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Sample records for perfused canine pancreas

  1. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  2. Pancreas transplants: Evaluation using perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; du Cret, R.P.; Boudreau, R.J.

    1989-07-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphic perfusion studies in evaluating pancreas transplant patients, we reviewed 56 of these studies in 22 patients who had 27 transplants. Seventeen patients underwent two or more studies. The perfusion studies were performed with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA injected as a bolus followed by eight to 16 serial 2-sec images and a 500,000-count immediate static image. Images were evaluated for (1) the time and intensity of pancreatic peak radioactivity relative to the time and intensity of the iliac arterial peak; (2) relative pancreatic to iliac arterial intensity on the static image; and (3) size, homogeneity, and definition of the pancreas. Clinical diagnoses at the time of scintigraphy of normal function (n = 36), rejection (n = 13), pancreatitis (n = 6), or arterial thrombosis (n = 1) were based on insulin requirement, urine amylase, serum glucose, serum amylase, response to therapy, cultures, CT, MR, sonography, scintigraphy with 67Ga or 111In-WBCs, percutaneous drainage results, angiography, surgery, and pathologic examination of resected transplants. Three 99mTc-DTPA perfusion studies showed no pancreatic perfusion, four showed decreasing perfusion on serial studies, and five showed progressive loss of definition of the pancreas on serial studies. Of the three patients with no detectable perfusion, one had a normally functioning transplant, one had arterial thrombosis with transplant infarction, and one had severe rejection with minimal function. Decreasing perfusion was associated with rejection in three patients and pancreatitis in one. Decreasing definition was seen in four patients with rejection and one with pancreatitis. We conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful, primarily when performed serially, although nonspecific for evaluating pancreas transplants.

  3. Pancreas tumor model in rabbit imaged by perfusion CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Jason; Tichauer, Kenneth; Moodie, Karen; Kane, Susan; Hoopes, Jack; Stewart, Errol E.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim; Pereira, Stephen P.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a pancreas tumor animal model to investigate the relationship between photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness and photosensitizer drug delivery. More specifically, this work lays the foundation for investigating the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced blood perfusion imaging to be used to inform subsequent PDT. A VX2 carcinoma rabbit cell line was grown in the tail of the pancreas of three New Zealand White rabbits and approximately 3-4 weeks after implantation the rabbits were imaged on a CT scanner using a contrast enhanced perfusion protocol, providing parametric maps of blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and vascular permeability surface area product.

  4. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance in isolated perfused rat pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki )

    1988-04-01

    Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to measure phosphorus energy metabolites in isolated perfused rat pancreas. The gland was perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25{degree}C). {sup 31}P resonances of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) and phosphomonoesters (PMEs) were observed in all the preparations of pancreas. In different individual preparations, the resonance of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of PCr and ATP in individual preparations, however, remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 h. When the perfusion was stopped, the levels of ATP and PCr decreased, while the levels of PME and P{sub i} increased. At that time, the P{sub i} resonance shfted to a higher magnetic field, indicating that the tissue pH decreased. On reperfusion, the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds and the tissue pH were restored to their initial resting levels. Continuous infusion of 0.1 {mu}M acetylcholine caused marked and sustained increases in the flow of pancreatic juice and protein output. During the stimulation the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds remained unchanged, while the tissue pH was decreased slightly.

  5. Canine pancreas and kidney transplantation following total-lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.; Allen, R.D.; Deane, S.A.; Ekberg, H.; Grierson, J.M.; Hawthorne, W.J.; Mears, D.C.; Tiver, K.; Little, J.M.; Stewart, G.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of total-lymphoid irradiation on survival of canine pancreas and kidney allografts was studied. TLI had a marked immunosuppressive effect as measured by in vitro immune responses and reduced circulating leukocytes. Despite the changes, median graft survival times for animals treated with 800 cGy (9 days) or 1800 cGy (9.5 days) were not significantly different from untreated control animals (7 days). The addition of low-dose antithymocyte globulin (10 mg/kg/day) on post-transplant days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 had no measurable synergistic effect. Similarly, median segmental pancreas allograft survival times after 1700-2200 cGy of TLI treatment (16.5 days) were only marginally longer than those of untreated controls (9 days). The only animal to maintain a graft for greater than 200 days was matched to the donor in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). This animal was able to reject a third-party skin graft after 8 days while a graft from the original donor was still surviving after 21 days when the pancreas graft failed from a chronic-type rejection. These results indicate that TLI alone or in combination with ATG will not be predictably effective as a method of prolonging allograft survival. The role of matching major histocompatibility complex antigens in TLI treatment requires clarification.

  6. Perfusion characteristics of preserved canine kidneys subjected to warm ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Modgill, V K; Wiggins, P A; Giles, G R

    1978-02-01

    Canine kidneys were subjected to 0, 15 or 30 min of warm ischaemia followed by 24 hours preservation by perfusion. Changes in perfusate concentration of acid radicles, lactate, free fatty acid and lactice dehydrogenase were assessed at 1 hour and 24 hours. With the exception of LDH concentration at 1 hour, no single parameter was capable of detecting kidneys which were so damaged as to be non-life supporting.

  7. The role of volume perfusion CT in the diagnosis of pathologies of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Grözinger, G; Grözinger, A; Horger, M

    2014-12-01

    The review discusses the potential role of volume perfusion CT (VPCT) in the diagnosis and follow-up of different pathologies of the pancreas. VPCT enables a differentiation of different pancreatic tumors like adenocarcinoma or neuroendocrine tumors based on functional parameters like blood flow, blood volume and permeability. Furthermore, the article discusses the potential indications for VPCT imaging of inflammatory diseases of the pancreas such as acute or chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis.

  8. Successful five-day perfusion preservation of the canine kidney.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, J F; Ploeg, R J; Southard, J H; Belzer, F O

    1989-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, successful 3-day-perfusion preservation of canine kidneys was obtained. Since then, consistent 5-day preservation has not been reported. In this study, we investigated how the perfusate calcium concentration affected both mitochondrial function and posttransplant viability in dog kidneys preserved for 5 days. Dog kidneys were preserved by machine perfusion (5 degrees C) using a hydroxyethyl starch-gluconate solution that contained either 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, or 5.0 mM calcium. Mitochondria isolated from preserved kidneys has a loss of respiratory control when either 0.0, 1.5, or 5.0 mM calcium were present. However, the use of a perfusate with 0.5 mM calcium preserved the mitochondrial function at levels equivalent to controls for 5 days. Transplantation of kidneys preserved for 5 days with 0.0 or 1.5 mM calcium yielded poor survival (0% and 17%, respectively). The use of a 0.5-mM calcium perfusate increased posttransplant survival to 63% (5 of 8 transplanted). Donor pretreatment of kidneys with chlorpromazine (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) did not improve the function of mitochondria isolated from preserved kidneys but did increase survival in the 1.5-mM calcium group to 67% (4 of 6 transplanted) and in the 0.5 mM calcium group to 100% (7 of 7 transplanted). This is the first report to document consistently successful 5-day preservation of canine kidneys and clearly shows the importance of the perfusate calcium concentration in long-term kidney preservation. The specific mechanism by which calcium or chlorpromazine exert their effect is not known, but it is apparent that excessively high or low concentrations of calcium are damaging to the preserved organ, and an optimal calcium concentration combined with metabolic inhibition of calcium-dependent pathways can significantly improve the function of organs preserved for extended time periods.

  9. Whole-organ perfusion of the pancreas using dynamic volume CT in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma: acquisition technique, post-processing and initial results.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Sonja; Kloeters, Christian; Meyer, Henning; Hein, Patrick; Hilbig, Andreas; Rogalla, Patrik

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a whole-organ perfusion protocol of the pancreas in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma and to analyse perfusion differences between normal and diseased pancreatic tissue. Thirty patients with primary pancreatic malignancy were imaged on a 320-slice CT unit. Twenty-nine cancers were histologically proven. CT data acquisition was started manually after contrast-material injection (8 ml/s, 350 mg iodine/ml) and dynamic density measurements in the right ventricle. After image registration, perfusion was determined with the gradient-relationship technique and volume regions-of-interest were defined for perfusion measurements. Contrast time-density curves and perfusion maps were generated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for analysis of normal distribution and Kruskal-Wallis test (nonparametric ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction for multiple stacked comparisons. In all 30 patients the entire pancreas was imaged, and registration could be completed in all cases. Perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas was significantly lower than of normal pancreatic tissue (P < 0.001) and could be visualized on colored perfusion maps. The 320-slice CT allows complete dynamic visualization of the pancreas and enables calculation of whole-organ perfusion maps. Perfusion imaging carries the potential to improve detection of pancreatic cancers due to the perfusion differences.

  10. Extracorporeal machine perfusion of the pancreas: technical aspects and its clinical implications--a systematic review of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Kean Guan; Wee, Mau Nam; Chung, Wen Yuan; Kumar, Rohan; Mees, Soeren Torge; Dennison, Ashley; Maddern, Guy; Trochsler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Pancreas or pancreatic islet transplantation is an important treatment option for insulin-dependent diabetes and its complications. However, as the pancreas is particularly susceptible to ischaemic-reperfusion injury, the criteria for pancreas and islet donation are especially strict. With a chronic shortage of donors, one critical challenge is to maximise organ availability and expand the donor pool. To achieve that, continuous improvement in organ preservation is required, with the aims of reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury, prolong preservation time and improve graft function. Static cold storage, the only method used in clinical pancreas and islet cell transplant currently, has likely reached its plateau. Machine perfusion, hypothermic or normothermic, could hold the key to improving donor pancreas quality as well as quantity available for transplant. This article reviews the literature on experimental models of pancreas machine perfusion, examines the benefits of machine perfusion, the technical aspects and their clinical implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perfusion-decellularized pancreas as a natural 3D scaffold for pancreatic tissue and whole organ engineering

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Saik-Kia; Bertera, Suzanne; Olsen, Phillip; Candiello, Joe; Halfter, Willi; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Johnson, Scott; Sicari, Brian; Kollar, Elizabeth; Badylak, Stephen F.; Banerjee, Ipsita

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, with insulin supplementation as the most common treatment measure. Regenerative medicine approaches such as a bioengineered pancreas has been proposed as potential therapeutic alternatives. A bioengineered pancreas will benefit from the development of a bioscaffold that supports and enhances cellular function and tissue development. Perfusion-decellularized organs are a likely candidate for use in such scaffolds since they mimic compositional, architectural and biomechanical nature of a native organ. In this study, we investigate perfusion-decellularization of whole pancreas and the feasibility to recellularize the whole pancreas scaffold with pancreatic cell types. Our result demonstrates that perfusion-decellularization of whole pancreas effectively removes cellular and nuclear material while retaining intricate three-dimensional microarchitecture with perfusable vasculature and ductal network and crucial extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To mimic pancreatic cell composition, we recellularized the whole pancreas scaffold with acinar and beta cell lines and cultured up to 5 days. Our result shows successful cellular engraftment within the decellularized pancreas, and the resulting graft gave rise to strong up-regulation of insulin gene expression. These findings support biological utility of whole pancreas ECM as a biomaterials scaffold for supporting and enhancing pancreatic cell functionality and represent a step toward bioengineered pancreas using regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:23787110

  12. Advances in machine perfusion graft viability assessment in kidney, liver, pancreas, lung, and heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Balfoussia, Danai; Yerrakalva, Dharani; Hamaoui, Karim; Papalois, Vassilios

    2012-04-01

    Solid organ transplant constitutes the definitive treatment for end-stage organ failure. Better organ preservation methods have enabled use of marginal grafts, thereby expanding the donor pool to meet the growing demand for organs. Static cold storage as a preservation method has been superseded largely by machine perfusion in kidney transplant, with work regarding its use in other organ transplants ongoing. We hope that machine perfusion will allow better graft preservation, and pretransplant assessment, and optimization. The most extensive laboratory, preclinical, and clinical research into machine perfusion organ preservation has focused on kidneys. Successful outcomes in its use in renal transplant have sparked interest for its development and application to the liver, pancreas, heart, and lungs. This article reviews the current state of machine perfusion in abdominal and thoracic organ transplant, focusing on the recent developments in assessing graft viability.

  13. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Lopez-Solache, I.; Rendon, J.L.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Diaz-Zagoya, J.C.

    1988-04-15

    The mitochondrial fraction of the dog pancreas showed NAD(H)-dependent enzyme activity of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The enzyme catalyzes oxidoreduction between androstenedione and testosterone. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for androstenedione was 9.5 +/- 0.9 microM, the apparent Vmax was determined as 0.4 nmol mg-1 min-1, and the optimal pH was 6.5. In phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, maximal rate of androstenedione reduction was observed at 37 degrees C. The oxidation of testosterone by the enzyme proceeded at the same rate as the reduction of the androstenedione at a pH of 6.8-7.0. The apparent Km value and the optimal pH of the enzyme for testosterone were 3.5 +/- 0.5 microM and 7.5, respectively.

  14. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade attenuates inflammatory response and improves microvascular perfusion in rat pancreas grafts.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Gerhard; Eichhorn, Martin; Waldner, Helmut; Winter, Hauke; Kleespies, Axel; Massberg, Steffen

    2012-10-01

    After pancreas transplantation (PTx), early capillary malperfusion and leukocyte recruitment indicate the manifestation of severe ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Oscillatory blood-flow redistribution (intermittent capillary perfusion, IP), leading to an overall decrease in erythrocyte flux, precedes complete microvascular perfusion failure with persistent blood flow cessation. We addressed the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) for leukocyte-endothelial interactions (LEIs) after PTx and evaluated the contribution of IP and malperfusion. Pancreas transplantation was performed in rats after 18-hour preservation, receiving either isotype-matched IgG or monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibodies (10 mg/kg intravenously) once before reperfusion. Leukocyte-endothelial interaction, IP, erythrocyte flux, and functional capillary density, respectively, were examined in vivo during 2-hour reperfusion. Nontransplanted animals served as controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histomorphometry. In grafts of IgG-treated animals, IP was encountered already at an early stage after reperfusion and steadily increased over 2 hours, whereas erythrocyte flux declined continuously. In contrast, inhibition of ICAM-1 significantly improved erythrocyte flux and delayed IP appearance by 2 hours. Further, anti-ICAM-1 significantly reduced LEI and leukocyte tissue infiltration when compared to IgG; edema development was less pronounced in response to anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade significantly attenuates IRI via immediate reduction of LEI and concomitant improvement of capillary perfusion patterns, emphasizing its central role during IRI in PTx.

  15. Prevalence of increased canine pancreas-specific lipase concentrations in young dogs with parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Kalli, Irida V; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Patsika, Michael N; Pardali, Dimitra; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Menexes, George; Brellou, Georgia D; Rallis, Timoleon S

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic abnormalities during canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis have not been studied prospectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of canine serum pancreas-specific lipase (Spec cPL) concentration in dogs with CPV enteritis for the presence of acute pancreatitis (AP). Puppies with naturally occurring CPV enteritis were recruited and prospectively allocated into 2 groups according to normal or increased serum Spec cPL concentration. Clinical signs, laboratory findings, and pancreas-associated variables were compared between groups, and the impact of possible AP on disease course, duration of hospitalization, and outcome was assessed. Serum Spec cPL concentration in 35 puppies was above the upper limit of the RI in 17/35 (48.6%) dogs (Group A) and within the RI in 18 dogs (Group B). An increased serum lipase activity was present in 29/35 (82.9%) dogs, and Group A dogs had a higher serum lipase activity than Group B (P = .006). Serum Spec cPL in Group A dogs was positively correlated with serum lipase activity at the day of presentation (r = .667; P = .003) and day of discharge (r = .628; P = .007). No statistically significant difference was found between groups (P = .233) for the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (6/17 or 35.3% dogs Group A, and 8/18 or 44.4% dogs Group B), the disease course, duration of hospitalization, or outcome between groups. Increased serum Spec cPL is relatively common in dogs with CPV enteritis. However, such increases do not seem to correlate with the outcome of disease. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  16. Subcellular distribution of calcium-binding proteins and a calcium-ATPase in canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, S.K.; Towers, T. )

    1990-07-01

    Using a 45Ca blot-overlay assay, we monitored the subcellular fractionation pattern of several Ca binding proteins of apparent molecular masses 94, 61, and 59 kD. These proteins also appeared to stain blue with Stains-All. Additionally, using a monoclonal antiserum raised against canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase, we examined the subcellular distribution of a canine pancreatic 110-kD protein recognized by this antiserum. This protein had the same electrophoretic mobility as the cardiac protein against which the antiserum was raised. The three Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase cofractionated into the rough microsomal fraction (RM), previously shown to consist of highly purified RER, in a pattern highly similar to that of the RER marker, ribophorin I. To provide further evidence for an RER localization, native RM were subjected to isopycnic flotation in sucrose gradients. The Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase were found in dense fractions, along with ribophorin I. When RM were stripped of ribosomes with puromycin/high salt, the Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase exhibited a shift to less dense fractions, as did ribophorin I. We conclude that, in pancreas, the Ca binding proteins and Ca-ATPase we detect are localized to the RER (conceivably a subcompartment of the RER) or, possibly, a structure intimately associated with the RER.

  17. Tungstate stimulates insulin release and inhibits somatostatin output in the perfused rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Ramona A; Egido, Eva M; Hernández, Raquel; Marco, José

    2005-09-05

    In the rat pancreas, infusion of sodium-tungstate stimulates basal insulin release in a dose-dependent manner. We have studied tungstate's effects on the insulin secretion elicited by various B-cell secretagogues. Somatostatin output was also measured. The study was performed in the perfused pancreas isolated from normal or somatostatin-depleted pancreases as induced by cysteamine pre-treatment. In control rats, tungstate co-infusion (5 mM) potentiated the insulin secretory responses to glucose (2.7-fold; P<0.01), arginine (2-fold; P<0.01), exendin-4 (3-fold; P<0.01), glucagon (4-fold; P<0.05), and tolbutamide (2-fold; P<0.01). It also inhibited the somatostatin secretory responses to glucose (90%; P<0.01), arginine (95%; P<0.01), glucagon (80%; P<0.025), exendin-4 (80%; P<0.05) and tolbutamide (85%; P<0.01). In somatostatin-depleted pancreases, the stimulatory effect of tungstate on basal insulin secretion and its potentiation of arginine-induced insulin output were comparable to those found in control rats. Our observations suggest an amplifying effect of tungstate on a common step in the insulin stimulus/secretion coupling process, and would rule out a paracrine effect mediated by the inhibition of somatostatin secretion induced by this compound.

  18. Dynamics of insulin release by perfused edible dormouse (Glis glis) pancreas. Seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Castex, C; Sutter, B C

    1981-04-01

    In order to characterize seasonal variations of beta cell function in the edible dormouse (Glis glis), the dynamics of insulin release were examined during perfusion of the isolated pancreas. The B cells exhibited biphasic insulin secretion; however, the dynamic response differed from that of the rat in that there was a steady-state second release phase. Glucose-induced insulin release changed according to the seasons. With 16.8 mmol/l glucose, the average insulin release of the late phase was 30.8 +/- 12.6 ng/min in winter, 7.4 +/- 3.2 ng/min in spring, 13.1 +/- 3 ng/min in summer and 23.3 +/- 4.4 ng/min in autumn. The glucose-induced insulin release, expressed as percent of the insulin content of the pancreas, varied according to the season: it represented 2.23 +/- 0.31% in winter, 1.28 +/- 0.10% in spring, 1.56 +/- 0.15 in summer and 2.6 +/- 0.11 in autumn. It is suggested that in spring and summer, the edible dormouse B cell secretion mechanism is less sensitive to glucose than in the other seasons.

  19. Effects of sodium tungstate on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gallardo, J; Silvestre, R A; Egido, E M; Marco, J

    2000-08-18

    Both the direct effect of sodium tungstate on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas, and the insulin response to glucose and arginine in pancreases isolated from tungstate-pretreated rats were studied. Infusion of tungstate stimulated insulin output in a dose-dependent manner. The insulinotropic effect of tungstate was observed at normal (5.5 mM), and moderately high (9 mM) glucose concentrations, but not at a low glucose concentration (3.2 mM). Tungstate-induced insulin output was blocked by diazoxide, somatostatin, and amylin, suggesting several targets for tungstate at the B-cell secretory machinery. Glucagon release was not modified by tungstate. Pancreases from chronically tungstate-treated rats showed an enhanced response to glucose but not to arginine. Our results indicate that the reported reduction of glycemia caused by tungstate administration is, at least in part, due to its direct insulinotropic activity. Furthermore, chronic tungstate treatment may prime the B-cell, leading to over-response to a glucose stimulus.

  20. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors in the perfused canine saphenous vein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nunes, J P; Moura, D; Guimarães, S; de la Lande, I S

    1991-05-01

    To study the relative localization of alpha 1 and alpha 2-adrenoceptors in relation to the intima and the adventitia of canine saphenous vein, a comparison was made of the potency of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists applied by intraluminal and extraluminal route of perfused segments of that vessel. Noradrenaline was the most potent of the agonists used and was approximately as potent by intraluminal as by extraluminal route. Cocaine (12 mumol/l) caused supersensitivity to noradrenaline which was of about the same magnitude (threefold) irrespective of the route of administration of noradrenaline. The selective alpha 1-agonist phenylephrine was about 10 times less potent than noradrenaline and was also equieffective by both routes. The selective alpha 2-agonist UK-14,304, at concentrations lower than 0.3 mumol/l, caused very small responses and only in 3 out of 14 experiments. In all cases it caused responses at concentrations higher than 0.3 mumol/l. Cocaine did not change the sensitivity to either phenylephrine or UK-14,304. Thus, it is concluded that the results obtained with cocaine agreed with expectations for a homogeneously innervated tissue. Furthermore, alpha 1-adrenoceptors seem to predominate and to be evenly distributed throughout the media. The lack of responses to the low concentrations of UK-14,304--those selectively acting on alpha 2-adrenoceptors--was ascribed to the very low efficacy of this agonist on the distal part of the canine saphenous vein and to the tone created by the perfusion pressure which might be high enough to mask this small response.

  1. Canine Pancreas-Specific Lipase and C-reactive Protein in Dogs Treated With Anticonvulsants (Phenobarbital and Potassium Bromide).

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Viviana; Teles, Mariana; Meléndez-Lazo, Antonio; Rodón, Jaume; Pastor, Josep

    2015-06-01

    Animals treated with anticonvulsant drugs may have increased canine pancreas-specific lipase (cPLI) values. Inflammatory conditions and specifically acute pancreatitis are of major concern in these animals. Elevation in C-reactive protein is being associated with inflammatory status in dogs and it has been correlated with the clinical severity of pancreatitis. In the present study, we investigated if there is a correlation between the cPLI increase, changes in C-reactive protein and hepatic enzymes, as well as the incidence of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) in dogs with anticonvulsant treatment (phenobarbital, or potassium bromide or both). Increased values of pancreas-specific lipase were found in 6.8% of the animals in treatment with anticonvulsants, and this increase is correlated with the increase in triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase but not with C-reactive protein levels, which suggests a possible induction or release phenomenon rather than a clear severe AP. C-reactive protein levels did not affect cPLI values on the population studied. Only 2 animals had clinical and analytical data suggestive of AP, indicating a low prevalence (0.6%). In conclusion, cPLI may be increased in a low percentage of animals with anticonvulsants treatment and its increase may not be associated with severe AP. It may be induced by the anticonvulsants drugs; however, further studies are advised to rule out other possible causes that increased cPLI.

  2. Evidence for a glutamate receptor of the AMPA subtype which mediates insulin release from rat perfused pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, G.; Gross, R.; Puech, R.; Loubatières-Mariani, M. M.; Bockaert, J.

    1992-01-01

    1. The effect of L-glutamate has been studied on insulin secretion by the isolated perfused pancreas of the rat. The glutamate receptor subtype involved has been characterized. 2. In the presence of a slightly stimulating glucose concentration (8.3 mM), L-glutamate (5 x 10(-5)-4 x 10(-3) M) induced an immediate, transient and concentration-dependent insulin response. On the other hand, in the presence of a non stimulating glucose concentration (2.8 mM), L-glutamate (10(-3) M) did not modify the basal insulin secretion. 3. The three non-NMDA receptor agonists, kainate (10(-4)-10(-3) M), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA, 5 x 10(-5)-10(-4) M) and quisqualate (5 x 10(-6)-5 x 10(-5) M) all provoked a transient and concentration-dependent insulin response from pancreas perfused with 8.3 mM glucose. Compared with glutamate, kainate exhibited a similar efficacy, whereas AMPA and quisqualate elicited only a 3 fold lower maximal insulin response. In contrast, NMDA (10(-4)-10(-3) M) was ineffective. 4. An antagonist of non-NMDA receptors, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 5 x 10(-5) M) totally prevented the stimulatory effect of L-glutamate (4 x 10(-4) M) and kainate (2 x 10(-4) M). In contrast, the NMDA receptor antagonist, (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine ((+) MK801) was without effect. 5. The insulin secretory effect of glutamate (4 x 10(-4) M) was not affected by atropine (3 x 10(-7) M) or tetrodotoxin (3 x 10(-6) M). 6. Quisqualate at a high maximally effective concentration (4 x 10(-4) M) inhibited glutamate (10(-3) M) or kainate (4 x 10(-4) M)-induced insulin release. 7. This study shows that L-glutamate stimulates insulin secretion in rat pancreas, by acting on an excitatory amino acid receptor of the AMPA subtype. PMID:1382779

  3. Diagnosis of segmental necrosis in a pancreas transplant by thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, H.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; Munda, R.; Fisher, R.A.; Moulton, J.S.; Huth, C.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Thallium-201 was used to image a patient with a pancreatic transplant. Incomplete visualization of the graft on the 201Tl scan, compared to CT, led to the diagnosis of segmental necrosis of the tail of the graft. Due to the low background and favorable target-to-non-target ratio, 201Tl pancreas scintigraphy may be useful in the follow-up of pancreatic transplants.

  4. Release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity from the perfused canine thyroid. Selective stimulatory effect of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, P; Orskov, H

    1981-05-01

    It is well accepted that the C cells of the thyroid contain somatostatin, but the role in local endocrine function has not yet been firmly established in this organ, and it has not been proved that thyroidal somatostatin is released into the circulation. We have measured the contents of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the effluent of canine thyroid glands perfused without recirculation with a synthetic buffer medium. During basal conditions a definite release was consistently found in the order of 10 pg/ml corresponding to 12 pg/min. The somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was studied in dilution experiments and by gel-filtration chromatography, and found to have properties identical to those of synthetic cyclic somatostatin, which was also recovered quantitatively when added to sampling tubes. Various compounds were infused in concentrations that are highly active in pancreas perfusion experiments. 14-min infusion of arginine, 5 and 11.5 mmol/liter; isoproterenol, 10 and 23.7 nmol/liter and 68.7 mumol/liter; acetylcholine, 5 mumol/liter, carbamylcholine, 10 and 100 mumol/liter; glucagon, 1 and 30 nmol/liter; and porcine calcitonin, 1 and 100 ng/ml did not affect the basal release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity significantly. Neither did an increase from the control level of 4 mmol/liter glucose of 10 or 20 mmol/liter, nor an increase in the control level of 4.4 mmol/liter K+ to 7.5 or 14.4 mmol/liter. Each of these compounds were tested in three or four dogs. The effect of an increase in Ca++ from the control level of 1.5 mmol/liter to 2.25, 3.0, and 4.5 mmol/liter was tested in random order in five thyroid lobes. All three doses elicited an immediate increase in effluent somatostatin-like immunoreactivity. In most experiments the response was biphasic with an early spike, followed by a stable level that was maintained during prolonged Ca++ infusion. The secretory response was not diminished through a series of repeated short pulses of calcium infusion

  5. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kent, Michael S.; Wisner, Erik R.; Johnson, Lynelle R.; Stern, Joshua A.; Qi, Lihong; Fujita, Yukio; Boone, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two-tailed t

  6. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kent, Michael S; Wisner, Erik R; Johnson, Lynelle R; Stern, Joshua A; Qi, Lihong; Fujita, Yukio; Boone, John M

    2016-07-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two-tailed t-test. The mean TRE

  7. Somatostatin, insulin and glucagon secretion by the perfused pancreas from the cysteamine-treated rat

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestre, R.A.; Miralles, P.; Moreno, P.; Villanueva, M.L.; Marco, J.

    1986-02-13

    In rats, administration of a single dose of cysteamine (300 mg/kg, intragastrically) induces a depletion of pancreatic somatostatin content (approximately 60%) without modifying pancreatic insulin or glucagon content. In perfused pancreases from cysteamine-treated rats, there was a lack of somatostatin response to glucose, arginine or tolbutamide. In the absence of stimulated somatostatin release, the secretory responses of insulin and glucagon to glucose, to arginine, and to tolbutamide were not significantly different from those observed in pancreases from control rats. Our data do not support the concept that pancreatic somatostatin plays a major role in the control of insulin and glucagon release.

  8. Effects of calcium infusion on secretion and motor activity of totally isolated canine stomach perfused with homologous blood.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, K; Kolodej, A

    1976-01-01

    Isolated, ex vivo perfused, canine stomachs were used for this study. Gastric secretion, myoelectrical activity and mechanical activity were recorded during stimulation of gastric function with pentagastrin or histamine alone or combined with calcium gluconate. Secretagogues and calcium were infused into the gastric arterial circulation. Hypercalcemia induced significant inhibition of pentagastrin, stimulated gastric secretion, but did not affect the secretion stimulated by histamine. Hypercalcemia also induced an increase of frequency of cycles of electrical control activity and a decrease of mechanical activity of the gastric antrum. The effect of hypercalcemia on gastric motor function was similar in the nonstimulated stomach and during the infusion of secretagogues used in this experiment.

  9. Characterization of the Effects of Arginine and Glucose on Glucagon and Insulin Release from the Perfused Rat Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gerich, John E.; Charles, M. Arthur; Grodsky, Gerold M.

    1974-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms by which arginine and glucose affect pancreatic alpha and beta cell function, the effects of these agents over their full dose response, both alone and in various combinations, were studied using the perfused rat pancreas. Arginine (0-38 mM), in the absence of glucose, stimulated biphasic glucagon (IRG) secretion (Km≃3-4 mM) at concentrations less than 1 mM and caused nonphasic insulin (IRI) release (Km≃12-13 mM) but only at concentrations greater than 6 mM. Glucose (0-27.5 mM) alone stimulated biphasic IRI release (Km≃9-10 mM) at concentrations in excess of 5.5 mM and caused nonphasic inhibition of IRG secretion (Kt≃5-6 mM) at concentrations as low as 4.1 mM. These results demonstrate fundamental differences in pancreatic alpha and beta cell secretory patterns in response to glucose and arginine and suggest that glucagon secretion is more sensitive to the effect of both glucose and arginine. Various concentrations of arginine in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose stimulated biphasic IRG and IRI release: IRG responses were diminished and IRI responses were enhanced compared with those seen with arginine in the absence of glucose. Glucose (0-27.5 mM) in the presence of 3.2 or 19.2 mM arginine caused similar inhibition of IRG secretion (Km≃5-6 mM) and stimulation of IRI release (Km≃9-10 mM) as that seen with glucose alone, although greater IRG and IRI release occurred. This augmentation of IRI secretion was greater than that expected from mere additive effects of glucose and arginine. Classical Lineweaver-Burk analysis of these results indicates that glucose is a non-competitive inhibitor arginine-stimulated glucagon secretion and suggests that glucose and arginine affect pancreatic alpha and beta cell function via different mechanisms. In addition, comparison of simultaneous insulin and glucagon secretion patterns under various conditions suggests that endogenous insulin per se has little or no direct effect on IRG secretion

  10. The effect of muscle contusion on cortical bone and muscle perfusion following reamed, intramedullary nailing: a novel canine tibia fracture model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Management of tibial fractures associated with soft tissue injury remains controversial. Previous studies have assessed perfusion of the fractured tibia and surrounding soft tissues in the setting of a normal soft tissue envelope. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of muscle contusion on blood flow to the tibial cortex and muscle during reamed, intramedullary nailing of a tibial fracture. Methods Eleven adult canines were distributed into two groups, Contusion or No-Contusion. The left tibia of each canine underwent segmental osteotomy followed by limited reaming and locked intramedullary nailing. Six of the 11 canines had the anterior muscle compartment contused in a standardized fashion. Laser doppler flowmetry was used to measure cortical bone and muscle perfusion during the index procedure and at 11 weeks post-operatively. Results Following a standardized contusion, muscle perfusion in the Contusion group was higher compared to the No-Contusion group at post-osteotomy and post-reaming (p < 0.05). Bone perfusion decreased to a larger extent in the Contusion group compared to the No-Contusion group following osteotomy (p < 0.05), and the difference in bone perfusion between the two groups remained significant throughout the entire procedure (p < 0.05). At 11 weeks, muscle perfusion was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). There was a sustained decrease in overall bone perfusion in the Contusion group at 11 weeks, compared to the No-Contusion group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Injury to the soft tissue envelope may have some deleterious effects on intraosseous circulation. This could have some influence on the fixation method for tibia fractures linked with significant soft tissue injury. PMID:21118566

  11. Effects of cardioplegia induced by a Young's solution (YNG solution) on the blood-perfused canine papillary muscle preparation.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Ohkubo, K; Suzuki, K; Katano, Y; Otorii, T; Kawada, T; Yoshida, S; Imai, S

    1984-03-01

    Experiments were carried out in the blood-perfused canine papillary muscle preparation to evaluate the protective effect of a cardioplegic solution, Young's solution (YNG solution), on the myocardial function. Both in spontaneously contracting preparations and in electrically paced (2 Hz) preparations, the time to the cardiac arrest and the time to the maximum blood flow were found to be significantly shorter when the cardiac arrest was induced with cardioplegic solutions than when it was induced with the cold modified Krebs-Ringer's solution (cold cardioplegia). The maximum blood flow of the paced preparation tended to be greater with cardioplegic solutions. The time to resumption of regular contractions was significantly shorter with YNG solution as compared with cold cardioplegia. The developed tension and the blood flow at the time of resumption of the regular contractions tended to approach the control value more quickly with YNG solution, as compared with other cardioplegic solutions and cold cardioplegia. It is concluded that YNG solution represents an optimal cardioplegic solution.

  12. Computerized tomography versus perfusion lung scanning in canine radiation lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, I.H.; Logus, J.W.; El-Khatib, E.; Battista, J.J.; Ferri, H.; Lentle, B.C.; Man, G.C.; Man, S.F. )

    1990-03-01

    Computerized tomographic (CT) measurements of lung density were obtained before and serially after thoracic irradiation in dogs to detect the alterations caused by radiation therapy. Fourteen mongrel dogs were given either 2000 cGy (Group A, 10 dogs, right lower zone irradiation), 1000 cGy (Group B, 2 dogs, right lower zone irradiation), or 500 cGy (Group C, 2 dogs, right lung irradiation) in one fraction. Once before and bi-weekly after irradiation, the anesthetized dogs had thoracic CT scans. CT numbers for the irradiated area were compared to their preirradiation control values. Macro-aggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion lung scans were also obtained before and at weekly intervals after irradiation and were evaluated visually and quantitatively for abnormalities. When both these tests were abnormal, or at the end of the scheduled study, the dogs were sacrificed to confirm radiation lung injury histologically. Our results showed that CT numbers (as a measure of tissue density) were higher with higher doses of radiation. Among all the techniques used, only the quantitative assessment of macro-aggregated albumin perfusion scan detected abnormalities in all the dogs given 2000 cGy. Their abnormalities correlated well with the presence of radiation lung damage histologically, however, the applicability of these methods in the detection of early injury has to be further evaluated.

