplantation an effective cure?

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia; Germani, Giacomo; Masier, Annalisa; De Martin, Eleonora; Gambato, Martina; Salonia, Andrea; Bo, Patrizio; Vitale, Alessandro; Cillo, Umberto; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Senzolo, Marco

    2010-06-27

    The goal of liver transplantation is not only to ensure patient long-term survival but also to offer the opportunity to achieve psychologic and physical integrity. Quality of life after liver transplantation may be affected by unsatisfactory sexual function. Before liver transplantation, sexual dysfunction and sex hormone disturbances are reported in men and women mainly due to abnormality of physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and, in some cases, origin of liver disease. Successful liver transplantation should theoretically restore hormonal balance and improve sexual function both in men and women, thus improving the reproductive performance. However, after transplantation, up to 25% of patients report persistent sexual dysfunction, and approximately one third of patients describe the appearance of de novo sexual dysfunction. Despite the described high prevalence of this condition, epidemiologic data are relatively scant. Further studies on pathophysiology and risk factors in the field of sexual function after liver transplantation along with new strategies to support and inform patients on the waiting list and after surgery are needed.

  4. Sexual compulsion – Relationship with sex, attachment and sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    KATZ, LICHEN; EBERHARDT, HILA; COHEN, KOBY; LEJOYEUX, MICHEL

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Sexual addiction, also known as hypersexual disorder, is associated with serious psychosocial problems for many people. Methods This study used questionnaires to investigate the effects of gender, sexual orientation and attachment (avoidance and anxiety) on sexual compulsion among 100 heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Results A positive correlation was found between anxious attachment and sexual compulsivity (r = 0.46; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between avoidant attachment and sexual compulsivity (r = 0.39; p ≤ 0.01) in all participants. Secondly, an analysis of covariance showed a gender by sexual orientation interaction effect [F(1, 103) = 6.39, p < 0.01] but no attachment effect on sexual compulsivity. A follow-up comparison showed that lesbian women had higher rates of sexual compulsivity than heterosexual women [t (2, 50) = 5.08, p < 0.001] whereas there was non-significant difference in sexual compulsivity between homosexual and heterosexual men [t (2, 50) = 1.30, p = N.S.]. Discussion The results provide preliminary evidence for an association between attachment and sexual compulsivity and the effects of gender and sexual orientation on sexual compulsivity. PMID:25786496

  5. Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

  6. The Role of Sexual Precedence in Verbal Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Buddie, Amy M.; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Experiences of verbal sexual coercion are common and have potential for negative consequences, yet are not well understood. This study used qualitative and descriptive statistics to examine verbal sexual coercion experiences among a community sample of 114 women and explored the role of sexual precedence in these experiences. Analyses revealed…

  7. Association of Sexual Revictimization with Sexuality and Psychological Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…

  8. Weighing the shift from sexual identity to sexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Bullough, V L

    1984-01-01

    The shift in inquiry from sexual identity to a conceptualization of sexual relationship, as proposed by De Cecco and Shively (1983/1984), has advantages for research on sexuality, but psychological and political disadvantages for homosexuals, which are briefly summarized in this analysis.

  9. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    PubMed

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  10. Adolescent sexuality and public policy.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J A; Jensen, L C; Greaves, P M

    1991-01-01

    In recent decades, various attempts have been made to determine the level of sexual activity among adolescents. This information has been used in the planning and evaluation of sex-related programs. However, there is a flaw in using only the initial estimates of the behavior--that a sexually active person is defined as one who has had sexual intercourse. This narrow definition distorts the perception of adolescent sexual behavior. Sexual activity can more accurately be designated by focusing on the actual frequency with which teenagers have sex. In this research report, adolescents were considered sexually active if they had had sex within the last four weeks. Using this definition, adolescents were found to be substantially less sexually active than has been previously reported. This finding was then used to look at various policy decisions in the areas of sex education, family planning, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. PMID:1927672

  11. Effect of DHEA therapy on sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Nicola; Giannini, Andrea; Cela, Vito; Santoro, Anna N; Carnevale, Gianluca; Zavatti, Manuela; Di Viesti, Vittoria; Benelli, Augusta; Genazzani, Andrea R; Zanoli, Paola

