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Sample records for performance liquid chromatographytandem

  1. Simultaneous determination of estrogens and progestogens in honey using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work describes the development and validation of a method for the simultaneous determination of 13 estrogens and progestogens in honey by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The target compounds were preconcentrated by solid phase extraction. Pretreatment variables ...

  2. Quantitative determination of tilmicosin in canine serum by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Michael; Ding, Haiqing; McClanahan, Robert; Owens, Jane G; Hunter, Robert P

    2007-09-15

    A highly sensitive and quantitative LC/MS/MS assay for the determination of tilmicosin in serum has been developed and validated. For sample preparation, 0.2 mL of canine serum was extracted with 3 mL of methyl tert-butyl ether. The organic layer was transferred to a new vessel and dried under nitrogen. The sample was then reconstituted for analysis by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A Phenomenex Luna C8(2) analytical column was used for the chromatographic separation. The eluent was subsequently introduced to the mass spectrometer by electrospray ionization. A single range was validated for 50-5000 ng/mL for support of toxicokinetic studies. The inter-day relative error (inaccuracy) for the LLOQ samples ranged from -5.5% to 0.3%. The inter-day relative standard deviations (imprecision) at the respective LLOQ levels were < or =10.1%.

  3. [Determination of clavulanic acid residue in milk by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Huang, Xianhui; Guo, Chunna; Fang, Qiuhua; He, Limin

    2012-06-01

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of clavulanic acid (CLAV) in milk by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A 2 g milk sample was deproteinized by ethanol. The supernatant was transferred into a pear-shaped bottle to be evaporated to about 0.5 mL, and the residue was dissolved with ammonium acetate solution. The sample was determined by HPLC-MS/MS after the purification. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Luna 5u C8 column using 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phases with gradient elution. The identification of CLAV was carried out by MS/MS equipped with electrospray ionization in negative scanning and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. Matrix-matched calibration standard was used for the quantification. The calibration curve showed perfect linear in the range of 10 - 400 microg/kg with the correlation coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N > or = 3) was 10 microg/kg in milk, and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) was 20 microg/kg. The mean recoveries varied from 80.00% to 91.25% at the four spiked levels of LOQ, 1/2MRL (the maximum residue limit), MRL, and 2MRL with the relative standard deviations of 5.60% -8.77%. In conclusion, the established method can be applied for the determination of CLAV residues in milk.

  4. [Determination of congo red in beef by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Xu, Chunxiang; Yan, Chunrong; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Suilou

    2013-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of congo red in beef. The analyte was identified by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the congo red in the beef sample was separated on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution HD UPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) HPLC , using 95% (volume percentage) methanol as the mobile phase at 0.2 mL/min. The detection was performed on an AB 4000 + triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed that the linear range of congo red mass concentration was 0.03 - 1 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 8. The method had a good precision with the RSDs lower than 5% and the recoveries ranging from 88% to 91%. The limit of detection (LOD) of congo red was 0.01 mg/L. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the determination of the illegally added congo red in beef and other meat products.

  5. [Determination of aflatoxins in cashew by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Bi, Ruifeng; Fan, Zhixian; Fu, Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method for the determination of four aflatoxins in cashew using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The sample was extracted with methanol-water (8: 2, v/v) solution, followed by a cleanup procedure with Florisil column. The target compounds were eluted using 5 mL acetone-water-formic acid (96: 3.5:0.5, v/v/v) solution. The eluate was dried under N2, then dissolved in 1 mL methanol. Four aflatoxins were separated in MG C18 column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 3 microm) adopting a gradient program within 15 min. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode was used to detect the aflatoxins. The good correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.997) of the four aflatoxins were obtained within their respective linear ranges. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were between 0.009 microg/kg and 0.04 microg/kg, and the limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were between 0.03 microg/kg and 0.12 microg/kg. The recoveries were in a range of 63.0% -78.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied from 2.8% to 9.1%. The validation results meet the requirements of trace assay. Matrix effects were estimated and the signal suppression/enhancement ranged from 88.8% to 99.4%. The results indicate that the developed method is simple, fast, accurate, and can be applied for the determination of fours aflatoxins in cashew.

  6. [Determination of thyroid hormones in milk by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongyi; Yang, Dingzhong; Ji, Mengyao; Jia, Changxi; Huang, Manqing

    2013-03-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of thyroid hormones in milk including 3,3',5,5 '-tetraiodothyronine (T4), 3,3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3) and 3,3',5 '-triiodothyronine (rT3). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile and centrifuged, then the up layer was alkalized with concentrated ammonia water and cleaned up with a Cleanert PAX cartridge. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 micro m) with the mobile phase of 37% water containing 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid and 63% of methanol with an isocratic elution mode at a flow rate of 0. 3 mL/min. The mass spectrometry detection was performed in positive electrospray ionization and monitored using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode (m/z 652. 0/605. 5 and 652. 0/478. 6 for T3 and rT3; m/z 777. 7/731.7 and 777. 7/604.9 for T4; m/z 784. 0/737.9 and 784. 0/639.4 for T4-13C6). The analytes were identified by their retention times and relative abundance ratios of the characteristic product ions, and quantified by internal standard method. The method was linear with the correlation coefficients ( r2 ) greater than 0. 998 in the concentration ranges investigated. The limits of detection (LODs) were not more than 0.03 ng/g, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were not more than 0.1 ng/g for the analytes. The recoveries were 80. 61% - 101.7% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.48% - 9.70%. The results of five real milk samples showed that the contents of T3 were 0.59 - 1. 30 ng/g with the RSDs of 2.06% -7.70%, and T4 and rT3 weren't found. The method presents many merits including simple sample pretreatment, high sensitivity, good reproducibility and unequivocal confirmation and quantification for the analytes. It could be used to monitor the levels of thyroid hormones in the milk for safety quality evaluation.

  7. [Determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Xie, Wen; Shen, Li

    2014-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil. The sample was extracted with ethyl alcohol by vortex-excited oscillation. The extract was cleaned up by 0.22 microm filter membrane and centrifuged for 5 min at 4 000 r/min after standing in a fridge at 4 degrees C for 30 min. The compound was separated on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The detection of gossypol was carried out by LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) of gossypol in edible vegetable oil was 1 mg/kg. The recoveries were from 87.4% to 100% at the spiked levels of 1, 2, 200 mg/kg of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.9% and 12.2%. The method, with high sensitivity, good precision and high recovery, was suitable for the confirmation and quantification of gossypol residue in edible vegetable oil.

  8. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Wang, Yuesheng; Wei, Huizhen; Ouyang, Hui; He, Mingzhen; Zeng, Lianqing; Shen, Fengyun; Guo, Qiang; Rao, Yi

    2014-06-01

    A method was developed for the determination of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Maxing shigan decoction. The analytes were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the qualitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS III HPLC column (75 mm x 2.0 mm, 1.6 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on a Triple TOF 5600 quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer. The quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed by separation on an Agilent C18 HPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on an AB Q-TRAP 4500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis results showed that amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin were detected in the plasma sample. The quantitative analysis results showed that the linear range of amygdalin was 1.05-4 200 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 0 and the linear range of prunasin was 1.25-2 490 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 0. The method had a good precision with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 9.20% and the overall recoveries varied from 82.33% to 95.25%. The limits of detection (LODs) of amygdalin and prunasin were 0.50 ng/mL. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amygdalin and prunasin in plasma sample of rats which were administered by Maxing shigan decoction.

  9. Determination of Vitamin B12 in Dairy Products by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zironi, Elisa; Gazzotti, Teresa; Barbarossa, Andrea; Farabegoli, Federica; Serraino, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble molecule composed of a tetrapyrrolic complex with a cobalt atom at its centre. It is an essential regulatory element, synthesized only by bacteria; for this reason it is present only in food of animal origin and the daily requirement for humans is about 1 to 2 mg. Since milk and dairy products provide a significant dietary cobalamin intake, an ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry method was applied to samples collected at different stages along the process of cheese making in order to evaluate the distribution of this molecule. In particular, samples of milk, rennet, whey, ricotta cheese, curd, mozzarella cheese and caciotta cheese were analysed. Results showed a level of vitamin B12 about 10 times higher in whey and ricotta cheese with respect to the milk they are derived from. These data would confirm the tendency of cobalamine to concentrate in the proteic fractions along the cheese production process. PMID:27800366

  10. Degradation and interconversion of plant pteridines during sample preparation and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van Daele, Jeroen; Blancquaert, Dieter; Kiekens, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-03-01

    The degradation and interconversion of a selected set of pterins (dihydroneopterin, hydroxymethyldihydropterin, dihydroxanthopterin, neopterin, hydroxymethylpterin, xanthopterin, 6-formylpterin, 6-carboxypterin and pterin), spiked to charcoal-treated potato and Arabidopsis thaliana matrix was investigated, together with their relative recovery in potato and A. thaliana. As a result, a matrix-specific procedure for the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based determination of 6 aromatic pterins (neopterin, hydroxymethylpterin, xanthopterin, 6-formylpterin, 6-carboxypterin and pterin) is proposed: 1.5ml of an N2-flushed, alkaline (pH=10) extraction solvent is added to 200mg of plant sample. After boiling and homogenization, the samples are incubated: Arabidopsis samples for 30min at room temperature, while shaking, and potato samples for 2h at 37°C (applying a dienzyme treatment with α-amylase and protease). After a final boiling step, the samples are ultrafiltrated and resulting extracts are analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS.

  11. Identification of monomenthyl succinate, monomenthyl glutarate, and dimenthyl glutarate in nature by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hiserodt, Richard D; Adedeji, Jide; John, T V; Dewis, Mark L

    2004-06-01

    Menthol, menthone, and other natural compounds provide a cooling effect and a minty flavor and have found wide application in chewing gum and oral care products. Monomenthyl succinate, monomenthyl glutarate, and dimenthyl glutarate provide a cooling effect without the burning sensation associated with menthol. Additionally, because they do not have a distinct flavor, they can be used in applications other than mint flavors. Because these menthyl esters have not been reported in nature, we undertook to identify a natural source for these cooling compounds. Using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, monomenthyl succinate was identified in Lycium barbarum and Mentha piperita, and monomenthyl glutarate and dimenthyl glutarate were identified in Litchi chinesis. The identifications were based on the correlation of mass spectrometric and chromatographic retention time data for the menthyl esters in the extracts with authentic standards which resulted in a 99.980% confidence in the identifications.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of six synthetic sweeteners in food by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Ding, Li; Liu, Jinxia; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Libing; Chen, Bo

    2010-11-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the determination of six synthetic sweeteners (sodium cyclamate, saccharin sodium, acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame and neotame) in food was developed. The synthetic sweeteners were extracted by methanol-water (1 : 1, v/v). The extract was separated on a C18 column using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium formate/acetonitrile as mobile phase, and then detected by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The good linearities (r > 0.998) were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 20-500 microg/L. The recoveries obtained ranged from 81.3% to 106.0% at three spiked concentrations, with the relative standard deviations lower than 11%. The established method has been successfully applied to the determination of synthetic sweeteners in food.

  13. Determination of seven bisphenol analogues in reed and Callitrichaceae by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Libin; Yang, Yunjia; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing

    2014-03-15

    An analytical procedure was developed to simultaneously determine bisphenol S, bisphenol F, bisphenol B, bisphenol A, bisphenol AF, tetrachlorobisphenol A, and tetrabromobisphenol A in reed and Callitrichaceae. Homogenized samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified using an ENVI™-Carb cartridge followed by an NH2 cartridge. The analytes were separated and quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The recoveries at three fortified levels in reed and Callitrichaceae were 57-108% and 68-106%, respectively, with relative standard deviations of no more than 15% (n=6). The method limits of quantification and detection for the seven bisphenol analogues were 0.005-0.500μg/kg and 0.002-0.150μg/kg, respectively. This method was used to analyze the seven compounds in ten reed and Callitrichaceae samples collected from Zhejiang, China.

  14. Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Organophosphate Esters in Aqueous Samples

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Haiying; Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Luo, Donghui; Lu, Yujing; Yang, Bao

    2014-01-01

    A new technique was established to identify eight organophosphate esters (OPEs) in this work. It utilised dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction in combination with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The type and volume of extraction solvents, dispersion agent, and amount of NaCl were optimized. The target analytes were detected in the range of 1.0–200 µg/L with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9982 to 0.9998, and the detection limits of the analytes were ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 µg/L (S/N = 3). The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by identifying OPEs in aqueous samples that exhibited spiked recoveries, which ranged between 48.7% and 58.3% for triethyl phosphate (TEP) as well as between 85.9% and 113% for the other OPEs. The precision was ranged from 3.2% to 9.3% (n = 6), and the interprecision was ranged from 2.6% to 12.3% (n = 5). Only 2 of the 12 selected samples were tested to be positive for OPEs, and the total concentrations of OPEs in them were 1.1 and 1.6 µg/L, respectively. This method was confirmed to be simple, fast, and accurate for identifying OPEs in aqueous samples. PMID:24616613

  15. Determination of seven free anabolic steroid residues in eggs by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Jiahui; Yu, Jingxian; He, Limin; Shen, Xianguang

    2013-03-01

    A cheap, reliable and practical high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven anabolic steroids in eggs, including trenbolone, boldenone, nandrolone, stanozolol, methandienone, testosterone and methyl testosterone. The analytes were extracted from the egg samples using methanol. The extracts were subjected to the removal of fat by freezing-lipid filtration and then further purified by liquid-liquid extraction using tert-butyl methyl ether. The analytes were separated on a Luna C18 column by a gradient elution program with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. This method was validated over 1.00-100 ng/g for all steroids of interest. The correlation coefficients (r) for each calibration curve are higher than 0.99 within the experimental concentration range. The decision limits of the steroids in eggs ranged from 0.20 to 0.44 ng/g, and the detection capabilities were below 1.03 ng/g. The average recoveries were between 66.3 and 82.8% in eggs at three spiked levels of 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00 ng/g for each analyte. The between-day and within-day relative standard deviations were in the range of 2.4-11%. High matrix suppression effects were observed for all compounds of interest.

  16. [Determination of ten aminoglycoside residues in milk and dairy products using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Gong, Qiang; Ding, Li; Zhu, Shaohua; Jiao, Yanna; Cheng, Jing; Fu, Shanliang; Wang, Libing

    2012-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ten aminoglycoside residues (streptomycin, dihydrostrepmycin, neomycin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamycin, apramycin, hygromycin B, paromomycin, and amkacin) in milk and dairy products. The sample was extracted with 5% trichloroacetic acid aqueous solution, then the extract was purified by a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridge. The ten aminoglycoside residues were separated by ion-pair reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Heptafluorobutyric acid was used as ion pair agent due to its volatility. Then the analytes were detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The pretreatment condition of the sample, the HPLC condition and the MS operation parameters were optimized. The results showed that the linearities of the ten aminoglycoside residues in 20-1000 microg/L had the correlation coefficient between 0.9946-0.9997. The recoveries ranged from 71.2% and 101.7% with the relative standard deviations of 3.4%-13.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the mass concentrations of the analytes in related samples, which provides a simple, and convenient method for the quality control of milk and dairy products. Furthermore, this method is effective for the safety monitoring of aminoglycoside residues in milk and dairy products.

  17. [Simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Gou, Xinlei; Gao, Xia; Hu, Guanghui; Chi, Haitao; Le, Shengfeng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Weili

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were freeze-dried under vacuum and then dissolved with methanol. The separation was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) by using 0.1% (v/v) NH3 · H2O and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in negative ion mode was used for the analysis of the 11 bisphenols in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results verified that the standard curves for the 11 bisphenols were obtained with good correlation coefficients (R2) > 0.997 in their concentration ranges. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for the 11 bisphenols were in the range of 0.01-1.00 μg/L. The mean recoveries for the 11 bisphenols at three spiked levels (low, middle, high) were 75.3%-102.1% with the relative standard deviations of 1.5%-8.9%. Seven plastic bottled drinking water samples were tested, and no bisphenol was found. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and feasible for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water.

  18. [Simultaneous determination of six components in hair dyes by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    You, Feiming

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six components which included 4, 4'-diaminodiphenylamine sulfate hydrate and 2,4-diaminophenol sulfate, etc. in hair dyes by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After extracted by water through ultrasonic extraction, the samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The separation was performed on a Waters BEH-C18 column (100 mmx 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) with gradient elution of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode was used for the analysis of the six components in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed good linear relationships with all the correlation coefficients (R2) more than 0.99. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) for the six components were in the range of 0.26-4.6 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the six components in the spiked samples were in the range of 83.0%-92.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of 5.4%-11.2%. The precision, accuracy, mean recoveries and the matrix effects satisfied the requirements of cosmetic sample measurement. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of six dyes in actual samples. This method is simple, accurate and effective for the simultaneous determination of the six components in hair dyes. PMID:25958662

  19. [Determination of metabolites of nitrofuran antibiotics in royal jelly by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Xu, Jinzhong; Shen, Chongyu; Wu, Bin; Chen, Huilan; Zhu, Chun; Zhao, Zengyun; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Fei

    2006-09-01

    Nitrofurans are a group of widely used veterinary antibiotics that have been banned in many countries. This has generated a great deal of interests and demands for assay of nitrofurans in animal food products. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method has been successfully developed for simultaneously analyzing the metabolites of four nitrofuran antibiotics (furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurazone and nitrofurantoin) in royal jelly. Trichloroacetic acid solution was used both to precipitate proteins and to provide acidic reaction condition. Four isotope internal standards were utilized to improve the quantitative precision. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.03 microg/kg for the metabolite of furaltadone and 0.05 microg/kg for the other three metabolites. The limits of quantitation were 0.20 microg/kg for the metabolite of furaltadone and 0.25 microg/kg for the other three metabolites. The linear range was 0.4-20 ng/mL for all the target analytes. The recoveries calibrated by internal standard were in the range of 97.7%-104.8 with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.7-9.7. It showed that this method could meet the requirements of national monitoring plan in China and the Minimum Required Performance Limits (MRPL) set by the European Union. PMID:17165532

  20. Simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, penicillins and coccidiostats in pork by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nebot, C; Regal, P; Miranda, J; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2012-05-01

    Veterinary drugs are widely and legally used to treat and prevent disease in livestock. However, drugs are also used illegally as growth-promoting agents. To protect the health of consumers, maximum residue limits (MRL) in food of animal origin have been established and are listed in Regulation 37/2010. According to this regulation, more than 300 drugs need to be controlled regularly in laboratories for residues of veterinary drugs. A cost-effective analytical method is very important and explains why the development of multi-residual methods is becoming popular in laboratories. The aim of this work is to describe a simple, rapid and economical high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of 21 veterinary drugs in pork muscle samples. The sample clean-up procedure is performed with acidified dichloromethane and does not require solid phase extraction. The method is applicable to nine sulfonamides and seven coccidiostats identified within 36 min. Calculated relevant validation parameters such as recoveries (from 72.to 126 %), intra-precision and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation below 40 %) and decision limits (below 7 µg Kg(-1)) were within acceptable range and in compliance with the requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.

  1. [Simultaneous determination of 19 quinolone residues in honey using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Shen, Dongxu; Xu, Jinzhong; Wu, Bin; Chen, Huilan; Shen, Chongyu; Shen, Weijian; Zhao, Zengyun; Lian, Hongzhen

    2009-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous analysis of 19 quinolone residues, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid, flumequine, sarafloxacin, sparfloxacin, danofloxacin, fleroxacin, marbofloxacin, enofloxacin, orbifloxacin, pipemidic acid, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, cinofloxacin, and nalidixic acid in honey was developed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In comparison of the three different extraction methods, i.e. acid solution coupled with cation-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge (PCX), neutral buffer solution coupled with a reversed-phase extraction cartridge (HLB) and alkali solution coupled with a strong anion-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge (PAX), the third method was finally used. The cartridge was then applied to accumulate and purify the target analytes from the sample matrices in one step. The HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution program of methanol and 0.1% formic acid solution as the mobile phase. Selective reaction monitoring (SRM) was used for the selective detection of 19 quinolones. The linearity of all the 19 quinolones in the range from 1 microg/L to 100 microg/L had correlation coefficient greater than 0.991. In the detection of spiked samples, the detection limit of the method was 1.0 microg/kg for all the 19 quinolones, and the recoveries were 71% - 118% with the relative standard deviations of 4.2% - 6.7%. Internal standard calibration was used for the quantitative analysis.

  2. [Determination of rhodamine B in spices by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yin, Feng; Ding, Zhaowei; Yang, Zhijian

    2012-07-01

    Rhodamine B (RB), as an unlawful colour, is forbidden to add into foods by Chinese government. A solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of RB in spices has been developed. The sample was extracted by acetonitrile and then centrifugated, purified and enriched with a strong positive ion exchange SPE column (Bond Elut Plexa PCX SPE column) after adding 10 mL 1% trichloroacetic acid solution. The HPLC separation was performed on a Pursuit C18 column (100 mm x 2.0 mm, 3 microm) by gradient elution with 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution and methanol as the mobile phase. The analyte was detected by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The good linearity (R2 > 0.99) was obtained over the range of 0.6-6 microg/L. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for RB was 1.2 microg/kg. The average recoveries were ranged from 80% to 121% at the spiked levels of 1.197, 2.992 and 5.985 microg/L, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were not more than 15%. The conditions of mobile phase elution gradients, extraction solvents, and SPE columns were optimized. This method is highly selective and has weak matrix effect for qualitative and quantitative analyses of RB in spices.

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Hormonal Residues in Treated Waters Using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, hormone consumption has increased exponentially. Because of that, hormone compounds are considered emerging pollutants since several studies have determinted their presence in water influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of oestrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and diethylstilbestrol), androgens (testosterone), and progestogens (norgestrel and megestrol acetate) has been developed to determine these compounds in wastewater samples. Due to the very low concentrations of target compounds in the environment, a solid phase extraction procedure has been optimized and developed to extract and preconcentrate the analytes. Determination and quantification were performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The method developed presents satisfactory limits of detection (between 0.15 and 9.35 ng·L−1), good recoveries (between 73 and 90% for the most of compounds), and low relative standard deviations (under 8.4%). Samples from influents and effluents of two wastewater treatment plants of Gran Canaria (Spain) were analyzed using the proposed method, finding several hormones with concentrations ranged from 5 to 300 ng·L−1. PMID:23533966

  4. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acids in Rhizoma Arisaematis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Chi, Yumei; Kang, An

    2014-12-01

    A method for the identification and determination of the polar amino components without ultraviolet activity in traditional Chinese medicines was developed. With Rhizoma Arisaematis as the object of this study, using pre-column derivatization with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) as the derivatization reagent, compounds were separated and identified on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 µm) by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A total of 20 components, including 18 amino acids and 2 amine compounds were identified. Furthermore, after the optimization of the derivatization conditions, 15 amino acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Diamonsil C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm), detected at 254 nm and gradiently eluted by acetonitrile and 0. 05 mol/L ammonium acetate-acetic acid (pH 6. 5) as the mobile phases. The results of methodological study demonstrated that the method can meet the requirements of the determination. All calibration curves expressed good linearity: Glu, Try in the range of 2-100 mg/L, Arg in the range of 6-300 mg/L, others in the range of 0. 8-40 µg/L, with the correlation coefficients ≥ 0. 999 5. The average recovery of this method was among 95%-105% and the RSD was less than 3%. The developed method was successfully applied to quantitative determination of amino compounds in 12 batches of Rhizoma Arisaematis samples. The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, and can be used for rapid identification and determination of amino components in traditional Chinese medicines.

  5. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for accurate quantification of global DNA methylation in human sperms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Suo, Yongshan; Yin, Ruichuan; Shen, Heqing; Wang, Hailin

    2011-06-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation in human sperms has been proposed to be a possible mechanism associated with male infertility. We developed an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of global DNA methylation level in human sperms. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used in MS/MS detection for accurate quantification of DNA methylation. The intra-day and inter-day precision values of this method were within 1.50-5.70%. By using 2-deoxyguanosine as an internal standard, UPLC-MS/MS method was applied for the detection of global DNA methylation levels in three cultured cell lines. DNA methyltransferases inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine can significantly reduce global DNA methylation levels in treated cell lines, showing the reliability of our method. We further examined global DNA methylation levels in human sperms, and found that global methylation values varied from 3.79% to 4.65%. The average global DNA methylation level of sperm samples washed only by PBS (4.03%) was relatively lower than that of sperm samples in which abnormal and dead sperm cells were removed by density gradient centrifugation (4.25%), indicating the possible aberrant DNA methylation level in abnormal sperm cells. Clinical application of UPLC-MS/MS method in global DNA methylation detection of human sperms will be useful in human sperm quality evaluation and the study of epigenetic mechanisms responsible for male infertility.

  6. [Simultaneous determination of 16 flavonoids in the ginkgo dietary supplement tea by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yalan; Huang, Fang; Wu, Fuhai; Wu, Huiqin; Huang, Xiaolan; Deng, Xin

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of 16 functional components of ginkgo dietary supplement tea such as catechin, vitexin, puerarin, isoflavoues aglycone, silymarin, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin, hesperitin dihydrochalcone, kaempferol, hesperitin, isorhamnetin, baicalein, nobiletin and tangeretin by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was proposed. The conditions of chromatography and mass spectrometry were optimized. The 16 flavonoids were separated on a C18 chromatographic column with acetonitrile and water (additional 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phases under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The determination was conducted by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ESI mode under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Good linearities for all the compounds, with correlation coefficients over 0.996, were acquired. The recoveries were in the range of 70.9% to 100.0% (n = 6), while the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10%. The results showed that the nine flavonoids, which were kaempferol, quercetin, hesperitin, vitexin, luteolin, catechin, apigenin, naringenin and isorhamnetin, were higher in contents among the 16 flavonoids in real samples, and they constituted up to 99.6% of the total flavonoids. The contents of these nine flavonoids can be considered as the quality control index of the ginkgo dietary supplement tea. The method proved to be rapid, selective, sensitive and stable, and it can be applied to control the quality of the ginkgo dietary supplement tea. PMID:26930959

  7. Folate Profiling in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Tubers by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van Daele, Jeroen; Blancquaert, Dieter; Kiekens, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2014-03-31

    An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the profiling of six folate species in potatoes. The calibration curves cover a wide, linear range (the lower and upper limits of quantitation range between 0.22-0.24 and 216.07-242.28 μg/100 g of fresh weight), allowing sensitive determination in small amounts of potato flesh. With a single exception, the acceptance criteria for intra- and interday precision and accuracy were met: for all quality controls, the percent relative standard deviation and the percent bias were lower than 15% (or 20% at the lower limit of quantitation). Application of the method on tubers at different stages of maturation demonstrated the large variability within a single variety: the folate content and polyglutamylation rate varied between 10.35 and 24.01 μg/100 g of fresh weight and between 4.96% and 60.49%, respectively. Additionally, the two-dimensional folate profiling of mature tubers demonstrated an increase in folate from center to peel, combined with a stable species distribution and polyglutamylation rate.

  8. [Simultaneous determination of 24 industrial dyes in grain and meat products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuechao; Jia, Li; He, Yahui; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Yan; Fan, Xiaojing

    2013-10-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) analytical method was established for the simultaneous determination of 24 forbidden industrial dyes in grain and meat products. The sample was extracted with methanol and acetonitrile, and cleaned-up by a WAX solid phase extraction column. The solution was separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column eluted with a mixture of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate-0.2% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol-acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) as the mobile phases, and then analyzed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The correlation coefficients were above 0.99, the average recoveries were 61%-116%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 6) were lower than 13%. The quantification limits were 0.1-4.0 microg/kg. This method is simple, effective, sensitive, and suitable for the determination and confirmation of the 24 forbidden industrial dyes in grain and meat products.

  9. Quantitative analysis of mitragynine in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shijun; Tran, Buu N; Nelsen, Jamie L; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2009-08-15

    Mitragynine is the primary active alkaloid extracted from the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth, a plant that originates in South-East Asia and is commonly known as kratom in Thailand. Kratom has been used for many centuries for their medicinal and psychoactive qualities, which are comparable to that of opiate-based drugs. Kratom abuse can lead to a detectable content of mitragynine residue in urine. Ultra trace amount of mitragynine in human urine was determined by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Mitragynine was extracted by methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and separated on a HILIC column. The ESI/MS/MS was accomplished using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive ion detection and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. Ajmalicine, a mitragynine's structure analog was selected as internal standard (IS) for method development. Quality control (QC) performed at three levels 0.1, 1 and 5 ng/ml of mitragynine in urine gave mean recoveries of 90, 109, and 98% with average relative standard deviation of 22, 12 and 16%, respectively. The regression linearity of mitragynine calibration ranged from 0.01 to 5.0 ng/ml was achieved with correlation coefficient greater than 0.995. A detection limit of 0.02 ng/ml and high precision data within-day and between days analysis were obtained. PMID:19577523

  10. [Determination of five synthetic sweeteners in wines using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ji, Chao; Feng, Feng; Chen, Zhengxing; Sun, Li; Chu, Xiaogang

    2010-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS) method for the determination of five synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame and neotame) in wines has been developed. The HPLC separation was carried out on an Ultimate C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3 microm). Several parameters, including the composition and pH of the mobile phase, column temperature and the monitor ions, were optimized for improving the chromatographic performance and the sensitivity of determination. The results demonstrated that the separation can be completed in less than 5 min by gradient elution with 20 mmol/L ammonium formate and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid (pH 3.8) and methanol as the mobile phase. The column temperature was kept at 45 degrees C. When the analytes were detected by ESI -MS/MS under multiple reaction monitoring mode, the detection limits were 0.6, 5, 1, 0.8 and 0.2 microg/L for acesulfame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame and neotame, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 87.2% to 103%. The relative standard deviations were not more than 1.2%. This method is rapid, accurate, highly sensitive and suitable for the quality control of low concentration of the synthetic sweeteners, which are illegally added to wines and other foods with complex matrices.

  11. Pharmacokinetic studies of novel berberine derivatives with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenchao; Shen, Qin; Liang, Hui; Hua, Changlong; Liu, Yuhui; Li, Fengzhi; Li, Qingyong

    2016-09-15

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection method was developed for the detection of berberine and its derivatives (A4, B4) in rat plasma and other organs. This validated method was successfully applied to our pharmacokinetic study of BBR derivatives in rats. At the same dose of administration, the Cmax of B4 was about eight times higher than BBR, and its half-life was approximately two times longer than BBR, according to the bigger areas under plasma concentration curves. Inversely, the pharmacokinetic parameter levels of A4 were all inferior to BBR, suggesting a tight structure-activity relationship of these compounds. Small dose of parenteral administration was used for the study of absolute oral bioavailability of A4, B4, and BBR, and the results calculated were 0.12%, 3.4% and 0.7%, respectively. The accumulations of B4 among all organs were intestine>liver>heart>kidney>lung>spleen>plasma, proving a deeply targeting property of B4, which met our experimental assumption. Together, the experimental results proved that compared with BBR and A4, the derivative B4 had higher absolute oral bioavailability and the ability of deeply targeting so that can be likely used in some organ-targeted diseases. PMID:27494281

  12. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of amicarthiazol residues in soil and water samples.

    PubMed

    Gui, Wen-jun; Tian, Jie; Tian, Chun-xia; Li, Shu-ying; Ma, You-ning; Zhu, Guo-nian

    2014-12-01

    A reliable and rapid method has been optimized to determine the residue of amicarthiazol in soil and environmental water samples. After extraction and evaporation, the extraction was carried out with solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup using HLB cartridge (only soil samples) and for the quantitative determination by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The resulting residues of amicarthiazol were analyzed by a gradient separation performed on a UPLC system with a C18 column, methanol and water containing 0.1% (v v(-1)) formic acid as the mobile phase in the mode of electrospray positive ionization (ESI(+)) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Results showed that the recoveries for spiked samples were 74.4-97.1% and 72.1-109.9% for soil and water, respectively, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 10.2% when fortified at 10, 100 and 1000μgL(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) for matrix matched standards ranged from 0.073-0.425μgL(-1) and 0.243-1.42μgL(-1). The intra-day precision (n=5) and the inter-day precision over 10 days (n=10) for the amicarthiazol in soils and water samples spiked at 100μgL(-1) was 7.9% and 15.9%, respectively. Results indicated that the developed method could be a helpful tool for the controlling and monitoring of the risks posed by amicarthiazol to human health and environment safety. PMID:25444544

  13. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of amicarthiazol residues in soil and water samples.

    PubMed

    Gui, Wen-jun; Tian, Jie; Tian, Chun-xia; Li, Shu-ying; Ma, You-ning; Zhu, Guo-nian

    2014-12-01

    A reliable and rapid method has been optimized to determine the residue of amicarthiazol in soil and environmental water samples. After extraction and evaporation, the extraction was carried out with solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup using HLB cartridge (only soil samples) and for the quantitative determination by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The resulting residues of amicarthiazol were analyzed by a gradient separation performed on a UPLC system with a C18 column, methanol and water containing 0.1% (v v(-1)) formic acid as the mobile phase in the mode of electrospray positive ionization (ESI(+)) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Results showed that the recoveries for spiked samples were 74.4-97.1% and 72.1-109.9% for soil and water, respectively, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 10.2% when fortified at 10, 100 and 1000μgL(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) for matrix matched standards ranged from 0.073-0.425μgL(-1) and 0.243-1.42μgL(-1). The intra-day precision (n=5) and the inter-day precision over 10 days (n=10) for the amicarthiazol in soils and water samples spiked at 100μgL(-1) was 7.9% and 15.9%, respectively. Results indicated that the developed method could be a helpful tool for the controlling and monitoring of the risks posed by amicarthiazol to human health and environment safety.

  14. Quantification of vincristine and its major metabolite in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Jennifer B; Renbarger, Jamie L; Walterhouse, David O; Jones, David R; Hall, Stephen D

    2008-06-01

    An analytical method using electrospray ionization and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) was developed to quantify vincristine and M1, the CYP3A-mediated metabolite of vincristine, in human plasma. Vinblastine (internal standard), vincristine, and M1 in plasma were extracted in methylene chloride after acidification with TCAA. The analytes were separated on an Inertsil ODS-3 C18 column (2.1 x 150 mm) with a 5-mum particle size using a gradient elution with a run time of 20 min. The initial mobile phase composition was 0.2% formic acid/water (80:20, v/v) with a final composition of 0.2% formic acid/water (20:80, v/v). Detection was accomplished with multiple reaction monitoring for vinblastine (m/z 406.3--> 271.7), vincristine (m/z 413.2--> 362.2), and M1 (m/z 397.3 --> 376.2). At three concentrations of vincristine and M1, the inter-day and intra-day accuracy and precision were within the acceptable limits for validation (106.8 +/- 9.6% for intra-day, n = 5 each concentration; 90.9 +/- 10.9% for inter-day, n = 4 each concentration). For both vincristine and M1, the concentration limits of quantification and detection were 12 pg/mL and 6 pg/mL, respectively. Stability studies indicated that 80% of M1 degraded in plasma after 15 hours at room temperature (n = 3, high and low QC concentrations). Therefore, short plasma processing times (<30 min) are recommended. The assay was used successfully to quantify vincristine and M1 in pediatric plasma samples up to 24 hours after vincristine administration. Vincristine and M1 concentrations were within the limits of quantification for all patient plasma samples.

  15. Pharmacokinetics in rats and tissue distribution in mouse of magnoflorine by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Shihui; Geng, Peiwu; Wang, Shuanghu; Zhou, Yunfang; Hu, Lufeng; Yang, Xuezhi

    2015-01-01

    Magnoflorine is one of the most widespread aporphine alkaloids. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of magnoflorine in rat plasma and mouse tissue have been developed and validated. After addition of nuciferine as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used for samples treatment. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 342.8→298.2 for magnoflorine and m/z 296.0→265.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 2-2000 ng/mL for magnoflorine in rat plasma and tissue. Mean recoveries of magnoflorine in rat plasma were better than 83.0%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 9%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.5% and 107.5%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of magnoflorine. The absolute bioavailability of magnoflorine was reported as 22.6%. The magnoflorine underwent a rapid and wide distribution to tissues; the level of magnoflorine in liver is highest, then followed by heart, spleen and lung. Based on tissue distribution data, a back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) method was developed and it could be used to predict the concentrations of magnoflorine in tissues. PMID:26884929

  16. Pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Geng, Peiwu; Luo, Xinhua; Zhou, Genzhi; Lin, Yingying; Zhang, Lijing; Wang, Shuanghu; Wen, Congcong; Ma, Jianshe; Ding, Ting

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that macitentan was metabolized predominantly by cytochrome P450 3A4, and ACT-132577, its pharmacologically active metabolite, is fivefold less potent at blocking ET receptors than macitentan. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of ACT-132577 in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of diazepam as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 546.9→200.6 for ACT-132577, and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 10-4000 ng/mL for ACT-132577 in rat plasma. Mean recovery of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 82.6% to 90.6%, matrix effect of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 101.4% to 115.2%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 11%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 96.1% to 103.5%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 after oral and intravenous administration of macitentan. PMID:26770447

  17. Pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Geng, Peiwu; Luo, Xinhua; Zhou, Genzhi; Lin, Yingying; Zhang, Lijing; Wang, Shuanghu; Wen, Congcong; Ma, Jianshe; Ding, Ting

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that macitentan was metabolized predominantly by cytochrome P450 3A4, and ACT-132577, its pharmacologically active metabolite, is fivefold less potent at blocking ET receptors than macitentan. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of ACT-132577 in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of diazepam as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 546.9→200.6 for ACT-132577, and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 10-4000 ng/mL for ACT-132577 in rat plasma. Mean recovery of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 82.6% to 90.6%, matrix effect of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 101.4% to 115.2%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 11%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 96.1% to 103.5%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 after oral and intravenous administration of macitentan.

  18. [Determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aizhi; Wang, Quanlin; Cao, Lili; Li, Yu; Shen, Hao; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Shufen; Man, Zhengyin

    2016-02-01

    A multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables was developed by using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, purified by a mixed sorbent of MgSO4, primary secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) and C18, separated on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1.7 µm) and detected by UPLC-MS/MS. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was used as a dewatering agent. The effects of the amounts of MgSO4, PSA, GCB and C18 added on the recoveries of 250 pesticides were investigated. The results showed that the purification effect was best when 300 mg MgSO4, 200 mg PSA, 10 mg GCB and 100 mg C18 in 2 mL of the extract were added. For the 250 pesticide residues, the limits of detection (LODs) of the method were from 0. 01 to 50. 00 g/kg. The recoveries obtained ranged from 60. 1% to 120% at three spiked levels in Chinese chives with the relative standard deviations between 3. 5% and 19. 5% using matrix matched external standard method. The results showed that the method is able to meet requirements of the multiresidue detection of the 250 pesticides in vegetable. The method has the advantages of rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and better purification effect. It is suitable for the rapid determination of the common pesticides in vegetables, and it provides a strong guarantee for the risk assessments of the quality and safety of vegetables.

  19. [Determination of 22 acidic dyes in edible packagings by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Su, Youzhi; Liu, Jun; Li, Fang; Lei, Hongqin; Li, Yanmei; Liu, Xubin

    2015-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 22 acidic dyes (acid yellow 23, acid red 18, acid blue 7, etc) in edible packagings was developed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with acetonitrile-methanol (5:5, v/v) , and then cleaned up with Strata-X-AW solid-phase extractor. The analytes were separated on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 1.8 µm) by gradient elution with acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate as the mobile phases. The 22 acidic dyes were determined by electrospray negative ion source (ESI-), and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis was based on the retention times and characteristic ion pairs consisting of one parent ion and two fragment ions, and the quantitative analysis was carried out by matrix-matched external standard method. The results showed that the calibration curves had good linearity for the 22 acidic dyes, and the correlation coefficients (r2) were larger than 0. 991. The limits of quantitation (LOQs, S/N ≥ 10) were in the range of 0.1-2.0 mg/kg in three different matrices (plant capsule, gelatine capsule, oblatum). The average recoveries were in the range of 78.4%-109.5% for the 22 acidic dyes with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 4.6% to 14.5% at three spiked levels (1 x LOQ, 2 x LOQ and 10 x LOQ). This method is suitable for the determination of acidic dyes in edible packagings with the characteristics of high accuracy and precision. PMID:26292405

  20. [Determination of 9 cephalosporin drug residues in beef by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Bai, Guotao; Chu, Xiaogang; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Xiuqin; Yong, Wei

    2009-07-01

    A confirmative method to determine 9 cephalosporin residues in beef by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The sample was homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile and water for 1 min at 14,000 r/min, centrifuged at 10,000 r/min and 4 degrees C for 10 min. A total of 2 mL saturated sodium chloride solution was added to avoid foaming during the acetonitrile evaporation, the acetonitrile was evaporated below 37 degrees C using a rotary evaporator, and then cleaned up on an Oasis HLB (500 mg, 6 mL) SPE column by washing with 5 mL water and eluting with acetonitrile-water (7:3, v/v). The eluate was blown to dryness under a stream of nitrogen and adjusted to 3.0 mL with water. The separation was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column within 5 min, analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS system with external standard method. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of cefuroxime, ceftiofur and cefalonium were 10, 0.5 and 0.5 microg/kg, respectively; the LOQs of other cephalosporins were 1.0 microg/kg. The recoveries of cephalosporins ranged from 74.2% to 119% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 2.9% to 15% for the spiked beef sample. The method is quick, easy, very sensitive and suitable for the determination of cephalosporin residues in beef.

  1. Simultaneous quantification of atenolol and chlorthalidone in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jaivik V; Patel, Daxesh P; Shah, Priyanka A; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2016-02-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of atenolol, a β-adrenergic receptor-blocker and chlorthalidone, a monosulfonamyl diuretic in human plasma, using atenolol-d7 and chlorthalidone-d4 as the internal standards (ISs). Following solid-phase extraction on Phenomenex Strata-X cartridges using 100 μL human plasma sample, the analytes and ISs were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) column using a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile (25:75, v/v). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization was used as a detector in the positive ionization mode for both analytes. The linear concentration range was established as 0.50-500 ng/mL for atenolol and 0.25-150 ng/mL for chlorthalidone. Extraction recoveries were within 95-103% and ion suppression/enhancement, expressed as IS-normalized matrix factors, ranged from 0.95 to 1.06 for both the analytes. Intra-batch and inter-batch precision (CV) and accuracy values were 2.37-5.91 and 96.1-103.2%, respectively. Stability of analytes in plasma was evaluated under different conditions, such as bench-top, freeze-thaw, dry and wet extract and long-term. The developed method was superior to the existing methods for the simultaneous determination of atenolol and chlorthalidone in human plasma with respect to the sensitivity, chromatographic analysis time and plasma volume for processing. Further, it was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 50 mg atenolol + 12.5 mg chlorthalidone in 28 healthy Indian subjects.

  2. [Determination of bisphenol diglycidyl ether residues in canned foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoya; Fu, Xiaofang; Wang, Peng; Li, Jing; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2012-10-01

    An accurate quantitative determination and confirmative method for bisphenol diglycidyl ether residues, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), bisphenol A (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE H2O), bisphenol A bis (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x 2H2O), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxy propyl) (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x H2O x HCl), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE x HCl), bisphenol A bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x 2HCl), bisphenol F bis (2, 3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BFDGE x 2H2O), bisphenol F bis (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BFDGE x 2HCl) in canned foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been established. The sample was extracted with tert-butylmethyl ether and the extract was cleaned-up and concentrated on a Waters Oasis HLB column. The target compounds were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS on a C18 column by the gradient elution with methanol and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode. External matrix standard solutions were used for the quantitative determination and the calibration curves showed good linearity in the concentration range of 10.0 -2 000.0 microg/L for the nine target compounds. The limits of quantification of the nine compounds were 10.0 microg/kg (S/N > or = 10). The average recoveries of the nine compounds ranged from 79.6% to 100.9% at the spiked levels of 10.0, 100.0, 1 000.0 microg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 6.3%-12.1%. The method is sensitive, accurate, and suitable for the rapid determination of bisphenol diglycidyl ether residues in canned foodstuffs.

  3. [Determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aizhi; Wang, Quanlin; Cao, Lili; Li, Yu; Shen, Hao; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Shufen; Man, Zhengyin

    2016-02-01

    A multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables was developed by using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, purified by a mixed sorbent of MgSO4, primary secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) and C18, separated on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1.7 µm) and detected by UPLC-MS/MS. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was used as a dewatering agent. The effects of the amounts of MgSO4, PSA, GCB and C18 added on the recoveries of 250 pesticides were investigated. The results showed that the purification effect was best when 300 mg MgSO4, 200 mg PSA, 10 mg GCB and 100 mg C18 in 2 mL of the extract were added. For the 250 pesticide residues, the limits of detection (LODs) of the method were from 0. 01 to 50. 00 g/kg. The recoveries obtained ranged from 60. 1% to 120% at three spiked levels in Chinese chives with the relative standard deviations between 3. 5% and 19. 5% using matrix matched external standard method. The results showed that the method is able to meet requirements of the multiresidue detection of the 250 pesticides in vegetable. The method has the advantages of rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and better purification effect. It is suitable for the rapid determination of the common pesticides in vegetables, and it provides a strong guarantee for the risk assessments of the quality and safety of vegetables. PMID:27382720

  4. [Simultaneous determination of eight furocoumarines in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography and verification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijuan; Ma, Qiang; Li, Wentao; Meng, Xianshuang; Li, Jingrui; Bai, Hua; Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2013-05-01

    A method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight furocoumarines (8-hydroxypsoralen, psoralen, isopsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, trioxsalen, imperatorin and isoimperatorin) in cosmetics. The cosmetic samples, including cream, lotion, shampoo, powder and lipstick, were supersonically extracted with appropriate solvents. The extract was centrifuged, and the supernatant was filtered through a membrane, and then separated on an Agilent Zorbax SB-Phenyl chromatographic column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) by gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with methanol-acetonitrile-water as mobile phases. The column temperature was set at 30 degrees C. The wavelength of detection was 250 nm. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.25 mg/kg for 8-hydroxypsoralen and 0.5 mg/kg for psoralen, isopsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, trioxsalen, imperatorin and isoimperatorin. The recoveries at three spiked levels were in the range of 85.0% - 105.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.41% - 7.90%. The intra-day precision (n=6) was less than 1%, and the inter-day precision (n = 6) was less than 2% for the peak areas of the eight furocoumarines in a mixed standard solution. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and suitable for the determination of the eight furocoumarines in various cosmetic samples.

  5. [Simultaneous determination of eight furocoumarines in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography and verification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijuan; Ma, Qiang; Li, Wentao; Meng, Xianshuang; Li, Jingrui; Bai, Hua; Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2013-05-01

    A method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight furocoumarines (8-hydroxypsoralen, psoralen, isopsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, trioxsalen, imperatorin and isoimperatorin) in cosmetics. The cosmetic samples, including cream, lotion, shampoo, powder and lipstick, were supersonically extracted with appropriate solvents. The extract was centrifuged, and the supernatant was filtered through a membrane, and then separated on an Agilent Zorbax SB-Phenyl chromatographic column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) by gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with methanol-acetonitrile-water as mobile phases. The column temperature was set at 30 degrees C. The wavelength of detection was 250 nm. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.25 mg/kg for 8-hydroxypsoralen and 0.5 mg/kg for psoralen, isopsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, trioxsalen, imperatorin and isoimperatorin. The recoveries at three spiked levels were in the range of 85.0% - 105.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.41% - 7.90%. The intra-day precision (n=6) was less than 1%, and the inter-day precision (n = 6) was less than 2% for the peak areas of the eight furocoumarines in a mixed standard solution. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and suitable for the determination of the eight furocoumarines in various cosmetic samples. PMID:24010339

  6. Simultaneous determination of azelastine and its major metabolite desmethylazelastine in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zha, Wuyi; Shum, Linyee

    2012-10-01

    A selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the analysis of azelastine and its major metabolite, desmethylazelastine, in human plasma. Azelastine-(13)C, d(3) was used as internal standard. Azelastine, desmethylazelastine and the internal standard were extracted by a liquid-liquid extraction method and separation was performed under isocratic chromatographic condition. An abnormal signal loss issue for desmethylazelastine during method development was investigated and resolved. The developed method was precise and reproducible as shown by good intraday assay and interday assay precision (CV%≤ 12.8%). The calibration curve was linear over a range of 10.0/10.0-1000/200 pg/mL for azelastine/desmethylazelastine. The method was successfully applied to a pilot bioequivalence study subsequently. PMID:22954967

  7. Determination of intact oxaliplatin in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjiang; Seymour, Lesley; Chen, Eric X

    2008-12-15

    A HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantitation of intact oxaliplatin in human plasma. Plasma ultrafiltrates were precipitated with acetonitrile and separation was performed on a 250 mm Beckman ODS reverse phase column using a gradient mobile phase. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ionization mode using TurboionSpray and precursor-product ion combinations of m/z 391.1-->305.1 and 371.1-->247.0 were monitored for oxaliplatin and carboplatin, the internal standard, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation for oxaliplatin was 20 ng/ml. The linear range of the method was 20-1000 ng/ml. The between- and within-day relative standard deviations ranged from 3.1 to 7.7%, and accuracy was within 5%. This method was successfully applied in a clinical study of oxaliplatin.

  8. Determination of caramel colorants' by-products in liquid foods by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Goscinny, Séverine; Hanot, Vincent; Trabelsi, Hasna; Van Loco, Joris

    2014-01-01

    2-Methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole (2-MI and 4-MI), 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl) imidazole (THI) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are neo-formed compounds generated during the manufacture of caramel colours and are transferred to the processed food. These contaminants are known to have a toxicological profile that may pose health risks. Hence, to characterise THI, 2- and 4-MI and 5-HMF levels in liquid foods, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and sample preparation was divided into two analytical strategies depending on the concentration range expected in the type of foods targeted. For the determination of the imidazole substitutes (THI, 2- and 4-MI), a sample enrichment and clean-up step by strong cation solid-phase extraction was developed. This method is capable of quantifying over a range of 5 ng ml⁻¹ (LOQ) to 500 ng ml⁻¹ with recoveries of 75.4-112.4% and RSDs of 1.5-15%. For determination of 5-HMF, a standard addition method was applied covering the linear range of 0.25-30 µg ml⁻¹ with RSDs from 2.8% (for intraday precision) to 9.2% (for intermediate precision). The validated analytical methods were applied to 28 liquid food samples purchased from local markets. THI was found only in the beer samples at levels up to 141.2 ng ml⁻¹. For 2-MI, non-quantifiable traces were observed for all samples, while 4-MI was observed in all samples with large concentration variations (from < LOQ to 563.9 ng ml⁻¹). 5-HMF was found at expected concentrations, except for a sherry vinegar sample (113 µg ml⁻¹), which required a high level of dilution before following the standard addition protocol.

  9. Quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry determination of chloramphenicol residues in food using sub-2 microm particulate high-performance liquid chromatography columns for sensitivity and speed.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Anton; Butcher, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The use of chloramphenicol (CAP)--a highly effective broad-spectrum antibiotic used in animal husbandry--is banned in many countries. Therefore, a very low minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 microg/kg CAP in meat for human consumption has been defined. Analytical methods capable of quantifying and confirming such low residue levels require sophisticated instrumentation. Preferably sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods have been used. This paper suggests the use of sub-2 microm particulate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns to gain additional sensitivity and improve resolution as well as speed. Depending on the operating conditions, higher chromatographic resolution and speed can be obtained at the price of a significantly increased operating pressure, requiring dedicated LC equipment. A 3-4-fold overall improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio for CAP was obtained compared to more classical 5 microm particulate HPLC columns. The proposed analytical methodology includes an enzymatic digestion, which liberates glucuronide-bound CAP from kidney tissue. The extracts obtained after an Extrelut clean-up are sufficiently pure to permit routine injection of biological samples into the sub-2 microm particulate HPLC column, without observing rapid deterioration of peak shape or column clogging problems. The time for one chromatographic run was 4.2 min. The described method was validated for two particularly difficult matrices (kidney and honey). Decision limits (CC alpha) were 0.007 microg/kg (honey) und 0.011 microg/kg (kidney), which are significantly below the current MRPL. PMID:16299695

  10. Determination of Synacthen in urine for sports drug testing by means of nano-ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Kamber, Matthias; Delahaut, Philippe; Thevis, Mario

    2009-09-01

    Doping control analysis of performance-enhancing peptides in urine represents a challenging requirement in modern sports drug testing. Low dosing, effective metabolism and short half-life lead to target concentrations in the low fmol/mL range in urine. Synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (1-24, Syn-ACTH-en) shares all these characteristics and improved analytical performance is required for its sufficient determination by means of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The desired effects for cheating sportsmen are mainly due to enhanced release of corticosteroids as well as androgenic steroids into the circulation after systemic administration of the drug. Immunoaffinity purification with coated magnetic beads and subsequent liquid chromatography with nano-ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (high resolution/high mass accuracy) of Synacthen from urinary specimens is described in the present study. The general proof of principle was obtained by analysis of excretion study urine samples and validation was performed with focus on the limit of detection (3 pg/mL), linearity, precision (<20%), recovery ( approximately 30%), robustness, specificity and stability. For all experiments, the ACTH fragment 1-17 was used as the internal standard.

  11. [Determination of amantadine and rimantadine residues in egg and chicken samples by dispersive solid phase extraction purification-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Fan, Jianlin; Liu, Xingyong; Chen, Xinglian; Li, Yangang; Liu, Hongcheng

    2015-11-01

    A method was developed for the determination of residual amantadine and rimantadine in eggs and chickens by dispersive solid phase extraction-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Egg and chicken samples were extracted with ammonia water-acetonitrile (2:98, v/v). The extraction solution was dried to 1 mL under nitrogen, and then purified by dispersive solid phase extraction method with C18 and NH2 sorbents. After purification, the extraction solution was filtered through a filter. The target compounds were analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) on a ZORBAX C18 column using a mixture of 1 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid) and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution. The mass spectrometer was operated under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode in positive mode. The good linearities were obtained for amantadine and rimantadine at a concentration range of 0.15-10.0 μg/L. The limits of detection for amantadine and rimantadine were all 0.05 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.20 μg/kg. The recoveries of amantadine and rimantadine in eggs and chickens at three spiked levels (0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 μg/kg) age of 89%-108% with the relative standard deviations of 5.0%-8.6%. The results demonstrated that the method is suitable for the determination of amantadine and rimantadine in eggs and chickens. PMID:26939363

  12. Chemometric approach to open validation protocols: Prediction of validation parameters in multi-residue ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods.

    PubMed

    Alladio, Eugenio; Pirro, Valentina; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco; Leardi, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    The recent technological advancements of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allow the simultaneous determination of tens, or even hundreds, of target analytes. In such cases, the traditional approach to quantitative method validation presents three major drawbacks: (i) it is extremely laborious, repetitive and rigid; (ii) it does not allow to introduce new target analytes without starting the validation from its very beginning and (iii) it is performed on spiked blank matrices, whose very nature is significantly modified by the addition of a large number of spiking substances, especially at high concentration. In the present study, several predictive chemometric models were developed from closed sets of analytes in order to estimate validation parameters on molecules of the same class, but not included in the original training set. Retention time, matrix effect, recovery, detection and quantification limits were predicted with partial least squares regression method. In particular, iterative stepwise elimination, iterative predictors weighting and genetic algorithms approaches were utilized and compared to achieve effective variables selection. These procedures were applied to data reported in our previously validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multi-residue method for the determination of pharmaceutical and illicit drugs in oral fluid samples in accordance with national and international guidelines. Then, the partial least squares model was successfully tested on naloxone and lormetazepam, in order to introduce these new compounds in the oral fluid validated method, which adopts reverse-phase chromatography. Retention time, matrix effect, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification parameters for naloxone and lormetazepam were predicted by the model and then positively compared with their corresponding experimental values. The whole study represents a proof-of-concept of chemometrics potential to

  13. [Determination of eight bisphenol diglycidyl ethers in water by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijing; Lin, Shaobin

    2014-07-01

    A solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of eight bisphenol diglycidyl ethers, including bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE x HCl), bisphenol A bis (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x 2HCl), bisphenol A (2, 3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE x H2O), bisphenol A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x 2H2O), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x HCl x H2O), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) and bisphenol F bis (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BFDGE 2HCl) in water. A total of ten samples were collected from the leaching of the coatings for drinking water supply system. Then, 200 mL exposure water was preconcentrated on C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. The eight compounds were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method on a C18 column by the gradient elution with methanol, water and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate as mobile phases in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode. The external matrix standard solutions were used for the quantitative determination and the calibration curves of the eight compounds showed good linearity in the range of 0.007-5.00 microg/L with the correlation coefficients more than 0.999 0. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were 7-91 ng/L. The spiked recoveries ranged from 79.1% to 101% with the relative standard deviations of 4.0% - 12%. The method is sensitive and accurate, and is applicable to the determination of bisphenol diglycidyl ethers in water.

  14. A selective biomarker for confirming nitrofurazone residues in crab and shrimp using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Guo, Yuanming; Yan, Zhongyong; Sun, Xiumei; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-12-01

    Reliably detecting nitrofurazone (NFZ) residues in farmed crab and shrimp was previously hindered by lack of appropriately specific analytical methodology. Parent NFZ rapidly breaks down in meat, and the commonly used side-chain metabolite, semicarbazide (SEM), is non-specific as it occurs naturally in crustacean shell often leading to 'false positive' detections in meat. Using 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde (NF) as marker metabolite, following pre-column derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis in negative electrospray ionization mode enabled confirmation of NFZ residues in deliberately treated whole crab, crab meat and shrimp meat, with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) below 1 ng g(-1). Meanwhile, the derivatives of DNPH-NF were synthesized for the first time, purified by preparative liquid chromatography and structure characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR). The purity of derivative was checked by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tunable ultraviolet (UPLC-TUV), and the contents were beyond 99.9%. For comparison purposes, crustacean samples were analysed using both NF and SEM marker metabolites. NFZ treatment was revealed by both NF and SEM marker metabolites, but untreated crab also showed measurable levels of SEM which could potentially be misinterpreted as evidence of illegal NFZ use.

  15. Quantification of Oxidized and Unsaturated Bile Alcohols in Sea Lamprey Tissues by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Scott, Anne M; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Bussy, Ugo; Patel, Trinkal; Middleton, Zoe E; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable method was developed and validated for the determination of unsaturated bile alcohols in sea lamprey tissues using liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The liver, kidney, and intestine samples were extracted with acetonitrile and defatted by n-hexane. Gradient UHPLC separation was performed using an Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase of water and methanol containing 20 mM triethylamine. Multiple reaction monitoring modes of precursor-product ion transitions for each analyte was used. This method displayed good linearity, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99, and was validated. Precision and accuracy (RSD %) were in the range of 0.31%-5.28%, while mean recoveries were between 84.3%-96.3%. With this technique, sea lamprey tissue samples were analyzed for unsaturated bile alcohol analytes. This method is practical and particularly suitable for widespread putative pheromone residue analysis. PMID:27563866

  16. Simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive, confirmatory ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to detect 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components) in bovine milk. Compounds of interest were sequentially extracted from milk with acetonitrile and basified acetonitrile using sodium chloride to induce liquid-liquid partition. The extract was purified on a mixed mode solid-phase extraction cartridge. Using rapid polarity switching in electrospray ionization, a single injection was capable of detecting both positively and negatively charged analytes in a 9 min chromatography run time. Recoveries based on matrix-matched calibrations and isotope labeled internal standards for milk ranged from 51.7% to 101.8%. The detection limits and quantitation limits of the analytical method were found to be within the range of 2-20 ng/kg and 5-50 ng/kg, respectively. The recommended method is simple, specific, and reliable for the routine monitoring of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk samples.

  17. Multiclass mycotoxin analysis in Silybum marianum by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a procedure based on QuEChERS and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2013-03-22

    Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has been proposed for the determination of 15 mycotoxins in milk thistle (Silybum marianum), including aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone. The mycotoxins were detected by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), achieving the separation in about 4min. Sample treatment consisted of a modified method based on a first step using a QuEChERS-based procedure which allowed the determination of fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and fusarenon-X, and a subsequent clean-up based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of the rest of mycotoxins. The method has been validated in extract and seeds of milk thistle, obtaining limits of quantification lower than those usually permitted by legislation in food matrices, with precisions lower than 10%. Recoveries were between 62.3% and 98.9%, except for zearalenone in seeds samples and citrinin in extract. The method was also applied for studying the occurrence of these mycotoxins in market samples (six samples of seeds, three of them purchased in bulk in a street vendor, and one natural extract of milk thistle), and HT-2, T-2 and zearalenone have been found in some of the samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this type of treatment has been used for these complex food matrices, allowing the analyses of the most important mycotoxins.

  18. Trace determination of antibacterial pharmaceuticals in fishes by microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase purification combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peiting; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Xinpeng; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhao, Longshan; Liang, Ning

    2016-02-01

    A novel pretreatment method involving microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase purification combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MAE-SPP-DLLME) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of six antibacterial pharmaceuticals including metronidazole, tinidazole, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, malachite green and crystal violet. The conditions of MAE were optimized using an orthogonal design and the optimal conditions were found to be 8mL for acetonitrile, 50°C for 5min. Then, neutral alumina column was employed in the solid-phase purification. Finally, the critical parameters affecting DLLME, including selection of extraction and dispersive solvent, adjustment of pH, salt concentration, extraction time, were investigated by single factor study. Under optimum conditions, good linearities (r>0.9991) and satisfied recoveries (Recoveries>87.0%, relative standard deviation (RSD)<6.3%) were observed for all of the target analytes. The limits of detection and quantification were 4.54-101.3pgkg(-1) and 18.02-349.1pgkg(-1), respectively. Intra-day and inter-day RSDs were all lower than 3.6%. An obvious reduction in matrix effect was observed by this method compared with microwave assisted extraction followed by purification. The established method was sensitive, rapid, accurate and employable to simultaneously determine target analytes in farmed fish, river fish and marine fish. PMID:26773891

  19. Trace determination of antibacterial pharmaceuticals in fishes by microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase purification combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peiting; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Xinpeng; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhao, Longshan; Liang, Ning

    2016-02-01

    A novel pretreatment method involving microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase purification combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MAE-SPP-DLLME) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of six antibacterial pharmaceuticals including metronidazole, tinidazole, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, malachite green and crystal violet. The conditions of MAE were optimized using an orthogonal design and the optimal conditions were found to be 8mL for acetonitrile, 50°C for 5min. Then, neutral alumina column was employed in the solid-phase purification. Finally, the critical parameters affecting DLLME, including selection of extraction and dispersive solvent, adjustment of pH, salt concentration, extraction time, were investigated by single factor study. Under optimum conditions, good linearities (r>0.9991) and satisfied recoveries (Recoveries>87.0%, relative standard deviation (RSD)<6.3%) were observed for all of the target analytes. The limits of detection and quantification were 4.54-101.3pgkg(-1) and 18.02-349.1pgkg(-1), respectively. Intra-day and inter-day RSDs were all lower than 3.6%. An obvious reduction in matrix effect was observed by this method compared with microwave assisted extraction followed by purification. The established method was sensitive, rapid, accurate and employable to simultaneously determine target analytes in farmed fish, river fish and marine fish.

  20. [Simultaneous determination of nine beta-agonist residues in animal derived foods by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Yonglin; Wang, Shuhuai; Wang, Xia

    2008-11-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of terbutaline, cimaterol, salbutamol, fenoterol, clorprenaline, ractopamine, clenbuterol, tulobuterol, penbutolol residues in animal derived foods. After enzymolysis, the samples were extracted by perchloric acid, centrifuged, neutralized, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and tert-butyl methyl ether, separately. The combined extracts were applied to a solid phase extraction MCX cartridge for cleanup. The separation of beta-agonists was performed on Waters Acquity UPLC system with a BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) and the gradient elution solvent of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The method was quantified by external standard method. The calibration curves were good linear between the peak areas and the concentrations of 0.25 - 5 microg/kg with the correlation coefficient r > 0.990. The limit of detection of the 8 beta-agonists was 0.1 microg/kg, and the limit of quantification was 0.25 microg/kg. The limit of detection of penbutolol was 0.25 microg/kg, and the limit of quantification was 0.5 microg/kg. The average recoveries from spiked animal tissues at three concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 2 microg/kg ranged 87.1% - 108.6%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-batch were both less than 20%.

  1. Nicotine and metabolites determination in human plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a simple approach for solving contamination problem and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Liachenko, Natalia; Boulamery, Audrey; Simon, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative method using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described for simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolites (cotinine and trans-3'- hydroxycotinine) in human plasma. Aliquots of 0.25 mL of plasma specimens were used for analysis, and 3 analytes were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. The main problem was blank plasma contamination with environmental nicotine. Activated charcoal was used to avoid this analytical interference. For optimized chromatographic performance, a basic mobile phase consisting of 0.2% ammonia in water (mobile phase A, pH10.6) and acetonitrile (mobile phase B) was selected. The analytes were separated on a 50 mm × 2.1 mm BEH C18 column, 1.7 μm particle size, and quantified by MS/MS using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive mode. The chromatographic separation was achieved in 3 min followed by 1.2 min of column equilibration. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 10-1000 ng/mL with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.99. Within-day precisions and between-day precisions (CV, %) were <15 %. The accuracy expressed as bias was within ±15% for all analytes. The recovery values ranged from 50% to 97%. The ions used for quantification of nicotine, cotinine and 3-OH-cotinine were 166.9 > 129.7; 176.9 > 79.7; 192.9 > 79.7 m/z, respectively. The original blank sample preparation solved the problem of contamination in a cost-effective and efficient way. The validated method has been routinely used for analysis of nicotine and metabolites and determination of hydroxycotinine/cotinine metabolic ratio. This biomarker seems to be interesting at predicting response of nicotine patch replacement therapies.