  13. Cerebral perfusion during canine hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass: effect of arterial carbon dioxide tension.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W E; Vinten-Johansen, J; DeWitt, D S; O'Steen, W K; Stump, D A; Prough, D S

    1991-09-01

    Cerebral blood flow (radioactive microspheres), intracranial pressure (subdural bolt), and retinal histopathology were examined in 20 dogs undergoing 150 minutes of hypothermic (28 degrees C) cardiopulmonary bypass to compare alpha-stat (arterial carbon dioxide tension, 40 +/- 1 mm Hg; n = 10) and pH-stat (arterial carbon dioxide tension, 61 +/- 1 mm Hg; n = 10) techniques of arterial carbon dioxide tension management. Pump flow (80 mL.kg-1.min-1), mean aortic pressure (78 +/- 2 mm Hg), and hemoglobin level (87 +/- 3 g/L [8.7 +/- 0.3 g/dL]) were maintained constant. During bypass, intracranial pressure progressively increased in the alpha-stat group from 6.0 +/- 1.0 to 13.9 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (p less than 0.05) and in the pH-stat group from 7.7 +/- 1.1 to 14.7 +/- 1.4 mm Hg (p less than 0.05), although there was no evidence of loss of intracranial compliance or intracranial edema formation as assessed by brain water content. With cooling, cerebral blood flow decreased by 56% to 62% in the alpha-stat group (p less than 0.05) and by 48% to 56% in the pH-stat group (p less than 0.05). However, 30 minutes after rewarming to 37 degrees C, cerebral blood flow in both groups failed to increase and remained significantly depressed compared with baseline values. Both groups showed similar amounts of ischemic retinal damage, with degeneration of bipolar cells found in the inner nuclear layer in 67% of animals. We conclude that, independent of the arterial carbon dioxide tension management technique, (1) cerebral perfusion decreased comparably during prolonged hypothermic bypass, (2) intracranial pressure increases progressively, (3) ischemic damage to retinal cells occurs despite maintenance of aortic pressure and flow, and (4) a significant reduction in cerebral perfusion persists after rewarming.

  14. TU-CD-BRA-08: Single-Energy Computed Tomography-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging: Proof-Of-Principle in a Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T; Boone, J; Kent, M; Wisner, E; Fujita, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary perfusion imaging has provided significant insights into pulmonary diseases, and can be useful in radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to prospectively establish proof-of-principle in a canine model for single-energy CT-based perfusion imaging, which has the potential for widespread clinical implementation. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on: (1) acquisition of inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) of the two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the pre-contrast image from post-contrast image, yielding a map of Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement. These subtraction image data sets hypothetically represent perfused blood volume, a surrogate for perfusion. In an IACUC-approved clinical trial, we acquired pre- and post-contrast CT scans in the prone posture for six anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated dogs. The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The registration accuracy was quantified using the target registration errors (TREs) for 50 pulmonary landmarks in each dog. The gradient of HU enhancement between gravity-dependent (ventral) and non-dependent (dorsal) regions was evaluated to quantify the known effect of gravity, i.e., greater perfusion in ventral regions. Results: The lung volume difference between the two scans was 4.3±3.5% on average (range 0.3%–10.1%). DIR demonstrated an average TRE of 0.7±1.0 mm. HU enhancement in lung parenchyma was 34±10 HU on average and varied considerably between individual dogs, indicating the need for improvement of the contrast injection protocol. HU enhancement in ventral (gravity-dependent) regions was found to be greater than in dorsal regions. A population average ventral-to-dorsal gradient of HU enhancement was strong (R{sup 2}=0.94) and statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: This canine study demonstrated relatively accurate DIR and a strong ventral

  15. Portal Venous Oxygen Persufflation of the Donation after Cardiac Death pancreas in a rat model is superior to static cold storage and hypothermic machine perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mettu S; Carter, Noel; Cunningham, Anne; Shaw, James; Talbot, David

    2014-06-01

    Success of clinical pancreatic islet transplantation depends on the mass of viable islets transplanted and the proportion of transplanted islets that survive early ischaemia reperfusion injury. Novel pancreas preservation techniques to improve islet preservation and viability can increase the utilization of donation after cardiac death donor pancreases for islet transplantation. Rat pancreases were retrieved after 30 min of warm ischaemia and preserved by static cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion or retrograde portal venous oxygen persufflation for 6 h. They underwent collagenase digestion and density gradient separation to isolate islets. The yield, viability, morphology were compared. In vitro function of isolated islets was compared using glucose stimulated insulin secretion test. Portal venous oxygen persufflation improved the islet yield, viability and morphology as compared to static cold storage. The percentage of pancreases with good in vitro function (stimulation index > 1.0) was also higher after oxygen persufflation as compared to static cold storage. Retrograde portal venous oxygen persufflation of donation after cardiac death donor rat pancreases has the potential to improve islet yield.

  16. Function of the vascular endothelium after hypothermic storage at four degrees Celsius in a canine tibial perfusion model. The role of adrenomedullin in reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Bishop, A T; Tu, Y K; Wood, M B

    1998-09-01

    The function of the vascular endothelium after cold storage at 4 degrees Celsius for one, three, five, and seven days was investigated in a canine tibial perfusion model. Function was assessed in terms of changes in perfusion pressure, changes in the concentration of endothelin in the venous effluent from the perfused tibiae, adrenomedullin-induced vascular smooth-muscle relaxation, and norepinephrine-induced pressor responses in the presence of acetylcholine, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis), or indomethacin (an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis) in phase 1 of the study. In phase 2 of the study, the effect of the infusion of tetraethylammonium (a potassium-channel blocker that inhibits the activity of endothelium-derived hyperpolarized factor) was analyzed. The baseline perfusion pressures increased in a time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). In tibiae that had been stored for one or three days, the production of endothelin-1 was less than one picogram per milliliter, but it markedly increased to a mean (and standard error of the mean) of 8.7 +/- 3.2 and 10.8 +/- 4.3 picograms per milliliter in tibiae that had been stored for five and seven days, respectively (p < 0.05). Acetylcholine attenuated the norepinephrine-induced pressor response in all groups (storage at 4 degrees Celsius for one, three, five, or seven days) compared with the response in the control tibiae (p < 0.05). Perfusion of acetylcholine in the tibiae that had been stored for three days significantly attenuated the pressor response to norepinephrine compared with that in the tibiae that had been stored for five days (p < 0.05). In the presence of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate, the norepinephrine-induced pressor response significantly increased only in the tibiae that had been stored for one day (p < 0.05). In the presence of indomethacin, the norepinephrine-induced pressor response significantly decreased in the tibiae that had been stored at 4 degrees

  17. Pancreas Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  18. The secretion of alkali metal ions by the perfused cat pancreas as influenced by the composition and osmolality of the external environment and by inhibitors of metabolism and Na+, K+-ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Case, R. M.; Scratcherd, T.

    1974-01-01

    1. The secretion of sodium, potassium and lithium has been studied in the isolated cat pancreas, perfused with bicarbonate buffered saline solutions of varying composition and osmolality, and stimulated maximally with secretin. 2. Under isosmolal conditions, when perfusate sodium chloride was replaced by sucrose, sodium secretion and potassium secretion were directly related to perfusate sodium concentration, [Na]p. 3. When osmolality was varied by increasing or decreasing perfusate sodium chloride concentration, the secretion of sodium and of potassium were maximal at [Na]p of about 120 and 80 mM respectively. 4. At a given [Na]p, sodium secretion was greater under hypo-osmolal conditions than under isosmolal conditions. 5. When potassium concentration was varied over the range 0-130 mM under isosmolal conditions, by adjusting perfusate NaCl concentration, the secretion of potassium and of sodium were maximal at [K]p of about 50 and 10 mM respectively. Water flux was maximal at a [K]p of 10-15 mM. The concentration of potassium in the secretion was almost identical with that in the perfusate over the whole concentration range. 6. Replacement of perfusate sodium by lithium reduced the volume of secretion, though a small secretion was maintained even in the complete absence of sodium. The concentration of lithium in the secretion was generally slightly greater than that in the perfusate. 7. Omission of potassium from the perfusate reduced secretion by about 65%. Rubidium was a complete substitute for potassium; caesium was not. 8. Energy for secretion is derived largely from oxidative phosphorylation. Secretion was reduced by more than 90% under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of dinitrophenol or cyanide. Removal of glucose from the perfusate reduced secretion by more than 50% within 30 min; lactate was a complete substitute for glucose. 9. Ouabain, ethacrinic acid and frusimide, known inhibitors of Na+, K+-ATPase activity, all inhibited pancreatic

  19. Improved yield of canine islet isolation from deceased donors.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Stephen; Williams, S Janette; Otte, Vern; Barchman, Sally; Jones, Cheryl; Ramachandran, Karthik; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa

    2017-08-22

    Canine diabetes is a strikingly prevalent and growing disease, and yet the standard treatment of a twice-daily insulin injection is both cumbersome to pet owners and only moderately effective. Islet transplantation has been performed with repeated success in canine research models, but has unfortunately not been made available to companion animals. Standard protocols for islet isolation, developed primarily for human islet transplantation, include beating-heart organ donation, vascular perfusion of preservation solutions, specialized equipment. Unfortunately, these processes are prohibitively complex and expensive for veterinary use. The aim of the study was to develop a simplified approach for isolating canine islets that is compatible with the financial and logistical restrictions inherent to veterinary medicine for the purpose of translating islet transplantation to a clinical treatment for canine diabetes. Here, we describe simplified strategies for isolating quality islets from deceased canine donors without vascular preservation and with up to 90 min of cold ischemia time. An average of more than 1500 islet equivalents per kg of donor bodyweight was obtained with a purity of 70% (N = 6 animals). Islets were 95% viable and responsive to glucose stimulation for a week. We found that processing only the body and tail of the pancreas increased isolation efficiency without sacrificing islet total yield. Islet yield per gram of tissue increased from 773 to 1868 islet equivalents when the head of the pancreas was discarded (N = 3/group). In summary, this study resulted in the development of an efficient and readily accessible method for obtaining viable and functional canine islets from deceased donors. These strategies provide an ethical means for obtaining donor islets.

  20. Annular pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001142.htm Annular pancreas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles ...

  1. Pancreas Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, David ER

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is generally treated with oral diabetic drugs and/or insulin. However, the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition increases over time, even in patients receiving intensive insulin treatment, and this is largely attributable to diabetic complications or the insulin therapy itself. Pancreas transplantation in humans was first conducted in 1966, since when there has been much debate regarding the legitimacy of this procedure. Technical refinements and the development of better immunosuppressants and better postoperative care have brought about marked improvements in patient and graft survival and a reduction in postoperative morbidity. Consequently, pancreas transplantation has become the curative treatment modality for diabetes, particularly for type I diabetes. An overview of pancreas transplantation is provided herein, covering the history of pancreas transplantation, indications for transplantation, cadaveric and living donors, surgical techniques, immunosuppressants, and outcome following pancreas transplantation. The impact of successful pancreas transplantation on the complications of diabetes will also be reviewed briefly. PMID:21253293

  2. Effects of haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine) on intestinal perfusion and oxygenation in a canine hypovolaemia model.

    PubMed

    Driessen, B; Jahr, J S; Lurie, F; Griffey, S M; Gunther, R A

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the effects of the first marketed haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine) (Hb-200) (Oxyglobin) on splanchnic perfusion and oxygenation in a canine model of acute hypovolaemia. Twelve anaesthetized dogs [mean weight 30.8 (S.D. 1.4) kg] were instrumented for recordings of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac output and cranial mesenteric arterial (CMA) and venous blood flows (CMV). Total and plasma haemoglobin (Hb), oxygen content and saturation, lactate concentration, pH and blood gases were analysed in arterial, mixed venous and mesenteric venous blood samples. Measurements were made before (baseline) and after 1 h of haemorrhage, after which animals were resuscitated with either shed blood (controls) or Hb-200 until HR, MAP and CVP returned to prehaemorrhage levels. Recordings were repeated immediately and 3 h after termination of fluid resuscitation, after which organ specimens were obtained for microscopic examination. Haemorrhage (average 32 ml kg(-1)) reduced MAP to 50 mm Hg, increased HR and systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and was accompanied in both the systemic and the splanchnic circulation by significant decreases in blood flow, Hb content and oxygen delivery (DO2), and lactic acidosis. In controls, all variables recovered to baseline after isovolaemic resuscitation with shed blood. In dogs resuscitated with a small volume of Hb-200 (10 ml kg(-1)), HR, MAP, CVP and CMA and CMV blood flows returned to baseline. However, cardiac output, total Hb, oxygen content and systemic and mesenteric DO2 remained depressed while SVR increased further. Mesenteric and systemic acid-base status recovered in both groups, and there was no difference in microscopic tissue damage between groups. Thus, Hb-200 reconstituted splanchnic perfusion and oxidative metabolism in spite of pronounced systemic vasoconstriction and insufficient restoration of CO

  3. Artifical Pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, JDRF launched the Artificial Pancreas Project (APP) to accelerate the development of a commercially-viable artificial pancreas system to closely mimic the biological function of the pancreas individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes. By automating detection of blood sugar levels and delivery of insulin in response to those levels, an artificial pancreas has the potential to transform the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. The 6-step APP development pathway serves as JDRF's APP strategic funding plan and defines the priorities of product research and development. Each step in the plan represents incremental advances in automation beginning with devices that shut off insulin delivery to prevent episodes of low blood sugar and progressing ultimately to a fully automated ``closed loop'' system that maintains blood glucose at a target level without the need to bolus for meals or adjust for exercise.

  4. Pancreas Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... risky. Each person needs to carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks. Benefits of Pancreas Transplants You ...

  5. Pancreas divisum

    MedlinePlus

    ... it. Alternative Names Pancreatic divisum Images Digestive system Endocrine glands Pancreas References Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  6. Pancreas transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:511-5. Gruessner AC, Gruessner RWG. Pancreas and kidney transplantation for diabetic nephropathy. In: Morris PJ, Knechtle SJ, eds. Kidney Transplantation: ...

  7. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Kidney/Pancreas Facts The kidneys are a pair of reddish- ... the chemical (electrolyte) composition of the blood. The pancreas is a five to six inch gland located ...

  8. Canine Autoanticoagulation during Extracorporeal Perfusion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-19

    cffl.:e .C01 Tas % ee= Szreez 7. ava ,. %L-dca. Researc*- Uhl" 70. 2 -ox :.4 APO S=. Fr=.Cisco 96Z63 ’Suz-a4i-e Xe!.±c&Z. -Resea.:::Lcraoz llava.L Suibax...TL:ts±- e:~e ’ILI. (2.) D-epartment of the A~ U. S. A=~ Science amd T’echnology Center - ?ar Zasz APO San :rancisco 96� (1) Asssant Chief for

  9. Pancreas graft salvage using pancreatico-duodenectomy with enteric drainage.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M S; White, S A; Jaques, B C; Torpey, N; Manas, D M

    2007-10-01

    As demand for donor pancreases increases, attempts are being made to utilize even marginal grafts for transplantation. Injury during pancreas recovery can predispose to posttransplant complications and graft loss. Early recognition and correction can salvage these grafts. The authors report an instance of poor segmental perfusion of the pancreas graft that was salvaged by pancreas head resection and enteric drainage through a Roux-en-Y pancreatico-jejunostomy.

  10. National Pancreas Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... NPF Centers Animated Pancreas Patient About the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer Chronic Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis Children/Pediatric Other Pancreas ... Providing hope to those suffering from pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Support Pancreatic Research Slide2 Providing hope to those ...

  11. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  12. Getting a New Pancreas: Facts about Pancreas Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1, 2003 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants American Society of ... represent the views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ Getting a New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants When you get ...

  13. Dual isotope simultaneous imaging to evaluate the effects of intracoronary bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on perfusion and metabolism in canines with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hao, Linjun; Hao, Jin; Fang, Wei; Han, Chunlei; Zhang, Kaixiu; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-07-01

    Stem cell therapy on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been performed for over a decade. In the present study, cardiac perfusion, metabolism and function in dogs with AMI treated by intracoronary injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated by dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) of single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT). Dogs (n=12, 20-30 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups: A graft study (n=6) and control group (n=6). Bone marrow mesenchymal aspirate was collected 3 weeks before surgical procedure. Stem cells were induced by 5-azacytidine for differentiation into myocytes. The dog AMI model was produced by blocking the blood stream at 1/3 of the distinct left anterior descending coronary artery for 90 min. For dogs in the grafting group, MSCs were transplanted by intracoronary injection, and for the control group, 0.9% NaCl was injected instead. At 1 and 10 weeks after MSCs were grafted, respectively, SPECT DISA was performed for each dog in the two groups with (99m)Tc-SPECT MIBI (925 MBq) and (18)F-FDG (222 MBq) for evaluation of myocardial perfusion and metabolism. After the dogs were sacrificed, heart tissue was stained by myocyte-specific antibodies for newborn vessels, troponin T and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Following induction by 5-azacytidine, the morphological features with colony formation, microfilament, as well as atrial granules and positive stainings of α-actinin, myosin and troponin I demonstrated strongly that the MSCs differentiated into myocytes. The number of viable myocardial segments was 10 in the grafting group, which was significantly greater compared with the control group. The ejection fraction of the infarcted left ventricle (LVEF,%) increased from 53.80±9.58 to 70.00±7.52 (change, 16.20±2.93) at 1 and 10 weeks after MSCs engraftment, whilst in the control group, LVEF was 50.50±8.02 and 56.50±7.24 (change, 5.50±2.69), respectively. The LVEF difference was

  14. What Is the Pancreas?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer The Pancreas Parts of ...

  15. Pancreas transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100129.htm Pancreas transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 6 out of 6 Overview The pancreas resides in the back of the abdomen. It ...

  16. Annular pancreas (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  17. Pancreas transplantation: review

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascularized pancreas transplantation is the only treatment that establishes normal glucose levels and normalizes glycosylated hemoglobin levels in type 1 diabetic patients. The first vascularized pancreas transplant was performed by William Kelly and Richard Lillehei, to treat a type 1 diabetes patient, in December 1966. In Brazil, Edison Teixeira performed the first isolated segmental pancreas transplant in 1968. Until the 1980s, pancreas transplants were restricted to a few centers of the United States and Europe. The introduction of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil in 1994, led to a significant outcome improvement and consequently, an increase in pancreas transplants in several countries. According to the International Pancreas Transplant Registry, until December 31st, 2010, more than 35 thousand pancreas transplants had been performed. The one-year survival of patients and pancreatic grafts exceeds 95 and 83%, respectively. The better survival of pancreatic (86%) and renal (93%) grafts in the first year after transplantation is in the simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant group of patients. Immunological loss in the first year after transplant for simultaneous pancreas-kidney, pancreas after kidney, and pancreas alone are 1.8, 3.7, and 6%, respectively. Pancreas transplant has 10 to 20% surgical complications requiring laparotomy. Besides enhancing quality of life, pancreatic transplant increases survival of uremic diabetic patient as compared to uremic diabetic patients on dialysis or with kidney transplantation alone. PMID:26154551

  18. A Study of Normothermic Hemoperfusion of the Porcine Pancreas and Kidney.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Kean Guan; Wee, Mau Nam; Chung, Wen Yuan; Kumar, Rohan; Mees, Soeren Torge; Dennison, Ashley; Maddern, Guy; Trochsler, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Normothermic machine perfusion has enormous potential to improve organ preservation and expand the organ donor pool. It is well established in other organs but not the pancreas, which has especially strict organ acceptance criteria. We established a model of normothermic hemoperfusion of the porcine pancreas with and without addition of the kidney as a dialysis organ. Four pancreases were harvested and perfused for 120 min with autologous whole blood at body temperature, two with parallel perfusion of the kidney and two without. The organs and perfusion circuit were evaluated for gross appearance, pH, histology and perfusion parameters. The organs maintained steadily increasing flow rate and perfusion pressure. Gross appearance of the organs was stable but appeared grossly ischemic toward the end of the perfusion period. Histology demonstrated necrosis centered in acinar tissue but islet cells were preserved. pH was significantly alkalotic toward the end of the perfusion, likely due to pancreatic tissue damage. Addition of the kidney did not result in significant improvement of the acid-base environment in this small series. In conclusion, normothermic perfusion of the pancreas is still in the experimental stages but holds great potential. Further studies to optimize perfusion parameters will significantly improve results. Parallel perfusion of the kidney may facilitate improvement in the acid-base environment. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Blood vessels restrain pancreas branching, differentiation and growth

    PubMed Central

    Magenheim, Judith; Ilovich, Ohad; Lazarus, Alon; Klochendler, Agnes; Ziv, Oren; Werman, Roni; Hija, Ayat; Cleaver, Ondine; Mishani, Eyal; Keshet, Eli; Dor, Yuval

    2011-01-01

    How organ size and form are controlled during development is a major question in biology. Blood vessels have been shown to be essential for early development of the liver and pancreas, and are fundamental to normal and pathological tissue growth. Here, we report that, surprisingly, non-nutritional signals from blood vessels act to restrain pancreas growth. Elimination of endothelial cells increases the size of embryonic pancreatic buds. Conversely, VEGF-induced hypervascularization decreases pancreas size. The growth phenotype results from vascular restriction of pancreatic tip cell formation, lateral branching and differentiation of the pancreatic epithelium into endocrine and acinar cells. The effects are seen both in vivo and ex vivo, indicating a perfusion-independent mechanism. Thus, the vasculature controls pancreas morphogenesis and growth by reducing branching and differentiation of primitive epithelial cells. PMID:21965615

  20. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, often, the nervous systems of puppies and dogs. The virus also infects wild canids (e.g. ... How is Canine Distemper virus spread? Puppies and dogs usually become infected through airborne exposure to the ...

  1. Canine lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Madewell, B R

    1985-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the literature regarding canine malignant lymphoma. It includes a discussion of etiology, classification, systemic manifestations of disease, therapy, and supportive care for patient management.

  2. Formation of Collateral Veins in a Graft Pancreas After a Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, B H; Lee, H Y; Park, Y M; Yang, K H; Ryu, J H; Chu, C W

    2015-09-01

    A graft vein thrombosis is the main cause of early graft failure after pancreas transplantation. We report a case of formation of collateral veins in a graft pancreas after transplant. A 30-year-old woman underwent simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. She was discharged 16 days after the operation with good pancreas and kidney function. A total occlusion of the portal vein was discovered on computed tomography (CT) performed at an outpatient clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of hyperglycemia. Venography was attempted for vein thrombectomy but failed. After 2 weeks of heparinization therapy, the edema disappeared and perfusion of the graft pancreas improved. However, the thrombotic occlusion was not resolved on CT. Arteriography of the Y-graft revealed collateral veins. She was discharged with warfarin. She is currently doing well without any symptoms or signs. This is the first reported case of collateral vein formation in a grafted pancreas after pancreas transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of pancreas cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  4. Deconstructing Pancreas Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Benitez, Cecil M.; Goodyer, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The relentless nature and increasing prevalence of human pancreatic diseases, in particular, diabetes mellitus and adenocarcinoma, has motivated further understanding of pancreas organogenesis. The pancreas is a multifunctional organ whose epithelial cells govern a diversity of physiologically vital endocrine and exocrine functions. The mechanisms governing the birth, differentiation, morphogenesis, growth, maturation, and maintenance of the endocrine and exocrine components in the pancreas have been discovered recently with increasing tempo. This includes recent studies unveiling mechanisms permitting unexpected flexibility in the developmental potential of immature and mature pancreatic cell subsets, including the ability to interconvert fates. In this article, we describe how classical cell biology, genetic analysis, lineage tracing, and embryological investigations are being complemented by powerful modern methods including epigenetic analysis, time-lapse imaging, and flow cytometry-based cell purification to dissect fundamental processes of pancreas development. PMID:22587935

  5. [Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas].

    PubMed

    Davies, Nestor R; Kasparian, Andres C; Viotto, Lucas E; Moreno, Walter A; Gramática, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas represents around 6-36% of mucinous cystic neoplasm. The lesions are usually found in the body and tail of the pancreas and are generally solitary with a size range of 6-36 cm. We present a clinical case of a 63 years old patient with abdominal pain and weight loss. We used radiographic imaging studies. It was treated with surgery by distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and transverse colectomy. Patient was not post operative complications.

  6. Partial annular pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Gunjan; Mittal, Amit; Singal, Rikki; Singal, Samita

    2016-01-01

    Annular pancreas is a developmental anomaly that can be associated with other conditions such as Down syndrome, duodenal atresia, and Hirschsprung disease. A band of pancreatic tissue, in continuity with the pancreatic head, completely or incompletely encircles the descending duodenum, sometimes assuming a “crocodile jaw” configuration. We present the case of an adult who presented with epigastric pain and vomiting and was found to have annular pancreas. PMID:27695176

  7. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  8. Canine gastritis.

    PubMed

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  9. Portal Annular Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Harnoss, Jonathan M.; Harnoss, Julian C.; Diener, Markus K.; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B.; Büchler, Markus W.; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered. In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery). Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option. PMID:25207658

  10. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Up About Us Board of Directors Newsletter Partners Financial & Privacy Policy Contact Us Patient Information About the Pancreas NPF ... here . About Us Board of Directors Newsletter Partners Financial & Privacy Policy Contact Us Patient Information About the Pancreas Genetics & ...

  11. Laparoscopic Biopsies in Pancreas Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Uva, P D; Odorico, J S; Giunippero, A; Cabrera, I C; Gallo, A; Leon, L R; Minue, E; Toniolo, F; Gonzalez, I; Chuluyan, E; Casadei, D H

    2017-08-01

    As there is no precise laboratory test or imaging study for detection of pancreas allograft rejection, there is increasing interest in obtaining pancreas tissue for diagnosis. Pancreas allograft biopsies are most commonly performed percutaneously, transcystoscopically, or endoscopically, yet pancreas transplant surgeons often lack the skills to perform these types of biopsies. We have performed 160 laparoscopic pancreas biopsies in 95 patients. There were 146 simultaneous kidney-pancreas biopsies and 14 pancreas-only biopsies due to pancreas alone, kidney loss, or extraperitoneal kidney. Biopsies were performed for graft dysfunction (89) or per protocol (71). In 13 cases, an additional laparoscopic procedure was performed at the same operation. The pancreas diagnostic tissue yield was 91.2%; however, the pancreas could not be visualized in eight cases (5%) and in 6 cases the tissue sample was nondiagnostic (3.8%). The kidney tissue yield was 98.6%. There were four patients with intraoperative complications requiring laparotomy (2.5%) with two additional postoperative complications. Half of all these complications were kidney related. There were no episodes of pancreatic enzyme leak and there were no graft losses related to the procedure. We conclude that laparoscopic kidney and pancreas allograft biopsies can be safely performed with very high tissue yields. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. A solution to organ shortage: vascular reconstructions for pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gałazka, Z; Grochowiecki, T; Nazarewski, S; Rowiński, O; Chudziński, W; Pietrasik, K; Jakimowicz, T; Solonynko, B; Nawrot, I; Kański, A; Szmidt, J

    2006-01-01

    Multiorgan harvesting (MOH) accounts for approximately 40% of all organ procurements in Poland. Simultaneous procurement of the pancreas and liver necessitates division of the vessels supplying both organs. Therefore, reconstruction of the pancreas vasculature is mandatory for proper function of the transplanted organ. The aim of this study was to present various methods of vascular reconstruction to prepare the pancreas for transplantation. Between January 1999 and April 2005, among 42 whole pancreas transplantations, 35 came from MOH necessitating arterial reconstruction. In 32 cases, the splenic artery (SA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were sewn into a single trunk using the common iliac arterial bifurcation. Occasionally, the iliac Y-graft was unsuitable for vascular reconstruction due to atherosclerosis or iatrogenic injury. Therefore, the SA was anastomosed to the side of the SMA in two cases. In one case we utilized the brachiocephalic trunk bifurcation. Portal vein elongation employed an external iliac vein procured from the donor in all 35 cases. Good perfusion was achieved in all transplanted pancreata. During the early follow-up period, two venous and one arterial thromboses were noted. No negative effects of pancreatic vessel reconstruction were observed in postoperative graft function. Reconstruction of the pancreas vasculature did not affect the long-term function of the allograft while significantly increasing the available donor organ pool.

  13. Pig Pancreas Anatomy: Implications for Pancreas Procurement, Preservation, and Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Joana; Scott, William E; Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2009-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. The limited human islet supply from cadavers and poor islet yield and quality remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Use of porcine islets holds great promise for large-scale application of islet transplantation. Consistent isolation of porcine islets is dependent on advances in pancreas procurement and preservation, and islet isolation requiring detailed knowledge of the porcine pancreatic anatomy. The primary aim of this study was to describe the vascular and ductal anatomy of the porcine pancreas in order to guide and improve organ preservation and enzyme perfusion. Methods Pancreata were removed by en bloc viscerectomy from 65 female Landrace pigs. Results 15% of organs exhibited inconsistent vascular branching from the celiac trunk. All organs had uniform patterns of branching at the superior mesenteric artery. The superior and inferior mesenteric veins (IMV) merged to become the portal vein in all but one case in which the IMV drained into the splenic vein. 97% of pancreata had three lobes: duodenal (DL), connecting (CL), and splenic (SL); 39% demonstrated ductal communication between the CL and the other two lobes; 50% had ductal communication only between the CL and DL; and 11% presented other types of ductal delineation. Conclusions Accounting for the variations in vascular and ductal anatomy, as detailed in this study, will facilitate development of protocols for preservation, optimal enzyme administration, and pancreas distention and digestion, and ultimately lead to substantial improvements in isolation outcomes. PMID:19077881

  14. Pancreatic perfusion and subsequent response to glucose in healthy individuals and patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carlbom, Lina; Espes, Daniel; Lubberink, Mark; Eriksson, Olof; Johansson, Lars; Jansson, Leif; Korsgren, Olle; Ahlström, Håkan; Carlsson, Per-Ola

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate pancreatic perfusion and its response to a glucose load in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with non-diabetic ('healthy') individuals. Eight individuals with longstanding type 1 diabetes and ten sex-, age- and BMI-matched healthy controls underwent dynamic positron emission tomography scanning with (15)O-labelled water before and after intravenous administration of glucose. Perfusion in the pancreas was measured. Portal and arterial hepatic perfusion were recorded as references. Under fasting conditions, total pancreatic perfusion was on average 23% lower in the individuals with diabetes compared with healthy individuals. Glucose increased total pancreatic and portal hepatic blood perfusion in healthy individuals by 48% and 38%, respectively. In individuals with diabetes there was no significant increase in either total pancreatic or portal hepatic perfusion. Individuals with type 1 diabetes have reduced basal pancreatic perfusion and a severely impaired pancreatic and splanchnic perfusion response to intravenous glucose stimulation.

  15. Retinoids in the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Pierre-Jacques; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn

    2016-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its natural and synthetic analogs) are required by most tissues for maintaining the normal health of the tissue. This is certainly true for the pancreas. The recent literature is convincing that retinoids are needed by the adult to assure normal pancreatic endocrine functions, especially those of the α- and β-cells. It is also well established that retinoids are required to insure normal pancreas development in utero, including the development of the endocrine pancreas. The actions of retinoids for maintaining normal pancreatic islet functions has drawn considerable research interest from investigators interested in understanding and treating metabolic disease. Pancreatic retinoids are also of interest to investigators studying the origins of pancreatic disease, including the development of pancreatic fibrosis and its sequelae. This research interest is focused on pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) which store retinoids and possess the metabolic machinery needed to metabolize retinoids. The literature on pancreatic disease and retinoids suggests that there is an association between impairments in pancreatic retinoid storage and metabolism and the development of pancreatic disease. These topics will be considered in this review. PMID:26904552

  16. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. The left-sided pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, G.D.; Gibson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    Ultrasonography (US) performed in nine patients (two with pancreatic carcinoma, one with hepatomegaly), six with no relevant abdominal disease) showed the pancreas to lie wholly to the left of the aorta. This not uncommon location may give rise to difficulty in demonstrating the pancreas on real-time US scans. The superior mesenteric vessels and splenic vein remain useful land-marks for locating the head of the pancreas in this position.

  18. MR imaging of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Erin; Hammond, Nancy; Miller, Frank H

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pancreas is useful as both a problem-solving tool and an initial imaging examination of choice. With newer imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging, MR offers improved ability to detect and characterize lesions and identify and stage tumors and inflammation. MR cholangiopancreatography can be used to visualize the pancreatic and biliary ductal system. In this article, the use of MR to evaluate the pancreas, including recent advances, is reviewed and the normal appearance of the pancreas on different imaging sequences, as well as inflammatory diseases, congenital abnormalities, and neoplasms of the pancreas, are discussed.

  19. Histologic effects of University of Wisconsin two-layer method preservation of rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Gioviale, M C; Damiano, G; Puleio, R; Bellavia, M; Cassata, G; Palumbo, V D; Spinelli, G; Altomare, R; Barone, R; Cacciabaudo, F; Buscemi, G; Lo Monte, A I

    2013-06-01

    Marginal donors represent a poorly utilized source of organs for transplantation despite their availability. The key is to reduce the ischemic damage in the effort to improve organ quality. This study investigated the histologic effects after in situ perfusion of preservation with a two-layer method compared with the classic University of Wisconsin preservation in term of tissue integrity and number of viable exocrine cells in the rat pancreas both after exsanguination and at 8 weeks of cryopreservation. Pancreata harvested from 60 rats were collected using 3 methods: two-layer method following University of Wisconsin perfusion; exsanguination; and classic University of Wisconsin perfusion/storage. In addition to histologic analysis of collected pancreata, we analyzed the number of CK19(+) cells and their viability using chi-square tests with values P < .05 considered to be significant. Rat pancreas histology showed as University of Wisconsin in situ perfusion and preservation by the two-layer method to be more effective to maintain the morphologic integrity of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. There were a larger number of CK19(+) cells with good viability. Moreover, the effects of oxygenation were visible in pancreas biopsies preserved after exsanguination. In situ University of Wisconsin perfusion and preservation for 240 minutes with the two-layer method yielded greater numbers and viability of CK19(+) cells even after 8 weeks of cryopreservation.

  20. Human pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes.

  1. Miracle of an Artificial Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetes, the realization of a successful, fully automated artificial pancreas is a dearly held dream. It signifies a life freer from nightly wake-up calls to check blood glucose or deliver insulin, a life freer from ... successful artificial pancreas would mark another huge step toward better ...

  2. Canine thymoma.

    PubMed

    Aronsohn, M

    1985-07-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog.

  3. Tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kircher, C H; Nielsen, S W

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the pancreas occur most commonly in dogs and cats and only rarely in other domestic species. The incidence of neoplasms, both exocrine and endocrine, increases with age. Exocrine adenocarcinomas are the most common malignant tumours and have three fairly distinct morphological patterns: small tubular, large tubular, and acinar cell (rare). They readily metastasize, usually before clinical signs are apparent. A "starry sky" pattern with clear histiocytes scattered among tumour cells is a regular feature of poorly differentiated areas of small tubular adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. Islet cell tumours occur in a significant number only in dogs. Metastases are found in about half of the tumours, but malignancy cannot always be predicted by the morphological appearance. Slightly more than half of the islet cell tumours reported in the dog have been associated with clinical signs of hypoglycaemia. Nodular hyperplasia and exocrine adenomas are sometimes difficult to differentiate. Adenomas are considered rare while nodular hyperplasia is common in old animals.

  4. Surgery for pancreas divisum.

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Subodh; Johnson, Colin D.