    2013-05-01

    Delta-5 androgen therapies seem to enhance the sexual response in experimental animal models and in clinical trial. This study analyzed the influence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration on receptive and proceptive components of female rat sexual behavior. Ovariectomized (OVX) adult rats were divided in six groups submitted to the following treatments for 4 weeks: DHEA 0.5 and 5 mg/kg, by oral gavage, alone or in combination with estradiol benzoate 3 µg/rat; EB 3 and 10 µg/rat as control groups. All animals received progesterone (500 µg/rat) 4 h before the behavioral tests. All animals were tested for the following: receptivity and proceptivity weekly for 4 weeks; partner preference and paced mating behavior at the end of the treatments. Oral administration of DHEA at 5 mg/kg in EB primed rats was able to significantly increase proceptive behaviors, already after 1 week of treatment. The increase was more marked after 3 and 4 weeks of treatment. Behavioral changes were associated to modifications of circulating and brain level of allopregnanolone and beta-endorphin, although circulating hormonal levels were within a physiological range. Hormonal treatment using physiological doses of delta-5 androgens (DHEA) positively affects sexual motivation in OVX rats.

  12. A brain sexual dimorphism controlled by adult circulating androgens.

    PubMed

    Cooke, B M; Tabibnia, G; Breedlove, S M

    1999-06-22

    Reports of structural differences between the brains of men and women, heterosexual and homosexual men, and male-to-female transsexuals and other men have been offered as evidence that the behavioral differences between these groups are likely caused by differences in the early development of the brain. However, a possible confounding variable is the concentration of circulating hormones seen in these groups in adulthood. Evaluation of this possibility hinges on the extent to which circulating hormones can alter the size of mammalian brain regions as revealed by Nissl stains. We now report a sexual dimorphism in the volume of a brain nucleus in rats that can be completely accounted for by adult sex differences in circulating androgen. The posterodorsal nucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD) has a greater volume in male rats than in females, but adult castration of males causes the volume to shrink to female values within four weeks, whereas androgen treatment of adult females for that period enlarges the MePD to levels equivalent to normal males. This report demonstrates that adult hormone manipulations can completely reverse a sexual dimorphism in brain regional volume in a mammalian species. The sex difference and androgen responsiveness of MePD volume is reflected in the soma size of neurons there. PMID:10377450

  13. Genomic conflicts and sexual antagonism in human health: insights from oxytocin and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Mokkonen, Mikael; Crespi, Bernard J

    2015-04-01

    We review the hypothesized and observed effects of two of the major forms of genomic conflicts, genomic imprinting and sexual antagonism, on human health. We focus on phenotypes mediated by peptide and steroid hormones (especially oxytocin and testosterone) because such hormones centrally mediate patterns of physical and behavioral resource allocation that underlie both forms of conflict. In early development, a suite of imprinted genes modulates the human oxytocinergic system as predicted from theory, with paternally inherited gene expression associated with higher oxytocin production, and increased solicitation to mothers by infants. This system is predicted to impact health through the incompatibility of paternal-gene and maternal-gene optima and increased vulnerability of imprinted gene systems to genetic and epigenetic changes. Early alterations to oxytocinergic systems have long-term negative impacts on human psychological health, especially through their effects on attachment and social behavior. In contrast to genomic imprinting, which generates maladaptation along an axis of mother-infant attachment, sexual antagonism is predicted from theory to generate maladaptation along an axis of sexual dimorphism, modulated by steroid and peptide hormones. We describe evidence of sexual antagonism from studies of humans and other animals, demonstrating that sexually antagonistic effects on sex-dimorphic phenotypes, including aspects of immunity, life history, psychology, and behavior, are commonly observed and lead to forms of maladaptation that are demonstrated, or expected, to impact human health. Recent epidemiological and psychiatric studies of schizophrenia in particular indicate that it is mediated, in part, by sexually antagonistic alleles. The primary implication of this review is that data collection focused on (i) effects of imprinted genes that modulate the oxytocin system, and (ii) effects of sexually antagonistic alleles on sex-dimorphic, disease

  14. Genomic conflicts and sexual antagonism in human health: insights from oxytocin and testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Mokkonen, Mikael; Crespi, Bernard J