  2. Quantification of Photocyanine in Human Serum by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Its Application in a Pharmacokinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Bing-Tian; Zou, Ben-Yan; Deng, Li-Ting; Zhan, Jing; Liao, Hai; Feng, Kun-Yao; Li, Su

    2014-01-01

    Photocyanine is a novel anticancer drug. Its pharmacokinetic study in cancer patients is therefore very important for choosing doses, and dosing intervals in clinical application. A rapid, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of photocyanine in patient serum. Sample preparation involved one-step protein precipitation by adding methanol and N,N-dimethyl formamide to 0.1 mL serum. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer operating in multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. Each sample was chromatographed within 7 min. Linear calibration curves were obtained for photocyanine at a concentration range of 20–2000 ng/mL (r > 0.995), with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) being 20 ng/mL. The intrabatch accuracy ranged from 101.98% to 107.54%, and the interbatch accuracy varied from 100.52% to 105.62%. Stability tests showed that photocyanine was stable throughout the analytical procedure. This study is the first to utilize the HPLC-MS/MS method for the pharmacokinetic study of photocyanine in six cancer patients who had received a single dose of photocyanine (0.1 mg/kg) administered intravenously. PMID:25050190

  3. [Determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds (DHTDMAC) in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and diluted with acidified methanol by 5% (v/v) formic acid under ultrasonic assistance. The separation was performed on an Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution and methanol as the mobile phases. Identification and quantification were achieved by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results indicated that the calibration curve of DHTDMAC showed good linear relationship between peak area and mass concentration in the range of 10-280 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9991. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N= 10) of this method were 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries from three typical textile auxiliary matrices including dispersant, antistatic agent and fabric softener, at three spiked levels were in the range of 97.2%-108.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.5%-4.6%. The method is sensitive, accurate, simple and effective for the analysis of DHTDMAC in textile auxiliaries.

  4. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of bupropion, quetiapine and escitalopram in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Park, Semin; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Sung Joong; Cha, Boseok; Cho, Young Ah; Song, Yi; Yu, Eun Ae; Kim, Gon-Sup; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; El-Banna, H A; Hacımüftüoğlu, Ahmet; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, an effective high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine bupropion (BUP), quetiapine (QUE) and escitalopram (ESC) in human plasma using carbidopa as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Sun Fire C18 column using reversed-phase chromatography. The MS/MS experiment was performed in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode to produce product ions of m/z 240.3 → 184.2 for BUP, 384.2 → 253.1 for QUE, 325.3 → 109.3 for ESC and 227.2 → 181.2 for the internal standard. The method showed good linearity (R(2)  ≥ 0.997), precision (relative standard deviation ≤7.5%), satisfactory intra- and interday accuracy (88.4-113.0%) and acceptable extraction recovery (87.2-115.0%), matrix effect (84.5.5-108.7%) and stability (92.3-103.5%). The method was successfully applied to determine the concentrations of BUP, QUE and ESC in human plasma samples.

  5. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Su, Ya; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2013-11-22

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal standard. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode was applied for the detection of climbazole. For quantification, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition 293.0>69.0 was monitored for climbazole, and MRM transition 296.0>225.1 for the deuterated climbazole. The linear range ran from 4 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 ng mL(-1) and 4 ng mL(-1), respectively, which enabled quantification of climbazole on artificial skin and human scalp at ppb level (corresponding to 16 ng cm(-2)). For the sampling of climbazole from human scalp the buffer scrub method using a surfactant-modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was selected based on a performance comparison of tape stripping, the buffer scrub method and solvent extraction in in vitro studies. Using this method, climbazole deposition in in vitro and in vivo studies was successfully quantified. PMID:23958691

  6. Simultaneous quantification of six constituents in Qing-huo-zhi-mai tablet by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Minmin; Ding, Weijing; Xiang, Congkun; Tian, Yulu; Li, Tao; Fu, Shan; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the simultaneous determination of six constituents including geniposide, andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide, ophiopogonin D, methylophiopogonanone A and methylophiopogonanone B in Qing-huo-zhi-mai (QHZM) tablet, a well-known Chinese herbal preparation. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column, and the mobile phase was composed of 0.04% acetic acid and acetonitrile with gradient elution. The detection of analytes was carried out by multiple reaction monitoring scanning with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. The total run time was 15 min. The calibration curves were linear with all correlation coefficients >0.9979 in the tested ranges. The intra- and interday variations were no >7.0%, and the average recoveries were in the range of 93.2-108.5% with the relative standard deviations no >5.4%. The developed method was successfully employed to analyze five batches of QHZM tablet samples. This is the first time for the determination of ophiopogonin D, methylophiopogonanone A and methylophiopogonanone B in QHZM tablets.

  7. [Determination of deoxynivalenol in grain and its products by solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Chen, Guosong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chongyu; Lü, Chen; Wu, Bin; Liu, Yan; Chen, Huilan; Ding, Tao

    2012-11-01

    A method was established for the determination of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in grain and its products based on solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was firstly extracted by acetonitrile-water (84:16, v/v). The extract was then cleaned-up by an HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. The separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x4. 6 mm, 2.6 microm) with a gradient elution using 0.3% per hundred ammonia solution-acetonitrile as mobile phases. The analysis of deoxynivalenol was performed under electrospray negative ionization mode. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N= 3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were 20 microg/kg and 50 microg/kg, respectively. A good linearity (r > 0.99) was achieved for the target compound over the range of 20-1000 pg/L. The recoveries at the three spiked levels (50, 100, 500 microg/kg) in the blank matrices such as flour, barley, soybean, rice, cornmeal, cassava and wheat, were varied from 75.6% to 111.0% with the relative standard deviations no more than 13. 0%. The method is accurate, efficient, sensitive and practical. The cost of pretreatment is obviously reduced by replacing immunoaffinity columns and Mycosep columns with HLB columns which have the same purification effect. PMID:23451526

  8. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of sanfetrinem in human plasma.

    PubMed

    De Nardi, C; Braggio, S; Ferrari, L; Fontana, S

    2001-10-25

    A rapid, selective and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of sanfetrinem in human plasma has been developed and validated. The performance of manual and automated sample preparation was assessed; 50 microl of plasma sample was deproteinized with acetonitrile, followed by dilution with water and injection onto the LC system. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Luna C18(2), 50x2.0 (5 microm) column with a mobile phase consisting of water-acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid followed by detection with a Perkin-Elmer API3000 mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The lower limit of quantification was improved by five times compared to the UV method previously reported. A range of concentration from 10 ng/ml to 5 microg/ml was covered. The method was applied to the quantification of sanfetrinem in human plasma samples from healthy volunteers participating in a clinical study.

  9. [Determination of deoxynivalenol in grain and its products by solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Chen, Guosong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chongyu; Lü, Chen; Wu, Bin; Liu, Yan; Chen, Huilan; Ding, Tao

    2012-11-01

    A method was established for the determination of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in grain and its products based on solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was firstly extracted by acetonitrile-water (84:16, v/v). The extract was then cleaned-up by an HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. The separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x4. 6 mm, 2.6 microm) with a gradient elution using 0.3% per hundred ammonia solution-acetonitrile as mobile phases. The analysis of deoxynivalenol was performed under electrospray negative ionization mode. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N= 3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were 20 microg/kg and 50 microg/kg, respectively. A good linearity (r > 0.99) was achieved for the target compound over the range of 20-1000 pg/L. The recoveries at the three spiked levels (50, 100, 500 microg/kg) in the blank matrices such as flour, barley, soybean, rice, cornmeal, cassava and wheat, were varied from 75.6% to 111.0% with the relative standard deviations no more than 13. 0%. The method is accurate, efficient, sensitive and practical. The cost of pretreatment is obviously reduced by replacing immunoaffinity columns and Mycosep columns with HLB columns which have the same purification effect.

  10. Simple quantitative determination of potent thiols at ultratrace levels in wine by derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis.

    PubMed

    Capone, Dimitra L; Ristic, Renata; Pardon, Kevin H; Jeffery, David W

    2015-01-20

    Volatile sulfur compounds contribute characteristic aromas to foods and beverages and are widely studied, because of their impact on sensory properties. Certain thiols are particularly important to the aromas of roasted coffee, cooked meat, passion fruit, grapefruit, and guava. These same thiols enhance the aroma profiles of different wine styles, imparting pleasant aromas reminiscent of citrus and tropical fruits (due to 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one), roasted coffee (2-furfurylthiol), and struck flint (benzyl mercaptan), at nanogram-per-liter levels. In contrast to the usual gas chromatography (GC) approaches, a simple and unique high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for routine analysis of five wine thiols, using 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (DTDP) as a derivatizing agent and polydeuterated internal standards for maximum accuracy and precision. DTDP reacted rapidly with thiols at wine pH and provided stable derivatives, which were enriched by solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. All steps were optimized and the method was validated in different wine matrices, with method performance being comparable to a well-optimized but more cumbersome gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. A range of commercial wines was analyzed with the new method, revealing the distribution of the five thiols in white, red, rosé, and sparkling wine styles.

  11. Solid-phase extraction in combination with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis: the ultra-trace determination of 10 antibiotics in water samples.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ning; Huang, Peiting; Hou, Xiaohong; Li, Zhen; Tao, Lei; Zhao, Longshan

    2016-02-01

    A novel method, solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME), was developed for ultra-preconcentration of 10 antibiotics in different environmental water samples prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection. The optimized results were obtained as follows: after being adjusted to pH 4.0, the water sample was firstly passed through PEP-2 column at 10 mL min(-1), and then methanol was used to elute the target analytes for the following steps. Dichloromethane was selected as extraction solvent, and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as dispersive solvent. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1) (sulfamethoxazole, cefuroxime axetil), 5-1000 ng mL(-1) (tinidazole), 10-1000 ng mL(-1) (chloramphenicol), 2-1000 ng mL(-1) (levofloxacin oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin) and 1-400 ng mL(-1) (sulfadiazine) with a good precision. The LOD and LOQ of the method were at very low levels, below 1.67 and 5.57 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative recoveries of the target analytes were in the range from 64.16% to 99.80% with relative standard deviations between 0.7 and 8.4%. The matrix effect of this method showed a great decrease compared with solid-phase extraction and a significant value of enrichment factor (EF) compared with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and analysis of antibiotics in different water samples with satisfactory results.

  12. Pharmacokinetic studies of ginkgolide K in rat plasma and tissues after intravenous administration using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhi-Ying; Liu, Xin-Guang; Guo, Ru-Zhou; Dong, Xin; Gao, Wen; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2015-04-15

    Ginkgolide K (GK), a derivative compound of ginkgolide B, has been recently isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. It is a powerful natural platelet activate factor (PAF) antagonist, and also has obvious protect effects for cerebral ischemia. However, no reports have been described for the pharmacokinetic study of GK. In this study, a simple, sensitive and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of GK in rat plasma and tissues. Biological samples were pretreated by an efficient liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq column (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) with a mobile phase of 0.5% aqueous formic acid (A)-menthol (B). Quantitation was carried out on a triple quadruple mass spectrometry using positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Diazepam was used as internal standard (IS). The ion transitions monitored were set at m/z 407.10 → 389.20 and m/z 285.08 → 193.10 for GK and IS, respectively. The developed method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of GK after intravenous administration. The current results have indicated that pharmacokinetic parameters of GK vary in a dose-dependent manner with rapid elimination in 4h. The major distribution tissues of GK in rats were liver and kidney. This study would provide critical information to promote the future study of GK.

  13. [Determination of perfluorooctane sulfonates in fire-fighting foam and other materials by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiming; Cheng, Yan; Chen, Wei; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Xi; Wang, Zheng

    2010-02-01

    A novel method based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS) in the fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents. The PFOS residue was extracted with water at first by ultrasonic, then separated by high-speed centrifugation. The supernatant was purified by pre-conditioned solid phase extraction (SPE) micro-column, and the extract was filtrated through a membrane with 0.2 microm diameter. The filtrated liquid was analyzed by HPLC using acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (80 : 20, v/v) as mobile phase. The PFOS was detected by using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) on a tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis of the PFOS can be performed by using the relative abundance of two daughter ions of PFOS, and the quantitative analysis was performed by external standard method. The linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.002 - 0.1 mg/L with a linear correlation coefficient (r2 ) of 0.998. The spiked recoveries for PFOS in the fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents were 93.4% - 103%, 93.2% - 102% and 91.8% - 102% with the relative standard deviation of 0.48% - 3.52%, 0.78% - 1.79% and 0.47% - 3.47%, respectively. And the detection limit for PFOS was 2 mg/kg (S/N > or = 10), which can meet the requirement for the PFOS restriction in fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents in the EU directives. With high accuracy and sensitivity, the method is simple and rapid, and can be used for PFOS inspection in fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents. PMID:20556959

  14. Simple and sensitive determination of hydrazine in drinking water by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after derivatization with naphthalene-2,3-dialdehyde.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin-Aa; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2015-05-22

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the level of hydrazine in drinking water. The method is based on the derivatization of hydrazine with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) in water. The optimum conditions for UPLC-MS/MS detection were determined as follows: derivatization reagent dosage, 50mg/L of NDA; pH 2; and reaction time, 1min; room temperature. The formed derivative was injected into an LC system without extraction or purification procedures. Under the established conditions, the method was used to detect hydrazine in raw drinking water and chlorinated drinking water. The limits of detection and quantification for hydrazine in drinking water were 0.003μg/L and 0.01μg/L, respectively. The accuracy was in the range of 97-104%, and precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was less than 9% in drinking water. Hydrazine was detected at a concentration of 0.13μg/L in one sample among 24 raw drinking water samples and in a range of 0.04-0.45μg/L in three samples among 24 chlorinated drinking water samples.

  15. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry profiling of anthocyanins and flavonols in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) of varying genotypes.

    PubMed

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Dykes, Linda; Awika, Joseph M

    2012-04-11

    The structure of flavonoids in food plants affects bioactivity and important nutritional attributes, like micronutrient bioavailability. This study investigated flavonol and anthocyanin compositions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) of varying genotypes. Black, red, green, white, light brown, and golden brown cowpea phenotypes were analyzed for anthocyanins and flavonols using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. Eight anthocyanins and 23 flavonols (15 newly identified in cowpea) were characterized. Mono-, di-, and tri(acyl)glycosides of quercetin were predominant in most phenotypes; myricetin and kaempferol glycosides were present only in specific phenotypes. The red phenotypes had the highest flavonol content (880-1060 μg/g), whereas green and white phenotypes had the lowest (270-350 μg/g). Only black (1676-2094 μg/g) and green (875 μg/g) phenotypes had anthocyanins, predominantly delphinidin and cyanidin 3-O-glucosides. Cowpea phenotype influenced the type and amount of flavonoids accumulated in the seed; this may have implications in selecting varieties for nutrition and health applications.

  16. Sensitive, Efficient Quantitation of 13C-Enriched Nucleic Acids via Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Applications in Stable Isotope Probing.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Roland; Szeitz, András; Klassen, Tara L; Mohn, William W

    2014-12-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) of nucleic acids is a powerful tool for studying the functional traits of microbial populations within complex communities, but SIP involves a number of technical challenges. Many of the difficulties in DNA-SIP and RNA-SIP experiments can be effectively overcome with an efficient, sensitive method for quantitating the isotopic enrichment of nucleic acids. Here, we present a sensitive method for quantitating (13)C enrichment of nucleic acids, requiring a few nanograms of sample, and we demonstrate its utility in typical DNA-SIP and RNA-SIP experiments. All five nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil) were separated and detected by using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We detected all isotopic species in samples with as low as 1.5 atom% (13)C above natural abundance, using 1-ng loadings. Quantitation was used to characterize the isotopic enrichment kinetics of cellulose- and lignin-based microcosm experiments and to optimize the recovery of enriched nucleic acids. Application of our method will minimize the quantity of expensive isotopically labeled substrates required and reduce the risk of failed experiments due to insufficient recovery of labeled nucleic acids for sequencing library preparation.

  17. [A novel solid phase extraction column combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for selective enrichment and determination of clenbuterol in pork].

    PubMed

    Meng, Wenying; Guo, Zhimou; Shen, Weijian; Shen, Chongyu; Wu, Bin; Liu, Yanming; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2012-02-01

    A simple and efficient method based on a novel solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) was developed for the determination of clenbuterol residue in pork. The minced pork sample was ultrasonically extracted by 5% (v/v) perchloric acid and centrifuged at 10 000 r/min for 15 min, then the supernatant was purified by an SMCX cartridge, which is a novel SPE column based on homemade silica matrix with two mixed modes of reversed-phase and strong cation exchange, for the selective enrichment and purification of the analyte. The linear range of the method was 0.25 - 50 microg/kg with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 2. The average recoveries ranged from 62.2% to 72.0% at the three spiked levels of 1.25, 12.5 and 50 microg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 4.2% and 6.1%. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 0.05 microg/kg. The method is simple, fast and can be extended to enrich and determine beta-agonist drugs.

  18. [Simultaneous determination of penicillin and their major enzymatic metabolites in milk and milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Ai, Lianfeng; Guo, Chunhai; Ma, Yusong; Dou, Caiyun

    2013-10-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) method has been developed for the determination of eight compounds in milk and milk powder. They are four penicillins (penicillin G, penicillin V, amoxicillin and ampicillin) and four major beta-lactamase enzymatic metabolites of them (penilloic acid G, penilloic acid V, amoxiilloic acid and ampilloic acid). The compounds were extracted from the samples with acetonitrile and water, cleaned-up by HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges, and then detected by HPLC-MS/MS and quantified by external standard method. The linearities were satisfactory with the correlation coefficients > 0.99 at the mass concentrations ranging from 4 microg/L to 200 microg/L for penicillins and from 10 microg/L to 500 microg/L for enzymatic metabolites. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 5-50 microg/kg (S/N > or = 3) and 8-100 microg/kg (S/N > or = 10), respectively. The average recoveries of the eight compounds were 83.48%-96.97% in milk and 82.70%-95.14% in milk powder. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) in milk and milk powder were 3.86%-10.87% and 3.02%-9.81%, respectively. In conclusion, the established method is convenient, accurate and sensitive so that it can be applied to the determination of penicillin residues and enzymatic metabolites in milk and milk powder.

  19. Dynamic Biodistribution of Icaritin and Its Phase-II Metabolite in Rat Tissues by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Icaritin (ICT), a major component in herb Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., shows beneficial effects for the treatment of osteoporosis and various cancers, and is predominantly metabolized to glucuronidated icaritin (GICT). Although clinical trials of ICT have exhibited good safety and tolerance, the dynamic bioditributions of ICT and GICT have not been reported. In the present study, the chemical structure of GICT was firstly reported, and a reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (UHPLC-MS/MS) was firstly established for the simultaneous quantifications of ICT and GICT in rat tissues. The dynamic distribution of ICT and GICT in rat tissues and their pharmacokinetic parameters have been reported for the first time. ICT, GICT and the internal standard coumestrol were separated on a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and water containing ammonium formate and formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). The analytes were quantified by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the negative ionization mode. The lower limit of quantification values for ICT and GICT were 0.2 and 2 ng mL(-1), respectively. Good selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery were achieved, and no significant matrix effect was observed. The UHPLC-MS/MS was firstly applied to a dynamic biodistribution study of ICT and GICT in rats, following an intraperitoneal administration of ICT at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). PMID:27302583

  20. [Determination of eleven steroid hormones in animal muscle tissues and eggs using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    He, Limin; Huang, Xianhui; Fang, Binghu; Huang, Shixin; Cao, Ying; Chen, Jianxin; Zeng, Zhenling; Chen, Zhangliu

    2008-11-01

    A credible method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eleven steroid hormone residues in animal muscle tissues and eggs based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The eleven steroid hormones were testosterone, methyltestosterone, trenbolone, boldenone, nandrolone, methandienone, stanozolol, progesterone, nadrolone propionate, testosterone propionate and nadrolone phenylpropionate. The samples were extracted with tert-butyl methyl ether at alkaline pH and then cleaned up by freezing-lipid filtration. All these drugs can be assayed in 10 min by UPLC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 microg/kg for testosterone, methyltestosterone, boldenone, methandienone and stanozolol, and 0.4 microg/kg for trenbolone nandrolone, progesterone, testosterone propionate and nadrolone phenylpropionate. Overall recoveries of testosterone, methyltestosterone, boldenone, methandienone and stanozolol were 62.3% - 105% from pork, beef, mutton and chicken muscle tissues, and eggs fortified at the 1, 2 and 10 microg/kg levels, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 0.5% - 15%. The recoveries of trenbolone nandrolone, progesterone, testosterone propionate and nadrolone phenylpropionate were higher than 50.0%, and the RSDs were lower than 16%. The matrix calibration curve for each drug was linear (r > 0.99) from 1 to 100 microg/L. The established method is simple, rapid, sensitive and specific, and is appropriate for the identification and quantification of anabolic androgenic steroids in animal muscle tissues and eggs.

  1. Simultaneous determination of nineteen major components in Qi She Pill by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongliang; Li, Qiang; Li, Qiufen; Du, Simiao; Zhou, Yongquan; Lv, Chunming; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Ning

    2014-10-01

    Qi She Pill (QSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that has been used in treating cervical spondylosis radiculopathy for many years. In this study, a simple and sensitive method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) on a reverse-phase C18 column was developed for the simultaneous determination of the 19 major components in QSP. We found that the optimum mobile phase for gradient elution was 0.1% formic acid and methanol. The correlation coefficients of all calibration curves were greater than 0.99. Recoveries measured at three concentration levels varied from 95.43% to 102.35%. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.45%. After successfully validating our method, we then applied it to the quantification of 19 components in QSP products to show that this method provides a new standard in quality assessment of TCM prescriptions containing multiple bioactive components. PMID:26579408

  2. Determination of multiple mycotoxins in dietary supplements containing green coffee bean extracts using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Vaclavikova, Marta; Begley, Timothy H; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-22

    An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of 34 mycotoxins in dietary supplements containing green coffee bean (GCB) extracts was developed, evaluated, and used in the analysis of 50 commercial products. A QuEChERS-like procedure was used for isolation of target analytes from the examined matrices. Average recoveries of the analytes were in the range of 75-110%. The precision of the method expressed as relative standard deviation was below 12%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 1.0 to 50.0 μg/kg and from 2.5 to 100 μg/kg, respectively. Due to matrix effects, the method of standard additions was used to ensure accurate quantitation. Ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, fumonisin B1 and mycophenolic acid were found in 36%, 32%, 10%, and 16% of tested products, respectively. Mycotoxins occurred in the following concentration ranges: ochratoxin A, <1.0-136.9 μg/kg; ochratoxin B, <1.0-20.2 μg/kg; fumonisin B1, <50.0-415.0 μg/kg; mycophenolic acid, <5.0-395.0 μg/kg. High-resolution mass spectrometry operated in full MS and MS/MS mode was used to confirm the identities of the reported compounds.

  3. Quantification of isoflavones in coffee by using solid phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Navarini, Luciano; Cortese, Manuela; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Torregiani, Elisabetta; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-09-01

    A new method for extracting isoflavones from espresso coffee (EC) was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the first time to analyse five isoflavones, which included both a glycosilated form, genistin and the aglycons daidzein, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A. Isoflavones were extracted from coffee samples using methanol, stored in a freezer overnight to precipitate proteic or lipidic residues and purified on SPE C18 cartridges before high-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS analysis. The recovery percentages obtained by spiking the matrix at concentrations of 10 and 100 µg l(-1) with a standard mixture of isoflavones were in the range of 70 to 104%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.3 µg l(-1) and 0.05-1 µg l(-1) , respectively. Once validated, the method was used to analyze the concentrations of isoflavones in six ECs and ten ground coffee samples. Only formononetin and biochanin A were found, and their respective concentrations ranged from 0.36 to 0.41 µg l(-1) and from 0.58 to 3.26 µg l(-1) in ECs and from 0.36 to 4.27 µg kg(-1) and from 0.71 to 3.95 µg kg(-1) in ground coffees. This method confirms the high specificity and selectivity of MS/MS systems for detecting bioactives in complex matrices such as coffee.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27628757

  4. Determination of perfluorinated chemicals in food and drinking water using high-flow solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Chia; Chen, Wen-Ling; Bai, Fang-Yu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Chen, Chia-Yang

    2012-01-01

    For this study, we developed methods of determining ten perfluorinated chemicals in drinking water, milk, fish, beef, and pig liver using high-flow automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The analytes were separated on a core-shell Kinetex C18 column. The mobile phase was composed of methanol and 10-mM N-methylmorpholine. Milk was digested with 0.5 N potassium hydroxide in Milli-Q water, and was extracted with an Atlantic HLB disk to perform automated SPE at a flow rate ranged from 70 to 86 mL/min. Drinking water was directly extracted by the SPE. Solid food samples were digested in alkaline methanol and their supernatants were diluted and also processed by SPE. The disks were washed with 40% methanol/60% water and then eluted with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol. Suppression of signal intensity of most analytes by matrixes was lower than 50%; it was generally lower in fish and drinking water but higher in liver. Most quantitative biases and relative standard deviations were lower than 15%. The limits of detection for most analytes were sub-nanograms per liter for drinking water and sub-nanograms per gram for solid food samples. This method greatly shortened the time and labor needed for digestion, SPE, and liquid chromatography. This method has been applied to analyze 14 types of food samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid was found to be the highest among the analytes (median at 3.2-64 ng/g wet weight), followed by perfluorodecanoic acid (0.7-25 ng/g) and perfluorododecanoic acid (0.6-15 ng/g).

  5. Environmental analysis of alcohol ethoxylates and nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lara-Martín, Pablo A; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2012-03-01

    Surfactants and their metabolites can be found in aquatic environments at relatively high concentrations compared with other micropollutants due in part to the exceptionally large volumes produced every year. We have focused our attention here on the most widely used nonionic surfactants, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs), and on nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) degradation products (short-chain nonylphenol ethoxylates, NP1-3EO, nonylphenol, NP, and nonylphenol ethoxycarboxylates, NP1-2EC), which are endocrine-disrupting compounds. Our main objective in this work was to develop a methodology aimed at the extraction, isolation, and improved analysis of these analytes in environmental samples at trace levels. Extraction recoveries of target compounds were determined for sediment samples after ultrasonic extraction and purification using HLB or C18 solid-phase extraction minicolumns. Recovery percentages were usually between 61 and 102% but were lower for longer AEO ethoxymers. Identification and quantification of target compounds was carried out using a novel ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) approach, a combination that provides higher sensitivity and faster analysis than prior methods using conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Limits of detection were usually below 0.5 ng/g, being higher for monoethoxylate species (>5 ng/g) because of poor ionization. The method was used for analyzing surface sediment samples collected at Jamaica Bay (NY) in 2008. The highest values (28,500 ng/g for NP, 4,200 ng/g for NP1-3EO, 22,400 ng/g for NP1-2EC, and 1,500 ng/g for AEOs) were found in a sampling station from a restricted water circulation area that is heavily impacted by wastewater discharges. PMID:22002557

  6. Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Hrudey, Steve E; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-09-12

    Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500μL injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water. PMID:25085815

  7. Performance Assessment and Comparability of a Commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Kit with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Chloramphenicol Residues in Crab and Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Jester, Edward L E; Loader, Jared I; El Said, Kathleen R; Abraham, Ann; Flores Quintana, Harold A; Plakas, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring for chloramphenicol (CAP) in aquaculture products is primarily performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which requires expensive equipment and specialized training. Many laboratories prefer to screen samples with facile and high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for CAP residues before submitting samples for LC-MS/MS quantification and confirmation. We evaluated the performance of a Ridascreen (R-Biopharm) ELISA kit for CAP in spiked and incurred crab and shrimp muscle at levels bracketing the minimum required performance level for analysis (0.3 ng/g). The Ridascreen ELISA kit incorporates antibody directed against CAP. Incurred CAP levels in crab and shrimp muscle were verified using LC-MS/MS. We found good repeatability (relative standard deviation) of the ELISA in spiked and incurred crab and shrimp muscle samples, with values ranging from 6.8 to 21.7%. Recoveries of CAP from tissues spiked at 0.15 to 0.60 ng/g ranged from 102 to 107%. Minimal cross-reactivity with blank crab and shrimp muscle matrix components was observed. ELISA data were highly correlated with those of LC-MS/MS for CAP in incurred muscle tissue. We believe this study to be the first evaluation of the performance and comparability of a CAP ELISA kit and LC-MS/MS for determination of CAP residues, as well as their elimination, in crab muscle. Our findings support the use of this ELISA kit for screening purposes and, when used in conjunction with validated instrumental methods, for regulatory monitoring of CAP in these species.

  8. Differentiation of common diastereoisomeric ursane-type triterpenoids by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Shi, Jianmei; Lu, Xiaomeng; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2011-05-30

    A rapid and stable method consisting of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was established for the identification and differentiation of common diastereoisomeric ursane-type triterpenoids at the C-3 position. Two characteristic fragment ions, [M-H-H(2) O-CO(2)](-) and [M-H-H(2)O-HCOOH](-) , exhibited significant stereochemical effects and were utilized to distinguish 3-OH epimers. Based on reference standards, the abundance of the fragment ion [M-H-H(2)O-HCOOH](-) in 3β-OH compounds in the MS(3) experiment was dramatically higher compared to [M-H-H(2) O-CO(2)](-); however, for 3α-OH compounds, the product ion [M-H-H(2) O-CO(2)](-) was noted to be higher than [M-H-H(2)O-HCOOH](-). Energy-resolved mass spectrometric experiments were carried out to support the differentiation of these diastereoisomeric triterpenoids at the C-3 position. Using this method, a total of nine ursane-type triterpenoids from a plant crude extract, including four pairs of epimers at the C-3 position, were identified and distinguished rapidly. Furthermore, offline Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance tandem mass spectrometry was also performed to assign accurate elemental compositions.

  9. [Determination of L-dopa and dopamine in rat brain microdialysate by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using stable isotope-coded derivatization coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction].

    PubMed

    Qi, Weimei; Zhao, Xian-en; Qi, Yong; Sun, Zhiwei; Chen, Guang; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui

    2015-09-01

    The sensitive detection method of levodopa (L-DOPA) and dopamine (DA) in rat brain microdialysate of Parkinson's disease (PD) is an essential tool for the clinical study and attenuated synergistic drug screening for L-DOPA from traditional Chinese medicines. Using d0/d3-10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride (d0/d3-MASC) as stable isotope derivatization reagent, a novel ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for L-DOPA and DA by stable isotope- coded derivatization coupled with ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME). d3-MASC (light) and d3-MASC (heavy) were used as derivatization reagents for microdialysate samples and standards, respectively. Mixtures of the two solutions were prepared by UA-DLLME for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. With d3-MASC heavy derivatives as internal standards for corresponding light derivatives from samples, the stable isotope internal standard quantification for L-DOPA and DA was carried out. The stable derivatives were obtained in aqueous acetonitrile (pH 10.8 sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate buffer) at 37 °C for 3.0 min, and then were separated within 2.0 min using gradient elution. Linear range was 0.20-1500.0 nmol/L (R > 0.994). LODs were 0.005 and 0.009 nmol/L for DA and L-DOPA (S/N = 3), respectively. This method was validated, and it showed obvious advantages in comparing with the reported methods in terms of sensitivity, analysis speed and anti-matrix interference. This method has been successfully applied to the study of effect of Shouwu Fang on L-DOPA and DA concentration fluctuations in PD rat brain microdialysate. PMID:26753287

  10. [Determination of L-dopa and dopamine in rat brain microdialysate by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using stable isotope-coded derivatization coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction].

    PubMed

    Qi, Weimei; Zhao, Xian-en; Qi, Yong; Sun, Zhiwei; Chen, Guang; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui

    2015-09-01

    The sensitive detection method of levodopa (L-DOPA) and dopamine (DA) in rat brain microdialysate of Parkinson's disease (PD) is an essential tool for the clinical study and attenuated synergistic drug screening for L-DOPA from traditional Chinese medicines. Using d0/d3-10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride (d0/d3-MASC) as stable isotope derivatization reagent, a novel ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for L-DOPA and DA by stable isotope- coded derivatization coupled with ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME). d3-MASC (light) and d3-MASC (heavy) were used as derivatization reagents for microdialysate samples and standards, respectively. Mixtures of the two solutions were prepared by UA-DLLME for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. With d3-MASC heavy derivatives as internal standards for corresponding light derivatives from samples, the stable isotope internal standard quantification for L-DOPA and DA was carried out. The stable derivatives were obtained in aqueous acetonitrile (pH 10.8 sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate buffer) at 37 °C for 3.0 min, and then were separated within 2.0 min using gradient elution. Linear range was 0.20-1500.0 nmol/L (R > 0.994). LODs were 0.005 and 0.009 nmol/L for DA and L-DOPA (S/N = 3), respectively. This method was validated, and it showed obvious advantages in comparing with the reported methods in terms of sensitivity, analysis speed and anti-matrix interference. This method has been successfully applied to the study of effect of Shouwu Fang on L-DOPA and DA concentration fluctuations in PD rat brain microdialysate.

  11. Multi-residue determination of 210 drugs in pork by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhiqiang; Chai, Tingting; Mu, Pengqian; Xu, Nana; Song, Yue; Wang, Xinlu; Jia, Qi; Qiu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a multi-residue analytical method for 210 drugs in pork using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Q-Trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) within 20min via positive ESI in scheduled multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The 210 drugs, belonging to 21 different chemical classes, included macrolides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, β-lactams, β-agonists, aminoglycosides, antiviral drugs, glycosides, phenothiazine, protein anabolic hormones, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), quinolones, antifungal drugs, corticosteroids, imidazoles, piperidines, piperazidines, insecticides, amides, alkaloids and others. A rapid and simple preparation method was applied to process the animal tissues, including solvent extraction with an acetonitrile/water mixture (80/20, v/v), defatting and clean-up processes. The recoveries ranged from 52% to 130% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<20% for spiked concentrations of 10, 50 and 250μg/kg. More than 90% of the analytes achieved low limits of quantification (LOQs)<10μg/kg. The decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ) values were in the range of 2-502μg/kg and 4-505μg/kg, respectively. This method is significant for food safety monitoring and controlling veterinary drug use. PMID:27499107

  12. Multiclass analysis of mycotoxins in biscuits by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of different extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-05-23

    A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 19 mycotoxins in biscuits (a dry matrix containing cereals and egg) has been developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray source working in both positive and negative mode. Due to the matrix complexity and the high amount of contaminants, a solid phase extraction method using graphitized carbon black was optimized for an effective clean-up step. Accuracy was carried out in the selected matrix using blank samples spiked at three analyte concentrations. Recoveries between 63 and 107% and relative standard deviations lower than 12% were obtained. For all considered mycotoxin classes, i.e. thricotecenes A and B, zearalenone and its metabolites, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, enniatins and their structurally related beauvericin, the method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, matrix effect, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification. Matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification purposes, in order to compensate for matrix effect. The coefficients of determination obtained were in the range of 0.9927-1. The limits of quantification, ranging from 0.04μgkg(-1) for enniatin B1 to 80.2μgkg(-1) for nivalenol, were always lower than maximum permitted levels for every regulated mycotoxin by the current European legislation.

  13. Addressing the analytical throughput challenges in ADME screening using rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methodologies.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Robert S; Potts, Warren B; Rainville, Paul D; Alden, Peter G; Shave, Darcy H; Baynham, Geneen; Mazzeo, Jeffery R

    2008-07-01

    High-throughput ADME screening for compound drug development properties has become an essential part of the modern drug discovery process, allowing more informed decisions to be made on the best compounds to take forward in the discovery/development process. This however is a time-consuming process requiring multiple tests to be performed, demanding a significant amount of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) instrument time. This article focuses on the use of sub-2 microm porous particle LC coupled to tandem quadrupole MS/MS mass spectrometry for the rapid screening of ADME properties. Using this approach analysis times from 30 s to 1 min were achievable allowing analysis times to be cut by 80%. The use of the small particles coupled to high flow rates allowed for sufficient resolution, even with very short analysis time, to resolve the analytes of interest from similar compounds that would interfere with the assay. The use of dedicated, intelligent, software packages allowed for the user-free generation of MS/MS conditions and the processing of the data.

  14. Determination of seven benzoylphenylurea insecticides in processed fruit and vegetables using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Anna; Bandini, Mirella

    2005-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) has been developed for the sensitive and selective determination of seven benzoylphenylurea insecticide residues (diflubenzuron, triflumuron, lufenuron, flufenoxuron, teflubenzuron, chlorfuazuron, hexaflumuron) in pear baby purée, concentrated lemon juice, and tomato pulp. The general sample extraction/partition method for our established multiresidue methods has been used. The entire procedure involves extraction of residues with acetone and partition into ethyl acetate/cyclohexane. Chromatographic determination was performed using a C18 column and isocratic elution. Fourteen MS/MS transitions of precursor ions were monitored (two for each pesticide) using negative ESI. The majority of mean recoveries at fortification levels of 0.002-0.020 and 0.020-0.200 mg/kg were in the range 77-102% with relative standard deviations between 2 and 10%. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity of this LC/MS/MS method allowed quantitation and identification at low levels in difficult matrices with a run time of 4 min. PMID:16136517

  15. Quantification of Iohexol in Serum by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Vicente, Faye B; Vespa, Gina; Miller, Alan; Haymond, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Iohexol is a nonradioactive contrast medium, and its clearance from serum or urine is used to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is the most useful indicator of kidney function and progression of kidney disease. GFR determination using iohexol clearance is increasingly being applied in clinical practice, given its advantages over and correlation with inulin. We describe a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for iohexol clearance, requiring only 50 μL of serum. The sample preparation involves protein precipitation with LC/MS-grade methanol, containing ioversol as the internal standard. Samples are centrifuged and supernatant is dried under nitrogen gas at room temperature. Samples are reconstituted with mobile phase (ammonium acetate-formic acid-water). Iohexol is separated using an HPLC gradient method on a C-8 analytical column. MS/MS detection is in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and the transitions monitored are m/z 822.0 to m/z 804.0 and m/z 807.0 to m/z 588.0 for iohexol and ioversol, respectively.

  16. [Simultaneous determination of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium residues in tea by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with pre-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Chen, Xiaoquan; Xiao, Haijun; Liu, Binqiu

    2015-10-01

    A method was developed for the determination of glyphosate (GLY) and glufosinate-ammonium (GLUF) in tea using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with ultrapure water and dichloromethane for 30 min under ultrasonication, followed by a simple cleanup with a C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and then GLY and GLUF were derivatized using 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer for 2 h. The derivatives of GLY and GLUF were separated on a Waters C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) in a gradient elution mode, and finally detected with positive electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS ) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The quantification analysis was performed by external standard method. The method showed a good linearity (r > 0. 990) in the range of 0.003 125-0.1 mg/L. The limits of detection (LODs) of GLY and GLUF were 0.03 mg/kg. At the spiked levels of 0.375, 1.5 and 4.5 mg/kg, the recoveries of GLY and GLUF were 87.37%-99.11% and 81.44% -86.17% respectively, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 6) of GLY and GLUF were 0.68%-1.35% and 1.01%-2.33%, respectively. This method is simple, rapid and characterized with acceptable sensitivity and accuracy to meet the requirements for the analysis of GLY and GLUF simultaneously in tea.

  17. [Determination of eight defoliant residues in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Dong, Suozhuai; Pan, Lulu; Zhao, Shanhong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Fanglong; Li, Dan

    2013-07-01

    A novel method has been developed for the rapid extraction and determination of eight defoliants including thidiazuron, butiphos, methabenzthiazuron, abscisic acid, carfentra-zone-ethyl, diuron, paraquat, and pyrithiobac-sodium in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The defoliants in cotton were extracted by ASE and the extracts were dried by a rotavapor, then redissolved in the solvents of acetonitrile and water (1:9, v/v). The chromatographic analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (50 mmx 2. 1 mm, 1. 8 microm) by a gradient elution employing of acetonitrile and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Good linearities (r >0.99) were observed between 0. 01 and 0. 3 mg/L for all the compounds. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were obtained by spiking untreated samples with the eight defoliants at 0. 1, 0. 5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the eight defoliants were from (84. 18 +/- 8.04)% to (95.99 +/- 6.76)%. The precision values expressed as RSDs were from 7. 04% to 10. 60% (n = 6). The limits of detection were 0. 8 - 29 microg/kg and the limits of quantification were 2.5 - 96 1/4g/kg for the analytes. The results ahowed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the quantitative determination and confirmation of the eight defoliants in cotton. PMID:24164041

  18. [Determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal and aquatic products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lü, Hailuan; Wu, Congming; Cheng, Linli; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was established for the determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) in animal tissues and aquatic products. The analyte was extracted with 0.2 mol/L hydrochloric acid. The extract was cleaned up on a Bond Elut C18 cartridge. Then the eluate was collected and evaporated to dryness under nitrogen gas at 35 degrees C. The residue was redissolved in acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. The identification was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionization. The quantification was done by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity within the range of 2-500 microg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.990. The limits of detection (LODs) of MQCA in pork, swine liver, pig kidney, fish, prawn, and crab were 0.90, 1.51, 0.94, 1.04, 1.62 and 1.80 microg/kg, respectively; and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 3.00, 5.02, 3.13, 3.46, 5.40 and 6.00 microg/kg, correspondingly. The recoveries of MQCA in animal tissues and aquatic products were 73.6%-89.0% at the spiked levels of 3-100 microg/kg. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) were less than 15%, and inter-day RSDs (n = 3) were less than 20%. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity, accuracy, and precision were fit for the requirements of veterinary drug residue analysis.

  19. [Determination of eight defoliant residues in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Dong, Suozhuai; Pan, Lulu; Zhao, Shanhong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Fanglong; Li, Dan

    2013-07-01

    A novel method has been developed for the rapid extraction and determination of eight defoliants including thidiazuron, butiphos, methabenzthiazuron, abscisic acid, carfentra-zone-ethyl, diuron, paraquat, and pyrithiobac-sodium in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The defoliants in cotton were extracted by ASE and the extracts were dried by a rotavapor, then redissolved in the solvents of acetonitrile and water (1:9, v/v). The chromatographic analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (50 mmx 2. 1 mm, 1. 8 microm) by a gradient elution employing of acetonitrile and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Good linearities (r >0.99) were observed between 0. 01 and 0. 3 mg/L for all the compounds. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were obtained by spiking untreated samples with the eight defoliants at 0. 1, 0. 5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the eight defoliants were from (84. 18 +/- 8.04)% to (95.99 +/- 6.76)%. The precision values expressed as RSDs were from 7. 04% to 10. 60% (n = 6). The limits of detection were 0. 8 - 29 microg/kg and the limits of quantification were 2.5 - 96 1/4g/kg for the analytes. The results ahowed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the quantitative determination and confirmation of the eight defoliants in cotton.

  20. Multiplex Assay of Second-Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Dried Blood Spots Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Jun, Sun-Hee; Han, Minje; Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyoung Un

    2016-01-01

    As dried blood spots (DBSs) have various advantages over conventional venous blood sampling, some assays for detection of one or two anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in DBSs have been developed. However, there are no assays currently available for the simultaneous measurement of three or more anti-TB drugs in DBSs. In this study, we developed and evaluated a multiplex method for detecting nine anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, kanamycin, clarithromycin, cycloserine, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, prothionamide, and linezolid in DBSs by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Seventy-nine patient samples of DBS were analyzed on the UPLC-MS/MS system. All drug concentrations were determined within 4 min, and assay performance was evaluated. All drugs were clearly separated without ion suppression. Within-run and between-run precisions were 1.7-13.0% and 5.7-17.0%, respectively, at concentrations representing low and high levels for the nine drugs. Lower limits of detection and quantification were 0.06-0.6 and 0.5-5.0 µg/mL, respectively. Linearity was acceptable at five level concentrations for each drug. Correlations between drug concentrations in plasma and DBSs by using Passing-Bablock regression and Pearson's rho (ρ, 0.798-0.989) were acceptable. In conclusion, we developed a multiplex assay to measure nine second-line anti-TB drugs in DBSs successfully. This assay provided convenient and rapid drug quantification and could have applications in drug monitoring during treatment. PMID:27374716

  1. Fast and simultaneous determination of endocrine disrupting compounds by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Esteve, C; Herrero, L; Gómara, B; Quintanilla-López, J E

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous determination of thirteen endocrine disruptors (five phthalates, seven parabens, and bisphenol A) in a single chromatographic run has been developed for the first time. The separation method, based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), allows the separation of all compounds (including isobaric pairs) in less than 4.1 min. The fast polarity switching mode of the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer used enables the registration of positive (phthalates) and negative (parabens and BPA) ions in the same acquisition run. A Response Surface Methodology was used for the optimization of the method. The optimum elution program starts with 0.2 min in isocratic conditions (79.8% water; 20% acetonitrile, 0.2% ammonium formate 5mM at pH 10.2), then the content of acetonitrile is linearly increased in 2 min up to 42%, and later up to 98% in 1.1 min. The analytical characteristics of the developed method were satisfactory. The method is robust and showed a linear response with determination coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.991 in the range 5.0-2000 pg on column (or higher) for all the compounds investigated. Instrumental intra- and inter-day precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) were lower than 12% for parabens and bisphenol A, and between 5.9% and 27% for phthalates. Instrumental detection and quantification limits (iLODs and iLOQs) were in the range of medium-high femtograms (270-1300 pg on column for iLODs). Finally, the suitability of the developed method was demonstrated through its application to the analysis of commercial personal care products (shower gels) without any sample treatment, only a simple dilution, being possible to determine the simultaneous presence of phthalates, parabens, and bisphenol A in almost all the gels analyzed. PMID:26695271

  2. Determination of cyantraniliprole and its major metabolite residues in pakchoi and soil using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianpeng; Feng, Nan; Tang, Congfeng; Qin, Dongmei

    2012-10-01

    A rapid, simple and reliable analytical method was developed for the determination of cyantraniliprole and its major metabolite J9Z38 in pakchoi and soil by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The sample preparation approach is known as QuEChERS, which stands for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and cleaned up with dispersive primary and secondary amine sorbent before analysis by UPLC-MS/MS. The limit of quantitation for cyantraniliprole and J9Z38 was 0.01 mg/kg in both pakchoi and soil. Average recoveries of cyantraniliprole and J9Z38 at three fortified levels (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg) ranged from 77.8% to 102.5% with relative standard deviation of 1.6%-8.9%. This method has been applied to the analysis of cyantraniliprole and J9Z38 residues in real pakchoi and soil samples selected from field. The results of the residue dynamic experiment showed that the half-life of cyantraniliprole ranged from 2.9 to 6.4 days in pakchoi and 8.7 to 18.2 days in soil, respectively. The final residual levels of cyantraniliprole in pakchoi and soil from Guangdong and Shanghai were below 0.20 and 0.10 mg/kg, respectively; similarly, the final residual levels of J9Z38 in pakchoi and soil from Guangdong and Shanghai were <0.07 and 0.01 mg/kg. These results will be helpful in setting maximum residue limit guidance for cyantraniliprole in pakchoi in China.

  3. [Simultaneous determination of 121 veterinary drugs in pork by QuEChERS and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Guo, Haixia; Xiao, Guiying; Zhang, Xiqing; Wang, Minglin; Li, Li; Leng, Lei; Gao, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the 10 kinds of 121 veterinary drugs (including chloramphenicols, β-agonists, sulfonamides, 4-quinolones, nitroimidazoles, macrolides, avermections, polyether antibiotics, tetracycline antibiotics, cephalosporins, etc.) in pork using QuEChERS method coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The drugs were extracted with Na2EDTA-McIlvaine buffer solution (pH = 4) and acetonitrile. Anhydrous sodium sulfate was used for the salting-out process. The solutions divided into two groups were cleaned-up by different mixed sorbents. The drugs were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization. Among the 121 drugs, 5 drugs were quantified by internal standard method, and the other 116 drugs were quantified by external standard method. The calibration curves of the 121 drugs were linear in the range of 0.02-40 μg/L with the correlation coefficients more than 0.99. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) were 0.05-10 μg/kg. The average recoveries of 8 drugs at LOQ level in pork ranged from 41.7% to 59.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.7% - 13.5%. The average recoveries of 10 drugs at LOQ level in pork ranged from 122.6% to 163.2% with the RSDs of 0.6% -14.8%. The average recoveries of 103 drugs at LOQ level in pork ranged from 60.3% to 118.3% with the RSDs of 0.4% - 16.7%. The proposed method is rapid, simple, sensitive, reliable and cost-effective. PMID:27097457

  4. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of hederacoside C, a drug candidate for respiratory disorder, in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choi, Min Sun; Kim, In Sook; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-09-10

    Hederacoside C is a principal bioactive pharmaceutical ingredient of Hedera helix leaf extracts. H. helix extracts have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory disorders. Currently, hederacoside C is investigated as a promising candidate for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, an accurate, sensitive, rapid, and reliable bioanalytical method was developed for the determination of hederacoside C in rat plasma using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). For sample preparation, plasma proteins were precipitated with 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile. Waters UPLC BEH C18 (2.1mm I.D.×100mm, 1.7μm) column was used for chromatographic separation. A gradient elution of mobile phases consisting of 0.02% acetic acid in distilled water (solvent A) and 0.02% acetic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B) was used at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for mass spectrometric detection; the MRM transitions were m/z 1219.7→m/z 469.2 for hederacoside C and m/z 1108.3→m/z 221.2 for ginsenoside Rb1 (internal standard) in the negative ionization mode. A calibration curve was constructed in the range of 10-1000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 5%. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of hederacoside C in rats. Hederacoside C was quickly but inadequately absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of rats resulting in extremely low bioavailability and relatively slow clearance.

  5. Pharmacokinetic studies of phellodendrine in rat plasma and tissues after intravenous administration using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Hui-Ying; Dong, Xin; Gao, Wen; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Phellodendrine, a quaternary ammonium alkaloid extracted from the dried bark of Phellodendrom chinensis Schneid and Phellodendrom amurense Rupr, has the effect of suppressing cellular immune response, reducing blood pressure and antinephritis. However, few investigations have been conducted for the pharmacokinetic study of phellodendrine. Thus, a rapid, simple and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QQQ MS/MS) method has been established for quantification of phellodendrine in rat plasma and tissues by using magnoflorine as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6mm×50mm, 1.8μm) by gradient elution using 0.1% aqueous formic acid (A) and methanol (B). Triple quadrupole mass detection with multiple reaction monitoring mode was used to monitor the ion transitions, at m/z 342.20→192.20 for phellodendrine and m/z 342.20→58.20 for internal standard, respectively. The developed method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of phellodendrine after intravenous administration. The lower limits of quantification were 0.5ng/mL for plasma samples, 2.5ng/g for brain and 1ng/g for other tested tissues. Precisions and accuracy values were within the Food and Drug Administration acceptance criteria, the recovery and matrix effects were between 87.8-113.5%. The area under the curve (AUC0-t) ranged from 15.58 to 57.41mg/L min and Cmax were between 1.63-4.93mg/L. The results showed that phellodendrine was eliminated in 120min in plasma and most of tissues and the highest concentrations of phellodendrine were found in the kidney. This study may provide a basis for the further study of phellodendrine.

  6. Effect of six Chinese spices on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Maomao; He, Zhiyong; Zheng, Zongping; Qin, Fang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Yahui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-01

    The effects of Chinese spices on the profiles of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven HA categories were investigated in roast beef patties using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and principal component analysis. Three groups of HAs, imidazopyridines (PhIP, DMIP, and 1,5,6-TMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx), and β-carbolines (harman and norharman), were detected and quantified in all of the samples. The results demonstrated that the total HA and imidazopyridine profiles could clearly be affected by 1% pricklyash peel (14.1 ± 0.76 and 6.06 ± 0.32 ng/g), chilli (41.0 ± 0.01 and 23.0 ± 0.52 ng/g), and cumin (59.9 ± 2.44 and 31.1 ± 3.06 ng/g), in comparison with control values of 21.8 ± 2.40 and 14.3 ± 2.04 ng/g, respectively. The difference was only significant (p < 0.05) for cumin. The imidazoquinoxaline profile was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% pricklyash peel (0.57 ± 0.05 ng/g) and cumin (2.36 ± 0.20 ng/g) compared to the control (1.16 ± 0.11 ng/g). The β-carboline profile was only markedly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% cumin (26.4 ± 0.82 ng/g) compared to the control (6.26 ± 0.26 ng/g). In general, pricklyash peel inhibited HA formation, whereas star anise, fennel, cumin, chilli, and black pepper promoted HA formation. The findings could facilitate the selection of spices in meat processing to minimize HA formation.

  7. Simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using ¹³C₁₅-deoxynivalenol as internal standard.

    PubMed

    Jin, P G; Han, Z; Cai, Z X; Wu, Y J; Ren, Y P

    2010-12-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain was developed. The selected mycotoxins were: deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon X, moniliformin, zearalenone, zearalanone, ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B. The samples were extracted with aqueous acetonitrile (84 : 16, v/v) and purified by reliable laboratory-made mixed cartridges. The analytes were separated on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) and eluted with a mobile phase of water containing 0.2% aqueous ammonia and acetonitrile/methanol (90 : 10, v/v). All mycotoxins were detected with a Waters Micromass Quattro Ultima Pt tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in negative electrospray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring mode. Accurate determination was achieved by employing commercial ¹³C₁₅-deoxynivalenol as internal standard, which compensated for target loss and eliminated matrix effects. The established method was further validated by determining the linearity (R² > 0.9990), average recovery (75.8-106.5%), sensitivity (limit of quantitation 0.09-8.48 µg kg⁻¹) and precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 6.9%). It was shown to be a suitable method for simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain. Finally, a total of 69 corn samples randomly collected from eastern and northern China were analyzed. The results showed that deoxynivalenol was the most frequently detected contaminant, whilst 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, zearalanone, fusarenon X and moniliformin also occurred frequently. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B were present only in trace amounts in a small number of samples.

  8. Solid-phase extraction-based ultra-sensitive detection of four lipophilic marine biotoxins in bivalves by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lanyun; Yao, Xunping; Wang, Li; Li, Jige

    2015-02-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for ultra-sensitive determination of four lipophilic marine biotoxins in bivalve samples by coupling high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) was developed. Azaspiracid-2 (AZA2), pectenotoxins-2, spirolide (SPX) and gymnodimine were simultaneously determined by HPLC-MS-MS in a positive multiple reaction monitoring mode. Separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column with an acetonitrile-water gradient containing formic acid. During the analysis, solvent effects on the analytes were eliminated by using 1 : 1 water-methanol as dissolving solvent instead of pure methanol. Matrix effects in post-SPE extract and crude extract were seriously evaluated. Increased matrix effects in post-SPE extract countervailed the concentration purpose to some extent. The limits of detection of the SPE-HPLC-MS-MS method were determined to be in the range of 0.013-0.085 µg kg(-1), and the linear range of the method was in the range of 0.128-55.2 ng mL(-1) for the detected toxins. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity (matrix-matched standard curves), precision, recovery, repeatability and limits of quantification. The recoveries of fortified samples at three different concentration levels were satisfactory, and the intra- and interday precisions were <7 and 10%, respectively.Several bivalve samples were analyzed to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Different target toxins were detected in different kind of bivalves. Among them, AZA2 and SPX1 were first detected in Chinese shellfish. The levels of detected toxins were below the current European Union regulatory limits.

  9. High rates of non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HP LC-MS/MS) urine analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Maciej; White, Christobelle; Patel, Prashanth; Masca, Nicholas; Damani, Ravi; Hepworth, Joanne; Samani, Nilesh J; Gupta, Pankaj; Madira, Webster; Stanley, Adrian; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Non-adherence to therapy is an important cause of suboptimal blood pressure control but few practical tools exist to accurately and routinely detect it. We used a simple urine-based assay to evaluate the prevalence of antihypertensive treatment non-adherence and its impact on blood pressure in a specialist hypertension centre. Methods 208 hypertensive patients (125 new referrals, 66 follow-up patients with inadequate blood pressure control and 17 renal denervation referrals) underwent assessment of antihypertensive drug intake using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HP LC-MS/MS) urine analysis at the time of clinical appointment. A total of 40 most commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications (or their metabolites) were screened for in spot urine samples. Results Overall, 25% of patients were totally or partially non-adherent to antihypertensive treatment (total non-adherence 10.1%, partial non-adherence 14.9%). The highest prevalence of partial and total non-adherence was among follow-up patients with inadequate blood pressure control (28.8%) and those referred for consideration of renal denervation (23.5%), respectively. There was a linear relationship between blood pressure and the numerical difference in detected/prescribed antihypertensive medications—every unit increase in this difference was associated with 3.0 (1.1) mm Hg, 3.1 (0.7) mm Hg and 1.9 (0.7) mm Hg increase in adjusted clinic systolic blood pressure, clinic diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and 24 h mean daytime DBP (p=0.0051, p=8.62×10−6, p=0.0057), respectively. Conclusions Non-adherence to blood pressure lowering therapy is common, particularly in patients with suboptimal blood pressure control and those referred for renal denervation. HP LC-MS/MS urine analysis could be used to exclude non-adherence and better stratify further investigations and intervention. PMID:24694797

  10. [Determination of 21 plant growth regulator residues in fruits by QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hehe; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Dunming; Zhou, Yu; Luo, Jia; Li, Meiling; Chen, Shubin; Wang, Lianzhu

    2014-07-01

    A method for the simultaneous detection of 21 plant growth regulators in fruits by QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were initially extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, followed by clean-up using the powder of magnesium sulfate and C18. The resulting samples were separated on a C18 column, and detected under positive and negative multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode through polarity switching between time segments. The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves were used for quantitative analysis. The linearities of chlormequat chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride, cyclanilide, forchlorfenuron, thidiazuron, inabenfide, paclobutrazol, uniconazole and triapenthenol were in the concentration range of 0.1-500 microg/L, daminozide and 6-benzylaminopurine in the concentration range of 1.0-500 microg/L, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, 2,4-D, cloprop, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) and trinexapac-ethyl in the concentration range of 2.0-1 000 microg/L, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA) in the concentration range of 10-1000 microg/L, with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.990. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification of the method were 0.020-6.0 microg/kg and 0.10-15.0 microg/kg, respectively. For all the samples, the average spiked recoveries ranged from 73.0% to 111.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were in the range of 3.0% - 17.2%. The method is quick, easy, effective, sensitive and accurate, and can meet the requirements for the determination of the 21 plant growth regulator residues in fruits.

  11. Simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using ¹³C₁₅-deoxynivalenol as internal standard.

    PubMed

    Jin, P G; Han, Z; Cai, Z X; Wu, Y J; Ren, Y P

    2010-12-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain was developed. The selected mycotoxins were: deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon X, moniliformin, zearalenone, zearalanone, ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B. The samples were extracted with aqueous acetonitrile (84 : 16, v/v) and purified by reliable laboratory-made mixed cartridges. The analytes were separated on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) and eluted with a mobile phase of water containing 0.2% aqueous ammonia and acetonitrile/methanol (90 : 10, v/v). All mycotoxins were detected with a Waters Micromass Quattro Ultima Pt tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in negative electrospray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring mode. Accurate determination was achieved by employing commercial ¹³C₁₅-deoxynivalenol as internal standard, which compensated for target loss and eliminated matrix effects. The established method was further validated by determining the linearity (R² > 0.9990), average recovery (75.8-106.5%), sensitivity (limit of quantitation 0.09-8.48 µg kg⁻¹) and precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 6.9%). It was shown to be a suitable method for simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain. Finally, a total of 69 corn samples randomly collected from eastern and northern China were analyzed. The results showed that deoxynivalenol was the most frequently detected contaminant, whilst 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, zearalanone, fusarenon X and moniliformin also occurred frequently. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B were present only in trace amounts in a small number of samples. PMID:20938852

  12. Alcohol biomarker analysis: simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxytryptophol glucuronide and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid by direct injection of urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stephanson, Nikolai; Helander, Anders; Beck, Olof

    2007-07-01

    A direct ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-MS/MS) for simultaneous measurement of urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol glucuronide (GTOL) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) was developed. The GTOL/5-HIAA ratio is used as an alcohol biomarker with clinical and forensic applications. The method involved dilution of the urine sample with deuterated analogues (internal standards), reversed-phase chromatography with gradient elution, electrospray ionisation and monitoring of two product ions per analyte in selected reaction monitoring mode. The measuring ranges were 6.7-10 000 nmol/l for GTOL and 0.07-100 micromol/l for 5-HIAA. The intra- and inter-assay imprecision, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was below 7%. Influence from ion suppression was noted for both compounds but was compensated for by the use of co-eluting internal standards. The accuracy in analytical recovery of added substance to urine samples was 96 and 98%, respectively, for GTOL and 5-HIAA. Method comparison with GC-MS for GTOL in 25 authentic patient samples confirmed the accuracy of the method with a median ratio between methods (GC-MS to UPLC-MS/MS) of 1.14 (r(2) = 0.975). The difference is explained by the fact that the GC-MS method also measures unconjugated 5-hydroxytryptophol naturally present in urine. The comparison with data for 5-HIAA obtained by an HPLC method demonstrated a median ratio of 1.05 between the methods. The UPLC-MS/MS method was capable of measuring endogenous GTOL and 5-HIAA levels in urine, which agreed with the literature data. In conclusion, a fully validated and robust direct method for the routine measurement of urinary GTOL and 5-HIAA was developed. PMID:17565712

  13. [Multiresidue analysis of 63 veterinary drugs in meat by dispersive solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huitai; Xie, Mengting; Huang, Xiaolan; Wu, Huiqin; Zhu, Zhixin; Huang, Fang; Lin, Xiaoshan; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-04-01

    A novel multiresidue analytical method has been developed and validated for the determination of five classes of veterinary drugs including 18 β-lactams, 15 quinolones, 21 sulfonamides, 3 sulfonamide potentiators and 6 antiparasitics in meat using dispersive solid-phase extraction (dispersive-SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The analytes were extracted with a vortex mixer by 0.1 mol/L Na2 EDTA solution and acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, and then the extracts were purified using dispersive-SPE with C18 sorbent. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was operated in positive mode using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the 63 analytes after the separation on a Poroshell EC-C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.4 µm). The correlation coefficients of linear calibration curves were over 0.99 in the corresponding concentration ranges. The average recoveries of the 63 analytes ranged from 62.2% to 112.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 3.1%-16.3% in spiked meat (pork, beef and chicken muscle) at three levels. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N ≥ 3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N ≥ 10) were 0.1-3.0 µg/kg and 0.5-10.0 µg/kg, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable and suitable for the determination of residues in animal products. PMID:26292404

  14. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect. PMID:26979268

  15. [Determination of five imidazole pesticide residues in fruits by Turbo flow online purification-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Kong, Xianghong; He, Qiang; Zhang, Longzhuang; Li, Jianhu

    2014-06-01

    A Turbo flow-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (TF-UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of five imidazole pesticides (imazapyr, triazoxide, rabenzazole, prochloraz and fenamidone) in fruits. The fruit samples were dissolved in saturated sodium chloride solution and extracted by acetonitrile. After the acetonitrile layer was evaporated and redissolved with acetonitrile-water (1 :1, v/v), the fruit samples were analyzed by TF-UPLC-MS/MS. The main factors influencing the purification efficiency including the TF column, mobile phase, elution solution and elution rate were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the analytes were purified by Turbo flow C18 column (50 mm x 1.0 mm) and separated on a Hypersil GOLD aQ column (100 mm x 2.1 mm) using the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid) aqueous solution with gradient elution. The compounds were detected by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) via positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)). The linear range of the method ranged from 0.007 5 to 0.75 mg/L for all the five imidazole pesticides, with the correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.99. The limits of quantification were 0.005 mg/kg for all the five imidazole pesticides. The recoveries were in the range from 71.2% to 122.4% at the spiked levels of 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations ranging from 0.5% to 8.9% in actual samples. The results indicate that the developed method is simple, efficient and precise, and can be a reliable technique for the determination of the five imidazole pesticides in fruit samples. PMID:25269251

  16. Effect of six Chinese spices on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Maomao; He, Zhiyong; Zheng, Zongping; Qin, Fang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Yahui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-01

    The effects of Chinese spices on the profiles of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven HA categories were investigated in roast beef patties using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and principal component analysis. Three groups of HAs, imidazopyridines (PhIP, DMIP, and 1,5,6-TMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx), and β-carbolines (harman and norharman), were detected and quantified in all of the samples. The results demonstrated that the total HA and imidazopyridine profiles could clearly be affected by 1% pricklyash peel (14.1 ± 0.76 and 6.06 ± 0.32 ng/g), chilli (41.0 ± 0.01 and 23.0 ± 0.52 ng/g), and cumin (59.9 ± 2.44 and 31.1 ± 3.06 ng/g), in comparison with control values of 21.8 ± 2.40 and 14.3 ± 2.04 ng/g, respectively. The difference was only significant (p < 0.05) for cumin. The imidazoquinoxaline profile was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% pricklyash peel (0.57 ± 0.05 ng/g) and cumin (2.36 ± 0.20 ng/g) compared to the control (1.16 ± 0.11 ng/g). The β-carboline profile was only markedly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% cumin (26.4 ± 0.82 ng/g) compared to the control (6.26 ± 0.26 ng/g). In general, pricklyash peel inhibited HA formation, whereas star anise, fennel, cumin, chilli, and black pepper promoted HA formation. The findings could facilitate the selection of spices in meat processing to minimize HA formation. PMID:25229184

  17. [Determination of five aflatoxins in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Han, Shen; Liu, Ying; Lu, Meiling; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Jinhua

    2011-07-01

    A method for the determination of five aflatoxins (B1 , B2, G1 , G2, M1 ) in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol-water solution, followed by stepwise purification using an immunoaffinity column. The target compounds were then eluted with methanol. The extract was filtered then analyzed. With the gradient elution using a binary mobile phase containing of 0.1% formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution and methanol, the five aflatoxins were separated on an UHPLC BEH C18 column, followed by positive electrospray ionization and multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) provided by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. The limits of detection for the standard solution of aflatoxins ranged from 0.05-0.3 microg/L. The linear response was observed in the spiked concentration range of 0.5-100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The spiked recoveries were within 62.3%-82.4% at the spiked levels of 1.0 microg/kg and 5.0 microg/kg for all the five aflatoxins with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 10% (n = 6). The developed method is sensitive, accurate, and reproducible with the reasonable recoveries, and can be applied to the determination of the 5 aflatoxins in the Chinese traditional patent medicines, medicinal herbs as well as other similar complex matrices.