    2002-01-01

    We present our experience of open surgical treatment in 5 patients with symptomatic pancreas divisum (PD). Choice of therapy was based on allocation of patients to one of five clinical presentation groups: (i) with minor symptoms (no operation); (ii) with recurrent acute pancreatitis or upper abdominal pain (RAP/RUAP)--3 patients; (iii) with radiological evidence of chronic pancreatitis (CP)--1 patient; (iv) chronic pancreatic pain without radiological evidence of chronic pancreatitis (CPP); and (v) other pancreatic complications--1 patient. This classification helps to decide management and predict possible outcome. Various types of operation were performed as indicated (open surgical accessory sphincteroplasty [2 also had distal pancreatectomy], n = 3; Puestow's operation, n = 1; or Beger's pancreatectomy, n = 1). All patients improved significantly and are now leading normal personal, professional, and social lives. We conclude that, with careful selection of patients and appropriate therapy, the response to surgical treatment is good. PMID:12092866

  5. Fluconazole Penetration into the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Shrikhande, Shailesh; Friess, Helmut; Issenegger, Claudia; Martignoni, Marcus E.; Yong, Huang; Gloor, Beat; Yeates, Rodney; Kleeff, Jörg; Büchler, Markus W.

    2000-01-01

    Because of antibiotic prophylaxis for necrotizing pancreatitis, the frequency of fungal superinfection in patients with pancreatic necrosis is increasing. In this study we analyzed the penetration of fluconazole into the human pancreas and in experimental acute pancreatitis. In human pancreatic tissues, the mean fluconazole concentration was 8.19 ± 3.38 μg/g (96% of the corresponding concentration in serum). In experimental edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis, 88 and 91% of the serum fluconazole concentration was found in the pancreas. These data show that fluconazole penetration into the pancreas is sufficient to prevent and/or treat fungal contamination in patients with pancreatic necrosis. PMID:10952621

  6. [Laparoscopic distal resection of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Gürlich, R; Sixta, B; Oliverius, M; Kment, M; Rusina, R; Spicák, J; Sváb, J

    2005-09-01

    During the last two years, reports on laparoscopic procedures of the pancreas have been on increase. Laparoscopic resection of the pancreatic cauda is indicated, primarily, for benign cystic lesions of the cauda of the pancreas and for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (mainly insulinomas). We have not recorded any report on the above procedure in the Czech literature. Therefore, in our case review, we have described laparoscopic distal resection of the pancreas with splenectomy for a pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas.

  7. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... States is chronic alcohol consumption. Additional causes include cystic fibrosis and other hereditary disorders ofthe pancreas. For a ... inherited disorder that leads to chronic pancreatitis is cystic fibrosis. Recent research demonstrates genetic testing can be a ...

  8. Lesions of the avian pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R

    2014-01-01

    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  9. Generating new pancreas from old.

    PubMed

    Hardikar, Anandwardhan A

    2004-07-01

    Pancreas regeneration after tissue damage is a key response to pancreatic injury, involving pancreatic duct progenitor cells and intra-islet precursor cells. Surgical removal of the pancreas, duct obstruction by cellophane wrapping and bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation act as inductive stimuli, leading to pancreas regeneration. The exact role of growth and differentiation factors regulating pancreatic beta-cell mass remains unknown. Here, I will attempt to integrate recent findings and speculate on the factors that trigger this fascinating response, wherein the pancreas responds to a deficit in cell mass and undergoes new islet formation, leading to restoration of normal beta-cell mass. I will also discuss recent advances in regenerating endocrine pancreatic cells, which could affect stem cell-based approaches to treating diabetes mellitus.

  10. Current status of pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, D W; Sasaki, T

    1989-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation for the treatment of diabetes mellitus is being done with increasing frequency. Refined operative techniques, an improved immunosuppression regimen, and an earlier recognition of rejection have led to dramatic increases in both graft and patient survival rates. Preliminary data suggest that a functioning pancreatic allograft may arrest or reverse most of the complications of diabetes, although the effects on retinopathy remain controversial. Patients also acquire a strong sense of well-being after successful pancreas transplantation. PMID:2660412

  11. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of canine pancreatic and duodenum homeobox 1 (Pdx-1).

    PubMed

    Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Lee, Peter; Ohta, Taizo; Mori, Nobuko; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-10-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx-1) is a critical insulin transcription factor expressed by pancreatic β-cells, and is crucial in the early stage of pancreas development. Unfortunately, nothing concerning Pdx-1 in canine has been elucidated yet. In this study, full length canine Pdx-1 cDNA was cloned and it was 1498 bp in length, consisting of a 99 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 849 bp coding region, and a 550 bp 3'-UTR region. A deduced 282 amino acid sequence of canine PDX-1 displayed high overall sequence identity with human, bovine, and mouse PDX-1. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that a high level of Pdx1 mRNA expression is exists in the duodenum and pancreas of canines. In addition, functional canine insulin promoter-luciferase reporter constructs with various canine insulin promoter region fragments revealed that our Pdx-1 isolated cDNA sequence encodes for a functionally active PDX-1 protein. Significant promoter activity was observed within the -583 bp 5'-upstream region of canine insulin gene with Chinese hamster ovary cells. In addition, Pdx-1 appears to have a synergistic effect with beta cell transactivator 2 (BETA2) and V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which also have important roles in the activation of the insulin gene promoter. Our results confirm that similar to humans, Pdx1 plays an important role in expression of insulin gene in canines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Engineering an endocrine Neo-Pancreas by repopulation of a decellularized rat pancreas with islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Napierala, H.; Hillebrandt, K.-H.; Haep, N.; Tang, P.; Tintemann, M.; Gassner, J.; Noesser, M.; Everwien, H.; Seiffert, N.; Kluge, M.; Teegen, E.; Polenz, D.; Lippert, S.; Geisel, D.; Reutzel Selke, A.; Raschzok, N.; Andreou, A.; Pratschke, J.; Sauer, I. M.; Struecker, B.

    2017-01-01

    Decellularization of pancreata and repopulation of these non-immunogenic matrices with islets and endothelial cells could provide transplantable, endocrine Neo- Pancreata. In this study, rat pancreata were perfusion decellularized and repopulated with intact islets, comparing three perfusion routes (Artery, Portal Vein, Pancreatic Duct). Decellularization effectively removed all cellular components but conserved the pancreas specific extracellular matrix. Digital subtraction angiography of the matrices showed a conserved integrity of the decellularized vascular system but a contrast emersion into the parenchyma via the decellularized pancreatic duct. Islets infused via the pancreatic duct leaked from the ductular system into the peri-ductular decellularized space despite their magnitude. TUNEL staining and Glucose stimulated insulin secretion revealed that islets were viable and functional after the process. We present the first available protocol for perfusion decellularization of rat pancreata via three different perfusion routes. Furthermore, we provide first proof-of-concept for the repopulation of the decellularized rat pancreata with functional islets of Langerhans. The presented technique can serve as a bioengineering platform to generate implantable and functional endocrine Neo-Pancreata. PMID:28150744

  13. Dual-energy perfusion-CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Klauss, M; Stiller, W; Pahn, G; Fritz, F; Kieser, M; Werner, J; Kauczor, H U; Grenacher, L

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT)-perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas for assessing the differences in perfusion, permeability and blood volume of healthy pancreatic tissue and histopathologically confirmed solid pancreatic carcinoma. 24 patients with histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma were examined prospectively with a 64-slice dual source CT using a dynamic sequence of 34 dual-energy (DE) acquisitions every 1.5s (80 ml of iodinated contrast material, 370 mg/ml, flow rate 5 ml/s). 80 kV(p), 140 kV(p), and weighted average (linearly blended M0.3) 120 kV(p)-equivalent dual-energy perfusion image data sets were evaluated with a body-perfusion CT tool (Body-PCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) for estimating perfusion, permeability, and blood volume values. Color-coded parameter maps were generated. In all 24 patients dual-energy CT-perfusion was. All carcinomas could be identified in the color-coded perfusion maps. Calculated perfusion, permeability and blood volume values were significantly lower in pancreatic carcinomas compared to healthy pancreatic tissue. Weighted average 120 kV(p)-equivalent perfusion-, permeability- and blood volume-values determined from DE image data were 0.27 ± 0.04 min(-1) vs. 0.91 ± 0.04 min(-1) (p<0.0001), 0.5 ± 0.07 *0.5 min(-1) vs. 0.67 ± 0.05 *0.5 min(-1) (p=0.06) and 0.49 ± 0.07 min(-1) vs. 1.28 ± 0.11 min(-1) (p<0.0001). Compared with 80 and 140 kV(p) the standard deviations of the kV(p)120 kV(p)-equivalent values were manifestly smaller. Dual-energy CT-perfusion of the pancreas is feasible. The use of DECT improves the accuracy of CT-perfusion of the pancreas by fully exploiting the advantages of enhanced iodine contrast at 80 kV(p) in combination with the noise reduction at 140 kV(p). Therefore using dual-energy perfusion data could improve the delineation of pancreatic carcinomas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repurposed biological scaffolds: kidney to pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Willenberg, Bradley J; Oca-Cossio, Jose; Cai, Yunqing; Brown, Alicia R; Clapp, William L; Abrahamson, Dale R; Terada, Naohiro; Ellison, Gary W; Mathews, Clayton E; Batich, Christopher D; Ross, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Advances in organ regeneration have been facilitated by gentle decellularization protocols that maintain distinct tissue compartments, and thereby allow seeding of blood vessels with endothelial lineages separate from populations of the parenchyma with tissue-specific cells. We hypothesized that a reconstituted vasculature could serve as a novel platform for perfusing cells derived from a different organ: thus discordance of origin between the vascular and functional cells, leading to a hybrid repurposed organ. The need for a highly vascular bed is highlighted by tissue engineering approaches that involve transplantation of just cells, as attempted for insulin production to treat human diabetes. Those pancreatic islet cells present unique challenges since large numbers are needed to allow the cell-to-cell signaling required for viability and proper function; however, increasing their number is limited by inadequate perfusion and hypoxia. As proof of principle of the repurposed organ methodology we harnessed the vasculature of a kidney scaffold while seeding the collecting system with insulin-producing cells. Pig kidneys were decellularized by sequential detergent, enzymatic and rinsing steps. Maintenance of distinct vascular and collecting system compartments was demonstrated by both fluorescent 10 micron polystyrene microspheres and cell distributions in tissue sections. Sterilized acellular scaffolds underwent seeding separately via the artery (fibroblasts or endothelioma cells) and retrograde (murine βTC-tet cells) up the ureter. After three-day bioreactor incubation, histology confirmed separation of cells in the vasculature from those in the collecting system. βTC-tet clusters survived in tubules, glomerular Bowman's space, demonstrated insulin immunolabeling, and thereby supported the feasibility of kidney-to-pancreas repurposing. PMID:26252820

  15. Time course of a new ultrashort-acting beta-adrenoceptor-blocking drug, ONO-1101: comparison with those of esmolol and propranolol by using the canine isolated, blood-perfused heart preparations.

    PubMed

    Motomura, S; Hagihara, A; Narumi, Y; Hashimoto, K

    1998-03-01

    Time courses of beta-adrenoceptor-blocking actions of ONO-1101, a new cardioselective beta-blocker, were compared with those of esmolol and propranolol by using the isolated, blood-perfused sinoatrial node (SAN) and papillary muscle (PM) preparations of dogs. ONO-1101 per se given intraarterially (i.a.) in each nutrient artery did not affect basal sinoatrial rates (SARs; 99 +/- 2 beats/min, n = 7) in the SAN and developed tension (DT; 3.2 +/- 0.7 g, n = 7) of the PM preparations. Norepinephrine (NE) injected i.a. into the each artery induced increases in SAR (42 +/- 6 beats/min at 0.051 +/- 0.014 microg) and PMDT (2.9 +/- 0.4 g at 0.048 +/- 0.011 microg). The i.a. injections of NE were repeated every 3 min after i.v. bolus injections of ONO- 1101 into the support dog. NE-induced increases in SAR and PMDT were maximally inhibited 3 to 6 min after the i.v. injections of ONO-1101. Maximal percentage inhibitions by ONO-1101 of NE-induced increases in SAR were 54 +/- 6, 78 +/- 3, and 96 +/- 2% at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg of the drug, respectively. Similarly, maximal percentage inhibitions by ONO-1101 of NE-induced increases in PMDT were 50 +/- 12, 93 +/- 2, and 100% +/- 0, respectively. The inhibition was quickly recovered; times required for 50% recovery (RT1/2) were 12 +/- 3. 17 +/- 3, and 32 +/- 10 min in the SAN preparation, and 13 +/- 3, 16 +/- 2, and 39 +/- 11 min in the PM preparations, after i.v. injections of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg of ONO-1101, respectively. In comparison, maximal percentage inhibitions by esmolol of NE-induced increases in SAR were 45 +/- 5, 79 +/- 6, and 96 +/- 2%, and those in PMDT were 34 +/- 4, 75 +/- 5, and 97 +/- 1%, whereas the RT1/2 values were 11 +/- 2, 15 +/- 4, and 40 +/- 12 min in the SAN preparation, and 10 +/- 2, 16 +/- 7, and 27 +/- 6 min in the PM preparations, after i.v. injections of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg of esmolol, respectively. In contrast, the maximal percentage inhibitions by an i.v. bolus injection of 0.1 mg/kg of

  16. Localization of Impacted Canines

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra; Singh, Ashish; Garg, Aarti; Kumar, Snehi; Sharma, Ashish; Yadav, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. The impaction of canine can be prevented in some situationsif the canine displacement is diagnosed in the early mixed dentition period and this would be extremely useful for the clinician. Hence,it is very important to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, the differentmodalities used to diagnose the impacted canine are reviewed with an insight into current 3-D modalities. PMID:25738100

  17. Radionuclide surveillance of the allografted pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.A.; Salimi, Z.; Carney, K.; Castaneda, M.; Garvin, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphy to detect posttransplantation complications of the allografted pancreas, we retrospectively reviewed 209 scintigrams obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) and /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (/sup 99m/Tc-GH). The scintigraphic studies were performed in 37 recipients of simultaneous renal and pancreatic allografts harvested from the same donor. /sup 99m/Tc-SC was used as an indicator of thrombotic vasculitis; pancreatic perfusion and blood-pool parameters were monitored with /sup 99m/Tc-GH. In 11 of the 37 recipients, scintigraphic abnormalities suggested posttransplantation infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute rejection of the pancreatic allograft, which always coincided with acute rejection of the renal allograft, were monitored in 24 recipients. Rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis was suggested in 12 of the 24 recipients and persisted in 10 recipients for several weeks after improvement of renal allograft rejection. Pancreatic atrophy was suggested scintigraphically in 16 of the 24 recipients with recurrent episodes of rejection. Spontaneous pancreatic-duct obstruction and obstructive pancreatitis were associated with a scintigraphic pattern similar to that of rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis. We concluded that the specific radionuclides used in this series are useful for the surveillance and assessment of posttransplantation pancreatic infarction, acute rejection, pancreatitis, and atrophy

  18. Design of a bioartificial pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Pareta, Rajesh A; Farney, Alan C; Opara, Emmanuel C

    2013-01-01

    Summary Islet transplantation has been shown to be a viable treatment option for patients afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles to routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets in hydrogels for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this review article, we will discuss the need for bioartificial pancreas, provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process, and review the status of the technology in clinical development. We will also critically review the various factors that need to be taken into consideration in order to achieve the ultimate goal of routine clinical application. PMID:23652283

  19. Cold Crystalloid Perfusion Provides Cardiac Preservation Superior to Cold Storage for Donation After Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    Choong, Jonathan W; Ou, Ruchong; Lim, Yi Wee; Rosenfeldt, Franklin L

    2016-03-01

    We previously showed that donation after circulatory death (DCD) canine hearts can be resuscitated if perfused with warm blood. However, clinical application of this technique is complex and difficult. We have developed a simplified system of cold crystalloid perfusion and compared it with standard cold storage for DCD heart preservation. Anesthetized greyhounds underwent 30 minutes DCD by withdrawal of ventilation followed by assignment to either 4 hours of perfusion (n = 6) or cold storage (n = 7). Nonpreserved hearts (n = 5) served as a normal reference group. Perfusion hearts were reperfused with a protective solution then perfused for 4 hours with a novel oxygenated, nutrient-containing solution at 20 mL/min at 4°C to 10°C. Cold storage hearts were flushed with St Thomas' cardioplegic solution and stored in ice. After preservation, the recovery of the hearts was assessed on a blood-perfused working heart rig. During preservation, perfusion hearts consumed oxygen (0.09 ± 0.01 mL/100 g per minute) and showed decreasing lactate production in the perfusate (initial: 0.031 ± 0.004 vs final: 0.007 ± 0.002 mmol/min; P = 0.001). After preservation, compared to cold storage hearts, perfusion hearts had higher cardiac output (P = 0.004), LV dP/dt max (P = 0.003) and myocardial oxygen efficiency (P = 0.01), with lower blood perfusate lactate (P = 0.007). Hemodynamic values of perfused hearts reached 60% or more those in the normal reference group. Continuous cold crystalloid perfusion in a canine model of DCD: (1) facilitates aerobic metabolism and resuscitates the DCD heart, (2) provides functional and metabolic recovery superior to cold storage, (3) shows promise for improved clinical preservation of DCD and marginal donor hearts.

  20. Possible link between ectopic pancreas and holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Kin, Tatsuya; Korbutt, Gregory S; Shapiro, A M James

    2012-01-01

    We report on the incidental observation of ectopic pancreas in a donor for islet cell transplantation. The donor's clinical and imaging presentation was definitive for holoprosencephaly. This case report discusses a possible link between ectopic pancreas and holoprosencephaly.

  1. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Gafă, R; Grandi, E; Cavazzini, L

    1997-01-01

    A rare case of lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas is reported. Microscopically the cyst content consisted of keratinous material and the walls were lined by mature squamous epithelium surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse reactivity for CD20 and CD3 in the lymphoid tissue and uniform positivity for cytokeratins in the squamous epithelium. Although the histogenesis of lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas is not understood, awareness of this lesion is helpful in differentiating it from other pancreatic cystic lesions. Images PMID:9389985

  2. The economics of pancreas surgery.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Charles M

    2013-06-01

    Pancreas surgery is a paradigm for high-acuity surgical specialization. Given the current intrigue over containing health care expenditures, pancreas surgery provides an ideal model to investigate the cost of care. This article explores the economics of this field from literature accrued over the last 2 decades. The cost of performing a pancreatic resection is established and then embellished with a discussion of the effects of clinical care paths. Then the influence of complications on costs is explored. Next, cost is investigated as an emerging outcome metric regarding variations in pancreatic surgical care. Finally, the societal-level fiscal impact is considered.

  3. Lymphoepithelial Cyst of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Prabhu; Fletcher, Natalie; Kyriakides, Charis; Mears, Lisa; Kocher, Hemant M.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of the pancreas is an extremely rare, benign pancreatic cystic lesion that is difficult to differentiate preoperatively from other cystic pancreatic lesions. LEC may have malignant potential. Here, we describe a case of LEC of the pancreas – initially suspected to be a mucinous cyst neoplasm – in an elderly man presenting with abdominal pain, who went on to have a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. We also review the relevant literature and discuss implications for the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion. PMID:27403123

  4. The increased echogenicity of the pancreas in infants and children: the white pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schneider, K; Harms, K; Fendel, H

    1987-09-01

    An increased echogenicity of the pancreas ("white pancreas") was sonographically found in 25 children with various pancreatic and systemic diseases. Fifteen patients with cystic fibrosis had a small white pancreas. Five patients with haemosiderosis, two with pancreatitis and one with Shwachman-syndrome presented with a normal-sized or slightly enlarged pancreas. Fatty infiltration and calcifications of the pancreas can also increase its echogenicity.

  5. Cystic tumors of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Morana, Giovanni; Guarise, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are less frequent than solid lesions and are often detected incidentally, as many of these lesions are small and asymptomatic. However, they may be associated with pancreatitis or have malignant potential. With advancements in diagnostic imaging, cystic lesions of the pancreas are being detected with increasing frequency. Many lesions can cause a pancreatic cyst, most being non-neoplastic while approximately 10% are cystic tumors, ranging from benign to highly malignant tumors. With increasing experience it is becoming clear that the prevalence of pseudocyst among cystic lesions of the pancreas is lower than usually presumed. A presumptive diagnosis of pseudocyst based on imaging appearance alone can cause a diagnostic error, and neoplastic cysts of the pancreas are particularly susceptible to this misdiagnosis, which can result in inappropriate treatment. Cystic tumors of the pancreas are formed by serous or mucinous structures showing all stages of cellular differentiation. According to the WHO classification, they can be subdivided on the basis of their histological type and biological behavior into benign tumors, borderline tumors, and malignant tumors. Cystic pancreatic tumors can be subdivided into peripheral (serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic tumors, solid and papillary epithelial neoplasms, cystic islet cell tumors), which do not communicate with the main pancreatic duct, and ductal tumors (mucinous tumor), according to their site of origin. On the basis of imaging criteria alone, it can be very difficult to differentiate non-tumoral cystic lesions from neoplastic ones. The management of these patients is complex, and it is important to correlate imaging findings with knowledge of the patient’s symptoms and of the natural history and predictors of malignancy in pancreatic cysts. PMID:16861136

  6. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreas carcinoma occurring in the annular pancreas: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kawaida, Hiromichi; Kono, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Maki, Akira; Amemiya, Hidetake; Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Takahashi, Ei; Sano, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2015-08-01

    The annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly in which a ring of the pancreas parenchyma surrounds the second part of the duodenum. Malignant tumors are extremely rare in patients with an annular pancreas. A 64-year-old man presented with appetite loss and vomiting. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) indicated pancreas parenchyma surrounding the second part of the duodenum, and a hypovascular area occupying lesion in the annular pancreas. Subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathology showed pancreatic carcinoma occurring in the complete annular pancreas.

  7. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  8. Exercise, Insulin Absorption Rates, and Artificial Pancreas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Spencer; Hinshaw, Ling; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Type 1 Diabetes is characterized by an inability of a person to endogenously produce the hormone insulin. Because of this, insulin must be injected - usually subcutaneously. The size of the injected dose and the rate at which the dose reaches the circulatory system have a profound effect on the ability to control glucose excursions, and therefore control of diabetes. However, insulin absorption rates via subcutaneous injection are variable and depend on a number of factors including tissue perfusion, physical activity (vasodilation, increased capillary throughput), and other tissue geometric and physical properties. Exercise may also have a sizeable effect on the rate of insulin absorption, which can potentially lead to dangerous glucose levels. Insulin-dosing algorithms, as implemented in an artificial pancreas controller, should account accurately for absorption rate variability and exercise effects on insulin absorption. The aforementioned factors affecting insulin absorption will be discussed within the context of both fluid mechanics and data driven modeling approaches.

  9. "Ductal adenocarcinoma in anular pancreas".

    PubMed

    Benassai, Giacomo; Perrotta, Stefano; Furino, Ermenegildo; De Werra, Carlo; Aloia, Sergio; Del Giudice, Roberto; Amato, Bruno; Vigliotti, Gabriele; Limite, Gennaro; Quarto, Gennaro

    2015-09-01

    The annular pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue partially or completely surrounds the second portion of the duodenum. Its often located above of papilla of Vater (85%), rarely below (15%). This pancreatic tissue is often easily dissociable to the duodenum but there is same cases where it the tissue is into the muscolaris wall of the duodenum. We describe three case of annular pancreas hospitalized in our facility between January 2004 and January 2009. There were 2 male 65 and 69 years old respectively and 1 female of 60 years old, presented complaining of repeated episodes of mild epigastric pain. Laboratory tests (including tumor markers), a direct abdomen X-ray with enema, EGDS and total body CT scan were performed to study to better define the diagnosis. EUS showed the presence of tissue infiltrating the muscle layer all around the first part of duodenum. Biopsies performed found the presence of pancreatic tissue with focal areas of adenocarcinoma. Subtotal gastrectomy with Roux was performed. The histological examinations shows an annular pancreas of D1 with multiple focal area of adenocarcinoma. (T1aN0M0). We performed a follow up at 5 years. One patients died after 36 months for cardiovascular hit. Two patients, one male and one female, was 5-years disease-free. Annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital anomaly which usually presents itself in infants and newborn. Rarely it can present in late adult life with wide range of clinical severities thereby making its diagnosis difficult. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. CT scan can illustrate the pancreatic tissue encircling the duodenum. ERCP and MRCP are useful in outlining the annular pancreatic duct. Surgery still remains necessary to confirm diagnosis and bypassing the obstructed segment. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toward a hybrid artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A

    1989-06-01

    Management of insulinopenic diabetic individuals centers on administration of insulin by means of multiple injections, a wearable or implantable insulin-infusion pump, or a whole-organ or segmental-pancreas transplant. Preliminary trials indicate that surgical implantation of a hybrid device containing living insulin-secreting tissue may function as a combined glucose sensor and insulin-infusion pump. By means of a chamber composed of a semipermeable membrane shaped into hollow fibers or a box surrounding endocrine tissue, pilot studies have shown that isolated islets of Langerhans, fragments of insulinoma, or a fetal pancreas retains function for days to weeks, as judged by the ability to sustain euglycemic conditions in chemically induced diabetic rats. Lacking clear proof that normalizing blood glucose levels will prevent vascular complications of diabetes in humans, the case for further development of a hybrid (tissue plus fabricated components) device rests mainly on optimistic extrapolation of results attained in the chemically induced diabetic rat and dog. For the minority of diabetic patients who have insulin-dependent diabetes, the benefit afforded by a bionic device establishing internal insulin release regulated by silently sensed blood glucose level is more than enough payoff for the discomfort and surgery involved in its implantation. Further trials of a hybrid artificial pancreas in the dog appear warranted as a logical extension of preliminary studies with this species.

  11. Wearable and implantable pancreas substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Assaf, Tareq; Dario, Paolo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2013-03-01

    A lifelong-implanted and completely automated artificial or bioartificial pancreas (BAP) is the holy grail for type 1 diabetes treatment, and could be a definitive solution even for other severe pathologies, such as pancreatitis and pancreas cancer. Technology has made several important steps forward in the last years, providing new hope for the realization of such devices, whose feasibility is strictly connected to advances in glucose sensor technology, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal insulin pump development, the design of closed-loop control algorithms for mechatronic pancreases, as well as cell and tissue engineering and cell encapsulation for biohybrid pancreases. Furthermore, smart integration of the mentioned components and biocompatibility issues must be addressed, bearing in mind that, for mechatronic pancreases, it is most important to consider how to recharge implanted batteries and refill implanted insulin reservoirs without requiring periodic surgical interventions. This review describes recent advancements in technologies and concepts related to artificial and bioartificial pancreases, and assesses how far we are from a lifelong-implanted and self-working pancreas substitute that can fully restore the quality of life of a diabetic (or other type of) patient.

  12. Lack of Evidence for a Role of Islet Autoimmunity in the Aetiology of Canine Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Landegren, Nils; Grimelius, Lars; von Euler, Henrik; Sundberg, Katarina; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Lobell, Anna; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene; Lernmark, Åke; Kämpe, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical presentation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine diabetes are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported. Methods Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 40 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by in vitro transcription and translation (ITT) of human and canine GAD65, followed by immune precipitation. Sections of pancreata from five diabetic dogs and two control dogs were examined histopathologically including immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreas polypeptide. Results None of the canine sera analysed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay. Histopathology showed marked degenerative changes in endocrine islets, including vacuolisation and variable loss of immune-staining for insulin. No sign of inflammation was noted. Conclusions/Interpretations Contrary to previous observations, based on results from tests for humoral autoreactivity towards islet proteins using four different assays, and histopathological examinations, we do not find any support for an islet autoimmune aetiology in canine diabetes mellitus. PMID:25153886

  13. Pancreas imaging by computed tomography after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. [Dogs; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; O'Leary, J.F.; Salomonowitz, E.; Stoltenberg, E.; Hutton, S.; Gedgaudas, E.

    1984-01-01

    A method using CT after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (CT-ERP) is described for pancreatic imaging. When using an ERP technique in the canine model comparable to that used in humans, small amounts of contrast material in peripheral pancreatic radicles resulted in enhancement of the pancreas on CT scans. Nine patients were also studied by CT-ERP images. The main pancreatic duct was seen on delayed images. In cases of chronic pancreatitis (n = 2), pancreatic opacification was patchy and heterogeneous. There was no contrast-material enhancement in areas of pancreatic carcimomas (n = 2). CT-ERP showed the true extent of carcinoma better than ERP alone.

  14. Pancreas Transplantation in the Modern Era.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Robert R; Rickels, Michael R; Naji, Ali; Odorico, Jon S

    2016-03-01

    The field of pancreas transplantation has evolved from an experimental procedure in the 1980s to become a routine transplant in the modern era. With short- and long-term outcomes continuing to improve and the significant mortality, quality-of-life, and end-organ disease benefits, pancreas transplantation should be offered to more patients. In this article, we review current indications, patient selection, surgical considerations, complications, and outcomes in the modern era of pancreas transplantation.

  15. Molecular cloning of canine protease-activated receptor-2 and its expression in normal dog tissues and atopic skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shingo; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Chimura, Naoki; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2009-05-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) belongs to a new G protein-coupled receptor subfamily and is activated by serine proteases. PAR-2 has been demonstrated to play an important role in inflammation and immune response in allergic diseases. In this study, we cloned canine PAR-2 cDNA from the canine kidney by RT-PCR. The canine PAR-2 clone contained a full-length open reading frame encoding 397 amino acids that had 84% and 80% homology with human and mouse homologues, respectively. Canine PAR-2 mRNA was detected in the heart, lung, liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, colon, kidney, adrenal gland, spleen, thyroid gland, thymus, skeletal muscle, lymph node, fat and skin of three healthy dogs. The expression pattern of PAR-2 mRNA in canine tissues was similar to that in humans. The expression level of PAR-2 mRNA in skin was not different between the atopic dermatitis (AD) and healthy dogs, suggesting that the level of PAR-2 mRNA transcription may not be associated with development of canine AD. The canine PAR-2 cDNA clone obtained in this study will be useful for further investigation of the immunopathogenesis of canine allergic diseases.

  16. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  17. Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  18. Dutch perfusion incident survey.

    PubMed

    Groenenberg, Ingrid; Weerwind, Patrick W; Everts, Peter A M; Maessen, Jos G

    2010-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass procedures remain complex, involving many potential risks. Therefore, a nationwide retrospective study was conducted to gain insight into the number of incidents and accidents in Dutch adult perfusion practice. An anonymous postal survey (85 questions about hardware, disposables, fluids and medication, air emboli, anticoagulation, practice, and safety measures) was sent to all Dutch perfusionists involved in adult cardiovascular perfusion during 2006 and 2007. To guarantee complete anonymity, respondents were asked to return the survey to a notary who discarded personal information. The net response rate was 72% and covered 23,500 perfusions. Individual respondents performed 240 ± 103 perfusions during the 2-year study period and had 13.8 ± 8.7 years of practical experience. The incident rate was 1 per 15.6 perfusions and the adverse event rate was 1 per 1,236 perfusions. The three most reported incidents were: (1) persistent inability to raise the activated coagulation time above 400s during perfusion (184 incidents); (2) an allergic or anaphylactic reaction to drugs, fluids, or blood products (114 incidents); and (3) clotting formation in the extracorporeal circuit (74 incidents). Furthermore, pre-bypass safety measures showed no statistically significant association with the reported incidents. In comparison with data from the recent literature, the reported number of incidents is high. Nevertheless, the adverse outcome rate is well matched to other published surveys. The relatively high response rate conveys the impression that the Dutch perfusionist is vigilant and willing to report incidents. Hence, a web-based Dutch perfusion incident registration system is recommended.

  19. The pancreas from Aristotle to Galen.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Ryoichi; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The first description of the pancreas in literature is found in Aristotle's Historia Animalium, but it is modified by "so-called". Therefore, the origin is pursued more extensively. The Greek-English Lexicon recommends three treatises as a possible original source. These three and Galen's other papers are investigated. In 2005, Sachs et al. suggested an origin of the pancreas might have derived from the intestinal divination using the avian pancreas. This report is evaluated. The avian pancreas which is the intraperitoneal organ, might have been well known by the intestinal divination, and people have called the organ pankreas or kallikreas. Anatomical dissection on human body was not accepted before the Aristotle's time. "So-called pancreas" in Historia must have been interpolated by Theophrastus. He was the most faithful and reliable disciple of Aristotle and succeeded the Aristotle's school. He and Macedonian ruler of Egypt Ptolemy I had known each other and there had been a strong link between them. The contemporary Herophilus performed many public dissections on both human and animal bodies in Alexandria. He named the various parts of the human body and designated the beginning intestine as duodenum. Yet in his extant works, the pancreas is not found. It is surmised that Herophilus may be the first to recognize the human pancreas, which is fixed with retroperitoneal tissue, and he named it "so-called pancreas". Theophrastus might have interpolated Herophilus' designation in Historia Animalium. Galen also uses "so-called pancreas" to designate the human pancreas. Galen's descriptions, that is, "Nature created 'so-called pancreas 'and spread it beneath all vessels" are not generally acceptable but propose the very rare portal vein anomalies. Since the early years of the 20th century, cases with a preduodenal portal vein or a prepancreatic portal vein have been reported. Although the incidence is very rare, its surgical importance is emphasized. Copyright © 2014

  20. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments

    PubMed Central

    O'Keeffe, Derek T.; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  1. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity.

  2. Thermographic studies of phantom and canine kidneys thawed by microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmehl, M.K.; Graham, E.F.; Kilkowski, S.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Whole organs, such as kidneys, must be thawed quickly and uniformly to prevent damage during thawing due to excessive heating. Electromagnetic heating with microwaves thaws the kidneys quickly but frequently produces hot spots with heat damage. To study heat damage, phantom gelatin kidneys with different dielectric constants and canine kidneys perfused with 12.5% glycerol, ethylene glycol, or dimethyl sulfoxide before freezing were microwave thawed, and the interior temperature was measured by thermography. Phantom kidneys were thawed free standing and canine kidneys were either free standing or packed in a gel mixture. Both phantom and canine kidneys were split symmetrically and separated with a sheet of Styrofoam to facilitate immediate separation and evaluation of the halves after thawing (approximately 3 sec). All the phantoms, regardless of dielectric properties, had areas less than 0 degrees C or greater than 37 degrees C after thawing. The free-standing canine kidneys and the gel-packed ethylene glycol-perfused kidneys had frozen areas (less than 0 degrees C) and hot spots (greater than 37 degrees C). However, glycerol- and dimethyl sulfoxide-perfused kidneys packed in gel before thawing had no areas less than 0 degrees C or greater than 37 degrees C. Altering the geometry from a kidney shape to a cylindrical shape with increased volume improved the uniformity of thawing and was more effective than altering the dielectric constant over the range evaluated.

  3. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  4. Minimally Invasive Management of Ectopic Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Gerardo A; Cavnar, Michael J; Hajdu, Cristina; Khaykis, Inessa; Newman, Elliot; Melis, Marcovalerio; Pachter, H Leon; Cohen, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    The management of ectopic pancreas is not well defined. This study aims to determine the prevalence of symptomatic ectopic pancreas and identify those who may benefit from treatment, with a particular focus on robotically assisted surgical management. Our institutional pathology database was queried to identify a cohort of ectopic pancreas specimens. Additional clinical data regarding clinical symptomatology, diagnostic studies, and treatment were obtained through chart review. Nineteen cases of ectopic pancreas were found incidentally during surgery for another condition or found incidentally in a pathologic specimen (65.5%). Eleven patients (37.9%) reported prior symptoms, notably abdominal pain and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common locations for ectopic pancreas were the duodenum and small bowel (31% and 27.6%, respectively). Three out of 29 cases (10.3%) had no symptoms, but had evidence of preneoplastic changes on pathology, while one harbored pancreatic cancer. Over the years, treatment of ectopic pancreas has shifted from open to laparoscopic and more recently to robotic surgery. Our experience is in line with existing evidence supporting surgical treatment of symptomatic or complicated ectopic pancreas. In the current era, minimally invasive and robotic surgery can be used safely and successfully for treatment of ectopic pancreas.