    2015-01-01

    We review the hypothesized and observed effects of two of the major forms of genomic conflicts, genomic imprinting and sexual antagonism, on human health. We focus on phenotypes mediated by peptide and steroid hormones (especially oxytocin and testosterone) because such hormones centrally mediate patterns of physical and behavioral resource allocation that underlie both forms of conflict. In early development, a suite of imprinted genes modulates the human oxytocinergic system as predicted from theory, with paternally inherited gene expression associated with higher oxytocin production, and increased solicitation to mothers by infants. This system is predicted to impact health through the incompatibility of paternal-gene and maternal-gene optima and increased vulnerability of imprinted gene systems to genetic and epigenetic changes. Early alterations to oxytocinergic systems have long-term negative impacts on human psychological health, especially through their effects on attachment and social behavior. In contrast to genomic imprinting, which generates maladaptation along an axis of mother–infant attachment, sexual antagonism is predicted from theory to generate maladaptation along an axis of sexual dimorphism, modulated by steroid and peptide hormones. We describe evidence of sexual antagonism from studies of humans and other animals, demonstrating that sexually antagonistic effects on sex-dimorphic phenotypes, including aspects of immunity, life history, psychology, and behavior, are commonly observed and lead to forms of maladaptation that are demonstrated, or expected, to impact human health. Recent epidemiological and psychiatric studies of schizophrenia in particular indicate that it is mediated, in part, by sexually antagonistic alleles. The primary implication of this review is that data collection focused on (i) effects of imprinted genes that modulate the oxytocin system, and (ii) effects of sexually antagonistic alleles on sex-dimorphic, disease

  15. Genomic conflicts and sexual antagonism in human health: insights from oxytocin and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Mokkonen, Mikael; Crespi, Bernard J

    2015-04-01

    We review the hypothesized and observed effects of two of the major forms of genomic conflicts, genomic imprinting and sexual antagonism, on human health. We focus on phenotypes mediated by peptide and steroid hormones (especially oxytocin and testosterone) because such hormones centrally mediate patterns of physical and behavioral resource allocation that underlie both forms of conflict. In early development, a suite of imprinted genes modulates the human oxytocinergic system as predicted from theory, with paternally inherited gene expression associated with higher oxytocin production, and increased solicitation to mothers by infants. This system is predicted to impact health through the incompatibility of paternal-gene and maternal-gene optima and increased vulnerability of imprinted gene systems to genetic and epigenetic changes. Early alterations to oxytocinergic systems have long-term negative impacts on human psychological health, especially through their effects on attachment and social behavior. In contrast to genomic imprinting, which generates maladaptation along an axis of mother-infant attachment, sexual antagonism is predicted from theory to generate maladaptation along an axis of sexual dimorphism, modulated by steroid and peptide hormones. We describe evidence of sexual antagonism from studies of humans and other animals, demonstrating that sexually antagonistic effects on sex-dimorphic phenotypes, including aspects of immunity, life history, psychology, and behavior, are commonly observed and lead to forms of maladaptation that are demonstrated, or expected, to impact human health. Recent epidemiological and psychiatric studies of schizophrenia in particular indicate that it is mediated, in part, by sexually antagonistic alleles. The primary implication of this review is that data collection focused on (i) effects of imprinted genes that modulate the oxytocin system, and (ii) effects of sexually antagonistic alleles on sex-dimorphic, disease

  16. A Pilot Study on Tamoxifen Sexual Side Effects and Hand Preference in Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain. PMID:26108899

  17. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.

  18. Beyond Sexual Orientation: Integrating Gender/Sex and Diverse Sexualities via Sexual Configurations Theory.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M

    2015-07-01

    Sexual orientation typically describes people's sexual attractions or desires based on their sex relative to that of a target. Despite its utility, it has been critiqued in part because it fails to account for non-biological gender-related factors, partnered sexualities unrelated to gender or sex, or potential divergences between love and lust. In this article, I propose Sexual Configurations Theory (SCT) as a testable, empirically grounded framework for understanding diverse partnered sexualities, separate from solitary sexualities. I focus on and provide models of two parameters of partnered sexuality--gender/sex and partner number. SCT also delineates individual gender/sex. I discuss a sexual diversity lens as a way to study the particularities and generalities of diverse sexualities without privileging either. I also discuss how sexual identities, orientations, and statuses that are typically seen as misaligned or aligned are more meaningfully conceptualized as branched or co-incident. I map out some existing identities using SCT and detail its applied implications for health and counseling work. I highlight its importance for sexuality in terms of measurement and social neuroendocrinology, and the ways it may be useful for self-knowledge and feminist and queer empowerment and alliance building. I also make a case that SCT changes existing understandings and conceptualizations of sexuality in constructive and generative ways informed by both biology and culture, and that it is a potential starting point for sexual diversity studies and research.

  19. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, William P.

    1968-01-01

    A review is given of the progress made during the last 6 years in elucidating the nature, locus of action, and transport properties of the endogenous hormones that control leaf abscission. PMID:16657014

  20. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... both combination and estrogen-alone hormone use made mammography less effective for the early detection of breast ... such as a reduction in the use of mammography, may also have contributed to this decline ( 15 ). ...