  18. Direct analysis of trace level bisphenol A, octylphenols and nonylphenol in bottled water and leached from bottles by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinyuan; Schnute, William C

    2010-09-15

    A high-throughput method was developed for the direct analysis of trace level bisphenol A (BPA), 4-n-octylphenol (4-n-OP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) in water samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (uHPLC/MS/MS) using an isotope-labeled internal standard. Aliquots of water samples were spiked with the internal standard and analyzed without sample cleanup or enrichment. All target analytes were chromatographically separated within 3 min and detected using the highly selective multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection mode. The method detection limits were statistically calculated and ranged from 0.040 ppb (BPA) to 0.057 ppb (4-n-NP). Excellent correlation of determination was achieved for each analyte with r greater than 0.995. Precision was achieved within 8% relative standard deviation (RSD) for all analytes, and recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 97% to 106.2% except for 4-n-OP which may be corrected by using an isotope-labeled analog as internal standard. This method was used for analyzing eight randomly selected bottled water samples and found no detectable target analytes. This method was also used to analyze target analytes leached from bottles (6 low cost bottles and 6 brand-name baby-feeding bottles). Low levels of BPA were found in three bottles after they had been heated in a microwave oven, and a trace amount of 4-n-NP was also found in three bottles. 4-t-OP, which has not been reported as a leachable chemical, was found in two brand name baby-feeding bottles from the same manufacturer, and was confirmed with bottles from different batches.

  19. [Determination of 21 plant growth regulator residues in fruits by QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hehe; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Dunming; Zhou, Yu; Luo, Jia; Li, Meiling; Chen, Shubin; Wang, Lianzhu

    2014-07-01

    A method for the simultaneous detection of 21 plant growth regulators in fruits by QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were initially extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, followed by clean-up using the powder of magnesium sulfate and C18. The resulting samples were separated on a C18 column, and detected under positive and negative multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode through polarity switching between time segments. The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves were used for quantitative analysis. The linearities of chlormequat chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride, cyclanilide, forchlorfenuron, thidiazuron, inabenfide, paclobutrazol, uniconazole and triapenthenol were in the concentration range of 0.1-500 microg/L, daminozide and 6-benzylaminopurine in the concentration range of 1.0-500 microg/L, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, 2,4-D, cloprop, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) and trinexapac-ethyl in the concentration range of 2.0-1 000 microg/L, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA) in the concentration range of 10-1000 microg/L, with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.990. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification of the method were 0.020-6.0 microg/kg and 0.10-15.0 microg/kg, respectively. For all the samples, the average spiked recoveries ranged from 73.0% to 111.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were in the range of 3.0% - 17.2%. The method is quick, easy, effective, sensitive and accurate, and can meet the requirements for the determination of the 21 plant growth regulator residues in fruits. PMID:25255562

  20. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous analysis of asparagine, sugars, and acrylamide in Maillard reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Ren, Yiping; Jiao, Jingjing; Li, Dong; Zhang, Ying

    2011-05-01

    We developed an automated microwave digestion labstation (MDL) combined with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method under the control of positive-negative ion switching as a robust kinetic study tool for rapid and simultaneous quantification of asparagine, glucose, fructose, and acrylamide in Maillard reaction products. Maillard reactions were conducted in a potato model via MDL. The two-step simple pretreatment procedures included the addition of isotope internal standards (15)N(2)-asparagine, (13)C(6)-glucose, and D(3)-acrylamide, followed by appropriate dilution with the mobile phase and filtration. Analytes were separated on a Hypercarb column and monitored by MS/MS. Study of matrix effects indicated Maillard reaction products induce an ionization suppression of both positive and negative precursor ions, but quantitative results are corrected through the use of isotopically labeled internal standards. Using this method, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranges of all analytes were calculated as 0.04-0.6 and 0.1-1.1 μM, respectively. Excellent repeatability (RSD < 9.6%) and acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSD < 9.2%) substantially supported the use of this method for sample analysis. The present kinetic tools, with 10-50 min mimic of Maillard reactions and short instrumental run time (5.5 min per sample), were successfully validated and applied to simultaneous determination of acrylamide and its precursors and intermediates during Maillard reactions and kinetic elucidation. Furthermore, current tools of MDL combined with simple sample treatment procedures and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis reduce sample analysis time and labor in the kinetic study. PMID:21462916

  1. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of hederacoside C, a drug candidate for respiratory disorder, in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choi, Min Sun; Kim, In Sook; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-09-10

    Hederacoside C is a principal bioactive pharmaceutical ingredient of Hedera helix leaf extracts. H. helix extracts have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory disorders. Currently, hederacoside C is investigated as a promising candidate for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, an accurate, sensitive, rapid, and reliable bioanalytical method was developed for the determination of hederacoside C in rat plasma using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). For sample preparation, plasma proteins were precipitated with 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile. Waters UPLC BEH C18 (2.1mm I.D.×100mm, 1.7μm) column was used for chromatographic separation. A gradient elution of mobile phases consisting of 0.02% acetic acid in distilled water (solvent A) and 0.02% acetic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B) was used at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for mass spectrometric detection; the MRM transitions were m/z 1219.7→m/z 469.2 for hederacoside C and m/z 1108.3→m/z 221.2 for ginsenoside Rb1 (internal standard) in the negative ionization mode. A calibration curve was constructed in the range of 10-1000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 5%. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of hederacoside C in rats. Hederacoside C was quickly but inadequately absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of rats resulting in extremely low bioavailability and relatively slow clearance. PMID:27411171

  2. [Simultaneous determination of 23-antibiotics in mariculture water using solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Jingwen

    2015-04-01

    A method for the determination of 23 antibiotics from 6 categories in water was developed by using solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS). Water samples were enriched and cleaned-up by solid-phase extraction cartridges. The MS detection parameters of the analyzed antibiotics, the pH values of loading buffers and the volumes of the eluents were optimized by comparing the sample recoveries under different conditions. All antibiotics were separated by gradient elution with the mobile phases of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid and 1 g/L ammonium formate in water and aceto-nitrile-methanol (1:1, v/v) mixture. The eluate was then analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in both positive and negative electrospray ionization conditions with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method detection limits (MDLs) were in the range of 0.1-2.9 ng/L and the recoveries of 23 antibiotics in water ranged from 47.3% to 132.6%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of 5 water samples from mariculture ponds located in Dongying City, Shandong Province. The results showed that the antibiotics could be detected in all water samples. The trimethoprim showed the highest detection rate, and the florfenicol had the highest mass concentration which reached 261. 0 ng/L. The results showed that the developed method is efficient, sensitive and reliable, which is suitable for the detection of antibiotics in seawater samples.

  3. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect.

  4. Pre-analytical and analytical variation of drug determination in segmented hair using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of total uncertainty of analytical methods for the measurements of drugs in human hair has mainly been derived from the analytical variation. However, in hair analysis several other sources of uncertainty will contribute to the total uncertainty. Particularly, in segmental hair analysis pre-analytical variations associated with the sampling and segmentation may be significant factors in the assessment of the total uncertainty budget. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the analysis of 31 common drugs in hair using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with focus on the assessment of both the analytical and pre-analytical sampling variations. The validated method was specific, accurate (80-120%), and precise (CV≤20%) across a wide linear concentration range from 0.025-25 ng/mg for most compounds. The analytical variation was estimated to be less than 15% for almost all compounds. The method was successfully applied to 25 segmented hair specimens from deceased drug addicts showing a broad pattern of poly-drug use. The pre-analytical sampling variation was estimated from the genuine duplicate measurements of two bundles of hair collected from each subject after subtraction of the analytical component. For the most frequently detected analytes, the pre-analytical variation was estimated to be 26-69%. Thus, the pre-analytical variation was 3-7 folds larger than the analytical variation (7-13%) and hence the dominant component in the total variation (29-70%). The present study demonstrated the importance of including the pre-analytical variation in the assessment of the total uncertainty budget and in the setting of the 95%-uncertainty interval (±2CVT). Excluding the pre-analytical sampling variation could significantly affect the interpretation of results from segmental hair analysis. PMID:24378297

  5. Determination of cyantraniliprole and its major metabolite residues in pakchoi and soil using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianpeng; Feng, Nan; Tang, Congfeng; Qin, Dongmei

    2012-10-01

    A rapid, simple and reliable analytical method was developed for the determination of cyantraniliprole and its major metabolite J9Z38 in pakchoi and soil by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The sample preparation approach is known as QuEChERS, which stands for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and cleaned up with dispersive primary and secondary amine sorbent before analysis by UPLC-MS/MS. The limit of quantitation for cyantraniliprole and J9Z38 was 0.01 mg/kg in both pakchoi and soil. Average recoveries of cyantraniliprole and J9Z38 at three fortified levels (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg) ranged from 77.8% to 102.5% with relative standard deviation of 1.6%-8.9%. This method has been applied to the analysis of cyantraniliprole and J9Z38 residues in real pakchoi and soil samples selected from field. The results of the residue dynamic experiment showed that the half-life of cyantraniliprole ranged from 2.9 to 6.4 days in pakchoi and 8.7 to 18.2 days in soil, respectively. The final residual levels of cyantraniliprole in pakchoi and soil from Guangdong and Shanghai were below 0.20 and 0.10 mg/kg, respectively; similarly, the final residual levels of J9Z38 in pakchoi and soil from Guangdong and Shanghai were <0.07 and 0.01 mg/kg. These results will be helpful in setting maximum residue limit guidance for cyantraniliprole in pakchoi in China. PMID:22933172

  6. Quantification of vitamin D3 in feed, food, and pharmaceuticals using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schadt, Heiko S; Gössl, Richard; Seibel, Natalie; Aebischer, Claude-P

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and selective method for the quantification of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in solid and liquid food, feed, and tablets based on HPLC/MS/MS has been developed and validated. The sample preparation procedure consists of a quick and robust alkaline saponification and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by direct injection of the organic extract into the HPLC/MS/MS system for analysis without any further concentration, reconstitution, or prepurification steps. The reduction in sample preparation time was achieved by applying a heart-cutting, two-dimensional chromatography technique prior to positive electrospray ionization selected reaction monitoring MS analysis. Total vitamin D3 (sum of previtamin D3 and vitamin D3) was quantified using an isotopically labeled internal standard. The ionization efficiency of previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 in the positive electrospray ionization mode was found to be very similar. The validation experiments included four feed matrixes, three types of tablets, and 12 food matrixes. The obtained recoveries were between 96.1 and 105.3%, and intermediate precision ranged from 1.32 to 15.6% RSD, with HorRat values between 0.07 and 0.65. For all samples, extraction efficiencies were above 95.8%. Analysis of two certified reference materials (SRM 1849 and BCR-122) gave accuracies of 102.4 and 99.8%, respectively.

  7. A broad-spectrum equine urine screening method for free and enzyme-hydrolysed conjugated drugs with ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Colton H F; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M

    2011-07-01

    The authors' laboratory at one time employed four liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) methods for the detection of a large variety of drugs in equine urine. Drug classes covered by these methods included anti-diabetics, anti-ulcers, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, sedatives, corticosteroids, anabolic steroids, sulfur diuretics, xanthines, etc. With the objective to reduce labour and instrumental workload, a new ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC/MS/MS) method has been developed, which encompasses all target analytes detected by the original four LC/MS methods. The new method has better detection limits than the superseded methods. In addition, it covers new target analytes that could not be adequately detected by the four LC/MS methods. The new method involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) of two aliquots of equine urine using two Abs Elut Nexus cartridges. One aliquot of the urine sample is treated with β-glucuronidase before subjecting to SPE. A second aliquot of the same urine sample is processed directly using another SPE cartridge, so that drugs that are prone to decomposition during enzyme hydrolysis can be preserved. The combined eluate is analysed by UPLC/MS/MS using alternating positive and negative electrospray ionisation in the selected-reaction-monitoring mode. Exceptional chromatographic separation is achieved using an UPLC system equipped with a UPLC(®) BEH C18 column (10 cm L×2.1 mm ID with 1.7 μm particles). With this newly developed UPLC/MS/MS method, the simultaneous detection of 140 drugs at ppb to sub-ppb levels in equine urine can be achieved in less than 13 min inclusive of post-run equilibration. Matrix interference for the selected transitions at the expected retention times is minimised by the excellent UPLC chromatographic separation. The method has been validated for recovery and precision, and is being used regularly in the authors' laboratory as an important component of the

  8. A novel ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of sucrose octasulfate in dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Li, Steve Lianghong; Chang, Linda Dongxia; Kapanadze, Theo

    2015-01-26

    A novel, specific and sensitive bioanalytical method has been developed for the determination of sucrose octasulfate (SOS) in dog plasma and urine using ion-pair reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray triple quadruple mass spectrometry (IPRP-UPLC ESI MS/MS). (13)C-labeled sucrose octasulfate-(13)C12 sodium salt is used as the internal standard. 200 μL of plasma or serum sample is extracted using weak anion exchange solid phase cartridge. In this method, a polar amide column is employed for the liquid chromatograph (LC) separation while the diethylamine and formic acid buffer is used as the ion-pairing reagent. The low limitation of quantitation of sucrose octasulfate is 0.20 ng on the column with a signal to noise ratio larger than 50. Parameters such as linearity, accuracy and precision have been validated in full compliance with the FDA guidelines for the bioanalytical method development and validation. A linear regression model fit the calibration curve very well with R>0.99. The bias and coefficient of variation of all levels of QCs are within the range of 15%. The selectivity, matrix effect and stabilities of analytes in solution and matrix have also been evaluated and the results met the acceptance criteria according to the guidelines. Based on these results, the method has qualified to analyze sucrose octasulfate in dog plasma for clinic research. This method has been applied to 1000 preclinical samples.

  9. Multi-dye residue analysis of triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish tissues by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reyns, Tim; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Van Loco, Joris

    2014-03-15

    Beside the possible illegal use of malachite green in aquaculture, other familiar dyes could also been applied by fraudulent producers due to their antiseptic and antibacterial activity. In this contribution, a new sensitive multi-residue method was developed to determine triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by an oxidation step using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone. Further clean-up was performed by tandem solid phase extraction using weak and strong cation exchange cartridges. Extracts were analysed by UPLC-MS(n) operating in the positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+). The fourteen dyes were separated within only 12min on a C18 BEH column using 1mM ammonium acetate in water at pH 4.5 and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flowrate of 0.4mLmin(-1). The presented method was validated as defined by the European Union and scientific literature. Good linearity (R ≥0.99 and goodness-of-fit (g) ≤10%) was achieved over the tested concentration range (0.25-2ngg(-1)). Limit of quantification was 0.25ngg(-1) for all dyes, with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 10/1. This is at least 5 to 10 times lower than previous published methods. Limits of detection were all <0.1ngg(-1). Precision and trueness fell within the criteria requested by the EC requirements for this concentration range. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were all <1 and <0.25ngg(-1), respectively. Due to background levels of the xanthene dyes, the two rhodamine dyes could only be determined above 0.75ngg(-1). For these dyes, the method can only be used for screening purposes. To show the applicability of the method, a monitoring study was performed to investigate the occurrence of artificial dyes in wildlife European eel in Flemish rivers. PMID:24583201

  10. Multi-dye residue analysis of triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish tissues by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reyns, Tim; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Van Loco, Joris

    2014-03-15

    Beside the possible illegal use of malachite green in aquaculture, other familiar dyes could also been applied by fraudulent producers due to their antiseptic and antibacterial activity. In this contribution, a new sensitive multi-residue method was developed to determine triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by an oxidation step using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone. Further clean-up was performed by tandem solid phase extraction using weak and strong cation exchange cartridges. Extracts were analysed by UPLC-MS(n) operating in the positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+). The fourteen dyes were separated within only 12min on a C18 BEH column using 1mM ammonium acetate in water at pH 4.5 and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flowrate of 0.4mLmin(-1). The presented method was validated as defined by the European Union and scientific literature. Good linearity (R ≥0.99 and goodness-of-fit (g) ≤10%) was achieved over the tested concentration range (0.25-2ngg(-1)). Limit of quantification was 0.25ngg(-1) for all dyes, with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 10/1. This is at least 5 to 10 times lower than previous published methods. Limits of detection were all <0.1ngg(-1). Precision and trueness fell within the criteria requested by the EC requirements for this concentration range. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were all <1 and <0.25ngg(-1), respectively. Due to background levels of the xanthene dyes, the two rhodamine dyes could only be determined above 0.75ngg(-1). For these dyes, the method can only be used for screening purposes. To show the applicability of the method, a monitoring study was performed to investigate the occurrence of artificial dyes in wildlife European eel in Flemish rivers.

  11. Rapid screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after chemical derivatisation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Colton H F; Leung, David K K; Tang, Francis P W; Wong, Jenny K Y; Yu, Nola H; Wan, Terence S M

    2012-04-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been successfully applied to the detection of anabolic steroids in biological samples. However, the sensitive detection of saturated hydroxysteroids, such as androstanediols, by electrospray ionisation (ESI) is difficult because of their poor ability to ionise. In view of this, chemical derivatisation has been used to enhance the detection sensitivity of hydroxysteroids by LC/MS. This paper describes the development of a sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) method for the screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine by incorporating a chemical derivatisation step, using picolinic acid as the derivatisation reagent. The method involved solid-phase extraction (SPE) of both free and conjugated anabolic steroids in horse urine using a polymer-based SPE cartridge (Abs Elut Nexus). The conjugated steroids in the eluate were hydrolysed by methanolysis and the resulting extract was further cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction. The resulting free steroids in the extract were derivatised with picolinic acid to form the corresponding picolinoyl esters and analysed by UHPLC/MS/MS in the positive ESI mode with selected-reaction-monitoring. Separation of the targeted steroids was performed on a C18 UHPLC column. The instrument turnaround time was 10.5 min inclusive of post-run equilibration. A total of thirty-three anabolic steroids (including 17β-estradiol, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol, 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol, 17α-ethyl-5α-estran-3α,17β-diol, 17α-methyl-5α-androstan-3,17β-diols, androstanediols, nandrolone and testosterone) spiked in negative horse urine at the QC levels (ranging from 0.75 to 30 ng/mL) could be consistently detected. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (% RSD) for the peak area ratios were around 7-51% and around 1-72%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (% RSD) for the relative retention times were both less than 1% for

  12. In situ derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of neurotransmitters in Parkinson's rat brain microdialysates by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Yongrui; Zhao, Xian-En; Zhu, Shuyun; Wei, Na; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Yubi; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Guang; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2016-08-01

    Simultaneous monitoring of several neurotransmitters (NTs) linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) has important scientific significance for PD related pathology, pharmacology and drug screening. A new simple, fast and sensitive analytical method, based on in situ derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ DUADLLME) in a single step, has been proposed for the quantitative determination of catecholamines and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites in rat brain microdialysates. The method involved the rapid injection of the mixture of low toxic bromobenzene (extractant) and acetonitrile (dispersant), which containing commercial Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl chloride (LRSC) as derivatization reagent, into the aqueous phase of sample and buffer, and the following in situ DUADLLME procedure. After centrifugation, 50μL of the sedimented phase (bromobenzene) was directly injected for ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) detection in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This interesting combination brought the advantages of speediness, simpleness, low matrix effects and high sensitivity in an effective way. Parameters of in situ DUADLLME and UHPLC-MS/MS conditions were all optimized in detail. The optimum conditions of in situ DUADLLME were found to be 30μL of microdialysates, 150μL of acetonitrile containing LRSC, 50μL of bromobenzene and 800μL of NaHCO3-Na2CO3 buffer (pH 10.5) for 3.0min at 37°C. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was observed with LODs (S/N>3) and LOQs (S/N>10) of LRSC derivatized-NTs in the range of 0.002-0.004 and 0.007-0.015 nmol/L, respectively. It also brought good precision (3.2-12.8%, peak area CVs%), accuracy (94.2-108.6%), recovery (94.5-105.5%) and stability (3.8-8.1%, peak area CVs%) results. Moreover, LRSC derivatization significantly improved chromatographic resolution and MS detection sensitivity of NTs when compared with the

  13. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method and a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method with the pressurized liquid extraction for the quantification and confirmation of sulfonamides in the foods of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Peng, Dapeng; Dai, Menghong; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2011-09-01

    The residues of sulfonamides (SAs) in the foods of animal origin are of the major concern because they are harmful to the consumer's health and could induce pathogens to develop resistance. Rapid and efficient determination methods are urgently in need. A quantitative high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) and a confirmative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of 18 sulfonamides such as sulfamidinum, sulfanilamide, sulfisomidine, sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfamerazine, sulfadimidine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamethoxydiazine, sulfisoxazole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadoxine, sulfaclozine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfaquinoxaline in the muscles, livers and kidneys of swine, bovine and chicken were developed and validated. The sample preparation procedures included a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with acetonitrile conducted at elevated temperature (70°C) and pressure (1400 psi). After clean-up with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridge, the extraction solution was concentrated and analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis. 18 SAs were separated by the HPLC with a Zorbax SB-Aq-C18 column and the mobile phase of methanol/acetonitrile/1% acetic acid with a gradient system. The wavelength of UV for the HPLC detection was set at 285 nm. The LC-MS/MS analysis was achieved with a Hypersil Golden column and the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution with two gradient systems. The Limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 3 μg/kg and 10 μg/kg, respectively, for both of the HPLC and LC-MS/MS. Linearity was obtained with an average coefficient of determination (R) higher than 0.9980 over a dynamic range from the LOQ value up to 5000 μg/kg. The recoveries of the methods range from 71.1% to 118.3% with the relative standard derivation less than 13%. The peaks of interest with no interferences

  14. In situ derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of neurotransmitters in Parkinson's rat brain microdialysates by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Yongrui; Zhao, Xian-En; Zhu, Shuyun; Wei, Na; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Yubi; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Guang; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2016-08-01

    Simultaneous monitoring of several neurotransmitters (NTs) linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) has important scientific significance for PD related pathology, pharmacology and drug screening. A new simple, fast and sensitive analytical method, based on in situ derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ DUADLLME) in a single step, has been proposed for the quantitative determination of catecholamines and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites in rat brain microdialysates. The method involved the rapid injection of the mixture of low toxic bromobenzene (extractant) and acetonitrile (dispersant), which containing commercial Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl chloride (LRSC) as derivatization reagent, into the aqueous phase of sample and buffer, and the following in situ DUADLLME procedure. After centrifugation, 50μL of the sedimented phase (bromobenzene) was directly injected for ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) detection in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This interesting combination brought the advantages of speediness, simpleness, low matrix effects and high sensitivity in an effective way. Parameters of in situ DUADLLME and UHPLC-MS/MS conditions were all optimized in detail. The optimum conditions of in situ DUADLLME were found to be 30μL of microdialysates, 150μL of acetonitrile containing LRSC, 50μL of bromobenzene and 800μL of NaHCO3-Na2CO3 buffer (pH 10.5) for 3.0min at 37°C. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was observed with LODs (S/N>3) and LOQs (S/N>10) of LRSC derivatized-NTs in the range of 0.002-0.004 and 0.007-0.015 nmol/L, respectively. It also brought good precision (3.2-12.8%, peak area CVs%), accuracy (94.2-108.6%), recovery (94.5-105.5%) and stability (3.8-8.1%, peak area CVs%) results. Moreover, LRSC derivatization significantly improved chromatographic resolution and MS detection sensitivity of NTs when compared with the

  15. Simultaneous quantification of dabrafenib and trametinib in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, C M; Haverkate, H; Rosing, H; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2016-06-01

    Dabrafenib (Tafinlar(®)) and trametinib (Mekinist(®)) are registered for the treatment of patients with BRAF V600 mutation positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma. To support therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and clinical pharmacological trials, an assay to simultaneously quantify dabrafenib and trametinib in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Human plasma samples were collected on an outpatient base and stored at nominally -20°C. Analytes and internal standards (stable isotope labeled compounds) were extracted with TBME. After snap freezing the samples in a dry ice-ethanol bath, the organic layer was transferred to a clean tube and evaporated under a gentle stream of nitrogen gas. The dry extract was then reconstituted with 100μL acetonitrile and 5μL of the final extract was injected and separated on a C18 column with gradient elution, and analyzed with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in positive-ion mode. The validated assay ranges from 50 to 5000ng/mL for dabrafenib and 0.5-50ng/mL for trametinib were linear, and correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.996 or better. At all concentrations of both analytes the biases were within ±15% of the nominal concentrations and precisions were ≤15%. All results were within the acceptance criteria of the latest US FDA guidance and EMA guidelines on method validation. Dabrafenib was found to degrade under the influence of light in different organic solvents and at least seven degradation products were detected. In conclusion, the described method to simultaneously quantify dabrafenib and trametinib in human plasma was successfully validated and applied for therapeutic drug monitoring in cancer patients treated with dabrafenib and trametinib. PMID:27058232

  16. Alkaloid profiling of the traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma corydalis using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingqian; Liu, Jianxun; Lin, Chengren; Miao, Lan; Lin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Since alkaloids are the major active constituents of Rhizoma corydalis (RC), a convenient and accurate analytical method is needed for their identification and characterization. Here we report a method to profile the alkaloids in RC based on liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–Q-TOF-MS/MS). A total of 16 alkaloids belonging to four different classes were identified by comparison with authentic standards. The fragmentation pathway of each class of alkaloid was clarified and their differences were elucidated. Furthermore, based on an analysis of fragmentation pathways and alkaloid profiling, a rapid and accurate method for the identification of unknown alkaloids in RC is proposed. The method could also be useful for the quality control of RC. PMID:26579385

  17. Alkaloid profiling of the traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma corydalis using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingqian; Liu, Jianxun; Lin, Chengren; Miao, Lan; Lin, Li

    2014-06-01

    Since alkaloids are the major active constituents of Rhizoma corydalis (RC), a convenient and accurate analytical method is needed for their identification and characterization. Here we report a method to profile the alkaloids in RC based on liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). A total of 16 alkaloids belonging to four different classes were identified by comparison with authentic standards. The fragmentation pathway of each class of alkaloid was clarified and their differences were elucidated. Furthermore, based on an analysis of fragmentation pathways and alkaloid profiling, a rapid and accurate method for the identification of unknown alkaloids in RC is proposed. The method could also be useful for the quality control of RC.

  18. Determination of type A trichothecenes in coix seed by magnetic solid-phase extraction based on magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Maofeng; Si, Wenshuai; Wang, Weimin; Bai, Bing; Nie, Dongxia; Song, Weiguo; Zhao, Zhihui; Guo, Yirong; Han, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction (m-SPE) is a promising sample preparation approach due to its convenience, speed, and simplicity. For the first time, a rapid and reliable m-SPE approach using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs) as the adsorbent was proposed for purification of type A trichothecenes including T-2 toxins (T2), HT-2 toxins (HT-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), and neosolaniol (NEO) in coix seed. The m-MWCNTs were synthesized by assembling the magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with MWCNTs by sonication through an aggregation wrap mechanism, and characterized by transmission electron microscope. Several key parameters affecting the performance of the procedure were extensively investigated including extraction solutions, desorption solvents, and m-MWCNT amounts. Under the optimal sample preparation conditions followed by analysis with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), high sensitivity (limit of quantification in the range of 0.3-1.5 μg kg(-1)), good linearity (R (2) > 0.99), satisfactory recovery (73.6-90.6 %), and acceptable precision (≤2.5 %) were obtained. The analytical performance of the developed method has also been successfully evaluated in real coix seed samples. Graphical Abstract Flow chart of determination of type A trichothecenes in coix seed by magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

  19. [Optimization of sample pretreatment method for the determination of typical artificial sweeteners in soil by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Feng, Biting; Gan, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongwei; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-09-01

    The sample pretreatment method for the determination of four typical artificial sweeteners (ASs) including sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame in soil by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was optimized. Different conditions of extraction, including four extractants (methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, deionized water), three kinds of ionic strength of sodium acetate solution (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 mol/L), four pH values (3, 4, 5 and 6) of 0.01 mol/L acetate-sodium acetate solution, four set durations of extraction (20, 40, 60, 120 min) and number of extraction times (1, 2, 3, 4 times) were compared. The optimal sample pretreatment method was finally set up. The sam- ples were extracted twice with 25 mL 0.01 mol/L sodium acetate solution (pH 4) for 20 min per cycle. The extracts were combined and then purified and concentrated by CNW Poly-Sery PWAX cartridges with methanol containing 1 mmol/L tris (hydroxymethyl) amino methane (Tris) and 5% (v/v) ammonia hydroxide as eluent. The analytes were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The recoveries were obtained by spiked soil with the four artificial sweeteners at 1, 10, 100 μg/kg (dry weight), separately. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 86.5% to 105%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 2.56%-5.94% and 3.99%-6.53%, respectively. Good linearities (r2 > 0.995) were observed between 1-100 μg/kg (dry weight) for all the compounds. The limits of detection were 0.01-0.21 kg/kg and the limits of quantification were 0.03-0.70 μg/kg for the analytes. The four artificial sweeteners were determined in soil samples from farmland contaminated by wastewater in Tianjin. This method is rapid, reliable, and suitable for the investigation of artificial sweeteners in soil. PMID:25752083

  20. Human liver cytosolic sulfotransferase 2A1-dependent dehydroepiandrosterone sulfation assay by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-20

    Sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1) is a major catalyst of the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in human liver cytosol. However, there is a lack of a sensitive and fast analytical method for the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. Therefore, we developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify DHEA-S and used it to optimize the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. DHEA-S and cortisol (internal standard) eluted at 2.95 and 2.75min, respectively. Negative multiple reaction monitoring was used to quantify DHEA-S (m/z 367.3→97.0) and cortisol (m/z 407.2→331.3). No interfering peaks were observed in blank samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2pmol DHEA-S and the calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision was <11.7%. DHEA-S in the quality control samples was stable at room temperature, 4°C, and -20°C. The cytosolic matrix (20-100μg cytosolic protein) did not affect DHEA-S quantification. Our UPLC-MS/MS method was applied to optimize the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. The optimal levels of MgCl2 and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) cofactor were 2.5mM and 20μM, respectively. Reducing agents, including 2-mercaptoethanol and DL-dithiothreitol, did not affect the enzyme activity. A linear relationship existed between DHEA sulfation and amount of human liver cytosol (20-200μg cytosolic protein) or incubation time (5-30min). This UPLC-MS/MS approach is safer, easier, and faster than existing radiometric-based sulfotransferase enzyme assays, and it is the first UPLC-MS/MS method for determining SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation in human liver cytosol.

  1. Fast and sensitive quantification of human liver cytosolic lithocholic acid sulfation using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification of lithocholic acid (LCA) to lithocholic acid sulfate (LCA-S) is catalyzed by sulfotransferases, mainly SULT2A1. We developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify human liver cytosolic-dependent LCA sulfation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an UPLC C18 column (2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) and a gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Negative electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify LCA-S (455.3→97.0) and cholic acid (407.2→343.3; internal standard). The retention time was 3.51min for LCA-S and 3.08min for cholic acid. The lower limit of quantification of LCA-S was 0.5nM (or 0.23ng/ml in 400μl total volume) and the assay was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were <14%. The quality control samples were stable at room temperature for 4h, 4°C for 24h, -20°C for 14 days, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. The matrix (20-100μg cytosolic protein) did not affect LCA-S quantification. This is the first UPLC-MS/MS method applied to optimization of the human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation assay. The optimal levels of MgCl2 and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) cofactor were 2.5mM and 20μM, respectively. Addition of reducing agents (2-mercaptoethanol and DL-dithiothreitol) did not affect LCA-S formation. Human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation was linear with 20-100μg of cytosolic protein and 5-30min incubation time. This UPLC-MS/MS approach offers a specific, sensitive, fast, and direct approach for quantifying human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation.

  2. Human liver cytosolic sulfotransferase 2A1-dependent dehydroepiandrosterone sulfation assay by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-20

    Sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1) is a major catalyst of the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in human liver cytosol. However, there is a lack of a sensitive and fast analytical method for the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. Therefore, we developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify DHEA-S and used it to optimize the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. DHEA-S and cortisol (internal standard) eluted at 2.95 and 2.75min, respectively. Negative multiple reaction monitoring was used to quantify DHEA-S (m/z 367.3→97.0) and cortisol (m/z 407.2→331.3). No interfering peaks were observed in blank samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2pmol DHEA-S and the calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision was <11.7%. DHEA-S in the quality control samples was stable at room temperature, 4°C, and -20°C. The cytosolic matrix (20-100μg cytosolic protein) did not affect DHEA-S quantification. Our UPLC-MS/MS method was applied to optimize the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. The optimal levels of MgCl2 and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) cofactor were 2.5mM and 20μM, respectively. Reducing agents, including 2-mercaptoethanol and DL-dithiothreitol, did not affect the enzyme activity. A linear relationship existed between DHEA sulfation and amount of human liver cytosol (20-200μg cytosolic protein) or incubation time (5-30min). This UPLC-MS/MS approach is safer, easier, and faster than existing radiometric-based sulfotransferase enzyme assays, and it is the first UPLC-MS/MS method for determining SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation in human liver cytosol. PMID:26760244

  3. Measuring Ochratoxin A Concentrations in Coffee Beverages with Immunoaffinity Columns and Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ling; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and validated a method for measuring concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee beverages, not coffee beans. The new method involved extraction using immunoaffinity columns and ultra-performance LC (UPLC)-MS/MS using isotope-dilution techniques. The combination of a fused-core column and UPLC significantly shortened chromatographic time to 3 min compared to reported UPLC methods. The method was sensitive, with an LOD and LOQ of 0.52 and 1.73 pg/mL, respectively. Quantitative intraday (n = 4) and interday (n = 4) biases and RSD were both below 15%. The OTA levels in 40 samples of freshly brewed coffee from chain stores, 24 samples of canned ready-to-drink coffee, and 6 beverages made from instant coffee granules ranged from 1.60 to 93.2 pg/mL (90% positive), 6.00 to 131 pg/mL (100% positive), and 21.8 to 59.0 pg/mL (100% positive), respectively. Based on published tolerable daily intake, men and women in Taiwan should consume no more than 6.3 and 5.1 fifteen gram packages of instant coffee per day, respectively. Specific suggestions were not made for brewed coffee and canned coffee because of their large variation in OTA concentrations. This study should be more relevant to actual human exposure than those studying OTA in green, roasted, and ground coffee beans alone. PMID:26965577

  4. Analysis of salazinic, norstictic, and usnic acids in Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca; Siemion, Roger; Raisbeck, Merl; Jesse, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The lichen species Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa is toxic when consumed by domestic sheep, cattle, and Rocky Mountain elk. Clinical signs exhibited by poisoned animals include red urine, ataxia, and muscular weakness that rapidly progresses to recumbency. Elk are unable to recover once becoming recumbent; however, most affected cattle can recover if offered suitable feed shortly following the onset of signs. At present, the pathogenesis and specific toxin(s) are unknown. As part of an effort to elucidate the proximate toxin, a method using ultra-performance LC coupled to MS/MS with negative-ion electrospray ionization has been developed to compare salazinic, norstictic, and usnic acid concentrations in X. chlorochroa collected from locales associated with lichen poisonings. Compounds were extracted from lichen samples with acetone and sonication. The stationary phase was a Waters Acquity UPLCTM BEH Ca18 (50 x 2.1 mm; 1.7 microm particle size) column. The mobile phase consisted of an acetonitrile-water gradient. The precision of the method was confirmed by an SD below 0.4% (n=9) for triplicate samples. LOD values were 200, 100, and 50 ng/mL for salazinic, norstictic, and usnic acids, respectively.

  5. Fast and multiresidue determination of twenty glucocorticoids in bovine milk using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deceuninck, Y; Bichon, E; Monteau, F; Dervilly-Pinel, G; Antignac, J P; Le Bizec, B

    2013-06-14

    Glucocorticoids constitute a class of molecules widely used in animal husbandry. Some of these compounds are licensed for veterinary practices while their use for growth promoting purposes is prohibited within the European Union. In order to ensure the respect of the legislation and consumers safety, several methodologies have been proposed to monitor these substances in various products, including edible matrices for which a regulatory limit has been set up (MRL). An extended range of targeted analytes together with reduced time of analysis and cost are however still current challenges regularly revisited according to the continuous technological improvements. In this context, the aim of the present study was to develop and implement a new fast and multi-residue method based on UHPLC-MS/MS for the determination of twenty glucocorticoids in bovine milk, included the screening of the three regulated MRL compounds (dexamethasone, betamethasone and prednisolone). This validated method authorises such multi-analyte measurement within a 10min runtime while the signal specificity is ensured through the SRM acquisition mode. Decision limits and detection capabilities were calculated in the range of 0.001-0.363μgL(-1), which allows a very efficient control at low trace level for a potential illegal use of these substances. The performances obtained in terms of application range, selectivity and sensitivity were found to be significantly improved in comparison to other reported approaches either for screening or confirmation purposes: regarding linearity, correlation coefficients were above 0.98 within the range of 0.01-5.0μgL(-1), repeatability and reproducibility parameters ranged from 1 to 30% with the maximum relative standard deviation (RSD) observed for cortisone (30.1%). Stability of the stock solutions and minor changes in the standard operating procedure have been included for the determination of ruggedness of the method. Identification was systematically

  6. Simultaneous analysis of different classes of phytohormones in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Ge, Liya; Lee, Anna S Y; Yong, Jean Wan Hong; Tan, Swee Ngin; Ong, Eng Shi

    2008-03-10

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water, which contains many uncharacterized phytohormones is extensively used as a growth promoting supplement in plant tissue culture. In this paper, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of various classes phytohormones, including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA), zeatin (Z), N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in young coconut water (CW). The analysis was carried out using a reverse-phase HPLC gradient elution, with an aqueous mobile phase (containing 0.1% formic acid, pH adjusted to 3.2 with triethylamine (TEA)) modified by methanol, and solute detection made at 265 nm wavelength. The method was validated for specificity, quantification, accuracy and precision. After preconcentration of putative endogenous phytohormones in CW using C(18) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the HPLC method was able to screen for putative endogenous phytohormones present in CW. Finally, the identities of the putative phytohormones present in CW were further confirmed using independent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. PMID:18291140

  7. Determination of nitrofuran metabolites in shrimp by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a new derivatization reagent.

    PubMed

    Du, Na-Na; Chen, Ming-Ming; Sheng, Liang-Quan; Chen, Shui-Sheng; Xu, Hua-Jie; Liu, Zhao-Di; Song, Chong-Fu; Qiao, Rui

    2014-01-31

    A high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method for the simultaneous determination of total nitrofuran metabolite residues (furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin, and nitrofurazone) in shrimp was developed. The method involves the acid hydrolysis of protein-bound metabolites, followed by the derivatization of the freed metabolites with the new fluorescent derivatization reagent 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (HN) and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Separation is achieved on a YMC-Pack Polymer C18 column under alkaline conditions, and the high fluorescence intensity of the derivatives at an emission wavelength Em=463nm (Ex=395nm) enables, for the first time, their simultaneous determination in shrimp at concentrations as low as 1μg/kg by HPLC-FLD. The method was validated using blank shrimp fortified with all four metabolites at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0μg/kg. Recoveries were >87% with relative standard deviations of <8.1% for all four metabolites. Furthermore, the results obtained by HPLC-FLD were in very good agreement with those obtained by LC-MS/MS analysis.

  8. Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjun; Qu, Shuping; Du, Zhenxia

    2014-03-01

    A hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the extraction and determination of naloxone (NLX), buprenorphine (BP) and its major metabolite norbuprenorphine (NBP) in human plasma. The optimum extraction conditions of HF-LPME were: the porous of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber was full of component solvent (1-octanol/chloroform/toluene, 2/4/4), the pH of donor phase was 8.7, the extraction time was 30min and stirring speed was 1000 revolutions per minute (rpm). The UHPLC-MS/MS method was performed with Waters ACQUITY UPLCTM BEH C18, 50mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm, using methanol-0.2%formic acid as mobile phase with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25mL/min. The target compounds were detected under a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, then analyzed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and the isotope internal standard method was used for quantification. The results showed that linearities were in the range of 0.1-25ng/mL (R>0.996). The limits of detection (LOD) of BP/NBP/NLX were 0.05/0.05/0.025ng/mL and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) of BP/NBP/NLX were 0.1/0.1/0.05ng/mL, respectively. The spiked recoveries were in the range of 92.1-106.0% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values were less than 15%. This method was simple, inexpensive, sensitive and has been successfully used to quantify plasma samples from patients included in a clinical pharmacogenetic study. PMID:24566267

  9. Identification and quantification of gingerols and related compounds in ginger dietary supplements using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Li, Wenkui; Liang, Wenzhong; Van Breemen, Richard B

    2009-11-11

    Dietary supplements containing preparations of ginger roots/rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) are being used by consumers, and clinical trials using ginger dietary supplements have been carried out to evaluate their anti-inflammatory or antiemetic properties with inconsistent results. Chemical standardization of these products is needed for quality control and to facilitate the design of clinical trials and the evaluation of data from these studies. To address this issue, methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were developed for the detection, characterization, and quantitative analysis of gingerol-related compounds in botanical dietary supplements containing ginger roots/rhizomes. During negative ion electrospray with collision-induced dissociation, the cleavage of the C4-C5 bond with a neutral loss of 194 u and benzylic cleavage leading to the neutral loss of 136 u were found to be class-characteristic fragmentation patterns of the pharmacologically active gingerols or shogaols, respectively. On the basis of these results, an assay using LC-MS/MS with neutral loss scanning (loss of 194 or 136 u) was developed that is suitable for the fingerprinting of ginger dietary supplements based on the selective detection of gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and gingerdiones. In addition, a quantitative assay based on LC-MS/MS with selected reaction monitoring was developed for the quantitative analysis of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, and 10-shogaol in ginger dietary supplements. After method validation, the quantities of these compounds in three commercially available ginger dietary supplements were determined. This assay showed excellent sensitivity, accuracy, and precision and may be used to address the need for quality control and standardization of ginger dietary supplements. PMID:19817455

  10. [Simultaneous determination of 4 kinds of 29 banned and restricted veterinary drugs in animal-derived foods by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and modified QuEChERS for sample preparation].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Yuting; Lui, Lei; Shao, Hui; Li, Hui; Li, Jing; Guo, Yongze

    2014-12-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method, with modified QuEChERS method for sample preparation, was developed for the determination of the 4 kinds of 29 banned and restricted veterinary drugs in chicken muscle, chicken liver, porcine muscle and porcine liver samples. The drugs were extracted with McIlvaine buffer solution and acetonitrile, then cleaned-up by modified QuEChERS method, and finally analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization. The method was validated at three fortification levels (LOQ level, 20 µg/kg and 50 µg/kg) in chicken muscle, chicken liver, porcine muscle and porcine liver samples. The validation results were as follows. The correlation coefficients of the standard calibration curves for the 29 veterinary drugs were all between 0. 993 and 0. 999 over their own concentration ranges. The average recoveries of the 29 drugs were between 71. 5% and 93. 2%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 0. 8% and 7. 7%. The limits of determination (S/N=3) of the drugs were between 0. 3 and 3. 0 µg/kg. The limits of quantification (S/N≥10) were 1. 0 µg/kg for amantadine, 10.0 µg/kg for the tetracycline drugs, and 5. 0 µg/kg for all the other drugs. It was indicated that the method developed is easy, sensitive, and has a good purification effect. The sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method were all acceptable, and it can meet the requirements of the multiple residue analysis. So, this method can be further applied to investigate the veterinary drug residues in animal derived foods.

  11. Rapid screening of edible oils for phthalates using phase-transfer catalyst-assisted hydrolysis and liquid phase microextraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuhui; Liu, Laping; Han, Yangying; Sun, Jingru; Feng, Jing; Wang, Jin; Zhong, Chongming

    2015-11-13

    Edible oil is easily contaminated with phthalic acid esters (PAEs). Conventional procedures to analyze individual PAEs require very rigorous experimental conditions that are extremely labor-intensive due to significant procedural contaminations generated by the ubiquitous presence of PAEs in the laboratory environment. In this study, a rapid screening method for PAEs in edible oil was successfully developed. Using a phase-transfer catalyst (terabutylammonium bromide) during oil/water biphasic base hydrolysis of PAEs, the hydrolysis time was decreased from a previously reported time of 20 h to 10 min (80 °C). The resulting phthalic acid in the acidified hydrolysate was extracted with 600 μL of tributyl phosphate and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 6 min. Parameters affecting the hydrolysis of PAEs and the extraction of phthalic acid were optimized, and the analytical method was validated. No obvious matrix effect existed in the edible oils whether an external or internal standard method was used. The detection limit was 1.0 μmol kg(-1), and the quantification limit was 1.3 μmol kg(-1). The recovery rates varied from 86 to 107% with relative standard deviations equal to or lower than 9.9% in all of the tested conditions. Twenty-six samples were analyzed, and the background corrected total PAE content was found to be in the range of

  12. Use of experimental design in the investigation of stir bar sorptive extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of explosives in water samples.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Sébastien; Vailhen, Dominique; Bridoux, Maxime Cyril

    2016-02-12

    A method for the sensitive quantification of trace amounts of organic explosives in water samples was developed by using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by liquid desorption and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The proposed method was developed and optimized using a statistical design of experiment approach. Use of experimental designs allowed a complete study of 10 factors and 8 analytes including nitro-aromatics, amino-nitro-aromatics and nitric esters. The liquid desorption study was performed using a full factorial experimental design followed by a kinetic study. Four different variables were tested here: the liquid desorption mode (stirring or sonication), the chemical nature of the stir bar (PDMS or PDMS-PEG), the composition of the liquid desorption phase and finally, the volume of solvent used for the liquid desorption. On the other hand, the SBSE extraction study was performed using a Doehlert design. SBSE extraction conditions such as extraction time profiles, sample volume, modifier addition, and acetic acid addition were examined. After optimization of the experimental parameters, sensitivity was improved by a factor 5-30, depending on the compound studied, due to the enrichment factors reached using the SBSE method. Limits of detection were in the ng/L level for all analytes studied. Reproducibility of the extraction with different stir bars was close to the reproducibility of the analytical method (RSD between 4 and 16%). Extractions in various water sample matrices (spring, mineral and underground water) have shown similar enrichment compared to ultrapure water, revealing very low matrix effects.

  13. Use of experimental design in the investigation of stir bar sorptive extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of explosives in water samples.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Sébastien; Vailhen, Dominique; Bridoux, Maxime Cyril

    2016-02-12

    A method for the sensitive quantification of trace amounts of organic explosives in water samples was developed by using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by liquid desorption and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The proposed method was developed and optimized using a statistical design of experiment approach. Use of experimental designs allowed a complete study of 10 factors and 8 analytes including nitro-aromatics, amino-nitro-aromatics and nitric esters. The liquid desorption study was performed using a full factorial experimental design followed by a kinetic study. Four different variables were tested here: the liquid desorption mode (stirring or sonication), the chemical nature of the stir bar (PDMS or PDMS-PEG), the composition of the liquid desorption phase and finally, the volume of solvent used for the liquid desorption. On the other hand, the SBSE extraction study was performed using a Doehlert design. SBSE extraction conditions such as extraction time profiles, sample volume, modifier addition, and acetic acid addition were examined. After optimization of the experimental parameters, sensitivity was improved by a factor 5-30, depending on the compound studied, due to the enrichment factors reached using the SBSE method. Limits of detection were in the ng/L level for all analytes studied. Reproducibility of the extraction with different stir bars was close to the reproducibility of the analytical method (RSD between 4 and 16%). Extractions in various water sample matrices (spring, mineral and underground water) have shown similar enrichment compared to ultrapure water, revealing very low matrix effects. PMID:26777783

  14. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of artemether and dihydroartemisinin in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Hilhorst, M J; Hendriks, G; de Vries, R; Hillewaert, V; Verhaege, T; van de Merbel, N C

    2014-08-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method is described for the quantitative determination of artemether (ART) and its metabolite dihydroartimisinin (DHA) in human plasma samples. Quantitation of ART and DHA in plasma is challenging due to the presence of malaria related hemolytic products in patient plasma causing degradation of the compounds when organic solvents are used during sample processing. Furthermore, both compounds consist of two epimeric forms that can interconvert both in solution and during chromatographic separation, an effect that is dependent on temperature and solvent properties and needs to be taken into account. This method utilizes micro-elution solid-phase extraction as sample preparation technique to minimize the need for organic solvents. Reversed-phase HPLC using a C18 50 × 2.1mm column with 3.5 μm particles and a mobile phase of acetonitrile:water (30:70, v/v), followed by a step gradient at 90% acetonitrile, is applied to separate ART from DHA and matrix interferences within a run time of 4 min. Chromatographic conditions were optimized to allow analyte quantitation independent of the (unknown) ratio of the epimers in the injected sample. A triple quadruple mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface in positive mode was used for detection in order to detect all epimeric forms. The method proved to be linear over a concentration range of 1.00-1,000 ng/mL using 50 μL of plasma. Accuracy and precision were within 15% for bias and CV (20% at the lower limit of quantification). ART and DHA were stable (bias <15%) in plasma for 211 days after storage at -20°C and -70°C, 17 h on melting ice and 2h at room temperature. Furthermore, both compounds were stable in whole blood after storage for 2h on melting ice and at room temperature and after five freeze/thaw cycles. The method was successfully used for the analysis of pharmacokinetic samples originating from a drug-drug interaction

  15. A new high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method based on dispersive solid phase extraction for the determination of the mycotoxin fusarin C in corn ears and processed corn samples.

    PubMed

    Kleigrewe, Karin; Söhnel, Anna-Carina; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-10-12

    Fusarin C is a mycotoxin that is produced by a variety of Fusarium species and is therefore a possible contaminant in food and feed. For this reason, a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of fusarin C in food and feed samples was developed based on dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE). This method has a limit of detection (LOD) of 2 μg/kg, a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 7 μg/kg, and a recovery rate of 80%. Fifty different corn samples were analyzed, and fusarin C was detected in 40 of them. The fusarin C level varied in kernels of corn ears from not detectable up to 83 mg/kg and in food samples from not detectable up to 28 μg/kg. The co-occurrence of further structural analogues of fusarin C was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography Fourier transformation mass spectrometry (HPLC-FTMS). In addition, the stability of fusarin C under storage conditions was evaluated.

  16. [Determination of the residues of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal origin foods by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ling; Wu, Yujie; Li, Yong; Li, Lihua

    2012-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) as the marker residues for carbadox (CBX) and olaquindox (OLA), respectively, in the muscles and livers of porcine and chicken and in the muscles of fish and shrimp. The MQCA and QCA were deproteinated with 5% metaphosphoric acid in 10% methanol followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Further clean-up was performed by solid phase extraction (SPE) through mixed mode anion-exchange columns (Oasis MAX SPE). The separation of the compounds was carried on a Waters Xterra MS C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) by a gradient elution using methanol and 0.2% formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization. The MQCA and QCA were quantified by internal standard method. The linear ranges were 1.0-20.0 microg/L and the correlation coefficients were not less than 0.9996. The average recoveries and relative standard deviations ranged from 62.4%-118% and 1.48%-28.1% respectively at the spiked levels of 0.1, 0.2 and 1.0 microg/kg for the both markers. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.1 microg/kg. The method is sensitive, accurate and suitable for the determination and confirmation of MQCA and QCA in animal origin foods.

  17. [Determination of five avermectins in bovine liver by on-line solid-phase extraction with hydrophobic monolithic column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yaoqin; Ai, Lianfeng; Wang, Xuesheng; Wang, Manman; Xu, Houjun; Hao, Yulan

    2015-06-01

    A method based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) with hydrophobic monolithic column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of five avermectins in bovine liver. A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was used as the sorbent. The parameters influenced on on-line SPE and separation process such as the loading mobile phase, the eluting flow rate and the solvent for the separation were investigated in detail. Blank samples, spiked samples, matrix effect and recovery experiments were investigated to evaluate the extraction efficiency and potential interfering compounds originating from the matrix. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed a linear range of 1-100 µg/L and the quantification limit of 5 µg/kg for each analyte. The presented method gave recoveries of 77.4%-98.4%. The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were 4.46%-8.03% and 4.79%-8.68%, respectively. Moreover, no significant changes were found in the extraction performance after more than 400 usages on one monolithic column, and even on the monoliths with various batches. The feasibility of the developed poly (butyl methacrylate-coethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column based on the on-line SPE method for the determination of avermectins was further demonstrated by the analysis of real samples.

  18. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction sorbents for simultaneous determination of type A trichothecenes in maize, wheat and rice by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Maofeng; Si, Wenshuai; Jiang, Keqiu; Nie, Dongxia; Wu, Yongjiang; Zhao, Zhihui; De Saeger, Sarah; Han, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as sorbents coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of four type A trichothecenes in maize, wheat and rice for the first time. Several key parameters including the composition of sample loading solutions, washing and elution solvents were thoroughly investigated to achieve optimal SPE recoveries and efficiency. Performance of the MWCNTs materials was significantly affected by pH, and after optimization, n-hexane and 5% methanol aqueous solution as the washing solutions and methanol containing 1% formic acid as the elution solvent presented an excellent purification efficiency for the four targets in the different matrices. The method was validated by determining the linearity (R(2)≥0.992), recovery (73.4-113.7%), precision (1.2-17.1%) and sensitivity (limit of quantification in the range of 0.02-0.10μg/kg), and was further applied for simultaneous determination of type A trichothecenes in 30 samples. Although low contamination levels of type A trichothecenes in wheat, maize and rice were observed revealing mitigated risks to consumers in Shanghai, China, the developed method has proven to be a valuable tool for type A trichothecenes monitoring in complex crop matrices.

  19. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high-throughput confirmation and quantification of 34 anabolic steroids in bovine muscle.

    PubMed

    Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Wille, Klaas; Bekaert, Karen; De Brabander, Hubert F

    2011-08-26

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry multi-residue method for the determination of 34 anabolic steroids (10 estrogens including stilbenes, 14 androgens and 10 gestagens) in meat of bovine origin is reported. The extraction and clean-up procedure involved homogenization with methanol, defatting with hexane, liquid/liquid extraction with diethylether and finally SPE clean-up with coupled Si and NH(2) cartridges. The analytes were separated on a 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold column (100×2.1 mm) and quantified on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TSQ Vantage) operating simultaneously in both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) modes. This analytical procedure was subsequently validated according to EU criteria (CD 2002/657/EC), resulting in decision limits and detection capabilities ranging between 0.04 and 0.88 μg kg(-1) and 0.12 and 1.9 μg kg(-1), respectively. The method obtained for all, natural and synthetic steroids, adequate precisions and intra-laboratory reproducibilities (relative standard deviation below 20%), and the linearity ranged between 0.991 and 0.999. The performance characteristics fulfill the recommended concentrations fixed by the Community Reference Laboratories. The developed analysis is sensitive, and robust and therefore useful for confirmation and quantification of anabolic steroids for research purposes and residue control programs.

  20. Metabolic profiling of major vitamin D metabolites using Diels-Alder derivatization and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aronov, Pavel A; Hall, Laura M; Dettmer, Katja; Stephensen, Charles B; Hammock, Bruce D

    2008-07-01

    Biologically active forms of vitamin D are important analytical targets in both research and clinical practice. The current technology is such that each of the vitamin D metabolites is usually analyzed by individual assay. However, current LC-MS technologies allow the simultaneous metabolic profiling of entire biochemical pathways. The impediment to the metabolic profiling of vitamin D metabolites is the low level of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in human serum (15-60 pg/mL). Here, we demonstrate that liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction of vitamin D metabolites in combination with Diels-Alder derivatization with the commercially available reagent 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-electrospray/tandem mass spectrometry analysis provides rapid and simultaneous quantification of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(2), 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) in 0.5 mL human serum at a lower limit of quantification of 25 pg/mL. Precision ranged from 1.6-4.8 % and 5-16 % for 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), respectively, using solid-phase extraction.

  1. Determination of withaferin A and withanolide A in mice plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetics after oral administration of Withania somnifera aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dada; Gautam, Manish; Mishra, Sanjay; Karupothula, Suresh; Gairola, Sunil; Jadhav, Suresh; Pawar, Shrikrishna; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2013-06-01

    Withania somnifera (WS) is one of the popular botanical medicines widely used in Ayurveda. Withanolides such as withaferin A (WA) and withanolide A (WLD) are its bioactive constituents reported as promising drug candidates in cancer and neurological disorders respectively. A new, selective and rapid high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of WA and WLD in mice plasma. Simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure was followed using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME) for plasma sample pretreatment. Analytes were separated on Hypurity C18 column using methanol and ammonium acetate (95:5, v/v) as a mobile phase and detected by electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The mass transition ion-pair was followed as m/z 471.3→281.2 for WA; m/z 437.2→292.2 for tianeptine (IS) and m/z 488.3→263.1 for WLD; m/z 315.9→270 for clonazepam (IS). The method showed excellent linearity (r(2)>0.997) over the concentration range of 0.484-117.880ng/ml for WA and from 0.476-116.050ng/ml for WLD. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were found to be 0.484ng/ml and 0.476ng/ml for WA and WLD respectively. Precision (% CV) and accuracy (% bias) were found in the range of 3.7-14.3% and -14.4-4.0%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK) study for estimation of WA and WLD in mice plasma following oral administration of W. somnifera root aqueous extract (WSE). The PK study suggested rapid oral absorption of these withanolides. The PK study revealed that withaferin A has one and half times more relative bioavailability as compared to withanolide A.

  2. Determination of withaferin A and withanolide A in mice plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetics after oral administration of Withania somnifera aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dada; Gautam, Manish; Mishra, Sanjay; Karupothula, Suresh; Gairola, Sunil; Jadhav, Suresh; Pawar, Shrikrishna; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2013-06-01

    Withania somnifera (WS) is one of the popular botanical medicines widely used in Ayurveda. Withanolides such as withaferin A (WA) and withanolide A (WLD) are its bioactive constituents reported as promising drug candidates in cancer and neurological disorders respectively. A new, selective and rapid high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of WA and WLD in mice plasma. Simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure was followed using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME) for plasma sample pretreatment. Analytes were separated on Hypurity C18 column using methanol and ammonium acetate (95:5, v/v) as a mobile phase and detected by electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The mass transition ion-pair was followed as m/z 471.3→281.2 for WA; m/z 437.2→292.2 for tianeptine (IS) and m/z 488.3→263.1 for WLD; m/z 315.9→270 for clonazepam (IS). The method showed excellent linearity (r(2)>0.997) over the concentration range of 0.484-117.880ng/ml for WA and from 0.476-116.050ng/ml for WLD. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were found to be 0.484ng/ml and 0.476ng/ml for WA and WLD respectively. Precision (% CV) and accuracy (% bias) were found in the range of 3.7-14.3% and -14.4-4.0%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK) study for estimation of WA and WLD in mice plasma following oral administration of W. somnifera root aqueous extract (WSE). The PK study suggested rapid oral absorption of these withanolides. The PK study revealed that withaferin A has one and half times more relative bioavailability as compared to withanolide A. PMID:23584079

  3. A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin C effervescent tablet by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan

    2013-05-01

    In present study, a rapid and sensitive method using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin C effervescent tablet. The optimum chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase Waters® Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 μm particle size, 100 mm × 2.1 mm ID) with an isocratic elution profile and mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (75:25, v/v, pH 3.5) at flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1. The influences of mobile phase composition, flow rate and pH on chromatographic resolution were investigated. The total chromatographic analysis time was as short as 2 min with excellent resolution. Detection and quantification of the target compounds were carried out with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. The performance of the method was evaluated and very low limits of detection less than 0.09 μg g-1, excellent coefficient correlation (r2 > 0.999) with liner range over a concentration range of 0.1-1.0 μg g-1 for both L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, and good intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) <3%), were obtained. Comparison of system performance with traditional liquid chromatography-photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was made with respect to analysis time, sensitivity, linearity and precisions. The proposed UPLC-MS/MS method was found to be reproducible and appropriate for quantitative analysis of L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin C effervescent tablet.

  4. Identification of atranorin and related potential allergens in oakmoss absolute by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Hiserodt, R D; Swijter, D F; Mussinan, C J

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes the first high-performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the identification of atranorin and related potential allergens in oakmoss absolute. Oakmoss absolute is ubiquitous in the fragrance industry and is a key component in many fine perfumes. However, oakmoss absolute causes an allergic response in some individuals. Research is focused toward establishing the identity of the compounds causing the allergic response so a quality controlled oakmoss with reduced allergenic potential can be prepared. Consequently a highly selective and specific analytical method is necessary to support this effort. This is not available with the existing HPLC methods using UV detection. PMID:10949477

  5. Simultaneous quantification of simvastatin and simvastatin hydroxy acid in blood serum at physiological pH by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bews, Hilary J; Carlson, Jules C; Jha, Aruni; Basu, Sujata; Halayko, Andrew J; Wong, Charles S

    2014-02-01

    Simvastatin attenuates airway inflammation and hyperreactivity, hallmarks of asthma, in allergen-challenged mice. As such, it is under consideration as a novel therapeutic, thus it is important to quantify the levels of simvastatin and its pharmacologically active and interconvertible metabolite, simvastatin hydroxy acid, that can be attained in the body. Methods exist to measure the concentrations of these compounds in biological media; however they do not maintain a physiological pH, and as a result do not accurately measure the ratio of these two compounds that exists in vivo. We developed a new method to measure simvastatin and simvastatin hydroxy acid more accurately in serum from mice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We minimized the time that the compounds were in aqueous solution, and buffered samples to a physiological pH value of 7.4. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.16 ng mL(-1) extract (1.3 ng mL(-1) serum) for simvastatin, and 8.3 ng mL(-1) extract (66 ng mL(-1) serum) for simvastatin hydroxy acid, respectively. No interconversion was observed, based on spike-and-recovery experiments of solutions containing both compounds. The method was applied using biological samples from mice challenged with house dust mite extract and simultaneously treated with subcutaneous simvastatin injection. Simvastatin hydroxy acid concentrations became significantly increased after a 2 week pre-treatment regime, whereas simvastatin concentrations were below the LOQ for all serum samples.

  6. [Determination of 61 organophosphorous pesticide residues in fruits, vegetables, milk, vegetable oils and animal muscles by dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ruihong; Su, Jianfeng

    2011-07-01

    A dispersive solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 61 organophosphorous pesticide residues in fruits, vegetables, milk, vegetable oils and animal muscles. The fruit, vegetable and milk samples were extracted with acetonitrile and separated with salting out method; vegetable oil samples were dissolved by n-hexane, and extracted with acetonitrile; animal muscle samples were extracted with acetonitrile-water assisted by n-hexane and separated with salting out method. And then the supernatants were purified using dispersive solid-phase extraction (C18 and primary secondary amine powder) prior to the UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The analytes were indentified in positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves were used for quantitative analysis. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (S/N > or = 10) of the method were 0.01 mg/kg. The recoveries were 62.8%-107%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 4.2%-19%. The method has the advantages of easy, fast, and more sensitive, and can meet the requirement of the determination of organophosphorous pesticide residues in the foods.

  7. Simultaneous determination of 14-thienyl methylene matrine and matrine in rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application in a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Minjie; Wang, Lisheng; Jiang, Weizhe; Huang, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 14-thienyl methylene matrine (TMM) and matrine (MT) in rat plasma in the present study. The analytes were separated on a C18 column (1.9 μm, 2.1 mm × 100 mm) with a security guard C18 column (5 μm, 2.1 mm × 10 mm) and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was applied for detection. With pseudoephedrine hydrochloride as internal standard, sample pretreatment involved in a one-step protein precipitation with isopropanol:ethyl acetate (v/v, 20:80). The method was linear over the concentration ranges of 5-1000 ng/ml for TMM and 10-2000 ng/ml for MT. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 15% and the relative errors (RE) were all within 15%. The proposed method enables unambiguous identification and quantification of TMM and MT in vivo. This was the first report on determination of the TMM and MT in rat plasma after oral administration of TMM. The results provided a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical applications of the medicine.

  8. Multi-class method for the determination of nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol in chicken muscle and egg by dispersive-solid phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Wu, Yuping; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Yingyu; Li, Hui; Fu, Qin; Shan, Yawen; Liu, Tianhe; Xia, Xi

    2017-02-15

    This study describes the development of a multiresidue method for the efficient identification and quantification of nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol in chicken and egg. After derivatization of nitrofuran metabolites, dispersive-solid phase extraction was used for the extraction of target analytes. An optimization strategy involved the selection of sorbents and extraction solutions for dispersive-solid phase extraction in order to achieve acceptably high recoveries and reduce co-extractives in the final extracts. Analytes were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in one single injection with a chromatographic run time of 7.5min. Mean recoveries ranged from 86.4% to 116.7% and interday precision was lower than 18%. The limits of quantification were between 0.1 and 0.5μg/kg, which were satisfactory to support surveillance monitoring. Finally, the method was applied to real samples, and metabolite of furazolidone, metronidazole and its metabolite, dimetridazole and its metabolite were detected in both chicken and egg samples. PMID:27664624

  9. [Determination of 19 antibiotic and 2 sulfonamide metabolite residues in wild fish muscle in mariculture areas of Laizhou Bay using accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Du, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Zhao, Hongxia

    2014-12-01

    A sample preparation and analytical method with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) was developed to detect 19 antibiotic (9 sulfonamides, 4 quinolones, 3 macrolides and 3 others) and 2 sulfonamide metabolite residues in fish muscle. The target compounds were extracted using ASE and purified simultaneously by a C18 resin in the extraction cell. The extracts were evaporated to dryness, and redissolved with the initial mobile phase for HPLC-MS/MS analysis after freezing centrifugation (10,000 r/min, -4 °C) to remove the fat and other matrix compounds further. The separation of the analytes was carried out on an Xterra MS C18 column with methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as mobile phase A and 0. 1% formic acid (containing 0. 1% ammonium formate) as mobile phase B. The spiked recoveries of the method were 55. 2%-113. 3%, with the relative standard deviations of 0. 1% - 17. 6% (n = 6). The limits of detection ranged from 0. 003 to 0. 6 ng/g. The method was applied to two fish (Synechogobius hasta and Liza haematocheilus) collected in mariculture areas of Laizhou Bay and six antibiotics were detected, in which the mass concentrations of norfloxacin were highest with mean values of 67. 01 and 27. 58 ng/g, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and useful in the study on exposure levels and environmental behavior of the antibiotics.