  5. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now. PMID:25628897

  6. Canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabrielle; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-07-01

    Vaccine-based prophylaxis has greatly helped to keep distemper disease under control. Notwithstanding, the incidence of canine distemper virus (CDV)-related disease in canine populations throughout the world seems to have increased in the past decades, and several episodes of CDV disease in vaccinated animals have been reported, with nation-wide proportions in some cases. Increasing surveillance should be pivotal to identify new CDV variants and to understand the dynamics of CDV epidemiology. In addition, it is important to evaluate whether the efficacy of the vaccine against these new strains may somehow be affected.

  7. Skin cancer after pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Spanogle, Joshua P; Kudva, Yogish C; Dierkhising, Ross A; Kremers, Walter K; Roenigk, Randall K; Brewer, Jerry D; Prieto, Mikel; Otley, Clark C

    2012-10-01

    Skin cancer in patients who have undergone pancreas transplantation (PT) has not been extensively characterized. We sought to describe the incidence, tumor burden, and risk factors for skin cancer in PT recipients at Mayo Clinic from 1998 through 2006. A retrospective study was performed by analyzing outcomes among a cohort of pancreas allograft recipients at Mayo Clinic between 1998 and 2006. Among 216 allogeneic PT recipients at 2, 5, and 10 years posttransplantation, the cumulative incidence of any skin cancer was 4.7%, 12.7%, and 19.6%; the cumulative incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was 2.8%, 10.3%, and 16.7%; and the cumulative incidence of basal cell carcinoma was 2.4%, 7.8%, and 17.4%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of a second squamous cell carcinoma developing was 56% at 2 years; the cumulative incidence of a second basal cell carcinoma developing was 36% at 2 years. Of the risk factors examined, only age and having a skin cancer before transplantation were predictive of skin cancer development. This was a retrospective study. Results from a large tertiary center may not be generalizable. Nonmelanoma skin cancers commonly occur in recipients of PT, and those patients who have a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer have a very high likelihood of further skin cancer development. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pancreas transplantation after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Porubsky, Marian; Powelson, John A; Selzer, Don J; Mujtaba, Muhammad A; Taber, Tim; Carnes, Katerine L; Fridell, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    Obese transplant candidates are at increased risk for perioperative and postoperative complications. In many transplant programs, morbid obesity is considered to be an exclusion criterion for transplantation. The only potential option that would grant these patients access to transplant is weight loss. Non-operative weight loss strategies such as behavioral modifications, exercise, diet, or medication have only very limited success in achieving long-term weight loss. In contrast, bariatric surgery was shown to achieve not only more excessive weight loss, but more importantly, this weight loss can be sustained for longer periods of time. Therefore, bariatric surgery presents an attractive option for weight loss for morbidly obese transplant candidates. We report our experience with four patients who underwent bariatric surgery prior to successful pancreas transplantation. Even though gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band present as equivalent alternatives for weight reduction, we believe that in the population of morbidly obese diabetic patients who are possible candidates for pancreas transplantation, laparoscopic adjustable gastric band placement is the more suitable procedure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Chronic metabolic acidosis destroys pancreas.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Peter; Melamed, Felix

    2014-11-28

    One primary reason for the current epidemic of digestive disorders might be chronic metabolic acidosis, which is extremely common in the modern population. Chronic metabolic acidosis primarily affects two alkaline digestive glands, the liver, and the pancreas, which produce alkaline bile and pancreatic juice with a large amount of bicarbonate. Even small acidic alterations in the bile and pancreatic juice pH can lead to serious biochemical/biomechanical changes. The pancreatic digestive enzymes require an alkaline milieu for proper function, and lowering the pH disables their activity. It can be the primary cause of indigestion. Acidification of the pancreatic juice decreases its antimicrobial activity, which can lead to intestinal dysbiosis. Lowering the pH of the pancreatic juice can cause premature activation of the proteases inside the pancreas with the potential development of pancreatitis. The acidification of bile causes precipitation of the bile acids, which irritate the entire biliary system and create bile stone formation. Aggressive mixture of the acidic bile and the pancreatic juice can cause erratic contractions of the duodenum's walls and subsequent bile reflux into the stomach and the esophagus. Normal exocrine pancreatic function is the core of proper digestion. Currently, there is no effective and safe treatment for enhancing the exocrine pancreatic function. Restoring normal acid-base homeostasis can be a useful tool for pathophysiological therapeutic approaches for various gastrointestinal disorders. There is strong research and practical evidence that restoring the HCO3(-) capacity in the blood can improve digestion.

  10. Enlarged pancreas: not always a cancer.

    PubMed

    Calculli, Lucia; Festi, Davide; Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic fat accumulation has been described with various terms including pancreatic lipomatosis, pancreatic steatosis, fatty replacement, fatty infiltration, fatty pancreas, lipomatous pseudohypertrophy and nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease. It has been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and the formation of pancreatic fistula. The real incidence of this condition is still unknown. We report a case of pancreatic steatosis in a non-obese female patient initially diagnosed with a mass in the head of the pancreas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out to define the characteristics of the pancreatic mass. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of fat pancreas. Enlarged pancreas is not always a cancer, but pancreatic steatosis is characterized by pancreatic enlargement. MRI could give a definite diagnosis of pancreatic steatosis or cancer.

  11. Cellular and molecular mechanisms coordinating pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Bastidas-Ponce, Aimée; Scheibner, Katharina; Lickert, Heiko; Bakhti, Mostafa

    2017-08-15

    The pancreas is an endoderm-derived glandular organ that participates in the regulation of systemic glucose metabolism and food digestion through the function of its endocrine and exocrine compartments, respectively. While intensive research has explored the signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that govern pancreas development, much remains to be discovered regarding the cellular processes that orchestrate pancreas morphogenesis. Here, we discuss the developmental mechanisms and principles that are known to underlie pancreas development, from induction and lineage formation to morphogenesis and organogenesis. Elucidating such principles will help to identify novel candidate disease genes and unravel the pathogenesis of pancreas-related diseases, such as diabetes, pancreatitis and cancer. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  13. Quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Tsui, B M; Frey, E C; LaCroix, K J; Lalush, D S; McCartney, W H; King, M A; Gullberg, G T

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the clinical application of attenuation compensation to myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the promise that accurate quantitative images can be obtained to improve clinical diagnoses. The different attenuation compensation methods that are available create confusion and some misconceptions. Also, attenuation-compensated images reveal other image-degrading effects including collimator-detector blurring and scatter that are not apparent in uncompensated images. This article presents basic concepts of the major factors that degrade the quality and quantitative accuracy of myocardial perfusion SPECT images, and includes a discussion of the various image reconstruction and compensation methods and misconceptions and pitfalls in implementation. The differences between the various compensation methods and their performance are demonstrated. Particular emphasis is directed to an approach that promises to provide quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT images by accurately compensating for the 3-dimensional (3-D) attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter effects. With advances in the computer hardware and optimized implementation techniques, quantitatively accurate and high-quality myocardial perfusion SPECT images can be obtained in clinically acceptable processing time. Examples from simulation, phantom, and patient studies are used to demonstrate the various aspects of the investigation. We conclude that quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT, which holds great promise to improve clinical diagnosis, is an achievable goal in the near future.

  14. CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS AND IN DOGS WITH ACUTE PANCREATITIS.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Schur, David; Gaschen, Frédéric; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most frequent disease affecting the exocrine pancreas in dogs and reliable diagnostic techniques for predicting fatal complications are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) improves detection of tissue perfusion as well as organ lesion vascular pattern. Objectives of this prospective case control study were to compare perfusion characteristics and enhancement patterns of the pancreas in healthy dogs and dogs with pancreatitis using CEUS. Ten healthy dogs and eight dogs with pancreatitis were selected based on physical examination, abdominal ultrasound, and blood analysis findings. A CEUS study of the pancreas was performed for each dog and two observers who were aware of clinical status used advanced ultrasound quantification software to analyze time-intensity curves. Perfusion patterns were compared between healthy and affected dogs. In dogs with acute pancreatitis, mean pixel and peak intensity of the pancreatic parenchyma was significantly higher than that of normal dogs (P = 0.05) in between 6 and 60 s (P = <0.0001-0.046). This corresponds to a 311% increase in mean pixel intensity in dogs with acute pancreatitis compared to healthy dogs. Wash-in rates were greater and had a consistently steeper slope to peak in dogs with pancreatitis as opposed to healthy dogs. All dogs with pancreatitis showed a decrease in pixel intensity 10-15 days after the initial examination (P = 0.011) and their times to peak values were prolonged compared to the initial exam. Findings from the current study supported the use of CEUS for diagnosing pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis, and disease monitoring following therapy in dogs.

  15. Clinical canine dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Kristin M

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide small animal veterinarians in private practice a guideline for interpretation of the most common findings in canine intraoral radiology. Normal oral and dental anatomy is presented. A brief review of variations of normal, common periodontal and endodontic pathology findings and developmental anomalies is provided.

  16. Apoptosis in canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Moro, L; de Sousa Martins, A; de Moraes Alves, C; de Araújo Santos, F G; dos Santos Nunes, J E; Carneiro, R A; Carvalho, R; Vasconcelos, A C

    2003-01-01

    Canine distemper is a systemic viral disease characterized by immunosuppression followed by secondary infections. Apoptosis is observed in several immunosuppressive diseases and its occurrence on canine distemper in vivo has not been published. In this study, the occurrence of apoptosis was determined in lymphoid tissues of thirteen naturally infected dogs and nine experimentally inoculated puppies. Healthy dogs were used as negative controls. Samples of lymph nodes, thymus, spleen and brain were collected for histopathological purposes. Sections, 5 microm thick, of retropharingeal lymph nodes were stained by HE, Shorr, Methyl Green-Pyronin and TUNEL reaction. Shorr stained sections were further evaluated by morphometry. Canine distemper virus nucleoprotein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Retropharingeal lymph nodes of naturally and experimentally infected dogs had more apoptotic cells per field than controls. In addition, DNA from thymus of infected dogs were more fragmented than controls. Therefore, apoptosis is increased in lymphoid depletion induced by canine distemper virus and consequently play a role in the immunosuppression seen in this disease.

  17. Clinical implications of fatty pancreas: Correlations between fatty pancreas and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Seok; Kim, Sang Heum; Jun, Dae Won; Han, Jee Hye; Jang, Eun Chul; Park, Ji Young; Son, Byung Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan; Jo, Yoon Ju; Park, Young Sook; Kim, Yong Soo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical implications of lipid deposition in the pancreas (fatty pancreas). METHODS: The subjects of this study were 293 patients who had undergone abdominal computed tomography (CT) and sonography. Fatty pancreas was diagnosed by sonographic findings and subdivided into mild, moderate, and severe fatty pancreas groups comparing to the retroperitoneal fat echogenicity. RESULTS: Fatty pancreas was associated with higher levels for visceral fat, waist circumference, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, free fatty acid, γ-GTP, insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) than the control group (P < 0.05). HOMA-IR, visceral fat, triglyceride, and ALT also tended to increase with the degree of fat deposition in the pancreas on sonography. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR, visceral fat, and ALT level were independently related to fatty pancreas after adjustment for age, body mass index, and lipid profile. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the fatty pancreas group was significantly higher than in the control group, and the numbers of metabolic syndrome parameters were significantly higher in the fatty pancreas group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Sonographic fatty pancrease showed higher insulin resistance, visceral fat area, triglyceride, and ALT levels than normal pancreases. Fatty pancreas also showed a strong correlation with metabolic syndrome. PMID:19370785

  18. 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI with radial ultra-short echo time and spatial-temporal constrained reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Grzegorz; Johnson, Kevin M.; Bell, Laura C.; Velikina, Julia V.; Samsonov, Alexey A.; Nagle, Scott K.; Fain, Sean B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the feasibility of spatial-temporal constrained reconstruction for accelerated regional lung perfusion using highly undersampled dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) 3D radial MRI with ultra-short echo time (UTE). Methods A combined strategy was used to accelerate DCE MRI for 3D pulmonary perfusion with whole lung coverage. A highly undersampled 3D radial UTE MRI acquisition was combined with an iterative constrained reconstruction exploiting principal component analysis and wavelet soft-thresholding for dimensionality reduction in space and time. The performance of the method was evaluated using a 3D fractal-based DCE digital lung phantom. Simulated perfusion maps and contrast enhancement curves were compared to ground truth using the structural similarity index (SSIM) to determine robust threshold and regularization levels. Feasibility studies were then performed in a canine and a human subject with 3D radial UTE (TE = 0.08 ms) acquisition to assess feasibility of mapping regional 3D perfusion. Results The method was able to accurately recover perfusion maps in the phantom with a nominal isotropic spatial resolution of 1.5 mm (SSIM of 0.949). The canine and human subject studies demonstrated feasibility for providing artifact-free perfusion maps in a simple 3D breath-held acquisition. Conclusion The proposed method is promising for fast and flexible 3D pulmonary perfusion imaging. PMID:24604452

  19. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  20. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  1. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation.

  2. Importance of organ preservation solution composition in reducing myocardial edema during machine perfusion for heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cobert, M L; Peltz, M; West, L M; Jessen, M E

    2010-06-01

    Machine perfusion preservation has been used experimentally to extend the storage interval of donor hearts. We previously demonstrated that machine perfusion with glucose-supplemented Celsior preservation solution led to superior reperfusion function but resulted in increased myocardial edema compared with conventional static preservation. We hypothesized that other solutions that contain an oncotic agent, such as University of Wisconsin Machine Perfusion Solution (UWMPS), might reduce graft edema development while maintaining myocardial oxidative metabolism during long-term storage. Canine hearts were stored and perfused in a perfusion preservation device (LifeCradle; Organ Transport Systems) after cardioplegic arrest and donor cardiectomy. Hearts were perfused either with glucose-supplemented Celsior (which lacks an oncotic agent) or UWMPS (which contains hydroxyethyl starch) at 5 degrees C in the perfusion device over 10 hours. Oxygen consumption (MVO(2)), lactate accumulation, regional flow distribution, and myocardial water content were measured. Hearts in both groups continued to extract oxygen over the entire perfusion interval. Lactate accumulation was minimal in both groups. Both solutions delivered perfusate evenly to all regions of myocardium. Heart weight increase (Celsior 31.3 +/- 4.3%, UWMPS -3.3 +/- 1.9%) and final myocardial water content (Celsior 80.2 +/- 1.3%, UWMPS 75.9 +/- 0.3%) were higher in the Celsior group (P < .005). Donor hearts can be supported by a perfusion device over relatively extended storage intervals. These organs continue to undergo oxidative metabolism with little lactate accumulation. An oncotic agent appears to be important in limiting increases in myocardial water content. UWMPS appears to be superior for perfusion preservation of myocardium by reducing edema development during storage.

  3. Do canine parvoviruses affect canine neurons? An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Schmidt, P

    2005-08-01

    In cats (most of which died from panleukopenia), cerebral neurons have recently been shown to be susceptible to canine parvovirus infection. In addition to positive immunostaining and distinct in situ hybridization signals, signs of neurodegeneration were identified by histopathology, mainly in the diencephalic area. Similar histological lesions of the diencephalic regions in dogs have also attracted attention; therefore, an immunohistochemical study was initiated to determine the possible infection of canine neurons with canine parvoviruses. The study was carried out on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue, with and without signs of neurodegeneration, from 40 dogs, most of them dying from parvovirus enteritis. Immunohistochemistry, using polyclonal antiserum against canine parvoviruses, was negative in all 40 cases, suggesting that, unlike cats, canine parvoviruses do not seem capable of infecting canine neurons.

  4. Pancreas transplant imaging: how I do it.

    PubMed

    Tolat, Parag P; Foley, W Dennis; Johnson, Christopher; Hohenwalter, Mark D; Quiroz, Francisco A

    2015-04-01

    Pancreas transplantation aims to restore physiologic normoglycemia in diabetic patients with glomerulopathy and avoid or delay the onset of diabetic retinopathy and arteriopathy. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant is the most common approach, using a cadaveric pancreas donation in conjunction with either cadaveric or live donor renal transplant. Alternative techniques include pancreas after kidney transplant, in which the pancreas transplant is performed some years after renal transplant. Pancreas transplant alone is utilized rarely in diabetic patients with compensated renal function. Pancreas grafts have vascular and enteric connections that vary in their anatomic approach, and understanding of this is critical for imaging with ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging techniques are directed to display the pancreatic transplant arterial and venous vasculature, parenchyma, and intestinal drainage pathway. Critical vascular information includes venous thrombosis (partial or complete), arterial occlusion, or aneurysm. Parenchymal abnormalities are nonspecific and occur in pancreatitis, graft rejection, and subsequent graft ischemia. Peripancreatic fluid collections include hematoma/seroma, pseudocyst, and abscess. The latter two are related to pancreatitis, duct disruption, or leak from the duodenojejunostomy. An understanding of transplant anatomy and complications will lead to appropriate use of imaging techniques to diagnose or exclude important complications.

  5. Immediate retransplantation for pancreas allograft thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hollinger, E F; Powelson, J A; Mangus, R S; Kazimi, M M; Taber, T E; Goble, M L; Fridell, J A

    2009-04-01

    Early pancreas allograft failure most commonly results from thrombosis and requires immediate allograft pancreatectomy. Optimal timing for retransplantation remains undefined. Immediate retransplantation facilitates reuse of the same anatomic site before extensive adhesions have formed. Some studies suggest that early retransplantation is associated with a higher incidence of graft loss. This study is a retrospective review of immediate pancreas retransplants performed at a single center. All cases of pancreas allograft loss within 2 weeks were examined. Of 228 pancreas transplants, 12 grafts were lost within 2 weeks of surgery. Eleven of these underwent allograft pancreatectomy for thrombosis. One suffered anoxic brain injury and was not a retransplantation candidate, one was retransplanted at 3.5 months and nine patients underwent retransplantation 1-16 days following the original transplant. Of the nine early retransplants, one pancreas was lost to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, one recipient died with function at 2.9 years and the other grafts continue to function at 76-1137 days (mean 572 days). One-year graft survival for early retransplantation was 89% compared to 91% for all pancreas transplants at our center. Immediate retransplantation following pancreatic graft thrombosis restores durable allograft function with outcomes comparable to first-time pancreas transplantation.

  6. Transcriptional control of mammalian pancreas organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cano, David A; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Francisco; Rojas, Anabel

    2014-07-01

    The field of pancreas development has markedly expanded over the last decade, significantly advancing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control pancreas organogenesis. This growth has been fueled, in part, by the need to generate new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of diabetes. The creation of sophisticated genetic tools in mice has been instrumental in this progress. Genetic manipulation involving activation or inactivation of genes within specific cell types has allowed the identification of many transcription factors (TFs) that play critical roles in the organogenesis of the pancreas. Interestingly, many of these TFs act at multiple stages of pancreatic development, and adult organ function or repair. Interaction with other TFs, extrinsic signals, and epigenetic regulation are among the mechanisms by which TFs may play context-dependent roles during pancreas organogenesis. Many of the pancreatic TFs directly regulate each other and their own expression. These combinatorial interactions generate very specific gene regulatory networks that can define the different cell lineages and types in the developing pancreas. Here, we review recent progress made in understanding the role of pancreatic TFs in mouse pancreas formation. We also summarize our current knowledge of human pancreas development and discuss developmental pancreatic TFs that have been associated with human pancreatic diseases.

  7. Morphometric Study of Pancreas in Human Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Dhende, Abhijeet S.; Joshi, Deepak S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The pancreas arises from the endoderm as a dorsal and a ventral bud which fuse together to form the single organ. It extends transversely across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum to the spleen. Functionally, it is endocrine and exocrine. Aim This study was undertaken to study the morphometry of human pancreas at different gestational age groups of normal, still born fetuses. Materials and Methods Forty aborted human fetuses (25 male and 15 female) of 12-40 weeks gestational age with no obvious congenital abnormality were obtained. The fetuses were dissected and pancreas was removed. The length and weight of the pancreas as well as height of its head were noted. Results It was observed that there was increase in body weight and crown rump length with increasing gestational age. The average length of pancreas was 1.80 cm in 12th week and 4.70 cm in 40th week of gestation. The average height of pancreas head was 0.80 cm in the 12th and 2.70 cm in 40th week of gestation. Conclusion The knowledge of development of pancreas helps in planning new therapeutic interventions in the treatment of various congenital and functional pancreatic anomalies. PMID:28050352

  8. [Aspiration biopsy of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Pérez Catzín, F; Gutiérrez Samperio, C; Valenzuela Tamariz, J

    1979-01-01

    Biopsy of the pancreas frequently is followed by complications, this is why the transoperative aspiration biopsy has been recomended. During the last 2 years we used this procedure in 46 patients; in each case, one or several aspirations were done in the more-representative area of the pancreatic pathology. With the aspirated material a smear was fixed and treated with H-E stain. Biopsy was negative for carcinoma in 30 patients (65.2%), positive in 12 (26.0%), insuficient material results in other 4 (8.6%) we consider that the procedure was useful in the 82.6% of the cases and help to elect more adecuate surgical tecnic. There were no complications and we concluded that this is not a harmful procedure. The correct interpretation of the citology depends on the experience of the pathologyst with this method, to increase the percentage of correct diagnosis.

  9. Glucagon in the Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of glucagon, in conjunction with insulin, in a dual chamber pump (artificial pancreas, AP) is a working goal for multiple companies and researchers. However, capital investment to create, operate, and maintain facilities with sufficient scale to produce enough glucagon to treat millions of patients, at a level of profit that makes it feasible, will be substantial. It can be assumed that the marketplace will expect the daily cost of glucagon (to the consumer) to be similar to the daily cost of insulin. After one subtracts wholesaler and pharmacy markup, there may be very few dollars remaining for the drug company to cover profit, capital expenditures, marketing, burden, and other costs. Without the potential for adequate margins, manufacturers may not be willing to take the risk. Assuming that the projections discussed in this article are in the right ballpark, advance planning for the supply for glucagon needs to start today and not wait for the AP to come to market. PMID:25139825

  10. Robotic surgery of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities. PMID:25356035

  11. Robotic surgery of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-10-28

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities.

  12. [Portable peristaltic perfusion pumps].

    PubMed

    Magallón Pedrera, I; Soto Torres, I

    1999-11-01

    Portable peristaltic perfusion pumps allow one to administer pharmaceuticals in hospitals as well as in primary health care centers and furthermore these pumps present multiple advantages for patients and their families since they make it possible to carry out treatment in a patient's home while at the same time lowering the costs involved. The authors analyze the most out standing aspects of portable peristaltic perfusion pumps along with their characteristics, installation, programming, and how to turn them on; in addition, the authors list the maintenance care which these pumps require.

  13. Model individualization for artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Messori, Mirko; Toffanin, Chiara; Del Favero, Simone; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Cobelli, Claudio; Magni, Lalo

    2016-07-05

    The inter-subject variability characterizing the patients affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus makes automatic blood glucose control very challenging. Different patients have different insulin responses, and a control law based on a non-individualized model could be ineffective. The definition of an individualized control law in the context of artificial pancreas is currently an open research topic. In this work we consider two novel identification approaches that can be used for individualizing linear glucose-insulin models to a specific patient. The first approach belongs to the class of black-box identification and is based on a novel kernel-based nonparametric approach, whereas the second is a gray-box identification technique which relies on a constrained optimization and requires to postulate a model structure as prior knowledge. The latter is derived from the linearization of the average nonlinear adult virtual patient of the UVA/Padova simulator. Model identification and validation are based on in silico data collected during simulations of clinical protocols designed to produce a sufficient signal excitation without compromising patient safety. The identified models are evaluated in terms of prediction performance by means of the coefficient of determination, fit, positive and negative max errors, and root mean square error. Both identification approaches were used to identify a linear individualized glucose-insulin model for each adult virtual patient of the UVA/Padova simulator. The resulting model simulation performance is significantly improved with respect to the performance achieved by a linear average model. The approaches proposed in this work have shown a good potential to identify glucose-insulin models for designing individualized control laws for artificial pancreas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. What You Need to Know about Cancer of the Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Need To Know About™ Cancer of the Pancreas This booklet is about cancer of the pancreas, also called pancreatic cancer. There are two main ... care. This booklet covers: The anatomy of the pancreas and basics about cancer of the pancreas Treatments ...

  15. Developmental expression and distribution of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the canine digestive system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shudong; Zhou, Weijuan; Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Dengfeng; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Meizhen; Gong, Yajing; Ye, Jing; Fang, Fugui

    2016-03-01

    Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is a neuropeptide that plays important roles in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. The distribution of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein and mRNA has not been investigated in the canine digestive system. The present study was conducted to evaluate the expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein and NUCB2 mRNA in the canine digestive organs (esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, liver and pancreas). The tissues of the digestive system were collected from dogs at different developmental stages (infantile, juvenile, pubertal and adult). Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein localization in the organs of adult dogs was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of NUCB2 mRNA at the four developmental stages was analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein was distributed in the fundic gland region of the stomach, and the islet area and exocrine portions of the pancreas. However, NUCB2 mRNA was found in all digestive organs, although the expression levels in the pancreas and stomach were higher than those in liver, duodenum and other digestive tract tissues (P<0.05) at the four different developmental stages of the dogs. In this study, nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was found to be present at high levels in the stomach and pancreas at both the protein and mRNA levels; however, NUCB2 expression was found at lower levels in all of the digestive organs. These findings provide the basis of further investigations to elucidate the functions of nefatin-1 in the canine digestive system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Santorinirrhage: hemosuccus pancreaticus in pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Iglesias, J L; Durana, J A; Yañez, J; Rodriguez, H; Garcia-Vallejo, L; Arnal, F

    1988-08-01

    We describe a previously unreported complication of pancreas divisum: severe and repeated episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding through the main pancreatic duct (hemosuccus pancreaticus) in a 34-yr-old woman over a period of 10 months. She had negative investigations, including a blank laparotomy, until an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a pancreas divisum with chronic pancreatitis and a small pseudocyst at the tail of the dorsal pancreas. During the procedure, bleeding through the papilla minor was observed coming from Santorini's duct. A corporocaudal pancreatectomy was done and the bleeding episodes have subsided.

  17. Determination of regional myocardial perfusion by x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.M.; McInerney, J.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Validation studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of an x-ray induced fluorescence system in quantitating regional myocardial perfusion in vivo. In a series of 13 open-chested canines, x-ray induced fluorescence was used to simultaneously monitor iodine concentration transients which arose in the left ventricular lumen and in the myocardium after the intravenous injection of an iodinated flow tracer. Deconvolution of the recorded transients produced a transfer function from which the mean transit time for the tracer to travel between the left ventricular lumen and the myocardium was calculated. Measurements of regional myocardial perfusion (Q) made by radioactive microspheres were compared with the reciprocals of the mean transit times (MTT-1) and gave a linear correlation (n = 38): MTT-1 = 0.033 + 0.069 Q, r = 0.71. Comparison of the percent change in perfusion (dQ) relative to a control study for each dog with the percent change in the respective reciprocals of the mean transit times (dMTT-1) produced a linear correlation coefficient of r = 0.88 for the regression line dMTT-1 = 0.46 dQ - 10.7. The x-ray induced fluorescence system may provide a minimally invasive means for monitoring iodine concentration transients and determining relative, if not absolute, measures of regional myocardial perfusion.

  18. Reproducibility of VPCT parameters in the normal pancreas: comparison of two different kinetic calculation models.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Sascha; Schulze, Maximilian; Horger, Thomas; Oelker, Aenne; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Horger, Marius

    2015-09-01

    To assess the reproducibility of volume computed tomographic perfusion (VPCT) measurements in normal pancreatic tissue using two different kinetic perfusion calculation models at three different time points. Institutional ethical board approval was obtained for retrospective analysis of pancreas perfusion data sets generated by our prospective study for liver response monitoring to local therapy in patients experiencing unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, which was approved by the institutional review board. VPCT of the entire pancreas was performed in 41 patients (mean age, 64.8 years) using 26 consecutive volume measurements and intravenous injection of 50 mL of iodinated contrast at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. Blood volume(BV) and blood flow (BF) were calculated using two mathematical methods: maximum slope + Patlak analysis versus deconvolution method. Pancreas perfusion was calculated using two volume of interests. Median interval between the first and the second VPCT was 2 days and between the second and the third VPCT 82 days. Variability was assessed with within-patient coefficients of variation (CVs) and Bland-Altman analyses. Interobserver agreement for all perfusion parameters was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). BF and BV values varied widely by method of analysis as did within-patient CVs for BF and BV at the second versus the first VPCT by 22.4%/50.4% (method 1) and 24.6%/24.0% (method 2) measured in the pancreatic head and 18.4%/62.6% (method 1) and 23.8%/28.1% (method 2) measured in the pancreatic corpus and at the third versus the first VPCT by 21.7%/61.8% (method 1) and 25.7%/34.5% (method 2) measured also in the pancreatic head and 19.1%/66.1% (method 1) and 22.0%/31.8% (method 2) measured in the pancreatic corpus, respectively. Interobserver agreement measured with ICC shows fair-to-good reproducibility. VPCT performed with the presented examinational protocol is reproducible and can be used for monitoring

  19. Distribution of perfusion.

    PubMed

    Glenny, Robb; Robertson, H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Local driving pressures and resistances within the pulmonary vascular tree determine the distribution of perfusion in the lung. Unlike other organs, these local determinants are significantly influenced by regional hydrostatic and alveolar pressures. Those effects on blood flow distribution are further magnified by the large vertical height of the human lung and the relatively low intravascular pressures in the pulmonary circulation. While the distribution of perfusion is largely due to passive determinants such as vascular geometry and hydrostatic pressures, active mechanisms such as vasoconstriction induced by local hypoxia can also redistribute blood flow. This chapter reviews the determinants of regional lung perfusion with a focus on vascular tree geometry, vertical gradients induced by gravity, the interactions between vascular and surrounding alveolar pressures, and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. While each of these determinants of perfusion distribution can be examined in isolation, the distribution of blood flow is dynamically determined and each component interacts with the others so that a change in one region of the lung influences the distribution of blood flow in other lung regions. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  20. Contrast harmonic imaging of the normal canine spleen.

    PubMed

    Ohlerth, Stefanie; Rüefli, Eva; Poirier, Valerie; Roos, Malgorzata; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perfusion pattern and perfusion dynamics in the normal canine spleen using contrast harmonic imaging. Twenty-five dogs without clinical or ultrasonographic evidence of splenic disease were studied. Twenty-three dogs were scanned with only manual restraint; two dogs were sedated with buprenorphin. All dogs received an intravenous bolus of a microbubble contrast medium (SonoVue). The perfusion pattern during the blood pool phase represented a skewed bell-shaped curve. A tissue-specific late phase, similar to humans, was not observed. Time/intensity curves were generated for a selected region. Mean average-derived peak intensity (PI) was 6.6dB, mean time to peak intensity calculated from the initial rise (TTP) was 25.6 s and mean area under the curve (AUC) was 523.6 dBs. If dogs were divided into two body weight groups (< or =15 and >15 kg body weight), average derived peak intensity area, time to peak intensity, and area under the curve were lower for the smaller dogs than for the larger animals. However, differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.2, 0.05, and 0.08, respectively). No significant association was found between hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count, blood pressure, heart rate, age, gender, and the perfusion variables. In conclusion, these baseline data may prove useful in the evaluation of dogs with diffuse or focal splenic disease.

  1. ENDOCRINE FUNCTION OF THE SURGICALLY REDUCED PANCREAS

    PubMed Central

    Houssay, B. A.; Foglia, V. G.; Smyth, F. S.

    1941-01-01

    The pancreas reduced to 4 or 10 gm. weeks or months previously by partial resection, is able to maintain a normal glycemic level in dogs of about 10 kilos in good condition. When the pancreas is reduced to 4 gm. the capacity for secreting insulin under certain conditions of strain is diminished whereas a pancreas reduced to 10 gm. may have a normal or decreased capacity. This decreased functional capacity is shown: (1) by a longer hyperglycemic curve after the intravenous injection of 1 gm. of glucose per kilo; (2) by the requirement of smaller doses of extract of anterior hypophysis to produce diabetes; and (3) by the longer time required to correct the diabetic hyperglycemia if reduced pancreas is grafted in the neck of pancreatectomized animals. The time to recover is in inverse ratio to the weight of the transplanted pancreatic tissue. PMID:19871135

  2. [Pancreas transplant in Spain: better late than...].

    PubMed

    Casanova, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Pancreas transplant is the only method that enables diabetic patients to have a normal carbohydrate metabolism in the long-term. Its application in selected patients has shown to have patient survival rates, at one year of the graft, similar to those transplanted with other solid organs, such as kidney, heart, liver, etc. The indications are currently well established, with combined pancreas-kidney transplant being the most common, followed by pancreas transplant after a functioning kidney transplant and isolated pancreas transplant in pre-uraemic patients. In 2005, in Spain, under the auspices of the National Transplant Organisation (ONT), a consensus meeting was held with the scientific societies involved in this type of transplant, to standardise its indications and highlight its benefits in order to optimise the results of this transplant in our country. The most important conclusions of this consensus meeting are discussed in this short article. Copyright 2008 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease.

  4. [Mucinous papillary cystadenoma of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Ledezma, G; Salloum, S; de Sulbarán, Y; de Armas, L

    1992-01-01

    The case of a 15-years-old female patient is presented, who referred pain and presence of a mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Diagnostic imaging showed a 9 cm diameter cystic lesion in the tail of the pancreas which was removed surgically. Histology demonstrated a pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma with borderline biological behaviour. A review of the literature related to cystic neoplasms of the pancreas is realized.

  5. Who needs an artificial pancreas? (?).

    PubMed

    Winikoff, Janet; Drexler, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The development of a closed-loop "artificial pancreas" would be a welcome advance for both endocrinologists and diabetic patients struggling to attain near normal glycemic control. While great strides in automatically controlling blood sugar in the fasting, sedentary state have been made through complex mathematical modeling, management of blood sugar excursions due to food and exercise have been more problematic. An artificial pancreas is not feasible at this time because of limitations inherent in the currently available technology.

  6. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  7. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  8. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  9. Aquaporins in salivary glands and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Delporte, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Salivary glands and pancreas are involved in saliva secretion, pancreatic fluid secretion and insulin secretion. These functions are essential for proper oral, pancreatic and glucose homeostasis. Aquaporins are water-permeable transmembrane protein involved in the physiology of these secretory gland functions. This review gives an overview of the morphology of salivary glands and pancreas, the expression and localization of aquaporins, the secretion roles and mechanisms, the physiological roles of aquaporins, and the role of aquaporins in pathophysiological conditions. Several aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and pancreas, and some play important physiological roles. Modulation of aquaporin expression and/or trafficking may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases affecting salivary glands and pancreas glands such as xerostomic conditions, pancreatic insufficiencies and diabetes. Aquaporins are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes in salivary glands and pancreas. They could represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases affecting the salivary glands and pancreas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. © 2013.