  10. Application of microwave-assisted extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of sex hormones and corticosteroids in sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Santana-Viera, Sergio; Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2016-09-01

    Hormonal compounds are a concern to the international community because they can affect the aquatic biota and are therefore considered to be endocrine-disrupting compounds. These compounds have lipophilic properties, so they tend to accumulate in solid matrices, such as sewage sludge. This work presents the optimization of a microwave-assisted extraction process combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of 15 hormonal compounds in sludge samples. The proposed method has relative standard deviations below 23 %, good recoveries (over 71 %) for all compounds, detection limits that ranged from 1.1 to 7.9 ng g(-1) and quantification limits which ranged from 3.7 to 26.3 ng g(-1). The method was used to analyse sludge samples from four different wastewater treatment plants of Gran Canaria (Spain) with different wastewater treatments. 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, norgestrel and cortisone were detected in sludge samples at concentrations that ranged from 17.3 to 1.44 × 10(3) ng g(-1). The developed method permits the use of small quantities of sample and organic solvents, presents short extractions times and is the first one based on microwave-assisted extraction for the analysis of both sex hormones and corticosteroids. PMID:27503545

  11. [An automatic and sensitive method for the determination of endogenous brassinosteroids in plant tissues by an online trapping-in situ derivatization-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Jiang, Li; Feng, Yuqi

    2014-10-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of naturally occurring phytohormones with poly- hydroxy steroid structure, which regulate general plant growth and many physiological processes. The reported methods for BR analysis were complicated, and the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To realize the automatic analysis of trace BRs in limited plant tissues, an in-tube solid phase microextraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-UPLC-MS/MS) system was constructed based on two valves-two pumps. Using C18 PEEK column as the trapping column and 4-(dimethylamino) phenylboronic acid (4-DMAPBA) as the derivatization reagent, an on line trapping and in situ derivatization assay method of BRs was developed. BRs could be programmed to fulfill the procedures of injection, extraction, derivatization, LC separation and MS detection in the system. The detection limits of BRs were improved more than one order of magnitude by the online trapping and in situ derivatization techniques, thus endogenous BRs could be quantified in only 300 mg plant tissues.

  12. Multi-residue and multi-class determination of antibiotics in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Andreia; Leston, Sara; Rosa, João; Castilho, Maria da Conceição; Barbosa, Jorge; Rema, Paulo; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the determination of 41 antibiotics from seven different classes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, penicillins and chloramphenicol were simultaneously determined. Fourteen procedures for sample treatment were tested and an extraction with acetonitrile and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid was found to be the best option. The methodology was validated in accordance with Decision 2002/657/EC. Precision in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD) was under 17% for all compounds, and the recoveries ranged from 92% to 111%. CCα and CCβ were determined according to the maximum residue limit or the minimum required performance limit, when necessary. The validation provided evidence that the method was suitable for application in routine analysis for the detection and confirmation of antibiotics in muscle of gilthead sea bream, an important and intensively produced fish in aquaculture.

  13. Validation of a method for simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles and chloramphenicols in swine tissues by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xia; Li, Yun; Zhong, Feng; Li, Xiaowei; Huang, Yaoling; Ding, Shuangyang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-05-31

    This paper presents a sensitive and confirmatory multi-residue method for the analysis of 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites belonging to three classes (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicols) in porcine muscle, liver, and kidney. After extracted with ethyl acetate and basic ethyl acetate sequentially, the crude extracts were defatted with hexane and further purified using Oasis MCX solid-phase extraction cartridges. Rapid determination was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Data acquisition was performed under positive and negative mode simultaneously. Recoveries based on matrix-matched calibrations for meat, liver, and kidney ranged from 50.6 to 108.1%. The method quantification limits were in the range of 3-100ng/kg. PMID:23017446

  14. Effects of high power ultrasound on all-E-β-carotene, newly formed compounds analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Carail, Michel; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Meullemiestre, Alice; Chemat, Farid; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    To study effects of high power ultrasound treatment (20 kHz) on β-carotene degradation, a second-order central composite design (CCD) was performed to investigate maximum β-carotene loss with three independent factors (ultrasonic intensity, sonication time, and temperature). Results based on variance analysis and Pareto chart have shown that sonication time is the most important factor, followed by ultrasonic intensity level. The evolved degradation products have been tentatively identified using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to both diode array detector and a mass spectrometer (UHPLC-DAD-MS). The main degradation products, tentatively identified, are three Z-isomers of β-carotene and seven β-apo-carotenals/ones. Hypothesis on the degradation mechanism of carotenoids are presented.

  15. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Neuroactive Steroids Associated with Depression in Rat Plasma and Brain by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youqiong; Tang, Lipeng; Yin, Wei; Chen, Jiesi; Leng, Tiandong; Zheng, Xiaoke; Zhu, Wenbo; Zhang, Haipeng; Qiu, Pengxin; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yan, Guangmei; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive and specific biomarkers are required for the diagnosis and treatment of depression because the existing diagnostic criteria are subjective and could produce false positives or negatives. Some endogenous neuroactive steroids that have shown either antidepressant effects or concentration changes in individuals with depression could provide potential biomarkers. In this study, a simple and specific method was developed to simultaneously determine seven endogenous neuroactive steroids in biological samples: cortisone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol, progesterone, pregnenolone, and testosterone. After liquid-liquid extraction, chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with gradient elution using water-methanol at a flow rate of 300 μL min(-1). Detection and quantitation were performed by tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and selected reaction monitoring. Plasma and brain neuroactive steroid levels were then determined in control rats and rats exposed to forced swimming, a classical rodent model of depression. The results showed that the plasma concentrations of testosterone, pregnenolone, and progesterone significantly increased in rats exposed to the forced swimming test. In contrast, brain homogenate levels of cortisol, estradiol, and progesterone decreased, while pregnenolone levels were elevated in this model of depression. In conclusion, a new method to quantify neuroactive steroids was successfully developed and applied to their investigation in rat plasma and brain. The findings of this study indicated that plasma testosterone, pregnenolone, and progesterone levels could provide potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of depression. PMID:27682404

  16. A multiresidue approach for the simultaneous quantification of antibiotics in macroalgae by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leston, Sara; Freitas, Andreia; Rosa, João; Barbosa, Jorge; Lemos, Marco F L; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

    2016-10-15

    Together with fish, algae reared in aquaculture systems have gained importance in the last years, for many purposes. Besides their use as biofilters of effluents, macroalgae's rich nutritional profiles have increased their inclusion in human diets but also in animal feeds as sources of fatty acids, especially important for the fish industry. Nonetheless, algae are continuously exposed to environmental contaminants including antibiotics and possess the ability for bioaccumulation of such compounds. Therefore, the present paper describes the development and validation of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of antibiotics in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. This multi-residue method enables the determination of 38 compounds distributed between seven classes and was fully validated according to EU Decision 2002/657/EC.

  17. A multiresidue approach for the simultaneous quantification of antibiotics in macroalgae by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leston, Sara; Freitas, Andreia; Rosa, João; Barbosa, Jorge; Lemos, Marco F L; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

    2016-10-15

    Together with fish, algae reared in aquaculture systems have gained importance in the last years, for many purposes. Besides their use as biofilters of effluents, macroalgae's rich nutritional profiles have increased their inclusion in human diets but also in animal feeds as sources of fatty acids, especially important for the fish industry. Nonetheless, algae are continuously exposed to environmental contaminants including antibiotics and possess the ability for bioaccumulation of such compounds. Therefore, the present paper describes the development and validation of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of antibiotics in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. This multi-residue method enables the determination of 38 compounds distributed between seven classes and was fully validated according to EU Decision 2002/657/EC. PMID:27627807

  18. On-line solid phase extraction-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a powerful technique for the determination of sulfonamide residues in soils.

    PubMed

    Tetzner, Natália Fernanda; Maniero, Milena Guedes; Rodrigues-Silva, Caio; Rath, Susanne

    2016-06-24

    Sulfonamides are antimicrobials used widely as veterinary drugs, and their residues have been detected in environmental matrices. An analytical method for determining sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline residues in soils employing a solid phase extraction on-line technique coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated in this study. SPE and chromatographic separation were performed using an Oasis HLB column and an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 analytical column, respectively, at 40°C. Samples were prepared by extracting sulfonamides from soil using a solid-liquid extraction method with water:acetonitrile, 1:1v/v (recovery of 70.2-99.9%). The following parameters were evaluated to optimize the on-line SPE process: sorbent type (Oasis and C8), sample volume (100-400μL), loading solvent (water and different proportions of water:methanol) and washing volume (0.19-0.66mL). The method produced linear results for all sulfonamides from 0.5 to 12.5ngg(-1) with a linearity greater than 0.99. The precision of the method was less than 15%, and the matrix effect was -27% to -87%. The accuracy was in the range of 77-112% for all sulfonamides. The limit of quantitation in the two soils (clay and sand) was 0.5ngg(-1). The SPE column allowed for the analysis of many (more than 2000) samples without decreasing the efficiency. PMID:27234844

  19. [Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplets combined with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determination of benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers in seawater].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jincheng; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping; Zhang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) technique was developed for the determination of seven benzotriazole ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers in seawater samples by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimal liquid-liquid microextraction experiment conditions were as follows: 20 μL of 1-dodecanol as extraction solvent, 400 μL of methanol as dispersive solvent, 8% (mass percentage) NaCl, pH of the sample below 6, vortex oscillation extraction time in 2 min. The separation of target compounds was achieved by combining a Hypersil GOLD analytical column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 μm) with methanol-water as mobile phase with gradient elution program. Quantitative determination by ESI-MS/MS was achieved using positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring mode. The proposed method showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients all above 0. 99. The blank samples were spiked at three levels and the average recoveries of target compounds ranged from 68.3% to 127.5% with the RSDs from 0.9% to 15.2%. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method for the seven target compounds were in the ranges of 0.001-0.090 μg/L and 0.003-0.300 μg/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of the UV stabilizers in seawater at Dalian seashores, and some of the benzotriazoles were detected. The method is simple, rapid, environment friendly, highly sensitive and suitable for rapid analysis of benzotriazole UV stabilizers in seawater. PMID:25752081

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Naturally Occurring Estrogens and Mycoestrogens in Milk by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Samperi, Roberto; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-10-14

    A simple, fast, and reproducible method for the simultaneous determination of natural estrogens and mycoestrogens (resorcylic acid lactones) in milk by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS) is described. The extraction was carried out by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using graphitized carbon black as solid sorbent. The use of carbon black allowed us to avoid any type of sample pretreatment, and the extraction was performed simply by diluting milk samples in water. Correlation coefficient values were obtained in the range between 0.9991 and 1, with good recoveries (67-107% at the lowest spiked level), repeatability (4.8-16.8%), and reproducibility (3.2-16.3%). Moreover, a very low matrix effect was observed for both estrogens and mycoestrogens. With respect to a previous method based on SPE with Oasis MAX cartridges, the one here described allowed us to detect all the analytes under investigation, at the lowest tested concentration level, including free estrogens (in particular estriol). Finally, the developed UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS method was applied to the analysis of some whole milk samples from different lactating animals (cow, goat, and donkey) as well as ultrahigh-temperature-treated cow milk and powder milk samples.

  1. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides residues in eels using subcritical water extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiming; Yang, Yunxia; Li, Yang; Fan, Xia; Ding, Shuangyang

    2013-05-13

    A rapid, sensitive, and environmental-friendly multi-residue method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of seven neonicotinoid insecticides (dinotefuran, nitenpyram, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid) residues in eel samples. Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a novel and alternative technology for the extraction of neonicotinoids from eel matrices and the results were compared with the conventional ultrasonic and shaking extraction. The target compounds were identified and quantitatively determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Under the current optimized chromatographic conditions, each LC run was completed in 5 min. Average recoveries of the seven analytes from fortified samples ranged between 84.6% and 102.0%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10.8%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) for neonicotinoids were in the ranges of 0.12-0.36 μg kg(-1) and 0.42-1.12 μg kg(-1), respectively. The proposed method is fast, sensitive, easy to perform, water-based thus more environmentally acceptable, making it applicable for high-throughput monitoring of insecticides residues in aquatic products. PMID:23622962

  2. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzo[a]pyrene in black ginseng using fluorescence detector and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Hye-jin; Son, Byeong-cheol; Jo, Dong-keun; Cho, Byung-lim

    2013-05-01

    Black ginseng is produced by steaming a ginseng root followed by drying repeatedly 9 times during the process and it is changed to be black color, so it is known that a black ginseng has more contents of saponins than red ginseng. However a fake black ginseng which is produced to be black color at high temperature in a short period of time generate carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) through the process. In this year, maximum residue level(MRL) for BaP was established to 2 ug/kg in black ginseng and more sensitive method was developed to quantitatively analyze the BaP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupling with florescence detector and tandem mass spectrometry (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Supelcosil™ LC-PAH column (3 μm, 3 mm x 50 mm). Mobile phase A was water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. BaP was exactly separated from other 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have been selected as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Linearity of detection was in the range of 0.2~20 μg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) for BaP was lower than 0.1 μg/kg, limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.2 μg/kg. The recovery of Bap was 92.54%+/-6.3% in black ginseng.

  3. Dual ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization for simultaneous determination of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xian-En; Lv, Tao; Zhu, Shuyun; Qu, Fei; Chen, Guang; He, Yongrui; Wei, Na; Li, Guoliang; Xia, Lian; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; You, Jinmao; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Shuying

    2016-03-11

    This paper, for the first time, reported a speedy hyphenated technique of low toxic dual ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (dual-UADLLME) coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) for the simultaneous determination of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT). The developed method was based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) detection using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A mass spectrometry sensitizing reagent, 4'-carboxy-substituted rosamine (CSR) with high reaction activity and ionization efficiency was synthesized and firstly used as derivatization reagent. Parameters of dual-UADLLME, MAD and UHPLC-MS/MS conditions were all optimized in detail. Low toxic brominated solvents were used as extractant instead of traditional chlorinated solvents. Satisfactory linearity, recovery, repeatability, accuracy and precision, absence of matrix effect and extremely low limits of detection (LODs, 0.010 and 0.015ng/mL for PPD and PPT, respectively) were achieved. The main advantages were rapid, sensitive and environmentally friendly, and exhibited high selectivity, accuracy and good matrix effect results. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetics of PPD and PPT in rat plasma. PMID:26877173

  4. Dual ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization for simultaneous determination of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xian-En; Lv, Tao; Zhu, Shuyun; Qu, Fei; Chen, Guang; He, Yongrui; Wei, Na; Li, Guoliang; Xia, Lian; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; You, Jinmao; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Shuying

    2016-03-11

    This paper, for the first time, reported a speedy hyphenated technique of low toxic dual ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (dual-UADLLME) coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) for the simultaneous determination of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT). The developed method was based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) detection using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A mass spectrometry sensitizing reagent, 4'-carboxy-substituted rosamine (CSR) with high reaction activity and ionization efficiency was synthesized and firstly used as derivatization reagent. Parameters of dual-UADLLME, MAD and UHPLC-MS/MS conditions were all optimized in detail. Low toxic brominated solvents were used as extractant instead of traditional chlorinated solvents. Satisfactory linearity, recovery, repeatability, accuracy and precision, absence of matrix effect and extremely low limits of detection (LODs, 0.010 and 0.015ng/mL for PPD and PPT, respectively) were achieved. The main advantages were rapid, sensitive and environmentally friendly, and exhibited high selectivity, accuracy and good matrix effect results. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetics of PPD and PPT in rat plasma.

  5. Validated ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of total and free thyroid hormones in bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Kiebooms, Julie Anne Lucie; Wauters, Jella; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential hormones for regulating growth and development. Methods to accurately monitor low-levels (ppb-ppt) of these hormones in serum are needed to assess overall health, both from a clinical perspective as from environmental contaminant or drug exposures. In general, the separation of the free thyroid hormone fraction from animal sera is performed through labour intensive equilibrium dialysis, while detection of total and free thyroid hormone fractions in animals is done with commercially available radioimmunoassays (RIAs). This study reports newly developed analysis methods for both the total and free fractions of triiodothyronine (T3), reverse-triiodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxin (T4) from bovine serum, with a much higher specificity and selectivity than commercially available RIAs. The bovine serum extraction procedures of total and free T3, rT3, T4 were optimised with fractional factorial designs and consisted of, respectively, deproteinisation followed by liquid-liquid extraction, 30 kDA ultracentrifugation and solid phase extraction. Both free and total thyroid hormone UHPLC-HESI-MS/MS based analysis methods were successfully validated. The limits of quantification for T4, rT3 and T3 amounted respectively 0.04 ng mL(-1), 0.05 ng mL(-1), 0.03 ng mL(-1) for the total fraction, and 6.6 pg mL(-1), 2.6 pg mL(-1) and 2.7 pg mL(-1) for the free fraction. Individual recoveries of total and free thyroid hormone fractions ranged between 95.6 and 106.3% and 92.1 and 106.5%. Good results for repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility (RSD%) were observed, i.e. respectively ≤8.0% and ≤7.3% for the total and free fractions. Excellent linearity (R(2)≥0.99) and lack-of-fit was proven for both fractions. In conclusion, these methods show excellent in-house performance and possibilities for elaboration to application in other animal sera (e.g. feline, canine, equine).

  6. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of free and conjugated natural estrogens in cow milk without deconjugation.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of free and conjugated estrogens in cow milk is described. Milk samples were diluted with water and then extracted and cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using graphitized carbon black as adsorbent material, without any enzymatic cleavage, derivatization, and/or protein precipitation step. Two fractions were collected (free and conjugated estrogens) and analyzed separately. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed in negative ion mode using selected reaction monitoring acquisition mode. For all compounds, the coefficients of determination (R(2)) ranged between 0.9892 and 0.9997. Analytical recoveries were in the range of 86-109% for free estrogens and 85-118% for conjugates, with relative standard deviations below 10%, and the method detection limit ranged between 3 and 80 ng L(-1). Finally, the developed method was used to determine the presence of free and conjugated estrogens in six retail milk samples (five cow milk samples and one goat milk sample) and one goat milk sample provided by a local shepherd. Estrone was found to be the major free estrogen present in commercial milk samples, and estrone 3-sulfate showed the highest concentration among the target conjugated estrogens. Estriol was also observed in some analyzed milk samples, but the concentrations were always below the limit of quantification.

  7. Multiresidue analysis of endocrine-disrupting compounds and perfluorinated sulfates and carboxylic acids in sediments by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Chiara; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Ferraris, Francesca; Foglia, Patrizia; Samperi, Roberto; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-03-18

    A multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 11 perfluorinated compounds and 22 endocrine-disrupting compounds (ECDs) including 13 natural and synthetic estrogens (free and conjugated forms), 2 alkylphenols, 1 plasticiser, 2 UV-filters, 1 antimicrobial, and 2 organophosphorus compounds in sediments has been developed. Ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) with graphitized carbon black (GCB) cartridge as clean-up step were used. The extraction process yield was optimized in terms of solvent composition. Then, a 3(2) experimental design was used to optimize solvent volume and sonication time by response surface methodology, which simplifies the optimization procedure. The final extract was analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized sample preparation method is simple and robust, and allows recovery of ECDs belonging to different classes in a complex matrix such as sediment. The use of GCB for SPE allowed to obtain with a single clean-up procedure excellent recoveries ranging between 75 and 110% (relative standard deviation <16%). The developed methodology has been successfully applied to the analysis of ECDs in sediments from different rivers and lakes of the Lazio Region (Italy). These analyses have shown the ubiquitous presence of chloro-substituted organophosphorus flame retardants and bisphenol A, while other analyzed compounds were occasionally found at concentration between the limit of detection and quantification.

  8. [Determination of 23 antibiotics and 3 β-agonists in livestock drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with solid-phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ao

    2016-02-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 antibiotics (four categories) and 3 β-agonists in livestock drinking water using solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI MS/MS). The samples were adjusted pH to 5. 0, added Na2EDTA, enriched and cleaned-up by an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge. The target compounds were confirmed and quantified by UPLC-ESI MS/MS with external standard method for the anti- biotics and internal standard method for the β-agonists. The recoveries were assessed by using lab tap water as matrix. The average recoveries of the 23 antibiotics and the 3 β-agonists were in the range of 50. 7%-104. 6% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2. 6%-8. 8% (n= 3). Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves of the 23 antibiotics and the 3 β-agonists showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients better than 0. 994. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N≥3) ranged from 0. 01-0. 20 ng/L. The developed method was applied to analyze the livestock drinking waters in 36 Beijing intensive livestock farms. The results showed that some antibiotics were detected. PMID:27382723

  9. Quantitative analysis of gangliosides in bovine milk and colostrum-based dairy products by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; German, J Bruce; Kjelden, Randy; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    Milk gangliosides have gained considerable attention because they participate in diverse biological processes, including neural development, pathogen binding, and activation of the immune system. Herein, we present a quantitative measurement of the gangliosides present in bovine milk and other dairy products and byproducts. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography separation was used for high-throughput analysis and achieved a short running time without sacrificing chromatographic resolution. Dynamic multiple reaction monitoring was conducted for 12 transitions for GM3 and 12 transitions for GD3. Transitions to sialic acid fragments (m/z 290.1) were chosen for the quantitation. There was a considerable amount of gangliosides in day 2 milk (GM3, 0.98 mg/L; GD3, 15.2 mg/L) which dramatically decreased at day 15 and day 90. GM3 and GD3 were also analyzed in pooled colostrum, colostrum cream, colostrum butter, and colostrum buttermilk. The separation and analytical approaches here proposed could be integrated into the dairy industry processing adding value to side-streams. PMID:24024650

  10. [Simultaneous determination of the residues of four β2-agonists in animal foods by modified high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Qiao, Qingdong; Zhuang, Jingxin; Wang, Cuiping

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine the residues of four β2-agonists in animal foods by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted with 5% (mass fraction) trichloracetic acid, and then cleaned up by two solid phase extraction cartridges (HLB and ProElut PXC). Quantification of the four β2-agonists was achieved by HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using internal standard method. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of clenbuterol, salbutamol, ractopamine and terbutaline were 0. 05, 0. 05, 0. 05 and 0. 2 µg/kg, and the limits of quantification (S/N= 10) were 0. 25, 0. 25, 0. 1 and 0. 5 µg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries of the four β2-agonists spiked in blank samples at the spiked levels of 2. 5, 5 and 10 µg/kg were 90. 3%-120. 5% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) range of 1. 60%-9. 33%. The method is reliable, sensitive, good recovery and repeatability. It is suitable for the determination of the residues of the four β2-agonists in animal foods.

  11. Multi-class method for determination of veterinary drug residues and other contaminants in infant formula by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jia; Zhong, Ying-ying; Yu, Xue-jun; Peng, Jin-feng; Chen, Shubing; Yin, Ju-yi; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Zhu, Yan

    2013-06-01

    A rapid, simple and generic analytical method which was able to simultaneously determine 220 undesirable chemical residues in infant formula had been developed. The method comprised of extraction with acetonitrile, clean-up by low temperature and water precipitation, and analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS-MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Most fat materials in acetonitrile extract were eliminated by low temperature clean-up. The water precipitation, providing a necessary and supplementary cleanup, could avoid losses of hydrophobic analytes (avermectins, ionophores). Average recoveries for spiked infant formula were in the range from 57% to 147% with associated RSD values between 1% and 28%. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 70% and 120% with RSD values in the range of 1-15%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were from 0.01 to 5 μg/kg, which were usually sufficient to verify the compliance of products with legal tolerances. Application of this method in routine monitoring programs would imply a drastic reduction of both effort and time. PMID:23411184

  12. [Analysis of aldicarb and its metabolites in ginger using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with multiplug filtration clean up with multiwalled carbon nanotubes].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lili; Jia, Li; Zhou, Xinran; Liu, Yan; Fan, Xiaojing; Pan, Canping

    2014-06-01

    A simple and rapid pretreatment procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of aldicarb and its metabolites, aldicarb sulfone and aldicarb sulfoxide in ginger. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned up with multiplug filtration using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS). The eluate was dried with nitrogen gas at room temperature, and redissolved in an acetonitrile-water (5:95, v/v) mixture, then quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) operated in positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A linear relationship was achieved in the range of 0.5 -200 microg/L for the peak areas to the mass concentrations of the target compounds with the linear correlation coefficients (r2) higher than 0.99. The recoveries at three spiked levels of 2, 20 and 200 microg/kg were in the range from 71.4% to 89.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) from 0.7% to 13.2% under the selected conditions. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) of aldicarb, aldicarb sulfone, and aldicarb sulfoxide in ginger were 1.0, 2.0 and 1.0 microg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrate that the developed method is rapid, cost-effective, and can meet the requirements of the multiple pesticide residue analysis. The method is applicable to determine aldicarb and its metabolites in ginger.

  13. [Determination of 23 antibiotics and 3 β-agonists in livestock drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with solid-phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ao

    2016-02-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 antibiotics (four categories) and 3 β-agonists in livestock drinking water using solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI MS/MS). The samples were adjusted pH to 5. 0, added Na2EDTA, enriched and cleaned-up by an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge. The target compounds were confirmed and quantified by UPLC-ESI MS/MS with external standard method for the anti- biotics and internal standard method for the β-agonists. The recoveries were assessed by using lab tap water as matrix. The average recoveries of the 23 antibiotics and the 3 β-agonists were in the range of 50. 7%-104. 6% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2. 6%-8. 8% (n= 3). Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves of the 23 antibiotics and the 3 β-agonists showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients better than 0. 994. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N≥3) ranged from 0. 01-0. 20 ng/L. The developed method was applied to analyze the livestock drinking waters in 36 Beijing intensive livestock farms. The results showed that some antibiotics were detected.

  14. The application of phospholipid removal columns and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry for quantification of multi-class antibiotics in aquaculture samples.

    PubMed

    Reinholds, Ingars; Pugajeva, Iveta; Perkons, Ingus; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2016-09-01

    In this study a robust and sensitive method based on a proposed sample purification procedure, using zirconia-coated Phree™ columns and analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry are presented for the assessment of multi-class antibiotics in farmed fish species. The sample preparation procedure benefited from combined precipitation of proteins and selective removal of phospholipids by Phree™ columns, resulting in a high sensitivity of the method (LOQ 0.3-9mgkg(-1)). The in-house validation results (precision, repeatability, decision limit CCα, detection capability CCβ, etc.) indicate that the elaborated method is fully suitable for the analysis of the main classes of antibiotics in accordance with the European Union (EU) Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method was applied to the analysis of antibiotics in trout and sturgeon samples obtained from the local inland aquacultures in Latvia. The results revealed the presence of two antibiotics (enrofloxacin and trimethoprim) in 12 out of the 20 analysed fish samples at concentrations (0.33-12.2μgkg(-1)) below the MRLs, thus causing no acute risks to consumers.

  15. Use of Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Demonstrate Decreased Serum Statin Levels after Extracorporeal LDL-Cholesterol Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Bláha, M.; Vlčková, H.; Nováková, L.; Solichová, D.; Solich, P.; Lánská, M.; Malý, J.; Bláha, V.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Using our statin analysis method, it was possible to uncover a significant drop in statin levels (atorvastatin, simvastatin, and metabolites) after extracorporeal LDL-cholesterol elimination (EE) in severe familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The purpose of this work was to identify the mechanism underlying this drop and its clinical significance as well as to propose measures to optimize a pharmacotherapeutical regimen that can prevent the loss of statins. Methods. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) connected to the triple quadrupole MS/MS system was used. Patients. A group of long-term treated patients (3–12 years of treatment) with severe FH (12 patients) and treated regularly by LDL-apheresis (immunoadsorption) or haemorheopheresis (cascade filtration) were included in this study. Results. After EE, the level of statins and their metabolites decreased (atorvastatin before/after LDL-apheresis: 8.83/3.46 nmol/l; before/after haemorheopheresis: 37.02/18.94 nmol/l). A specific loss was found (concentration of atorvastatin for LDL-apheresis/haemorheopheresis: 0.28/3.04 nmol/l in washing fluids; 11.07 nmol/l in filters). To prevent substantial loss of statin concentrations, a pharmacotherapeutic regimen with a longer time interval between the dose of statins and EE is recommended (15 hours). Conclusions. A specific loss of statins was found in adsorbent columns and filters. The decrease can be prevented by the suggested dosage scheme. PMID:21076535

  16. Validation of an automated solid-phase extraction method for the analysis of 23 opioids, cocaine, and metabolites in urine with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Fernández, María del Mar; Van Durme, Filip; Wille, Sarah M R; di Fazio, Vincent; Kummer, Natalie; Samyn, Nele

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to automate a sample preparation procedure extracting morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, norcodeine, codeine, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, 6-monoacetyl-morphine, hydrocodone, ethylmorphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, cocaethylene, tramadol, meperidine, pentazocine, fentanyl, norfentanyl, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, propoxyphene, methadone and 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine from urine samples. Samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with cation exchange cartridges using a TECAN Freedom Evo 100 base robotic system, including a hydrolysis step previous extraction when required. Block modules were carefully selected in order to use the same consumable material as in manual procedures to reduce cost and/or manual sample transfers. Moreover, the present configuration included pressure monitoring pipetting increasing pipetting accuracy and detecting sampling errors. The compounds were then separated in a chromatographic run of 9 min using a BEH Phenyl analytical column on a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Optimization of the SPE was performed with different wash conditions and elution solvents. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were within ±15% and bias was within ±15% for most of the compounds. Recovery was >69% (RSD < 11%) and matrix effects ranged from 1 to 26% when compensated with the internal standard. The limits of quantification ranged from 3 to 25 ng/mL depending on the compound. No cross-contamination in the automated SPE system was observed. The extracted samples were stable for 72 h in the autosampler (4°C). This method was applied to authentic samples (from forensic and toxicology cases) and to proficiency testing schemes containing cocaine, heroin, buprenorphine and methadone, offering fast and reliable results. Automation resulted in improved precision and accuracy, and a minimum operator intervention, leading to safer sample

  17. Development and validation of a method for determination of residues of 15 pyrethroids and two metabolites of dithiocarbamates in foods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, C H

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports a novel approach for the detection, confirmation, and quantification of 15 selected pyrethroid pesticides, including pyrethins, and two metabolites of dithiocarbamates in foods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). The proposed method makes use of a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure that combines isolation of the pesticides and sample cleanup in a single step. Analysis of pyrethroids and dithiocarbamate metabolites was performed by UPLC-MS-MS operated with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, respectively. Two specific precursor-product ion transitions were acquired per target compound in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Such acquisition achieved the minimum number of identification points according to European Commission (EC) document no. SANCO/10684/2009, thus fulfilling the EC point system requirement for identification of contaminants in samples. The method was validated with a variety of food samples. Calibration curves were linear and covered from 1 to 800 μg kg(-1) in the sample for all target compounds. Average recoveries, measured at mass fractions of 10 and 100 μg kg(-1) for pyrethroids and 5 and 50 μg kg(-1) for dithiocarbamate metabolites, were in the range of 70-120% for all target compounds with relative standard deviations below 20%. Method limits of quantification (MLOQ) were 10 μg kg(-1) and 5 μg kg(-1) for pyrethroids and dithiocarbamate metabolites, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 600 food samples in the course of the first Hong Kong total diet study with pyrethroids and metabolites of dithiocarbamates being the pesticides determined. PMID:22395452

  18. Simultaneous enantioselective determination of phenylpyrazole insecticide flufiprole and its chiral metabolite in paddy field ecosystem by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yuting; Cheng, Youpu; Yuan, Shankui; Liu, Lei; Shao, Hui; Li, Hui; Li, Na; Zhao, Pengyue; Guo, Yongze

    2016-03-20

    A novel and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous enantioselective determination of flufiprole and its hydrolysis metabolite in paddy field ecosystem. The separation and determination were performed using reversed-phase chromatography on a novel cellulose chiral stationary phase, a Lux Cellulose-4 (150 mm × 2.0 mm) column, under isocratic conditions at 0.25 mL/min flow rate. The effects of other four different polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) on the separation and simultaneous enantioseparation of the two target compounds were also evaluated. The elution orders of the eluting enantiomers were identified by an optical rotation detector. Modified QuEChERS (acronym for Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method and solid-phase extraction (SPE) were used for the enrichment and cleanup of paddy water, rice straw, brown rice and paddy soil samples, respectively. Parameters including the matrix effect, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability were evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the mean recoveries for all enantiomers from the above four sample matrix were ranged from 83.6% to 107%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) in the range of 1.0-5.8%. Coefficients of determination R(2)≥0.998 were achieved for each enantiomer in paddy water, rice straw, brown rice and paddy soil matrix calibration curves within the range of 5-500 μg/kg. The limits of quantification (LOQ) for all stereoisomers in the above four matrices were all below 2.0 μg/kg. The methodology was successfully applied for simultaneously enantioselective analysis of flufiprole enantiomers and their chiral metabolite in the real samples, indicating its efficacy in investigating the environmental stereochemistry of flufiprole in paddy field ecosystem.

  19. Simple, high throughput ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry trace analysis of perfluorinated alkylated substances in food of animal origin: milk and fish.

    PubMed

    Lacina, Ondrej; Hradkova, Petra; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hajslova, Jana

    2011-07-15

    The present study documents development and validation of a novel approach for determination of 23 perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in food of animal origin represented by milk and fish. The list of target analytes comprises four classes of PFASs, both ionic and non-ionic: 11 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), 4 perfluorosulphonic acids (PFSAs), 5 perfluorosulphonamides (FOSAs) and 3 perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs). Fast sample preparation procedure is based on an extraction of target analytes with acetonitrile (MeCN) and their transfer (supported by inorganic salts and acidification) into the organic phase. Removing of matrix co-extracts by a simple dispersive solid phase extraction (SPE) employing ENVI-Carb and C18 sorbents is followed by an efficient sample pre-concentration performed by acetonitrile evaporation and subsequent dilution of residue in a small volume of methanol (matrix equivalent in the final extracts was 16 and 8 g mL(-1), for milk and fish respectively). Using modern instrumentation consisting of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) hyphenated with a tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS), limits of quantification (LOQs) as low as 0.001-0.006 μg kg(-1) for milk and 0.002-0.013 μg kg(-1) for fish can be achieved. Under these conditions, a wide spectrum of PFASs, including minor representatives, can be determined which enables collecting data required for human exposure studies. The pilot study employing the new method for examination of milk and canned fish samples was realized. Whereas in majority of canned fish products a wide spectrum of PFCAs, perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoro-1-octanesulphonamide (PFOSA) was detected, only in a few milk samples very low concentrations (LOQ levels) of PFOS and perfluorooctansulphonic acid (PFDS) were found. PMID:21621213

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A and relative metabolites in Aspergillus species and dried vine fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Li, Jingming; Cheng, Zhan; Zhou, Ziying; Ma, Liyan

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable quantification and identification method was developed for simultaneous analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its related metabolites ochratoxin alpha (OTα), ochratoxin B (OTB) and mellein. The method was assessed by spiking analytes into blank culture media and dried vine fruits. Performance was tested in terms of accuracy, selectivity and repeatability. The method involves an ultrasonic extraction step for culture samples using methanol aqueous solution (7:3, v/v); the mycotoxin is quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were 74.5-108.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.4-8.4% for fungal culture. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.03-0.87 μg l(-)(1), and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.07 to 2.90 μg l(-)(1). In addition, the extraction solutions and clean-up columns were optimised specifically for dried vine fruit samples to improve the performance of the method. Methanol-1% sodium bicarbonate extraction solution (6:4, v/v) was determined to be the most efficient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed as a clean-up step prior to HPLC-MS/MS analysis to reduce matrix effects. Recoveries ranged from 80.1% to 110.8%. RSDs ranged from 0.1% to 3.6%. LODs and LOQs ranged from 0.06 to 0.40 μg kg(-)(1) and from 0.19 to 1.20 μg kg(-)(1), respectively. The analytical method was established and used to identify and quantify OTA and related compounds from Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in cultures and dried vine fruits. The results showed that A. carbonarius produced OTα, OTB and OTA, whereas A. ochraceus produced OTB, OTA and mellein after 7 days of cultivation. Of 30 commercial samples analysed, 10 were contaminated with ochratoxins; OTB, OTα and mellein were also detected in different samples. PMID:27442910

  1. Determination of dalcetrapib by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Katja; Bucheli, Franz; Kuhlmann, Olaf; Zell, Manfred; Pähler, Axel; Zwanziger, Elke; Gross, Günter; Tardio, Joseph; Ishikawa, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Tomoko

    2012-07-01

    The cholesteryl ester transfer protein modulator dalcetrapib is currently under development for the prevention of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Dalcetrapib, a thioester, is rapidly hydrolyzed in vivo to the corresponding thiophenol which in turn is further oxidized to the dimer and mixed disulfides (where the thiophenol binds to peptides, proteins and other endogenous thiols). These forms co-exist in an oxidation-reduction equilibrium via the thiol and cannot be stabilized without influencing the equilibrium, hence specific determination of individual components, i.e., in order to distinguish between the free thiol, the disulfide dimer and mixed disulfide adducts, was not pursued for routine analysis. The individual forms were quantified collectively as dalcetrapib-thiol (dal-thiol) after reduction under basic conditions with dithiothreitol to break disulfide bonds and derivatization with N-ethylmaleimide to stabilize the free thiol. The S-methyl and S-glucuronide metabolites were determined simultaneously with dal-thiol with no effect from the derivatization procedure. Column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry provided a simple, fast and robust method for analysis of human and animal plasma and human urine samples. Addition of the surfactant Tween 80 to urine prevented adsorptive compound loss. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were 5 ng/mL for dal-thiol, and 5 ng/mL for the S-methyl and 50 ng/mL for the S-glucuronide metabolites. Using stable isotope-labeled internal standards, inter- and intra-assay precisions were each <15% (<20% at LLOQ) and accuracy was between 85 and 115%. Recovery was close to 100%, and no significant matrix effect was observed. PMID:22541249

  2. Stable isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative profiling of tryptophan-related neuroactive substances in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Hényková, Eva; Vránová, Hana Přikrylová; Amakorová, Petra; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Žukauskaitė, Asta; Vlčková, Magdaléna; Urbánek, Lubor; Novák, Ondřej; Mareš, Jan; Kaňovský, Petr; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-03-11

    Many compounds related to L-tryptophan (L-TRP) have interesting biological or pharmacological activity, and their abnormal neurotransmission seems to be linked to a wide range of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. A high-throughput method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography connected to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of L-TRP and 16 of its metabolites in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), representing both major and minor routes of L-TRP catabolism. The combination of a fast LC gradient with selective tandem mass spectrometry enabled accurate analysis of almost 100 samples in 24h. The standard isotope dilution method was used for quantitative determination. The method's lower limits of quantification for serum and cerebrospinal fluid ranged from 0.05 to 15nmol/L and 0.3 to 45nmol/L, respectively. Analytical recoveries ranged from 10.4 to 218.1% for serum and 22.1 to 370.0% for CSF. The method's accuracy ranged from 82.4 to 128.5% for serum matrix and 90.7 to 127.7% for CSF matrix. All intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were below 15%. These results demonstrate that the new method is capable of quantifying endogenous serum and CSF levels of a heterogeneous group of compounds spanning a wide range of concentrations. The method was used to determine the physiological levels of target analytes in serum and CSF samples from 18 individuals, demonstrating its reliability and potential usefulness in large-scale epidemiological studies.

  3. Quantitative analysis of 26 opioids, cocaine, and their metabolites in human blood by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María del Mar Ramírez; Wille, Sarah M R; Kummer, Nathalie; Di Fazio, Vincent; Ruyssinckx, Evi; Samyn, Nele

    2013-08-01

    A sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of (in order of chromatographic elution) methylecgonine, pholcodine, morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, norcodeine, codeine, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, 6-Monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), hydrocodone, ethylmorphine, norfentanyl, benzoylecgonine, tramadol, normeperidine, meperidine, cocaine, pentazocine, cocaethylene, fentanyl, norbuprenorphine, 2-ethylidine-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), buprenorphine, propoxyphene, and methadone in blood. The matrixes analyzed during the validation experiments were as follows: citrated blank plasma for calibrators, fluoride blank plasma for internal quality control (QC), lyophilized serum for external QC, fluoride plasma and whole blood for authentic samples, and lyophilized serum and whole blood for proficiency testing schemes. Samples were extracted with cation exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges. The target drugs were separated and quantified in a chromatographic run of 8.1 minutes using 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol (with 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase. The limit of quantification ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 ng/mL depending on the compound and the therapeutic concentration. The intra- and interassay precision was less than 15% for all the compounds (except for pentazocine and EDDP, which was <20%) determined with 2 internal and 2 external QC samples, and the bias was within ±15% (except for methylecgonine, which was <20%). Extraction efficiency was greater than 70% for all the compounds except for EDDP. Matrix effects were evaluated with authentic blood samples (n = 10), and they ranged from 47 to 95%, but they were compensated for most analytes using deuterated analogs as internal standards. Prepared samples were stable for 62 hours in the autosampler. This method was successfully applied to authentic samples (n = 120), involving the

  4. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for ex vivo metabolic studies of a rhenium-labeled radiopharmaceutical for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsi; Liao, Chen-Wei; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Chang, Yu; Men, Lee-Chung; Hsieh, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The radio-isotope rhenium-labeled N-[2-(triphenylmethyl)thioethyl]-3-aza-19-ethyloxycarbonyl-3-[2-(triphenylmethyl)thioethyl] octadecanoate) ligand (188Re-MN-16ET) is a novel therapeutic agent under preclinical evaluation for hepatoma. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric analysis method and diode array detector (DAD) involving a T type splitter was developed to characterize this pharmaceutical in rat liver tissue solution and determine its biotransformation rate. The separation was accomplished on a C18 column (chromolith silica, 4.6 mm x 100 mm) using an acetonitrile-ammonium acetate buffer gradient as the mobile phase. The detection was achieved by DAD set at 250nm and tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. Re-MN-16ET displayed a retention time of 23.2 min and a transition ion pair corresponding to m/z677 --> 631 for multiple reaction monitoring. Its biotransformation reaction in rat liver homogenate proceeded for 90 min in a 37°C water bath. The characterization was conducted using aliquots that were extracted and concentrated from the reaction mixture for various incubation times. Re-MN-16ET exhibited a biotransformation half-life (t1/2) of 8-9 min in liver tissue solution and was almost completely exhausted after 90 min. Two of its metabolites, consisting of the Re-labeled carboxylic acid derivative, predominately, and its corresponding demetallized disulfide ligand were found in the liver homogenate, providing a metabolism pathway for the radio-pharmaceutical.

  5. Determination of human-use pharmaceuticals in filtered water by direct aqueous injection: high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, Edward T.; Noriega, Mary C.; Kanagy, Christopher J.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a method for the determination of 110 human-use pharmaceuticals using a 100-microliter aliquot of a filtered water sample directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode. The pharmaceuticals were separated by using a reversed-phase gradient of formic acid/ammonium formate-modified water and methanol. Multiple reaction monitoring of two fragmentations of the protonated molecular ion of each pharmaceutical to two unique product ions was used to identify each pharmaceutical qualitatively. The primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product ion transition was quantified for each pharmaceutical relative to the primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product transition of one of 19 isotope-dilution standard pharmaceuticals or the pesticide atrazine, using an exact stable isotope analogue where possible. Each isotope-dilution standard was selected, when possible, for its chemical similarity to the unlabeled pharmaceutical of interest, and added to the sample after filtration but prior to analysis. Method performance for each pharmaceutical was determined for reagent water, groundwater, treated drinking water, surface water, treated wastewater effluent, and wastewater influent sample matrixes that this method will likely be applied to. Each matrix was evaluated in order of increasing complexity to demonstrate (1) the sensitivity of the method in different water matrixes and (2) the effect of sample matrix, particularly matrix enhancement or suppression of the precursor ion signal, on the quantitative determination of pharmaceutical concentrations. Recovery of water samples spiked (fortified) with the suite of pharmaceuticals determined by this method typically was greater than 90 percent in reagent water, groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. Correction for ambient environmental

  6. Determination of 19 drugs of abuse and metabolites in whole blood by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bjørk, Marie Kjaergaard; Nielsen, Marie K K; Markussen, Lotte Ø; Klinke, Helene B; Linnet, Kristian

    2010-04-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of 19 drugs of abuse and metabolites and used in whole blood. The following compounds were included: amphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, codeine, methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, ketobemidone, tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, zaleplone, zolpidem, and zopiclone. The sample pretreatment consisted of solid-phase extraction using mixed-mode columns (Isolute Confirm HCX). Deuterated analogues were used as internal standards for all analytes, except for ketobemidone and O-desmethyltramadol. The analytes were separated by a methanol/ammonium formate gradient using high-performance LC (Agilent HPLC 1100) with a 3 mm x 100 mm Varian Pursuit 3 C(18) column, 3-microm particle size, and were quantified by MS/MS (Waters Quattro micro tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer) using multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode. Two transitions were used for all analytes, except for tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol. The run time of the method was 35 min including the equilibration time. For all analytes, responses were linear over the range investigated, with R(2) > 0.99. One-point calibration was found to be adequate by validation, thereby saving analysis of multiple calibrators. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the analytes ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 mg/kg. Absolute recoveries of the analytes were from 34 to 97%, except for zaleplone (6%). Both the interday precision and the intraday precision were less than 15% (20% at the LOQ) for all analytes, except buprenorphine, norburprenorphine, and zaleplone (less than 18%). Accuracy (bias) was within +/-15% (+/-20% at the LOQ) for all analytes, except MDMA and O-desmethyltramadol (within +/-19%). No ion suppression or enhancement was seen nor was

  7. Correlation between ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography hydrophobicity data for evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors absorption.

    PubMed

    Odovic, Jadranka V; Markovic, Bojan D; Injac, Rade D; Vladimirov, Sote M; Karljikovic-Rajic, Katarina D

    2012-10-01

    In this research seven ACE inhibitors (enalapril, quinapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, cilazapril, ramipril, benazepril) were studied to evaluate the correlation between their absorption and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) and reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) hydrophobicity data (φ(0) or C(0) parameters, respectively). Their absorption values were in the range of 25-60%, while calculated KOWWIN logP values were from -0.94 to 6.61. Additionally, perindopril (absorption 70%, KOWWIN logP 2.59) and moexipril (absorption 22%, KOWWIN logP 3.36) were introduced for the theoretical considerations due to their high/low absorption values which were on the opposite sites in comparison with the majority of ACE inhibitors (25-60%). In the theoretical considerations it was shown that the solubility data (logS) must be considered, as independent variable, simultaneously with KOWWIN logP to obtain reliable correlation (r(2)=0.7208) between absorption and ACE inhibitors lipophilicity. As the main topic of this study, the relationships between literature available and absorption data predicted by multiple linear regression (MLR) using logS values besides chromatographically obtained hydrophobicity parameters C(0) (r(2)=0.6424) or φ(0) (r(2)=0.6762) were studied proving that these parameters could be used in ACE inhibitors absorption evaluation. The UHPLC-MS method provides the direct application of experimentally obtained φ(0) values that is the advantage of this method. For better MLR correlation of ACE inhibitors absorption with C(0) parameters (RP-TLC) and logS, mathematical conversion of C(0) parameters to logC(0) values was necessary based on requisite for probability value of regression analysis (P<0.05). The accordance and differences between hydrophobicity parameters obtained by UHPLC-MS and RP-TLC were defined.

  8. Multiresidue analysis of 88 polar organic micropollutants in ground, surface and wastewater using online mixed-bed multilayer solid-phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huntscha, Sebastian; Singer, Heinz P; McArdell, Christa S; Frank, Carolin E; Hollender, Juliane

    2012-12-14

    An automated multiresidue method consisting of an online solid-phase extraction step coupled to a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (online-SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method) was developed for the determination of 88 polar organic micropollutants with a broad range of physicochemical properties (logD(OW) (pH 7): -4.2 to 4.2). Based on theoretical considerations, a single mixed-bed multilayer cartridge containing four different extraction materials was composed for the automated enrichment of water samples. This allowed the simultaneous analysis of pesticides, biocides, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors, many of their transformation products, and the artificial sweetener sucralose in three matrices groundwater, surface water, and wastewater. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the environmentally relevant concentration range of 0.1-87 ng/L for groundwater and surface water, and 1.5-206 ng/L for wastewater. The majority of the compounds could be quantified below 10 ng/L in groundwater (82%) and surface water (80%) and below 100 ng/L in wastewater (80%). Relative recoveries were largely between 80 and 120%. Intraday and inter-day precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, were generally better than 10% and 20%, respectively. 50 isotope labeled internal standards were used for quantification and accordingly, relative recoveries as well as intraday and inter-day precision were better for compounds with corresponding internal standard. The applicability of this method was shown during a sampling campaign at a riverbank filtration site for drinking water production with travel times of up to 5 days. 36 substances of all compound classes investigated could be found in concentrations between 0.1 and 600 ng/L. The results revealed the persistence of carbamazepine and sucralose in the groundwater aquifer as well as degradation of the metamizole metabolite 4-acetamidoantipyrine. PMID:23137864

  9. Development and Validation of an Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Simultaneous Determination of Four Type B Trichothecenes and Masked Deoxynivalenol in Various Feed Products.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhichen; Bai, Bing; Jin, Peng; Fan, Kai; Guo, Wenbo; Zhao, Zhihui; Han, Zheng

    2016-06-08

    A reliable and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol(DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FUS-X), and masked deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, D3G) in formula feed, concentrated feed, and premixed feed products. The method was based on an improved sample pretreatment with the commercially available HLB cartridges used for sample purification and enrichment followed by analysis using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Several key parameters including the extraction solvents, the positions of sample loading solvents, washing and elution solvents for HLB cartridges were carefully optimized to achieve optimal extraction and purification efficiencies. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R² ≥ 0.99), sensitivity (limit of quantification in the range of 0.08-4.85 μg/kg), recovery (79.3%-108.1%), precision (Intra-day RSDs ≤ 13.5% and Inter-day RSDs ≤ 14.9%), and then was successfully applied to determine the four type B trichothecenes and D3G in a total of 31 feed samples. Among them, 26 were contaminated with various mycotoxins at the levels of 2.1-864.5 μg/kg, and D3G has also been detected in 17 samples with the concentrations in the range of 2.1-34.8 μg/kg, proving the established method to be a valuable tool for type B trichothecenes and masked DON monitoring in complex feed matrices.

  10. Validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analyzing LSD, iso-LSD, nor-LSD, and O-H-LSD in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Chung, Angela; Hudson, John; McKay, Gordon

    2009-06-01

    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Forensic Science and Identification Services was looking for a confirmatory method for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). As a result, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was validated for the confirmation and quantitation of LSD, iso-LSD, N-demethyl-LSD (nor-LSD), and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD). Relative retention time and ion ratios were used as identification parameters. Limits of detection (LOD) in blood were 5 pg/mL for LSD and iso-LSD and 10 pg/mL for nor-LSD and O-H-LSD. In urine, the LOD was 10 pg/mL for all analytes. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) in blood and urine were 20 pg/mL for LSD and iso-LSD and 50 pg/mL for nor-LSD and O-H-LSD. The method was linear, accurate, and precise from 10 to 2000 pg/mL in blood and 20 to 2000 pg/mL in urine for LSD and iso-LSD and from 20 to 2000 pg/mL in blood and 50 to 2000 pg/mL in urine for nor-LSD and O-H-LSD with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) > or = 0.99. The method was applied to blinded biological control samples and biological samples taken from a suspected LSD user. This is the first reported detection of O-H-LSD in blood from a suspected LSD user.

  11. Silymarin in liposomes and ethosomes: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in free-moving rats by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Wen; Hou, Mei-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare silymarin formulations (silymarin entrapped in liposomes and ethosomes, formulations referred to as LSM and ESM, respectively) to improve oral bioavailability of silymarin and evaluate its tissue distribution by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in free-moving rats. Silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, which is the main component to be analyzed. A rapid, sensitive, and repeatable LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated in terms of precision, accuracy, and extraction recovery. Furthermore, the established method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of silymarin in rats. The size, ζ potential, and drug release of the formulations were characterized. These results showed that the LSM and ESM encapsulated formulations of silymarin may provide more efficient tissue distribution and increased oral bioavailability, thus improving its therapeutic bioactive properties in the body.

  12. Silymarin in liposomes and ethosomes: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in free-moving rats by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Wen; Hou, Mei-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare silymarin formulations (silymarin entrapped in liposomes and ethosomes, formulations referred to as LSM and ESM, respectively) to improve oral bioavailability of silymarin and evaluate its tissue distribution by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in free-moving rats. Silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, which is the main component to be analyzed. A rapid, sensitive, and repeatable LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated in terms of precision, accuracy, and extraction recovery. Furthermore, the established method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of silymarin in rats. The size, ζ potential, and drug release of the formulations were characterized. These results showed that the LSM and ESM encapsulated formulations of silymarin may provide more efficient tissue distribution and increased oral bioavailability, thus improving its therapeutic bioactive properties in the body. PMID:25375210

  13. A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of mefenamic acid in human plasma: application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Mahadik, Mahadeo; Dhaneshwar, Sunil; Bhavsar, Ravindra

    2012-10-01

    In the present study, the development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for quantifying mefenamic acid in human plasma is described. The method involves liquid-liquid extraction using diclofenac as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Thermo Hypurity C(18) , 50 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column with a mobile phase consisting of 2 m m ammonium acetate buffer and methanol (pH 4.5 adjusted with glacial acetic acid; 15:85, v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.75 mL/min and the total run time was 1.75 min. Analyte was introduced to the LC-MS/MS using an atmospheric pressure ionization source. Both the drug and IS were detected in negative-ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring m/z 240.0 → 196.3 and m/z 294.0 → 250.2, respectively, with a dwell time of 200 ms for each of the transitions. The standard curve was linear from 20 to 6000 ng/mL. This assay allows quantification of mefenamic acid at a concentration as low as 20 ng/mL in human plasma. The observed mean recovery was 73% for the drug. The applicability of this method for pharmacokinetic studies has been established after successful application during a 12-subject bioavailabity study. PMID:22275128

  14. A validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the selective analysis of free and total folate in plasma and red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Kiekens, Filip; Van Daele, Jeroen; Blancquaert, Dieter; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2015-06-12

    A stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method is the method of choice for the selective quantitative determination of several folate species in clinical samples. By implementing an integrated approach to determine both the plasma and red blood cell (RBC) folate status, the use of consumables and time remains limited. Starting from a single 300μl whole blood sample, the folate status in plasma and RBCs can be determined after separating plasma and RBCs and sequential washing of the latter with isotonic buffer, followed by reproducible lysis using an ammonium-based buffer. Acidification combines both liberation of protein bound folates and protein precipitation. Sample cleanup is performed using a 96-well reversed-phase solid-phase extraction procedure, similar for both plasma and RBC samples. Analyses are performed by UHPLC-MS/MS. Method validation was successfully performed based on EMA-guidelines and encompassed selectivity, carry-over, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Plasma and RBC folates could be quantified in the range of 1-150nmol/l and 5-1500nmol/l, respectively. This method allows for the determination of 6 folate monoglutamates in both plasma and RBCs. It can be used to determine short and long term folate status in both normal and severely deficient subjects in a single analytical sequence.

  15. Identification and formation of angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides in Manchego cheese by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ruiz, José Angel; Ramos, Mercedes; Recio, Isidra

    2004-10-29

    A total of 75 peptides included in the fraction with molecular mass below 3000 from an 8-month-old Manchego cheese could be identified using HPLC coupled on line to an ion trap mass spectrometer. Some previously described peptides with antihypertensive and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were detected. The formation of five active sequences was followed during cheese ripening in four different batches of Manchego cheese. Two experimental batches of Manchego cheese elaborated with selected bacterial strains with the aim of improve the organoleptic characteristics demonstrated also a good performance in the formation of peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity during cheese ripening. PMID:15553153

  16. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for quantifying 3-ketocholanoic acid: Application to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent lithocholic acid 3-oxidation assay.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sumit; Chai, Swee Fen; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-06-15

    Lithocholic acid (LCA), a hepatotoxic and carcinogenic bile acid, is metabolized to 3-ketocholanoic acid (3-KCA) by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). In the present study, the objectives were to develop and validate an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify 3-KCA and apply it to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent LCA 3-oxidation assay. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC C18 column (50×2.1mm, 1.7μm) with a gradient system consisting of 0.1% v/v formic acid in water (solvent A) and 0.1% v/v formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B). The retention time was 3.73min for 3-KCA and 2.73min for cortisol (internal standard). Positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify 3-KCA (m/z 375.4→135.2) and cortisol (m/z 363.5→121.0). The limit of detection of 3-KCA was 10μM, the lower limit of quantification was 33.3μM, and the calibration curve was linear from 0.05-10μM with r(2)>0.99. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were <13.7%. The quality control samples were stable when assessed after 4h at room temperature, 24h at 4°C, 14days at -20°C, and three freeze-thaw cycles. The liver microsomal matrix did not affect 3-KCA quantification. The amount of KCA formed in the human liver microsomal LCA 3-oxidation assay was linear with respect to the amount of microsomal protein (up to 40μg) and incubation time (5-30min). Enzyme kinetics experiment indicated that LCA 3-oxidation followed the Michaelis-Menten model with an apparent Km of 26±7μM and Vmax of 303±50pmol/min/mg protein. This novel UPLC-MS/MS method for quantifying 3-KCA offers a specific, sensitive, and fast approach to determine liver microsomal LCA 3-oxidation.

  17. Abundance of four sulfur mustard-DNA adducts ex vivo and in vivo revealed by simultaneous quantification in stable isotope dilution-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yue, Lijun; Wei, Yuxia; Chen, Jia; Shi, Huiqin; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yajiao; He, Jun; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Tingfen; Xie, Jianwei; Peng, Shuangqing

    2014-04-21

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating vesicant and causes blisters upon contact with skin, eyes, and respiratory organs. It covalently links with DNAs by forming four mono- or cross-link adducts. In this article, the reference standards of SM-DNA adducts and deuterated analogues were first synthesized with simplified procedures containing only one or two steps and using less toxic chemical 2-(2-chloroethylthio)ethanol or nontoxic chemical thiodiglycol as starting materials. A sensitive and high-throughput simultaneous quantification method of N(7)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (N(7)-HETEG), O(6)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (O(6)-HETEG), N(3)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]adenine (N(3)-HETEA), and bis[2-(guanin-7-yl)ethyl]sulfide (Bis-G) in the Sprague-Dawley rat derma samples was developed by stable isotope dilution-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-UPLC-MS/MS) with the aim of revealing the real metabolic behaviors of four adducts. The method was validated, the limit of detection (S/N ratio greater than 10) was 0.01, 0.002, 0.04, and 0.11 fmol on column for N(7)-HETEG, O(6)-HETEG, Bis-G, and N(3)-HETEA, respectively, and the lower limit of quantification (S/N ratio greater than 20) was 0.04, 0.01, 0.12, and 0.33 fmol on column for N(7)-HETEG, O(6)-HETEG, Bis-G, and N(3)-HETEA, respectively. The accuracy of this method was determined to be 76% to 129% (n = 3), and both the interday (n = 6) and intraday (n = 7) precisions were less than 10%. The method was further applied for the quantifications of four adducts in the derma of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to SM ex vivo and in vivo, and all adducts had time- and dose-effect relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the real presented status of four DNA adducts was simultaneously revealed by the MS-based method, in which Bis-G showed much higher abundance than the result previously reported and N(3

  18. Screening of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in natural product extracts by capillary electrophoresis in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Li, Feng; Li, Mingxia; Kang, Jingwu

    2015-04-01

    In this study, capillary electrophoresis (CE) combined with HPLC-MS/MS were used as a powerful platform for screening of inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in natural product extracts. The screening system has been established by using 5-carboxyfluorescein labeled substrate peptide F-4EBP1, a known mTOR inhibitor AZD8055, and a small chemical library consisted of 18 natural product extracts. Biochemical screening of natural product extracts was performed by CE with laser induced fluorescence detection. The CE separation allowed a quantitative measurement of the phosphorylated product, hence the quantitation of enzymatic inhibition as well as inhibition kinetics. The hits are readily identified as long as the peak area of the phosphorylated product is reduced in comparison with the negative control. Subsequent assay-guided isolation of the active natural product extract was performed with HPLC-MS/MS to track the particular active components. The structures of the identified active components were elucidated by the molecular ions and fragmentation information provided by MS/MS analysis. The CE-based assay method only requires minute pure compounds, which can be readily purified by HPLC. Therefore, the combination of CE and HPLC-MS/MS provides a high-throughput platform for screening bioactive compounds from the crude nature extracts. By taking the advantage of the screening system, salvianolic acid A and C in extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza were discovered as the new mTOR inhibitors.

  19. A fully validated high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair for the proof of strict alcohol abstinence.

    PubMed

    Albermann, Maria Elena; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2010-04-01

    Hair analysis has become a powerful tool for the detection of chronic and past drug consumption. For several years, it has been possible to determine even the intake of ethanol in hair samples by detecting the ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide or fatty acid ethyl esters. Recently, new requirements were published for the use of EtG as an abstinence test (c(EtG) < 7 pg/mg) as well as for heavy-drinking detection (c(EtG) > 30 pg/mg). In order to perform abstinence tests, a sensitive LC-MS/MS procedure has been developed and fully validated according to the guidelines of forensic toxicology. The nine-point calibration curve showed linearity over the range of concentrations from 2-1,000 pg/mg. Detection and quantification limits were 1 and 4 pg/mg respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were always better than 20%. The validated procedure has successfully been applied to perform abstinence tests and to analyze hair samples from persons in withdrawal treatment. Concentrations between

  20. Enhanced performance for the analysis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a new atmospheric pressure ionization source.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Arnaud; Geerinckx, Suzy; Bajic, Steve; Cabooter, Deirdre; Augustijns, Patrick; Cuyckens, Filip; Vreeken, Rob J

    2016-04-01

    Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and thromboxanes are lipid mediators synthetized from polyunsaturated fatty acids. They play an important role in cell signaling and are often reported as inflammatory markers. LC-MS/MS is the technique of choice for the analysis of these compounds, often in combination with advanced sample preparation techniques. Here we report a head to head comparison between an electrospray ionization source (ESI) and a new atmospheric pressure ionization source (UniSpray). The performance of both interfaces was evaluated in various matrices such as human plasma, pig colon and mouse colon. The UniSpray source shows an increase in method sensitivity up to a factor 5. Equivalent to better linearity and repeatability on various matrices as well as an increase in signal intensity were observed in comparison to ESI.

  1. Determination of quaternary ammonium compounds in oranges and cucumbers using QuEChERS extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arrebola-Liébanas, Francisco Javier; Abdo, María Angeles Herrera; Moreno, José Luis Fernandez; Martínez-Vidal, José L; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast method has been developed for determining relevant quaternary ammonium compounds in cucumber and orange samples. The target compounds were benzoalkonium chloride (BAC-10, BAC-12, BAC-14, and BAC-16), didecyldimethylammonium chloride, and benzethonium chloride, all frequently used biocides in the agrifood industry. An extraction based on the buffered Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method and determination by ultra-performance LC/MS/MS that eluted the biocides in less than 5 min were used. The method was fully validated and implemented in a UNE-EN-ISO/IEC 17025 accredited laboratory for its application to the analysis of real samples. Performance characteristics of the method are reported, including an estimation of measurement uncertainty. Calibration curves were set between 0.01 and 0.150 mg/kg, LOD values were always between 0.4 and 1.0 microg/kg, LOQ values were in the range 1-4 microg/kg, recovery was between 81 and 115%, intraday and interday precision were always lower than 17% (expressed as RSD), and expanded uncertainty was always lower than 40%. The validation was accomplished for the two studied matrixes at spiking concentrations of 0.011 and 0.050 mg/kg. The method has been applied to the analysis of 30 cucumber and orange samples that were found to contain concentrations of BAC-12 that ranged between 0.015 and 0.210 mg/kg and of BAC-14 between 0.018 and 0.081 mg/kg. PMID:25145132

  2. Simultaneous measurement of aldosterone and cortisol by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to dehydration-rehydration studies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul J; van Rosendal, Simon P; Coombes, Jeff S; Gordon, Richard D; Stowasser, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Aldosterone and cortisol are useful biomarkers of dehydration and stress, respectively. The aim of this study was to develop an HPLC-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous measurement of aldosterone and cortisol in human plasma that could be applied to the study of athletes undergoing exercise and rehydration. Samples were prepared and analysed using an on-line sample preparation/HPLC system coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem-mass spectrometer. Samples (200 microL) were pre-treated and extracted on Hysphere C18 HD cartridges (7 microm, Spark Holland). Chromatography was performed on a Sunfire C18 analytical column (50 mm x 3.0 mm, 3 microm, Waters) under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of 35% acetonitrile/water. Mass spectrometric detection was by selected reaction monitoring using negative electrospray ionization conditions. The assay had an analytical range of 25-500 pg/mL and 25-500 ng/mL for aldosterone and cortisol, respectively (r(2)>0.992, n=22). Inter-day accuracy and imprecision for quality control samples was 99.4-106% and <16%, respectively (n=10). In a study of nine human subjects, both aldosterone and cortisol concentrations reflected the expected physiological responses to dehydration, rehydration and exercise when measured by this method. The reported method is suitable to facilitate the study of athletes undergoing dehydration and rehydration protocols.