  10. Inter-operator variability in perfusion assessment of tumors in MRI using automated AIF detection.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Edward; McShane, Teresa; Evelhoch, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of perfusion parameters in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. This method requires identification of enhancement curves for both tumor tissue and plasma. Inter-operator variability in the derived rate constant between plasma and extra-cellular extra-vascular space is assessed in both canine and human subjects using semi-automated tumor margin identification with both manual and automated arterial input function (AIF) identification. Experimental results show a median coefficient of variability (CV) for parameter measurement with manual AIF identification of 21.5% in canines and 11% in humans, with a median CV for parameter measurement with automated AIF identification of 6.7% in canines and 6% in humans.

  11. Giant serous microcystic pancreas adenoma.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, Kursat; Bostanci, Hasan; Yildirim, Ali Cihat; Sakrak, Omer; Kerem, Mustafa

    2012-10-10

    Serous cystadenomas are rare tumors comprising 1-2% of exocrine pancreas tumors. They are mostly known as benign conditions but malign transformation as serous cystadenocarcinoma is also reported. It is usually seen in females. Non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or symptoms due to mass affect, are usually seen. A 64-year old female patient was investigated for abdominal pain. Physical and laboratory findings were normal. Abdomen ultrasonography confirmed an 11×9.5 cm solid cystic lesion and abdomen computed tomography scan confirmed a 12×11 cm lobulated cystic solid lesion which had central cystic necrotic areas extending from liver hilus inferiorly. Fine needle biopsy confirmed benign cytology and trucut biopsy of the pancreatic mass reported chronic inflamation. Nevertheless, this mass could have malignant contents and transformation potential. A laparatomy was decided due to patient's symptoms and mass effect. Due to vascular invasion of the tumor, Whipple procedure was performed. The pathology report confirmed serous microcystic adenoma. These rare tumors are usually benign but pre-operative malignity criterias are not identified. There are few differential diagnostic tools for excluding malignity. We suggest surgical resection as best treatment approach for selected cases.

  12. Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Tran Cao, Hop S.; Kellogg, Benjamin; Lowy, Andrew M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whereas pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a well-studied (but still poorly understood) disease with a dismal prognosis, cystic neoplasms of the pancreas form a more recently recognized group of pancreatic tumors. They are diverse and variable in their pathologic characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes,1–3 although all portend a better overall prognosis than PDA. In recent years, with the improved sensitivity and increasing use of cross-sectional imaging in clinical practice, these lesions are more commonly identified,4 with many being discovered incidentally. Indeed, large radiological series using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have reported detection rates of pancreatic cystic lesions between 1.2% and almost 20%,5,6 approaching the 24.3% prevalence rate in an autopsy series by Kimura and colleagues.7 Although most of these lesions are pseudocysts, a significant portion consist of cystic neoplasms, which are estimated to represent 10% to 15% of all primary pancreatic cystic lesions.8 Given the growing clinical relevance of these tumors, a keen understanding of their natural history and pathophysiology is needed. This article reviews pancreatic cystic neoplasms, with a focus on the challenges encountered in their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20159515

  13. The Pancreas: Causes for Malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Hackert, Thilo; Schütte, Kerstin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The pancreas has a central function in digestion and glucose homeostasis. With regard to the exocrine function, which is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients and vitamins, the most important disturbances of these physiological processes are based on deficiencies in enzyme production and secretion, either due to impaired excretion caused by obstruction of the pancreatic duct or due to loss of pancreatic tissue. Both conditions result in maldigestion, malabsorption, and malnutrition. Methods Systematic literature review. Results Symptoms associated with pancreatic exocrine failure are gastrointestinal discomfort, steatorrhea, and weight loss. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency caused by ductal obstruction occurs in chronic pancreatitis or with neoplasia of the pancreatic head. Loss of functional parenchyma can be caused either by chronic pancreatitis resulting in fibrotic replacement of the destroyed parenchyma or by a postoperative state of pancreatic resection. Conclusion In patients with chronic pancreatitis, a stage-adapted and timely therapy including conservative as well as surgical measures is essential to prevent functional deterioration and to preserve residual function. In the case of pancreatic resection for chronic pancreatitis, this can be achieved with modern organ-sparing surgery such as the duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection. In patients requiring more extended pancreatic resections and even total duodenopancreatectomy, regardless of the underlying indication, adequate enzyme replacement and monitoring of the nutritional status is critical to prevent impairment of quality of life as well as detrimental malnutrition in the long term. PMID:26288593

  14. A Pre-Clinical Canine Model for Composite Tissue Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, David W.; Noland, Marie; Graves, Scott; Schlenker, Robert; Miwongtum, Tiffany; Storb, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of composite tissue allografts (CTA) has been demonstrated by the successful transplantation of the hand, abdomen and face. However, the survival of these transplants is dependent on immunosupression. Our laboratory is interested in achieving tolerance in order to decrease the risks associated with the use of chronic immunosuppression. The purpose of this experiment was to develop a large animal model for CTA. Four canine flaps were auto-transplanted to examine the use of a myocutaneous rectus flap based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels. Five CTA transplants were performed between Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) identical littermates without any therapy. The allografts were followed clinically and underwent routine biopsies. The anatomic dissections and auto-transplants were all successful and revealed that the flap could be divided into two separate components. Skin is routinely perfused by the superficial epigastric artery. Rectus muscle is perfused by the deep inferior epigastrc system. This allows the allografts to be transplanted as muscle, skin or with both components based on the external iliac artery and veins. The DLA-identical littermates rejected the allografts in 15 to 30 days. This study demonstrates the versatility of the myocutaneous rectus flap for use in canines as composite tissue allograft models. PMID:20108180

  15. Development of Canine Models of Type 1 Diabetes With Partial Pancreatectomy and the Administration of Streptozotocin

    PubMed Central

    Seita, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Kubota, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Hironobu; Nakaji, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Naoya; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We created canine models of type 1 diabetes that were suitable for the assessment of cell therapies, such as islet transplantation and bioartificial pancreas, with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection and partial pancreatectomy. In our model, a 50% pancreatectomy was performed with general anesthesia, followed by systemic injection of 35 mg/kg STZ into a vein of the foreleg. Four weeks after the administration of STZ, the fasting blood glucose level of our model dogs was found to be over 200 mg/dl twice on different days, and we could not detect any canine insulin by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). We therefore diagnosed the dogs to have induced diabetes. Some studies have reported high-dose STZ to be very toxic for both the kidney and liver, and therefore a lower dose is desirable to induce diabetic models without any associated kidney or liver damage. We think that the combination of a partial pancreatectomy can thus make it possible to reduce the dose of STZ, and it is therefore useful for the creation of type 1 diabetes models. We believe that our model is a safe and reliable model for type 1 diabetes in canines to assess the efficacy of pancreas-targeted cell therapies. PMID:26858877

  16. Perfusion abnormalities in hemimegalencephaly.

    PubMed

    Wintermark, P; Roulet-Perez, E; Maeder-Ingvar, M; Moessinger, A C; Gudinchet, F; Meuli, R

    2009-04-01

    Cerebrovascular changes are rarely discussed in patients with hemimegalencephaly. These alterations have previously been associated with epileptical activity. We report the case of a 36-week gestation neonate presenting with total right hemimegalencephaly, as demonstrated by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed in the first days of life. Perfusion-weighted imaging displayed a clear hypervascularization of the right hemisphere. Diffusion-tensor imaging showed an arrangement of white matter fibers concentrically around the ventricle on the right hemisphere. AngioMRI showed an obvious asymmetry in the size of the middle cerebral arteries, with the right middle cerebral artery being prominent. The baby was free of clinical seizures during his first week of life. An electroencephalogram at that time displayed an asymmetric background activity, but no electrical seizures. Perfusion anomalies in hemimegalencephaly may not necessarily be related to epileptical activity, but may be related to vessel alterations. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  17. Restoration of missing or misplaced canines.

    PubMed

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A

    1985-06-01

    Restorative treatments for canines were discussed to correct three clinical abnormalities: (1) fully erupted permanent canine in the lateral incisor position, (2) missing permanent canines, and (3) partially exposed canines in normal arch position. The primary concerns are the development of esthetics, anterior guidance, and adequate support for fixed restorations.

  18. Adrenergically mediated intrapancreatic control of the glucagon response to glucopenia in the isolated rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Hisatomi, A; Maruyama, H; Orci, L; Vasko, M; Unger, R H

    1985-01-01

    Alpha adrenergic blockade with phentolamine (10 microM) reduces the glucagon response to severe glucopenia (from 150 to 25 mg/dl) to 22% of the control values in the isolated perfused rat pancreas. Propranolol (10 microM) had no significant effect. Neither alpha nor beta adrenergic blockade reduced the magnitude of glucopenic suppression of insulin secretion, but phentolamine increased insulin levels before and during glucopenia. The pattern of somatostatin secretion in these experiments resembled that of insulin. Depletion of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve endings by pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine lowered the pancreatic norepinephrine content to less than 20% of control values and reduced the glucagon response to glucopenia to 69% of the controls. Combined alpha and beta adrenergic blockade during less severe glucopenia (from 120 to 60 mg/dl) reduced the glucagon response to 21% of controls. However, slight glucopenia (from 100 to 80 mg/dl), which elicited only 11% increase in glucagon in the control experiments, was not altered significantly by combined alpha and beta adrenergic blockade. Morphologic studies of adrenergic nerve terminals labeled with [3H]norepinephrine revealed associations with alpha cells. It is concluded that in the isolated rat pancreas adrenergic mediation accounts for most of the glucagon but not insulin response to glucopenia. It is controlled within the pancreas itself, possibly through a direct enhancement by glucopenia of norepinephrine release from nerve endings. Images PMID:2857731

  19. Melatonin, endocrine pancreas and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Peschke, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    Melatonin influences insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro. (i) The effects are MT(1)-and MT(2)-receptor-mediated. (ii) They are specific, high-affinity, pertussis-toxin-sensitive, G(i)-protein-coupled, leading to inhibition of the cAMP-pathway and decrease of insulin release. [Correction added after online publication 4 December 2007: in the preceding sentence, 'increase of insulin release' was changed to 'decrease of insulin release'.] Furthermore, melatonin inhibits the cGMP-pathway, possibly mediated by MT(2) receptors. In this way, melatonin likely inhibits insulin release. A third system, the IP(3)-pathway, is mediated by G(q)-proteins, phospholipase C and IP(3), which mobilize Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, with a resultant increase in insulin. (iii) Insulin secretion in vivo, as well as from isolated islets, exhibits a circadian rhythm. This rhythm, which is apparently generated within the islets, is influenced by melatonin, which induces a phase shift in insulin secretion. (iv) Observation of the circadian expression of clock genes in the pancreas could possibly be an indication of the generation of circadian rhythms in the pancreatic islets themselves. (v) Melatonin influences diabetes and associated metabolic disturbances. The diabetogens, alloxan and streptozotocin, lead to selective destruction of beta-cells through their accumulation in these cells, where they induce the generation of ROS. Beta-cells are very susceptible to oxidative stress because they possess only low-antioxidative capacity. Results suggest that melatonin in pharmacological doses provides protection against ROS. (vi) Finally, melatonin levels in plasma, as well as the arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity, are lower in diabetic than in nondiabetic rats and humans. In contrast, in the pineal gland, the AANAT mRNA is increased and the insulin receptor mRNA is decreased, which indicates a close interrelationship between insulin and melatonin.

  20. The artificial pancreas: is it important to understand how the β cell controls blood glucose?

    PubMed

    Steil, Garry M; Grodsky, Gerold M

    2013-09-01

    It has been more than 7 years since the first fully automated closed-loop insulin delivery system that linked subcutaneous insulin delivery and glucose sensing was published. Since the initial report, the physiologic insulin delivery (PID) algorithm used to emulate the β cell has been modified from the original proportional-integral-derivative terms needed to fit the β cell's biphasic response to a hyperglycemic clamp to include terms emulating cephalic phase insulin release and the effect of insulin per se to inhibit insulin secretion. In this article, we compare the closed-loop glucose profiles obtained as each new term has been added, reassess the ability of the revised PID model to describe the β cells' insulin response to a hyperglycemic clamp, and look for the first time at its ability to describe the response to a hypoglycemic clamp. We also consider changes that might be added to the model based on perfused pancreas data. We conclude that the changes introduced in the PID model have systematically improved the closed-loop meal response. We note that the changes made do not adversely affect the ability of the model to fit hyperglycemic clamp data but are necessary to fit the response to a hypoglycemic clamp. Finally, we note a number of β cell characteristics observed in the perfused pancreas have not been included in the model. We suggest that continuing the effort to understand and incorporate aspects of how the β cell achieves glucose control can provide valuable insights into how improvements in future artificial pancreas algorithms might be achieved.

  1. Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox.

  2. The expression of canine cardiac phospholamban in heterologous systems.

    PubMed

    Cook, E A; Huggins, J P; Sathe, G; England, P J; Piggott, J R

    1989-12-01

    A synthetic phospholamban gene has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, producing both native phospholamban and a fusion protein with 81 amino acids of the influenza virus NS1 protein. Both the native phospholamban and fusion proteins produced extensive cell lysis upon induction of gene expression, but only the native protein underwent spontaneous pentamer formation in E. coli. Translation in vitro of mRNA produced by transcription in vitro of phospholamban cDNA was used to demonstrate the spontaneous aggregation of phospholamban to form pentamers in this system also, both in the presence and absence of exogenous microsomes from canine pancreas or heart. Phospholamban produced by translation in vitro was apparently susceptible to proteolysis by enzymes present in the particulate fractions in these experiments.

  3. Pancreas graft survival in simultaneous pancreas-kidney versus pancreas-after-kidney and pancreas alone transplantations: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Casado, M C; Pérez-Daga, J A; Aranda-Narváez, J M; Fernández-Burgos, I; Sánchez-Pérez, B; León-Díaz, F J; Cabello-Díaz, M; Rodríguez-Burgos, D; Hernández-Marrero, D; Santoyo-Santoyo, J

    2013-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation offers excellent outcomes today in patients who have type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM) with difficult control in terms of increasing patient and pancreatic graft survival. Different factors in donors, recipients, and the perioperative period have been associated with long-term graft survival. The aim of this study was to compare pancreatic graft survival in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) and the other two modalities, pancreas-alone and pancreas-after-kidney transplantation (non-SPK), at our institution. This retrospective cohort study included 63 pancreas transplantation patients from January 2007 to May 2012 at our institution. The patients were divided into two groups: SPK and non-SPK transplantations. We excluded those patients who had transplants with vascular graft loss. The primary endpoint was 1-year and overall graft survival with consideration of multiple relevant variables. Non-parametric tests were calculated with the statistical package SPSS 20 (SPSS INC, Chicago, IL). The 1-year and overall graft survival in this period was 87.3% and 82.5%, respectively. The median follow-up was 963 days. The causes of graft loss were vascular (64%) and immunologic (34%). Finally, we included 56 pancreas transplantations, 46 (82%) were SPK and 10 (18%) non-SPK. The donor and recipient characteristics were similar in both groups, except for the duration of DM (SPK 22 years vs. non-SPK 29 years) and recipient body mass index (SPK 23 vs. non-SPK 28); P = .042 and P = .003, respectively. The cold ischemia time was 563 minutes (standard deviation, 145). Bivariate analysis showed that long-term graft loss was only influenced by matching for gender (P = .023). Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the pancreas graft survival was better in SPK than in non-SPK transplants (log rank .038). Patients who receive pancreas-alone or pancreas-after-kidney grafts have shorter long-term graft survival. Multiple strategies should be applied to improve

  4. Progress and challenges of the bioartificial pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Patrick T. J.; Shah, Dishant K.; Garcia, Jacob A.; Bae, Chae Yun; Lim, Dong-Jin; Huiszoon, Ryan C.; Alexander, Grant C.; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has been validated as a treatment for type 1 diabetes since it maintains consistent and sustained type 1 diabetes reversal. However, one of the major challenges in pancreatic islet transplantation is the body's natural immune response to the implanted islets. Immunosuppressive drug treatment is the most popular immunomodulatory approach for islet graft survival. However, administration of immunosuppressive drugs gives rise to negative side effects, and long-term effects are not clearly understood. A bioartificial pancreas is a therapeutic approach to enable pancreatic islet transplantation without or with minimal immune suppression. The bioartificial pancreas encapsulates the pancreatic islets in a semi-permeable environment which protects islets from the body's immune responses, while allowing the permeation of insulin, oxygen, nutrients, and waste. Many groups have developed various types of the bioartificial pancreas and tested their efficacy in animal models. However, the clinical application of the bioartificial pancreas still requires further investigation. In this review, we discuss several types of bioartificial pancreases and address their advantages and limitations. We also discuss recent advances in bioartificial pancreas applications with microfluidic or micropatterning technology.

  5. The case for pancreas after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fridell, Jonathan A; Mangus, Richard S; Hollinger, Edward F; Taber, Tim E; Goble, Michelle L; Mohler, Elaine; Milgrom, Martin L; Powelson, John A

    2009-01-01

    Pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation has historically demonstrated inferior pancreas allograft survival compared to simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation. Under our current immunosuppression protocol, we have noted excellent outcomes and rare immunological graft loss. The goal of this study was to compare pancreas allograft survival in PAK and SPK recipients using this regimen. This was a single center retrospective review of all SPK and PAK transplants performed between January 2003 and November 2007. All transplants were performed with systemic venous drainage and enteric exocrine drainage. Immunosuppression included induction with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (thymoglobulin), early steroid withdrawal, and maintenance with tacrolimus and sirolimus or mycophenolate mofetil. Study end points included graft and patient survival and immunosuppression related complications. Transplants included PAK 61 (30%) and SPK 142 (70%). One-yr patient survival was PAK 98% and SPK 95% (p = 0.44) and pancreas graft survival was PAK 95% and SPK 90% (p = 0.28). Acute cellular rejection was uncommon with 2% requiring treatment in each group. Survival for PAK using thymoglobulin induction, early steroid withdrawal and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression is at least comparable to SPK and should be pursued in the recipient with a potential living donor.

  6. QUILT-2.014: Gemcitabine and AMG 479 in Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Advanced Solid Tumors; Cancer; Cancer of Pancreas; Cancer of the Pancreas; Metastases; Metastatic Cancer; Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Bone Metastases; Endocrine Cancer; Oncology; Oncology Patients; Solid Tumors; Advanced Malignancy

  7. Perfusion Based Cell Culture Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiskanen, A.; Emnéus, J.; Dufva, M.

    Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers.

  8. Machine perfusion in organ transplantation: a tool for ex-vivo graft conditioning with mesenchymal stem cells?

    PubMed

    Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Neyrinck, Arne; Rega, Filip; Devos, Timothy; Pirenne, Jacques

    2013-02-01

    Machine perfusion has emerged as a tool to evaluate pretransplant graft function more objectively during preservation. Machine perfusion also offers the possibility to recondition questionable organs and to 'immunomodulate' allografts ex vivo. This article aims to review the current knowledge on machine perfusion of the various solid thoracic and abdominal organs, and to discuss the new possibility of conditioning and treating grafts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during machine perfusion. Different methods of machine perfusion have been described varying among organs in temperature and composition of perfusate. Commercial devices have recently become available for machine perfusion of all organs, with the largest clinical experience acquired in kidney and lung transplantation. Clinical studies are ongoing for liver, heart, and pancreas. MSC therapy in organ transplantation is now emerging with clinical studies set up to investigate its potential to attenuate ischemia/reperfusion injury (innate immunity) and to downregulate the alloimmune response (adaptive immunity) and promote engraftment after transplantation. We hypothesize that delivery of MSCs directly into the machine perfusion circuit may provide a unique opportunity to treat and immunomodulate organs prior to transplantation. To our knowledge, no study on ex-vivo delivery of MSCs during machine perfusion has been reported. Machine perfusion of solid organs has regained much attention during the last decade. It provides a new promising tool that may allow pretransplant ex-vivo assessment, preservation, repair, and conditioning of grafts. Experimental research and clinical trials testing the administration of MSCs during machine perfusion are warranted to explore the potential benefit and mechanisms of this approach.

  9. A simple physiologic pulsatile perfusion system for the study of intact vascular tissue.

    PubMed

    Conklin, B S; Surowiec, S M; Lin, P H; Chen, C

    2000-07-01

    Perfusion vascular culture models may provide a useful link between cell culture models and animal culture models by allowing a high level of control over important parameters while maintaining physiologic structure. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new vascular culture system for pulsatile perfusion culture of intact vascular tissue. The system generates a pulsatile component of flow by means of a cam-driven syringe and a peristaltic pump and compliance chamber. Cams were designed, constructed and tested to simulate canine femoral and common carotid artery flows. The mean pressure was adjusted between 60 and 200 mmHg without significantly affecting flow rate, flow waveform, or the pressure waveform. Porcine common carotid artery segments were cultured in this pulsatile perfusion system. The viability of vascular segments was tested after various culture times with a functional assay that demonstrated both smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell response to vasomotor challenge.

  10. Multipotent pancreas progenitors: Inconclusive but pivotal topic

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of multipotent pancreas progenitors (MPP) should have a significant impact not only on the ontology of the pancreas, but also for the translational research of glucose-responding endocrine β-cells. Deficiency of the latter may lead to the pandemic type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder. An ideal treatment of which would potentially be the replacement of destroyed or failed β-cells, by restoring function of endogenous pancreatic endocrine cells or by transplantation of donor islets or in vitro generated insulin-secreting cells. Thus, considerable research efforts have been devoted to identify MPP candidates in the pre- and post-natal pancreas for the endogenous neogenesis or regeneration of endocrine insulin-secreting cells. In order to advance this inconclusive but critical field, we here review the emerging concepts, recent literature and newest developments of potential MPP and propose measures that would assist its forward progression. PMID:26730269

  11. Conservative Pancreas Graft Preservation at the Extreme

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, Jerome Martin; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Selzner, Markus; Norgate, Andrea; Kumar, Deepali; McGilvary, Ian D.; Preig, Paul D.; Schiff, Jeffrey; Cattral, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the value some patients place in remaining insulin-independent after pancreas transplantation, they may be reluctant to undergo graft pancreatectomy, even in the face of extreme complications, such as graft thrombosis and duodenal segment leak. Partly, for this reason, a variety of complex salvage techniques have been described to save the graft in such circumstances. We report a case of a series of extreme complications related to a leak from the duodenal segment after a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant. These included infected thrombosis of the inferior vena cava associated with a graft venous thrombosis and a retroperitoneal fistula. The patient retained graft function with insulin independence and repeatedly declined graft pancreatectomy against the advice of the transplant team. Conservative treatment with percutaneous drainage, antibiotics, and anticoagulation was eventually successful. This outcome is unique in our experience and may be instructive to teams caring for pancreas transplant recipients. PMID:27500244

  12. Bringing the artificial pancreas home: telemedicine aspects.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, Giordano; Capozzi, Davide; Serina, Nadia; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2011-11-01

    The design and implementation of telemedicine systems able to support the artificial pancreas need careful choices to cope with technological requirements while preserving performance and decision support capabilities. This article addresses the issue of designing a general architecture for the telemedicine components of an artificial pancreas and illustrates a viable solution that is able to deal with different use cases and is amenable to support mobile-health implementations. The goal is to enforce interoperability among the components of the architecture and guarantee maximum flexibility for the ensuing implementations. Thus, the design stresses modularity and separation of concerns along with adoption of clearly defined protocols for interconnecting the necessary components. This accounts for the implementation of integrated telemedicine systems suitable as short-term monitoring devices for supporting validation of closed-loop algorithms as well as devices meant to provide a lifelong tighter control on the patient state once the artificial pancreas has become the preferred treatment for patients with diabetes.

  13. JSUM ultrasound elastography practice guidelines: pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Yoshiki; Kuwahara, Takamichi; Irisawa, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Uchida, Hiroki; Sasahira, Naoki; Kawada, Natsuko; Itoh, Yuya; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound elastography is a relatively new diagnostic technique for measuring the elasticity (hardness) of tissue. Eleven years have passed since the debut of elastography. Various elastography devices are currently being marketed by manufacturers under different names. Pancreatic elastography can be used not only with transabdominal ultrasonography but also with endoscopic ultrasonography, but some types of elastography are difficult to perform for the pancreas. These guidelines aim to classify the various types of elastography into two major categories depending on the differences in the physical quantity (strain, shear wave), and to present the evidence for pancreatic elastography and how to use pancreatic elastography in the present day. But the number of reports on ultrasound elastography for the pancreas is still small, and there are no reports on some elastography devices for the pancreas. Therefore, these guidelines do not recommend methods of imaging and analysis by elastography device.

  14. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kallen, Michael E; Naini, Bita V

    2016-09-01

    Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs) are cystic neoplasms with intraductal growth and complex papillae composed of oncocytic cells. IOPNs have been reported both in the pancreas and biliary tree, and are most likely closely related in these 2 locations. In the pancreas, these rare tumors are now considered 1 of the 4 histologic subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Significant differences in histology, immunophenotype, and molecular genetics have been reported between IOPNs and other IPMN subtypes. However, there are limited data regarding the clinical behavior and prognosis of IOPNs in comparison to other subtypes of IPMN. We review features of pancreatic IOPNs and discuss the differential diagnosis of other intraductal lesions in the pancreas.

  15. Canine spinal cord glioma.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Barber, Renee; Burnum, Annabelle; Miller, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord. All dogs had a presumptive clinical diagnosis of intraparenchymal neoplasia or myelitis based on history, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Euthanasia was elected in all cases because of poor outcome despite anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive treatment or because of poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis. Tumor location during autopsy ranged from C1 to L6, with no clear predilection for a specific spinal cord segment. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the immunohistochemistry expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Diagnoses consisted of 4 cases of oligodendroglioma, 2 cases of gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 astrocytoma. This case series further defines the clinicopathologic features of canine spinal glioma and highlights the need for comprehensive immunohistochemistry in addition to routine histopathology to confirm the diagnosis of these tumors.

  16. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  17. For Inflamed Pancreas, Eating Right Away May Be Best Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165624.html For Inflamed Pancreas, Eating Right Away May Be Best Medicine Contrary ... people hospitalized for pancreatitis. This is when the pancreas becomes inflamed, causing pain and swelling in the ...

  18. Perfusion estimation using contrast enhanced three-dimensional subharmonic ultrasound imaging: an in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Machado, Priscilla; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Zhao, Hongjia; He, Yu; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The ability to estimate tissue perfusion (in mL/min/g) in vivo using contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging was investigated. Materials and Methods A Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) equipped with a 4D10L probe was modified to perform 3D harmonic imaging (HI; ftransmit = 5 MHz and freceive = 10 MHz) and subharmonic imaging (SHI; ftransmit= 5.8 MHz and freceive= 2.9 MHz). In vivo imaging was performed in the lower pole of both kidneys in five open-abdomen canines after injection of the ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, MA). The canines received a 5 μL/kg bolus injection of Definity for HI and a 20 μL/kg bolus for SHI in triplicate for each kidney. Ultrasound data acquisition was started just prior to injection of UCA (in order to capture the wash-in) and continued until washout. A microvascular staining technique based on stable (non-radioactive) isotope-labeled microspheres (Biophysics Assay Laboratory Inc, Worcester, MA) was used to quantify the degree of perfusion in each kidney (the reference standard). Ligating a surgically exposed branch of the renal arteries induced lower perfusion rates. This was followed by additional contrast-enhanced imaging and microsphere injections to measure post-ligation perfusion. Slice data were extracted from the 3D ultrasound volumes and used to generate time-intensity curves off-line in the regions corresponding to the tissue samples used for microvascular staining. The mid-line plane was also selected from the 3D volume (as a quasi-2D image) and compared to the 3D imaging modes. Perfusion was estimated from the initial slope of the fractional blood volume uptake (for both HI and SHI) and compared to the reference standard using linear regression analysis. Results Both 3D HI and SHI were able to provide visualization of flow and, thus, perfusion in the kidneys. However, SHI provided near complete tissue

  19. Perfusion Bioreactor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

  20. Circumportal pancreas with retroportal main pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yasushi; Ross, Andrew S; Traverso, L William

    2009-08-01

    There have been 6 cases of circumportal pancreas reported, and 2 of them had the main pancreatic duct in a retroportal dorsal portion. This extremely uncommon anomaly is asymptomatic and therefore incidentally discovered. For the surgeon, it is important to discover this during pancreatic resection so the pancreatic duct can be closed and fistula is avoided. We describe the third case where a circumportal pancreas had its main pancreatic duct passing under the portal vein. The duct was identified and ligated. A fistula did not occur.

  1. Torsion of wandering spleen and distal pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Sheflin, J.R.; Lee, C.M.; Kretchmar, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Wandering spleen is the term applied to the condition in which a long pedicle allows the spleen to lie in an abnormal location. Torsion of a wandering spleen is an unusual cause of an acute abdomen and is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Associated torsion of the distal pancreas is even more uncommon. The authors describe a patient with torsion of a wandering spleen and distal pancreas, who was correctly diagnosed, and define the merits of the imaging methods used. The initial examination should be /sup 99//sup m/Tc-sulfur colloid liner-spleen scanning.

  2. Retrieval of the pancreas allograft for whole-organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fridell, Jonathan A; Powelson, John A; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Burke, George W; Sageshima, Junichiro; Rogers, Jeffrey; Stratta, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Proper pancreas retrieval during multi-organ recovery is one of the cornerstones of technically successful whole-organ pancreas transplantation. With evolving surgical approaches for organ retrieval and implantation, it has become standard to procure the pancreas in conjunction with other abdominal organs without compromising either vasculature, graft quality, or transplant outcomes. This review summarizes the major steps required for proper whole-organ retrieval of the pancreas allograft with suggestions and tips whenever alternative approaches are available.

  3. [Effects of needle heating: studies in normal canine liver].

    PubMed

    Harihara, Y

    1988-03-01

    Hyperthermia has great potential as an anti-hepatic tumor agent because it has not only direct anti-tumor effect by itself but also synergistic effect in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Focal hyperthermia can be produced by needle-type heater implanted directly into the tumor. Hyperthermic effect of this needle heating and the influence of tissue blood flow on it were studied in normal canine liver. Fifty V heating for 10 minutes (5208 joule) by needle-type heater produced the effective thermal field, 27mm in diameter, above 42 degrees C. Tissue temperature dropped rapidly with the increase of distance from the heater, which reveals that hepatic tumor can be heated selectively by this method. The relation between the tissue blood flow and hyperthermic effect was investigated in the conditions that hepatic perfusion was controlled by clamping either hepatic artery or portal vein, or both of them. The effective thermal volume, 24.4cc, in normal liver tissue with no perfusion was compared with 10.3cc in normal liver tissue with normal perfusion (88.1ml/min/100g), which means that heat delivered in tissue by needle heater is rapidly dissipated by the flowing blood. The microscopical findings one week after heating revealed that normal liver tissue was irreversibly damaged by heating above 46 degrees C for more than 5 minutes.

  4. Carboxypeptidase B and other kininases of the rat coronary and mesenteric arterial bed perfusates.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eduardo B; Souza, Laura L; Sivieri, Disney O; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz B; Pereira, Hugo J V; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Sousa, Marcelo V; Salgado, Maria Cristina O

    2007-12-01

    We describe the enzymes that constitute the major bradykinin (BK)-processing pathways in the perfusates of mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) and coronary vessels isolated from Wistar normotensive rats (WNR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The contribution of particular proteases to BK degradation was revealed by the combined analysis of fragments generated during incubation of BK with representative perfusate samples and the effect of selective inhibitors on the respective reactions. Marked differences were seen among the perfusates studied; MAB secretes, per minute of perfusion, kininase activity capable of hydrolyzing approximately 300 pmol of BK/min, which is approximately 250-fold larger amount on a per unit time basis than that of its coronary counterpart. BK degradation in the coronary perfusate seems to be mediated by ANG I-converting enzyme, neutral endopeptidase 24.11-like enzyme, and a dl-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid-sensitive basic carboxypeptidase; coronary perfusate of WNR contains an additional BK-degrading enzyme whose specificity resembles that of neurolysin or thimet oligopeptidase. Diversely, a des-Arg(9)-BK-forming enzyme, responsible for nearly all of the kininase activity of MAB perfusates of WNR and spontaneously hypertensive rats, could be purified by a procedure that involved affinity chromatography over potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor-Sepharose column and shown to be structurally identical to rat pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (CPB). Comparable levels of CPB mRNA expression were observed in pancreas, liver, mesentery, and kidney, but very low levels were detected in lung, heart, aorta, and carotid artery. In conclusion, distinct BK-processing pathways operate in the perfusates of rat MAB and coronary bed, with a substantial participation of a des-Arg(9)-BK-forming enzyme identical to pancreatic CPB.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasonography of the pancreas using bolus injection and continuous infusion methods in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sue Yee; Nakamura, Kensuke; Morishita, Keitaro; Sasaki, Noboru; Murakami, Masahiro; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-12-30

    Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound is a major breakthrough for ultrasound imaging in recent years. However, contrast enhancement of the pancreas is brief with bolus injection. To assess if continuous infusion of Sonazoid(®) can prolong the duration of pancreatic enhancement over bolus injections, eight adult dogs received bolus injection and continuous infusion of Sonazoid(®) on separate days. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of the pancreatic parenchyma and proximal descending duodenum was performed, and time intensity curves reflecting tissue perfusions were generated. Perfusion parameters- time to initial upslope, peak time, time to wash-out and peak intensity were calculated and evaluated. Fast wash-in to intense peak, followed by rapid wash-out was observed for time intensity curves of bolus injection. With continuous infusion, contrast wash-in to peak intensity was gradual, followed by long plateau and slow wash-out. Median contrast enhancement durations of the pancreas and duodenum were significantly prolonged by continuous infusion from 11 sec (range, 10 to 23 sec) and 16 sec (range, 3 to 43 sec) at bolus injection to 205 sec (range, 170 to 264 sec, P<0.01) and 193 sec (range, 169 to 216 sec, P<0.05), respectively. Median peak intensity of the pancreas was 100.9 MPV (range, 80.2 to 124.3 MPV) at bolus injection and 77.6 MPV (range, 58.2 to 99.5 MPV, P<0.05) at continuous infusion. Prolonged continuous imaging is afforded by continuous infusion of contrast agent. Peak intensity of the pancreas was slightly diminished in continuous infusion, but offered adequate imaging subjectively.

  6. Cloning of canine Toll-like receptor 7 gene and its expression in dog tissues.

    PubMed

    Okui, Yasuhumi; Kano, Rui; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2008-01-15

    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is activated by single strand RNA and imidazoquinoline compounds, and induces interferon production. In this study, canine TLR7 cDNA was cloned and sequenced. The full-length cDNA of canine TLR7 gene was 3419bp, encoding 1032 amino acids. The similarities of canine TLR7 with human and mouse TLR7 were 84 and 80% at the nucleotide sequence level, and 86 and 79% at amino acid sequence level, respectively. Further, the expression of TLR7 mRNA was investigated in canine normal tissues by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. The common expression level of TLR7 mRNA in tissues from three dogs examined was in large intestine, lung, pancreas, small intestine and skin, though the expression level in each tissue was varied among these healthy dogs. In other tissues (kidney, liver, lymph node, spleen, adrenal gland, and PBMCs), the level of TLR7 mRNA expression was different in individuals.