  3. [Determination of zearalanol and related mycotoxins in pork by solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Fan, Sai; Zhao, Rong; Li, Bing; Liu, Wei; Wu, Guohua

    2013-07-01

    A method was established for the determination of six compounds of zearalanol and related mycotoxins in pork and its products. After hydrolysis of the target compounds in the pork by beta-glucosidase/sulfatase, they were extracted with methanol aqueous solution and further purified by an HLB column. The separation was performed on a BEH C18 column with gradient elution using acetonitrile-water as mobile phases. The analytes were determined by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative scan mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. alpha-Zearalenol-D7 and beta-zearalenol-D7 were used as internal standards. The good linearities (r > 0. 999) were achieved for the six compounds over the range of 1. 0 - 100 microg/L based on the internal standard calibration. The detection limits of the method were 0.03 -0.09 microg/kg. The mean recoveries of the six target compounds spiked at three levels from 1. 0 - 10. 0 microg/kg ranged from 76. 7% to 100. 5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 20%. The proposed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and complies with the regulations for the determination of trace contaminant residues in food matrice. PMID:24164042

  4. [Determination of zearalanol and related mycotoxins in pork by solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Fan, Sai; Zhao, Rong; Li, Bing; Liu, Wei; Wu, Guohua

    2013-07-01

    A method was established for the determination of six compounds of zearalanol and related mycotoxins in pork and its products. After hydrolysis of the target compounds in the pork by beta-glucosidase/sulfatase, they were extracted with methanol aqueous solution and further purified by an HLB column. The separation was performed on a BEH C18 column with gradient elution using acetonitrile-water as mobile phases. The analytes were determined by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative scan mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. alpha-Zearalenol-D7 and beta-zearalenol-D7 were used as internal standards. The good linearities (r > 0. 999) were achieved for the six compounds over the range of 1. 0 - 100 microg/L based on the internal standard calibration. The detection limits of the method were 0.03 -0.09 microg/kg. The mean recoveries of the six target compounds spiked at three levels from 1. 0 - 10. 0 microg/kg ranged from 76. 7% to 100. 5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 20%. The proposed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and complies with the regulations for the determination of trace contaminant residues in food matrice.

  5. Determination of residual carbamate, organophosphate, and phenyl urea pesticides in drinking and surface water by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chunyan; Nguyen, Bick; Zhiao, Xiaoming; Chen, Ernie; Yang, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Methods using SPE followed by HPLC/MS/MS analysis were developed and validated for the determination of 39 pesticides in different aquatic environmental matrixes. The target pesticides included 12 carbamates, 15 organophosphates, and 12 phenyl ureas, out of which 16 are regulated in North America. Method detection limits were in the low ng/L range using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's protocol and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) data acquisition, meeting the regulatory needs in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Isotope-labeled compounds were used as injection internal standards, as well as method surrogates to improve the data quality. QC/QA data (e.g., method recovery and within-run and between-run method precision) derived from multiyear monitoring activities were used to demonstrate method ruggedness. The same QC/QA data also showed that the method exerted no obvious matrix effect on the target analytes. Parameters that affect method performance, such as preservatives, pH values, sample storage time, and sample extract storage time, were also studied in detail. Accredited by the Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation and licensed by the Ontario government for drinking water analysis, these methods have been applied to the analysis of drinking water, ground water, and surface water samples collected in the province of Ontario, Canada, to ensure the pristine nature of Ontario's aquatic environment. Using the scheduled MRM (sMRM) data acquisition algorithm, it was demonstrated that sMRM improved the S/N of extracted ion chromatograms by at least two- to six-fold and, therefore, enhanced the short- and long-term instrument precision, demonstrated the ability to offer high throughput multiresidue analysis, and allowed the use of two MRM transitions for each compound to achieve higher confidence for compound identification.

  6. Determination of isothiazolinone preservatives in cosmetics and household products by matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Dagnac, Thierry; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria

    2012-12-28

    In this work, the development of a new efficient methodology applying, for the first time, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the determination of sensitizer isothiazolinone biocides in cosmetics and household products - 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BzI) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OI) - is described. The main factors affecting the MSPD extraction procedure, the dispersive phase and the elution solvent, are assessed and optimized through a multicategorical experimental design, using a real cosmetic sample. The most suitable extraction conditions comprise the use of 2g of florisil as dispersive phase and 5 mL of methanol as elution solvent. Subsequently, the extract is readily analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS without any further clean-up or concentration steps. Method performance was evaluated demonstrating to have a broad linear range (R(2)>0.9980) and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) at the low nanogram per gram level, which are well below the required limits for UE regulation compliance. Satisfactory recoveries above 80%, except for MI (mean values close to 60%), were obtained. In all cases, the method precision (% RSD) was lower than 7%, making this low cost extraction method reliable for routine control. The validated methodology was finally applied to the analysis of a wide variety of cosmetics and household products. Most of the real samples analyzed have been shown to comply with the current European Cosmetic Regulation, although the results obtained for some rinse-off cosmetics (e.g. baby care products) revealed high isothiazolinone content. PMID:23182288

  7. Determination of isothiazolinone preservatives in cosmetics and household products by matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Dagnac, Thierry; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria

    2012-12-28

    In this work, the development of a new efficient methodology applying, for the first time, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the determination of sensitizer isothiazolinone biocides in cosmetics and household products - 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BzI) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OI) - is described. The main factors affecting the MSPD extraction procedure, the dispersive phase and the elution solvent, are assessed and optimized through a multicategorical experimental design, using a real cosmetic sample. The most suitable extraction conditions comprise the use of 2g of florisil as dispersive phase and 5 mL of methanol as elution solvent. Subsequently, the extract is readily analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS without any further clean-up or concentration steps. Method performance was evaluated demonstrating to have a broad linear range (R(2)>0.9980) and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) at the low nanogram per gram level, which are well below the required limits for UE regulation compliance. Satisfactory recoveries above 80%, except for MI (mean values close to 60%), were obtained. In all cases, the method precision (% RSD) was lower than 7%, making this low cost extraction method reliable for routine control. The validated methodology was finally applied to the analysis of a wide variety of cosmetics and household products. Most of the real samples analyzed have been shown to comply with the current European Cosmetic Regulation, although the results obtained for some rinse-off cosmetics (e.g. baby care products) revealed high isothiazolinone content.

  8. Quantification of testosterone undecanoate in human hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Oscar J; Deventer, Koen; Van Eenoo, Peter; Rubens, Robert; Delbeke, Frans T

    2009-08-01

    Testosterone undecanoate (T-C11) can be used by athletes in order to improve performance. After oral intake, T-C11 is rapidly metabolized, hampering discrimination between exogenous and endogenous testosterone. A possible alternative is to detect the intact ester in hair. A method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of T-C11 in hair. The sample procedure consisted of digestion of 200 mg of pulverized hair with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride and liquid-liquid extraction with n-pentane. Several parameters such as the mobile phase, the ionization source and the washing step were optimized. The method was validated at different spiked levels obtaining satisfactory values for accuracy (between 92 and 102%) with relative standard deviations lower than 7% and a limit of detection of 0.2 ng/g. The applicability of the method was checked by the analysis of three samples from patients using T-C11. A peak for the analyte was detected in all samples with concentrations between 0.4 and 8.4 ng/g. PMID:19353724

  9. Development of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of CP-47,497, CP-47,497-C8 and JWH-250 in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Samano, Kimberly L; Poklis, Justin L; Lichtman, Aron H; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    While Marijuana continues to be the most widely used illicit drug, abuse of synthetic cannabinoid (SCB) compounds in 'Spice' or 'K2' herbal incense products has emerged as a significant public health concern in many European countries and in the USA. Several of these SCBs have been declared Schedule I controlled substances but detection and quantification in biological samples remain a challenge. Therefore, we present a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method after liquid-liquid extraction for the quantitation of CP-47,497, CP-47,497-C8 and JWH-250 in mouse brain. We report data for linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy/bias, precision, recovery, selectivity, carryover, matrix effects and stability experiments which were developed and fully validated based on Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology guidelines for forensic toxicology method validation. Acceptable coefficients of variation for accuracy/bias, within- and between-run precision and selectivity were determined, with all values within ±15% of the target concentration. Validation experiments revealed degradation of CP-47, 497 and CP-47,497-C8 at different temperatures, and significant ion suppression was produced in brain for all compounds tested. The method was successfully applied to detect and quantify CP-47,497 in brains from mice demonstrating significant cannabimimetic behavioral effects as assessed by the classical tetrad paradigm.

  10. Ethyl glucuronide determination in meconium and hair by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tarcomnicu, Isabela; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Aerts, Katrien; De Doncker, Mireille; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2010-03-20

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in non-conventional matrices, such as hair and meconium, can provide useful information on alcohol abuse over a long time frame, for example during pregnancy or after a withdrawal treatment. This study reports on the development, validation and application of a new hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of EtG in meconium and hair. For each matrix, the sample preparation and the chromatographic separation were thoroughly optimised. Additionally, experiments with reversed-phase liquid chromatography were also performed in the development stages. Analyses were carried out using a Phenomenex Luna HILIC column (150 mm x 3 mm, 5 microm) and a mobile phase composed by ammonium acetate 2mM and acetonitrile, in gradient. Different SPE cartridges (Oasis MAX, Oasis WAX, aminopropyl silica) and solvents were tested in order to obtain the highest recoveries and cleanest extracts. Optimal results were obtained for meconium with aminopropyl cartridges, while for hair an incubation of 16 h with 2 mL of water and acetonitrile (50/50, v/v) provided good results. The analytical method was validated for both matrices (meconium and hair) by assessing linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery and limit of quantification. The calibration curve concentrations ranged from 50 to 1200 pg/mg for meconium and from 20 to 1000 pg/mg for hair. Real meconium and hair samples were analyzed and results were consistent with literature. PMID:20061101

  11. Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography/photo-diode array detection for the quantitation of carotenoids, retinyl esters, α-tocopherol and phylloquinone in chylomicron-rich fractions of human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Rachel E.; Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Riedl, Ken M.; Carle, Reinhold; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Bioavailability of essential lipophilic micronutrients and carotenoids is of utmost interest for human health, as the consumption of these compounds may help alleviate major nutritional deficiencies, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. High-performance liquid chromatography/photo-diode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) were compared for the quantitative analysis of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, α-tocopherol, phylloquinone, and several retinyl esters from chylomicron-containing triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions of human plasma obtained from two clinical trials. Methods After selecting an efficient extraction method for the analytes, both the HPLC/PDA and the HPLC/MS/MS methods were developed and several parameters validated using an HP 1200 series HPLC system interfaced with a HP 1200 series diode-array detector (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and a QTRAP 5500 (AB Sciex, Foster City, CA, USA) via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) probe operated in positive ion mode. Results For lycopene, α- and β-carotene, HPLC/MS/MS was up to 37 times more sensitive than HPLC-PDA. PDA detection was shown to be up to 8 times more sensitive for lutein. MS/MS signals were enhanced by matrix components for lutein and β-cryptoxanthin, as determined by referencing to the matrix-independent PDA signal. In contrast, matrix suppression was observed for retinyl palmitate, α-carotene, and β-carotene. Both detectors showed similar suitability for α-tocopherol, lycopene and retinyl palmitate (representing ~73% of total retinyl esters). MS/MS exclusively allowed the quantitation of minor retinyl esters, phylloquinone, and (Z)-lycopene isomers. Conclusions HPLC/MS/MS was more sensitive than HPLC-PDA for six of the eight analytes and represents a powerful tool for the analysis of chylomicron samples and potentially other biological samples

  12. Simultaneous determination of masked deoxynivalenol and some important type B trichothecenes in Chinese corn kernels and corn-based products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wang; Jiao-Jie, Ma; Chuan-Chuan, Yu; Xiao-Hui, Lin; Hong-Ru, Jiang; Bing, Shao; Feng-Qin, Li

    2012-11-21

    A total of 969 corn kernels and corn-based products collected from 24 provinces in China between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed for deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol 3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Deoxynivalenol was the predominant mycotoxin detected. A total of 29 out of 969 samples (corn kernels: 9/289, mean = 1884 μg/kg; corn-based products: 20/680, mean = 1580 μg/kg) contain deoxynivalenol at the levels exceeding the Chinese regulatory limit of 1000 μg/kg for deoxynivalenol in corn. The average relative concentration ratios (%) for deoxynivalenol 3-glucoside/deoxynivalenol for all four years were 25% ± 5% in corn kernels and 34% ± 4% in corn-based products. The results of this study indicate that it is necessary to include deoxynivalenol 3-glucoside in both risk assessment of deoxynivalenol and its derivatives and development of the tolerance limit for deoxynivalenol in Chinese corn kernels and corn-based products.

  13. Direct Measurement of Free Estradiol in Human Serum and Plasma by Equilibrium Dialysis-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ray, Julie A; Kushnir, Mark M; Rockwood, Alan L; Meikle, A Wayne

    2016-01-01

    We describe a direct method of measurement of free estradiol using equilibrium dialysis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum aliquots and internal standards are extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) followed by derivatization with dansyl chloride. An API 5500 mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray mode is used for detection.

  14. Simultaneous determination of eight illegal dyes in chili products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Ding, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Dan-Dan; Guo, Fei; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Yan-Bing; Liu, Hong-Min

    2013-12-30

    A sensitive and accurate method based on the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight illegal synthetic dyes (Sudan (I-IV), Para Red, Rhodamine B, Chrysoidin and Auramine O) in chili products. A simple sample treatment procedure entailing the use of an extraction step with acetonitrile/H2O (9/1) without further cleanup was developed. HPLC was performed on a C18 column using a multistep gradient elution with 5mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.0 with formic acid) and methanol as the mobile phase. Mass spectral acquisition was done in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using positive electrospray ionization (ESI). Linear calibrations were obtained with correlation coefficients R(2)>0.99. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the studied dyes were in the ranges of 0.05-0.6μgkg(-1) and 0.3-3.0μgkg(-1) depending on matrices, respectively. The recoveries of the eight synthetic dyes in five matrices ranged from 70.5% to 119.2%. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSDs) were between 2.3-15.8% and 5.7-15.6%, respectively. The applicability of the method to the determination of eight banned dyes in chili products was demonstrated. PMID:24212142

  15. Investigation of the biotransformation of osthole by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chan, Wan

    2013-02-23

    Osthole is an active ingredient and one of the major coumarin compounds that were identified in the genus Cnidium moonnieri (L.) Cussion, the fruit of which was used as traditional Chinese medicine to treat male impotence, ringworm infection and blood stasis conventionally. Recent studies revealed that osthole has diverse pharmacological effects, such as improving male sexual dysfunction, anti-diabetes, and anti-hypertentions. The inhibition of thrombosis and platelet aggregation and protection of central nerve were also observed. On the other hand, the metabolism of osthole has not yet been investigated thoroughly. Herein the biotransformation of osthole in rat was investigated after oral administration of osthole by using efficient and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). Eighteen osthole metabolites and the parent drug were detected and identified in rat urine. Fourteen metabolites of osthole were identified and characterized for the first time. Structures of metabolites of osthole were elucidated by comparing fragment pattern under MS/MS scan and change of molecular weight with those of osthole. The main phase I metabolic pathways were summed as 7-demethylation, 8-dehydrogenation, hydroxylation on coumarin and 3,4-epoxide. Sulfate conjugates were detected as phase II metabolites of osthole. PMID:23245246

  16. Determination and pharmacokinetic studies of arecoline in dog plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Zhou, Xu-Zheng; Li, Jian-Yong; Yang, Ya-Jun; Niu, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Xi-Wang; Li, Jin-Shan; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2014-10-15

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of arecoline concentration in dog plasma. Plasma sample was prepared by protein precipitation using n-hexane (containing 1% isoamyl alcohol) with β-pinene as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent C18 column (4.6×75mm, 3.5μm) using methanol: 5mM ammonium acetate as the mobile phase with isocratic elution. Mass detection was carried out using positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve for arecoline was linear over a concentration range of 2-500ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were within the acceptable limits of ±10% at all concentrations. In summary, the LC-MS/MS method described herein was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of arecoline hydrobromide tablets in dogs after oral administration. PMID:25140901

  17. Multi-detection of preservatives in cheeses by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fuselli, Fabio; Guarino, Chiara; La Mantia, Alessandro; Longo, Lucia; Faberi, Angelo; Marianella, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    The incorrect use of preservatives in cheeses may compromise food safety and damage consumers. According to the law, more than one preservative may be contemporarily used in cheeses. So a method for their contemporary detection may be useful for both manufacturers and control agencies quality control. In this research a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with electrospray ionization method for the multi-determination of seven preservatives (benzoic acid, citric acid, hexamethylenetetramine, lysozyme, natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid) in cheese was developed. The preservatives were contemporarily extracted from cheese by a single procedure, and analyzed by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS (Ion Trap) in positive ionization mode, with single reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. Three sample types (hard, pasta filata and fresh cheese) were used for method evaluation. Recoveries were mostly higher than 90%; MDLs ranged from 0.02 to 0.26 mgkg(-1), and MQLs were included between 0.07 and 0.88 mgkg(-1). Due to matrix effect, quantitation was performed by referring to a matrix matched calibration curve, for each cheese typology. This method was also applied to commercial cheese samples, with good results. It appears fast, reliable and suitable for both screening and confirmation of the presence and quantitation of the preservatives in a single, multi-detection analysis.

  18. Determination of ten sulphonamides in egg by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Forti, A F; Scortichini, G

    2009-04-01

    A precise and reliable method for the determination of 10 sulphonamide antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline) in egg by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed. Drugs were extracted using a mixture of dichloromethane/acetone (50:50, v/v), acidified with acetic acid and then cleaned-up on a cation-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The chromatographic separation was performed by gradient on a C(18) column with a mobile phase of methanol-water containing 0.1% formic acid and 5mM ammonium acetate, then sulphonamides were detected in a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI(+)). The method was validated at 15, 30 and 45 microgkg(-1). These levels were much lower than the corresponding maximum residue limit of 100 microgkg(-1) set for sulphonamides in several matrices but not in eggs, where the presence of such residues is not permitted. Results were quantitated against the selected internal standard (13)C(6)-sulphamethazine and also according to the matrix-matched approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as a relative standard deviation, never exceeded 21%. All decision limit (CCalpha) values lied in the range between 16.1 and 20.5 microgkg(-1) and the corresponding results for detection capability (CCbeta) were 16.9 and 25.7 microgkg(-1). Ruggedness was estimated according to the Youden robustness test. PMID:19286032

  19. Anion exchange SPE and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in GHB analysis.

    PubMed

    Elian, Albert A; Hackett, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the extraction of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) from urine using solid-phase extraction (SPE) is described. SPE was performed on anion exchange columns after samples of urine had been diluted with de-ionized water. After application of the diluted samples containing GHB-d(6) as an internal standard, the sorbent was washed with deionized water and methanol and dried. The GHB was eluted from the SPE column with a solvent consisting of methanol containing 6% glacial acetic acid. The eluent was collected, evaporated to dryness, and dissolved in mobile phase (100 μL) for analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in negative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Liquid chromatography was performed in gradient mode employing a biphenyl column and a mobile phase consisting of acetontitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. The total run time for each analysis was less than 5 min. The limits of detection/quantification for this method were determined to be 50 and 100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was found to be linear from 500 ng/mL to 10,000 ng/mL (r(2)>0.995). The recovery of GHB was found to be greater than 75%. In this report, results of authentic urine samples analyzed for GHB by this method are presented. GHB concentrations in these samples were found to be range from less than 500 ng/mL to 5110 ng/mL.

  20. Tissue-specific metabolite profiling of Turmeric by using laser micro-dissection, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of fight-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Ho, Alan; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma longa L. is recognized for its therapeutic and culinary uses both in Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine and is considered to be a boon to mankind. It has been extensively studied for its benefits and still continues to be an important drug with continued potential for further exploration and research. We studied the tissue-specific distribution of secondary metabolites to establish the validity of the use of rhizome samples from India and China, as substitutes for each other, based upon their metabolite profiles and curcumin contents. Laser microdissection was used for the isolation of microscopic tissues, such as cork, cortex and leaf-trace vascular bundles from rhizomes. Metabolite profiling was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of fight-mass spectrometry and curcumin content was estimated by a method validated as per the Harmonized Tripartite Guidelines. The cortex and cork revealed the presence of a higher number of secondary metabolites than in the leaf-trace vascular bundles. The curcumin contents in rhizome samples from both the countries, estimated with the help of a precise and accurate validated method, were found to be comparable. Based on the results, we conclude that turmeric rhizomes grown in India and China are qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable and therefore can be used as substitutes. The developed method can be widely applied for microscopic identification, authentication and analysis of the distribution of phytoconstituents in other botanical species of interest or of species with a significant commercial and therapeutic value. PMID:25707128

  1. Matrix effect on the determination of synthetic corticosteroids and diuretics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikunets, M. A.; Appolonova, S. A.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    This work presents a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) procedure for selective and reliable screening of corticosteroids and diuretics in human urine. Sample preparation included the extraction, evaporation of the organic extract under nitrogen, and solution of the dry residue. The extract was analyzed by HPLC combined with tandem mass spectrometry using electro-spraying ionization at atmospheric pressure with negative ion recording. The mass spectra of all compounds were recorded, and the characteristic ions, retention times, and detection limits were determined. The procedure was validated by evaluating the degree of the matrix suppression of ionization, extraction of analytes from human biological liquid, and the selectivity and specificity of determination.

  2. A single-step pesticide extraction and clean-up multi-residue analytical method by selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by on-line solid phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Alpendurada, Maria Fátima

    2016-06-24

    Pesticides, a group of compounds linked to human activity, may, when in toxic levels, have a profound effect on water quality, and hence result in adverse consequences to aquatic life and ultimately to human health. Analytical challenges arise when successfully trying to determine these levels in environmental complex matrices. Therefore, fast, simple, sensitive and selective analytical methodologies for multi-residue determination of pesticides (atrazine, azoxystrobin, bentazon, λ-cyhalothrin, penoxsulam and terbuthylazine) in sediment, macrophytes (algae and aquatic plants) and aquatic animals were developed and validated. The established methods were matrix-dependent and were based on Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) followed by on-line Solid Phase Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (on-line SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). This cutting-edge research methodology uses a small amount of sample, is time saving and reduces the use of organic solvents in compliance with Green Chemistry principles. The analytical features were adequate for all compounds in all studied matrices. The established methodology was applied on real marine samples and no pesticide concentrations above their respective method quantification limits were measured in sediments or aquatic plants. However, terbuthylazine was found in the macroalgae Ulva spp. (108ngg(-1)dw) and all the prospected pesticides were measured above their respective method quantification limits in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (atrazine: 48ngg(-1)dw, azoxystrobin: 64ngg(-1)dw, bentazon: 33ngg(-1)dw, λ-cyhalothrin: 2531ngg(-1)dw, penoxsulam: 50ngg(-1)dw, and terbuthylazine: 44ngg(-1)dw). PMID:27234845

  3. Screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nola H; Ho, Emmie N M; Leung, David K K; Wan, Terence S M

    2005-04-29

    Anabolic steroids have the capability of improving athletic performance and are banned substances in the Olympic games as well as in horseracing and equestrian competitions. The control of their abuse in racehorses is traditionally performed by detecting the presence of anabolic steroids and/or their metabolite(s) in urine samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, this approach usually requires tedious sample processing and chemical derivatisation steps and could be very insensitive in detecting certain steroids. This paper describes a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method for the detection of anabolic steroids that are poorly covered by GC-MS. Enzyme-treated urine was processed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a Bond Elut Certify cartridge, followed by a base wash for further cleanup. Separation of the steroids was carried out on a reversed-phase DB-8 column using 0.1% acetic acid and methanol as the mobile phase in a gradient elution programme. The mass spectrometer for the detection of the steroids was operated in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Urine samples fortified with 15 anabolic steroids (namely, androstadienone, 1-androstenedione, bolasterone, boldione, 4-estrenedione, gestrinone, methandrostenolone, methenolone, 17alpha-methyltestosterone, norbolethone, normethandrolone, oxandrolone, stenbolone, trenbolone and turinabol) at low ng/mL levels were consistently detected. No significant matrix interference was observed at the retention times of the targeted ion masses in blank urine samples. The method specificity, sensitivity, precision, recoveries, and the performance of the enzyme hydrolysis step were evaluated. The successful application of the method to analyse methenolone acetate administration urine samples demonstrated that the method could be effective in detecting anabolic steroids and their metabolites in horse

  4. Determination of parabens in serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Correlation with lipstick use.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Gabriella Padovani; Santos, Nayara de Kássia Souza; Albuquerque, Ana Carolina; Martins, Isarita

    2016-08-01

    Parabens are the most widely used preservative and are considered to be relatively safe compounds. However, studies have demonstrated that they may have estrogenic activity, and there is ongoing debate regarding the safety and potential cancer risk of using products containing these compounds. In the present work, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to determine methylparaben and propylparaben concentrations in serum, and the results were correlated with lipstick application. Samples were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The validation results demonstrated the linearity of the method over a range of 1-20 ng/mL, in addition to the method's precision and accuracy. A statistically significant difference was demonstrated between serum parabens in women who used lipstick containing these substances compared with those not using this cosmetic (p = 0.0005 and 0.0016, respectively), and a strong association was observed between serum parabens and lipstick use (Spearman correlation = 0.7202).

  5. Determination of parabens in serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Correlation with lipstick use.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Gabriella Padovani; Santos, Nayara de Kássia Souza; Albuquerque, Ana Carolina; Martins, Isarita

    2016-08-01

    Parabens are the most widely used preservative and are considered to be relatively safe compounds. However, studies have demonstrated that they may have estrogenic activity, and there is ongoing debate regarding the safety and potential cancer risk of using products containing these compounds. In the present work, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to determine methylparaben and propylparaben concentrations in serum, and the results were correlated with lipstick application. Samples were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The validation results demonstrated the linearity of the method over a range of 1-20 ng/mL, in addition to the method's precision and accuracy. A statistically significant difference was demonstrated between serum parabens in women who used lipstick containing these substances compared with those not using this cosmetic (p = 0.0005 and 0.0016, respectively), and a strong association was observed between serum parabens and lipstick use (Spearman correlation = 0.7202). PMID:27154569

  6. High-throughput multiclass method for antibiotic residue analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chico, J; Rúbies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2008-12-12

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the residue analysis of 39 antibiotics (tetracyclines, quinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides and macrolides) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The method combines an effective extraction technique, which uses water-methanol as extracting solvent, with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, allowing both confirmation and quantification in a single chromatographic run. The multiresidue method has been validated in chicken muscle matrix according to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC. It has been implemented as a routine method in a Public Health Laboratory, instead of the five plates test and LC methods previously used.

  7. Determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine in umbilical cord using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jones, Joseph; Rios, Rosemarie; Jones, Mary; Lewis, Douglas; Plate, Charles

    2009-11-01

    The use of meconium as a drug-screening matrix for newborns has been the gold standard of care for the past two decades. A recent study using matched pairs of meconium and umbilical cord demonstrated a high degree of agreement. The use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a means to confirm amphetamines presumptive positive umbilical cord specimens for amphetamine and methamphetamine is described here for the first time. The limit of detection for both compounds was 0.2 ng/g. The limit of quantitation for both compounds was 0.6 ng/g. The assay was linear for both compounds up to 100 ng/g.

  8. High-throughput multiclass method for antibiotic residue analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chico, J; Rúbies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2008-12-12

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the residue analysis of 39 antibiotics (tetracyclines, quinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides and macrolides) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The method combines an effective extraction technique, which uses water-methanol as extracting solvent, with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, allowing both confirmation and quantification in a single chromatographic run. The multiresidue method has been validated in chicken muscle matrix according to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC. It has been implemented as a routine method in a Public Health Laboratory, instead of the five plates test and LC methods previously used. PMID:18992888

  9. Measurement of hydroxysafflor yellow A in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Yin; Chu, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Bing-Ting; Dai, Guo-Liang; Liu, Shi-Jia; Ju, Wen-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and specific high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) in human urine with isorhamnetin-3-O-neohespeidoside as internal standard (IS). HSYA and IS were extracted from urine samples by simple solid-phase extraction and separated on an Agilent Zorbax SB C18 column (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase of 0.2 mM ammonium acetate: methanol (30/70, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Polar endogenous interferences eluted in 0.1-2.5 min were switched into waste channel by the Valve Valco, to reduce the possible matrix effect for MS detection in each run. The MS detection of analytes was performed on a tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source in negative mode using multiple-reaction monitoring. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were m/z 611.3→491.2 for HSYA and m/z 623.2→299.2 for IS. The method was fully validated for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability, and then was applied to the urinary excretion study of injectable powder of pure HSYA in healthy Chinese volunteers for the first time. The results suggested that urine was the main excretion way of HSYA in healthy volunteers, further demonstrating the feasibility and necessity of our current method. PMID:25463208

  10. [Determination of 14 aniline derivatives in water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunzhi; Yang, Ping; Qian, Shu

    2015-05-01

    A new and fast method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 14 aniline derivatives ( ADs) in water by direct injection-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) through optimizing chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions. The water sample was filtered through a 0.45 µm polyether sulfone (PES) microfiltration membrane. The separation was performed on a Shim-pack FC-ODS column (75 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 µm) with methanol-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution (35:65, v/v) as mobile phases in gradient elution mode. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min, and the column temperature was 35 °C. The analytes were detected by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Under the optimized conditions, the analysis of the 14 aniline derivatives was completed within 12 min and the calibration curves showed good linearity with correlation coefficients not less than 0.999. The detection limits of the 14 aniline derivatives ranged from 0.03 µg/L to 4. 19 µg/L. The relative standard deviations of the 14 aniline derivatives in the spiked surface water at three levels (0. 5, 5.0, 20.0 µg/L) were 0.4%-9.4% (n = 6). The proposed method has the advantages of good anti-interference ability, rapidness and high sensitivity. It was successfully applied to the analysis of real samples, and the recoveries of the 14 aniline derivatives in the spiked real samples were 68.0%-130%.

  11. Quantification of six cannabinoids and metabolites in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-08-01

    Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly analyzed cannabinoid in oral fluid (OF); however, its metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) offers the advantage of documenting active consumption, as it is not detected in cannabis smoke. Analytical challenges such as low (ng/L) THCCOOH OF concentrations hampered routine OF THCCOOH monitoring. Presence of minor cannabinoids like cannabidiol and cannabinol offer the advantage of identifying recent cannabis intake. Published OF cannabinoids methods have limitations, including few analytes and lengthy derivatization. We developed and validated a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for THC, its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-THC and THCCOOH quantification, and other natural cannabinoids including tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG) in 1 mL OF collected with the Quantisal device. After solid-phase extraction, chromatography was performed on a Selectra PFPP column with a 0.15% formic acid in water and acetonitrile gradient with a 0.5 mL/min flow rate. All analytes were monitored in positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with multiple reaction monitoring. Limits of quantification were 15 ng/L THCCOOH and 0.2 µg/L for all other analytes. Linear ranges extended to 3750 ng/L THCCOOH, 100 µg/L THC, and 50 µg/L for all other analytes. Inter-day analytical recoveries (bias) and imprecision at low, mid, and high quality control (QC) concentrations were 88.7-107.3% and 2.3-6.7%, respectively (n = 20). Mean extraction efficiencies and matrix effects evaluated at low and high QC were 75.9-86.1% and 8.4-99.4%, respectively. This method will be highly useful for workplace, criminal justice, drug treatment and driving under the influence of cannabis OF testing. PMID:25428610

  12. Quantification of six cannabinoids and metabolites in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-08-01

    Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly analyzed cannabinoid in oral fluid (OF); however, its metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) offers the advantage of documenting active consumption, as it is not detected in cannabis smoke. Analytical challenges such as low (ng/L) THCCOOH OF concentrations hampered routine OF THCCOOH monitoring. Presence of minor cannabinoids like cannabidiol and cannabinol offer the advantage of identifying recent cannabis intake. Published OF cannabinoids methods have limitations, including few analytes and lengthy derivatization. We developed and validated a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for THC, its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-THC and THCCOOH quantification, and other natural cannabinoids including tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG) in 1 mL OF collected with the Quantisal device. After solid-phase extraction, chromatography was performed on a Selectra PFPP column with a 0.15% formic acid in water and acetonitrile gradient with a 0.5 mL/min flow rate. All analytes were monitored in positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with multiple reaction monitoring. Limits of quantification were 15 ng/L THCCOOH and 0.2 µg/L for all other analytes. Linear ranges extended to 3750 ng/L THCCOOH, 100 µg/L THC, and 50 µg/L for all other analytes. Inter-day analytical recoveries (bias) and imprecision at low, mid, and high quality control (QC) concentrations were 88.7-107.3% and 2.3-6.7%, respectively (n = 20). Mean extraction efficiencies and matrix effects evaluated at low and high QC were 75.9-86.1% and 8.4-99.4%, respectively. This method will be highly useful for workplace, criminal justice, drug treatment and driving under the influence of cannabis OF testing.

  13. [Determination of aniline in water and fish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    He, Dechun; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Caiming; Xu, Zhencheng; Zhang, Sukun; Han, Jinglei

    2014-09-01

    A fast analytical method for the determination of aniline in water and fish meat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed. The water sample was mixed with acetonitrile by 4:1 (v/v) and the fish sample was extracted by 2.00 mL acetonitrile for each gram of sample, and then the extracts of water and fish samples were centrifuged at 5,000 r/min for 5 min. The separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using mobile phases of acetonitrile-0.5% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution (85:15, v/v). Aniline was separated within 3 min. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-500 pg/L with R2 > 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.50 μg/L and 1.00 μg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.00 μg/L and 2.00 μg/kg for aniline in water and fish meat, respectively. The average recoveries of aniline in water were 93.7% at the spiked level of 40 ng and 86.7% at the spiked level of 400 ng (n = 5). The average recoveries of aniline in fish were 96.8%, 92.6% and 81.8% at the spiked levels of 5, 50 and 500 ng respectively (n = 5). The relative standard deviations were 1.5%-9.2%. Thirteen water samples and twelve fish samples were collected from a reservoir polluted by aniline and the maximum contents found were 1,943. 6 μg/L in water and 60.8 μg/kg in fish. The method is suitable for the determination of aniline residues in water and fish with the characteristics of easy operation, high accuracy and precision.

  14. Simultaneous determination of shanzhiside methyl ester, 8-O-acetylshan- zhiside methyl ester and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Lamiophlomis rotata Pill.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yang; Liang, Xinlei; Sun, Tingting; Luo, Jinghan; Guo, Xingjie; Zhao, Longshan

    2016-05-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of shanzhiside methyl ester, 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of Lamiophlomis rotata Pill in rat plasma was developed and validated. After liquid-liquid extraction with n-butyl alcohol/ethyl acetate (70:30, v/v), analytes and paeoniflorin (internal standard, IS) were separated on an Acquity BEH UPLC C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. All calibration curves had good linearity (r>0.9929) over the concentration ranges of 1-1000 ng/mL for shanzhiside methyl ester and 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester, 0.3-150 ng/mL for luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. The intra- and inter-day precisions were all within 11.1% and the accuracy (relative error, RE%) all ranged from -13.6% to 5.3%. The method also guaranteed an acceptable selectivity, recovery and stability, which was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the three analytes in rats after oral administration of Lamiophlomis rotata Pill. PMID:27023158

  15. Determination of bromate in drinking water by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; Busquets, Rosa; Alomary, Ahmad Khodran

    2012-10-01

    Bromate is a byproduct formed as a result of disinfection of bromide-containing source water with ozone or hypochlorite. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recognized bromate as a possible human carcinogen, thus it is essential to determine in drinking water. Present work highlights a development of sensitive and fast analytical method for bromate determination in drinking water by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The quality parameters of the developed method were established, obtaining very low limit of detection (0.01 ng/mL), repeatability and reproducibility have been found to be less than 3% in terms of relative standard deviation when analyzing a bromate standard at 0.05 μg/mL with 0.4 min analysis time. Developed method was applied for the analysis of metropolitan and bottled water from Saudi Arabia; 22 samples have been analyzed. Bromate was detected in the metropolitan water samples (from desalinization source) at concentrations ranging between 3.43 and 75.04 ng/mL and in the bottled water samples at concentrations ranging between 2.07 and 21.90 ng/mL. Moreover, in comparison to established analytical methods such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the proposed method was found to be very sensitive, selective and rapid for the routine analysis of bromate at low level in drinking water.

  16. Determination of bromate in drinking water by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; Busquets, Rosa; Alomary, Ahmad Khodran

    2012-10-01

    Bromate is a byproduct formed as a result of disinfection of bromide-containing source water with ozone or hypochlorite. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recognized bromate as a possible human carcinogen, thus it is essential to determine in drinking water. Present work highlights a development of sensitive and fast analytical method for bromate determination in drinking water by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The quality parameters of the developed method were established, obtaining very low limit of detection (0.01 ng/mL), repeatability and reproducibility have been found to be less than 3% in terms of relative standard deviation when analyzing a bromate standard at 0.05 μg/mL with 0.4 min analysis time. Developed method was applied for the analysis of metropolitan and bottled water from Saudi Arabia; 22 samples have been analyzed. Bromate was detected in the metropolitan water samples (from desalinization source) at concentrations ranging between 3.43 and 75.04 ng/mL and in the bottled water samples at concentrations ranging between 2.07 and 21.90 ng/mL. Moreover, in comparison to established analytical methods such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the proposed method was found to be very sensitive, selective and rapid for the routine analysis of bromate at low level in drinking water. PMID:22815069

  17. Rapid determination of vitamin D₃ in milk-based infant formulas by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Byung-Man; Jeong, In-Seek; Lee, Moon-Seok; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Jong-Su

    2014-12-15

    A rapid and simple sample preparation method for vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) was developed for emulsified dairy products such as milk-based infant formulas. A sample was mixed in a 50 mL centrifuge tube with the same amount of water and isopropyl alcohol to achieve chemical extraction. Ammonium sulfate was used to induce phase separation. No-heating saponification was performed in the sample tube by adding KOH, NaCl, and NH3. Vitamin D3 was then separated and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results for added recovery tests were in the range 93.11-110.65%, with relative standard deviations between 2.66% and 2.93%. The results, compared to those obtained using a certified reference material (SRM 1849a), were within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labour saving.

  18. Determination of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) polyphenol components using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Overall contribution to antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Gon-Sup; Park, Semin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kim, Man-Bae; Lee, Won Sup; Jeong, Sung Woo; Lee, Soo Jung; Jin, Jong Sung; Shin, Sung Chul

    2014-03-01

    The type and content of plant polyphenols can be influenced by maturity. Korean chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves of three different maturities (young, mature, and aged) were extracted with 70% aqueous methanol. The polyphenols in the leaves were analysed for the first time using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and comparison with reported data. Among the 12 characterised components, five flavonoids, 3, 4, and 10-12, and a dicaffeoylquinic acid derivative, 6, were characterised for the first time in chokeberry leaves. Each polyphenol component was validated and quantified using a representative polyphenol standard of the same group. The antioxidant activity of the three different mature leaf extracts was determined. The antioxidant activity was highest for young leaves, followed by mature and aged leaves. The results suggest that younger chokeberry leaves may be more favourable for processing a higher quality functional tea due to their higher polyphenol content.

  19. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of Perfluorinated Surfactants in Fish Liver by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Naomi L.; Martin, Jonathan W.; Ye, Yun; Mabury, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that provides students a hands-on introduction to the specific techniques of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and electrospray ionization is presented. The students can thus practice the analytical principles of sample extraction, detection, quantification, and quality control using a fresh fish…

  20. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection of the quaternary ammonium compound mebezonium as an active ingredient in t61.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Grellner, Wolfgang; Rochholz, Gertrud; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2011-03-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds pose an analytical challenge. Mebezonium, a muscle-relaxing agent contained in veterinary euthanasia solution T61, was analyzed in body fluids, organs, and injection sites of a veterinarian by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. Additionally, embutramide and tetracaine, which are two other active ingredients contained in T61, methadone, xylazine, and analgesics were detected by LC-MS-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection methods. For detection of mebezonium a solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with ionpairing reagent heptafluorobutyric acid was developed. Separation was achieved on Phenomenex Synergi Hydro RP C(18) column combined with ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile (pH 3.5). To enrich other drugs, liquid-liquid extraction procedures were used. Most of these drugs were separated on a Restek Allure PFP Propyl column using the mentioned mobile phase. Mebezonium and embutramide were detected in femoral vein serum in concentrations of 10.9 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of xylazine and methadone in serum was 2.0 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively. The LC-MS-MS method with SPE combined with an ion-pairing reagent allowed the quantitation of mebezonium. Methadone was detected in toxic concentrations and was, in combination with xylazine and T61, considered to be the cause of death. PMID:21396233

  1. Simultaneous determination of four alkaloids in Lindera aggregata by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng; Zheng, Yunliang; Chen, Na; Luan, Lianjun; Zhou, Changxin; Gan, Lishe; Wu, Yongjiang

    2008-11-28

    A new separation and quantification method using liquid chromatography under ultra-high-pressure in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of four alkaloids in Lindera aggregata. The analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column (50mmx2.1mm, 1.7microm particle size; Waters, Milford, MA, USA) utilizing a gradient elution profile and a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 10mM ammonium acetate adjusted to pH 3 with acetic acid and (B) acetonitrile. An electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem interface in the positive mode was employed prior to mass spectrometric detection. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 17.1-856ng for boldine, 42.4-2652ng for norboldine, 6.1-304ng for reticuline and 0.5-50ng for linderegatine, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 99.2 to 101.4% with RSDs< or =2.7%. Then, four L. aggregata samples from different batches were analyzed using the established method. The results indicated that ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry provided improved chromatographic parameters resulting in significantly increased sample throughput including lower solvent consumption and lower limits of quantitation (LOQs) for most of target analytes compared to previous method employing conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation. So, the established method was validated, sensitive and reliable for the determination of four alkaloids in L. aggregata.

  2. Simultaneous determination of tanshinone IIA and its three hydroxylated metabolites by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wang, Guang-Ji; Li, Jing; Hao, Hai-Ping; Zheng, Chao-Nan

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of tanshinone IIA and its three hydroxylated metabolites, tanshinone IIB, hydroxytanshinone IIA and przewaquinone A, in a rat liver microsome was developed and fully validated. A single step of liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was utilized in this method. Chromatographic separation of the sample matrix from the analytes and the internal standard diazepam was performed using a Shim-pack VP-ODS analytical column. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source and operated in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was linear in the concentration range of 1-500 ng/mL for all analytes. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD %) were within 15% and deviations of the assay accuracies were within 15.0% for all analytes. The analytes proved to be stable during sample storage, preparation and analyses. This validated method was successfully applied to the enzyme kinetic study of tanshinone IIA in liver microsome. The elimination of tanshinone IIA and formation of tanshinone IIB and hydroxytanshinone IIA in the liver microsome all exhibited a sigmoidal kinetics profile. The formation of przewaquinone A shows a typical hyperbolic profile. In addition, this method has now been applied in the analysis of other bio-samples including plasma, urine, bile and feces. PMID:16470728

  3. Determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine in umbilical cord using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Joseph; Rios, Rosemarie; Jones, Mary; Lewis, Douglas; Plate, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The use of meconium as a drug-screening matrix for newborns has been the gold standard of care for the past two decades. A recent study using matched pairs of meconium and umbilical cord demonstrated a high degree of agreement. The use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a means to confirm amphetamines presumptive positive umbilical cord specimens for amphetamine and methamphetamine is described here for the first time. The limit of detection for both compounds was 0.2 ng/g. The limit of quantitation for both compounds was 0.6 ng/g. The assay was linear for both compounds up to 100 ng/g. PMID:19783234

  4. Analysis of bromate in drinking water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Takei, Kanako; Akiba, Michihiro

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method for determining bromate in drinking water was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The (18)O-enriched bromate was used as an internal standard. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of bromate was 0.2 µg/L. The peak of bromate was separated from those of coexisting ions (i.e., chloride, nitrate and sulfate). The relative and absolute recoveries of bromate in two drinking water samples and in a synthesized ion solution (100 mg/L chloride, 10 mg N/L nitrate, and 100 mg/L sulfate) were 99-105 and 94-105%, respectively. Bromate concentrations in 11 drinking water samples determined by LC-MS/MS were <0.2-2.3 µg/L. The results of the present study indicated that the proposed method was suitable for determining bromate concentrations in drinking water without sample pretreatment.

  5. Analysis of RNA modifications by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thüring, Kathrin; Schmid, Katharina; Keller, Patrick; Helm, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of RNA modifications is of high importance in order to address a wide range of biological questions. Therefore, a highly sensitive and accurate method such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has to be available. By using different LC-MS/MS procedures, it is not only possible to quantify very low amounts of RNA modifications, but also to detect probably unknown modified nucleosides. For these cases the dynamic multiple reaction monitoring and the neutral loss scan are the most common techniques. Here, we provide the whole workflow for analyzing RNA samples regarding their modification content. This includes an equipment list, the preparation of required solutions/enzymes and the creation of an internal standard or nucleoside stocks for internal or external calibration. Furthermore, we describe the preparation of RNA samples for the subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis and the corresponding analysis process. PMID:27020891

  6. [Low temperature freezing followed by dispersive solid phase extraction for the determination of 104 pesticide residues in vegetable oils using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Wang, Lan; Huang, Huajun; Chen, Jie; Chen, Wenrui; Xiang, Dapeng

    2015-03-01

    A method using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by clean-up steps of centrifugation, freezing and dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been devel- oped for the determination of trace levels of 104 pesticides in vegetable oils. LLE has been optimized to extract these pesticide residues from oils to obtain the highest recoveries of pesticides and the lowest co-extract fat residue in the final extract. In addition, the centrifugation and freezing steps as well as D-SPE with primary secondary amine (PSA), graphite carbon black (GCB) and C18 were used as the clean-up steps to minimize the co-extract fat. The recoveries obtained ranged from 55% to 121% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0. 47% to 19. 2% at the spiked levels of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg. This method, combining with accurate and sensitive detection, allowed quantification and confirmation at levels as low as 1 µg/kg for 80% of the analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the most compounds were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Chinese legislations for oils. The proposed method was applied successfully for the residue determination of the selected pesticides in oils.

  7. [Determination of endogenous steroids in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectromretry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengye; Xiang, Ping; Yan, Hui; Shen, Baohua; Shen, Min

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of endogenous steroids in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with methyltestosterone as internal standard. After enzymatic hydrolysis by beta-glucuronidase and liquid-liquid extraction, the urine sample was chromatographed on a Cosmosil C18 column with a mixture of methanol and ammonium acetate-formic acid (68:32, v/v) as mobile phase, then detected using MS/MS system with electrospray ionization (ESI) in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The detection limits ranged from 0.01 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL. The recoveries ranged from 96.7% to 106.5%, and the intra- and inter-day precisions (measured as relative standard deviations) were less than 7% and 11%, respectively. With simple and fast sample preparation, the method was sensitive and specific for simultaneous determination of these 5 kinds of endogenous steroids in urine. The method has been successfully applied in pharmacokinetic study and is thus a potential alternative for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based procedures in routine analysis of endogenous steroids such as DHEA in human urine.

  8. Study of tanshinone IIA tissue distribution in rat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hui-chang; Law, Francis C P; Zhong, Guo-ping; Xu, Chen-shu; Pan, Ying; Ding, Liang; Chen, Xiao; Zhao, Li-zi; Xu, Qiong; Huang, Min

    2007-05-01

    A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for determining tanshinone IIA in rat tissues. After a single step liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether, tanshinone IIA and loratadine (internal standard) was subjected to LC/MS/MS analysis using positive electro-spray ionization under selected reaction monitoring mode. Chromatographic separation of tanshinone IIA and loratadine was achieved on a Hypersil BDS C(18) column (i.d. 2.1 x 50 mm, 5 microm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) at a flow rate of 300 microL/min. The intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were less than 10.2 and 12.4%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracies ranged from 99.7 to 109.7%. The lowest limit of quantification for tanshinone IIA was 1 ng/mL. The method was applied to a tanshinone IIA tissue distribution study after an oral dose of 60 mg/kg to rats. Tanshinone IIA tissue concentrations decreased in the order of stomach > small intestine > lung > liver > fat > muscle > kidneys > spleen > heart > plasma > brain > testes. Tanshinone IIA still could be detected in most of the tissues at 20 h post-dosing. These results indicate that the LC/MS/MS method was rapid and sensitive to quantify tanshinone IIA in different rat tissues. PMID:17357178

  9. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human hair by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yaldiz, Fadile; Daglioglu, Nebile; Hilal, Ahmet; Keten, Alper; Gülmen, Mete Korkut

    2013-10-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol and has been utilized as a marker for alcohol intake. This study presents development, validation and application of a new hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of EtG in human hair samples. The linearity was assessed in the range of 5-2000 pg/mg hair, with a correlation coefficient of >0.99. The method was selective and sensitive, with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.05 pg/mg and 0.18 pg/mg in hair, respectively. Differently from the extraction procedures in the literature, a fast and simple liquid-liquid method was used and highest recoveries and cleanest extracts were obtained. The method was successfully applied to 30 human hair samples which were taken from those who state they consume alcohol. EtG concentrations in the hair samples of alcohol users participated in this study, ranged between 1.34 and 82.73 pg/mg. From the concentration of EtG in hair strands 20 of the 30 subjects can be considered regular moderate drinkers. PMID:24112322

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Ticagrelor and Its Metabolites in Human Plasma and Urine Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wanping; Wang, Xipei; Tang, Lan; Mai, Liping; Chen, Xiao-Ping; He, Guodong; Zheng, Zhijie; Zhong, Shilong

    2016-07-01

    We have developed and validated a rapid, selective and sensitive method using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) for the quantification of ticagrelor and all of its as-yet-identified metabolites in human plasma and urine. For the analysis of ticagrelor, its metabolites and the internal standard (IS) plasma samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and urine was processed by protein precipitation. Separations were performed on an Ultimate XB-C18 column (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 3 μm), using aqueous ammonium acetate (0.025 mM)/acetonitrile (35 : 65, v:v) as the mobile phase. Ticagrelor and all 11 metabolites were eluted within 4.5 min. Quantification was performed using electrospray ionization, operating in negative ion mode. The ticagrelor and metabolite M8 (AR-C124910XX) responses were optimized at the m/z 521.2 → 361.2 and m/z 477.2 → 361.1 transitions, respectively. The assay was validated over the linear range of 0.5-2,000 ng/mL for ticagrelor and M8. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were ≤14.6% for ticagrelor and ≤14.7% for M8, respectively. The matrix effects of plasma and urine were in the range of 98.3-110.7% for ticagrelor and 102.1-112.3% for M8. The relative quantification of other metabolites was performed by assessing the ratio of metabolite to IS peaks. The newly developed method was successfully used in a pharmacokinetic study characterizing ticagrelor metabolism in human volunteers. PMID:27165805

  11. Quantification of endogenous brassinosteroids in sub-gram plant tissues by in-line matrix solid-phase dispersion-tandem solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Duan, Chunfeng; Wu, Dapeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2014-09-12

    A matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD)-tandem mixed mode anion exchange (MAX)-mixed mode cation exchange (MCX) solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for quantification of six endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) (24-epibrassinolide, 24-epicastasterone, 6-deoxo-24-epicastasterone, dolichosterone, teasterone and typhasterol) in rice plant tissues. Non-polar interferences were removed effectively by C8 dispersant used in MSPD, while the following tandem MAX-MCX process facilitated the elimination of polar and ionizable compounds. The weak reversed-phase retention feature of MAX-MCX leaded to good compatibility of the elution solvents in the in-line coupled MSPD-MAX-MCX system. This system was optimized for extraction and purification of BRs in plant samples. The effects of the type of solid phase, the elution solvent, the extraction temperature and the clean-up material were studied. Before HPLC separation, BRs purified were derivatized by m-aminophenylboronic acid to enhance the sensitivity of MS/MS to BRs. Compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction (LLE-SPE), the proposed MSPD-MAX-MCX method showed higher extraction efficiency, lower matrix effect, and advantages of easy manipulation and time-saving. The in-line MSPD-MAX-MCX coupled with HPLC-MS/MS method provided a linear response over two orders of magnitude of BRs concentration with correlation coefficients above 0.9982, limits of detection between 0.008 and 0.04ngmL(-1), relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 29.4%, and recoveries above 77.8%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to analysis of endogenous BRs in rice plant at booting stage and maturity stage.

  12. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of sixteen red beverages containing carminic acid: identification of degradation products by using principal component analysis/discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Mastroianni, Rita; Marengo, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    The study investigates the sunlight photodegradation process of carminic acid, a natural red colourant used in beverages. For this purpose, both carminic acid aqueous standard solutions and sixteen different commercial beverages, ten containing carminic acid and six containing E120 dye, were subjected to photoirradiation. The results show different patterns of degradation, not only between the standard solutions and the beverages, but also from beverage to beverage. Due to the different beverage recipes, unpredictable reactions take place between the dye and the other ingredients. To identify the dye degradation products in a very complex scenario, a methodology was used, based on the combined use of principal component analysis with discriminant analysis and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high resolution mass spectrometry. The methodology is unaffected by beverage composition and allows the degradation products of carminic acid dye to be identified for each beverage. PMID:25149011

  13. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of sixteen red beverages containing carminic acid: identification of degradation products by using principal component analysis/discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Mastroianni, Rita; Marengo, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    The study investigates the sunlight photodegradation process of carminic acid, a natural red colourant used in beverages. For this purpose, both carminic acid aqueous standard solutions and sixteen different commercial beverages, ten containing carminic acid and six containing E120 dye, were subjected to photoirradiation. The results show different patterns of degradation, not only between the standard solutions and the beverages, but also from beverage to beverage. Due to the different beverage recipes, unpredictable reactions take place between the dye and the other ingredients. To identify the dye degradation products in a very complex scenario, a methodology was used, based on the combined use of principal component analysis with discriminant analysis and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high resolution mass spectrometry. The methodology is unaffected by beverage composition and allows the degradation products of carminic acid dye to be identified for each beverage.

  14. Determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on tryptic signature peptides employing an isotope-labeled winged peptide as internal standard.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingshun; Lai, Shiyun; Cai, Zengxuan; Chen, Qi; Huang, Baifen; Ren, Yiping

    2014-06-01

    A new and sensitive determination method was developed for bovine lactoferrin in dairy products including infant formulas based on the signature peptide by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The simple pretreatment procedures included the addition of a winged peptide containing the isotope-labeled signature peptide as internal standard, followed by an enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The signature peptide was chosen and identified from the tryptic hydrolyzates of bovine lactoferrin by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry based on sequence database search. Analytes were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH 300 C18 column and monitored by MS/MS in seven minutes. Quantitative result bias due to matrix effect and tryptic efficiency was corrected through the use of synthetic isotope-labeled standards. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.3 mg/100 g and 1.0 mg/100 g, respectively. Bovine lactoferrin within the concentration range of 10-1000 nmol L(-1) showed a strong linear relationship with a linear correlation coefficient (r) of >0.998. The intra- and inter-day precision of the method were RSD<6.5% and RSD<7.1%, respectively. Excellent repeatability (RSD<6.4%) substantially supported the application of this method for the determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy samples. The present method was successfully validated and applied to determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy products including infant formulas.

  15. Comprehensive characterization of anticoagulant rodenticides in sludge by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence of 10 commonly used anticoagulant rodenticides in centrifuged sludge of 27 wastewater treatment plants was evaluated using solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Activated carbon, alumina, and Florisil cartridges with methanol/dichloromethane as eluting solvents were tested in combination with primary-secondary amine (PSA) to optimize an efficient sample cleanup. PSA in combination with Florisil was the best methodology to extract anticoagulant rodenticides in sludge providing recoveries between 42 ± 0.5 and 100 ± 2 %. Warfarin, bromadiolone, ferulenol, and coumachlor were the most ubiquitous compounds in sludge at concentrations up to 84.2 ng g(-1) for the latter. Coumatetralyl, dicoumarol, and brodifacoum were detected sporadically at levels between 6.1 and 17.4 ng g(-1). On the contrary, acenocoumarol, difenacoum, and flocoumafen were not detected in any sample. Finally, we estimated the amount of anticoagulant rodenticides discharged via sludge in order to determine the potential impact to agricultural soil according to different sludge usage practices in the region investigated. This study demonstrates that anticoagulant rodenticides are accumulated in sludge during activated sludge treatment and that the application of sludge as fertilizers may pose a future environmental risk, if not controlled. PMID:27146526

  16. Multi-residue analysis of pharmaceuticals in aqueous environmental samples by online solid-phase extraction-ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: optimisation and matrix effects reduction by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction.

    PubMed

    Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Leang, Sokha; Bernet, Nathalie; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Nélieu, Sylvie

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and optimise an analytical method for the quantification of a bactericide and 13 pharmaceutical products, including 8 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolide), in various aqueous environmental samples: soil water and aqueous fractions of pig slurry, digested pig slurry and sewage sludge. The analysis was performed by online solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-UHPLC-MS-MS). The main challenge was to minimize the matrix effects observed in mass spectrometry, mostly due to ion suppression. They depended on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and its origin, and ranged between -22% and +20% and between -38% and -93% of the signal obtained without matrix, in soil water and slurry supernatant, respectively. The very variable levels of these matrix effects suggested DOC content cut-offs above which sample purification was required. These cut-offs depended on compounds, with concentrations ranging from 30 to 290mgC/L for antibiotics (except tylosine) up to 600-6400mgC/L for the most apolar compounds. A modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure was therefore optimised using an experimental design methodology, in order to purify samples with high DOC contents. Its performance led to a compromise, allowing fluoroquinolone and tetracycline analysis. The QuEChERS extraction salts consisted therefore of sodium acetate, sodium sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate, and sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) as a ligand of divalent cations. The modified QuEChERS procedure employed for the extraction of pharmaceuticals in slurry and digested slurry liquid phases reduced the matrix effects for almost all the compounds, with extraction recoveries generally above 75%. The performance characteristics of the method were evaluated in terms of linearity, intra-day and inter

  17. Investigations into the feasibility of routine ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of equine hair samples for detecting the misuse of anabolic steroids, anabolic steroid esters and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bobby P; Viljanto, Marjaana; Bright, Jane; Pearce, Clive; Maynard, Steve

    2013-07-17

    The detection of the abuse of anabolic steroids in equine sport is complicated by the endogenous nature of some of the abused steroids, such as testosterone and nandrolone. These steroids are commonly administered as intramuscular injections of esterified forms of the steroid, which prolongs their effects and improves bioavailability over oral dosing. The successful detection of an intact anabolic steroid ester therefore provides unequivocal proof of an illegal administration, as esterified forms are not found endogenously. Detection of intact anabolic steroid esters is possible in plasma samples but not, to date, in the traditional doping control matrix of urine. The analysis of equine mane hair for the detection of anabolic steroid esters has the potential to greatly extend the time period over which detection of abuse can be monitored. Equine mane hair samples were incubated in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) before anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone and stanozolol), anabolic steroid esters (esters of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone and trenbolone) and associated compounds (fluticasone propionate and esters of hydroxyprogesterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, v:v). Further sample clean up by solid phase extraction was followed by derivatisation with methoxylamine HCL and analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. Initial method development was performed on a representative suite of four testosterone esters (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate) and the method was later extended to include a further 18 compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of mane hair samples collected following the intramuscular administration of 500 mg of Durateston(®) (mixed testosterone esters) to a Thoroughbred mare (560 kg). The method was subsequently used to successfully detect boldenone undecylenate and stanozolol in hair samples collected following

  18. Development and validation of high liquid performance chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of geniposidic acid and aucubin in rat plasma for pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Du-zhong tea extract.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Ma, Yu-Liang; Liu, Yang; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2014-07-15

    A specific and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of geniposidic acid and aucubin in rat plasma after oral administration of Du-zhong tea extract. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), using a gradient mobile phase system of water-methanol (0.05% formic acid). The detection was accomplished by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning via electrospray ionization source operating in the negative ionization mode. The linear range was 1-1,000 ng/mL for geniposidic acid and 0.2-200 ng/mL for aucubin, respectively. The accuracy (relative error, R.E.%) were between -5.40 and 5.00%, while the intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 7.95 and 7.87% for the two analytes, respectively. The method was fully validated for the sensitivity, selectivity, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Then this method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of geniposidic acid and aucubin after oral administration of Du-zhong tea extract to rats and the results indicated that this HPLC-MS/MS assay is a valuable method for the pharmacokinetic study of geniposidic acid and aucubin in rat plasma.

  19. Multi-residue determination of plant growth regulators in apples and tomatoes by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiaying; Wang, Suli; You, Xiangwei; Dong, Jiannan; Han, Lijun; Liu, Fengmao

    2011-11-15

    A sensitive and rapid multi-residue analytical method for plant growth regulators (PGRs) (i.e., chlormequat, mepiquat, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, ethephon and flumetralin) in apples and tomatoes was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). A homogenised sample was extracted with a mixture of methanol/water (90:10, v/v) and adjusted to pH <3 with formic acid. Primary secondary amine (PSA) adsorbent was used to clean up the sample. The determination was performed using electrospray ionisation (ESI) and a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyser. Under the optimised method, the results showed that, except for ethephon, the recoveries were 81.8-98.1% in apples and tomatoes at the spiked concentrations of 0.005 to 2 mg/kg, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 11.7%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were lower than their maximum residue limits (MRLs). The procedure was concluded as a practical method to determine the PGR residues in fruit and vegetables and is also suitable for the simultaneous analysis of the amounts of samples for routine monitoring. The analytical method described herein demonstrates a strong potential for its application in the field of PGR multi-residue analysis to help assure food safety.

  20. Study on pharmacokinetics of 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran in rats by ultra-fast liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shan, Chen-xiao; Cui, Xiao-bing; Yu, Sheng; Chai, Chuan; Wen, Hong-mei; Wang, Xin-zhi; Sun, Xue

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Divanillyltetrahydrofuran is the main active ingredient of nettle root which can increase steroid hormones in the bloodstream for many of bodybuilders. To better understand its pharmacological activities, we need to determine its pharmacokinetic profiles. In this study, a rapid and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran in the plasma of rats. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column at 40°C, with a gradient elution consisting of methanol and water containing 0.3% (v/v) formic acid at a flow rate of 0.8mL/min. The detection was performed using an electrospray triple-quadrupole MS/MS via positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. The lower limits-of-quantification determined were 0.5ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) was found to be within 15% and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -4.0% to 7.0%. This simple yet sensitive method was fully validated and could be successfully applied to the study on pharmacokinetics of 3, 4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran. PMID:26680326

  1. Diagnostic determination of melamine and related compounds in kidney tissue by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Filigenzi, Michael S; Puschner, Birgit; Aston, Linda S; Poppenga, Robert H

    2008-09-10

    In 2007, it was determined that melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid (abbreviated as MARC for melamine and related contaminants) had been added to wheat gluten and rice protein that were subsequently incorporated into pet food. The consumption of food tainted by MARC compounds was implicated in numerous instances of renal failure in cats and dogs. A method for the analysis of MARC compounds in kidney tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) has been developed. MARC analytes were extracted by homogenization of kidney tissue in 50/40/10 acetonitrile/water/diethylamine. The homogenate was centrifuged, and an aliquot of supernatant was diluted with acetonitrile, concentrated, and fortified with a stable isotope-labeled analogue of melamine. Analytes were detected using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and multiple reaction monitoring. Quantitation of positive samples was performed using the internal standard method and five-point calibration curves ranging between 50 and 1000 ng/mL of each analyte. The method was validated by analysis of replicate kidney tissue samples fortified with the individual analytes and by analysis of kidney samples fortified with melamine cyanurate powder at two different concentrations. This method was successfully used for routine postmortem diagnosis of melamine toxicosis in animals. Melamine was also detected by this method in paraffin-embedded tissue from animals suspected to have died of melamine toxicosis. PMID:18652475

  2. Determination of catecholamines and their metabolites in rat urine by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the study of identifying potential markers for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Qing; Liu, Xujia; He, Bosai; Sui, Zhenyu; Xu, Huarong; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the potential links between catecholamines (CAs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods in different ionization modes for the quantification of 14 CAs and their metabolites in rat urine without derivatization or complex sample pre-treatments were developed. After addition of the internal standard, isoproterenol, the urine samples were extracted by protein precipitation and separated on an Inertsil ODS-EP column (Shimadzu, Japan) at a flow of 1.0 ml min(-1). Tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed on a 4000Q UPLC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode with turbo ion spray source. Tyrosine, dopamine, noradrenaline, epinephrine, 3-methoxytyramine, normetanephrine and metanephrine were determined in positive mode, while 3,4-dihyroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DL-3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol, homovanillic acid, DL-4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylglycol were determined in negative mode. The methods were examined and were found to be precise and accurate within the linearity range of the assays. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the analytes were well within acceptance criteria (±15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and internal standard were all more than 60%. The validated methods have been successfully applied to compare CAs profiles in normal and AD rats. The results indicated the urine levels of DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylglycol in AD rats were significantly higher than those in the normal group, and the other CAs have an opposite performance. These may attribute to the difference of some enzyme activity between rats with AD and normal. Furthermore, this may be helpful in clinical diagnostics and monitor the efficacy of AD treatment.

  3. Determination of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and three other type A trichothecenes in layer feed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)--comparison of two sample preparation methods.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Katrin; Valenta, Hana; Kersten, Susanne; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, T-2 triol, and T-2 tetraol in layer feed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the positive ionization mode (LC-ESI-MS/MS) is described. Two fast and easy clean-up methods-with BondElut Mycotoxin and MycoSep 227 columns, respectively-were tested. The separation of the toxins was conducted on a Pursuit XRs Ultra 2.8 HPLC column using 0.13 mM ammonium acetate as eluent A and methanol as eluent B. Detection of the mycotoxins was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using ammonium adducts as precursor ions. Quantification of all analytes was performed with d3-T-2 toxin as an internal standard. The clean-up method with MycoSep 227 columns gave slightly better results for layer feed compared to the method using BondElut Mycotoxin columns (MycoSep 227: recovery between 50 and 63%, BondElut Mycotoxin: recovery between 32 and 67%) and was therefore chosen as the final method. The limits of detection ranged between 0.9 and 7.5 ng/g depending on the mycotoxin. The method was developed for the analysis of layer feed used at carry-over experiments with T-2 toxin in laying hens. For carry-over experiments, it is necessary that the method includes not only T-2 toxin but also the potential metabolites in animal tissues HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, T-2 triol, and T-2 tetraol which could naturally occur in cereals used as feed stuff as well. PMID:26940912

  4. Development and validation of a streamlined method designed to detect residues of 62 veterinary drugs in bovine kidney using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Lightfield, Alan R; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Schneider, Marilyn J; Dutko, Terry; Ng, Chilton; Bluhm, Louis; Mastovska, Katerina

    2012-08-01

    In the USA, the US Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducts the National Residue Program designed to monitor veterinary drug and other chemical residues in beef and other slaughtered food animals. Currently, FSIS uses a 7-plate bioassay in the laboratory to screen for antimicrobial drugs in bovine kidneys from those animals tested positive by inspectors in the slaughter establishments. The microbial inhibition bioassay has several limitations in terms of monitoring scope, sensitivity, selectivity, and analysis time. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has many advantages over the bioassay for this application, and this study was designed to develop, evaluate, and validate a fast UHPLC-MS/MS method for antibiotics and other high-priority veterinary drugs in bovine kidney. Five existing multi-class, multi-residue methods from the literature were tested and compared, and each performed similarly. Experiments with incurred samples demonstrated that a 5-min shake of 2 g homogenized kidney with 10 ml of 4/1 (v/v) acetonitrile/water followed by simultaneous clean-up of the initial extract with 0.5 g C18 and 10 ml hexane gave a fast, simple, and effective sample preparation method for the <10 min UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. An extensive 5-day validation process demonstrated that the final method could be used to acceptably screen for 54 of the 62 drugs tested, and 50 of those met qualitative MS identification criteria. Quantification was not needed in the application, but the method gave ≥ 70% recoveries and ≤ 25% reproducibilities for 30 of the drugs. PMID:22851364

  5. On-line high speed lipid extraction for nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Yong; Yang, Joon Seon; Park, Se Mi; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-09-16

    An on-line lipid extraction method is introduced by utilizing a short capillary extraction column using HILIC and C4 particles prior to nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). The on-line extraction using a urine sample spiked with PL standards showed similar or slightly higher recovery values (86%-96%) of phospholipids (PLs) compared to those obtained by the conventional off-line extraction based on the Folch method with or without using the air-exposed drying process. In this study, we demonstrated that PL oxidation can occur during the air-exposed drying process of lipid extracts in standard liquid-liquid extraction procedures, which was confirmed by the oxidized PL (OxPL) molecules that were generated from an off-line extraction using a few PL standards. Quantitative comparison of these OxPL species between on- and off-line extraction followed by nLC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis showed a significant decrease (2-10 fold) in unwanted OxPL species when on-line extraction was employed. While the number of identified PLs from a urine sample was somewhat lower than those by off-line extraction, the number of OxPLs was significantly reduced (from 70 to 22) with on-line extraction. The new method offers high speed (∼5min) automated extraction of PLs with nLC-MS/MS analysis and presents the possibility of handling a biological sample with a very limited amount of lipids. PMID:27530420

  6. Analysis of rocuronium in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with application in clinical pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Natália Valadares; Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Lopes, Bruno Carvalho Portes; Lanchote, Vera Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Rocuronium (ROC) is a neuromuscular blocking agent used in surgical procedures which is eliminated primarily by biliary excretion. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of ROC in human plasma. Separation of ROC and IS (verapamil) was performed using an endcapped C-18 column and a mixture of water:acetonitrile:trifluoracetic acid (50:50:0.1, v/v) as mobile phase. Aliquots of 100 μL of human plasma were extracted at pH 3, using dichloromethane. The lower limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL shows the high sensitivity of this method. Intra- and inter-assay precision (as relative standard deviation) was all ≤14.2% and accuracy (as relative standard error) did not exceed 10.1%. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify ROC concentrations in patients under surgical procedures up to 6h after the administration of the 0.4-0.9 mg/kg ROC. The pharmacokinetic parameter estimations of ROC showed AUC/dose of 563 μg min/mL, total clearance of 2.5 mL/min/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 190 mL/kg and mean residence time of 83 min. PMID:24370612

  7. Measurement and pharmacokinetic study of plumbagin in a conscious freely moving rat using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yen-Ju; Lin, Lei-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2006-11-21

    The aim of the present study is to develop an automated blood sampling (ABS) method coupled to a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method to evaluate the oral bioavailability of plumbagin in a conscious freely moving rat. Plumbagin, an herbal ingredient, was isolated from Plumbago zeylanica L. The separation was performed using a reversed phase C18 (150mmx4.6mm I.D.; 5microm) column and was eluted with the mobile phase of water-acetonitrile (40:60, v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.8ml/min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to monitor the transition of the deprotonated molecule m/z 187 [MH](-) to the product ion m/z 159 [MHCO](-) for the plumbagin analysis. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 10-2000ng/ml with a coefficient estimation of 0.995. The intra- and inter-day variations (% relative standard deviation; RSD and % bias) of the assay for rat plasma samples were less than 17%. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 5 and 10ng/ml, respectively. Recovery of plumbagin from the rat plasma was about 80%. This LC-MS/MS method has been validated to study the pharmacokinetics of plumbagin in rats. The oral bioavailability (AUC(PO)/Dose(PO))/(AUC(IV)/Dose(IV)) of plumbagin was about 38.7+/-5%. PMID:16837255

  8. High throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for mercapturic acids of acrolein and crotonaldehyde in cigarette smokers' urine.

    PubMed

    Carmella, Steven G; Chen, Menglan; Zarth, Adam; Hecht, Stephen S

    2013-09-15

    3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA) are urinary metabolites of the toxicants acrolein and crotonaldehyde, respectively. Virtually all human urine samples contain these metabolites, resulting from the action of glutathione-S-transferases on acrolein and crotonaldehyde, which are lipid peroxidation products, environmental and dietary contaminants, and constituents of cigarette smoke. We have developed a high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in large numbers of small urine samples, as would be required in molecular epidemiology and clinical studies relating levels of these metabolites to cancer risk. Solid-phase extraction on mixed mode reverse phase-anion exchange 96-well plates provided sufficient purification for LC-MS/MS analysis, which was performed by auto-injection using a 96-well format, and resulted in clean, readily interpretable chromatograms, with detection limits of 4.5pmol/mL urine for 3-HPMA and 3.5pmol/mL urine for HMPMA. Accuracy was 92% for 3-HPMA and 97% for HMPMA while inter-day precision was 9.1% (coefficient of variation) for 3-HPMA and 11.0% for HMPMA. The method was applied to more than 2600 urine samples from smokers; mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 4800±5358 (S.D.)pmol/mL and 3302±3341pmol/mL, respectively.

  9. Analysis of rocuronium in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with application in clinical pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Natália Valadares; Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Lopes, Bruno Carvalho Portes; Lanchote, Vera Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Rocuronium (ROC) is a neuromuscular blocking agent used in surgical procedures which is eliminated primarily by biliary excretion. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of ROC in human plasma. Separation of ROC and IS (verapamil) was performed using an endcapped C-18 column and a mixture of water:acetonitrile:trifluoracetic acid (50:50:0.1, v/v) as mobile phase. Aliquots of 100 μL of human plasma were extracted at pH 3, using dichloromethane. The lower limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL shows the high sensitivity of this method. Intra- and inter-assay precision (as relative standard deviation) was all ≤14.2% and accuracy (as relative standard error) did not exceed 10.1%. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify ROC concentrations in patients under surgical procedures up to 6h after the administration of the 0.4-0.9 mg/kg ROC. The pharmacokinetic parameter estimations of ROC showed AUC/dose of 563 μg min/mL, total clearance of 2.5 mL/min/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 190 mL/kg and mean residence time of 83 min.

  10. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of sulfite in food.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Katherine S; Shah, Romina; MacMahon, Shaun; de Jager, Lowri S

    2015-06-01

    Sulfites are widely used food preservatives that can cause severe reactions in sensitive individuals. As a result, the U.S. FDA requires that sulfites be listed on the label of any food product containing >10 mg/kg (ppm) sulfite (measured as sulfur dioxide). Currently, the optimized Monier-Williams (MW) method (AOAC Official Method 990.28) is the most common approach for determining sulfite concentrations in food samples. However, this method is time-consuming and lacks specificity in certain matrices. An improved rapid, sensitive, and selective method has been developed using electrospray ionization (ESI) high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of sulfite in various food matrices. A total of 12 different types of foods were evaluated. These included dried fruits and vegetables, frozen seafood, sweeteners, and juices. The matrix is extracted with a buffered formaldehyde solution, converting free and reversibly bound sulfite to the stable formaldehyde adduct, hydroxymethylsulfonate (HMS). Extracts are prepared for injection using a C18 SPE cartridge to remove any lipophilic compounds. HMS is then separated from other matrix components using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and detected using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method was validated at 5 concentrations in 12 food matrices. Accuracy data showed spiked recoveries ranging from 84 to 115% in representative foods. Six commercially available sulfited products were analyzed using the LC-MS/MS method, as well as the MW method, to determine if differences exist.

  11. Quantification of regional DNA methylation by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongfa; Wu, Jiejun; Xie, Zhiliang; Liu, Shujun; Fan-Havard, Patty; Huang, Tim H-M; Plass, Christoph; Marcucci, Guido; Chan, Kenneth K

    2009-08-15

    Promoter hypermethylation-associated tumor suppressor gene (TSG) silencing has been explored as a therapeutic target for hypomethylating agents. Promoter methylation change may serve as a pharmacodynamic endpoint for evaluation of the efficacy of these agents and predict the patient's clinical response. Here a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been developed for quantitative regional DNA methylation analysis using the molar ratio of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) to 2'-deoxycytidine (2dC) in the enzymatic hydrolysate of fully methylated bisulfite-converted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons as the methylation indicator. The assay can differentiate 5% of promoter methylation level with an intraday precision ranging from 3 to 16% using two TSGs: HIN-1 and RASSF1A. This method was applied to characterize decitabine-induced promoter DNA methylation changes of these two TSGs in a breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. Promoter methylation of these TSGs was found to decrease in a dose-dependent manner. Correspondingly, the expression of these TSGs was enhanced. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method make it a valuable tool for specific gene methylation analysis that could aid characterization of hypomethylating activity on specific genes by hypomethylating agents in a clinical setting.

  12. Validation of salivary cortisol and testosterone assays in chimpanzees by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Koki; Honma, Seijiro; Teramoto, Migaku; Mori, Yusuke; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Yamamoto, Rain; Ishida, Takafumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2009-08-01

    Owing to its high temporal sensitivity, saliva has distinct advantages for measuring steroids, compared with other noninvasive samples such as urine and feces. Here, we report the validity of assaying salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in captive male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. For both the C and T concentrations, we found positive relationships between saliva and plasma. The concentrations of C and T in saliva showed clear patterns of diurnal fluctuation, whereas those in urine and feces did not. These results suggest that the salivary steroid concentrations can be regarded as good indicators of circulating steroid levels. We also developed and validated an efficient method for collecting saliva samples from cotton rope. Although rope includes inherent steroid-like compounds and may affect the accuracy of steroid measurements, our rope-washing procedures effectively removed intrinsic steroidal materials. There was a significant association between the C and T concentrations measured from saliva collected from rope licked by the chimpanzees and those measured from saliva collected directly from the mouth. Salivary T values estimated by LC/MS-MS were similar to those measured by radioimmunoassay. The results indicate the usefulness of saliva as a noninvasive steroid measure and that steroids in the saliva of chimpanzees can be accurately measured by LC-MS/MS.

  13. Determination of benzophenones in human placental tissue samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vela-Soria, F; Jiménez-Díaz, I; Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Vílchez, J L; Fernández, M F; Olea, N

    2011-09-30

    Benzophenones (BPs) are a family of compounds widely used to protect the skin and hair from UV irradiation. Despite human exposure to BPs through dermal application of products containing sunscreen agents and the increasing evidence that BPs are able to interfere with endocrine systems, few studies have examined the occurrence of BPs in humans. In this work, we propose a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to determine six BPs, namely, benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-2 (BP-2), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-6 (BP-6), benzophenone-8 (BP-8) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP) in human placental tissue samples. The method involves an extraction step of the analytes from the samples using ethyl acetate, followed by a clean-up step using centrifugation prior to their quantification by LC-MS/MS using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the positive mode. Benzophenone-d(10) (BP-d(10)) was used as surrogate. Found detection limits (LOD) ranged from 0.07 to 0.3 ng g(-1) and quantification limits (LOQ) from 0.3 to 1.0 ng g(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 5%. The method was validated using standard addition calibration and a recovery assay. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 98 to 104%. This method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of BPs in 16 placental tissue samples collected from women who live in Granada (Spain).

  14. Quantitation of Thioprolines in Grape Wine by Isotope Dilution-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Meng, Xiangpeng; Chan, Wan

    2016-02-17

    Cysteine reacts with reactive carbonyls to form thioprolines, which have been demonstrated to possess various pharmaceutical properties. Therefore, thioproline formation is considered as a major detoxification pathway for carcinogenic reactive carbonyls. In this study, we report the initial identification of thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (1) and 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (2), two very common thioprolines, formed by reacting formaldehyde and acetaldehyde with cysteine in grape wine samples. We have developed an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method featuring high sensitivity (limit of detection of ≤1.5 ng/mL) and selectivity to quantitate compounds 1 and 2. The method after validated to be highly accurate (recovery of ≥92%) and precise [intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) of ≤4.1% and interday RSD of ≤9.7%] was applied to determine the varying compound 1 and 2 contents in grape wine samples. Results revealed the grape type and storage duration-dependent formation of thioprolines in grape wines. Overall, the results are expected to facilitate compound-dependent investigations of the health benefits of grape wine, and our findings could be adopted to predict the age of grape wine.

  15. Antibiotic Toxicity and Absorption in Zebrafish Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Jing-Pu; Hu, Chang-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of drug toxicity is necessary for drug safety, but in vivo drug absorption is varied; therefore, a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for measuring drugs is needed. Zebrafish are acceptable drug toxicity screening models; we used these animals with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method in a multiple reaction monitoring mode to quantify drug uptake in zebrafish to better estimate drug toxicity. Analytes were recovered from zebrafish homogenate by collecting supernatant. Measurements were confirmed for drugs in the range of 10–1,000 ng/mL. Four antibiotics with different polarities were tested to explore any correlation of drug polarity, absorption, and toxicity. Zebrafish at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf) absorbed more drug than those at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf), and different developmental periods appeared to be differentially sensitive to the same compound. By observing abnormal embryos and LD50 values, zebrafish embryos at 6 hpf were considered to be suitable for evaluating embryotoxicity. Also, larvae at 3 dpf were adapted to measure acute drug toxicity in adult mammals. Thus, we can exploit zebrafish to study drug toxicity and can reliably quantify drug uptake with LC-MS/MS. This approach will be helpful for future studies of toxicology in zebrafish. PMID:25938774

  16. Quantitation of Parathyroid Hormone in Serum or Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH), an 84 amino acid peptide hormone, is an important regulator of calcium homeostasis. Quantitation of PTH in serum is useful for the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and for monitoring osteodystrophy in patients with renal failure. The biological activity of PTH arises from binding of PTH (N terminus) to its target receptor (D'Amour et al., Kidney Int 68: 998-1007, 2005). Several C-terminal and N-terminal fragments circulate in normal subjects. Recent studies have demonstrated that accurate quantitation of PTH fragments may be of clinical value. In this chapter a mass spectrometry based method for quantitation of PTH(1-84) is described. This method involves immunoaffinity capture of PTH followed by trypsinization and quantitation of PTH-specific tryptic peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The N-terminal tryptic peptide, PTH(1-13) as surrogate of 1-84 PTH, is used for quantitation. PMID:26602132

  17. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of troxerutin in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Xu, Yu; Rui, Lei; Gao, Shu; Dong, Haijun; Guo, Qingxiang

    2006-01-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to quantify troxerutin in human plasma. The analyte and rutin, used as the internal standard, were analyzed on a Phenomenex Synergi Fusion RP column interfaced with a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using positive electrospray ionization. Acetonitrile/water (20:80 v/v) was used as the isocratic mobile phase, with 0.1% formic acid in water. A simple sample preparation method of protein precipitation with perchloric acid was employed. The assay was linear over the concentration range 31.25-4000 pg/mL. Correlation coefficients generated by linear regression with a 1/x(2) weighting factor ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9996. The intra- and inter-day precision over the entire concentration range were less than 12.28%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of a 300 mg troxerutin drop pill to 18 healthy volunteers.

  18. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and cocoa by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aguas, Patricia C; Fitzhenry, Matthew J; Giannikopoulos, Georgina; Varelis, Peter

    2006-08-01

    An accurate and precise method for the quantification of acrylamide using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and used to measure acrylamide in coffee and cocoa samples. The sample preparation involved extraction of the analyte and its internal standard, 13C3-acrylamide, into water and subsequent defatting of the aqueous extract with dichloromethane. An aliquot of the resulting aqueous extract was then azeotropically dried under reduced pressure and subsequently purified using an aminopropyl-bonded silica cartridge. The purified extracts were then chromatographed on a 5-microm 2.1 x 150 mm Hypercarb column, the effluent of which was monitored for the analyte and its internal standard using positive-ion APCI-selected reaction monitoring. The intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, expressed as a relative coefficient of variation (%, n=5), was determined at four levels of concentration (12.3, 42.3, 139.3 and 464.8 microg kg(-1)) and was found to vary between 0.6-2.5%. The accuracy of the method was assessed using a reference sample of coffee. The average result obtained using our method differed from the assigned value of the reference material by less than 1%. An analysis of a cocoa sample revealed that the method is capable of precisely estimating acrylamide in challenging matrices down to a level of at least 12.3 microg kg(-1). PMID:16819634

  19. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of urine specimens for K2 (JWH-018) metabolites.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Madgula, Vamsi L M; Khan, Shabana I

    2011-09-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used drug of abuse all over the world. The major active constituent of the drug is Δ⁹- tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC). Δ⁹-THC exerts its psychological activities by interacting with the cannabinoid receptors (CB₁ and CB₂) in the brain. JWH-018, HU-210, and CP-47497, with CB₁ agonist activity (similar to Δ⁹-THC), have been used by the drug culture to spike smokable herbal products to attain psychological effects similar to those obtained by smoking marijuana. The products spiked with these CB₁ agonists are commonly referred to as "Spice" or "K2". The most common compound used in these products is JWH-018 and related compounds (JWH-073 and JWH-250). Little work has been done on the detection of these synthetic cannabimimetic compounds in biological specimens. This report investigated the metabolism of JWH-018 by human liver microsomes, identification of the metabolites of JWH-018 in urine specimen of an individual who admitted use of the drug, and reports on the quantitation of three of its urinary metabolites, namely the 6-OH-, the N-alkyl OH (terminal hydroxyl)-, and the N-alkyl terminal carboxy metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of these metabolites are determined in several forensic urine specimens.

  20. Approach to the study of flavone di-C-glycosides by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem ion trap mass spectrometry and its application to characterization of flavonoid composition in Viola yedoensis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jie; Yin, Chengle; Qin, Yan; Cheng, Zhihong; Chen, Daofeng

    2014-10-01

    The mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of flavone di-C-glycosides has been a difficult task due to pure standards being unavailable commercially and to that the reported relative intensities of some diagnostic ions varied with MS instruments. In this study, five flavone di-C-glycoside standards from Viola yedoensis have been systematically studied by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-IT-MS(n)) in the negative ion mode to analyze their fragmentation patterns. A new MS(2) and MS(3) hierarchical fragmentation for the identification of the sugar nature (hexoses or pentoses) at C-6 and C-8 is presented based on previously established rules of fragmentation. Here, for the first time, we report that the MS(2) and MS(3) structure-diagnostic fragments about the glycosylation types and positions are highly dependent on the configuration of the sugars at C-6 and C-8. The base peak ((0,2) X1 (0,2) X(2)(-) ion) in MS(3) spectra of di-C-glycosides could be used as a diagnostic ion for flavone aglycones. These newly proposed fragmentation behaviors have been successfully applied to the characterization of flavone di-C-glycosides found in V. yedoensis. A total of 35 flavonoid glycosides, including 1 flavone mono-C-hexoside, 2 flavone 6,8-di-C-hexosides, 11 flavone 6,8-di-C-pentosides, 13 flavone 6,8-C-hexosyl-C-pentosides, 5 acetylated flavone C-glycosides and 3 flavonol O-glycosides, were identified or tentatively identified on the base of their UV profiles, MS and MS(n) (n = 5) data, or by comparing with reference substances. Among these, the acetylated flavone C-glycosides were reported from V. yedoensis for the first time.

  1. A straightforward, quantitative ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in urine: an improved clinical screening test for the mucopolysaccharidoses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoyue; Wood, Tim; Young, Sarah P; Millington, David S

    2015-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are complex storage disorders that result in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in urine, blood, brain and other tissues. Symptomatic patients are typically screened for MPS by analysis of GAG in urine. Current screening methods used in clinical laboratories are based on colorimetric assays that lack the sensitivity and specificity to reliably detect mild GAG elevations that occur in some patients with MPS. We have developed a straightforward, reliable method to quantify chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS) and heparan sulfate (HS) in urine by stable isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The GAGs were methanolyzed to uronic acid-N-acetylhexosamine or iduronic acid-N-glucosamine dimers and mixed with stable isotope labeled internal standards derived from deuteriomethanolysis of GAG standards. Specific dimers derived from HS, DS and CS were separated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring for each targeted GAG product and its corresponding internal standard. The method was robust with a mean inaccuracy from 1 to 15%, imprecision below 11%, and a lower limit of quantification of 0.4mg/L for CS, DS and HS. We demonstrate that the method has the required sensitivity and specificity to discriminate patients with MPS III, MPS IVA and MPS VI from those with MPS I or MPS II and can detect mildly elevated GAG species relative to age-specific reference intervals. This assay may also be used for the monitoring of patients following therapeutic intervention. Patients with MPS IVB are, however, not detectable by this method.

  2. Quantification of endogenous brassinosteroids in plant by on-line two-dimensional microscale solid phase extraction-on column derivatization coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Wu, Dapeng; Shen, Zheng; Duan, Chunfeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2013-07-01

    An on-line two-dimensional microscale solid phase extraction (2DμSPE)-on column derivatization (OCD)-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for quantification of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant tissues. Five BRs with widest distribution in plant species and high bioactivity (24-epibrassinolide, 24-epicastasterone, 6-deoxo-24-epicastasterone, teasterone and typhastero) were selected as target analytes. 2DμSPE column packed sequentially with phenyl boronic acid silica sorbent (the first dimension) and C18 silica sorbent (the second dimension) was used to selectively extract and enrich BRs by 110-146 times. OCD was carried out on the second dimension of 2DμSPE column with m-aminophenylboronic acid (m-APBA) as a derivatization reagent, enhancing the sensitivity of MS/MS to BRs by 13-8437 times. It was also found that pre-trap of derivatization reagent on the C18 section of 2DμSPE column could increase reaction efficiency by 3-10 times. The whole process time of the on-line system was less than 30min. The detection limits of the method for five BRs were between 1.4 and 6.6pg with RSDs less than 10%. Endogeneous BRs in tomato leaves were analyzed by using this method. Owing to the high selectivity of this on-line 2DμSPE system, BRs in plant extracts could be quantified using matrix-free standard calibration method with relative recoveries in the range of 80-124%.

  3. [Determination of 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectromtery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhao, Li; Yang, Hongmei; Pan, Hongyan; Shi, Hailiang; Qian, Cong; Zhang, Shan

    2015-09-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk. The samples were extracted with alkaline acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer solution under ultrasonication. The separation of target compounds was performed on an Eclipse XDB-C, column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 µm) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min, and with an injection volume of 10 µL. The identification and quantification of the compounds were completed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring ( MRM) mode. The limits of detection were all below 10.0 µg/kg. The average spiked recoveries of the method ranged from 70. 1% to 109. 9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.89%-9.99%. After validation, the method was applied to the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk products in China. Fifty samples were screened under the well defined methodology, and the results showed that chloramphenicol, only in one sample, was monitored with the content of 0.48 µg/kg. A risk of contamination of milk with chloramphenicol has been determined to exist. Therefore this method is convenient, rapid, sensitive and reliable, and can be successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of the 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk. PMID:26753289

  4. [Determination of 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectromtery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhao, Li; Yang, Hongmei; Pan, Hongyan; Shi, Hailiang; Qian, Cong; Zhang, Shan

    2015-09-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk. The samples were extracted with alkaline acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer solution under ultrasonication. The separation of target compounds was performed on an Eclipse XDB-C, column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 µm) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min, and with an injection volume of 10 µL. The identification and quantification of the compounds were completed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring ( MRM) mode. The limits of detection were all below 10.0 µg/kg. The average spiked recoveries of the method ranged from 70. 1% to 109. 9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.89%-9.99%. After validation, the method was applied to the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk products in China. Fifty samples were screened under the well defined methodology, and the results showed that chloramphenicol, only in one sample, was monitored with the content of 0.48 µg/kg. A risk of contamination of milk with chloramphenicol has been determined to exist. Therefore this method is convenient, rapid, sensitive and reliable, and can be successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of the 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk.

  5. Proteomic analysis of rat plasma with experimental autoimmune uveitis based on label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Guo, Dadong; Gu, Peiming; Liu, Zhengfeng; Tang, Kai; Du, Yuxiang; Bi, Hongsheng

    2015-01-22

    Uveitis is a severe autoimmune eye disease that can cause intraocular inflammation even lead to severe vision loss, and the occurrence of uveitis can be closely associated with abnormal expression of proteins. However, the abnormally expressed proteins involved in uveitis are not well identified. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique, we examined the alterations in proteomic expression profiling in rat plasma specimens related to experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) versus normal samples. In addition, the experimental verification was further performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for abnormally expressed proteins in EAU rat plasma. The results indicate that 62 proteins were upregulated and 106 proteins were downregulated in plasma from EAU rats compared with those in saline-treated samples. In the meantime, we observed that the plasma level of complement component 3 in EAU rats was upregulated versus saline-treated rats (from 92.32μg/mL to 168.92μg/mL), whereas the level of interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein was downregulated (from 1120.97pg/mL to 798.39pg/mL), and these results were highly in agreement with those of mass spectrometry determination. Taken together, our results indicate that liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis possesses a good resolution for peptides in plasma, and the findings will provide the baseline plasma dataset for EAU rats and the relevant information can contribute to future studies on the understanding the mechanism of uveitis.

  6. Development of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of polyphenolic compounds in liquid samples of grape juice, green tea and coffee.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena

    2014-05-01

    A simple and fast method for the analysis of a wide range of polyphenolic compounds in juice, tea, and coffee samples was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was based on a simple sample preparation "dilute and shoot" approach, and LC-MS/MS quantification using genistein-d4 as an internal standard. The performance of six different syringeless filter devices was tested for sample preparation. The method was evaluated for recoveries of polyphenols at three spiking levels in juice, tea, and coffee samples. The recoveries of the majority of polyphenols were satisfactory (70-120%), but some varied significantly (20-138%) depending on the matrix. NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRM) 3257 Catechin Calibration Solutions and 3255 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extract with certified concentrations of catechin and epicatechin were used for method validation. The measurement accuracy in two SRMs was 71-113%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of liquid samples of grape juice, green tea, and coffee.

  7. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic musks in blood and urine by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Huang, Liping; Chen, Yuxin; Guo, Liman; Li, Limin; Zhou, Haiyun; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-06-15

    A rapid, precise and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of 5 polycyclic musks (PCMs) in biological fluids was developed by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). All parameters influencing SLE-GC-MS performance, including electron energy of electron-impact ionization source, collision energy for tandem mass spectrometer when operated in selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, type and volume of elution reagent, nitrogen evaporation time, pH and salinity of sample have been carefully optimized. Eight milliliter of n-hexane was finally chosen as elution reagent. Blood and urine sample could be loaded into SLE cartridge without adjusting pH and salinity. Deuterated tonalide (AHTN-d3) was chosen as internal standard. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curves of target compounds ranged from 0.9996 to 0.9998. The dynamic range spanned over two orders of magnitude. The limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds in blood and urine ranged from 0.008 to 0.105μgL(-1) and 0.005 to 0.075μgL(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of PCMs in human blood and urine obtaining satisfying recoveries on low, medium and high levels. The method was compared with SLE-GC-MS and shown one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity. PMID:25965876

  8. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic musks in blood and urine by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Huang, Liping; Chen, Yuxin; Guo, Liman; Li, Limin; Zhou, Haiyun; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-06-15

    A rapid, precise and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of 5 polycyclic musks (PCMs) in biological fluids was developed by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). All parameters influencing SLE-GC-MS performance, including electron energy of electron-impact ionization source, collision energy for tandem mass spectrometer when operated in selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, type and volume of elution reagent, nitrogen evaporation time, pH and salinity of sample have been carefully optimized. Eight milliliter of n-hexane was finally chosen as elution reagent. Blood and urine sample could be loaded into SLE cartridge without adjusting pH and salinity. Deuterated tonalide (AHTN-d3) was chosen as internal standard. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curves of target compounds ranged from 0.9996 to 0.9998. The dynamic range spanned over two orders of magnitude. The limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds in blood and urine ranged from 0.008 to 0.105μgL(-1) and 0.005 to 0.075μgL(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of PCMs in human blood and urine obtaining satisfying recoveries on low, medium and high levels. The method was compared with SLE-GC-MS and shown one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity.

  9. Simultaneous determination of phytoestrogens and key metabolites in breast cancer patients' urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Wu, Qian; Qiao, Shanlei; Yu, Zeping; Jin, Nianzu; Yu, Boyang

    2009-12-01

    A novel, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phytoestrogens and their key metabolites in human urine in this study. This method includes internal standard (IS) screening, analytical sample preparation procedure establishment, and linear range investigation. The analytical sample was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction from urine sample. The phytoestrogens and related key metabolites were separated with Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 chromatographic column using methanol and water as mobile phase. The Quattro premier MICROMASS mass spectrometer in negative ion selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using electrospray ionization was applied to detect the phytoestrogens and key metabolites. To validate the developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, the intra- and inter-day precisions, specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and sample detective concentration range were evaluated. This is the first reported phytoestrogens analysis and validation study that demonstrates the feasibility of using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to simultaneously analyze ten analytes including both phytoestrogens and their key metabolites in urine samples collected for epidemiological studies in human.

  10. Determination of Heterocyclic Amines and Acrylamide in Agricultural Products with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Gae-Ho; Kim, HaeSol; Oh, Min-Seok; Chu, Seok; Hwang, In Ju; Lee, Jee-yeon; Choi, Ari; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and acrylamide are unintended hazardous substances generated by heating or processing of foods and are known as carcinogenic and mutagenic agents by the animal experiments. A simple method was established for a rapid and accurate determination of 12 types of HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC, Harman and Norharman) and acrylamide in three food matrices (non-fat liquid, non-fat solid and fat solid) by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In every sample, a mixture of internal standards including IQ-d3, MeIQx-d3, PhIP-d3, Trp-P-2-13C2-15N and MeAαC-d3 was spiked for quantification of HCAs and 13C3-acrylamide was also spiked for the analysis of acrylamide. HCAs and acrylamide in sample were extracted with acetonitrile and water, respectively, and then two solid-phase extraction cartridges, ChemElut: HLB for HCAs and Accucat: HLB for acrylamide, were used for efficiently removing interferences such as pigment, lipid, polar, nonpolar and ionic compounds. Established method was validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity. This method showed good precision (RSD < 20%), accuracy (71.8~119.1%) and recovery (66.0~118.9%). The detection limits were < 3.1 ng/g for all analytes. The correlation coefficients for all the HCAs and acrylamide were > 0.995, showing excellent linearity. These methods for the detection of HCAs and acrylamide by LC-MS/MS were applied to real samples and were successfully used for quantitative monitoring in the total diet study and this can be applied to risk assessment in various food matrices. PMID:26483884

  11. Fast and efficient online release of N-glycans from glycoproteins facilitating liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry glycomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Jmeian, Yazen; Hammad, Loubna A; Mechref, Yehia

    2012-10-16

    A novel online enzyme reactor incorporating peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) on a monolithic polymer support has been developed to allow the rapid simultaneous release of both neutral and acidic N-linked glycans from glycoproteins. The PNGase F monolithic reactor was fabricated in a fused silica using glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate polymer. The reactor was coupled to a C8 trap and a porous graphitic carbon (PGC) HPLC-chip. This arrangement was interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. The performance of the PNGase F reactor was optimized using the MS signal for the disialylated biantennary N-glycan derived from fetuin. Optimum conditions for glycan release were attained at room temperature using a loading flow rate of 2 μL/min and a reaction time of 6 min. The loading capacity of the reactor was determined to be around 2 pmol of glycoprotein. The online digestion and MS characterization experiments resulted in sensitivities as high as 100 fmol of glycoprotein and 0.1 μL of human blood serum. The enzyme reactor activity was also shown to remain stable after 1 month of continuous use. Both small and large glycoproteins as well as glycoproteins containing high-mannose glycans, fucolsylated glycans, sialylated glycans, and hybrid structures were studied. The model glycoproteins included ribonuclease B, fetuin, α(1)-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulin, and thyroglobulin. All N-glycans associated with these model glycoproteins were detected using the online PNGase F reactor setup.

  12. Assessment of matrix effects and determination of niacin in human plasma using liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Michael C; Halquist, Matthew S; Ismaiel, Omnia; El-Mammli, Magda Y; Shalaby, Abdalla; Karnes, H Thomas

    2008-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of nicotinic acid (niacin) and its labeled internal standard nicotinic acid-d4 (niacin-d4) in human plasma was developed and validated. The analyte and its internal standard were isolated from acidified plasma using a single liquid-liquid extraction procedure with methyl-t-butyl ether. The extracted samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The calibration curves were linear in the measured range between 5 and 1000 ng/mL and the limit of detection was calculated as 122 pg/mL. The method required 250 microL of human plasma and the total run time between injections was 3.5 min. Matrix effects were assessed by post-column infusion experiments, phospholipids monitoring and post-extraction addition experiments. The extraction of phospholipids and niacin from plasma was studied under acidic, neutral and basic conditions. Acidic conditions were optimal for both the recovery of niacin and the removal of phospholipids; the degree of matrix effects for niacin was determined to be 2.5%. It was concluded that effective removal of matrix components can overcome low recovery issues associated with liquid-liquid extractions of polar analytes.

  13. Quantitative determination of nebivolol from human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nandania, Jatin; Rajput, S J; Contractor, Pritesh; Vasava, Pragnesh; Solanki, Bhavik; Vohra, Mohsin

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, a rapid, sensitive, specific, precise and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of nebivolol in human plasma was developed and validated with a large calibration curve range (50-5000 pg/mL) which can be used for routine drug analysis and bioequivalence studies. Liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the analyte from the human plasma. The separation was achieved using Waters symmetry, C18, 4.6 × 150 mm, 5 μm column with formic acid in water, 0.01%, v/v: Acetonitrile (40:60) as a mobile phase. A flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, no splitting and run time 2.00 min was used for the chromatographic analysis of nebivolol. Sensitivity of this method was found to be 30 pg/mL. The analyte was analyzed by mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A Turbo-Ion spray source was interfaced between the HPLC and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MDS Sciex API 4000). The precursor-product ion m/z 406.00-151.00 for nebivolol and m/z 410.20-151.00 for nebivolol-D4 were used for quantification of an analyte and its IS. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, selectivity, absolute recovery, freeze-thaw stability, bench-top stability, dry extract stability, short and long term stock solution stability, wet extract stability and re-injection reproducibility. The within- and between-batch accuracy was found to lie within the range of 87.00-100.40% and within- and between-batch precision was obtained within the range 0.33-8.67%. The mean recovery of all three concentration levels for drug was obtained 67.67% where as the mean recovery of IS was 68.74%. The %RSD value at higher concentration and lower concentration in all stability experiments was within 15%. This method is free from ion suppression, ion enhancement and any type of abnormal ionization.

  14. [Determination of five pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lü, Chen; Ding, Tao; Ma, Xin; Chen, Guosong; Yuan, Fang; Wu, Bin; Shen, Chongyu; Zhang, Rui; Fei, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Lei; Li, Li

    2013-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of five pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (monocrotaline, senkirkine, retrorsine, seneciphylline and senecionine) in honey. The honey samples were dissolved in 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid solution and a strong-cation exchange column was used to purify and concentrate the target analytes. The separation of the analytes was carried out on a Phenomenex C18 column (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 2.6 microm) using the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate-0.1% (volume percentage) formic acid aqueous solution with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization (ESI+). The calibration curves were of good linearity in the range of 1-100 microg/L (r > 0.99). The limit of quantification of the method was 1.0 microg/kg. The average recoveries were between 73.1% to 107.1% at three spiked levels (1, 20 and 50 microg/kg) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 4.1% to 17.0%. The proposed method was applied to different kinds of honey from China, New Zealand, Spain and Australia. The samples included rape, vitex, sunflower, cotton, tilia tree, date, acacia, buckwheat, manuka and eucalyptus honey. Monocrotaline, senkirkine and retrorsine were not detected in the collected honey samples. However, seneciphylline and senecionine were found in most of the honey samples. The concentrations of seneciphylline and senecionine were 11.0 -31.1 microg/kg and 8.3-29.1 microg/kg, respectively.

  15. Determination of loperamide in human plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Tawfiq; Arafat, Basil; awad, Riad; awwad, Ahmad Abu

    2014-12-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of loperamide in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated, and then successfully applied in pharmacokinetic clinical study to investigate and correlate bioavailability of Imodium(®) 2mg quartet tablet dose in both human plasma and saliva. Loperamide with labeled internal standard was extracted from its biological matrix by methanol as protein direct precipitant in single extraction step. Adequate chromatographic separation for analytes from plasma and saliva matrices was achieved using ACE C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) column, eluted by water/methanol/formic acid (30:70:0.1%, v/v), delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.75ml/min. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to European guideline, and partial validation was applied on saliva, specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, within and between day precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 20-3000pg/ml in both plasma and saliva using a 50μl sample volume. The partial validation sections outcome in saliva was so close to those in plasma. The within- and between-day precisions were all below 8.7% for plasma and below 11.4% for saliva. Accuracies ranged from 94 to 105% for both matrices. In this study, 26 healthy volunteers participated in the clinical study, and 6 of gave their saliva samples in addition to plasma at the same time schedule. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, Tmax and T1/2 in both plasma and saliva were calculated and correlated.

  16. Determination of Urinary Creatinine in Washington State Residents via Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    West, Caroline E.; Rhodes, Blaine N.

    2014-01-01

    A viable, quick, and reliable method for determining urinary creatinine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and used to evaluate spot urine samples collected for the Washington Environmental Biomonitoring Survey (WEBS): part of the Washington State Department of Health, Public Health Laboratories (PHL). 50 µL of urine was mixed with a 1 : 1 acetonitrile/water solution containing deuterated creatinine as the internal standard and then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode, the transition ions for creatinine and creatinine-d3 were determined to be 114.0 to 44.1 (quantifier), 114.0 to 86.1 (qualifier), and 117.0 to 47.1 (creatinine-d3). The retention time for creatinine was 0.85 minutes. The linear calibration range was 20–4000 mg/L, with a limit of detection at 1.77 mg/L and a limit of quantitation at 5.91 mg/L. LC/MS/MS and the colorimetric Jaffé reaction were associated significantly (Pearson r = 0.9898 and R2 = 0.9797, ρ ≤ 0.0001). The LC/MS/MS method developed at the PHL to determine creatinine in the spot urine samples had shorter retention times, and was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, and safer than other LC/MS/MS or commercial methods such as the Jaffé reaction or modified versions thereof. PMID:25614740

  17. Designer psychostimulants in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Sarah; Mott, Ashley; Jatzlau, Breanna; Ortiz, Francisco; Perrella, Laura; Martin, Sarah; Bryand, Kelsie

    2014-01-01

    Designer psychostimulants are known by recreational drug users to produce a complex array of adrenergic and hallucinogenic effects. Many of these drugs are not targeted during routine toxicology testing and as a consequence, they are rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for the detection of 15 psychostimulants in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), specifically 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenethylamine (2C-C), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine (2C-D), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (2C-E), 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-H), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-2), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-4), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine (DOB), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine (DOC), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and 4-methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA). Analytical recoveries using solid-phase extraction were 64-92% and the limit of detection was 0.5 ng/mL for all drugs except 2C-B (1 ng/mL). The assay was evaluated in terms of analytical recovery, precision, accuracy, linearity, matrix effect, and interferences. The technique allows for the simultaneous detection of 15 psychostimulants at sub-ng/mL concentrations.

  18. [Dynamic behavior of aldicarb and its metabolites in cabbage by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ding, Kuiying; Xu, Wenjuan; Li, Kai; Guo, Liqiang; Sun, Jun

    2016-02-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS ) method was developed for the study of dynamic behavior of aldicarb and its metabolite residues in cabbage. Aldicarb was applied onto cultivated cabbages. The pesticides concentrations were measured periodically (between application and harvest) , and modeled to illustrate the dynamic behavior. The results showed that the liner ranges of aldicarb and its metabolites were from 0. 005 to 0. 2 mg/L, and the recoveries ranged from 78. 9% to 108. 5% with the relative standard deviations of 2. 03%- 8. 91% (n = 8). The aldicarb in cabbage increased at first with the first-order kinetic equation model of c = 0. 020(0.136t) with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0. 888, and then decreased with the equation of c = 0. 65e(-059t) with the r2 of 0. 979 and the half-life of 29. 1 d. The reducing processes of aldicarb-sulfone and aldicarb-sulfoxide both matched the first-order kinetic equations (c = 23. 4e(-0.044t) and c = 4. 54e(-0.027t) with r2 of 0. 916 and 0. 972 respectively. To meet the limitation requirement of 0. 01 mg/kg, 70. 7, 226. 6 and 176. 3 d were respectively necessary for aldicarb, aldicarb-sulfone and aldicarb-sulfoxide. Final residues of aldicarb-sulfone and aldicarb-sulfoxide were still more than the limitation requirements, indicating that aldicarb should not be used in vegetables of growth cycle shorter than 120 d. This study provided theoretical basis for dynamic behavior of aldicarb residue and its safe use in vegetables. PMID:27382721

  19. Screening and determination of drugs in human saliva utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rehim, Abbi; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a new method for collecting and handling saliva samples using an automated analytical microsyringe and microextraction by packed syringe (MEPS). The screening and determination of lidocaine in human saliva samples utilizing MEPS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were carried out. An exact volume of saliva could be collected. The MEPS C8 -cartridge could be used for 50 extractions before it was discarded. The extraction recovery was about 60%. The pharmacokinetic curve of lidocaine in saliva using MEPS-LC-MS/MS is reported.

  20. Study of sodium tanshinone II A sulfonate tissue distribution in rat by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Tingting; Zou, Qiaogen; Feng, Zhenbin; Zhang, Zunjian

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and fully validated for the quantitative determination of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS, sodium (1,6,6-trimethyl-10,11-dioxo-7,8,9-trihydrophenanthro[1,2-b]furan)-yl-2-sulfonate) in rat biosamples including plasma and different tissues using sodium tanshinone I sulfonate (sodium (1,6-dimethyl-10,11-dioxo-phenanthro[1,2-b]furan)-yl-2-sulfonate) as internal standard. Simple protein precipitation by acetonitrile was utilized for extracting STS from the rat biosamples. Chromatographic separation of the sample matrix from the analyte and the internal standard was performed using a commercially available analytical column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-5 mmoL/L ammonia acetate (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source and operated in the negative-ion mode. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD%) and deviations of the assay accuracies were within 10.0% for STS. The extraction recovery of STS was more than 86.5%. The limit of detection (LOD) of STS was 1.0 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to the tissue distribution study of STS intravenously administered to healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The tissue distribution results showed that liver, kidney, lung, small intestine and duodenum were the major distribution tissues of STS in rats, and that STS had difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier. After 24 h, STS could be detected only in the kidney, stomach and small intestine, indicating that there was no long-term accumulation of STS in rat. PMID:21175038

  1. QuEChERS-based purification method coupled to ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to determine six quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yanping; Dong, Hao; Wu, Yuluan; Guo, Xindong; Hou, Xiangchang; Wang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    QuEChERS-based purification coupled with UPLC-MS/MS method, was developed for six quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) determination in dairy products. Powder samples were firstly dispersed by water. Protein in liquid milk was precipitated and sample solution was extracted by acetonitrile. QuEChERS-based purification was used to purify the solution. QACs were finally separated by HILIC column and detected in MRM mode of MS/MS under ESI(+). The stable isotope benzyl-2,3,4,5,6-d5-dimethyltetradecylammonium bromide (C14-BAC-d5) was used as an internal standard. This method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy. Linear relations were favorable for QACs over the selected concentration ranges of 0.2-50μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.4-14.5μg/kg. Recoveries were between 91.2% and 115% with RSDs of 2.8-7.5% for intra-day precision and 3.7-6.7% for inter-day precision. This validated method was successfully applied to determine the QACs concentrations in dairy products. PMID:27374511

  2. Quantification of a male sea lamprey pheromone in tributaries of Laurentian Great Lakes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xi, X.; Johnson, N.S.; Brant, C.O.; Yun, S.-S.; Chambers, K.L.; Jones, A.D.; Li, W.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an assay for measuring 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), a mating pheromone released by male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), at low picomolar concentrations in natural waters to assess the presence of invasive populations. 3kPZS was extracted from streamwater at a rate of recovery up to 90% using a single cation-exchange and reversed-phase mixed-mode cartridge, along with [2H5]3kPZS as an internal standard, and quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was below 0.1 ng L–1 (210 fM), which was the lowest concentration tested. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation were between 0.3–11.6% and 4.8–9.8%, respectively, at 1 ng 3kPZS L–1 and 5 ng 3kPZS L–1. This assay was validated by repeat measurements of water samples from a stream spiked with synthesized 3kPZS to reach 4.74 ng L–1 or 0.24 ng L–1. We further verified the utility of this assay to detect spawning populations of lampreys; in the seven tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes sampled, 3kPZS concentrations were found to range between 0.15 and 2.85 ng L–1 during the spawning season in known sea lamprey infested segments and were not detectable in uninfested segments. The 3kPZS assay may be useful for the integrated management of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes where pheromone-based control and assessment techniques are desired.

  3. [Simultaneous determination of clevidipine butyrate and its metabolite clevidipine acid in dog blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui-hui; Gu, Yuan; Liu, Yan-ping; Wei, Guang-li; Chen, Yong; Liu, Chang-xiao; Si, Duan-yun

    2015-10-01

    A rapid, sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of clevidipine butyrate and its primary metabolite clevidipine acid in dog blood. After one-step protein precipitation with methanol, the chromatographic separation was carried out on an Ecosil C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and 5 mmol · L(-1) ammonium formate. A chromatographic total run time of 13.0 min was achieved. The quantitation analysis was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) at the specific ion transitions of m/z 454.1 [M-H]- --> m/z 234.1 for clevidipine butyrate, m/z 354.0 [M-H]- --> m/z 208.0 for clevidipine acid and m/z 256.1 [M-H]- --> m/z 227.1 for elofesalamide (internal standard, IS) in the negative ion mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The linear calibration curves for clevidipine butyrate and clevidipine acid were obtained in the concentration ranges of 0.5-100 ng · mL and 1-200 ng · mL(-1), separately. The lower limit of quantification of clevidipine butyrate and clevidipine acid were 0.5 ng · mL(-1) and 1 ng · mL(-1). The intra and inter-assay precisions were all below 12.9%, the accuracies were all in standard ranges. Stability testing indicated that clevidipine butyrate and clevidipine acid in dog blood with the addition of denaturant methanol was stable under various processing and/or handling conditions. The validated method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of clevidipine butyrate injection to 8 healthy Beagle dogs following intravenous infusion at a flow rate of 5 mg · h(-1) for 0.5 h.

  4. [Determination of imidaclothiz in tea by QuEChERS cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Songnan; Zhao, Xinying; Dong, Xiaoqian; Xu, Wenwen; Zhao, Rong

    2015-11-01

    The method for the determination of imidaclothiz residue in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed. The imidaclothiz in tea was extracted by acetonitrile and purified by QuEChERS with PSA (primary secondary amine), C18, GCB (graphitized carbon black) as the adsorbents. The purified solution was centrifuged and the supernatant was diluted with water of equal volume. The separation was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution program of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid) and water at a flow rate of 0.30 mL/min. The mass spectrometer was carried out with electrospray ion source in the positive mode (ESI+) and selective reaction monitoring (SRM), quantified by external standard solution. The results showed that the mass concentration of imidaclothiz in the range of 1 to 500 μg/L was linearly correlated with the peak area, and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.999 9. The limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N ≥ 10) was 0.01 mg/kg. The recoveries in oolong tea and green tea at three spiked levels (0.01, 0.3 and 3 mg/kg) varied from 87.0%-101.0% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7) were between 2.1% and 13.1%. The real sample tests showed that the method is simple, cheap, accurate, specific, rapid, and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative confirmation of imidaclothiz residue in tea.

  5. Simultaneous determination of macitentan and its active metabolite in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lixiu; Zhou, Ying; He, Xiaomeng; Li, Huqun; Chen, Hui; Li, Weiyong

    2015-10-01

    Macitentan is a newly approved endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) for the long-term treatment of PAH with superior receptor-binding properties and a longer duration of action compared to other available ERAs. However, analytical methods for simultaneous determination of macitentan and its active metabolite, ACT-132577, in human plasma have not been fully reported in the literature. In this work, a fast, sensitive, and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS) was firstly developed and completely validated for simultaneous determination of macitentan and its active metabolite in human plasma. Plasma samples were processed with a protein precipitation using acetonitrile, followed by chromatographic separation using an Inertsil ODS-SP column (100×2.1mm, 3.5μm) under isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. Quantification was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the transitions m/z 547.1→201.0 for macitentan, m/z 589.0→203.0 for ACT-132577, and m/z 380.5→243.3 for the IS (donepezil). The assay exhibited a linear range of 1-500ng/mL for both macitentan and ACT-132577. The accuracy and the intra- and inter-precisions were within acceptable ranges and no significant matrix effect was observed during the method validation. The developed method was successfully utilized to a human pharmacokinetic study of macitentan as well as ACT-132577 after oral administration of 10mg macitentan tablet in healthy Chinese volunteers.

  6. Comprehensive multi-residue method for the target analysis of pesticides in crops using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Maurice; de Kok, André

    2007-06-22

    A liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous target analysis of a wide range of pesticides and metabolites in fruit, vegetables and cereals has been developed. Gradient elution has been used in conjunction with positive mode electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to detect up to 171 pesticides and/or metabolites in different crop matrices using a single chromatographic run. Pesticide residues were extracted/partitioned from the samples with acetone/dichloromethane/light petroleum. The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of extracts from lettuce, orange, apple, cabbage, grape and wheat flour, spiked at three concentration levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.10 mg/kg for each pesticide and/or metabolite. In general, recoveries ranging from 70 to 110%, with relative standard deviations better than 15%, were obtained. The recovery and repeatability data are in good accordance with EU guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. The limit of quantification for all targeted pesticides and metabolites tested was 0.01 mg/kg. The selectivity and robustness of the LC-MS/MS method was demonstrated by a 1-year comparison of its analytical results with those obtained from our validated GC and LC multi-residue methods applied to more than 3500 routine samples. The validated LC-MS/MS method has been implemented in our analytical scheme since 2004, replacing four of the conventional detection methods, i.e. GC-flame-photometric detection (acephate, methamidophos, etc.), GC-nitrogen-phosphorus detection, LC-UV detection (carbendazim, thiabendazole, imazalil and prochloraz) and LC-fluorescence detection (N-methylcarbamate pesticides). During a 3-year period, the LC-MS/MS method has been applied to the analyses of more than 12,000 samples. PMID:17442324

  7. Quantitative determination of ɛ-N-carboxymethyl-L-lysine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Liqing; Jing, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jing; Ma, Liyuan; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Jin

    2014-03-01

    ɛ-N-carboxymethyl-L-lysine (CML) is a stable chemical modification of protein lysine residues resulting from glycation and oxidation reactions and a potential biomarker of oxidative stress caused by sugar and lipid oxidation. In this study, a rapid, simple and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of CML in human plasma has been developed and validated. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation using trichloroacetic acid after addition of deuterated CML as internal standard. Chromatography was performed on an amino column by gradient-elution with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile:ultrapure water (80:20, v/v). CML and CML-d2 were detected by multiple reaction monitoring mode with ion pairs 205.0/130.1 and 207.2/84.1 respectively. The assay was linear in the range 10-1000 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 10 ng/mL and recovery >90%. Assay validation showed that inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy were satisfactory. The method was applied to compare plasma CML levels in healthy Chinese subjects and patients with diabetes and uremia. In healthy subjects CML concentration (mean±SD) was 16.6±7.8 ng/mL. CML level in diabetic patients was not significantly different from healthy subjects whereas the level in patients with uremia was significantly higher than both healthy subjects and diabetic patients (P<0.001). The method will be useful to assess the value of CML as a biomarker of diabetic vascular complications resulting from elevated oxidative stress. PMID:24317023

  8. Enantioselective determination of doxazosin in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using ovomucoid chiral stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhong, Dafang; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2010-09-15

    An enantioselective and sensitive method was developed and validated for determination of doxazosin enantiomers in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The enantiomers of doxazosin were extracted from plasma using ethyl ether/dichloromethane (3/2, v/v) under alkaline conditions. Baseline chiral separation was obtained within 9 min on an ovomucoid column using an isocratic mobile phase of methanol/5mM ammonium acetate/formic acid (20/80/0.016, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.60 mL/min. Acquisition of mass spectrometric data was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode, using the transitions of m/z 452-->344 for doxazosin enantiomers, and m/z 384-->247 for prazosin (internal standard). The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.100-50.0 ng/mL for each enantiomer using 200 microL of plasma. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for each enantiomer was 0.100 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay precision was 5.0-11.1% and 5.7-7.6% for R-(-)-doxazosin and S-(+)-doxazosin, respectively. The accuracy was 97.4-99.5% for R-(-)-doxazosin and 96.8-102.8% for S-(+)-doxazosin. No chiral inversion was observed during the plasma storage, preparation and analysis. The method proved adequate for enantioselective pharmacokinetic studies of doxazosin after oral administration of therapeutic doses of racemic doxazosin.

  9. A high selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantization of BPA urinary levels in children.

    PubMed

    Nicolucci, Carla; Rossi, Sergio; Menale, Ciro; del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Perrone, Laura; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano G; Diano, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    A selective and highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for determination of Bisphenol A (BPA) in human urine using labeled d6-BPA as internal standard. BPA was purified from human urine by affinity chromatography on solid extraction AFFINIMIP® Bisphenol A cartridges, based on molecularly imprinted polymers. After purification, the samples were analyzed on a Phenomenex Kinetex 100 × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm particle PFP reversed-phase HPLC column, coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer by an electrospray ion source. Analyses were performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode and negative ionization; the product ions at 133.2 and 212.1 m/z for BPA and at 138.2 and 215.0 m/z for d6-BPA were monitored to assess unambiguous identification. The linearity of the detector response was verified in human urine over the concentration range 0.100-200 ng/mL. The detection limit was calculated as 0.03 ng/mL and the limit of quantification of the method is 0.10 ng/mL. This LC/ESI-MS/MS method was in-house validated evaluating specificity, trueness, within-day and between-days precision. The mean recoveries of BPA from spiked urine samples were higher than 94% and good reproducibility (relative standard deviations ≤ 8.1%) was observed. The developed method was applied to a pilot study involving 105 children, aged from 6 to 14 years (16 normal weight and 89 obese children), from the Regione Campania (Southern Italy). The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of BPA in urine of children and possible correlations with childhood obesity.

  10. Pediatric Reference Intervals for Free Thyroxine and Free Triiodothyronine by Equilibrium Dialysis-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    La’ulu, Sonia L.; Rasmussen, Kyle J.; Straseski, Joely A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid hormone concentrations fluctuate during growth and development. To accurately diagnose thyroid disease in pediatric patients, reference intervals (RIs) should be established with appropriate age groups from an adequate number of healthy subjects using the most exact methods possible. Obtaining statistically useful numbers of healthy patients is particularly challenging for pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine non-parametric RIs for free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) using equilibrium dialysis-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with over 2200 healthy children 6 months-17 years of age. Methods: Subjects were negative for both thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies and had normal thyrotropin concentrations. The study included 2213 children (1129 boys and 1084 girls), with at least 120 subjects (average of 125) from each year of life, except for the 6 month to 1 year age group (n=96). Results: Non-parametric RIs (95th percentile) for fT4 were: 18.0-34.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 6 months-6 years) and 14.2-25.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-17 years). RIs for fT3 were: 5.8-13.1 pmol/L (girls, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-11.8 pmol/L (boys, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-10.0 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-12 years); 4.5-8.6 pmol/L (girls, 13-17 years); and 5.2-9.4 pmol/L (boys, 13-17 years). Conclusion: Numerous significant differences were observed between pediatric age groups and previously established adult ranges. This emphasizes the need for well-characterized RIs for thyroid hormones in the pediatric population. PMID:26758817

  11. Determination of phentermine, N-hydroxyphentermine and mephentermine in urine using dilute and shoot liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Sim, Arum; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sunglll; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-09-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants such as phentermine (PT) has been regulated by law enforcement authorities due to its euphorigenic and relaxing effects. Due to high potential for its abuse, reliable analytical methods were required to detect and identify PT and its metabolite in biological samples. Thus a dilute and shoot liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of PT, N-hydroxyphentermine (NHOPT) and mephentermine (MPT) in urine. A 5μL aliquot of diluted urine was injected into the LC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was performed by reversed-phase C18 column with gradient elution for all analytes within 5min. Identification and quantification were based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. Linear least-squares regression with a 1/x(2) weighting factor was used to generate a calibration curve and the assay was linear from 50 to 15000ng/mL (PT and MPT) and 5 to 750ng/mL (NHOPT). The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 8.9% while the intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from -6.2% to 11.2%. The limits of quantification were 3.5ng/mL (PT), 1.5ng/mL (NHOPT) and 1.0ng/mL (MPT). Method validation requirements for selectivity, dilution integrity, matrix effect and stability were satisfied. The applicability of the developed method was examined by analyzing urine samples from drug abusers. PMID:27398632

  12. Online solid phase extraction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determination of estrogens and glucocorticoids in water.

    PubMed

    Goh, Shalene Xue Lin; Duarah, Ankur; Zhang, Lifeng; Snyder, Shane A; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-09-23

    The present work describes the development of a novel fully automated online solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using negative electrospray ionisation (ESI) for the simultaneous determination of six estrogens and six glucocorticoids in water. Filtered water samples (5mL) were preconcentrated on a HyperSep™ Retain PEP SPE cartridge, eluted in back-flush mode, and separated on an LC column before analysis by tandem mass spectrometry. The total analysis time for each sample was 17min. Different experimental parameters such as the type of online SPE cartridge, loading flow rate, and composition of methanol in the loading phase were optimised. The intra-day repeatability of method ranged from 1.48 to 9.68% for all analytes, and the inter-day reproducibility ranged from 2.03 to 8.63% for all analytes, except for dexamethasone at 11.95%. These were calculated based on the peak area responses of the targeted analytes spiked at 50ng/L in ultrapure water. The method also showed good linearity from 1 to 100ng/L, with the limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.16 to 2.14ng/L. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of municipal wastewater. This fully automated online SPE extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS method is effective and reliable to measure estrogens and glucocorticoids simultaneously due to its high throughput, relatively low solvent consumption, reusability of the online SPE cartridge, and reduction of manual labor. PMID:27562415

  13. [Determination of eight pesticide residues in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its uncertainty evaluation].

    PubMed

    Hu, Beizhen; Cai, Haijiang; Song, Weihua

    2012-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of eight pesticide residues (fipronil, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, buprofezin, triadimefon, triadimenol, profenofos, pyridaben) in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with acetone-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) as solvent, and the extract was then cleaned-up with a Carb/NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C, column (150 mm x 2. 1 mm, 5 microm) and with the gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0. 1% formic acid. The eight pesticides were determined in the modes of electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched internal standard method for imidacloprid and acetamiprid, by matrix-matched external standard method for the other pesticides. The calibration curves showed good linearity in 1 - 100 microg/L for fipronil, and in 5 -200 microg/L for the other pesticides. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N> 10) were 2 p.g/kg for fipronil and 10 microg/kg for the other pesticides. The average recoveries ranged from 75. 5% to 115.0% with the relative standard deviations of 2.7% - 7.7% at the spiked levels of 2, 5, 50 microg/kg for fipronil and 10, 50, 100 microg/kg for the other pesticides. The uncertainty evaluation for the results was carried out according to JJF 1059-1999 "Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement". Items constituting measurement uncertainty involved standard solution, weighing of sample, sample pre-treatment, and the measurement repeatability of the equipment were evaluated. The results showed that the measurement uncertainty is mainly due to sample pre-treatment, standard curves and measurement repeatability of the equipment. The method developed is suitable for the conformation and quantification of the pesticides in tea. PMID:23285969

  14. A simultaneous quantitative method for vitamins A, D and E in human serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Albahrani, Ali A; Rotarou, Victor; Roche, Peter J; Greaves, Ronda F

    2016-05-01

    Non-classical roles of fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) in many pathologies including cancer have been identified. There is also evidence of hormonal interactions between two of these vitamins, A and D. As a result of this enhanced clinical association with disease, translational clinical research and laboratory requests for FSV measurement has significantly increased. However there are still gaps in the analytical methods available for the measurement of these vitamins. This study aimed to develop a method for simultaneous quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D2 (25-OHD2), 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25-OHD3) and its 3-epimer (epi-25-OHD3), retinol and α-tocopherol in human serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The procedure was developed and validated across two LC-MS/MS platforms, using commercial calibrators referenced to certified reference materials, controls, and deuterated internal standards. The samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction prior to injection and LC separation (using a Pursuit-PFP column) on two Agilent MS/MS systems (6410 and 6490) in electrospray ionisation positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Identification and quantification of 25-OHD3 from its 3-epimer as well as 25-OHD2, retinol and α-tocopherol were achieved. The dynamic ranges were 4-160 nmol/L for 25-OHD2 and epi-25-OHD3, 4-200 nmol/L for 25-OHD3, 0.1-4.0μmol/L for retinol and 4-70μmol/L for α-tocopherol with correlation (r(2)) of 0.997-0.998. Based on participation in an external quality assurance program, the overall performance of the simultaneous methods were: imprecision (CV%) and inaccuracy (average bias) 3.0% and 3.2 nmol/L, respectively, for 25-OHD3; 5.0% and 0.04μmol/L, respectively, for retinol; and 4.7% and 0.2μmol/L, respectively, for α-tocopherol. In summary, two simple LC-MS/MS methods were successfully developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of the three vitamin D metabolites (25-OHD2, 25-OHD3 and 3

  15. Automated isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with on-line dilution and solid phase extraction for the measurement of cortisol in human serum sample.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Migaku; Eyama, Sakae; Takatsu, Akiko

    2014-08-01

    A candidate reference measurement procedure involving automated isotope dilution coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) with on-line dilution and solid phase extraction (SPE) has been developed and critically evaluated. We constructed the LC-MS/MS with on-line dilution and SPE system. An isotopically labelled internal standard, cortisol-d4, was added to serum sample. After equilibration, the methanol was added to the sample, and deproteination was performed. Then, the sample was applied to the LC-MS/MS system. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.2 and 1ngg(-1), respectively. Excellent precision was obtained with within-day variation (RSD) of 1.9% for ID-LC-MS/MS analysis (n=6). This method, which demonstrates simple, easy, good accuracy, high precision, and is free from interferences from structural analogues, qualifies as a reference measurement procedure.

  16. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for the tyrosine kinase inhibitor afatinib in mouse plasma using salting-out liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Sparidans, Rolf W; van Hoppe, Stephanie; Rood, Johannes J M; Schinkel, Alfred H; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2016-02-15

    A quantitative bioanalytical liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) assay for afatinib, an irreversible inhibitor of the ErbB (erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog) tyrosine kinase family, was developed and validated. Plasma samples were pre-treated using salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) with acetonitrile, magnesium chloride and a stable isotopically labeled internal standard. After dilution, the extract was directly injected into the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic system. The eluate was transferred into the electrospray interface with positive ionization and compounds were detected in the selected reaction monitoring mode of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The assay was completely validated for plasma in a 0.5-500ng/ml calibration range with r(2)=0.995±0.002 (n=6) using linear regression with the inverse square of the concentration as the weighting factor for the calibration. Within-run precisions (n=18) were 2.7-11.7% and between-run (3 runs; n=18) precisions 3.0-14.5%. Accuracies were between 96-109% for the whole calibration range. The drug was sufficiently stable under all relevant analytical conditions. Finally, the assay was successfully applied to determine plasma drug levels and study pharmacokinetics after oral administration of afatinib to female FVB mice.

  17. Determination of sulfonamides in pork, egg, and chicken using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a solid-phase extraction sorbent followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixiang; Ding, Mingyu; Gao, Yunbao; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Twelve sulfonamide residues, namely, sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadimethoxine, sulfanilamide, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, and sulfamethizole were determined in pork tissue, chicken, and eggs by ultra-performance LC/MS/MS after SPE cleanup using multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which permitted extracted samples from animal tissue and eggs to be cleaned up under either normal phase (NP) or reversed phase (RP) conditions or both. In this method, the NP cleanup provided recoveries for nine of the 12 sulfonamides ranging from 71 to 90% and <60% for the remaining three with RSDs lower than 10%. For the RP cleanup method, the recoveries for nine of the 12 sulfonamides ranged from 70 to 94% and <60% for the remaining three with RSDs <11.1%. The two cleanup methods can complement each other to complete the simultaneous analysis of the 12 sulfonamides. PMID:25903004

  18. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for the T790M mutant EGFR inhibitor osimertinib (AZD9291) in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Rood, Johannes J M; van Bussel, Mark T J; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Sparidans, Rolf W

    2016-09-15

    A method for the quantitative analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of the highly selective irreversible covalent inhibitor of EGFR-TK, osimertinib in human plasma was developed and validated, using pazopanib as an internal standard. The validation was performed in a range from 1 to 1000ng/ml, with the lowest level corresponding to the lower limit of quantitation. Gradient elution was performed on a 1.8μm particle trifunctional bonded C18 column by 1% (v/v) formic acid in water, and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The analyte was detected in the selected reaction monitoring mode of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer after positive ionization with the heated electrospray interface. Within-day precisions ranged from 3.4 to 10.3%, and between-day precisions from 3.8 to 10.4%, accuracies were 95.5-102.8%. Plasma (either lithium heparin or sodium EDTA) pretreatment was performed by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction using acetonitrile and magnesium sulfate. This method was used to analyze the osimertinib blood plasma levels of five adult patients with metastatic T790M mutated non-small cellular lung carcinoma for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes.