  7. Harmonic analysis of perfusion pumps.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, F Carroll; Donovan, F M; Townsley, Mary I

    2003-12-01

    The controversy over the use of nonpulsatile versus pulsatile pumps for maintenance of normal organ function during ex vivo perfusion has continued for many years, but resolution has been limited by lack of a congruent mathematical definition of pulsatility. We hypothesized that the waveform frequency and amplitude, as well as the underlying mean distending pressure are all key parameters controlling vascular function. Using discrete Fourier Analysis, our data demonstrate the complexity of the pulmonary arterial pressure waveform in vivo and the failure of commonly available perfusion pumps to mimic in vivo dynamics. In addition, our data show that the key harmonic signatures are intrinsic to the perfusion pumps, are similar for flow and pressure waveforms, and are unchanged by characteristics of the downstream perfusion circuit or perfusate viscosity.

  8. Wandering spleen with volvulus of pancreas.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Karcaaltıncaba, Musturay

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal location of the spleen, which is called wandering spleen, results from laxity or absence of the splenic pedicle. In the presence of an elongated splenic pedicle, torsion of the spleen or neighboring organs may occur, which results in acute or chronic abdominal pain. In this case report, we present imaging findings of a wandering spleen that manifested with volvulus of the pancreas.

  9. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas.

    PubMed

    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Chong, Diana C; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-12-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Pancreas divisum: endoscopic management. Case report].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Henry; Espinoza, Miguel; Huaman, César; Monge, Eduardo; Salazar, Sonia; Tapia, Abel

    2002-01-01

    This is a case report of a 19 year-old woman, with an acute recurrent pancreatitis diagnose, and pancreas divisum as anatomic alteration. An extensive evaluation including specialized labs, ERCP was done. The diagnosis is suspected during ERCP and confirmed by minor papilla injection. Treatment is directed towards relieving outflow obstruction at the level of the minor papilla, with successful results.

  11. Twelve-Month Pancreas Graft Function Significantly Influences Survival Following Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andrew S.; Smits, Gerard; Wiseman, Alexander C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) is regarded as the treatment of choice for type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and kidney dysfunction, despite the morbidity associated with pancreas transplantation. These morbidities often influence selection of SPK versus living-donor kidney alone (LD KA) transplant. This study quantifies the impact of pancreas graft function on outcomes following SPK. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Using the SRTR database, SPK wait-listed patients transplanted from 1997 to 2005 were evaluated and segregated as: (1) SPK recipients with functioning pancreas graft 12 mo posttransplant (SPK, P+); (2) SPK recipients with loss of pancreas graft function within 12 mo posttransplant (SPK, P-); (3) recipients of deceased donor (DD) KA; (4) recipients of LD KA. The study compared patient and kidney graft survival to 84 mo posttransplant. Results: Patient survival for SPK, P+ was significantly better than the LD KA; SPK, P-; and DD KA cohorts (88.6% versus 80.0%, 73.9% and 64.8%, respectively [P < 0.001]), a finding confirmed by multivariate analysis and not influenced by pancreas-after-kidney transplantation (PAK) rates and outcomes. Unadjusted graft survival was also highest in the SPK, P+ cohort (72.0% versus 63.6%, 59.8%, 49.7%, P = 0.015 versus LD KA). Conclusions: SPK recipients with functioning pancreas grafts have superior survival compared with LD KA and DD KA, including in the setting of PAK. Early pancreas graft failure results in kidney and patient survival rates similar to KA. These data help further clarify the decision-making of SPK versus KA transplant options for patients and providers. PMID:19406961

  12. Twelve-month pancreas graft function significantly influences survival following simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Andrew S; Smits, Gerard; Wiseman, Alexander C

    2009-05-01

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) is regarded as the treatment of choice for type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and kidney dysfunction, despite the morbidity associated with pancreas transplantation. These morbidities often influence selection of SPK versus living-donor kidney alone (LD KA) transplant. This study quantifies the impact of pancreas graft function on outcomes following SPK. Using the SRTR database, SPK wait-listed patients transplanted from 1997 to 2005 were evaluated and segregated as: (1) SPK recipients with functioning pancreas graft 12 mo posttransplant (SPK, P+); (2) SPK recipients with loss of pancreas graft function within 12 mo posttransplant (SPK, P-); (3) recipients of deceased donor (DD) KA; (4) recipients of LD KA. The study compared patient and kidney graft survival to 84 mo posttransplant. Patient survival for SPK, P+ was significantly better than the LD KA; SPK, P-; and DD KA cohorts (88.6% versus 80.0%, 73.9% and 64.8%, respectively [P < 0.001]), a finding confirmed by multivariate analysis and not influenced by pancreas-after-kidney transplantation (PAK) rates and outcomes. Unadjusted graft survival was also highest in the SPK, P+ cohort (72.0% versus 63.6%, 59.8%, 49.7%, P = 0.015 versus LD KA). SPK recipients with functioning pancreas grafts have superior survival compared with LD KA and DD KA, including in the setting of PAK. Early pancreas graft failure results in kidney and patient survival rates similar to KA. These data help further clarify the decision-making of SPK versus KA transplant options for patients and providers.

  13. Long-term Effects of Delayed Graft Function on Pancreas Graft Survival After Pancreas Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung; Han, Duck Jong; Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Seungbong; Choi, Byung Hyun; Jung, Joo Hee; Cho, Han Kyung

    2014-12-27

    Compared with the impact of delayed graft function (DGF) after renal transplantation, DGF after pancreas transplantation has not been fully evaluated. We retrospectively verified the impact of DGF on long-term pancreas graft survival in surgically successful cases. Pancreas graft failure was defined by the recipient's return to exogenous insulin administration. Between May 2004 and April 2013, we performed 135 technically successful primary pancreas transplantations. Delayed graft function was defined as a total cumulative insulin requirement of 19 UI or greater within postoperative 7 days. Of the 135 recipients in our study cohort, 47 (34.8%) developed DGF after the pancreas transplantation. By multivariate analysis, DGF was found to be associated with a donor age of 30 years or older (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-7.69; P=0.003) and the increased ratio of body mass index in a recipient to a donor (odds ratio, 26.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-270.0; P=0.006). There was a trend toward higher acute rejection (P=0.622) and mortality (P=0.49) rates in recipients with versus without DGF, although this did not reach statistical significance. Delayed graft function was found to be associated with a greater risk of overall pancreas graft failure (P=0.016) and death-censored graft failure (P=0.037). Delayed graft function after pancreas transplantation was found to be associated with a greater risk of overall pancreas graft failure and death-censored graft failure.

  14. Pancreas After Islet Transplantation: A First Report of the International Pancreas Transplant Registry.

    PubMed

    Gruessner, R W G; Gruessner, A C

    2016-02-01

    Pancreas after islet (PAI) transplantation is a treatment option for patients seeking insulin independence through a whole-organ transplant after a failed cellular transplant. This report from the International Pancreas Transplant Registry (IPTR) and the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) studied PAI transplant outcomes over a 10-year time period. Forty recipients of a failed alloislet transplant subsequently underwent pancreas transplant alone (50%), pancreas after previous kidney transplant (22.5%), or simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplant (27.5%). Graft and patient survival rates were not statistically significantly different compared with matched primary pancreas transplants. Regardless of the recipient category, overall 1- and 5-year PAI patient survival rates for all 40 cases were 97% and 83%, respectively; graft survival rates were 84% and 65%, respectively. A failed previous islet transplant had no negative impact on kidney graft survival in the SPK category: It was the same as for primary SPK transplants. According to this IPTR/UNOS analysis, a PAI transplant is a safe procedure with low recipient mortality, high graft-function rates in both the short and long term and excellent kidney graft outcomes. Patients with a failed islet transplant should know about this alternative in their quest for insulin independence through transplantation.

  15. Relaparotomy after pancreas transplantation: causes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Manrique, A; Jiménez, C; López, R M; Cambra, F; Morales, J M; Andrés, A; Gutiérrez, E; Ortuño, T; Calvo, J; Sesma, A G; Moreno, E

    2009-01-01

    Surgical complications after pancreas transplantation, and subsequently relaparotomies, are frequently associated with graft loss, important morbidities, and occasionally patient death. From March 1995 to September 2008, 118 diabetic patients underwent pancreas transplantation: 109 simultaneous pancreas-kidney and nine pancreas after kidney. There were 68 men and 50 women. Mean age at transplantation was 37.8 +/- 7.8 years (range = 25-66). We analyzed donor and recipient characteristics, rate of relaparotomies, risk factors, as well as patient and graft survivals. Forty patients (33.9%) underwent one or more relaparotomies. The causes for relaparotomy were: graft thrombosis in 15 patients (12.7%), bleeding in 14 (11.9%), duodenal stump leak in 7 (5.9%), severe pancreatitis and/or abscess in 5 (4.2%), and small bowel obstruction in 3 (2.5%). Graft pancreatectomy was performed in 52.5% (21 patients). The causes of graft loss were: graft thrombosis in 15 patients (12.7%), bleeding in 14 (11.9%), and duodenal stump leaks in 7 (5.9%). Mortality rate after relaparotomy was 3.38% (four patients). Relaparotomy rate for thrombosis was higher among the portoiliac than the portocaval vein anastomosis group (20.0% vs 10.2%; P = NS), and significantly higher for the bladder drainage than the enteric drainage technique (18.2% vs 5.8%; P < .05). Patients without relaparotomy experienced a significantly higher 5-year graft survival rate than those who underwent relaparotomy (87.2% vs 37.9%; P < .001), but 5-year patient survivals were similar (96.8% without relaparotomy vs 89.6% with relaparotomy). Abdominal complications and the necessity for relaparotomy were associated with important morbidity and significantly reduced pancreas graft survival.

  16. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Tiago N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  17. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  18. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  19. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  20. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  1. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  2. Prevention of blood cell adhesion in porous inner wall of double-layered tube by saline perfusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Park, J B

    1993-01-01

    A double-layered tube consisting of a porous inner tube and a solid outer tube was used to perfuse isotonic saline solution into blood to prevent blood cell adhesion. Polystyrene/poly(styrene-co-butadiene) (PS-SBR) porous tubes were made using a dipping method. Citrated canine blood was circulated for 30 min with the flow rate of 100 ml/min using an in vitro blood circulation setup which makes nonpulsatile blood flow. Blood cell adhesion in the PS/SBR porous tubes decreased with increased saline perfusion rate regardless of changes in variables such as tube porosities, tube materials, and perfusion materials. The relationship between blood cell adhesion and perfusion rate was semi-logarithmic. Blood cell adhesion was relatively high in the more porous tube (65% sugar tube), compared to the less porous tube (55% sugar tube) for an identical saline perfusion rate. The blood cell adhesion in the sulfonated PS/SBR porous tube was less than that in the nonsulfonated (control) PS/SBR porous tube. The blood cell adhesion was also decreased by citrate perfusion. The results of this study indicates that the saline perfusion method can be used to prevent blood cell adhesion in the blood lines of extracorporeal circulation systems (such as hemodialysis and heart-lung machines) if certain technical problems involving the surface roughness can be resolved.

  3. Perfusion measurement in acute pancreatitis using dynamic perfusion MDCT.

    PubMed

    Bize, Pierre E; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether MDCT with perfusion imaging could help in assessing the severity of acute pancreatitis in the initial phase of the disease. One hundred six patients with abdominal pain were prospectively enrolled in this study. Patients were separated into two groups: P1 (severe) and P2 (mild) acute pancreatitis. Mean perfusion value was 24.8 mL/100 mL/min in the P1 group and 50.5 mL/100 mL/min in the P2 group (p = 0.0016, significant). Our preliminary data suggest that pancreatic perfusion measurement using MDCT with perfusion imaging could help in assessing the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  4. Cerebral-Body Perfusion Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    compared to the 0.5g curve) fall in flow. Fig. 9b, showing the 5g case, strongly suggests a possible, so-called, " luxury perfusion ", in which natural...as the luxury perfusion situation which bypasses the flow with the nutrients it carries (through newly opened collaterals) and result in a "blackout...89-0054 CEREBRAL-BODY PERFUSION MODEL S. Sorek’, J. Bear2, and M., Feinsod3 in Collaboration with K. Allen4, L. Bunt5 and S. Ben-IHaiM6 July 1990

  5. [Heterotopic pancreas in the gallbladder. Diagnosis, therapy, and course of a rare developmental anomaly of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Neupert, G; Appel, P; Braun, S; Tonus, C

    2007-03-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare entity but the second most prevalent pancreatic anomaly. Heterotopic pancreas is defined as the presence of pancreatic tissue without any anatomic or vascular continuity with the main body of the pancreas. Its aetiology is not clearly established. In 1916, Poppi published for the first time evidence of heterotopic pancreas in the gallbladder. A review of the literature up to the present showed only 28 more cases worldwide of ectopic pancreas in the gallbladder. Aberrant pancreas is incidentally discovered in 2% of autopsies and has been estimated to occur once in every 500 upper abdominal explorations. Ninety per cent of ectopic pancreas is found in the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Mostly it is asymptomatic and benign. For this reason, therapy is indicated only in patients with symptoms such as pyloric obstruction, bleeding, and malignant transformation. Surgical resection or endoscopic mucosal resection as a newer method are recommended.

  6. Pancreas-Specific Deletion of Prox1 Affects Development and Disrupts Homeostasis of the Exocrine Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    WESTMORELAND, JOBY J.; KILIC, GAMZE; SARTAIN, CAROLINE; SIRMA, SEMA; BLAIN, JENNIFER; REHG, JEROLD; HARVEY, NATASHA; SOSA–PINEDA, BEATRIZ

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The exocrine portion of the pancreas functions in digestion and preserves pancreatic homeostasis. Learning how this tissue forms during embryogenesis could improve our understanding of human pancreatic diseases. Expression of the homeo-box gene Prox1 in the exocrine pancreas changes throughout development in mice. We investigated the role of Prox1 in development of the exocrine pancreas in mice. METHODS Mice with pancreas-specific deletion of Prox1 (Prox1ΔPanc) were generated and their pancreatic tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, histologic techniques, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and morphometric analysis. RESULTS Loss of Prox1 from the pancreas led to multiple exocrine alterations, most notably premature acinar cell differentiation, increased ductal cell proliferation, altered duct morphogenesis, and imbalanced expression of claudin proteins. Prox1ΔPanc mice also had some minor alterations in islet cells, but beta-cell development was not affected. The exocrine congenital defects of Prox1ΔPanc pancreata appeared to initiate a gradual process of deterioration that resulted in extensive loss of acinar cells, lipomatosis, and damage to ductal tissue in adult mice. CONCLUSIONS Pancreas-specific deletion of Prox1 causes premature differentiation of acinar cells and poor elongation of epithelial branches; these defects indicate that Prox1 controls the expansion of tip progenitors in the early developing pancreas. During later stages of embryogenesis, Prox1 appears to regulate duct cell proliferation and morphogenesis. These findings identify Prox1 as an important regulator of pancreatic exocrine development. PMID:22178591

  7. Distributed Perfusion Educational Model: A Shift in Perfusion Economic Realities

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Jon W.; Evans, Edward L.; Hoerr, Harry R.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: In recent years, a steady decline in the number of perfusion education programs in the United States has been noted. At the same time, there has been a parallel decline in the number of students graduated from perfusion educational programs in the United States. Also, as noted by several authors, there has been an increase in demand for perfusion graduates. The decline in programs and graduates has also been noted in anesthesia and surgical residency programs. The shift is caused by a combination of economic and clinical factors. First, decreased reimbursement has led to reallocation of hospital resources. Second, the original enthusiasm for beating heart coronary artery bypass surgery was grossly overestimated and has led to further reallocation of hospital resources and denigration of cardiopulmonary bypass. This paper describes two models of perfusion education programs: serial perfusion education model (SPEM) and the distributed perfusion education model (DPEM). Arguments are presented that the SPEM has some serious limitations and challenges for long-term economic survival. The authors feel the DPEM along with dependence on tuition funding can survive the current clinical and economic conditions and allow the profession to adapt to changes in scope of practice. PMID:16524152

  8. Perfusion induced hyperthermia for oncologic therapy with cardiac and cerebral protection.

    PubMed

    Hemmila, Mark R; Foley, David S; Casetti, Alfredo V; Soldes, Oliver S; Hirschl, Ronald B; Bartlett, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Cancer can be preferentially damaged and killed at temperatures above 41.0 degrees C. However, the heart and brain malfunction at this temperature, limiting the application of systemic hyperthermia in the treatment of metastatic cancer. We created a hyperthermic perfusion system that maximizes the temperature differential produced and extends the safe hyperthermic time. Mongrel dogs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Temperature probes were placed in the rectum, bladder, peritoneal cavity, proximal aorta, pulmonary artery, and right tympanic canal. Venoarterial perfusion was instituted and the perfusate was warmed to 44 to 45 degrees C. The dogs' rectal temperature was elevated to > or = 42 degrees C for 4 hours. A small amount of venous blood was cooled to 28 to 30 degrees C and reperfused into the right atrium to maintain the pulmonary artery temperature < or = 38 degrees C. At the end of the perfusion, the dogs were decannulated, recovered, and returned to their cages for observation. Ten of 11 dogs survived the operative procedure, and no neurologic deficits were observed. The rectal temperature was successfully elevated to > or = 42 degrees C for 4 hours while maintaining the heart and brain at < or = 38 degrees C. Moderate serum biochemical changes were observed postprocedure. However, only the aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels remained elevated above both the baseline and canine reference values by day 7. Lower abdominal and pelvic hyperthermia at 42 degrees C can be safely produced and maintained for 4 hours using an extracorporeal perfusion circuit, while protecting the heart and brain from temperature elevation.

  9. Genomic Sequence of Canine Papillomavirus 19

    PubMed Central

    Tisza, Michael J.; Yuan, Hang; Schlegel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that individual papillomas (warts) are caused by infection with individual papillomavirus types. Deep sequencing of virions extracted from a canine oral papilloma revealed the presence of canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1), CPV2, and a novel canine papillomavirus, CPV19. This suggests that papillomas sometimes harbor multiple viral species. PMID:27932663

  10. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers.

  11. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  12. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation ( ... In: Mettler FA, Guiberteau MJ, eds. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  13. [Artificial pancreas for automated glucose control].

    PubMed

    Blauw, Helga; van Bon, Arianne C; de Vries, J H Hans

    2013-01-01

    Strict glucose control is important for patients with diabetes mellitus in order to prevent complications. However, many patients find it difficult to achieve the recommended HbA1c level. The possibility of hypoglycaemia plays an important role in this. The artificial pancreas automates glucose control, improving glucose levels without increasing hypoglycaemic events. The required insulin dose is calculated and administered on the basis of continuous glucose measurements, taking over a large part of the treatment from the patient. Several research groups are working on making this technique suitable for home use. It is expected that the artificial pancreas will become available in the near future. However, effectiveness and safety will have to be investigated in long-term studies. A large number of insulin-dependent patients with diabetes could be eligible for this treatment.

  14. Anorectal autotransplantation in a canine model: the first successful report in the short term with the non-laparotomy approach

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Jun; Nishizawa, Yuji; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Sato, Tomoyuki; Naito, Munekazu; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Tashiro, Kensuke; Koshima, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Colostomy is conventional treatment for anal dysfunction. Recently, a few trials of anorectal transplantation in animals have been published as a potential alternative to colostomies; however, further development of this technique is required. In this study, we utilized a canine model of anorectal transplantation, evaluated the patency of our microsurgical anastomoses, and assessed the perfusion of the transplanted anus. We designed a canine anorectal transplantation model, wherein anorectal autotransplantation was performed in four healthy beagle dogs by anastomoses of the lower rectum, the bilateral pudendal arteries (PAs) and veins (PVs), and pudendal nerves (PNs). Postoperative graft perfusion was measured by indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and histological examination. The length of the anorectal graft including perianal skin, anal sphincter muscle, bilateral PAs, PVs, and PNs was 4.9 ± 0.3 cm. All diameters of the PAs, PVs, and PNs were large enough to be microscopically anastomosed. Both ICG angiography and histological examination demonstrated good graft perfusion, except for one case that lead to venous congestion. These results show that anastomosis of the bilateral PAs, PVs, and PNs is required for anorectal transplantation. This is the first successful report of canine anorectal autotransplantation. PMID:25204282

  15. Imaging of the pancreas: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of anomalies of pancreas and the pancreatic duct system are commonly encountered at radiological evaluation. Diagnosing pancreatic lesions generally requires a multimodality approach. This review highlights the new advances in pancreatic imaging and their applications in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic pathologies. The mainstay techniques include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), radionuclide imaging (RNI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:21847450

  16. Pancreas sparing duodenectomy as an emergency procedure

    PubMed Central

    Paluszkiewicz, Piotr; Dudek, Wojciech; Lowery, Kathryn; Hart, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    Background The operative techniques to close extensive wounds to the duodenum are well described. However, postoperative morbidity is common and includes suture line leak and the formation of fistulae. The aim of this case series is to present pancreas sparing duodenectomy as a safe and viable alternative procedure in the emergency milieu. Methods Five patients underwent emergency pancreas sparing duodenal excisions. Re-implantation of the papilla of Vater or the papilla with a surrounding mucosal patch was performed in two patients. In one, the procedure was further supplemented with a duodenocholangiostomy, stapled pyloric exclusion and enterogastrostomy to defunction the pylorus. In another three patients, distal duodenal excisions were done. Results In four patients, an uneventful recovery was made. One patient died following a myocardial infarction. The surgery lasted meanly 160 minutes with average blood loss of approximately 500 milliliters. The mean hospital stay was 12 days. Enteral nutrition was introduced within the 20 hours after the surgery. Long term follow-up of all surviving patients confirmed a good outcome and normal nutritional status. Conclusion Based on the presented series of patients, we suggest that pancreas-sparing duodenectomy can be considered in selected patients with laceration of the duodenum deemed unsuitable for surgical reconstruction. PMID:19445694

  17. Perforation of jejunal diverticulum with ectopic pancreas.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Shintani, Yukako; Murono, Koji; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Yasuda, Koji; Otani, Kensuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Perforation of jejunal diverticulum is a rare complication. Here, we report a case of jejunal diverticulum penetration with surrounding ectopic pancreas. An 83-year-old female patient was admitted to our department with acute onset of severe abdominal pain lasting for half a day. Abdominal computed tomography showed outpouching of the small intestine that contained air/fluid, with multiple surrounding air bubbles in the mesentery of the small intestine. She was diagnosed with penetration of the small intestine, and an emergency laparotomy was indicated. The penetrated jejunal diverticulum was identified ~20-cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. Partial resection of the jejunum was performed, and her postoperative course was uneventful. The pathological findings confirmed diverticulum penetration into the mesentery and severe inflammation at the site, with surrounding ectopic pancreas. Furthermore, the pancreatic ducts were opened through the penetrated diverticulum. This rare case shows that the ectopic pancreas might have caused penetration of jejunal diverticulum owing to the pancreatic duct opening through the diverticulum.

  18. Stereological analyses of the whole human pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Ananta; Fowler, Jonas L.; Zielinski, Mark C.; Kilimnik, German; Hara, Manami

    2016-01-01

    The large size of human tissues requires a practical stereological approach to perform a comprehensive analysis of the whole organ. We have developed a method to quantitatively analyze the whole human pancreas, as one of the challenging organs to study, in which endocrine cells form various sizes of islets that are scattered unevenly throughout the exocrine pancreas. Furthermore, the human pancreas possesses intrinsic characteristics of intra-individual variability, i.e. regional differences in endocrine cell/islet distribution, and marked inter-individual heterogeneity regardless of age, sex and disease conditions including obesity and diabetes. The method is built based on large-scale image capture, computer-assisted unbiased image analysis and quantification, and further mathematical analyses, using widely-used software such as Fiji/ImageJ and MATLAB. The present study includes detailed protocols of every procedure as well as all the custom-written computer scripts, which can be modified according to specific experimental plans and specimens of interest. PMID:27658965

  19. Pancreas transplantation: 50 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    In December 1966, the first pancreas transplant ever was performed at the University of Minnesota. R. Lillehei and W. Kelly, transplanted a kidney and a pancreas in a diabetic patient on dialysis, getting function of both organs. Since then, the technical and immunological advances in this transplant have resulted in graft and patient survival results as the rest of the abdominal solid organ transplants. The balance of these 50 years is that more than 50,000 diabetic patients have been transplanted in more than 200 centers around the world. In our country the first transplant was performed 34 years ago in Barcelona and now 12 centers perform about 100 transplants per year. Although advances in diabetes control have been very important, pancreas transplantation continues to be the only method that allows normalization of the carbohydrates metabolism to improve the quality of life and, above all, to increase the survival of these patients. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. An integrated multivariable artificial pancreas control system.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system.

  1. Temperatures Achieved in Human and Canine Neocortex During Intraoperative Passive or Active Focal Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rowland H.; Yarbrough, Chester K.; Patterson, Edward E.; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Miller, John W.; Rothman, Steven M.; D'Ambrosio, Raimondo

    2015-01-01

    Focal cortical cooling inhibits seizures and prevents acquired epileptogenesis in rodents. To investigate the potential clinical utility of this treatment modality, we examined the thermal characteristics of canine and human brain undergoing active and passive surface cooling in intraoperative settings. Four patients with intractable epilepsy were treated in a standard manner. Before the resection of a neocortical epileptogenic focus, multiple intraoperative studies of active (custom-made cooled irrigation-perfused grid) and passive (stainless steel probe) cooling were performed. We also actively cooled the neocortices of two dogs with perfused grids implanted for 2 hours. Focal surface cooling of the human brain causes predictable depth-dependent cooling of the underlying brain tissue. Cooling of 0.6–2°C was achieved both actively and passively to a depth of 10–15 mm from the cortical surface. The perfused grid permitted comparable and persistent cooling of canine neocortex when the craniotomy was closed. Thus, the human cortex can easily be cooled with the use of simple devices such as a cooling grid or a small passive probe. These techniques provide pilot data for the design of a permanently implantable device to control intractable epilepsy. PMID:25902001

  2. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas. PMID:27918691

  3. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  4. Canine "honing" in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L O

    1990-06-01

    The maxillary canines of Australopithecus afarensis show a distal wear facet that extends from the apex of the crown to a point near the distal cingulum. Although these facets bear a superficial resemblance to the honing facets found on the projecting portions of the canines of other anthropoids, a more detailed examination provided in this paper shows that they are not homologous or functionally equivalent. The facets are not related to the use of the maxillary canine as a weapon or as an additional masticatory surface. Instead, their presence in A. afarensis represented a blunting or dulling of the posterior edge of C so that its occlusion with P3 would be consistent with cheek tooth occlusion.

  5. Nifedipine increases fetoplacental perfusion.

    PubMed

    Karahanoglu, Ertugrul; Altinboga, Orhan; Akpinar, Funda; Demirdag, Erhan; Ozdemirci, Safak; Akyol, Aysegul; Yalvac, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    Our aim is to evaluate the effect of nifedipine on fetoplacental hemodynamic parameters. A retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary center with 30 patients for whom nifedipine treatment was used as a tocolytic therapy for preterm labor. Initiation of this treatment was at 31.6±2.5 weeks of gestation. We combined the pulse Doppler imaging parameters with grayscale imaging via the Bernoulli theorem, which is called the "continuity equation", to get the fetoplacental perfusion (FPP). Evaluated parameters were the resistance index (RI), the pulsatility index (PI), systole/diastole ratios (S/D), the velocity-time integral of the umbilical artery (VTI), the radius of the umbilical artery, the peak systolic velocity and the mean pressure gradient in the umbilical artery. From these parameters, the FPP was acquired. We found that the RI, the PI and the S/D ratio did not change after treatment with nifedipine. The mean pressure gradient, the VTI and the peak systolic velocity increased after treatment with nifedipine. Nifedipine increases FPP from 166±73.81 beat.cm3/min to 220±83.3 beat.cm3/min. Although nifedipine had no effect on the PI, the RI or the S/D, it increased the mean pressure gradient, the VTI and FPP.

  6. CAD of myocardial perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Corstiaan J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2007-03-01

    Our purpose is in the automated evaluation of the physiological relevance of lesions in coronary angiograms. We aim to extract as much as possible quantitative information about the physiological condition of the heart from standard angiographic image sequences. Coronary angiography is still the gold standard for evaluating and diagnosing coronary abnormalities as it is able to locate precisely the coronary artery lesions. The dimensions of the stenosis can be assessed nowadays successfully with image processing based Quantitative Coronary Angiography (QCA) techniques. Our purpose is to assess the clinical relevance of the pertinent stenosis. We therefore analyze the myocardial perfusion as revealed in standard angiographic image sequences. In a Region-of-Interest (ROI) on the angiogram (without an overlaying major blood vessel) the contrast is measured as a function of time (the so-called time-density curve). The required hyperemic state of exercise is induced artificially by the injection of a vasodilator drug e.g. papaverine. In order to minimize motion artifacts we select based on the recorded ECG signal end-diastolic images in both a basal and a hyperemic run in the same projection to position the ROI. We present the development of the algorithms together with results of a small study of 20 patients which have been catheterized following the standard protocol.

  7. Mandibular canine index in establishing sex identity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shishir; Nagabhushana, D; Rao, B Balaji; Mamatha, G P

    2002-01-01

    An investigation study on sex identity through mandibular canine index directed to detect sexual dimorphism using the Mesio-Distal width of mandibular permanent canines and inter canine and inter canine arch width in the mandible was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere. 360 patients were subjected to the mesio-distal measurement and inter canine arch width. Males were detected correctly in 83.3% and in females 81%. They were statistically significant and the related literatures reviewed.

  8. Release of NPY in pig pancreas: Dual parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, S.P.; Holst, J.J.; Skak-Nielsen, T.; Knigge, U.; Warberg, J.; Theodorsson-Norheim, E.; Hoekfelt, T.; Lundberg, J.M.; Schwartz, T.W. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm )

    1988-07-01

    Several lines of evidence have connected neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-residue polypeptide, to the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The authors studied the localization, the molecular characteristics, and the release of NPY and norepinephrine (NE) in the porcine pancreas. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed that NPY nerves around blood vessels were likely to be of adrenergic nature, whereas NPY-immunoreactive fibers close to exocrine and endocrine cells may originate from local ganglia also containing VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) and PHI (peptide histidine isoleucine). Electrical stimulation of the splanchnic nerve supply to the isolated perfused pig pancreas resulted in a corelease of NPY and NE into the venous effluent. Stimulation of the vagal nerves caused a sevenfold larger release of NPY without affecting the NE secretion. Characterization of the NPY immunoreactivity in the pancreatic tissue and in the venous effluent by gel filtration, high-performance liquid chromatography, and isoelectric focusing shoed that the immunoreactive NPY was indistinguishable from synthetic porcine NPY. It is concluded that, although NPY is associated with sympathetic perivascular neurons, the majority of the pancreatic NPY-containing nerve fibers are likely to belong to the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

  9. Outcomes of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation from brain-dead and controlled circulatory death donors.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M S; Callaghan, C J; Bradley, J A; Watson, C J E; Pettigrew, G J

    2012-06-01

    Organ scarcity has prompted increased use of organs from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. An early single-centre experience of simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation from controlled DCD donors is described here. Outcomes of SPK transplants from DCD and donation after brain death (DBD) donors between August 2008 and January 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. SPK transplants from 20 DCD and 40 DBD donors were carried out. Donor and recipient characteristics were similar for both groups, although pancreas cold ischaemia times were shorter in DCD recipients: median (range) 8·2 (5·9-10·5) versus 9·5 (3·8-12·5) h respectively (P = 0·004). Median time from treatment withdrawal to cold perfusion was 24 (range 16-110) min for DCD donors. There were no episodes of delayed pancreatic graft function in either group; the graft thrombosis rates were both 5 per cent. Similarly, there were no differences in haemoglobin A1c level at 12 months: median (range) 5·4 (4·9-7·7) per cent in DCD group versus 5·4 (4·1-6·2) per cent in DBD group (P = 0·910). Pancreas graft survival rates were not significantly different, with Kaplan-Meier 1-year survival estimates of 84 and 95 per cent respectively (P = 0·181). DCD SPK grafts had comparable short-term outcomes to DBD grafts, even when procured from selected donors with a prolonged agonal phase. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  11. Canine tooth size variability in primates.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, G

    1989-01-01

    I present an analysis of canine tooth size variability in male and female primates. The coefficient of variation (CV = SD X 100/mean) as an index of canine size variability proved to be dependent on mean canine size in males and, to a lower extent, in females. Therefore, variability tends to increase with increasing values of mean canine size. Using residuals from the regression of log SD on log mean canine size in male and female primates, I analysed the contribution of diet, habitat and mating system to canine size variability. Habitat and mating system are known to influence to a certain extent the degree of sexual dimorphism in canine size. Given the well-known relationship between sexual dimorphism and phenotypic variability, it was suggested that these factors might influence variability in canine size. Everything else being equal, males of polygynous species are characterized by more variable canine sizes than males of monogamous species. Habitat and diet did not contribute to the level of variability observed in either males or females. It is proposed that a high level of variability in canine size may be related to the likelihood that enlarged canines evolved as a result of male-male competition for mates in polygynous species.

  12. Pancreas-after-kidney versus synchronous pancreas-kidney transplantation: comparison of intermediate-term results.

    PubMed

    Bazerbachi, Fateh; Selzner, Markus; Marquez, Max A; Norgate, Andrea; McGilvray, Ian D; Schiff, Jeffrey; Cattral, Mark S

    2013-02-15

    Controversy persists over the safety and efficacy of pancreas transplantation in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who have received a prior kidney transplant. We compared the outcomes of recipients who received either Synchronous-Pancreas Kidney-Transplantation (SPK, n=123) or Pancreas-After-Kidney-Transplants(n=49)at our institution between August 2002 to January 2010. Donor and recipient demographics were similar. Time interval between kidney and pancreas transplantation was 5.9 ± 3.8 (4.8 [1.6-12.2]) years. The majority of kidney-recipients in PAK group were transplanted at outside institutions and referred to us for PAK. Most patients received thymoglobulin induction and were maintained on tacrolimus, MMF, and prednisone. For SPK versus PAK recipients, there was no difference in median of length of hospital stay or incidence of overall complications. All PAK recipients are alive with functioning kidney grafts, whereas the 1-, 3-, and 5-year SPK patient survival rates were 98%,96%,and 94%, P=0.09. The 1-,3-, and 5-yr uncensored pancreas survival rates for SPK versus PAK were 93% vs. 90%, 90% vs. 90%, and 82% versus 85%, respectively (P=0.4). Glycemic control and intermediate survival outcomes were similar in both groups. Pancreas-graft outcomes in SPK and PAK were equivalent in our study, but our specific population entailed among other factors a long K to PAK time interval; PAK could be a comparable option to SPK for patients with access to kidney grafts.

  13. Canine and feline colostrum.

    PubMed

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2016-11-30

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr). Immune quality of colostrum is highly variable between bitches, with no relationship with maternal blood IgG level, dam's age, breed size or litter size. In addition to systemic immune protection, colostrum also plays a major role for local digestive protection, due to IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and various cytokines. Energetic concentration of canine and feline colostrum is not superior to that of mature milk. It depends on colostrum fat concentration and is affected by breed size (higher in breeds <10 kg adult body weight). As puppies and kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival.

  14. Canine lymphoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, M

    2016-06-01

    Canine lymphoma (cL) is a common type of neoplasia in dogs with an estimated incidence rate of 20-100 cases per 100,000 dogs and is in many respects comparable to non-Hodgkin lymphoma in humans. Although the exact cause is unknown, environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are thought to play an important role. cL is not a single disease, and a wide variation in clinical presentations and histological subtypes is recognized. Despite this potential variation, most dogs present with generalized lymphadenopathy (multicentric form) and intermediate to high-grade lymphoma, more commonly of B-cell origin. The most common paraneoplastic sign is hypercalcemia that is associated with the T-cell immunophenotype. Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice and a doxorubicin-based multidrug protocol is currently the standard of care. A complete remission is obtained for most dogs and lasts for a median period of 7-10 months, resulting in a median survival of 10-14 months. Many prognostic factors have been reported, but stage, immunophenotype, tumor grade, and response to chemotherapy appear of particular importance. Failure to respond to chemotherapy suggests drug resistance, which can be partly attributed to the expression of drug transporters of the ABC-transporter superfamily, including P-gp and BCRP. Ultimately, most lymphomas will become drug resistant and the development of treatments aimed at reversing drug resistance or alternative treatment modalities (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) are of major importance. This review aims to summarize the relevant data on cL, as well as to provide an update of the recent literature.

  15. ADAPTATION OF GROUP B COXSACKIE VIRUS TO ADULT MOUSE PANCREAS

    PubMed Central

    Dalldorf, Gilbert; Gifford, Rebecca

    1952-01-01

    An alteration of tissue tropism of a Coxsackie virus has been observed following different methods of propagation of the virus in animals. Tropism for the adult mouse pancreas, as described by Pappenheimer, appeared to be irrevocably lost following prolonged brain-to-brain transfer. It was present in the same strain on reisolation from human feces, was intensified following pancreas transfers, and suppressed by brain transfers. Pancreatotropism may be correlated with the titer of virus in the pancreas. PMID:13000059

  16. Studies of a Vascular-Acting Photosensitizer, Pd-Bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad), in Normal Canine Prostate and Spontaneous Canine Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Wilson, Brian C.; Trncic, Nadira; LaRue, Susan M.; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objectives Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with Tookad (Pd-bacteriopheophorbide, WST09) was investigated pre-clinically as part of a program to develop an alternative modality for treating prostate cancer. Study Design/Materials and Methods Spontaneous canine prostate cancer and normal canine prostate were used as the animal models. Interstitial PDT was performed by IV infusion of the photosensitizer and irradiating the prostates with a diode laser (763 nm). The prostates were harvested 1-week post-PDT and subjected to histopathologic examinations. The effects of the drug doses and light doses were studied for one- and two-session PDT. Pharmacokinetics were studied using HPLC assay. The feasibility of using perfusing CT scans for assessing PDT lesions was also evaluated. Results Tookad is a vascular-acting drug and clears rapidly from the circulation. Tookad-PDT-induced lesions, in both normal and cancerous prostates, were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. Conclusions Tookad-PDT is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue through its vascular effects. PMID:15856509

  17. Epidural anesthesia improves pancreatic perfusion and decreases the severity of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Samira M; Andres, Axel; Morel, Philippe; Schiffer, Eduardo; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Bühler, Leo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety of epidural anesthesia (EA), its effect on pancreatic perfusion and the outcome of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: From 2005 to August 2010, patients with predicted severe AP [Ranson score ≥ 2, C-reactive protein > 100 or necrosis on computed tomography (CT)] were prospectively randomized to either a group receiving EA or a control group treated by patient controlled intravenous analgesia. Pain management was evaluated in the two groups every eight hours using the visual analog pain scale (VAS). Parameters for clinical severity such as length of hospital stay, use of antibiotics, admission to the intensive care unit, radiological/clinical complications and the need for surgical necrosectomy including biochemical data were recorded. A CT scan using a perfusion protocol was performed on admission and at 72 h to evaluate pancreatic blood flow. A significant variation in blood flow was defined as a 20% difference in pancreatic perfusion between admission and 72 h and was measured in the head, body and tail of the pancreas. RESULTS: We enrolled 35 patients. Thirteen were randomized to the EA group and 22 to the control group. There were no differences in demographic characteristics between the two groups. The Balthazar radiological severity score on admission was higher in the EA group than in the control group (mean score 4.15 ± 2.54 vs 3.38 ± 1.75, respectively, P = 0.347) and the median Ranson scores were 3.4 and 2.7 respectively (P = NS). The median duration of EA was 5.7 d, and no complications of the epidural procedure were reported. An improvement in perfusion of the pancreas was observed in 13/30 (43%) of measurements in the EA group vs 2/27 (7%) in the control group (P = 0.0025). Necrosectomy was performed in 1/13 patients in the EA group vs 4/22 patients in the control group (P = 0.63). The VAS improved during the first ten days in the EA group compared to the control group (0.2 vs 2.33, P = 0.034 at 10 d). Length

  18. Epidural anesthesia improves pancreatic perfusion and decreases the severity of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Samira M; Andres, Axel; Morel, Philippe; Schiffer, Eduardo; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Bühler, Leo

    2015-11-21

    To study the safety of epidural anesthesia (EA), its effect on pancreatic perfusion and the outcome of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). From 2005 to August 2010, patients with predicted severe AP [Ranson score ≥ 2, C-reactive protein > 100 or necrosis on computed tomography (CT)] were prospectively randomized to either a group receiving EA or a control group treated by patient controlled intravenous analgesia. Pain management was evaluated in the two groups every eight hours using the visual analog pain scale (VAS). Parameters for clinical severity such as length of hospital stay, use of antibiotics, admission to the intensive care unit, radiological/clinical complications and the need for surgical necrosectomy including biochemical data were recorded. A CT scan using a perfusion protocol was performed on admission and at 72 h to evaluate pancreatic blood flow. A significant variation in blood flow was defined as a 20% difference in pancreatic perfusion between admission and 72 h and was measured in the head, body and tail of the pancreas. We enrolled 35 patients. Thirteen were randomized to the EA group and 22 to the control group. There were no differences in demographic characteristics between the two groups. The Balthazar radiological severity score on admission was higher in the EA group than in the control group (mean score 4.15 ± 2.54 vs 3.38 ± 1.75, respectively, P = 0.347) and the median Ranson scores were 3.4 and 2.7 respectively (P = NS). The median duration of EA was 5.7 d, and no complications of the epidural procedure were reported. An improvement in perfusion of the pancreas was observed in 13/30 (43%) of measurements in the EA group vs 2/27 (7%) in the control group (P = 0.0025). Necrosectomy was performed in 1/13 patients in the EA group vs 4/22 patients in the control group (P = 0.63). The VAS improved during the first ten days in the EA group compared to the control group (0.2 vs 2.33, P = 0.034 at 10 d). Length of stay and mortality

  19. Current State of Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Preservation of Organs: The Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael J.; Baicu, Simona, C.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the application of hypothermic perfusion technology as a topic of current interest with the potential to have a salutary impact on the mounting clinical challenges to improve the quantity and quality of donor organs and the outcome of transplantation. The ex vivo perfusion of donor organs on a machine prior to transplant, as opposed to static cold storage on ice, is not a new idea but is being re-visited because of the prospects of making available more and better organs for transplantation. The rationale for pursuing perfusion technology will be discussed in relation to emerging data on clinical outcomes and economic benefits for kidney transplantation. Reference will also be made to on-going research using other organs with special emphasis on the pancreas for both segmental pancreas and isolated islet transplantation. Anticipated and emerging benefits of hypothermic machine perfusion of organs are: i) maintaining the patency of the vascular bed, ii) providing nutrients and low demand oxygen to support reduced energy demands, iii) removal of metabolic by-products and toxins, iv) provision of access for administration of cytoprotective agents and/or immunomodulatory drugs, v) increase of available assays for organ viability assessment and tissue matching, vi) facilitation of a change from emergency to elective scheduled surgery with reduced costs and improved outcomes, vii) improved clinical outcomes as demonstrated by reduced PNF and DGF parameters, viii) improved stabilization or rescue of ECD kidneys or organs from NHBD that increase the size of the donor pool, ix) significant economic benefit for the transplant centers and reduced health care costs, and x) provision of a technology for ex vivo use of non-transplanted human organs for pharmaceutical development research. PMID:19857479

  20. Expression of claudin-5 in canine pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma - An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Gálfi, Péter; Halász, Judit; Kulka, Janina

    2011-03-01

    Claudin-5 is an endothelium-specific tight junction protein. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression pattern of this molecule in intact pancreatic tissues and in well-differentiated and poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas from dogs by the use of cross-reactive humanised anticlaudin-5 antibody. The necropsy samples taken from dogs included 10 nonneoplastic pancreatic tissues, 10 well-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 10 poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 5 intrahepatic metastases of well-differentiated and 5 intrahepatic metastases of poorly differentiated acinar cell carcinomas. A strong lateral membrane claudin-5 positivity was detected in exocrine cells in all intact pancreas samples. The endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans and the epithelial cells of the ducts were negative for claudin-5. The endothelial cells of vessels and lymphatic channels in the stroma of the intact pancreas showed strong membrane positivity for this claudin. All well-differentiated exocrine pancreas carcinomas and all poorly-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma samples showed a diffuse loss of claudin-5 expression. The claudin-5-positive peritumoural vessels and lymphatic channels facilitated the detection of vascular invasion of the claudin-5-negative cancer cells. In liver metastasis samples, the pancreatic carcinomas were negative for claudin-5. It seems that the loss of expression of claudin-5 may lead to carcinogenesis in canine exocrine pancreatic cells.

  1. Effects of pancreas transplantation on late complications of diabetes and metabolic effects of pancreas and islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Caldara, R; La Rocca, E; Maffi, P; Secchi, A

    1999-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation has become an accepted therapeutic approach to treat insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, successfully restoring normoglycemia. In contrast, islet transplantation is still in the experimental phase, only a few operations having being performed world-wide. The aim of this review is to analyze the effects of pancreas transplantation on the late complications of diabetes and to report the endocrino-metabolic effects of pancreas and islet transplantation.

  2. Current developments in canine genetics.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified.

  3. Septic shock in canine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Matijatko, Vesna; Kis, Ivana; Torti, Marin; Brkljacić, Mirna; Kucer, Nada; Rafaj, Renata Barić; Grden, Darko; Zivicnjak, Tanja; Mrljak, Vladimir

    2009-06-10

    The records of all canine patients (86) that had been diagnosed with babesiosis and that were admitted to the Clinic for Internal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagreb from January 2007 to December 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. All dogs that had been diagnosed with canine babesiosis and that had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) followed by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and refractory hypotension, were included in this study. Of 86 patients diagnosed with canine babesiosis that were admitted during the study period, 10 had evidence of septic shock and were included in this study. Seven of the 10 dogs had a level of parasitaemia above 1%, with the highest level being 20.2%, seven of the 10 dogs were anaemic and three of the 10 dogs were leucopoenic. Thrombocytopenia was present in nine dogs. Hypoglycaemia was noted in two dogs, and bilirubinaemia in nine dogs. Four patients had involvement of two organs, five had involvement of three organs, and one had involvement of four organs. The organ that was most frequently involved was the kidney (nine cases). Central nervous system dysfunction was the rarest complication noted (one case). The mortality rate in non-septic shock canine babesiosis was 2.6%. All dogs that developed septic shock died between the first and the fourth day after admission. The 100% mortality rate that is reported here reflects the fact that in cases in which progression of the inflammatory response leads to the development of septic shock, an unfavourable outcome should be expected.

  4. Structure and function of specific regions in the canine atrioventricular node.

    PubMed

    Woods, W T; Sherf, L; James, T N

    1982-07-01

    The functional subregions of the rabbit atrioventricular (AV) node have been examined in detail, but it has not been possible to subject the normal canine AV node to such rigorous scrutiny. Arterial perfusion and beveled microelectrodes have now allowed us to explore the anatomic and functional regions of the isolated canine AV node. The atria and AV junctional tissues of 20 young dogs were excised and selectively perfused with physiological solution through the nutrient arteries to the sinus node, AV node, and His bundle. AV node action potentials had shapes similar to those of the rabbit AV node and were conducted slowly (56 +/- 7 mm/s); slowest conduction (16 +/- 14 mm/s) was observed in the distal AV node where diastolic depolarization was always recorded and where maximum upstroke velocity of the action potential was slowest. From subsequent anatomic studies of the same preparations we found that the proximal region of the canine AV node was predominantly composed of interwoven slender transitional cells and that the distal region contained bundles of transitional cells and small but conspicuous aggregations of P-cells. The proximal portion of the canine AV node appeared to be organized for triage of atrial input during sinus rhythm. Electron microscopic examinations revealed numerous relatively long (greater than 1.0 micrometers) gap junctions between proximal AV node cells. The large gap junctions may provide an anatomic basis for electrotonic interaction during summation and conduction of AV node inputs. The distal AV node is the site of slowest AV conduction and also where most forms of AV junctional rhythm originate.

  5. Evaluation in dogs of a new double-dose technique for imaging changes in myocardial perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rothendler, J.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Chesler, D.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-06-01

    Assessment of myocardial perfusion with thallium immediately before and after an intervention that alters blood flow has been difficult due to presence of residual activity from the first tracer dose at the time of the second imaging. In a canine model the authors investigated a technique using two separate thallium injections during an intervention and after its reversal. Images were obtained after each injection, and a difference image was obtained by subtracting the first from the second image to correct for tracer persisting from the first injection. Interventions on coronary blood flow included: transient occlusion, subcritical stenosis with dipyridamole infusion, and permanent occlusion. The first images showed defects corresponding to the occlusion or stenosis, while the ''difference'' images correlated with myocardial perfusion at the time of the second injection.

  6. Current Perspectives on Laparoscopic Robot-Assisted Pancreas and Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Boggi, Ugo; Signori, Stefano; Vistoli, Fabio; Amorese, Gabriella; Consani, Giovanni; De Lio, Nelide; Perrone, Vittorio; Croce, Chiara; Marchetti, Piero; Cantarovich, Diego; Mosca, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas transplant recipients continue to suffer high surgical morbidity. Current robotic technology provides a unique opportunity to test whether laparoscopy can improve the post-operative course of pancreas transplantation (PT). Current knowledge on robotic pancreas and renal transplantation was reviewed to determine feasibility and safety of robotic PT. Information available from literature was included in this review, together with personal experience including three PT, and two renal allotransplants. As of April 2011, the relevant literature provides two case reports on robotic renal transplantation. The author’s experience consists of one further renal allotransplantation, two solitary PT, and one simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Information obtained at international conferences include several other renal allotransplants, but no additional PT. Preliminary data show that PT is feasible laparoscopically under robotic assistance, but raises concerns regarding the effects of increased warm ischemia time on graft viability. Indeed, during construction of vascular anastomoses, graft temperature progressively increases, since maintenance of a stable graft temperature is difficult to achieve laparoscopically. There is no proof that progressive graft warming produces actual damage to transplanted organs, unless exceedingly long. However, this important question is likely to elicit a vibrant discussion in the transplant community. PMID:21720670

  7. Expression patterns of epiplakin1 in pancreas, pancreatic cancer and regenerating pancreas.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tetsu; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Baba, Hideo; Goto, Mizuki; Fujiwara, Sakuhei; Kume, Kazuhiko; Kume, Shoen

    2008-07-01

    Epiplakin1 (Eppk1) is a plakin family gene with its function remains largely unknown, although the plakin genes are known to function in interconnecting cytoskeletal filaments and anchoring them at plasma membrane-associated adhesive junction. Here we analyzed the expression patterns of Eppk1 in the developing and adult pancreas in the mice. In the embryonic pancreas, Eppk1+/Pdx1+ and Eppk1+/Sox9+ pancreatic progenitor cells were observed in early pancreatic epithelium. Since Pdx1 expression overlapped with that of Sox9 at this stage, these multipotent progenitor cells are Eppk1+/Pdx1+/Sox9+ cells. Then Eppk1 expression becomes confined to Ngn3+ or Sox9+ endocrine progenitor cells, and p48+ exocrine progenitor cells, and then restricted to the duct cells and a cells at birth. In the adult pancreas, Eppk1 is expressed in centroacinar cells (CACs) and in duct cells. Eppk1 is observed in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), previously identified as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursor lesions. In addition, the expansion of Eppk1-positive cells occurs in a caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, an acinar cell regeneration model. Furthermore, in the partial pancreatectomy (Px) regeneration model using mice, Eppk1 is expressed in "ducts in foci", a tubular structure transiently induced. These results suggest that Eppk1 serves as a useful marker for detecting pancreatic progenitor cells in developing and regenerating pancreas.

  8. Isoattenuating insulinomas at biphasic contrast-enhanced CT: frequency, clinicopathologic features and perfusion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Xue, Hua-Dan; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xuan; He, Yong-Lan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Zhao, Yu-Pei

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to determine the frequency of isoattenuating insulinomas, to investigate their clinicopathological features and to assess their regional pancreatic perfusion characteristics. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and patient informed consent was waived. From July 2010 to June 2014, 170 patients (66 male, 104 female) with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia underwent biphasic contrast-enhanced CT before surgery, and 129 of those patients also received preoperative whole-pancreas CT perfusion. A total of 181 tumours were proved histopathologically after surgery. Enhancement pattern and regional pancreatic perfusion characteristics were analyzed. Clinical features, tumour size and pathological grading were investigated. The frequency of isoattenuating tumours was 24.9 %. Tumour size and WHO grading was not significantly different between isoattenuating and hyperattenuating tumours. Tumour-free regions had identical blood flow (BF) regardless of their location (p = 0.35). Isoattenuating tumour-harbouring regions had lower BF compared with hyperattenuating tumour-harbouring regions; both showed higher BF compared with tumour-free neighbourhood regions (all p < 0.01). For patients with isoattenuating tumours, the overall hospital stay was longer (p < 0.01). A substantial subset of insulinomas were isoattenuating on biphasic CT. CT perfusion showed higher BF in tumour-harbouring regions compared to tumour-free regions, providing a clue for tumour regionalization. • About a quarter of all insulinomas were isoattenuating on biphasic contrast-enhanced CT. • CT perfusion finds tumour-harbouring regions have higher blood-flow compared to tumour-free regions. • CT perfusion provides important information for tumour regionalization, for isoattenuating tumours.

  9. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this.

  10. The Cystic Fibrosis of Exocrine Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Wilschanski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is highly expressed in the pancreatic duct epithelia, and permits anions and water to enter the ductal lumen. This results in an increased volume of alkaline fluid allowing the highly concentrated proteins secreted by the acinar cells to remain in a soluble state. This work will expound on the pathophysiology and pathology caused by the malfunctioning CFTR protein with special reference to ion transport and acid-base abnormalities both in humans and animal models. We will also discuss the relationship between cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatitis, and outline present and potential therapeutic approaches in CF treatment relevant to the pancreas. PMID:23637307

  11. Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Horton, Karen M; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-12-01

    CT currently plays a vital role in pancreatic cancer staging. Continued advancements in computers, scanner technology, and 3D software have improved CT detection of smaller masses and staging. In particular, the introduction of MDCT and real-time 3D volume-rendering software have greatly improved the visualization of the pancreas and adjacent vasculature. This progress will continue as manufacturers introduce the next generation of scanners, which can acquire up to 32 slices per second with ever faster scan times. The impact of these new scanners on diagnostic accuracy will need to be carefully evaluated.

  12. Annular pancreas associated with duodenal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brönnimann, Enrico; Potthast, Silke; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Oertli, Daniel; Heizmann, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly. Coexisting malignancy has been reported only in a few cases. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case in the English literature of duodenal adenocarcinoma in a patient with AP. In a 55-year old woman with duodenal outlet stenosis magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed an aberrant pancreatic duct encircling the duodenum. Duodenojejunostomy was performed. Eight weeks later she presented with painless jaundice. Duodenopancreatectomy revealed a duodenal adenocarcinoma, surrounded by an incomplete AP. Thus, co-existent malignancy with AP can be present without obstructive jaundice and without being visible through preoperative diagnostics. PMID:20593508

  13. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Haley C; Schlarb, Alexander C; Ubert, H Adam; Schlarb, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor is a rare tumor accounting for 1-2% of exocrine neoplasms involving the pancreas. This typically benign tumor is predominately found in young females of non-Caucasian descent between the second and fourth decades of life. Despite the reported increasing incidence of this neoplasm, many physicians are unfamiliar with this tumor, which may lead to uncertainty of diagnosis and treatment. While further delineating the clinical and imaging features of this tumor, we present two cases with review of the literature.

  14. Viable neurons with luxury perfusion in hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Wong, C Y; Luciano, M G; MacIntyre, W J; Brunken, R C; Hahn, J F; Go, R T

    1997-09-01

    A woman with hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis had functional imaging of cerebral perfusion and metabolism to demonstrate the effects of endoscopic third ventriculostomy--a new form of internal surgical shunting. Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT and 18F-FDG PET showed regional luxury perfusion at the left frontal region. Three months after a successful third ventriculostomy, a repeated imaging of cerebral perfusion and metabolism showed resolution of luxury perfusion and global improvement of both perfusion and metabolism. This concurred with postoperative clinical improvement. The paired imaging of cerebral perfusion and metabolism provides more information than just imaging perfusion or metabolism. Thus, the detection of perfusion and metabolism mismatch may open a new window of opportunity for surgical intervention.

  15. Novel diabetes mellitus treatment: mature canine insulin production by canine striated muscle through gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Niessen, S J M; Fernandez-Fuente, M; Mahmoud, A; Campbell, S C; Aldibbiat, A; Huggins, C; Brown, A E; Holder, A; Piercy, R J; Catchpole, B; Shaw, J A M; Church, D B

    2012-07-01

    Muscle-targeted gene therapy using insulin genes has the potential to provide an inexpensive, low maintenance alternative or adjunctive treatment method for canine diabetes mellitus. A canine skeletal muscle cell line was established through primary culture, as well as through transdifferentiation of canine fibroblasts after infection with a myo-differentiation gene containing adenovirus vector. A novel mutant furin-cleavable canine preproinsulin gene insert (cppI4) was designed and created through de novo gene synthesis. Various cell lines, including the generated canine muscle cell line, were transfected with nonviral plasmids containing cppI4. Insulin and desmin immunostaining were used to prove insulin production by muscle cells and specific canine insulin ELISA to prove mature insulin secretion into the medium. The canine myoblast cultures proved positive on desmin immunostaining. All cells tolerated transfection with cppI4-containing plasmid, and double immunostaining for insulin and desmin proved present in the canine cells. Canine insulin ELISA assessment of medium of cppI4-transfected murine myoblasts and canine myoblast and fibroblast mixture proved presence of mature fully processed canine insulin, 24 and 48 h after transfection. The present study provides proof of principle that canine muscle cells can be induced to produce and secrete canine insulin on transfection with nonviral plasmid DNA containing a novel mutant canine preproinsulin gene that produces furin-cleavable canine preproinsulin. This technology could be developed to provide an alternative canine diabetes mellitus treatment option or to provide a constant source for background insulin, as well as C-peptide, alongside current treatment options.

  16. [Prevention of traumatic pancreatitis in injuries of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Tolstoĭ, A D

    1985-05-01

    Based on the investigation of results of the treatment of more than 200 patients with various injuries of the pancreas recommendations are given for the prophylactics of traumatic pancreatitis. A combination of different surgical measures on the pancreas and other organs are recommended as well as a purposeful medicamental treatment.

  17. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas: Mystery and Facts.

    PubMed

    Raghavapuram, Saikiran; Vaid, Arjun; Rego, Rayburn F

    2015-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is very rare as pancreas does not have any squamous cells. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. We describe such a case where in the patient presented with painless jaundice. CT and EUS confirmed the pancreatic mass biopsy of which showed squamous cell cancer.

  18. [Ectopic pancreas mimicking advanced gastric malignancy--case report].

    PubMed

    Zawada, Iwona; Lewosiuk, Agnieszka; Hnatyszyn, Krzysztof; Patalan, Michał; Woyke, Stanisław; Kostyrka, Roman; Marlicz, Krzysztof; Starzyńska, Teresa

    2012-04-01

    Ectopic pancreas is the most common type of ectopic tissue in gastrointestinal tract. It is typically asymptomatic, presenting as a small submucosal lesion in prepyloric region of stomach. The diagnosis is usually incidental, during gastroscopy. The patient with symptomatic heterotropic pancreas, mimicking gastric malignancy was described.

  19. Three types of simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Gruessner, A C; Wakai, T; Sutherland, D E R

    2014-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to study and compare clinical and functional outcomes after simultaneous deceased donor pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK DD), simultaneous deceased donor pancreas and living donor kidney transplantation (SPK DL), and simultaneous living donor pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK LL). From January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2005, 8918 primary, simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) procedures were reported to the International Pancreas Transplant Registry. Of these, 8764 (98.3%) were SPK DD, 115 (1.3%) were SPK DL, and 39 (0.4%) were SPK LL. We compared these 3 groups with regard to several endpoints including patient and pancreas and kidney graft survival rates. The 1-year and 3-year patient survival rates for SPK DD were 95% and 90%, 97% and 95% for SPK DL, and 100% and 100% for SPK LL recipients, respectively (P ≥ .07). The 1-year and 3-year pancreas graft survival rates for SPK DD were 84% and 77%, 83% and 71% for SPK DL, and 90% and 84% for SPK LL recipients, respectively (P ≥ .16). The 1-year and 3-year kidney graft survival rates for SPK DD were 92% and 84%, 94% and 86% for SPK DL, and 100% and 89% for SPK LL recipients, respectively (P ≥ .37). Patient survival rates and graft survival rates for pancreas and kidney were similar among the 3 groups evaluated in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yng-Tzer J

    2013-01-01

    Dental transposition is the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Canine transpositions are usually accompanied by other dental anomalies, such as: impaction of the incisors; missing teeth; peg-shaped lateral incisors; severe rotation or malposition of adjacent teeth; dilacerations; and malformations. Local pathologic processes, such as tumors, cysts, retained primary canines, and supernumerary teeth, might be responsible for canine transposition. The purpose of this paper was to present a rare case of maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition in an 8-year-old girl. The patient presented with noneruption of the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and a radiographic examination revealed an impacted dilacerated incisor. The central incisor was extracted because the root was severely dilacerated. At the 3-year follow-up, an oral examination revealed that the canine had transposed to the extraction site. Through orthodontic traction, combined with reshaping of the tooth, the transposed canine was successfully positioned into the incisor position.

  1. Repeatability and reproducibility of quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for assessing duodenal perfusion in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Nisa, Khoirun; Lim, Sue Yee; Shinohara, Masayoshi; Nagata, Noriyuki; Sasaoka, Kazuyoshi; Dermlim, Angkhana; Leela-Arporn, Rommaneeya; Morita, Tomoya; Yokoyama, Nozomu; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Sasaki, Noboru; Morishita, Keitaro; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-09-29

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with microbubbles as a contrast agent allows the visualization and quantification of tissue perfusion. The assessment of canine intestinal perfusion by quantitative CEUS may provide valuable information for diagnosing and monitoring chronic intestinal disorders. This study aimed to assess the repeatability (intraday variability) and reproducibility (interday variability) of quantitative duodenal CEUS in healthy dogs. Six healthy beagles underwent CEUS three times within one day (4-hr intervals) and on two different days (1-week interval). All dogs were sedated with a combination of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) prior to CEUS. The contrast agent (Sonazoid(®)) was administered using the intravenous bolus method (0.01 ml/kg) for imaging of the duodenum. Time-intensity curves (TIC) were created by drawing multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in the duodenal mucosa, and perfusion parameters, including the time-to-peak (TTP), peak intensity (PI), area under the curve (AUC), and wash-in and wash-out rates (WiR and WoR, respectively), were generated. Intraday and interday coefficients of variation (CVs) for TTP, PI, AUC, WiR and WoR were <25% (range, 2.27-23.41%), which indicated that CEUS was feasible for assessing duodenal perfusion in healthy sedated dogs. A further study of CEUS in dogs with chronic intestinal disorders is necessary to evaluate its clinical applicability.

  2. Characterization and correction of beam-hardening artifacts during dynamic volume CT assessment of myocardial perfusion.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Kakuya; George, Richard T; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Lima, João A C; Lardo, Albert C

    2010-07-01

    To fully characterize beam-hardening effects caused by iodinated contrast medium in the left ventricular (LV) cavity and aorta in the assessment of myocardial perfusion at computed tomography (CT) and to validate a beam-hardening artifact correction algorithm that considers fluid-filled vessels and chambers important sources of beam hardening. The Johns Hopkins University animal care and use committee approved all procedures. An anatomically correct LV and myocardial phantom to characterize beam-hardening artifacts was designed. Following validation in the phantom, the beam-hardening correction (BHC) algorithm was applied to 256-detector row dynamic volume CT images in a canine ischemia model (n = 5) during adenosine stress, and the effect of beam hardening was determined by comparing regional dynamic volume CT perfusion metrics (myocardial upslope normalized by maximum LV blood pool attenuation) with microsphere-derived myocardial blood flow (MBF). A paired Student t test was used to compare continuous variables from the same subject but under different conditions, while linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the slope and statistical significance of the relationship between CT-derived perfusion metrics and microsphere-derived MBF. Beam-hardening artifacts were successfully reproduced in phantom studies and were eliminated with the BHC algorithm. The correlation coefficient of CT-derived perfusion metrics and microsphere-derived MBF improved from 0.60 to 0.74 (P > .05) following correction in the animal model. Beam-hardening artifacts confound dynamic volume CT assessment of myocardial perfusion. Application of the BHC algorithm is helpful for improving accuracy of myocardial perfusion at dynamic volume CT.

  3. Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013.

    PubMed

    Hovorka, R

    2015-08-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade. © 2015 The Author. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  4. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W

    2016-07-01

    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems.

  5. Purinergic signalling in the pancreas in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, G; Novak, I

    2012-05-01

    Pancreatic cells contain specialised stores for ATP. Purinergic receptors (P2 and P1) and ecto-nucleotidases are expressed in both endocrine and exocrine calls, as well as in stromal cells. The pancreas, especially the endocrine cells, were an early target for the actions of ATP. After the historical perspective of purinergic signalling in the pancreas, the focus of this review will be the physiological functions of purinergic signalling in the regulation of both endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Next, we will consider possible interaction between purinergic signalling and other regulatory systems and their relation to nutrient homeostasis and cell survival. The pancreas is an organ exhibiting several serious diseases - cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes - and some are associated with changes in life-style and are increasing in incidence. There is upcoming evidence for the role of purinergic signalling in the pathophysiology of the pancreas, and the new challenge is to understand how it is integrated with other pathological processes.

  6. Two synchronous malignant tumors of the pancreas: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Silva, W S L; Pathirana, A A; Prematilleke, I; Rajapakse, S A P D; Hettiarachchi, P S H; Manawasinghe, D S; Dassanayake, B K

    2017-03-28

    Only a limited number of multiple synchronous primary malignancies of the pancreas have been reported in the medical literature. We report a case of two solid malignant tumors of the pancreas diagnosed preoperatively. We describe a 65-year-old Sri Lankan woman who presented with progressive obstructive jaundice. Initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging detected a malignant tumor at the tail of her pancreas. A second tumor of the pancreatic head was detected with integrated imaging using multidetector computed tomography and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging. She underwent total pancreaticoduodenectomy and splenectomy. Gross examination of the specimen confirmed the presence of two separate tumors. Histology of the ampullary tumor showed pancreatic-type adenocarcinoma and the tumor in the tail of her pancreas showed a colloid-type adenocarcinoma. The possibility of multiple primary malignant solid tumors of different types with malignant potential has to be considered even without background pathology when managing multiple tumors in the pancreas.

  7. [Tuberculosis of the pancreas--a clinical rarity].

    PubMed

    Heitmann, P; Kratsch, B; Löschke, S; Klempa, I

    2001-06-01

    Pancreas tuberculosis is a rare diagnosis and is usually associated with miliary spread. Only a few cases are reported in the literature. A female patient was admitted with a history of uncharacteristic abdominal pain, weight loss, weakness, and intermittent fever. CA 19-9 was increased and the CT scan showed an irregular mass in the pancreatic tail. Suspecting the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, a pancreas tail resection with splenectomy was performed. The histological examination showed pancreas tuberculosis. Mimicking pancreatic cancer or presenting with acute/chronic pancreatitis or obstructive jaundice, the diagnosis of pancreas tuberculosis is very difficult to make and is usually established after surgical treatment. Although pancreas tuberculosis is rare, it should be considered when evaluating a pancreatic mass.

  8. Pancreas development is promoted by cyclopamine, a hedgehog signaling inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Melton, D A

    1998-10-27

    Exposure to cyclopamine, a steroid alkaloid that blocks Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, promotes pancreatic expansion in embryonic chicks. Heterotopic development of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine structures occurs in regions adjacent to the pancreas including stomach and duodenum, and insulin-producing islets in the pancreas are enlarged. The homeodomain transcription factor PDX1, required for pancreas development, is expressed broadly in the posterior foregut but pancreas development normally initiates only in a restricted region of PDX1-expressing posterior foregut where endodermal Shh expression is repressed. The results suggests that cyclopamine expands the endodermal region where Shh signaling does not occur, resulting in pancreatic differentiation in a larger region of PDX1-expressing foregut endoderm. Cyclopamine reveals the capacity of a broad region of the posterior embryonic foregut to form pancreatic cells and provides a means for expanding embryonic pancreas development.

  9. Heat loss and blood flow during hyperthermia in normal canine brain. II: Mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Samulski, T V; Cox, R S; Lyons, B E; Fessenden, P

    1989-01-01

    A mathematical model for heating and cooling during hyperthermia has been developed from an appropriate solution of a bioheat transfer equation. Predicted cooling rates obtained from the model have been compared with cooling rates obtained from experiments performed on both perfused and non-perfused normal canine brain tissue. The agreement between the predicted and observed cooling rates in non-perfused tissue is satisfactory (within 6-11 per cent) and provides confidence that the conduction process is being accurately represented. The model is then used to estimate the relative contribution of conductive and convective (blood flow) heat loss during cooling for the in vivo experiments. Estimates of blood flow dynamics are made from cooling data taken early and late in a heating course using the model to correct for conductive heat loss. Simplified forms of the bioheat transfer equation are examined. An adequate model for the observed cooling data is one that treats heat loss (both conduction and blood flow) as a heat sink (i.e. an effective perfusion model) rather than an effective thermal conductivity model.

  10. Perfusion decellularization of whole organs.

    PubMed

    Guyette, Jacques P; Gilpin, Sarah E; Charest, Jonathan M; Tapias, Luis F; Ren, Xi; Ott, Harald C

    2014-01-01

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) outlines the architecture of organs and tissues. It provides a unique niche of composition and form, which serves as a foundational scaffold that supports organ-specific cell types and enables normal organ function. Here we describe a standard process for pressure-controlled perfusion decellularization of whole organs for generating acellular 3D scaffolds with preserved ECM protein content, architecture and perfusable vascular conduits. By applying antegrade perfusion of detergents and subsequent washes to arterial vasculature at low physiological pressures, successful decellularization of complex organs (i.e., hearts, lungs and kidneys) can be performed. By using appropriate modifications, pressure-controlled perfusion decellularization can be achieved in small-animal experimental models (rat organs, 4-5 d) and scaled to clinically relevant models (porcine and human organs, 12-14 d). Combining the unique structural and biochemical properties of native acellular scaffolds with subsequent recellularization techniques offers a novel platform for organ engineering and regeneration, for experimentation ex vivo and potential clinical application in vivo.

  11. Pancreas Volume and Fat Deposition in Diabetes and Normal Physiology: Consideration of the Interplay Between Endocrine and Exocrine Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Saisho, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The pancreas is comprised of exocrine and endocrine components. Despite the fact that they are derived from a common origin in utero, these two compartments are often studied individually because of the different roles and functions of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas. Recent studies have shown that not only type 1 diabetes (T1D), but also type 2 diabetes (T2D), is characterized by a deficit in beta-cell mass, suggesting that pathological changes in the pancreas are critical events in the natural history of diabetes. In both patients with T1D and those with T2D, pancreas mass and exocrine function have been reported to be reduced. On the other hand, pancreas volume and pancreatic fat increase with obesity. Increased beta-cell mass with increasing obesity has also been observed in humans, and ectopic fat deposits in the pancreas have been reported to cause beta-cell dysfunction. Moreover, neogenesis and transdifferentiation from the exocrine to the endocrine compartment in the postnatal period are regarded as a source of newly formed beta-cells. These findings suggest that there is important interplay between the endocrine and exocrine pancreas throughout life. This review summarizes the current knowledge on physiological and pathological changes in the exocrine and endocrine pancreas (i.e., beta-cell mass), and discusses the potential mechanisms of the interplay between the two compartments in humans to understand the pathophysiology of diabetes better. PMID:28012279

  12. Technical failure of the pancreas after SPK transplant: are these patients good candidates for later pancreas retransplant?