  19. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for the T790M mutant EGFR inhibitor osimertinib (AZD9291) in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Rood, Johannes J M; van Bussel, Mark T J; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Sparidans, Rolf W

    2016-09-15

    A method for the quantitative analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of the highly selective irreversible covalent inhibitor of EGFR-TK, osimertinib in human plasma was developed and validated, using pazopanib as an internal standard. The validation was performed in a range from 1 to 1000ng/ml, with the lowest level corresponding to the lower limit of quantitation. Gradient elution was performed on a 1.8μm particle trifunctional bonded C18 column by 1% (v/v) formic acid in water, and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The analyte was detected in the selected reaction monitoring mode of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer after positive ionization with the heated electrospray interface. Within-day precisions ranged from 3.4 to 10.3%, and between-day precisions from 3.8 to 10.4%, accuracies were 95.5-102.8%. Plasma (either lithium heparin or sodium EDTA) pretreatment was performed by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction using acetonitrile and magnesium sulfate. This method was used to analyze the osimertinib blood plasma levels of five adult patients with metastatic T790M mutated non-small cellular lung carcinoma for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes. PMID:27469903

  20. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of anthelmintics in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Dabalus; Haberhauer, G; Gerzabek, M; Cannavan, A

    2012-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of anthelmintics in alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.) was developed and validated. Anthelmintics in plant leaves and stems (green chops) were extracted with methanol/acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) followed by a concentration and clean-up step using solid-phase extraction (Strata-X, 500 mg, 6 ml cartridge). After drying with nitrogen gas, the adsorbed analytes were eluted with methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture followed by 100% acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Atlantis T-3 (2.1 × 100 mm × 3 µm) analytical column with a Phenomenex guard cartridge (C8, 4 × 3 mm) attached to a Waters triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionisation mode with selected reaction monitoring. Samples were analysed using gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.35 ml min⁻¹. The mobile phase consisted of a 10 mM ammonium formate solution in (A) water/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) and (B) methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). The method was validated for levamisole, fenbendazole, fenbendazole sulphoxide and fenbendazole sulphone at 10, 20 and 40 µg kg⁻¹ and for eprinomectin at 20, 40 and 80 µg kg⁻¹. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 10 µg kg⁻¹ for all analytes except eprinomectin, which had an LOQ of 20 µg kg⁻¹. The overall mean recovery in green plants was between 74.2% and 81.4% with repeatabilities ranging from 2.2% to 19.1% and reproducibilities in the range 3.8-8.7%. The validated method was applied to plant samples in a study on the behaviour of anthelmintic drugs in a soil, plant and water system.

  1. Planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial for extraction of chlorophenols from environmental water samples coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Su, Jie; Hu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Qian; Dong, Chun-Ying; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-08-12

    A planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial (PGO-MILN) was synthesized. The prepared PGO-MILN was characterized by transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The results of adsorption experiments showed that the PGO-MILN had great adsorption capacity for 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Based on the adsorption experimental data, a sensitive magnetic method for determination of the five CPs in environmental water samples was developed by an effective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effects of main MSPE parameters including the solution pH, extraction time, desorption time, and volume of desorption solution on the extraction efficiencies had been investigated in detail. The recoveries ranged from 85.3 to 99.3% with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9994 and the linear ranges were between 10 and 500ngL(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the five CPs ranged from 0.2 to 2.6ngL(-1) and 0.6 to 8.7ngL(-1), respectively. The intra- and inter- day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range from 0.6% to 7.4% and from 0.7% to 8.4%, respectively. It was confirmed that the PGO-MILN was a kind of highly effective MSPE materials used for enrichment of trace CPs in the environmental water.

  2. Planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial for extraction of chlorophenols from environmental water samples coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Su, Jie; Hu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Qian; Dong, Chun-Ying; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-08-12

    A planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial (PGO-MILN) was synthesized. The prepared PGO-MILN was characterized by transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The results of adsorption experiments showed that the PGO-MILN had great adsorption capacity for 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Based on the adsorption experimental data, a sensitive magnetic method for determination of the five CPs in environmental water samples was developed by an effective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effects of main MSPE parameters including the solution pH, extraction time, desorption time, and volume of desorption solution on the extraction efficiencies had been investigated in detail. The recoveries ranged from 85.3 to 99.3% with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9994 and the linear ranges were between 10 and 500ngL(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the five CPs ranged from 0.2 to 2.6ngL(-1) and 0.6 to 8.7ngL(-1), respectively. The intra- and inter- day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range from 0.6% to 7.4% and from 0.7% to 8.4%, respectively. It was confirmed that the PGO-MILN was a kind of highly effective MSPE materials used for enrichment of trace CPs in the environmental water. PMID:27425762

  3. Critical assessment of extraction methods for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and mycotoxins in fruits, cereals, spices and oil seeds employing ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lacina, Ondrej; Zachariasova, Milena; Urbanova, Jana; Vaclavikova, Marta; Cajka, Tomas; Hajslova, Jana

    2012-11-01

    This study addresses a current trend in chemical food safety control represented by an effort to integrate analyses of various groups of food contaminants/toxicants into a single, high-throughput method. The choice of optimal sample preparation step is one of the key conditions to achieve good performance characteristics. In this context, we investigated the possibility to expand the scope of the three multi-analyte extraction procedures employed earlier in other studies for rapid isolation of either pesticides or mycotoxins from plant matrices. Following procedures were tested: A - aqueous acetonitrile extraction followed by partition (QuEChERS-like method), B - aqueous acetonitrile extraction, and C - pure acetonitrile extraction. On the list of target analytes, we had 288 pesticides (including 'troublesome' acidic, basic and base-sensitive compounds) together with 38 mycotoxins (including all EU regulated ones and many 'emerging' toxins on the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) list). The matrices selected for the experiments, apple baby food, wheat flour, spices and sunflower seeds, represented various composition categories in terms of moisture, fat and extractable compounds (e.g. pigments and essential oils) content. In preliminary experiments, acceptable recoveries (70-120%) for most of analytes were obtained by the analysis of spiked matrices, regardless which extraction procedure was used. However, when analysing dry samples with incurred pesticide residues/mycotoxins, the method C did not enable efficient extraction of some common contaminants. Procedure A, thanks to a higher matrix equivalent compared to the method B and relatively less pronounced matrix effects, enabled lower quantification limits for all analyte/matrix combinations, with the exception of polar mycotoxins and/or pesticides. Higher recoveries for the latter group of analytes could be achieved by the method B; on the other hand, extraction efficiency of non-polar pesticides from fatty

  4. Validation of method for determination of different classes of pesticides in aqueous samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Costa, Fabiane Pinho; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2010-04-14

    In this study, a simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of different classes of pesticides, carbofuran (insecticide), clomazone (herbicide) and tebuconazole (fungicide) in aqueous samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection. Some experimental parameters that influence the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of the disperser solvents and extraction solvents, extraction time, speed of centrifugation, pH and addition of salt were examined and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of pesticides in water at spiking levels between 0.02 and 2.0 microg L(-1) ranged from 62.7% to 120.0%. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.9% and 9.1% (n=3). The limits of quantification of the method considering a 50-fold preconcentration step were 0.02 microg L(-1). The linearity of the method ranged from 1.0 to 1000 microg L(-1) for all compounds, with correlation coefficients varying from 0.9982 to 0.9992. Results show that the method we propose can meet the requirements for the determination of pesticides in water samples. The comparison of this method with solid-phase extraction indicates that DLLME is a simple, fast, and low-cost method for the determination of pesticides in natural waters.

  5. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of alkylphenols in soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Hefang; Liu, Zhengzheng; Ge, Fei

    2009-03-20

    A novel method has been developed for the determination of alkylphenols in soil by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography employing small particle sizes, combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Soil samples were extracted with pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and then cleaned with solid-phase extraction (SPE). The extracts were separated on C18 column (1.7 microm, 50 mm x 2.1mm) with a gradient elution and a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile, and then detected by an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Compared with traditional liquid chromatography, it took ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography much less time to analyze alkylphenols. Additionally, the ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method produces satisfactory reliability, sensitivity, and accuracy. The average recoveries of the three target analytes were 74.0-103.4%, with the RSD<15%. The calibration curves for alkylphenols were linear within the range of 0.01-0.4 microg/ml, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. When 10 g soil sample was used for analysis, the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the three alkylphenols were all 1.0 microg/kg.

  6. Multimycotoxin analysis in water and fish plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, J; Font, G; Mañes, J; Ferrer, E

    2016-02-01

    High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the determination of 15 mycotoxins in water and fish plasma samples, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocistin, fusarenon-X and emerging Fusarium mycotoxins. In this work, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was assessed as a sample treatment for the simultaneous extraction of mycotoxins. Results showed differences in recovery assays when different extraction solvents were employed. Ethyl acetate showed better recoveries for the major part of mycotoxins analyzed, except for aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2, which showed better recoveries when employing chloroform as extractant solvent. Fumonisins and beauvericin exhibited low recoveries in both water and plasma. This method was validated according to guidelines established by European Commission and has shown to be suitable to be applied in dietary and/or toxicokinetic studies in fish where is necessary to check mycotoxin contents in rearing water and fish plasma. PMID:26694790

  7. Analysis of pesticide multi-residues in leafy vegetables by ultrasonic solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jian; Xia, Xiao-Xiao; Liang, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) of pesticide multi-residues including monocrotophos, dimethoate, imidacloprid, carbendazim, carbaryl and simazine from leafy vegetables is presented. The extraction procedure was optimized with regard to the solvent type and amount, sonication time and number of extraction steps. The extract did not need clean-up before injected into liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) which was employed together with electron microscope to verify the effect of USE method. The proposed procedure allows the extraction of six pesticide residues in a single step with 40 ml of ethyl acetate for 35 min sonication, providing recovery over 83% and LOQ less than 1.4 microg/kg. The optimized USE method is a simple, low cost and an effective preparation method for determination of pesticide multi-residues at trace levels in leafy vegetables in comparison with homogenized extraction method. PMID:17664080

  8. Determination of methamphetamine enantiomer composition in human hair by non-chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Shu, Irene; Alexander, Amy; Jones, Mary; Jones, Joseph; Negrusz, Adam

    2016-08-15

    Chiral separation is crucial for investigating methamphetamine positive cases. While (S)-(+)-enantiomer of methamphetamine (S-MAMP) is a schedule II controlled substance, (R)-(-)-enantiomer (R-MAMP) is an active ingredient of a few over-the-counter drugs in the United States. Among biological specimen types, hair provides greater detection window than blood, urine or oral fluid, and are therefore regarded with particular interest. Herein we describe a novel non-chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly determine methamphetamine enantiomeric composition (percentage) in hair specimens. Hair samples were washed once with acetone, powdered, incubated overnight at 53°C in 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl), and subjected to a solid phase extraction (SPE). The extracts were derivatized using Marfey's reagent at 53°C for 60min. The final mixture was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Kinetex analytical column and 60% (v/v) aqueous methanol as mobile phase (isocratic). Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was equipped with an electro-spray ionization (ESI) source operating in negative mode and the chromatograms were acquired using a multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. The results were expressed as ratio of R- to S-MAMP and then derived to composition percentages without requiring quantitating each enantiomer. The method was precise and accurate across 0-100% S-composition at a range of 80-18,000pg/mg. The performance of the new method was compared with an (S)-(-)-N-trifluoroacetylprolyl chloride (S-TPC) derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method on authentic methamphetamine-positive hair samples. Not only the new Marfey's reagent approach presented satisfactory correlation with the S-TPC approach, but it also exhibited significantly improved quality (e.g., S/N) of the chromatograms. In summary, our protocol employs cost effective and minimally hazardous Marfey

  9. Multi-residue determination of 10 selected new psychoactive substances in wastewater samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Borova, Viola L; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Pistos, Constantinos; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-11-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPSs) have become increasingly popular in recent years. The analysis of these substances in influent wastewater (IWW) can be used to track their use in communities. In addition, an evaluation of the amount of NPSs released to the aquatic environment can be performed through the analysis of effluent wastewater (EWW). This study presents the development, validation and application of an analytical methodology, based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), for the determination of 10 NPSs in IWW and EWW. Synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones, piperazines and pyrrolidophenones are included among the target analytes. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that eight out of these substances (4'-methylpyrrolidinobutyrophenone (MPPP), a-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (a-PVP), 2-[(1S,3R)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyl-2-octanyl) phenol (CP47,497), (1-naphthyl(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl) methanone (JWH-018), (1-butyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(1-naphthyl) methanone (JWH-073), (4-ethyl-1-naphthyl)(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl) methanone (JWH-210), (4-methyl-1-naphthyl) (1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl) methanone (JWH-122) and 2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl) ethanone (JWH-250)) are investigated in wastewater. The optimized conditions for the analysis of this set of compounds included a SPE clean-up step using a polymeric sorbent and the use of a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) chromatographic column. Despite the broad range of physicochemical properties of the analytes the method allowed acceptable absolute recoveries (40-109%) for all the studied compounds at different levels of concentration. Low method limits of detection (MLODs) were achieved, ranging between 0.3 and 10 ng/L except for BZP and CP47,497 (20 and 23 ng/L, respectively), allowing a reliable and accurate quantification of the analytes. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of IWW and EWW samples from five wastewater treatment plants

  10. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-11-25

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD).

  11. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talcott, Stephen

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has many applications in food chemistry. Food components that have been analyzed with HPLC include organic acids, vitamins, amino acids, sugars, nitrosamines, certain pesticides, metabolites, fatty acids, aflatoxins, pigments, and certain food additives. Unlike gas chromatography, it is not necessary for the compound being analyzed to be volatile. It is necessary, however, for the compounds to have some solubility in the mobile phase. It is important that the solubilized samples for injection be free from all particulate matter, so centrifugation and filtration are common procedures. Also, solid-phase extraction is used commonly in sample preparation to remove interfering compounds from the sample matrix prior to HPLC analysis.

  12. Simultaneous quantitation of paracetamol, caffeine, pseudoephedrine, chlorpheniramine and cloperastine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jiang; Jiang, Yao; Fawcett, J Paul; Gu, Jingkai

    2010-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantitation of paracetamol, caffeine, pseudoephedrine, chlorpheniramine and cloperastine in human plasma has been developed and validated. After sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes and internal standard (diphenhydramine) were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC on a Venusil Mp-C(18) column (50mmx4.6mm, 5microm) using formic acid:10mM ammonium acetate:methanol (1:40:60, v/v/v) as mobile phase in a run time of 2.6min. Detection was carried out by electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all analytes over the following concentration (ng/ml) ranges: paracetamol 5.0-2000; caffeine 10-4000; pseudoephedrine 0.25-100; chlorpheniramine 0.05-20; cloperastine 0.10-40. Intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) were all < or =11.3% with accuracy (as relative error) of +/-5.0%. The method was successfully applied to a study of the pharmacokinetics of the five analytes after administration of a combination oral dose to healthy Chinese volunteers.

  13. [Determination of 16 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Jiang, Bing; Xu, Yigang; Zhao, Wei; Meng, Xiangrui; Zhou, Yuan; Yu, Jiahui; Zu, Yuangang

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive and convenient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the determination of 16 pesticides such as imidacloprid, prochloraz, difenoconazole, azoxystrobin, and thiamethoxam in fruits and vegetables. After compared with methanol and acetone-cyclohexane (1:2, v/v), acetonitrile was chosen as the extraction solvent. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile in high-speed homogenization. The extraction solution was cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction, and the supernatant was collected. In this work, QuEChERS exhibited much higher efficiency than Carbon-NH2 solid-phase extraction in purification. The pigments and organic acids were removed by purge line (150 mg primary secondary amine (PSA) sorbent and 900 mg absolute magnesium sulfate), leading to the decrease of the background interferences. The average recoveries of the 16 pesticides were almost in the range of 75%-111% at the three spiked levels, and the relative standard deviations were less than 16%. The qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis were investigated by LC-MS/MS and matrix-matched calibration curves. The results showed that the method of QuEChERS combined with LC-MS/MS is rapid, accurate and sensitive for the determination of the 16 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. PMID:26182463

  14. In vitro enantioselective metabolism of TJ0711 hydrochloride by human liver microsomes using a novel chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiangeng; Hu, Lei; Xu, Li; Sun, Minghui; Fan, Zhaoze; Qiu, Jun; Li, Gao; Si, Luqin

    2012-04-01

    A novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method employing chiral analytical techniques was developed and validated for in vitro enantioselective metabolic stability study of racemic 1-[4-(2-methoxyethyl) phenoxy]-3-[[2-(2-methoxyphenoxy) ethyl]amino]-2-propanol hydrochloride (TJ0711 HCl), a newly developed vasodilatory β-blocker. Robust enantiomeric separations were achieved on a chiral SUMICHIRAL OA-2500 column using ethanol and hexane (40:60, v/v) as a mobile phase. Metabolic stability results demonstrated that both TJ0711 enantiomers underwent a rapid phase I metabolism, but preferential metabolism of R-TJ0711 was observed. Our previously reported ultra-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (UPLC-MRM-IDA-EPI) method was finally chosen for metabolite profiling study of TJ0711 enantiomers, because the newly developed HPLC-based method resulted in compromised chromatographic separation, particularly for TJ0711 metabolites. A number of metabolic products were detected and the structures of formed metabolites were predicted. Similar to racemic TJ0711 HCl, demethylation and hydroxylation were proposed to be the principle metabolism pathways during in vitro incubations of each enantiomer with human liver microsomes. PMID:22406105

  15. Rapid determination of cocamidopropyl betaine impurities in cosmetic products by core-shell hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Perry G; Zhou, Wanlong

    2016-08-26

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a common surfactant widely used in personal care products. Dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) and lauramidopropyldimethylamine (LAPDMA) are two chemicals present as impurities in CAPB and have been reported as skin sensitizers. A rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method, using a core shell hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column, has been developed to quantify DMAPA and LAPDMA in cosmetic products. Corresponding stable isotopically labeled analogues of the above native compounds were used as internal standards to compensate for matrix effect and for loss of recovery. Each sample was first screened to determine whether the sample needed to be diluted to minimize matrix effects as well as to fit the calibration range. The concept of matrix effect factor (MEF) was introduced to quantitatively evaluate each sample with a unique matrix using the internal standards. Recoveries at three spiking levels of low, medium, and high concentrations ranged from 98.4 to 112% with RSDs less than 5%. This method has been validated and is the first UHPLC-MS/MS method, which uses core shell HILIC column and stable isotopically labeled internal standards to simultaneously determine these two CAPB impurities in cosmetic products. PMID:27473511

  16. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Fish Fillet Samples

    PubMed Central

    Paiano, Viviana; Fattore, Elena; Carrà, Andrea; Generoso, Caterina; Fanelli, Roberto; Bagnati, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic (PFOA) acid are persistent contaminants which can be found in environmental and biological samples. A new and fast analytical method is described here for the analysis of these compounds in the edible part of fish samples. The method uses a simple liquid extraction by sonication, followed by a direct determination using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The linearity of the instrumental response was good, with average regression coefficients of 0.9971 and 0.9979 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, and the coefficients of variation (CV) of the method ranged from 8% to 20%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 0.04 ng/g for both the analytes and recoveries were 90% for PFOS and 76% for PFOA. The method was applied to samples of homogenized fillets of wild and farmed fish from the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the samples showed little or no contamination by perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid, and the highest concentrations detected among the fish species analyzed were, respectively, 5.96 ng/g and 1.89 ng/g. The developed analytical methodology can be used as a tool to monitor and to assess human exposure to perfluorinated compounds through sea food consumption. PMID:22567564

  17. Investigation of EDTA anticoagulant in plasma to improve the throughput of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric assays.

    PubMed

    Sadagopan, Nalini P; Li, Wenlin; Cook, Jack A; Galvan, Betsy; Weller, David L; Fountain, Scott T; Cohen, Lucinda H

    2003-01-01

    In this study, EDTA and heparin are compared as anticoagulants with respect to their efficiency in preventing clot formation in plasma samples that were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A pilot in vivo pharmacokinetic study for the drug chlorpheniramine was conducted in which both EDTA and heparin plasma samples were collected simultaneously. All conditions except the anticoagulant were held constant during the pharmacokinetic study. Bioanalytical results were compared from samples transferred by manual pipette and by an automated liquid handler workstation. The concentration of chlorpheniramine in samples was determined by LC/MS/MS. Results from the analysis of variances (ANOVA) of log-transformed plasma chlorpheniramine concentrations were used to calculate 90% confidence intervals for the ratio least-squares mean values for anticoagulants and for transfer methods. Analytical concentrations of the drug chlorpheniramine were equivalent in heparin- and EDTA-containing plasma. Results suggest that the failure rate for transfer of EDTA plasma (50 micro L by automated workstation or manually) is less than that for heparinized plasma. As a consequence of these results, the vast majority of plasma samples in our laboratories are now collected in EDTA, which allows for use of automated sample transfer resulting in a three-fold timesaving over manual transfer using a single-channel pipette. The ability to use automation has resulted in improved efficiency and cost savings. PMID:12720287

  18. Multiclass screening method based on solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of antimicrobials and mycotoxins in egg.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2012-12-14

    A QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe)-like extraction method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drugs and mycotoxins in hen eggs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray (ESI) source. Various classes of antimicrobials (tetracyclines, ionophores, coccidiostats, penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides) and mycotoxins (enniatins, beauvericin, ochratoxins, aflatoxins) were considered for the development of this method. Particular attention was devoted to extraction optimization: different solvents (acetone, acetonitrile and methanol), different pH values and different sample to extracting volume ratios were tested and evaluated in terms of recovery, relative standard deviation (RSD) and ESI signal suppression due to matrix effect. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions were optimized to obtain the best instrumental performances for most of the analytes. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of matrix-matched calibration, in a range that varied depending on the analyte and its established maximum limit, when there was one. Recoveries at 100 μg kg(-1) spiking level were >62% (3

  19. Within-laboratory validation of a multiresidue method for the analysis of 98 pesticides in mango by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fleury Filho, N; Nascimento, C A; Faria, E O; Cruvinel, A R; Oliveira, J M

    2012-01-01

    A within-laboratory validation procedure for a selective and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 98 pesticide residues in mango is presented. QuEChERS extraction was adapted to laboratory conditions. Mango samples (10 g) mixed with sodium sulfate (4 g) and sodium acetate (1 g) were extracted with acetonitrile/acetic acid (99/1 v/v), cleaned using dispersive solids, and subsequently identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pesticides were separated on a reversed-phase column using a gradient elution in conjunction with positive-mode electrospray ionisation. The analytical performance of the method was demonstrated by analysis of spiked mango samples at three concentration levels (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg kg(-1)) for 3 different days, and the analysis was performed by three analysts. Calibration curves were statistically acceptable by the ordinary last-square method (OLSM), with a regression coefficient above 0.98 for all analytes. The method accuracy (n = 18) was between 80% and 110%, and precisions were below 20% for 95% of the analytes. The method uncertainty at the LOQ was evaluated considering the uncertainty associated with the calibration curve and the uncertainty associated with the method precision. The validation data for all pesticides were in accordance with Brazilian and European guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. PMID:22014095

  20. Identification of unknown impurities in simvastatin substance and tablets by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vuletić, Marko; Cindrić, Mario; Koruznjak, Jasna Dogan

    2005-04-01

    Unknown impurities were detected in simvastatin substance and tablets at a 0.2% level using the liquid chromatography technique with UV (DAD) detection. The impurity structures were elucidated by a direct hyphenation of liquid chromatograph to high-resolution mass spectrometer with electrospray ionisation interface using solutions of formic acid in water and in acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Peak tracking was performed using the column-switching technique. Accurate mass measurements by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with lock-spray provided information about elemental composition of intact molecules and fragments of impurities. Measurement accuracy for precursor ions was around 3 ppm and for fragment ions between 4 and 13 ppm. Mass resolving power was around 6500. Deduced molecular formulae for A1, A2 and A3 impurities were C(27)H(44)O(6), C(26)H(43)O(6) and C(26)H(41)O(5), respectively. The structures proposed for all three impurities revealed modifications of simvastatin molecule on the lactone ring. Impurity A1, detected in simvastatin tablets, was identified as ethyl ester, while the impurities A2 and A3, detected in simvastatin substance, were identified as methyl ester and methyl ether of simvastatin. The impurity from tablets was synthesized and its structure confirmed by LC-UV, LC-MS/MS, and NMR techniques.

  1. Multiclass method for antimicrobial analysis in animal feeds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Borràs, S; Companyó, R; Guiteras, J; Bosch, J; Medina, M; Termes, S

    2013-10-01

    A rapid multiclass method that covers 50 antimicrobials from 13 different families in animal feeds was developed. Samples were extracted using a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and a McIlvaine buffer combined with sonication. Feed extracts were simply diluted prior to injection, since the clean-up strategies that were tested, based on either solid-phase extraction or dispersive solid-phase extraction, were ineffective at minimizing matrix-related signal suppression/enhancement. Analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source operating in positive and negative modes. For the quantification, matrix-fortified standard calibration curves were used to compensate for matrix effects and losses in sample preparation. The method was validated in-house in pig, poultry and cattle feed matrices and showed satisfactory performance characteristics. Thus, the proposed approach was suitable for application in a routine high-throughput laboratory for the official control of feeds.

  2. [Simultaneous determination of flonicamid and its metabolites in cucumbers and apples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo; Sun, Yami; Yang, Ting; Wu, Yinliang

    2012-06-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of flonicamid and its metabolite [N-(4-trifluoromethylnicotinoyl) glycine (TFNG), 4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid (TFNA) and 4-trifluoromethylnicotinamide (TFNA-AM)] in cucumbers and apples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with liquid-liquid extraction. The sample was extracted twice with phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0), and the extract was adjusted to pH 1.5 - 2.0, then an aliquot of the extract (3 mL) was extracted with ethyl acetate. The final extract was dried under nitrogen and the residue was dissolved in 0.1% formic acid in water/methanol (80/20, v/v). The sample was analyzed by LC-MS/MS and quantified with the external standard calibration curve method. The detection limits of flonicamid, TFNG, TFNA and TFNA-AM were 0.17, 0.20, 0.35 and 0.60 microg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries of flonicamid and its metabolites in cucumbers and apples were 82.9% - 104.1%. In the intra-assay, the relative standard deviations were 3.6% - 6.9% at the spiked levels of 5.0 - 2 000 microg/kg. There were good linear correlations (the calibration coefficients were above 0.998) between the peak areas and the concentrations of flonicamid and its metabolites in the range of 0.5 - 200 microg/L. The volume of organic solvent used in the whole pretreatment procedure was only 6 mL. The method is accurate, highly sensitive and stable for the determination of flonicamid and its metabolites.

  3. Simultaneous determination of seven anticoagulant rodenticides in agricultural products by gel permeation chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saito-Shida, Shizuka; Nemoto, Satoru; Matsuda, Rieko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    A sensitive and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxycoumarin-type (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, coumatetralyl, and warfarin) and indandione-type (chlorophacinone, diphacinone, and pindone) rodenticides in agricultural products by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The procedure involved extraction of the rodenticides from samples with acetone, followed by liquid-liquid partitioning with hexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) and 10% sodium chloride aqueous solution, then cleanup using GPC, and finally, analysis using LC-MS/MS. High recoveries from the GPC column were obtained for all rodenticides tested using a mobile phase of acetone/cyclohexane/triethylamine (400:1600:1, v/v/v). An ODS column, which contains low levels of metal impurities, gave satisfactory peak shapes for both hydroxycoumarin- and indandione-type rodenticides in the LC-MS/MS separation. The average recoveries of rodenticides from eight agricultural foods (apple, eggplant, cabbage, orange, potato, tomato, brown rice, and soybean) fortified at 0.0005-0.001 mg/kg ranged from 76 to 116%, except for bromadiolone in orange (53%) and diphacinone in soybean (54%), and the relative standard deviations ranged from 1 to 16%. The proposed method effectively removed interfering components, such as pigments and lipids, and showed high selectivity. In addition, the matrix effects were negligible for most of the rodenticide/food combinations. The results suggest that the proposed method is reliable and suitable for determining hydroxycoumarin- and indandione-type rodenticides in agricultural products. PMID:27428755

  4. Method Development and Validation of Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Angiotensin-II in Human Plasma: Application to Study Interaction Between Atorvastatin & Olmesartan Drug Combination.

    PubMed

    Das, Rakesh; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Simple and sensitive Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LCMS/MS) method was developed and validated, then was implicated on hypertensive human subjects to study drug interaction of atorvastatin (ATVS) and Olmesartan (OLM) on status of Angiotensin-II (ANG-II). The ANG-II in plasma was extracted with 5 mL methanol containing 5 % formic acid through C18 (cartridges) liquid-liquid extraction, dried and reconstituted with 1 mL of 16 % acetonitrile in 0.1 % formic acid in water. The chromatographic separation of ANG-II with a Agilent technology 6410 Triple quadrupole was carried multiple reaction monitoring scan mode with a Agilent 1290 Infinity LC system for UHPLC. The sample were separated on a (Thermo Scientific) Hy-Purity advance (50 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using Mobile Phase A: 16 % acetonitrile in 0.1 % formic acid in water and Mobile Phase B: 0.1 % formic acid in methanol at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min, performed at ambient temperature. The mobile phase gradient of 16 % acetonitrile in water was linearly increased to 38 % acetonitrile over 10 min and subsequently the mobile-phase was increased to 100 % acetonitrile over 15 min. The developed method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, stability, linearity, sensitivity and recovery. The method was linear between peak area ratio of standard and internal standard over the range of 50-800 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied for the drug interaction study revealed levels of ANG-II were significantly higher in ATVS + OLM treatment condition as compared to individual treatment of OLM. This reflects the reason of low effectiveness of ATVS + OLM in combination instead of synergistic activity.

  5. [Determination of nine beta-agonist residues in pig tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combining with library search].

    PubMed

    Cai, Qinren; Wu, Jieshan; Qian, Zhenjie; Peng, Yufen; Cai, Jie; Du, Zhifeng

    2013-03-01

    A new method has been developed using a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap (QTrap) mass spectrometer for the fast detection and identification of nine beta-agonists, clenbuterol, salbutamol, ractopamine, ritodrine, terbutaline, isoxsuprine, tulobuterol, cimaterol and bambuterol, in one single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The homogenized tissue samples were purified with liquid-liquid extraction after enzymatic hydrolysis by P-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase. After gradient elution separation on C(18) LC column using acetonitrile and formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phases, a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan were performed in an information dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment. Finally, the identification of the drugs was carried out by library search with a newly developed MS/MS library based on EPI spectra at three different collision energies in positive mode. The analytical method in the present study was well validated and good results were obtained with respect to precision, repeatability and spiked recovery. The limits of detection of residues were 0.1 -0.2 micro g/kg for beta-agonists, and with a linear range from 0.1 to 50.0 micro g/L. Three concentration levels of 0. 5, 1. 0 and 5. 0 pg/kg were spiked in pig tissues, and the overall recoveries were between 72.0% and 95.1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3. 1% and 12.1%. The real sample test showed that this method could be used for sensitive and accurate determination of beta-agonist residues in pig tissue

  6. Analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Jorens, Philippe G; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-10-01

    The simultaneous analysis of nine drugs of abuse (DOAs) and their metabolites (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester and 6-monoacetylmorphine) in wastewater based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was optimised and validated. For each analyte, the deuterated analogue was used for quantification. The separation by HILIC showed good performance for all compounds, especially for the hydrophilic compounds, which elute early (amphetamine-like stimulants) or show no retention (ecgonine methyl ester) in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Sample preparation based on solid-phase extraction was optimised by comparing Oasis HLB and Oasis MCX sorbents for various parameters such as sample pH, amount of sorbent bed and washing solvent. The method was validated for each compound by assessing the following parameters (following International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines): specificity, limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and matrix effects. LOQs were 2 ng/L for 6-monoacetylmorphine, ecgonine methyl ester and amphetamine and 1 ng/L for the rest of the compounds, corresponding with the lowest point in the calibration curve. Except for 6-monoacetylmorphine, all compounds were detected from 1 to 819 ng/L in influent wastewater samples (n = 12) collected from 11 different wastewater treatment plants across Belgium. The presence of ecgonine methyl ester in wastewater could be demonstrated for the first time. In the future, the new HILIC-MS/MS method will be applied to assess the use of DOAs in Belgium using the "sewage epidemiology" approach. PMID:19685341

  7. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the determination of ten macrolide drugs residues in animal muscles by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuqin; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Qingying; Zhang, Meiyu; Meng, Chenying; Li, Jiufeng; He, Limin

    2016-10-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of the residues of ten macrolide drugs in swine, cattle and chicken muscles samples. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized using tylosin as a template and methacrylic acid as a functional monomer. Samples were extracted with sodium borate buffer solution and ethyl acetate, and purified by the MIP cartridge. The results showed that the cartridge exhibited good recognition performance for macrolides, and better purification effect than the traditional solid-phase extraction cartridges. Recoveries of analytes at three spiking levels 1, 5 and 20μgkg(-1) ranged from 60.7% to 100.3% with the relative standard deviations less than 14%. The limits of detection of the method were between 0.1 and 0.4μgkg(-1). The method is useful for the routine monitoring of the residues of macrolide drugs in animal muscles.

  8. Amine modified graphene as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction materials combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for pesticide multi-residue analysis in oil crops.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenbi; Li, Zhuonan; Zhang, Hongyan; Hong, Huijie; Rebeyev, Natalie; Ye, Yong; Ma, Yongqiang

    2013-04-19

    Amine modified graphene is successfully synthesized via a one-pot solvothermal reaction between graphene oxide and ammonia water, methylamine or n-butyl amine. The presence of amine groups in graphene is identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an X-ray diffractometer. The ability of amine modified graphene to cleanup fatty acids and other interfering substances from acetonitrile extracts of oil crops has been evaluated. It is found that the resulting CH3NH-G exhibits the best performance in interfering substances removal. Meanwhile, a multi-residue method is validated on 28 representative pesticide residues in four oil crops (rapeseed, peanut, sesame seeds and soybean). This method is based on modified QuEChERS sample preparation with CH3NH-G as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction material and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Use of matrix-matched standards provides acceptable results for most pesticides with overall average recoveries between 70.5 and 100% and consistent RSDs<13%, except for pymetrozine, thidiazuron and diuron. In any case, this method still meets the 0.1-8.3 μg/kg detection limit needs for most pesticides and may be used for qualitative screening applications, in which any identified pesticides can be quantified and confirmed by a more intensive method that achieves >70% recovery.

  9. Determination of neonicotinoid pesticides residues in agricultural samples by solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen; Han, Chao; Qian, Yan; Ding, Huiying; Chen, Xiaomei; Xi, Junyang

    2011-07-15

    This work reports a new sensitive multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for detection, confirmation and quantification of six neonicotinoid pesticides (dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, clothiandin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid) in agricultural samples (chestnut, shallot, ginger and tea). Activated carbon and HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for cleaning up the extracts. Analysis is performed by LC-MS/MS operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, acquiring two specific precursor-product ion transitions per target compound. Quantification was carried by the internal standard method with D(4)-labeled imidacloprid. The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)≥0.9991) and precision (relative standard deviation, RSD≤8.6%) for all compounds. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 mg kg(-1) for chestnut, shallot, ginger sample and 0.02 mg kg(-1) for tea sample. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations levels (0.01 mg kg(-1), 0.02 mg kg(-1) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) for chestnut, shallot, ginger sample, 0.02 mg kg(-1), 0.04 mg kg(-1) and 0.2 mg kg(-1) for tea sample), were in the range 82.1-108.5%. The method was satisfactorily validated for the analysis of 150 agricultural samples (chestnut, shallot, ginger and tea). Imidacloprid and acetamiprid were detected at concentration levels ranging from 0.05 to 3.6 mg kg(-1).

  10. Development, validation of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin and metformin in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Pavan; Murthy, T E G K; Basaveswara Rao, M V

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin (ROS) and metformin (MET) in human plasma was developed. The assay procedure involved simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Following precipitation, fraction of supernatant was decanted and evaporated under gentle stream of nitrogen at 40°C. The residue was reconstituted in mobile phase and injected. The chromatographic separation was achieved with Thermo Hypurity C18 column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) using a mobile phase composition containing 0.1% v/v formic acid in water and acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The total run time was 3.5 min. The method showed good linearity in the range 0.5-200 ng/mL for ROS and 2-2000 ng/mL for MET with correlation coefficient (r) >0.9994 for both the analytes. The intra and inter-day precision values for ROS and MET met the acceptance criteria as per regulatory guidelines. The battery of stability studies viz., bench-top, freeze-thaw and long term stability were performed. The developed method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study. PMID:26317076

  11. [Simultaneous determination of zeranols and chloramphenicol in foodstuffs of animal origin by combination immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Guomin; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Dongdong; Tang, Bobin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Hua

    2014-06-01

    A combination immunoaffinity column (IAC-CZ) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was successfully developed for zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and zearalenone) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples (fish, liver, milk and honey) were enzymatically digested by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase for about 16 h and then extracted with ether. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then the residues were dissolved by 1.0 mL of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtered and diluted with PBS buffer, the reconstituted solution were cleaned-up with a IAC-CZ and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS column with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution. The detection was carried out by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry in MRM mode. The proposed method was validated by the limit of detection (0.04-0.10 microg/kg), linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 0), average recoveries (70.9%-95.6%) and precisions (2.0% - 11.8%). The developed method is reliable, sensitive and has good applicability. The combination immunoaffinity column was proved to be an effective pretreatment technique to decrease the matrix effect, and it met the requirements of residue analysis of co-occurring zeranols and chloramphenicol. PMID:25269264

  12. Pharmacokinetic study of 14-(3-methylbenzyl)matrine and 14-(4-methylbenzyl)matrine in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Minjie; Wang, Lisheng; Huang, Shulin; Xu, Liba; Hu, Chao; Jiang, Weizhe

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-MS) was developed and validated to determine the 14-(3-methylbenzyl)matrine (3MBM) and 14-(4-methylbenzyl)matrine (4MBM) levels in rat plasma in the present study. The analytes were separated using a C18 column (1.9 μm, 2.1 mm × 100 mm) equipped with a Security Guard C18 column (5 μm, 2.1 mm × 10 mm), followed by detection via triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. Sample pretreatment involved one-step protein precipitation with isopropanol:ethyl acetate (v/v, 25:75), and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was used as an internal standard. The method was linear in the concentration range of 5-2000 ng/ml for both compounds. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%, and all relative errors (REs) were within 15%. The proposed method enables the unambiguous identification and quantification of these two compounds in vivo. This study is the first to determine the 3MBM and 4MBM levels in rat plasma after oral administration of these compounds. These results provide a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical applications of these medicines.

  13. [Simultaneous determination of zeranols and chloramphenicol in foodstuffs of animal origin by combination immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Guomin; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Dongdong; Tang, Bobin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Hua

    2014-06-01

    A combination immunoaffinity column (IAC-CZ) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was successfully developed for zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and zearalenone) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples (fish, liver, milk and honey) were enzymatically digested by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase for about 16 h and then extracted with ether. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then the residues were dissolved by 1.0 mL of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtered and diluted with PBS buffer, the reconstituted solution were cleaned-up with a IAC-CZ and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS column with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution. The detection was carried out by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry in MRM mode. The proposed method was validated by the limit of detection (0.04-0.10 microg/kg), linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 0), average recoveries (70.9%-95.6%) and precisions (2.0% - 11.8%). The developed method is reliable, sensitive and has good applicability. The combination immunoaffinity column was proved to be an effective pretreatment technique to decrease the matrix effect, and it met the requirements of residue analysis of co-occurring zeranols and chloramphenicol.

  14. Confirmation of 13 sulfonamides in honey by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for monitoring plans: validation according to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC.

    PubMed

    Dubreil-Chéneau, Estelle; Pirotais, Yvette; Verdon, Eric; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique

    2014-04-25

    A rapid and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous confirmation of 13 sulfonamides in honey was developed and fully validated in accordance with the European Commission Decision No 2002/657/EC. The validation scheme was built in accordance with the target level of 50μgkg(-1) for all analytes. The sulfonamides investigated were as follows: sulfaguanidine (SGN), sulfanilamide (SNL), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethizole (SMZ), sulfadimerazine (SDM), sulfamonomethoxine (SMNM), sulfamethoxypiridazine (SMP), sulfadoxine (SDX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) and sulfadimethoxine (SDT). Several extraction procedures were investigated during the development phase. Finally, the best results were obtained with a procedure using acidic hydrolysis and cation exchange purification. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 analytical column. Matrix effects were also investigated. Data acquisition implemented for the confirmatory purpose was performed by monitoring 2 MRM transitions per analyte under the positive electrospray mode. Mean relative recoveries ranged from 85.8% to 110.2% and relative standard deviations lying between 2.6% and 19.8% in intra-laboratory reproducibility conditions. The decision limits (CCα) ranged from 1.8 to 15.5μgkg(-1). High resolution mass spectrometry was used to investigate the possible formation of sulfonamide metabolites in honey. The validation results proved that the method is suitable for the screening and confirmatory steps as implemented for the French monitoring residue plan for sulfonamides residue control in honeybees.

  15. Confirmation of 13 sulfonamides in honey by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for monitoring plans: validation according to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC.

    PubMed

    Dubreil-Chéneau, Estelle; Pirotais, Yvette; Verdon, Eric; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique

    2014-04-25

    A rapid and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous confirmation of 13 sulfonamides in honey was developed and fully validated in accordance with the European Commission Decision No 2002/657/EC. The validation scheme was built in accordance with the target level of 50μgkg(-1) for all analytes. The sulfonamides investigated were as follows: sulfaguanidine (SGN), sulfanilamide (SNL), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethizole (SMZ), sulfadimerazine (SDM), sulfamonomethoxine (SMNM), sulfamethoxypiridazine (SMP), sulfadoxine (SDX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) and sulfadimethoxine (SDT). Several extraction procedures were investigated during the development phase. Finally, the best results were obtained with a procedure using acidic hydrolysis and cation exchange purification. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 analytical column. Matrix effects were also investigated. Data acquisition implemented for the confirmatory purpose was performed by monitoring 2 MRM transitions per analyte under the positive electrospray mode. Mean relative recoveries ranged from 85.8% to 110.2% and relative standard deviations lying between 2.6% and 19.8% in intra-laboratory reproducibility conditions. The decision limits (CCα) ranged from 1.8 to 15.5μgkg(-1). High resolution mass spectrometry was used to investigate the possible formation of sulfonamide metabolites in honey. The validation results proved that the method is suitable for the screening and confirmatory steps as implemented for the French monitoring residue plan for sulfonamides residue control in honeybees. PMID:24666935

  16. Determination of eight sulfonamides in bovine kidney by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with on-line extraction and sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Van Eeckhout, N; Perez, J C; Van Peteghem, C

    2000-01-01

    A sensitive, high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (i.e. mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry; LC/MS/MS) method with on-line extraction and sample clean-up for the screening and confirmation of residues of sulfonamides in kidney is described. The sulfonamides are extracted from homogenized kidney with methanol. After centrifugation of the extract, an aliquot of the extract is directly injected on the LC/MS/MS system with further extraction and clean-up of the sample on-line. Detection of the analytes was achieved by positive electrospray ionization (ESI) followed by multiple reaction monitoring. For each sulfonamide the collisional decomposition of the protonated molecule to a common, abundant fragment ion was monitored. The method has been validated for sulfadimethoxine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine and sulfapyridine. Calibration curves resulting from spiked blank kidney samples at the 10-200 microg/kg level showed good linear correlation. At the level of 50, 100 and 200 microg/kg both within- and between-day precision, as measured by relative standard deviation (RSD), were less than 16%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 5 to 13.5 microg/kg. The recoveries ranged from 78 to 82%. The procedure provides a rapid, reliable and sensitive method for the determination of residues of sulfonamides in bovine kidney. The advantage of this method over existing methods is its decreased sample preparation and analysis time, which makes the method more suitable for routine analysis. PMID:11114046

  17. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric methods for the determination of spinosad, thiacloprid and pyridalyl in spring onions and estimation of their pre-harvest interval values.

    PubMed

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Bletsou, Anna A; Hanafi, Ahmad H; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-12-15

    Two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric methods were developed and validated to determine spinosyn A and D, thiacloprid and pyridalyl in spring onions cultivated under Egyptian field conditions. The degradation rates, the pre-harvest interval (PHI) values and the half-life values of the three pesticides were estimated. QuEChERS was used for sample preparation and the separation was performed on an X-Bridge C18 column with ACN-formic acid 0.1% as the mobile phase. Linear range, method detection limits (MDLs), precision, recovery and matrix effects were estimated. The multi-residue MDLs ranged from 0.02μg/kg (spinosyn A & D) to 0.05μg/kg for pyridalyl. All the investigated pesticides showed high degradation rates. For spinosad the half-life value was 1.2days, for thiacloprid it reached 2.2days and for pyridalyl 4.4days. Furthermore, the calculated PHI values, according to the maximum residue levels set by the EU, were 0days for spinosad, 9.8days for thiacloprid and 39.4days for pyridalyl. PMID:27451196

  18. Determination of neonicotinoid pesticides residues in agricultural samples by solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen; Han, Chao; Qian, Yan; Ding, Huiying; Chen, Xiaomei; Xi, Junyang

    2011-07-15

    This work reports a new sensitive multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for detection, confirmation and quantification of six neonicotinoid pesticides (dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, clothiandin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid) in agricultural samples (chestnut, shallot, ginger and tea). Activated carbon and HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for cleaning up the extracts. Analysis is performed by LC-MS/MS operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, acquiring two specific precursor-product ion transitions per target compound. Quantification was carried by the internal standard method with D(4)-labeled imidacloprid. The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)≥0.9991) and precision (relative standard deviation, RSD≤8.6%) for all compounds. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 mg kg(-1) for chestnut, shallot, ginger sample and 0.02 mg kg(-1) for tea sample. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations levels (0.01 mg kg(-1), 0.02 mg kg(-1) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) for chestnut, shallot, ginger sample, 0.02 mg kg(-1), 0.04 mg kg(-1) and 0.2 mg kg(-1) for tea sample), were in the range 82.1-108.5%. The method was satisfactorily validated for the analysis of 150 agricultural samples (chestnut, shallot, ginger and tea). Imidacloprid and acetamiprid were detected at concentration levels ranging from 0.05 to 3.6 mg kg(-1). PMID:21641601

  19. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides and strobilurin fungicides in particle phase atmospheric samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of neonicotinoids and strobilurin fungicides in the particle phase fraction of atmosphere samples. Filter samples were extracted with pressurized solvent extraction, followed by a cleanup step with solid phase extraction. Method detection limits for the seven neonicotinoid insecticides and six strobilurin fungicides were in the range of 1.0-4.0 pg/m(3). Samples were collected from June to September 2013 at two locations (Osoyoos and Oliver) in the southern Okanagan Valley Agricultural Region of British Columbia, where these insecticides and fungicides are recommended for use on tree fruit crops (apples, pears, cherries, peaches, apricots) and vineyards. This work represents the first detection of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, clothianidin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin in particle phase atmospheric samples collected in the Okanagan Valley in Canada. The highest particle phase atmospheric concentrations were observed for imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin at 360.0, 655.6, and 1908.2 pg/m(3), respectively. PMID:25961332

  20. Determination of pharmaceuticals in bivalves using QuEChERS extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Mireia; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Pocurull, Eva

    2015-05-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of seven pharmaceuticals in bivalves was developed by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization. Both the European Standard Method EN 15662 and the AOAC Official Method 2007.01 for QuEChERS were tested. In addition, several clean-up strategies were evaluated in order to clean the matrix previous to the LC-MS/MS analyses. Dispersive solid-phase extraction with silica gel and modification of the chromatographic separation were the clean-up strategies that gave the best results. The optimized method was validated in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and allowed the determination of pharmaceuticals at nanograms per gram levels (dry weight (d.w.)). Limits of quantification ranged from 5 to 100 ng/g. Apparent recoveries ranged from 35 to 77%. The application of this method to bivalves revealed the presence of salicylic acid at concentrations up to 103 ng/g (d.w.).

  1. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxy sterols and bile acids.

    PubMed

    John, Clara; Werner, Philipp; Worthmann, Anna; Wegner, Katrin; Tödter, Klaus; Scheja, Ludger; Rohn, Sascha; Heeren, Joerg; Fischer, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Recently, hydroxy sterols and bile acids have gained growing interest as they are important regulators of energy homoeostasis and inflammation. The high number of different hydroxy sterols and bile acid species requires powerful analytical tools to quantify these structurally and chemically similar analytes. Here, we introduce a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method for rapid quantification of 34 sterols (hydroxy sterols, primary, secondary bile acids as well as their taurine and glycine conjugates). Chromatographic baseline separation of isomeric hydroxy sterols and bile acids is obtained using a rugged amide embedded C18 (polar embedded) stationary phase. The current method features a simple extraction protocol validated for blood plasma, urine, gall bladder, liver, feces, and adipose tissue avoiding solid phase extraction as well as derivatization procedures. The total extraction recovery for representative analytes ranged between 58-86% in plasma, 85% in urine, 79-92% in liver, 76-98% in adipose tissue, 93-104% in feces and 62-79% in gall bladder. The validation procedure demonstrated that the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges for 97% of the analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R2) of greater than 0.99. A feeding study in wild type mice with a standard chow and a cholesterol-enriched Western type diet illustrated that the protocol described here provides a powerful tool to simultaneously quantify cholesterol derivatives and bile acids in metabolically active tissues and to follow the enterohepatic circulation.

  2. Quantitation of protein S-glutathionylation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: correction for contaminating glutathione and glutathione disulfide.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Michael R; Bucklin, Christopher; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-01-15

    Protein S-glutathionylation is a posttranslational modification that links oxidative stimuli to reversible changes in cellular function. Protein-glutathione mixed disulfide (PSSG) is commonly quantified by reduction of the disulfide and detection of the resultant glutathione species. This methodology is susceptible to contamination by free unreacted cellular glutathione (GSH) species, which are present in 1000-fold greater concentration. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method was developed for quantification of glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), which was used for the determination of PSSG in biological samples. Analysis of rat liver samples demonstrated that GSH and GSSG coprecipitated with proteins similar to the range for PSSG in the sample. The use of [(13)C2,(5)N]GSH and [(13)C4,(5)N2]GSSG validated these results and demonstrated that the release of GSH from PSSG did not occur during sample preparation and analysis. These data demonstrate that GSH and GSSG contamination must be accounted for when determining PSSG content in cellular/tissue preparations. A protocol for rinsing samples to remove the adventitious glutathione species is demonstrated. The fragmentation patterns for glutathione were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry, and candidate ions for detection of PSSG on protein and protein fragments were identified.

  3. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides and strobilurin fungicides in particle phase atmospheric samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of neonicotinoids and strobilurin fungicides in the particle phase fraction of atmosphere samples. Filter samples were extracted with pressurized solvent extraction, followed by a cleanup step with solid phase extraction. Method detection limits for the seven neonicotinoid insecticides and six strobilurin fungicides were in the range of 1.0-4.0 pg/m(3). Samples were collected from June to September 2013 at two locations (Osoyoos and Oliver) in the southern Okanagan Valley Agricultural Region of British Columbia, where these insecticides and fungicides are recommended for use on tree fruit crops (apples, pears, cherries, peaches, apricots) and vineyards. This work represents the first detection of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, clothianidin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin in particle phase atmospheric samples collected in the Okanagan Valley in Canada. The highest particle phase atmospheric concentrations were observed for imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin at 360.0, 655.6, and 1908.2 pg/m(3), respectively.

  4. Quantification of horse plasma proteins altered by xylazine using the fluorogenic derivatization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Miwako; ICHIBANGASE, Tomoko; YAMASHITA, Shozo; KIJIMA-SUDA, Isao; KAWAHARA, Masahiro; IMAI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the doping tests currently used in horse racing, prohibited substances or their metabolites are usually directly detected in urine or blood samples. However, despite their lasting pharmaceutical effects, some prohibited substances are rapidly eliminated from horse urine and blood, making them difficult to detect. Therefore, new indirect biomarkers for doping, such as plasma proteins that are increased by the prohibited substances, have recently attracted much attention. Here, a fluorogenic derivatization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (FD-LC-MS/MS) method was adopted for horse plasma proteomics analysis, in order to identify plasma proteins whose concentrations were altered in response to xylazine in Thoroughbred horses. Xylazine, which is rapidly absorbed and eliminated and has possibility of the change in the levels of plasma proteins, was selected as a model drug. Of the ten plasma proteins identified, four proteins, including three acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and α-2-macroglobulin-like), were significantly increased after xylazine administration. Therefore, our present approach might be useful in identifying indirect biomarkers of drug administration. PMID:26858580

  5. Determination of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at cross contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Cronly, Mark; Behan, P; Foley, B; Malone, E; Shearan, P; Regan, L

    2011-08-26

    A confirmatory multi-residue method has been developed to allow for the detection, confirmation and quantification of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method can be used to determine halofuginone, robenidine, nicarbazin, diclazuril, decoquinate, semduramicin, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin at levels relating to unavoidable carry over as stated in Regulation 2009/8/EC. Feed samples are extracted with water and acetonitrile with the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium chloride. The extract then undergoes a freezing out step before being diluted and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. The LC-MS/MS system is run in MRM mode with both positive and negative electrospray ionisation and can confirm all eleven analytes in a run time of 19 min. The sensitivity of the method allows quantification and confirmation for all coccidiostats at a 0.5% carry over level. The method was validated over three days in accordance with of European legislation; Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation criteria of accuracy, precision, decision limit (CCα), and detection capability (CCβ) along with measurement uncertainty are calculated for all analytes. The method was then successfully used to analyse a number of feed samples that contained various coccidiostat substances.

  6. Determination of irradiation histories of raw beef livers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of 5,6-dihydrothymidine.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Naoki; Takatori, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Etsuko; Fujiyama, Takatomo; Kajimura, Keiji; Furuta, Masakazu; Obana, Hirotaka

    2017-02-01

    A method for detecting irradiation histories of raw beef livers was developed by measuring 5,6-dihydrothymidine (DHdThd) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Liver DNA was extracted using phenol-chloroform extraction followed by precipitation in 50% ethanol. DNA was then enzymatically digested and nucleosides were purified using an OASIS MCX column. DHdThd and thymidine (dThd) contents of resulting test solutions were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. DHdThd was detected specifically after γ-irradiation. Concentration ratios of DHdThd to dThd in the test solutions increased dose-dependently after irradiation at 1.0-11.3kGy, which included the practical dose for sterilization of 2-7kGy. Dose-response curves from beef livers of individual animals almost overlapped. Thus, this method is a candidate for the detection of irradiation histories of foods from which DNA can be extracted. PMID:27596408

  7. Determination of selected pharmaceutical compounds in biosolids by supported liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; Tadeo, José L

    2014-04-01

    In this work, an analytical method was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical drugs in biosolids. Samples were extracted with an acidic mixture of water and acetone (1:2, v/v) and supported liquid extraction was used for the clean-up of extracts, eluting with ethyl acetate:methanol (90:10, v/v). The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using matrix-match calibration after silylation to form their t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. This method presents various advantages, such as a fairly simple operation for the analysis of complex matrices, the use of inexpensive glassware and low solvent volumes. Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained with the developed method ranging from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 13%, and limits of detection between 0.5 and 3.6 ng g(-1). The method was then successfully applied to biosolids samples collected in Madrid and Catalonia (Spain). Eleven of the sixteen target compounds were detected in the studied samples, at levels up to 1.1 μg g(-1) (salicylic acid). Ibuprofen, caffeine, paracetamol and fenofibrate were detected in all of the samples analyzed. PMID:24582395

  8. Direct injection of whole blood for liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis to support single-rodent pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Ingelse, Benno A; Vogel, Gerard; Botterblom, Margriet; Nanninga, Dennis; Ooms, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Mass spectrometric developments in the last decade enable (sub)nanomolar detection of drug compounds in biological matrices in a few microliters of blood. However, the sampling and especially the handling of these small blood volumes is not straightforward. We studied the feasibility of a recently developed 'sorbent sampling technique' to handle these small blood volumes and the application to support pharmacokinetic (PK) screening programs. This technique applies 5-10 microL of blood on a fibrous material packed into a cartridge. Blood samples absorbed on these cartridges are eluted directly, on-line onto a solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS) system. It is shown that the sorbent sampling technique can be applied for a range of drug compounds. In spite of issues with recovery and sample clean-up that need further improvement, the sorbent sampling technique provided similar data as compared to conventional analytics. The technique was successfully applied to derive kinetic data from individual mice, thereby decreasing the number of required mice for a PK study from 21 to 3.

  9. Microdialysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of nimodipine in the guinea pig hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Xiaojing; Li, Liqin; Zhang, Ruihua; shi, Tong; Li, Shu

    2016-04-01

    Nimodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker that has been recently shown to be effective on the function of central nervous system. It has been reported that treatment against deficits of learning and memory in animals and human by maintain the calcium homeostasis in hippocampus with nimodipine may be promising therapeutic strategies. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed to determination the nimodipine in hippocampus using microdialysis technique. The separation was accomplished on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (100mm×2.1mm ID, 3.5μm) with the mobile phase composed of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) containing 0.2% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.2ml/min. Multiple reaction monitoring of the precursor-product ion transitions 419→343 for nimodipine and 361→315 nitrendipine (IS) was used for quantitation. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.2ng/ml for nimodipine, with good linearity in the range of 0.2-20ng/ml. All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision, intra- and inter-day repeatability and stability were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to p harmacokinetic study of the nimodipine in the guinea pig hippocampus.

  10. [Determination of thiourea dioxide in lotus seed paste fillings by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zeng, Xiwen; Chang, Xiaotu; Peng, Xinkai; Xia, Lixin; Li, Yiwei

    2014-01-01

    A method of solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine thiourea dioxide which was illegally added into lotus seed paste fillings. An amount of 0.05% (v/v) acetic acid was used to extract thiourea dioxide from fillings, and the BOND ELUT PLEXA column (60 mg/3 mL) was used as the SPE column to clean-up the extraction. Then, an Agilent HILIC column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) was applied to separate target compounds by using the mobile phases of 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were operated by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve showed a good linearity for the target compound in the detection range of 10 - 1 000 microg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of this method were 8.0 microg/kg and 30.0 microg/kg, respectively. The recoveries were in the ranges of 75.3% - 80.7% with the RSDs of no more than 4.83%. This proposed method was rapid, highly specific and suitable for the confirmation and quantitative determination of thiourea dioxide in lotus seed paste fillings.

  11. Levels of enzyme activities in six lysosomal storage diseases in Japanese neonates determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Ryuichi; Sakai, Eri; Kosuga, Motomichi; Okuyama, Torayuki

    2016-12-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are caused by defective enzyme activities in lysosomes, characterized by the accumulation of glycolipids, oligosaccharides, mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and other biological substances. Accumulating evidence has suggested that early detection of individuals with LSDs, followed by the immediate initiation of appropriate therapy during the presymptomatic period, usually results in better therapeutic outcomes. The activities of individual enzymes are measured using fluorescent substrates. However, the simultaneous determination of multiple enzyme activities has been awaited in neonatal screening of LSDs because the prevalence of individual LSDs is rare. In this study, the activities of six enzymes associated with LSDs were examined with 6-plex enzyme assay using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The accumulation of enzyme products was almost linear for 0-20 h at 37 °C. Dried blood spots (DBSs) provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were used for quality control (QC). The intraday and interday coefficient of variance values were < 25%. The enzyme activities of healthy individuals were higher than those of LSD-confirmed individuals. These results suggest that the levels of enzyme activities of six LSDs in a Japanese population were comparable to those of a recent report [Elliott et al. Mol Genet Metab 118 (2016) 304-309], providing additional evidence that the 6-plex LSD enzyme assay is a reproducible analytical procedure for neonatal screening. PMID:27625992

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Fucoxanthin and Its Deacetylated Metabolite Fucoxanthinol in Rat Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiping; Wu, Hao; Wen, Hongmei; Fang, Hua; Hong, Zhuan; Yi, Ruizao; Liu, Rui

    2015-10-01

    Fucoxanthin and its deacetylated metabolite fucoxanthinol are two major carotenoids that have been confirmed to possess various pharmacological properties. In the present study, fucoxanthinol was identified as the deacetylated metabolite of fucoxanthin, after intravenous (i.v.) and intragastric gavage (i.g.) administration to rats at doses of 2 and 65 mg/kg, respectively, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Next, an accurate and precise LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantitatively determine fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol in rat plasma. Plasma samples were resolved by LC-MS/MS on a reverse-phase SB-C18 column that was equilibrated and eluted with acetonitrile (A)/aqueous 0.1% formic acid (B; 92/8, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analytes were monitored by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) under positive electrospray ionization mode. The precursor/product transitions (m/z) were 659.3→109.0 for fucoxanthin, 617.2→109.0 for fucoxanthinol, and 429.4→313.2 for the internal standard (IS). Calibration curves for fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol were linear over concentrations ranging from 1.53 to 720 and 1.17 to 600 ng/mL, respectively. The inter- and intraday accuracy and precision were within ±15%. The method was applied successfully in a pharmacokinetic study and the resulting oral fucoxanthin bioavailability calculated. PMID:26512677

  13. Detection and determination of reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine in the Annonaceae family using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Yaichiro; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Kamizono, Machiko; Matsumoto, Naoki; Tanahashi, Takao; Hara, Hiroshi; Caparros-Lefebvre, Dominique; Ohta, Shigeru

    2004-06-25

    In Guadeloupe, the French West Indies, there is a high incidence of atypical parkinsonism or progressive supranuclear palsy, and all of the investigated patients had taken herbal tea or tropical fruits of the Annonaceae family. Local inhabitants consume the fruits, and also drink tea made from the leaves. In the present study, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to detect low-molecular-weight neurotoxic benzylisoquinoline derivatives in the Annonaceae family. We detected reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine in every Annona muricata sample examined, except for pulp and seed. They were not detected in sweetsop fruits. Norreticuline was not detected in any sample. These three compounds were toxic to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and inhibited mitochondrial respiratory complex I. It is possible that uptake of the benzylisoquinoline derivatives reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine and their accumulation in the brain may be related to the pathogenesis of the local endemic disease.

  14. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay for quercetin and conjugated quercetin metabolites in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Morris, Marilyn E

    2005-07-25

    A sensitive and specific method was developed and validated for the quantitation of quercetin in human plasma and urine. The application of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with a TurboIonspray (TIS) interface in negative mode under multiple reactions monitoring was investigated. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C12 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile/water with 0.2% formic acid (pH 2.4) (40/60, v/v). The detection limit was 100 pg/ml and the lower limit of quantification was 500 pg/ml for plasma samples; the detection limit was 500 pg/ml and the lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/ml for urine samples. The calibration curve was linear from 1 to 800 ng/ml for plasma samples and was linear from 1 to 200 and 50 to 2000 ng/ml for urine samples. All the intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 11% and intra- and inter-day accuracies were within +/-15% of the known concentrations. This represents a LC/MS/MS assay with the sensitivity and specificity necessary to determine quercetin in human plasma and urine. This assay was used to determine both parent quercetin and the quercetin after enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase in human plasma and urine samples following the ingestion of quercetin 500 mg capsules.

  15. Direct determination of glyphosate, glufosinate, and AMPA in soybean and corn by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chamkasem, Narong; Harmon, Tiffany

    2016-07-01

    Glyphosate, glufosinate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) are amphoteric, low mass, high water soluble, and do not have chromophore. They are very difficult to be retained on a reversed phase HPLC and detected by UV or fluorescence detectors. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine these analytes in soybean and corn using a reversed phase with weak anion-exchange and cation-exchange mixed-mode Acclaim™ Trinity™ Q1 column. The sample was shaken with water containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA) and acetic acid for 10 min to precipitate protein and extract the analytes into the solution. The supernatant was passed thru an Oasis HLB SPE to retain suspended particulates and non-polar interferences. The sample was directly injected and analyzed in 6 min by LC-MS/MS with no sample concentration or derivatization steps. Three isotopically labeled internal standards corresponding to each analyte were used to counter matrix suppression effect. Linearity of the detector response with a minimum coefficient of determination (R (2)) of more than 0.995 was demonstrated in the range of 10 to 1000 ng/mL for each analyte. Accuracy (recovery %) and precision (relative standard deviation or RSD %) were evaluated at the fortification levels of 0.1, 0.5, and 2 μg/g in seven replicates in both soybean and corn samples. PMID:27150204

  16. Determination of tributyltin in marine sediment and waters by pressurised solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David S; Jordan, Timothy B; Kerr, Neil

    2014-05-01

    In this study, tributyltin (TBT) was extracted from marine sediment matrix with the use of pressurised solvent extraction (PSE), which uses high-temperature and -pressure conditions to increase extraction efficiency. The analyte was chromatographically resolved using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system with a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column and a methanol/aqueous formic acid mobile phase gradient, and was detected by MS/MS as product fragments after collisionally induced dissociation (CID) of the cationic parent molecule. This study represents the first application of PSE extraction combined with LC-MS/MS analysis for the determination of TBT in sediments. The method has been validated according to the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) 17025:2001 and affords automated extraction of sediment samples with high-sensitivity analysis. The full method limit of detection was established as 1.25 ng Sn g(-1) with an instrument detection limit of 0.01 ng Sn g(-1). The chromatographic procedure may also be applied for the direct analysis of water matrices without the need for sample manipulation, and therefore represents a combined analytical approach for the monitoring of TBT contamination in marine or estuarine ecosystems. PMID:24577579

  17. Determination of low-level acrylamide in drinking water by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lucentini, Luca; Ferretti, Emanuele; Veschetti, Enrico; Achene, Laura; Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Ottaviani, Massimo; Bogialli, Sara

    2009-01-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method has been developed and validated to confirm and quantify acrylamide monomer (AA) in drinking water using [13C3] acrylamide as internal standard (IS). After a preconcentration by solid-phase extraction with spherical activated carbon, analytes were chromatographed on IonPac ICE-AS1 column (9 x 250 mm) under isocratic conditions using acetonitrile-water-0.1 M formic acid (43 + 52 + 5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Analysis was achieved using a triple-quadrupole mass analyzer equipped with a turbo ion spray interface. For confirmation and quantification of the analytes, MS data acquisition was performed in the multireaction monitoring mode, selecting 2 precursor ion to product ion transitions for both AA and IS. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, extraction efficiency, and matrix effect. Linearity in tap water was observed over the concentration range 0.1-2.0 microg/L. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.02 and 0.1 microg/L, respectively. Interday and intraday assays were performed across 3 validation levels (0.1, 0.5, and 1.5 microg/L). Accuracy (as mean recovery) ranged from 89.3 to 96.2% with relative standard deviation <7.98%. Performance characteristics of this LC/MS/MS method make it suitable for regulatory confirmatory analysis of AA in drinking water in compliance with European Union and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards.

  18. Simultaneous determination of major type A and B trichothecenes, zearalenone and certain modified metabolites in Finnish cereal grains with a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method.

    PubMed

    Nathanail, Alexis V; Syvähuoko, Jenna; Malachová, Alexandra; Jestoi, Marika; Varga, Elisabeth; Michlmayr, Herbert; Adam, Gerhard; Sieviläinen, Elina; Berthiller, Franz; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2015-06-01

    A reliable and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination in cereals of the Fusarium mycotoxins HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, as well as the modified metabolites 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, HT-2-3-glucoside, nivalenol-3-glucoside, zearalenone-14-glucoside, zearalenone-14-sulphate, zearalenone-16-glucoside, α-zearalenol-14-glucoside and β-zearalenol-14-glucoside. The 'dilute and shoot' approach was used for sample preparation after extraction with acetonitrile:water:acetic acid (79:20:1, v/v/v). Separation was carried out using reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and detection was performed using tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The method was in-house validated according to performance characteristics, established in Commission Regulation EC No 401/2006 and Commission Decision EC No 657/2002, prior to its application in a nationwide survey for the analysis of barley, oat and wheat samples (n = 95) harvested in Finland during 2013. Deoxynivalenol and its glucosylated form were the most abundant of the analytes, being detected in 93 and 81 % of the samples, respectively. Concentrations of deoxynivalenol were unusually high in 2013, especially in oats, with some cases exceeding the maximum legislative limits for unprocessed oats placed on the market for first-stage processing. All modified mycotoxins analysed were detected, and the natural occurrence of some of these compounds (e.g. zearalenone-16-glucoside and nivalenol-3-glucoside) in barley, oats and/or wheat was documented for the first time.

  19. Partial enzymatic elimination and quantification of sarcosine from alanine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burton, Casey; Gamagedara, Sanjeewa; Ma, Yinfa

    2013-04-01

    Since sarcosine and D,L-alanine co-elute on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns and the tandem mass spectrometer cannot differentiate them due to equivalent parent and fragment ions, derivatization is often required for analysis of sarcosine in LC/MS systems. This study offers an alternative to derivatization by employing partial elimination of sarcosine by enzymatic oxidation. The decrease in apparent concentration from the traditionally merged sarcosine-alanine peak associated with the enzymatic elimination has been shown to be proportional to the total sarcosine present (R(2) = 0.9999), allowing for determinations of urinary sarcosine. Sarcosine oxidase was shown to eliminate only sarcosine in the presence of D,L-alanine, and was consequently used as the selective enzyme. This newly developed technique has a method detection limit of 1 μg/L (parts per billion) with a linear range of 3 ppb-1 mg/L (parts per million) in urine matrices. The method was further validated through spiked recoveries of real urine samples, as well as the analysis of 35 real urine samples. The average recoveries for low, middle, and high sarcosine concentration spikes were 111.7, 90.8, and 90.1 %, respectively. In conclusion, this simple enzymatic approach coupled with HPLC/MS/MS is able to resolve sarcosine from D,L-alanine leading to underivatized quantification of sarcosine.

  20. [Analysis of trichothecenes in barley tea and beer by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Suga, Keiko; Mochizuki, Naoki; Harayama, Koichi; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2004-12-01

    A simple method for analysis of trichothecenes [Type A: diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin, Type B: deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivarenol] in barley tea and beer using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed. Trichothecenes were extracted with ethyl acetate-methanol (19:1). The solvent was evaporated to dryness and the residue was dissolved in water-methanol (3:1) for injection into the LC/MS/MS. The LC separation was performed with an octadecylated silica column at a flow-rate of 0.2 mL/min, using a mobile phase consisting of water, methanol and acetonitrile. MS/MS was used in multiple reaction monitoring, employing electrospray ionization (ESI-MRM). The recoveries of trichothecenes from drinks at 1 microg/L (Type A) and 10 microg/L (Type B) were 52.5-115.2% (barley tea) and 68.1-127.5% (beer). Five barley tea and ten beer samples were analyzed by this method. Trichothecenes were not detected in them. This method may have applications in quality assurance.

  1. Determination of doxepin and desmethyldoxepin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Badenhorst, D; Sutherland, F C; de Jager, A D; Scanes, T; Hundt, H K; Swart, K J; Hundt, A F

    2000-05-26

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of doxepin and its active metabolite desmethyldoxepin in plasma was established, using high-performance liquid chromatographic separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection. The samples were extracted with hexane-isoamyl alcohol, separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 5 microm, 150x2.1 mm column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-formic acid (600:400:0.5, v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.25 ml/min. Detection was achieved by a Perkin-Elmer API 2000 mass spectrometer at unit resolution in multiple reaction monitoring mode monitoring the transition of the protonated molecular ions m/z 280.2, 266.2 and 250.1 to the product ions m/z 107.1, 107.1 and 191.0 for analyte, metabolite and internal standard (benzoctamine-HCl), respectively. TurbolonSpray ionisation was used for ion production. The mean recovery for doxepin and desmethyldoxepin was 90% and 75%, respectively, with a lower limit of quantification at 0.320 ng/ml and 0.178 ng/ml for the analyte and its metabolite, respectively, using 0.5 ml plasma for extraction. This is the first assay method described for the simultaneous determination of doxepin and desmethyldoxepin in plasma using LC-MS-MS. The method is sensitive enough to be used in drug bioavailability studies with doxepin.

  2. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuhs, Bradley L.; Rounds, Mary Ann

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) developed during the 1960s as a direct offshoot of classic column liquid chromatography through improvements in the technology of columns and instrumental components (pumps, injection valves, and detectors). Originally, HPLC was the acronym for high-pressure liquid chromatography, reflecting the high operating pressures generated by early columns. By the late 1970s, however, high-performance liquid chromatography had become the preferred term, emphasizing the effective separations achieved. In fact, newer columns and packing materials offer high performance at moderate pressure (although still high pressure relative to gravity-flow liquid chromatography). HPLC can be applied to the analysis of any compound with solubility in a liquid that can be used as the mobile phase. Although most frequently employed as an analytical technique, HPLC also may be used in the preparative mode.

  3. Quantitative determination of sarsasapogenin in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhirui; Hu, Jing; Lai, Xiaodan; Xia, Peiyuan

    2016-06-01

    Sarsasapogenin, a natural compound from Chinese medical herb Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge., has recently received a great deal of attention due to its various bioactivities. In this study, an easy and applicable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of sarsasapogenin in rat plasma was developed. Sample preparation was accomplished through a simple one-step protein precipitation procedure with methanol. Negative electrospray ionization was performed using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode with transitions of m/z 417.4/273.2 for sarsasapogenin, and 415.2/271.4 for diosgenin (internal standard). The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.5-500ng/mL (r=0.9994), with a lower limit of quantification at 0.5ng/mL. The RSD of intra- and inter-day precision was below 6.41%, and accuracy ranged from 87.60% to 99.20%. The RSD of matrix effect and recovery yield was within ±15% of nominal concentrations and sarsasapogenin was stable during stability tests. This validated method had been successfully applied to the preclinical pharmacokinetic studies of sarsasapogenin in rats. The half-life (t1/2) was (15.1±2.3), (16.1±3.0) and (15.4±3.9) h after single intragastric administration of 25, 50 and 100mg/kg sarsasapogenin, respectively. And it was found that, the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC0-72h) and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) were linearly related to dose. PMID:27107248

  4. Polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles for isolation and enrichment of estrogenic compounds from surface water samples followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Estrogens, phytoestrogens, and mycoestrogens may enter into the surface waters from different sources, such as effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial plants, and animal farms and runoff from agricultural areas. In this work, a multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 17 natural estrogenic compounds, including four steroid estrogens, six mycoestrogens, and seven phytoestrogens, in river water samples has been developed. (Fe3O4)-based magnetic nanoparticles coated by polydopamine (Fe3O4@pDA) were used for dispersive solid-phase extraction, and the final extract was analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by a co-precipitation procedure, coated by pDA, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The sample preparation method was optimized in terms of extraction recovery, matrix effect, selectivity, trueness, precision, method limits of detection, and method limits of quantification (MLOQs). For all the 17 analytes, recoveries were >70 % and matrix effects were below 30 % when 25 mL of river water sample was treated with 90 mg of Fe3O4@pDA nanoparticles. Selectivity was tested by spiking river water samples with 50 other compounds (mycotoxins, antibacterials, conjugated hormones, UV filters, alkylphenols, etc.), and only aflatoxins and some benzophenones showed recoveries >60 %. This method proved to be simple and robust and allowed the determination of natural estrogenic compounds belonging to different classes in surface waters with MLOQs ranging between 0.003 and 0.1 μg L(-1). Graphical Abstract Determination of natural estrogenic compounds in water by magnetic solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

  5. Ion-exchange solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanmei; Xuan, Yanfang; Song, Wei; Si, Wenshuai; Zhao, Zhihui; Rao, Qinxiong

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers is crucial for an assessment of potential risks to soil microbial communities and human health. We develop a robust and sensitive method to quantitatively determine 19 veterinary drugs (amantadine, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones) in organic fertilizers. The method involved a simple solid-liquid extraction step using the combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer as extraction solvent, followed by cleanup with a solid-phase extraction cartridge containing polymeric mixed-mode anion-exchange sorbents. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to separate and detect target analytes. We particularly focused on the optimization of sample clean-up step: different diluents and dilution factors were tested. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, sensitivity and specificity. The recoveries of all the drugs ranged from 70.9% to 112.7% at three concentration levels, with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 15.7%. The limits of quantification were between 1.0 and 10.0μg/kg for all the drugs. Matrix effect was minimized by matrix-matched calibration curves. The analytical method was successfully applied for the survey of veterinary drugs contamination in 20 compost samples. The results indicated that fluoroquinolones had higher incidence rate and mean concentration levels ranging from 31.9 to 308.7μg/kg compared with other drugs. We expect the method will provide the basis for risk assessment of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers.

  6. Ion-exchange solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanmei; Xuan, Yanfang; Song, Wei; Si, Wenshuai; Zhao, Zhihui; Rao, Qinxiong

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers is crucial for an assessment of potential risks to soil microbial communities and human health. We develop a robust and sensitive method to quantitatively determine 19 veterinary drugs (amantadine, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones) in organic fertilizers. The method involved a simple solid-liquid extraction step using the combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer as extraction solvent, followed by cleanup with a solid-phase extraction cartridge containing polymeric mixed-mode anion-exchange sorbents. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to separate and detect target analytes. We particularly focused on the optimization of sample clean-up step: different diluents and dilution factors were tested. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, sensitivity and specificity. The recoveries of all the drugs ranged from 70.9% to 112.7% at three concentration levels, with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 15.7%. The limits of quantification were between 1.0 and 10.0μg/kg for all the drugs. Matrix effect was minimized by matrix-matched calibration curves. The analytical method was successfully applied for the survey of veterinary drugs contamination in 20 compost samples. The results indicated that fluoroquinolones had higher incidence rate and mean concentration levels ranging from 31.9 to 308.7μg/kg compared with other drugs. We expect the method will provide the basis for risk assessment of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers. PMID:27131104

  7. Polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles for isolation and enrichment of estrogenic compounds from surface water samples followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Estrogens, phytoestrogens, and mycoestrogens may enter into the surface waters from different sources, such as effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial plants, and animal farms and runoff from agricultural areas. In this work, a multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 17 natural estrogenic compounds, including four steroid estrogens, six mycoestrogens, and seven phytoestrogens, in river water samples has been developed. (Fe3O4)-based magnetic nanoparticles coated by polydopamine (Fe3O4@pDA) were used for dispersive solid-phase extraction, and the final extract was analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by a co-precipitation procedure, coated by pDA, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The sample preparation method was optimized in terms of extraction recovery, matrix effect, selectivity, trueness, precision, method limits of detection, and method limits of quantification (MLOQs). For all the 17 analytes, recoveries were >70 % and matrix effects were below 30 % when 25 mL of river water sample was treated with 90 mg of Fe3O4@pDA nanoparticles. Selectivity was tested by spiking river water samples with 50 other compounds (mycotoxins, antibacterials, conjugated hormones, UV filters, alkylphenols, etc.), and only aflatoxins and some benzophenones showed recoveries >60 %. This method proved to be simple and robust and allowed the determination of natural estrogenic compounds belonging to different classes in surface waters with MLOQs ranging between 0.003 and 0.1 μg L(-1). Graphical Abstract Determination of natural estrogenic compounds in water by magnetic solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:27032407

  8. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of hallucinogenic indoles psilocin and psilocybin in "magic mushroom" samples.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Tooru; Nishikawa, Mayumi; Katagi, Munehiro; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2005-03-01

    Accurate and sensitive analytical methods for psilocin (PC) and psilocybin (PB), tryptamine-type hallucinogens contained in "magic mushrooms," were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The chromatographic separation on an ODS column and mass spectral information gave complete discrimination between PC and PB without derivatization. The mass spectrometric detection had a high sensitivity, and the tandem mass spectrometric detection provided more specificity and accuracy, as well as high sensitivity. The detection limits ranged from 1 to 25 pg by LC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode, and the intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were estimated to be 4.21-5.93% by LC-MS-MS in the selected reaction monitoring mode. By applying the present LC-MS-MS technique to four real samples, the contents of PC and PB were found to vary over a wide range (0.60-1.4 and 0.18-3.8 mg/g dry wt. for PC and PB, respectively) between samples.

  9. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results.

  10. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results. PMID:25694147

  11. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of five antidepressants and four atypical antipsychotics and their main metabolites in human serum.

    PubMed

    Uřinovská, Romana; Brozmanová, Hana; Sištík, Pavel; Silhán, Petr; Kacířová, Ivana; Lemr, Karel; Grundmann, Milan

    2012-10-15

    The rapid and simple ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination parent drugs: sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine, venlafaxine, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and their active and nonactive metabolites N-desmethylsertraline, norfluoxetine, desmethylcitalopram, didemethylcitalopram, N-desmethylvenlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, N-desmethylclozapine, N-desmethylolanzapine, 2-hydroxyolanzapine and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human serum. Precipitation of serum proteins was performed with a precipitation reagent consisting of 0.05% solution of ZnSO(4)·7H(2)O in acetonitrile/methanol (40:60, v/v). Alprenolol was used as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a BEH C18 column using gradient elution mobile phase A (2 mmol/L ammonium acetate, 0.1% formic acid in 5% acetonitrile, v/v/v) and B (2 mmol/L ammonium acetate, 0.1% formic acid in 95% acetonitrile, v/v/v). Electrospray in positive mode was used for ionization. Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring. Analysis time was 5 min. Drugs were separated into three groups with low, medium and high levels. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves were in the range 0.995-1.000. Coefficients of variation were 4.2-9.5% for intra-assay and 3.0-11.9% for inter-assay. Recoveries were 87.1-110% for intra-assay and 88.1-108.2% for inter-assay. The method was fully validated and can be successfully applied for routine analyses. PMID:23026228

  12. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of eight vitamin D analogues in milk using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fabio P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Whitfield, Karen; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-09-01

    Milk is an important source of nutrients for various risk populations, including infants. The accurate measurement of vitamin D in milk is necessary to provide adequate supplementation advice for risk groups and to monitor regulatory compliance. Currently used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are capable of measuring only four analogues of vitamin D in unfortified milk. We report here an accurate quantitative analytical method for eight analogues of vitamin D: Vitamin D2 and D3 (D2 and D3), 25-hydroxy D2 and D3, 24,25-dihydroxy D2 and D3, and 1,25-dihydroxyD2 and D3. In this study, we compared saponification and protein precipitation for the extraction of vitamin D from milk and found the latter to be more effective. We also optimised the pre-column derivatisation using 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD), to achieve the highest sensitivity and accuracy for all major vitamin D forms in milk. Chromatography was optimised to reduce matrix effects such as ion-suppression, and the matrix effects were eliminated using co-eluting stable isotope labelled internal standards for the calibration of each analogue. The analogues, 25-hydroxyD3 (25(OH)D3) and its epimer (3-epi-25(OH)D3) were chromatographically resolved, to prevent over-estimation of 25(OH)D3. The method was validated and subsequently applied for the measurement of total vitamin D levels in human, cow, mare, goat and sheep milk samples. The detection limits, repeatability standard deviations, and recovery ranges were from 0.2 to 0.4 femtomols, 6.30-13.5%, and 88.2-105%, respectively.

  13. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of eight vitamin D analogues in milk using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fabio P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Whitfield, Karen; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-09-01

    Milk is an important source of nutrients for various risk populations, including infants. The accurate measurement of vitamin D in milk is necessary to provide adequate supplementation advice for risk groups and to monitor regulatory compliance. Currently used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are capable of measuring only four analogues of vitamin D in unfortified milk. We report here an accurate quantitative analytical method for eight analogues of vitamin D: Vitamin D2 and D3 (D2 and D3), 25-hydroxy D2 and D3, 24,25-dihydroxy D2 and D3, and 1,25-dihydroxyD2 and D3. In this study, we compared saponification and protein precipitation for the extraction of vitamin D from milk and found the latter to be more effective. We also optimised the pre-column derivatisation using 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD), to achieve the highest sensitivity and accuracy for all major vitamin D forms in milk. Chromatography was optimised to reduce matrix effects such as ion-suppression, and the matrix effects were eliminated using co-eluting stable isotope labelled internal standards for the calibration of each analogue. The analogues, 25-hydroxyD3 (25(OH)D3) and its epimer (3-epi-25(OH)D3) were chromatographically resolved, to prevent over-estimation of 25(OH)D3. The method was validated and subsequently applied for the measurement of total vitamin D levels in human, cow, mare, goat and sheep milk samples. The detection limits, repeatability standard deviations, and recovery ranges were from 0.2 to 0.4 femtomols, 6.30-13.5%, and 88.2-105%, respectively. PMID:26388380

  14. Sensitive method for detection of cocaine and associated analytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in urine.

    PubMed

    Langman, Loralie J; Bjergum, Matthew W; Williamson, Christopher L; Crow, Frank W

    2009-10-01

    Cocaine (COC) is a potent CNS stimulant that is metabolized to benzoylecgonine (BE) and further metabolized to minor metabolites such as m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine (m-HOBE). COC is also metabolized to norcocaine (NC). Cocaethylene (CE) is formed when cocaine and ethyl alcohol are used simultaneously. Anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME) is a unique marker following smoked cocaine, and anhydroecgonine ethyl ester (AEEE) is found in cocaine smokers who also use ethyl alcohol. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the detection and quantitation of COC, BE, NC, CE, m-HOBE, AEME, and AEEE in urine. Two hundred samples previously analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with MS were extracted using solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a gradient consisting of mobile phase A [20 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.7)] and mobile phase B (methanol/acetonitrile, 50:50), an XDB-C(8) (50 x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) column and a flow rate of 270 microL/min. Concentrations were calculated by comparing the peak-area with the internal standard and plotted against a standard curve. The assay displayed linearity from 1.0 to 100 ng/mL. Within- and between-run coefficients of variation were < 10% throughout the linear range. A method comparison between GC-MS and LC-MS-MS showed good correlation for COC (r(2) = 0.982) and BE (r(2) = 0.955). We report here on a sensitive method to identify clinically and forensically relevant cocaine and associated analytes at concentrations as low as 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:19874651

  15. Effect of D-allose on prostate cancer cell lines: phospholipid profiling by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Rae Ung; Lim, Sangsoo; Kim, Myoung Ok; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2011-08-01

    D-Allose, a rare, naturally occurring monosaccharide, is known to exert anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. The effects of D-allose on the cellular membranes of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell line (DU145), hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP), and normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) were studied at the molecular level by phospholipid (PL) profiling using a shotgun lipidomic method. The molecular structures of 85 PL species including 23 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), 11 phosphatidylserines (PSs), 16 phosphatidylinositols, 9 phosphatidic acids (PAs), and 14 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) were identified by data-dependent collision-induced dissociation of nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the PL amounts were quantified. The addition of D-allose to prostate cancer cell lines during their growth phases had negligible or decreased effects on the relative regulation of PL species, but several new PS molecules (two for DU145 and three for LNCaP) emerged. In contrast, experiments on the PrEC cell line revealed that some high abundant species (14:0/14:0-PE, 16:2/16:0-PG, and 20:6/18:1-PA) showed significant increases in concentration. These findings support a mechanism for the anti-proliferative effect of D-allose on prostate cancer cell lines that involves the induction of programmed cell death since PS molecules are known to induce apoptosis. Principal component analysis was carried out to examine differences in PL distributions among the three cell lines promoted by D-allose.

  16. Determination of serum glucose by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a candidate reference measurement procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Chuanbao; Zhao, Haijian; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Jiangtao; Zhou, Weiyan; Yan, Ying; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Mo; Chen, Wenxiang

    2016-10-01

    Accurate and precise glucose measurements are requisite for ensuring appropriate diagnosis and management of diseases related to hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. It is necessary to have a higher order method to provide an accuracy base to which routine methods can be compared. We developed and evaluated a highly reliable measurement procedure based on isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID LC-MS/MS) with a simple one-step derivatization. An appropriate amount of serum was accurately weighed and spiked with an isotope-labeled internal standard. After protein precipitation, the supernatant was reacted with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone for chemical structural transformation. The glucose derivatives were analyzed with LC-MS/MS in positive electrospray ionization mode. The within-run and total CVs ranged from 0.28 to 0.42 % and from 0.42 to 0.76 %, respectively, for a concentration range of 1.691 to 15.676 mmol/L. A regression comparison of the presented method to an existing RMP based on ID GC-MS showed agreement with no statistical difference (Y = 0.9985X-0.008; 95 % CI for the slope, 0.9966 to 1.001; 95 % CI for the intercept, -0.012 to 0.019). The structural analogs of glucose with a molecular mass of 180 were tested, and no significant interference effect was found. The limit of quantification was estimated to 0.8 ng glucose in absolute amount. This method is accurate, simple, and can serve as a candidate reference measurement procedure (RMP) in the establishment of a serum glucose reference system. PMID:27481169

  17. Plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures revealed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomics.

    PubMed

    Zulak, Katherine G; Khan, Morgan F; Alcantara, Joenel; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesic morphine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. In contrast to the plant, cell cultures of opium poppy do not accumulate alkaloids constitutively but produce sanguinarine in response to treatment with certain fungal-derived elicitors. The induction of sanguinarine biosynthesis provides a model platform to characterize the regulation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid pathways and other defense responses. Proteome analysis of elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures by two-dimensional denaturing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry facilitated the identification of 219 of 340 protein spots based on peptide fragment fingerprint searches of a combination of databases. Of the 219 hits, 129 were identified through pre-existing plant proteome databases, 63 were identified by matching predicted translation products in opium poppy-expressed sequence tag databases, and the remainder shared evidence from both databases. Metabolic enzymes represented the largest category of proteins and included S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, several glycolytic, and a nearly complete set of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, one alkaloid, and several other secondary metabolic enzymes. The abundance of chaperones, heat shock proteins, protein degradation factors, and pathogenesis-related proteins provided a comprehensive proteomics view on the coordination of plant defense responses. Qualitative comparison of protein abundance in control and elicitor-treated cell cultures allowed the separation of induced and constitutive or suppressed proteins. DNA microarrays were used to corroborate increases in protein abundance with a corresponding induction in cognate transcript levels.

  18. Sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric assay for the quantification of piperaquine in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Puran; Gaur, Ashwani; Gautam, Anirudh; Varshney, Brijesh; Paliwal, Jyoti; Batra, Vijay

    2007-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of piperaquine, an antimalarial drug, in human plasma using its structural analogue, piperazine bis chloroquinoline as internal standard (IS). The method involved a simple protein precipitation with methanol followed by rapid isocratic elution of analytes with 10mM ammonium acetate buffer/methanol/formic acid/ammonia solution (25/75/0.2/0.15, v/v) on Chromolith SpeedROD RP-18e reversed phase chromatographic column and quantification by mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 535.3-->288.2 and m/z 409.1-->205.2 were used to measure the analyte and the IS, respectively. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 1.0-250.2 ng/mL for piperaquine in plasma. The limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) in plasma were 0.2 and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Acceptable precision and accuracy (+/-20% deviation for LLOQ standard and +/-15% deviation for other standards from the respective nominal concentration) were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve ranges. A run time of 2.5 min for a sample made it possible to achieve a throughput of more than 400 plasma samples analyzed per day. The validated method was successfully applied to analyze human plasma samples from phase-1 clinical studies. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters of piperaquine following 1000 mg oral dose: observed maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) and elimination half-life (T1/2) were 46.1 ng/mL, 3.8h and 13 days, respectively. PMID:17923446

  19. Simple and rapid screening procedure for 143 new psychoactive substances by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Tokarczyk, Bogdan

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many new psychoactive substances (NPS) from several drug classes have appeared on the drug market. These substances, also known as 'legal highs', belong to different chemical classes. Despite the increasing number of NPS, there are few comprehensive screening methods for their detection in biological specimens. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop a fast and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening procedure for NPS in blood. The elaborated method allows the simultaneous screening of 143 compounds from different groups (number of compounds): cathinones (36), phenethylamines (26), tryptamines (18), piperazines (9), piperidines (2), synthetic cannabinoids (34), arylalkylamines (7), arylcyclohexylamines (3), aminoindanes (2), and other drugs (6). Blood samples (0.2 mL) were precipitated with acetonitrile (0.6 mL). The separation was achieved with gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water in 14 min. Detection of all compounds was based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. The total number of transitions monitored in dynamic mode was 432. The whole procedure was rapid and simple. The limits of detection (LODs) estimated for 104 compounds were in the range 0.01-3.09 ng/mL. The extraction recoveries determined for 32 compounds were from 1.8 to 133%. The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of forensic blood samples in routine casework. The developed method should have wide applicability for rapid screening of new drugs of abuse in forensic or clinical samples. The procedure can be easily expanded for more substances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fast separation and quantification method for nitroguanidine and 2,4-dinitroanisole by ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Yuan, Yuan; Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Burken, Joel G; Ma, Yinfa

    2012-04-01

    Explosives are now persistent environmental pollutants that are targets of remediation and monitoring in a wide array of environmental media. Nitroguanidine (NG) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are two insensitive energetic compounds recently used as munitions explosives. To protect our environment and human health, the levels of these compounds in soils and waters need to be monitored. However, no sensitive analytical methods, such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), have been developed for detecting these new compounds at trace levels and to be concurrently applied to monitor the common explosives. In general, the concentrations of explosives in either soil or water samples are very low and widely distributed. Therefore, a fast and sensitive method is required to monitor those compounds and increase our ability to find and address the threats they pose to human health and ecological receptors. In this study, a fast and sensitive analytical method has been developed to quantitatively determine NG and DNAN in soil, tap water, and river water by using ultrafast LC-MS/MS. To make this method a comprehensive analytical technique for other explosives as well, it has included other commonly used explosives in the method development, such as octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 1,3,5-trinitroper-hydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (ADNT), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). The method detection limits (MDLs) of these compounds in soil ranged from 0.2 to 5 ppb, and a good linearity was obtained over a concentration range of 0.5-200 ppb. The recoveries of some compounds are equal to or better than the current EPA methods but with much higher sensitivities.

  1. Evaluation of strong cation exchange versus isoelectric focusing of peptides for multidimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Slebos, Robbert J C; Brock, Jonathan W C; Winters, Nancy F; Stuart, Sarah R; Martinez, Misti A; Li, Ming; Chambers, Mathew C; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Ham, Amy J; Tabb, David L; Liebler, Daniel C

    2008-12-01

    Shotgun proteome analysis platforms based on multidimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) provide a powerful means to discover biomarker candidates in tissue specimens. Analysis platforms must balance sensitivity for peptide detection, reproducibility of detected peptide inventories and analytical throughput for protein amounts commonly present in tissue biospecimens (< 100 microg), such that platform stability is sufficient to detect modest changes in complex proteomes. We compared shotgun proteomics platforms by analyzing tryptic digests of whole cell and tissue proteomes using strong cation exchange (SCX) and isoelectric focusing (IEF) separations of peptides prior to LC-MS/MS analysis on a LTQ-Orbitrap hybrid instrument. IEF separations provided superior reproducibility and resolution for peptide fractionation from samples corresponding to both large (100 microg) and small (10 microg) protein inputs. SCX generated more peptide and protein identifications than did IEF with small (10 microg) samples, whereas the two platforms yielded similar numbers of identifications with large (100 microg) samples. In nine replicate analyses of tryptic peptides from 50 microg colon adenocarcinoma protein, overlap in protein detection by the two platforms was 77% of all proteins detected by both methods combined. IEF more quickly approached maximal detection, with 90% of IEF-detectable medium abundance proteins (those detected with a total of 3-4 peptides) detected within three replicate analyses. In contrast, the SCX platform required six replicates to detect 90% of SCX-detectable medium abundance proteins. High reproducibility and efficient resolution of IEF peptide separations make the IEF platform superior to the SCX platform for biomarker discovery via shotgun proteomic analyses of tissue specimens.

  2. Patterns of free (unconjugated) buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and their glucuronides in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Davis, Rebecka; Carlisle, Heidi; Clark, Chantry; Marin, Stephanie J; Moody, David E

    2012-03-01

    Patterns of buprenorphine and metabolites were examined in 1946 positive urine samples analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for free (unconjugated) buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine (quantitative, 2 to 1000 ng/mL) and buprenorphine-glucuronide (B3G) and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide (N3G) (semi-quantitative, 5 to 1000 ng/mL). Two distribution patterns predominated with 49.1% positive for norbuprenorphine, B3G, and N3G and 41.6% positive for buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, B3G, and N3G. Buprenorphine, positive in 45.5% of samples, was mostly < 5 ng/mL (median 6.1 ng/mL), but 9.8% were > 1000 ng/mL. Norbuprenorphine, B3G, and N3G had semi-Gaussian distributions with medians of 64.7, 108, and 432 ng/mL, respectively. With buprenorphine < 100 ng/mL (767 samples) or ≥ 100 ng/mL (19 quantifiable samples), the respective median metabolic ratios (free norbuprenorphine/free buprenorphine) were 25.0 and 0.15. In 12 retested "> 1000 ng/mL" buprenorphine samples, free buprenorphine was 4160 to 39,400 ng/mL and free naloxone 2140 to 9560 ng/mL. In 87 subsequent samples with buprenorphine < 20 ng/mL, naloxone concentrations were < 50 ng/mL. Concentrations of buprenorphine > 100 ng/mL (particularly with low metabolite concentrations) are suspect of urine adulteration with medication (4% in the database) that can be checked in most cases by concurrent analysis for naloxone. PMID:22337776

  3. Sensitive, Preclinical Detection of Prions in Brain by nanospray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More sensitive detection of prions in brain is important because it would allow early detection of disease in young animals and assure a safer food supply. We quantitated the amount of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP 27-30) by use of nano-scale liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem ma...

  4. Determination of ribavirin in chicken muscle by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin-Liang; Chen, Ruo-Xia; Zhu, Lie; Lv, Yan; Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Jian

    2016-02-15

    A new analytical method for the determination of ribavirin in chicken muscle using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated. Samples were extracted with acidified methanol (methanol:acetic acid, 99:1, v/v). The extract was further purified by QuEChERS method using primary-secondary amine (PSA) and C18. Finally, the extract was dried by nitrogen under 45°C and reconstituted in water. The separation was performed on a Hypercarb analytical column under a gradient elution. The mobile phase was composed of water buffered with ammonium acetate (2.0mM) and acetonitrile. The proposed method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The values of the decision limit (CCα) and the detection capability (CCβ) were 1.1 and 1.5μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of ribavirin ranged from 94.2% to 99.2%. The repeatability (expressed as coefficient of variation, CVr) of the method ranged from 4.5% to 4.9% and the reproducibility (CVR) of the method ranged from 4.8% to 5.4%. The method is demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of ribavirin in chicken muscle in conformity with the current EU performance requirements through validation. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 45min.

  5. Two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods to study the excretion and metabolic interaction of edaravone and taurine in rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dao-quan; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Li, Yin-jie; Bian, Ting-ting; Yu, Yan-yan; Du, Qian; Yang, Dong-zhi; Jiang, Shui-shi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, two independent and complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were respectively developed and validated for the determination of edaravone or taurine in rat urine, feces and bile after intravenous administration, using 3-methyl-l-p-tolyl-5-pyrazolone and sulfanilic acid as the internal standards (IS). Edaravone was separated on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (100×2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) using methanol and water (containing 5 mM ammonium formate and 0.02% formic acid) as mobile phase, while taurine was performed on a Waters Atlantis HILIC Silica column (150×2.1 mm, 3 μm) using acetonitrile and water (containing 5mM ammonium formate and 0.2% formic acid) as mobile phase. The mass analysis was performed in a Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with negative ionization mode. The optimized mass transition ion pairs (m/z) for quantification were 173.1→92.2 and 187.2→106.0 for edaravone and its IS, 124.1→80.0 and 172.0→80.0 for taurine and its IS, respectively. The validated methods have been successfully applied to the excretion and metabolism interaction study of edaravone and taurine in rats after independent intravenous administration and co-administration with a single dose. The results demonstrated that there were no significant alternations on the metabolism and cumulative excretion rate of edaravone and taurine, implying that the proposed combination therapy was pharmacologically viable.

  6. Solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous enantioselective determination of representative proton-pump inhibitors in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengfei; Deng, Miaoduo; Huang, Peiting; Yu, Jia; Guo, Xingjie; Zhao, Longshan

    2016-09-01

    This report describes, for the first time, the simultaneous enantioselective determination of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs-omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole) in environmental water matrices based on solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME) and chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized results of SPE-DLLME were obtained with PEP-2 column using methanol-acetonitrile (1/1, v/v) as elution solvent, dichloroethane, and acetonitrile as extractant and disperser solvent, respectively. The separation and determination were performed using reversed-phase chromatography on a cellulose chiral stationary phase, a Chiralpak IC (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column, under isocratic conditions at 0.6 mL min(-1) flow rate. The analytes were detected in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Isotopically labeled internal standards were used to compensate matrix interferences. The method provided enrichment factors of around 500. Under optimal conditions, the mean recoveries for all eight enantiomers from the water samples were 89.3-107.3 % with 0.9-10.3 % intra-day RSD and 2.3-8.1 % inter-day RSD at 20 and 100 ng L(-1) levels. Correlation coefficients (r (2)) ≥ 0.999 were achieved for all enantiomers within the range of 2-500 μg L(-1). The method detection and quantification limits were at very low levels, within the range of 0.67-2.29 ng L(-1) and 2.54-8.68 ng L(-1), respectively. This method was successfully applied to the determination of the concentrations and enantiomeric fractions of the targeted analytes in wastewater and river water, making it applicable to the assessment of the enantiomeric fate of PPIs in the environment. Graphical Abstract Simultaneous enantioselective determination of representative proton-pump inhibitors in water samples.

  7. Determination of 17alpha-methyltestosterone in muscle tissues of tilapia, rainbow trout, and salmon using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Pak-Sin; Lopez, Mayda; Serfling, Stan; Gieseker, Charlie; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2006-05-01

    An analytical method was developed to quantitate and confirm the presence of 17alpha-methyltestosterone in the muscles of tilapia, rainbow trout, and salmon. The method employed two liquid-liquid partitioning steps and two solid-phase extraction columns for sample cleanup. The final extracts were analyzed on an isocratic reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization in the positive ion mode. The method was validated at levels from 0.40 to 1.6 ng/g, with MT-d3 used as an internal standard. The accuracy was between 100% and 110%, and coefficients of variation of <10% were obtained for all three fish species. Muscle tissues from dosed fish were also assayed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for recovering the parent drug.

  8. Determination of pesticide residues in honeybees using modified QUEChERS sample work-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bargańska, Żaneta; Slebioda, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Increasing emissions of chemical compounds to the environment, especially of pesticides, is one of factors that may explain present honeybee colony losses. In this work, an analytical method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was optimized for the simultaneous screening of 19 pesticides which have not been yet determined in honeybee samples from northern Poland (Pomerania). The sample preparation, based on the QuEChERS method combining salting-out liquid-liquid extraction to acetonitrile and a dispersive-SPE clean-up, was adjusted to honeybee samples by adding a small amount of hexane to eliminate beeswax. The recovery of analytes ranged from 70% to 120% with relative standard deviation ≤20%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.91-25 ng/g. A total of 19 samples of honeybees from suspected pesticide poisoning incidents were analyzed, in which 19 different pesticides were determined.

  9. Determination of cryptotanshinone and its metabolite in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Hang, T J; Zhang, Zh X; Du, R; Chen, J

    2005-12-01

    A sensitive and selective LC-MS-MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of cryptotanshinone (CTS) and its active metabolite tanshinone II A (TS II A) in rat plasma using fenofibrate (FOFB) as internal standard. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters symmetry ODS column using methanol and water (85:15) as mobile phase delivered at 1.0 mL/min. LC-MS-MS analysis was carried out on a Finnigan LC-TSQ Quantum mass spectrometer using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and positive multiple reaction monitoring. Ions monitored were m/z 297.0--> 251.0 for CTS, m/z 295.0--> 249.0 for TS II A, and m/z 361.1--> 233.0 for FOFB with argon at a pressure of 0.2 Pa and collision energy of 25 eV for collision-induced dissociation (CID). The assay was linear over the range 0.1-20 ng/mL for CTS and 0.2-15 ng/mL for TS II A. The average recoveries of CTS and TS II A from rat plasma were 93.7 and 94.7%, respectively. The established method has been applied in a pharmacokinetic study of CTS in rats. PMID:16183340

  10. Simultaneous determination of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yong; Zhong, Dafang

    2004-05-01

    A sensitive and specific procedure for simultaneous quantitation of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma has been developed and validated. Analytes were extracted from plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction, separated on a Diamonsil C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d.) and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. Diphenhydramine was used as the internal standard. The method has a lower limit of quantitation of 0.2 and 2.0 ng/mL for chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine, respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation, calculated from quality control (QC) samples were below 4.3% for chlorpheniramine and below 9.5% for pseudoephedrine. The inter-day relative error as determined from QC samples was within 4.7% for each analyte. The overall extraction recoveries of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine were 77 and 61% on average, respectively. The method was successfully applied to pharmaockinetic study of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in volunteers receiving formulations containing 4 mg of chlorpheniramine maleate and 60 mg of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride.

  11. Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Yibadatihan, S; Jinap, S; Mahyudin, N A

    2014-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently, it has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern about economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in PKC and (2) to validate and verify the method. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) in both positive- and negative-ion modes was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB₁, AFB₂, AFG₁ and AFG₂), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB₁ and FB₂), T-2 and HT-2 toxin in PKC. An optimum method using a 0.2 ml min⁻¹ flow rate, 0.2% formic acid in aqueous phase, 10% organic phase at the beginning and 90% organic phase at the end of the gradient was achieved. The extraction of mycotoxins was performed using a solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v) without further clean-up. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked PKC samples ranged from 81% to 112%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for mycotoxin standards and PKC samples ranged from 0.02 to 17.5 μg kg⁻¹ and from 0.06 to 58.0 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Finally, the newly developed method was successfully applied to PKC samples. The results illustrated the fact that the method is efficient and accurate for the simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in PKC, which can be ideal for routine analysis. PMID:25396715

  12. Determination of cocaine and its metabolites in plasma by porous membrane-protected molecularly imprinted polymer micro-solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Juan; García-Carballal, Sara; Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2016-06-17

    A selective molecularly imprinted polymer synthesized for the selective retention of cocaine (COC) and its metabolites [benzoylecgonine (BZE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and cocaethylene (CE)] was used as a solid adsorbent for assessing cocaine abuse by plasma analysis. The MIP beads (50mg) were loaded inside a cone shaped device made of a polypropylene (PP) membrane for micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE). High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used for quantifying the analytes after MIP-μ-SPE. The best retention capabilities were reached when loading plasma samples (within the 0.1-5.0mL range), previously adjusted to pH 5.5 by orbital-horizontal shaking (150rpm, 50°C) for 10min. Analyte elution was achieved by subjecting the MIP-μ-SPE device to ultrasound (37kHz, 325W) with 10mL of dichloromethane/2-propanol/ammonium hydroxide (76:20:4) for 8min. After eluate evaporation to dryness and re-dissolution in 100μL of mobile phase, the MIP-μ-SPE method yielded a pre-concentration factor of 50. Precision was assessed by intra-day and inter-day assays, and accuracy (intraday and inter-day analytical recovery, as well as the analysis of a BTMF 1/11-B control serum sample) show that the developed method is highly precise and accurate. In addition, the limits of detection, ranging from 0.061ngmL(-1) for COC to 0.87ngmL(-1) for BZE, were low enough for confirmative conclusions regarding cocaine abuse. The method was used for screening/quantifying cocaine and metabolites in plasma samples from poly-drug abusers. PMID:27207577

  13. Analysis of nifedipine in human plasma and amniotic fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to clinical pharmacokinetics in hypertensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Filgueira, Osmany Alberto Silva; Carvalho, Daniela Miarelli; Marques, Maria Paula; Moisés, Elaine Christine Dantas; Duarte, Geraldo; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Nifedipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension in pregnant women. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of nifedipine in human plasma and amniotic fluid. Separation of nifedipine and nitrendipine (IS) was performed using a LiChroCART(®) RP-Select B column and a mixture of water:acetonitrile:glacial acetic acid (30:70:0.5 v/v) as the mobile phase. Aliquots of 500μL of biological samples were extracted at pH 13 using dichloromethane:n-pentane (3:7 v/v). The validated method was applied to a study of the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in human plasma and amniotic fluid samples collected up to 12h after administration of the last slow-release nifedipine (20mg/12h) dose to 12 hypertensive pregnant women. The estimated pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine showed a mean AUC(0-12) of 250.2ngh/mL, ClT/F of 89.2L/h, Vd/F of 600.0L and t1/2 5.1h. The mean amniotic fluid/plasma concentration ratio was 0.05. The methods proved to be highly sensitive by showing a lower quantification limit of 0.1ng/mL for both matrices. And this study reports for the first time the complete development and validation of the method to quantify nifedipine in amniotic fluid using LC-MS-MS.

  14. Simultaneous determination of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, soil and manure compost by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ho, Y B; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-11-01

    A multi-residue analytical method was developed to quantify nine antibiotics and one hormone in soil, broiler manure and manure compost. The developed method was based on ultrasonic extraction with MeOH:ACN:EDTA:McIlvaine buffer, solid phase extraction (SPE) using HLB (3 cc/60 mg) cartridge, followed by instrumental analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with 25 min total run time. It was validated and tested on soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples and showed that the method is able to simultaneously detect and quantify the target analytes with good selectivity and sensitivity. The developed method was linear in a concentration range from its instrumental quantification limit (IQL) to 500 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. The overall method performance was good for the majority of the analytes, with recoveries range from 63% to 121% in all the sample matrices. The method quantification limit (MQL) for the 10 target analytes in the soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples were 2-10, 3-16 and 5-15 μg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively. The method has also included tilmicosin, an antibiotic known to be reported in the environment for the first time. The developed method was then applied on broiler manure samples and its relative manure amended agricultural soil samples to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. These analytes were detected in broiler manure and soil samples, with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78516.1 μg/kg DW (doxycycline) and 1331.4 μg/kg DW (flumequine), respectively. The results showed that the method can potentially be adopted for the analysis of veterinary antibiotic and hormone wastes in solid environmental matrices.

  15. [Determination of 11 anabolic hormones in fish tissue by multi-function impurity adsorption solid-phase extraction-ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yao, Shanshan; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiaohong; Jin, Micong

    2012-06-01

    A method was developed for the determination of 11 anabolic hormones (boldenone, androstenedione, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, methyltestosterone, testosterone, testosterone acetate, trenbolone, testosterone propionate, stanozolol, fluoxymesterone) in fish by multi-function impurity adsorption solid-phase extraction-ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After the sample was extracted by methanol, the extract was cleaned-up quickly by C18 adsorbent, neutral alumina adsorbent and amino-functionalized nano-adsorbent. The separation was performed on a Shim-Pack XR-ODS II column (100 mm x 2.0 mm, 2.2 microm) using the mobile phases of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution in a gradient elution mode. The identification and quantification were achieved by using electrospray ionization in positive ion mode (ESI+) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves were used for quantitative determination. The results showed that the calibration curves were in good linearity for the eleven analytes with the correlation coefficients (r) more than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N > 3) for the 11 anabolic hormones were from 0.03 microg/kg to 0.4 microg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N > 10) were from 0.1 microg/kg to 1.5 microg/kg. The average recoveries ranged from 80.9% to 98.1% with the relative standard deviations between 5.2% and 11.5%. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and suitable for the quantitative determination and confirmation of the 11 anabolic hormones in fish. PMID:23016290

  16. Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Yibadatihan, S; Jinap, S; Mahyudin, N A

    2014-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently, it has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern about economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in PKC and (2) to validate and verify the method. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) in both positive- and negative-ion modes was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB₁, AFB₂, AFG₁ and AFG₂), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB₁ and FB₂), T-2 and HT-2 toxin in PKC. An optimum method using a 0.2 ml min⁻¹ flow rate, 0.2% formic acid in aqueous phase, 10% organic phase at the beginning and 90% organic phase at the end of the gradient was achieved. The extraction of mycotoxins was performed using a solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v) without further clean-up. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked PKC samples ranged from 81% to 112%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for mycotoxin standards and PKC samples ranged from 0.02 to 17.5 μg kg⁻¹ and from 0.06 to 58.0 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Finally, the newly developed method was successfully applied to PKC samples. The results illustrated the fact that the method is efficient and accurate for the simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in PKC, which can be ideal for routine analysis.

  17. [Enantioselective determinination of R-warfarin/S-warfarin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application in a drug-drug interaction study].

    PubMed

    Jin, Shu; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ke; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2012-01-01

    To study the drug-drug interaction of morinidazole and warfarin and its application, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of R-warfarin/S-warfarin in human plasma. In a random, two-period crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 5 mg racemic warfarin in the absence and presence of morinidazole. Blood samples were collected according to a pre-designed time schedule. R-warfarin, S-warfarin and methyclothiazide were extracted with ethylether : methylenechloride (3 : 2), then separated on a Astec Chirobiotic V (150 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 microm) column using 5 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate (pH 4.0) - acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow-rate of 1.5 mL x min(-1). The mobile phase was splitted and 0.5 mL x min(-1) was introduced into MS. A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source was used as detector and operated in the negative ion mode. Quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The resolution of warfarin enantiomers is 1.56. The linear calibration curves for R-warfarin and S-warfarin both were obtained in the concentration range of 5 - 1 000 ng x mL(-1). Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) for R-warfarin and S-warfarin over the entire concentration range across three validation runs was both less than 10%, and relative error (RE) ranged from -4.9% to 0.7%, separately. The method herein described is effective and convenient, and suitable for the study of metabolic interaction between morinidazole and warfarin. The results showed that coadministration of warfarin with morinidazole did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either R-warfarin or S-warfarin. PMID:22493814

  18. Development and validation of a stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of bisphenols in ready-made meals.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Jorge; Wenzl, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Due to their growing consumption, ready-made meals are a major dietary component for many people in today's society, representing an important potential route of human exposure to several food contaminants. The recent restrictions in the use of bisphenol A have led the plastic industry to look for alternative chemicals, most of them belonging to the same family of p,p'-bisphenols. The aim of the current work was to develop and validate a method based on stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of bisphenol A and its main analogs - bisphenol S, 4,4'-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol), bisphenol F, bisphenol E, bisphenol B, bisphenol Z, bisphenol AF, bisphenol AP, tetrabromobisphenol A and bisphenol P - in solid foodstuffs, and particularly in ready-made meals. Extraction was carried out by ultrasound-assisted extraction after sample disruption with sand. A selective solid-phase extraction procedure was then applied to reduce potential matrix interferences. Derivatization of bisphenols with pyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride increased their ionization efficiency by electrospray ionization. Validation of the proposed method was performed in terms of selectivity, matrix effects, linearity, precision, measurement uncertainty, trueness and limits of detection. Satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision were obtained; the related relative standard deviations were ≤7.8% and ≤10%, respectively. The relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) was below 17% for all bisphenol analogs and the trueness of the method was demonstrated by spike recovery experiments. Low limits of detection, in the range from 0.025μgkg(-1) to 0.140μgkg(-1), were obtained for all compounds. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, it was eventually applied to several ready-made meals purchased from different supermarkets in Belgium. PMID:26456223

  19. Determination of cocaine and its metabolites in plasma by porous membrane-protected molecularly imprinted polymer micro-solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Juan; García-Carballal, Sara; Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2016-06-17

    A selective molecularly imprinted polymer synthesized for the selective retention of cocaine (COC) and its metabolites [benzoylecgonine (BZE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and cocaethylene (CE)] was used as a solid adsorbent for assessing cocaine abuse by plasma analysis. The MIP beads (50mg) were loaded inside a cone shaped device made of a polypropylene (PP) membrane for micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE). High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used for quantifying the analytes after MIP-μ-SPE. The best retention capabilities were reached when loading plasma samples (within the 0.1-5.0mL range), previously adjusted to pH 5.5 by orbital-horizontal shaking (150rpm, 50°C) for 10min. Analyte elution was achieved by subjecting the MIP-μ-SPE device to ultrasound (37kHz, 325W) with 10mL of dichloromethane/2-propanol/ammonium hydroxide (76:20:4) for 8min. After eluate evaporation to dryness and re-dissolution in 100μL of mobile phase, the MIP-μ-SPE method yielded a pre-concentration factor of 50. Precision was assessed by intra-day and inter-day assays, and accuracy (intraday and inter-day analytical recovery, as well as the analysis of a BTMF 1/11-B control serum sample) show that the developed method is highly precise and accurate. In addition, the limits of detection, ranging from 0.061ngmL(-1) for COC to 0.87ngmL(-1) for BZE, were low enough for confirmative conclusions regarding cocaine abuse. The method was used for screening/quantifying cocaine and metabolites in plasma samples from poly-drug abusers.

  20. Simultaneous quantification of three active alkaloids from a traditional Chinese medicine Ramulus Mori (Sangzhi) in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuang; Wang, Baolian; Xia, Xuejun; Li, Xue; Wang, Renyun; Sheng, Li; Li, Dan; Liu, Yuling; Li, Yan

    2015-05-10

    Fagomine, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) are the major bioactive constituents in the active fraction of alkaloids from the traditional Chinese medicine mulberry twig (Ramulus Mori, Chinese name Sang Zhi), which has a strong activity on α-glucosidase in vitro and in vivo. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of DNJ, fagomine and DAB in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared using a simple protein precipitation by the addition of 1% volume of Tris and two volumes of methanol-acetonitrile. The analytes and internal standard (IS, miglitol) were chromatographed in an XBridge™ amide column with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (0.1% ammonium hydroxide) at a flow rate of 0.7mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Linear detection responses were obtained for DNJ ranging from 5.00 to 5000.00ng/mL, 10.00 to 2500.00ng/mL for fagomine and DAB. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were 5.00, 10.00, 10.00ng/mL for DNJ, fagomine and DAB, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (R.S.D.%) were within 10% for three analytes with accuracies (R.E.%) less than 12%. The mean recoveries of analytes were greater than 85%. All analytes were proved to be stable during the sample storage, preparation and analytic procedures. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the three alkaloids in rats after oral administration of the active fraction of alkaloids from mulberry twig.

  1. Rapid determination of 88 veterinary drug residues in milk using automated TurborFlow online clean-up mode coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-xia; Yang, Ji-zhou; Wang, Zhao-xing; Wang, Cai-juan; Liu, Ya-feng; Zhang, Li

    2016-02-01

    A novel method based on TurborFlow online solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established for simultaneous screening and confirmation of 88 wide-range veterinary drugs belonging to eight families (20 sulfonamides, 7 macrolides, 15 quinolones, 8 penicillins, 13 benzimidazoles, 4 tetracyclines, 2 sedatives, and 19 hormones) in milk. The preparation method consists of sample dilution and ultrasonic extraction, followed by an automated turbulent flow cyclone chromatography sample clean-up system. The detection was achieved in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM). The total run time was within 39 min, including automated extraction, analytical chromatography and re-equilibration of the turboflow system. The optimization of different experimental parameters including extraction, purification, separation, and detection were evaluated separately in this study. The developed method was validated and good performing characteristics were obtained. The linear regression coefficients (R(2)) of matrix-match calibration standard curves established for quantification were higher than 0.9930. The limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.2-2.0 μg/kg given by signal-noise ratio ≥3 (S/N) and the limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N≥10) ranged between 0.5 μg/kg and 10 μg/kg. Average recoveries of spiked target compounds with different levels were between 63.1% and 117.4%, with percentage relative standard deviations (RSD) in the range of 3.3-17.6%. The results indicated that the developed method has great potential for the routine laboratory analysis of large numbers of samples on measuring different classes of compounds. In comparison to traditional procedures, the automated sample clean-up ensures rapid, effective, sensitive analyses of veterinary drugs in milk.

  2. A new derivatization approach with D-cysteine for the sensitive and simple analysis of acrylamide in foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2014-09-26

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed in order to determine the amount of acrylamide in foods after derivatization with d-cysteine. The sulfhydryl group of d-cysteine was added at the β-site double bond of acrylamide to form 2-amino-3-(3-amino-3-oxo-propyl)sulfanyl-propanoic acid. Deuterated acrylamide (acrylamide-d3) was chosen as the internal standard (IS) for analyzing the food samples. Acrylamide was extracted from 2.0 g of food sample with 6 mL of methylene chloride, and the organic extract was diluted with 3 mL of hexane, and then the analyte was back-extracted with 0.5 mL of pure water. The derivatization of acrylamide was performed in the water extract. The best reaction conditions (3.0mg of d-cysteine, a pH 6.5, a reaction temperature of 90°C, and a heating time of 50 min) were established by the variation of parameters. The formed derivative was injected into the LC-MS/MS without further extraction or purification procedures. Separation and detection were improved with the use of an ion-pairing reagent of perfluorooctanoic acid. Under the established conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 0.04 μg/kg and 0.14 μg/kg, respectively, and the inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 8% at concentrations of 20 and 100 μg/kg. The method was successfully applied to determine the amount of acrylamide in potato chips, French fries, and coffee. PMID:25130090

  3. Determination of low-molecular-weight organic acids in non-small cell lung cancer with a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Klupczynska, Agnieszka; Plewa, Szymon; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech; Kasprzyk, Mariusz; Sytek, Natalia; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-09-10

    As compared to other classes of metabolites, determination of organic acids is an underrepresented field in cancer research and till now there has been a lack of appropriate analytical procedure for determination of serum levels of organic acids potentially associated with cancer development. The aim of the study was to develop a new rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of six low-molecular-weight organic acids in human serum and to apply this method in an analysis of samples collected from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and a matched control group. The samples were prepared by solid phase extraction (Clean-up CUQAX, UCT). Chromatography was conducted on a Synergi Hydro-RP column (Phenomenex) and a gradient run of 15min. Detection was performed using a negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration ranges were as follows: 0.24-38.42μmol/L for 2-hydroxybutyric acid, 0.09-17.23μmol/L for fumaric acid, 0.08-15.13μmol/L for glutaric acid, 0.11-2.22mmol/L for lactic acid, 0.39-30.98μmol/L for pyroglutamic acid, and 0.08-16.93μmol/L for succinic acid. Mean relative recovery range was 85.99-114.42% and the determined intra- and inter day coefficients of variation were ≤14%. Among the studied acids, pyroglutamic acid showed the best discriminating potential and enabled to identify accurately NSCLC patients and control subjects regardless of the cancer stage. Further investigations of serum organic acids may allow us to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in NSCLC and develop novel means of its detection and treatment. The developed method may be also a valuable tool to study metabolic changes associated with other types of cancer. PMID:27454081

  4. Sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of five ganoderic acids in Ganoderma lucidum and its related species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongli; Liu, Youping; Qiu, Feng; Di, Xin

    2011-03-25

    The present paper describes a novel, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analysis of ganoderic acids C(2), B, A, H, D in Ganoderma lucidum and its related species. Ganoderma samples were prepared using simple ultrasonic extraction. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Agilent Zorbax XDB C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5μm) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, water and formic acid (42:58:0.5, v/v/v). Mass spectrometric detection was achieved by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface operating in negative and positive ionization mode via a single within-run polarity switching. Quantitation of five ganoderic acids was performed using selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 6.2% and the accuracy ranged from 90.0% to 105.7%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 20.0-40.0 ng/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 3.0-25.0 ng/mL. With this method, low levels of ganoderic acids in the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sinense and Ganoderma applanatum were accurately quantified for the first time. Importantly, the method allows unequivocal quantification of the five ganoderic acids in the spores and fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, whereas the previously published methods have lacked the capability. The method presented will be a powerful tool for quality control of Ganoderma lucidum and its related species.

  5. Rapid analysis of diclofenac and some of its transformation products in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Gaëlle; Fieu, Maëva; Joachim, Sandrine; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Baudoin, Patrick; Turies, Cyril; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Andres, Sandrine; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging organic contaminants ubiquitously present in the environment due to incessant input into the aquatic compartment mainly resulting from incomplete removal in wastewater treatment plants. One of the major preoccupations concerning pharmaceuticals released into surface waters is their potential for bioaccumulation in biota, possibly leading to deleterious effects on ecosystems especially as they could affect a broad variety of organisms living in or depending on the aquatic environment. Thus, the development of accurate and sensitive methods is necessary to detect these compounds in aquatic ecosystems. Considering this need, this study deals with the analytical development of a methodology to quantify traces of diclofenac together with some of its biotic and abiotic transformation products in whole-body tissue of three-spined stickleback. A simple and reliable extraction method based on a modified QuEChERS extraction is implemented on 200 mg of fish. The detection and quantification of the ten target compounds are performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The whole process was successfully validated regarding linearity, recovery, repeatability, and reproducibility. The method limits of detection and quantification do not exceed 1 ng/g. To reproduce environmental conditions, we measured the concentration of DCF and its transformation products in three-spined sticklebacks after a 6-month exposure in mesocosms at several levels of DCF ranging from 0.05 to 4.1 μg/L. The phase I metabolite 4'-hydroxydiclofenac was detected in fish samples exposed at the highest DCF concentration. Graphical abstract Analysis of diclofenac and some of its transformation products in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, by QuEChERS extraction followed by LC-MS/MS. PMID:27086017

  6. Determination of low-molecular-weight organic acids in non-small cell lung cancer with a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Klupczynska, Agnieszka; Plewa, Szymon; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech; Kasprzyk, Mariusz; Sytek, Natalia; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-09-10

    As compared to other classes of metabolites, determination of organic acids is an underrepresented field in cancer research and till now there has been a lack of appropriate analytical procedure for determination of serum levels of organic acids potentially associated with cancer development. The aim of the study was to develop a new rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of six low-molecular-weight organic acids in human serum and to apply this method in an analysis of samples collected from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and a matched control group. The samples were prepared by solid phase extraction (Clean-up CUQAX, UCT). Chromatography was conducted on a Synergi Hydro-RP column (Phenomenex) and a gradient run of 15min. Detection was performed using a negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration ranges were as follows: 0.24-38.42μmol/L for 2-hydroxybutyric acid, 0.09-17.23μmol/L for fumaric acid, 0.08-15.13μmol/L for glutaric acid, 0.11-2.22mmol/L for lactic acid, 0.39-30.98μmol/L for pyroglutamic acid, and 0.08-16.93μmol/L for succinic acid. Mean relative recovery range was 85.99-114.42% and the determined intra- and inter day coefficients of variation were ≤14%. Among the studied acids, pyroglutamic acid showed the best discriminating potential and enabled to identify accurately NSCLC patients and control subjects regardless of the cancer stage. Further investigations of serum organic acids may allow us to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in NSCLC and develop novel means of its detection and treatment. The developed method may be also a valuable tool to study metabolic changes associated with other types of cancer.

  7. Development and validation of a stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of bisphenols in ready-made meals.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Jorge; Wenzl, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Due to their growing consumption, ready-made meals are a major dietary component for many people in today's society, representing an important potential route of human exposure to several food contaminants. The recent restrictions in the use of bisphenol A have led the plastic industry to look for alternative chemicals, most of them belonging to the same family of p,p'-bisphenols. The aim of the current work was to develop and validate a method based on stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of bisphenol A and its main analogs - bisphenol S, 4,4'-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol), bisphenol F, bisphenol E, bisphenol B, bisphenol Z, bisphenol AF, bisphenol AP, tetrabromobisphenol A and bisphenol P - in solid foodstuffs, and particularly in ready-made meals. Extraction was carried out by ultrasound-assisted extraction after sample disruption with sand. A selective solid-phase extraction procedure was then applied to reduce potential matrix interferences. Derivatization of bisphenols with pyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride increased their ionization efficiency by electrospray ionization. Validation of the proposed method was performed in terms of selectivity, matrix effects, linearity, precision, measurement uncertainty, trueness and limits of detection. Satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision were obtained; the related relative standard deviations were ≤7.8% and ≤10%, respectively. The relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) was below 17% for all bisphenol analogs and the trueness of the method was demonstrated by spike recovery experiments. Low limits of detection, in the range from 0.025μgkg(-1) to 0.140μgkg(-1), were obtained for all compounds. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, it was eventually applied to several ready-made meals purchased from different supermarkets in Belgium.

  8. Validation of an accelerated solvent extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for Pacific ciguatoxin-1 in fish flesh and comparison with the mouse neuroblastoma assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia Jun; Mak, Yim Ling; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Wing Hei; Wang, Mingfu; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a global foodborne illness caused by consumption of seafood containing ciguatoxins (CTXs) originating from dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus. P-CTX-1 has been suggested to be the most toxic CTX, causing ciguatera at 0.1 μg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. CTXs are structurally complex and difficult to quantify, but there is a need for analytical methods for CFP toxins in coral reef fishes to protect human health. In this paper, we describe a sensitive and rapid extraction method using accelerated solvent extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. By the use of a more sensitive MS system (5500 QTRAP), the validated method has a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 μg/kg, linearity correlation coefficients above 0.99 for both solvent- and matrix-based standard solutions as well as matrix spike recoveries ranging from 49% to 85% in 17 coral reef fish species. Compared with previous methods, this method has better overall recovery, extraction efficiency and LOQ. Fish flesh from 12 blue-spotted groupers (Cephalopholis argus) was assessed for the presence of CTXs using HPLC-MS/MS analysis and the commonly used mouse neuroblastoma assay, and the results of the two methods were strongly correlated. This method is capable of detecting low concentrations of P-CTX-1 in fish at levels that are relevant to human health, making it suitable for monitoring of suspected ciguateric fish both in the environment and in the marketplace. PMID:21505950

  9. Quantitative analysis of estradiol and six other steroid hormones in human saliva using a high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current research was to develop a fast and sensitive analytical strategy that allows for the simultaneous measurement of estradiol and other steroid hormones in human saliva. For this purpose, we established an assay using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) coupled with on-line solid phase extraction (SPE). The protocol was designed for the simultaneous identification of estradiol, cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, progesterone, corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from samples of 100 µL saliva. After protein precipitation, the sample was injected into the LC-MS/MS system for direct measurement. The protocol involved minimal sample preparation and could be run with throughput times of 5.20 min. Results indicated linearity of the method for all steroid hormones over ranges of 0.001-10 ng/mL (0.01-20 ng/mL for DHEA) with linear correlation coefficients of r=0.999 for each steroid. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variance were between 4.3% and 10.8%. The lower limits of quantification (LOQ) were below (or equal to) 5 pg/mL for all steroids, except for DHEA for which the LOQ was 10 pg/mL. A re-analysis of 16 saliva samples that had produced unusual estradiol values when quantified by immunoassay showed normal, endogenous concentrations for all samples when measured by the current method. In conclusion, we describe an LC-MS/MS method which can be routinely employed in physiological and psychological research laboratories allowing high analytical specificity and sensitivity despite minimal sample processing and short throughput times.

  10. A new derivatization approach with D-cysteine for the sensitive and simple analysis of acrylamide in foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2014-09-26

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed in order to determine the amount of acrylamide in foods after derivatization with d-cysteine. The sulfhydryl group of d-cysteine was added at the β-site double bond of acrylamide to form 2-amino-3-(3-amino-3-oxo-propyl)sulfanyl-propanoic acid. Deuterated acrylamide (acrylamide-d3) was chosen as the internal standard (IS) for analyzing the food samples. Acrylamide was extracted from 2.0 g of food sample with 6 mL of methylene chloride, and the organic extract was diluted with 3 mL of hexane, and then the analyte was back-extracted with 0.5 mL of pure water. The derivatization of acrylamide was performed in the water extract. The best reaction conditions (3.0mg of d-cysteine, a pH 6.5, a reaction temperature of 90°C, and a heating time of 50 min) were established by the variation of parameters. The formed derivative was injected into the LC-MS/MS without further extraction or purification procedures. Separation and detection were improved with the use of an ion-pairing reagent of perfluorooctanoic acid. Under the established conditions, the limits of detection and