    PubMed

    Wang, Shen-Nien; Sturdevant, Mark; Kandaswamy, Raja; Gruessner, Rainer G W; Sutherland, David E R; Humar, Abhinav

    2008-01-01

    Technical failure of the pancreas graft after a simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant is not uncommon, affecting roughly 10% of SPK recipients. These patients often recover with good kidney function, but have persistent issues related to their diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if these patients were good candidates for a later pancreas retransplant. Outcomes were compared between 21 PASPK (pancreas after SPK) recipients and 361 recipients of a primary pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplant. Except for kidney graft source, there was no significant difference in the demographic characteristics between these two groups. In general, early surgical complications were more common in PASPK than PAK recipients (47.6% vs. 35.5%, p = 0.15), although the difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of acute rejection was no different between these two groups (28% vs. 33%, p = NS). At three yr post-transplant, patient and pancreas graft survival rates were also no different between the two groups (p = NS). The most common cause for graft loss in both groups was acute or chronic rejection. In conclusion, pancreas retransplant is a viable option for SPK recipients experiencing early technical failure of the pancreas graft. These recipients are not at higher immunologic risk vs. primary PAK recipients.

  13. Intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas associated with pancreas divisum: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Takeshi; Kawabata, Yasunari; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Araki, Asuka; Yano, Seiji; Maruyama, Riruke; Tajima, Yoshitsugu

    2015-07-08

    Pancreas divisum, the most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas, is caused by failure of the fusion of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic duct systems during embryological development. Although various pancreatic tumors can occur in patients with pancreas divisum, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is rare. A 77-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because she was incidentally found to have a cystic tumor in her pancreas at a regular health checkup. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography images demonstrated a cystic tumor in the head of the pancreas measuring 40 mm in diameter with slightly enhancing mural nodules within the cyst. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography via the major duodenal papilla revealed a cystic tumor and a slightly dilated main pancreatic duct with an abrupt interruption at the head of the pancreas. The orifice of the major duodenal papilla was remarkably dilated and filled with an abundant extrusion of mucin, and the diagnosis based on pancreatic juice cytology was "highly suspicious for adenocarcinoma". Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography depicted a normal, non-dilated dorsal pancreatic duct throughout the pancreas. The patient underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy under the diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with suspicion of malignancy arising in the ventral part of the pancreas divisum. A pancreatography via the major and minor duodenal papillae on the surgical specimen revealed that the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts were not connected, and the tumor originated in the ventral duct, i.e., the Wirsung's duct. Microscopically, the tumor was diagnosed as intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma with microinvasion. In addition, marked fibrosis with acinar cell depletion was evident in the ventral pancreas, whereas no fibrotic change was noted in the dorsal pancreas. Invasive ductal carcinomas of the pancreas associated with pancreas divisum usually arise from the dorsal

  14. Canine histiocytic neoplasia: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Amanda K.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2007-01-01

    Canine histiocytic neoplasms include cutaneous histiocytoma, as well as localized and disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. These tumors have variable biologic behavior, although the malignant disorders often have a poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry plays an essential role in differentiating histiocytic tumors from other neoplasias that may have similar histological appearances. This allows a definitive diagnosis to be established and provides a more accurate prediction of prognosis. This article reviews the biologic behavior, diagnosis, and treatment of histiocytic tumors in the dog. PMID:17987966

  15. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Kadota, K.; Kambara, H.; Torizuka, K.

    1985-08-01

    TI-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in six patients with clinically documented myocarditis. Each case manifested electrocardiographic abnormalities with elevation of serum cardiac enzymes and no significant stenosis of the coronary arteries observed on angiogram. Resting TI-201 images were visually assessed by three observers. Focal perfusion defects were observed in three cases (50%), among which two showed multiple perfusion defects. Emission computed tomography using TI-201 clearly delineated multifocal lesions in the first case. On the other hand, no significant perfusion defects were noted in the remaining three cases. Thus, myocarditis should be considered as one of the disease entities that may produce perfusion defects on TI-201 myocardial imaging.

  16. Perfusion studies in cholera: methods and procedures.

    PubMed

    van Loon, F P; Gyr, K; Banik, A K

    1992-09-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of perfusion techniques in the study of intestinal functions by specifically examining the methods and procedures of perfusion in patients with diarrhoea due to infection with V. cholerae 01. Because of abundant jejunal secretion of water and electrolytes in cholera, perfusion studies require special approaches with regard to patient preparation, use of tubing material, selection of markers, and rate of perfusion. A discussion on specific problems involved in marker perfusion techniques in cholera and on the interpretation of the results is followed by practical recommendations.

  17. Characterization of canine neutrophil granules.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, R T; Andersen, B R

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate distinct populations of canine neutrophil granules and to compare them with neutrophil granules from other species. Size, shape, density, and content of canine neutrophil granules were determined. Neutrophils obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation were homogenized, and granule populations were separated by isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient (rho, 1.14 to 1.22 g/ml). The most dense granule population (rho, 1.197 g/ml) contained all of the myeloperoxidase, beta-glucuronidase, and elastase, more than half of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase, and most of the lysozyme. The population with intermediate density (rho, 1.179 g/ml) contained lactoferrin, vitamin B12-binding protein, and the remainder of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase and lysozyme. The least dense granule population did not contain a major peak of any of the enzymes or binding proteins tested but was distinguished by density and morphology. The size and shape of the granules were determined from scanning electron micrographs and assessment of shape was aided by transmission electron micrographs. By these methods three populations of canine neutrophil granules were characterized and named: myeloperoxidase granules, vitamin B12-binding protein granules, and low-density granules. Images PMID:6292095

  18. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control.

  19. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Konstantinos V.; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Wilkie, Gavin S.; McDonald, Michael; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Davison, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154) isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp) and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp) that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively). The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease. PMID:27213534

  20. Fractal pattern of canine trichoblastoma.

    PubMed

    De Vico, Gionata; Cataldi, Marielda; Maiolino, Paola; Carella, Francesca; Beltraminelli, Stefano; Losa, Gabriele A

    2011-06-01

    To assess by fractal analysis the specific architecture, growth pattern, and tissue distribution that characterize subtypes of canine trichoblastoma, a benign tumor derived from or reduplicating the primitive hair germ of embryonic follicular development. Tumor masks and outlines obtained from immunohistologic images by gray threshold segmentation of epithelial components were analyzed by fractal and conventional morphometry. The fractal dimension [FD] of each investigated case was determined from the slope of the regression line describing the fractal region within a bi-asymptotic curve experimentally established. All tumor masks and outlines obtained by gray threshold segmentation of epithelial components showed fractal self-similar properties that were evaluated by peculiar FDs. However, only masks revealed significantly different FD values, ranging from 1.75 to 1.85, enabling the discrimination of canine trichoblastoma subtypes. The FD data suggest that an iterative morphogenetic process, involving both the air germ and associated dermal papilla, may be responsible of the peculiar tissue architecture of trichoblastoma. The present study emphasized the reliability of fractal analysis in achieving the objective characterization of canine trichoblastoma.

  1. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  2. Does machine perfusion decrease ischemia reperfusion injury?

    PubMed

    Bon, D; Delpech, P-O; Chatauret, N; Hauet, T; Badet, L; Barrou, B

    2014-06-01

    In 1990's, use of machine perfusion for organ preservation has been abandoned because of improvement of preservation solutions, efficient without perfusion, easy to use and cheaper. Since the last 15 years, a renewed interest for machine perfusion emerged based on studies performed on preclinical model and seems to make consensus in case of expanded criteria donors or deceased after cardiac death donations. We present relevant studies highlighted the efficiency of preservation with hypothermic machine perfusion compared to static cold storage. Machines for organ preservation being in constant evolution, we also summarized recent developments included direct oxygenation of the perfusat. Machine perfusion technology also enables organ reconditioning during the last hours of preservation through a short period of perfusion on hypothermia, subnormothermia or normothermia. We present significant or low advantages for machine perfusion against ischemia reperfusion injuries regarding at least one primary parameter: risk of DFG, organ function or graft survival.

  3. Use of small donors (<28 kg) for pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Illanes, H G; Quarin, C M; Maurette, R; Sánchez, N G; Reniero, L; Casadei, D H

    2009-01-01

    Small donors have long been considered a potential source of organs for simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) and pancreas transplantation alone (PTA). Our aim was to analyze our experience with SPK and PTA using small donors weighing <28 kg. Between September 2006 and October 2008, we performed 68 SPK, 3 PTA, and 3 pancreas after kidney transplantations (PAK). All recipients were adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus, including 8 who received small donor organs (<28 kg): 6 SPK and 2 PTA. We used 3 graft combinations for SPK: pancreas and single kidney; pancreas and en bloc kidneys; and en bloc dual kidney-pancreas. In contrast, we used conventional grafts for PTA. Mean weight among donors was 20.82 kg (range, 9.6-27 kg). We observed neither delayed graft function nor mortality. At a follow-up of approximately 281 days, all patients were free of insulin and dialysis treatments. Kidneys and pancreas from donors weighing <28 kg can be used in adult type 1 diabetic patients with excellent results. These small pediatric donors enabled us to enlarge the number of transplantations by 10.81%.

  4. Circumportal pancreas: a review of the literature and image findings.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Tara M; Sakala, Michelle; Tappouni, Rafel

    2015-07-01

    Fused pancreatic tissue encasing the portal and/or superior mesenteric vein, circumportal pancreas, is a congenital anomaly that has been associated with operative complications in resections involving the head of the pancreas. We describe this anomaly and highlight its pathophysiology and surgical outcomes through a review of the literature to date, drawings and a computed tomography example. A literature search was undertaken using Pubmed and the search terms "circumportal pancreas," "annular pancreas" and "pancreatic anomaly." 91 cases of circumportal pancreas were identified in the literature. The number of reported cases increased with time. 14 were documented as having undergone surgery (11 carcinoma or suspected carcinoma/3 benign neoplasm). Surgical outcome was reported in 13. Five of 13 (38.5 %) experienced a fistula. Three cases were treated with a drain. One incident of potentially unnecessary surgery due to the misidentification of circumportal pancreas was noted. (1) The identification of circumportal pancreas is increasing but is relatively rare. (2) Varying locations of the main pancreatic duct can induce inappropriate construction during pancreaticojejunostomy and can influence the risk of fistula. In the presence of CP, distal pancreatectomy with pancreatic division in front of portal vein creates two sources of pancreatic fistula. (3) The high incidence of associated vascular variants can directly influence pancreatic resection and can affect vascular reconstruction for complete oncologic resection. Therefore, the preoperative location of the main pancreatic duct and presence of any vascular variants in CP must be systematically identified before programed surgery.

  5. Measure of pancreas transection and postoperative pancreatic fistula.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Gotohda, Naoto; Kato, Yuichiro; Konishi, Masaru

    2016-05-15

    In pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), a standard protocol for pancreas transection has not been established although the method of pancreas transection might be involved in the occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). This study aimed to compare whether pancreas transection by ultrasonically activated shears (UAS) or that by scalpel contributed more to POPF development. A prospective database of 171 patients who underwent PD for periampullary tumor at National Cancer Center Hospital East between January 2010 and June 2013 was reviewed. Among the 171 patients, 93 patients with soft pancreas were specifically included in this study. Surgical results and background were compared between patients with pancreas transection by UAS and scalpel to evaluate the effectiveness of UAS on reducing POPF. Body mass index, main pancreatic duct diameter, or other clinicopathologic factors that have been reported as predictive factors for POPF were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of all grades of POPF and that of grade B were significantly lower in the scalpel group (52%, 4%) than in the UAS group (74%, 42%). Postoperative complications ≥ grade III were also significantly fewer in the scalpel group. Scalpel transection was less associated with POPF than UAS transection in patients who underwent PD for soft pancreas. The method of pancreas transection plays an important role in the prevention of clinical POPF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hippo Signaling Regulates Pancreas Development through Inactivation of Yap

    PubMed Central

    Day, Caroline E.; Boerner, Brian P.; Johnson, Randy L.; Sarvetnick, Nora E.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian pancreas is required for normal metabolism, with defects in this vital organ commonly observed in cancer and diabetes. Development must therefore be tightly controlled in order to produce a pancreas of correct size, cell type composition, and physiologic function. Through negative regulation of Yap-dependent proliferation, the Hippo kinase cascade is a critical regulator of organ growth. To investigate the role of Hippo signaling in pancreas biology, we deleted Hippo pathway components in the developing mouse pancreas. Unexpectedly, the pancreas from Hippo-deficient offspring was reduced in size, with defects evident throughout the organ. Increases in the dephosphorylated nuclear form of Yap are apparent throughout the exocrine compartment and correlate with increases in levels of cell proliferation. However, the mutant exocrine tissue displays extensive disorganization leading to pancreatitis-like autodigestion. Interestingly, our results suggest that Hippo signaling does not directly regulate the pancreas endocrine compartment as Yap expression is lost following endocrine specification through a Hippo-independent mechanism. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Hippo signaling plays a crucial role in pancreas development and provide novel routes to a better understanding of pathological conditions that affect this organ. PMID:23071096

  7. Exenatide Induces Impairment of Autophagy Flux to Damage Rat Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Huang, Lihua; Yu, Xiao; Yu, Can; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Xia; Han, Duo; Huang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the alteration of autophagy in rat pancreas treated with exenatide. Normal Sprague-Dawley rats and diabetes-model rats induced by 2-month high-sugar and high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection were subcutaneously injected with exenatide, respectively, for 10 weeks, with homologous rats treated with saline as control. Meanwhile, AR42J cells, pancreatic acinar cell line, were cultured with exenatide at doses of 5 pM for 3 days. The pancreas was disposed, and several sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expressions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas, and Western blot was used to test the expressions of GLP-1R, light chain 3B-I and -II, and p62 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells. The data were expressed as mean (standard deviation) and analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Exenatide can induce pathological changes in rat pancreas. The GLP-1R, p62, light chain 3B-II, and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells treated with exenatide were significantly overexpressed. Exenatide can activate and upregulate its receptor, GLP-1R, then impair autophagy flux and activate apoptosis in the pancreatic acinar cell, thus damaging rat pancreas.

  8. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The National Pancreas Foundation fellows symposium program 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Gelrud, Andres; Whitcomb, David C

    2010-04-01

    Clinical and translational research is critical for the development of improvement in care of pancreatic diseases. Major concerns are the lack of dedicated trainees in pancreatic research and the difficulty for the remaining trainees to develop independent research careers to be included into the pancreas research community. This article describes the efforts of Solvay Pharmaceuticals and American academic leaders working through the National Pancreas Foundation to facilitate the development and expansion of a new generation of pancreas-related clinical and translational researchers through a 3-year fellows symposium.

  10. Common hepatic artery aneurysm: Pseudopseudocyst of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, S.; Druy, E.M.; Friedman, A.C.

    1985-06-01

    The preoperative diagnosis of hepatic artery aneurysm is uncommon, and its presentation as a pancreatic mass is rare. Because of its great potential for rupture early diagnosis and treatment is essential. The authors report two cases of aneurysms of the common hepatic artery, which on CT presented as a cystic mass in the head of the pancreas. These cases illustrate the importance of using 10-mm serial sections through the pancreas after a bolus injection of intravenous contrast material in order to allow distinction between hepatic artery aneurysm and other, more common, cystic masses of the pancreas.

  11. Control of cell identity in pancreas development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Ben Z; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The endocrine and exocrine cells in the adult pancreas are not static, but can change their differentiation state in response to injury or stress. This concept of cells in flux means that there may be ways to generate certain types of cells (such as insulin-producing β-cells) and prevent formation of others (such as transformed neoplastic cells). We review different aspects of cell identity in the pancreas, discussing how cells achieve their identity during embryonic development and maturation, and how this identity remains plastic, even in the adult pancreas.

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rajesh; Manrai, Manish; Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Alfadda, Abdulrahman A

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important component in the diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma pancreas. With the advent of advanced imaging techniques and tissue acquisition methods the role of EUS is becoming increasingly important. Small pancreatic tumors can be reliably diagnosed with EUS. EUS guided fine needle aspiration establishes diagnosis in some cases. EUS plays an important role in staging of carcinoma pancreas and in some important therapeutic methods that include celiac plexus neurolysis, EUS guided biliary drainage and drug delivery. In this review we attempt to review the role of EUS in diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas. PMID:26839647

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas.

    PubMed

    Puri, Rajesh; Manrai, Manish; Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Alfadda, Abdulrahman A

    2016-01-25

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important component in the diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma pancreas. With the advent of advanced imaging techniques and tissue acquisition methods the role of EUS is becoming increasingly important. Small pancreatic tumors can be reliably diagnosed with EUS. EUS guided fine needle aspiration establishes diagnosis in some cases. EUS plays an important role in staging of carcinoma pancreas and in some important therapeutic methods that include celiac plexus neurolysis, EUS guided biliary drainage and drug delivery. In this review we attempt to review the role of EUS in diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas.

  14. Pancreas survival in simultaneous pancreas-kidney and pancreas-after-kidney transplantations: a five-year follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Dinckan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoglu, Ibrahim; Kocak, Huseyin; Sari, Ramazan; Erdogan, Okan; Ertug, Zeki; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Gurkan, Alihan

    2012-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation methods, such as simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation and pancreas-after-kidney (PAK) transplantation, have become the most important treatments for patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM)-related end-stage renal diseases (ESRD). The purpose of the study was to compare the clinical results of the pancreas graft in patients after SPK and PAK transplantations and to present the findings of our 5-year follow-up. A total of 55 patients who had kidney and pancreas transplantation between February 2003 and December 2010 were included in the study. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the timing of the pancreas transplantation: SPK (n=21) and PAK (n=34). The patients in the SPK group consisted of 13 males and 8 females, with a mean age of 33.6±6.8 years; whereas 25 males and 9 females formed the PAK group, with a mean age of 32.0±6.0 years. In the early postoperative period, the SPK group had 3 patients with vascular thrombosis (2 venous, 1 arterial) and the PAK group had 7 patients with thrombosis (4 venous, 3 arterial) (p=0.319). At the end of the 5-year follow-up, the patient, kidney and pancreas survival rates in the SPK group were 95.2%, 95.2%, and 61.9% respectively, and the corresponding values in the PAK group were 97%, 91.2%, 61.8% (p=0.382, p=0.504, p=0.927). We concluded that PAK is just as effective as SPK to prevent the destructive effects of DM when the waiting time for SPK is long and a potential live donor is present.

  15. Early prediction of maxillary canine impaction

    PubMed Central

    Storms, Ann-Sophie; Voet, Martine; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish prediction criteria for maxillary canine impaction in young patients, based on angular and linear measurements on panoramic radiographs. Methods: From 828 records having at least 2 panoramic radiographs, both taken between the ages of 7 and 14 years, with a minimum 1-year and maximum 3-year interval (T1 and T2), a training data set consisting of 30 subjects with unilateral canine impaction (12 males and 18 females) was selected. The patients' mean age was 10.1 years [standard deviation (SD) 1.3 years] at T1 and 11.9 years (SD 1.1 years) at T2. The training data set also consisted of 30 maxillary canines from the contralateral sides and an additional 60 normal erupted canines from 30 subjects. Those 30 subjects of a test data set were selected based on displaying bilateral maxillary canine eruption at T2 and being matched for gender and age with the subjects of the training data set [12 males and 18 females; mean age at T1, 10.1 years (SD 1.3 years) and at T2, 11.1 years (SD 1.2 years)]. Angular and linear measurements were performed separately by two observers on the total study sample at T1. Linear measurements were expressed as a multiplication of the maxillary central incisor width at the non-impacted side. Results: Significant differences for linear and angular measurements and radiographic factors were found between the maxillary impacted canine and erupted maxillary canine. The three best-discriminating parameters were canine to first premolar angle, canine cusp to midline distance and canine cusp to maxillary plane distance. These three parameters were combined in a multiple logistic regression model to calculate the probability of impaction, yielding a high area under the curve (AUC) equal to 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.94–0.99), with 90% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusions: Prediction of maxillary canine impaction from a combination of parameters relating to angles and distances measured

  16. Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic porcine pancreas and preliminary case study on the human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wex, C; Fröhlich, M; Brandstädter, K; Bruns, C; Stoll, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the mechanical properties of the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanical properties of the pancreas are not sufficiently characterized. The possibility of intraoperative mechanical testing of pathological pancreata will allow the classification of pancreatic diseases in the future. The application of mechanical parameters instead of the intraoperative frozen section analysis shortens waiting times in the operating room. This study proves the general applicability of shear rheology for the determination of the mechanical properties of pancreas and the assessment of graft quality for transplantation. Porcine and human pancreas samples were examined ex vivo and a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was observed. Pancreas was found to be more viscous than liver but both abdominal organs showed a similar flow behavior. The shear deformation dependence of healthy human pancreas was similar to porcine pancreas. An increase in the post-mortem time led to an increase in the complex modulus for a post-mortem time up to 8.5 days. Histological investigations showed that an increased amount of collagen coincides with the stiffening of the pancreatic tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular signalling pathways in canine gliomas.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, C E; York, D; Higgins, R J; LeCouteur, R A; Dickinson, P J

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we determined the expression of key signalling pathway proteins TP53, MDM2, P21, AKT, PTEN, RB1, P16, MTOR and MAPK in canine gliomas using western blotting. Protein expression was defined in three canine astrocytic glioma cell lines treated with CCNU, temozolamide or CPT-11 and was further evaluated in 22 spontaneous gliomas including high and low grade astrocytomas, high grade oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Response to chemotherapeutic agents and cell survival were similar to that reported in human glioma cell lines. Alterations in expression of key human gliomagenesis pathway proteins were common in canine glioma tumour samples and segregated between oligodendroglial and astrocytic tumour types for some pathways. Both similarities and differences in protein expression were defined for canine gliomas compared to those reported in human tumour counterparts. The findings may inform more defined assessment of specific signalling pathways for targeted therapy of canine gliomas.

  18. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures. PMID:22839365

  19. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  20. Quantitative pixelwise myocardial perfusion maps from first-pass perfusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Weng, A M; Ritter, C O; Beer, M; Hahn, D; Köstler, H

    2014-07-01

    To calculate and evaluate absolute quantitative myocardial perfusion maps from rest first-pass perfusion MRI. 10 patients after revascularization of myocardial infarction underwent cardiac rest first-pass perfusion MRI. Additionally, perfusion examinations were performed in 12 healthy volunteers. Quantitative myocardial perfusion maps were calculated by using a deconvolution technique, and results were compared were the findings of a sector-based quantification. Maps were typically calculated within 3 min per slice. For the volunteers, myocardial blood flow values of the maps were 0.51 ± 0.16 ml g(-1) per minute, whereas sector-based evaluation delivered 0.52 ± 0.15 ml g(-1) per minute. A t-test revealed no statistical difference between the two sets of values. For the patients, all perfusion defects visually detected in the dynamic perfusion series could be correctly reproduced in the maps. Calculation of quantitative perfusion maps from myocardial perfusion MRI examinations is feasible. The absolute quantitative maps provide additional information on the transmurality of perfusion defects compared with the visual evaluation of the perfusion series and offer a convenient way to present perfusion MRI findings. Voxelwise analysis of myocardial perfusion helps clinicians to assess the degree of tissue damage, and the resulting maps are a good tool to present findings to patients.

  1. [Regulation and self-regulation of the pancreas secretion].

    PubMed

    Korot'ko, G F; Voskanian, S E

    2001-01-01

    A review of modern experimental and clinical research, including own author's data, on regulation of the periodical and postprandial external pancreas secretion and of the secretion phases. Focus on self-regulation of pancreas exosecretion with the pancreatic enzymes based on the principle of negative feedback, and on mechanisms of the feedback inhibition of pancreatic secretion. Description of the selective and generalised inhibition of secretion of pancreatic enzymes, the role of this mechanism in emergency adaptation of the fermental spectrum of the pancreas secretion in response to the nutritional composition and properties of the duodenal chemus. In conclusion, the experimental and clinical data are presented on use of intraduodenal injection of trypsin as a generalised inhibitor of pancreas secretion in case of acute pancreatitis.

  2. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas--evaluation with multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Horton, Karen H; Lillemoe, Keith D; Fishman, Elliot K

    2005-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas is a rare cystic pancreatic tumor. In this case report we provide the imaging perspective of the lesion including the role of multidetector CT (MDCT) and CT angiography and 3D imaging.

  3. [Historical course of surgical techniques in pancreas transplantation].

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, L H; Rodríguez, F J

    1994-01-01

    Since the original description of the pancreas transplant technique in animals, initially as a pedicle transplant in 1892, free graft in 1913, and then as a vascularized organ in 1927, there have been several changes in the handling of the exocrine secretions, as well as the vascular anastomoses, and the posttransplant function in relation to the immunosuppressive therapy. The surgical technical changes have included the ligature of the duct, the free drainage to the abdominal cavity, the pancreas transplant with a duodenal segment, the chemical occlusion of the duct, and its drainage to the intestine or to the bladder with a duodenal segment. This last technique remains as the standard technique currently used for pancreas transplantation, along with the combined transplant of the kidney. This work reviews the historical aspects, the evolution of the experimental and clinical surgical techniques, and the current results associated with the surgical management of pancreas transplantation.

  4. Heterotopic pancreas presenting as suspicious mass in the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Amélie; Veilleux, Hubert; Martel, Guillaume; Lapointe, Réal; Vandenbroucke-Menu, Franck

    2012-11-10

    Heterotopic pancreas is a rare entity. Thirty-three cases in the gallbladder have been reported. We describe the first case of heterotopic pancreas mimicking a gallbladder cancer, identified within a calcified lesion in the thickened posterior wall of the gallbladder. A 72-year-old woman with right upper quadrant pain was referred with a suspicion of gallbladder neoplasia. A CT scan demonstrated a 1 cm thickened posterior wall of the gallbladder with a 2 mm punctate calcification. An open cholecystectomy was carried out without complication. The frozen section demonstrated pancreatic tissue. Heterotopic pancreas of the gallbladder is highly uncommon. It can mimic a neoplastic process in the gallbladder, particularly in the context of calcification. Its malignant potential in the gallbladder is unknown, in contrast to previously described neoplastic transformation with gastric heterotopic pancreas.

  5. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-02-08

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis.

  6. [Fibroblast growth factors and their effects in pancreas organogenesis].

    PubMed

    Gnatenko, D A; Kopantzev, E P; Sverdlov, E D

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) - growth factors that regulate many important biological processes, including proliferation and differentiation of embryonic cells during organogenesis. In this review, we will summarize current information about the involvement of FGFs in the pancreas organogenesis. Pancreas organogenesis is a complex process, which involves constant signaling from mesenchymal tissue. This orchestrates the activation of various regulator genes at specific stages, determining the specification of progenitor cells. Alterations in FGF/FGFR signaling pathway during this process lead to incorrect activation of the master genes, which leads to different pathologies during pancreas development. Understanding the full picture about role of FGF factors in pancreas development will make it possible to more accurately understand their role in other pathologies of this organ, including carcinogenesis.

  7. Papillary carcinoma of the pancreas: findings of US and CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.Y.; Lim, J.H.; Lee, J.D.

    1985-02-01

    Two cases of papillary carcinoma of the pancreas were evaluated by ultrasound and CT. The sonographic and CT findings were those of a well-defined oval mass with partial cystic change. There was radiologic-pathologic correlation.

  8. Combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Alzaraa, Ahmed; Udom, Valeri; Mousa, Husam; Alzein, Abdulhalem; Benhamida, Abduljalil; Dalal, Neha

    2007-09-14

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas comprise 10%-15% of pancreatic cystic lesions, with the serous cystadenoms being the commonest. The association of exocrine and endocrine tumours of the pancreas unrelated to Von Hipple Lindau disease is very rare. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. We present another case of both these tumours in one patient. A female patient was seen in the surgical clinic for a pain in the right groin. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a diagnosis of combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas. She underwent surgery and is under regular follow-up in the surgical clinic. Biphasic differentiation of pancreatic stem cell during embryological development could happen and may result in combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas. Imaging studies are excellent in diagnosing theses lesions. Surgery has a central role and could be curative.

  9. Combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Alzaraa, Ahmed; Udom, Valeri; Mousa, Husam; Alzein, Abdulhalem; Benhamida, Abduljalil; Dalal, Neha

    2007-01-01

    Background Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas comprise 10%–15% of pancreatic cystic lesions, with the serous cystadenoms being the commonest. The association of exocrine and endocrine tumours of the pancreas unrelated to Von Hipple Lindau disease is very rare. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. We present another case of both these tumours in one patient. Case presentation A female patient was seen in the surgical clinic for a pain in the right groin. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a diagnosis of combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas. She underwent surgery and is under regular follow-up in the surgical clinic. Conclusion Biphasic differentiation of pancreatic stem cell during embryological development could happen and may result in combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas. Imaging studies are excellent in diagnosing theses lesions. Surgery has a central role and could be curative. PMID:17868437

  10. A review of canine pseudocyesis.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C; de la Sota, R L; Goya, R G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches at the end of metaoestrus. PSC is a frequent finding in domestic dogs. Although it is generally admitted that prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in the appearance of PSC, its precise aetiophysiology is not completely understood yet. A number of clinical studies suggest that at some point of metaoestrus circulating PRL levels rise in overtly pseudopregnant bitches. Individual differences in sensitivity to PRL as well as the existence of molecular variants of canine PRL with different bioactivity versus immunoreactivity ratios may help clarify the aetiopathology of PSC. Diagnosis of PSC is based on the presence of typical clinical signs in metaoestrous non-pregnant bitches. Considering that PSC is a self limiting physiological state, mild cases usually need no treatment. Discouraging maternal behaviour and sometimes fitting Elizabethan collars to prevent licking of the mammary glands may suffice in these cases. Sex steroids (oestrogens, progestins and androgens) have been traditionally used to treat PSC but the side-effects usually outweigh the benefits of these medications. Inhibition of PRL release by ergot derivatives [bromocriptine (10-100 microg/kg per day for 10-14 days], cabergoline (5 microg/kg per day during 5-10 days), metergoline (0.2 mg/kg per day during 8-10 days) has proved to be effective for the treatment of canine PSC. Although some of these ergot derivatives present some untoward side-effects, they are transient and can usually be managed. Predisposed bitches not intended for breeding should be spayed as ovariectomy is the only permanent preventive measure.

  11. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  12. Detection and definition of canine intestinal carbohydrases, using a standardized method.

    PubMed

    Noon, K F; Rogul, M; Brendle, J J; Keefe, T J

    1977-07-01

    Intestinal mucosa and pancreas from purebred Beagle dogs were assayed for carbohydrase activity, using several methods of tissue treatment. The enzymes found and studied were alpha-amylase, sucrase, lactase, amyloglucosidase, cellobiase, maltase, and isomaltase. Experiments using polyacrylamide gel columns and heat inactivation showed the presence of an isozyme of maltase which degrades isomaltose. This activity had not been previously demonstrated in dogs. An optimal standard procedure is presented for the preparation and assay of canine digestive enzymes. A statistical analysis of variance of the results showed that the variance was primarily associated with differences among dogs and not by variance within the procedure. When the different extraction procedures were used, results indicated that the level of enzymes detected differed with the method of treatment.

  13. Canine dysautonomia: two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, P M; Scudamore, C L; Ruppert, C E; Mauchline, S; Simpson, J W

    2002-01-01

    Two clinical cases of canine dysautonomia are described. Two young female neutered dogs were presented with clinical signs including vomiting, diarrhoea, faecal tenesmus, dysphagia and urinary retention. Decreased tear production, dry mucous membranes, bilateral Horner's syndrome, decreased anal sphincter tone and gastrointestinal hypomotility were also observed. Presumptive diagnoses of dysautonomia were made based on the clinical presentation and investigations. Postmortem histopathological examination in one of the cases demonstrated marked depletion of neuronal cell bodies in the intestinal myenteric plexuses and parasympathetic ganglia, confirming the diagnosis in this case. Criteria for aiding the antemortem diagnosis of this rare condition based on clinical observations and diagnostic testing are proposed.

  14. Canine Breed-Specific Hepatopathies.

    PubMed

    Watson, Penny

    2017-05-01

    Canine hepatopathies, both congenital and acquired, arise from an interaction between genes and environment. Many show increased breed prevalences. This article reviews the current understanding on breed predispositions for congenital portosystemic shunts; microvascular dysplasia and portal vein hypoplasia; ductal plate abnormalities (congenital hepatic fibrosis and Caroli disease); chronic hepatitis (both copper associated and idiopathic); vacuolar hepatopathies; and gallbladder mucocele. Although all these diseases can occur in many breeds and crossbreeds, understanding breed predispositions helps recognition and will guide future research to improve understanding of causes and treatments. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Automatic segmentation of abdominal vessels for improved pancreas localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Amal; Liu, Jiamin; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate automatic detection and segmentation of abdominal organs from CT images is important for quantitative and qualitative organ tissue analysis as well as computer-aided diagnosis. The large variability of organ locations, the spatial interaction between organs that appear similar in medical scans and orientation and size variations are among the major challenges making the task very difficult. The pancreas poses these challenges in addition to its flexibility which allows for the shape of the tissue to vastly change. Due to the close proximity of the pancreas to numerous surrounding organs within the abdominal cavity the organ shifts according to the conditions of the organs within the abdomen, as such the pancreas is constantly changing. Combining these challenges with typically found patient-to-patient variations and scanning conditions the pancreas becomes harder to localize. In this paper we focus on three abdominal vessels that almost always abut the pancreas tissue and as such useful landmarks to identify the relative location of the pancreas. The splenic and portal veins extend from the hila of the spleen and liver, respectively, travel through the abdominal cavity and join at a position close to the head of the pancreas known as the portal confluence. A third vein, the superior mesenteric vein, anastomoses with the other two veins at the portal confluence. An automatic segmentation framework for obtaining the splenic vein, portal confluence and superior mesenteric vein is proposed using 17 contrast enhanced computed-tomography datasets. The proposed method uses outputs from the multi-organ multi-atlas label fusion and Frangi vesselness filter to obtain automatic seed points for vessel tracking and generation of statistical models of the desired vessels. The approach shows ability to identify the vessels and improve localization of the pancreas within the abdomen.

  16. Endovascular Management of Acute Enteric Bleeding from Pancreas Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2007-04-15

    Arterioenteric fistula is a rare but serious complication of enteric drained pancreas transplant, which may lead to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. We present 3 patients with failed enteric drained pancreas transplants and massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to arterioenteric fistula. One patient was treated by embolization and the 2 others by stent graft placement. Bleeding was successfully controlled in all cases, at follow up of 5 days, 8 months, and 12 months, respectively. One patient died 24 days after embolization, of unknown causes.

  17. Anaplastic Carcinoma Possibly Arising from a Heterotopic Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yasushi; Mita, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hideaki; Akino, Kimishige; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Endo, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic carcinoma is a rare pancreatic cancer, and the malignant transformation of a heterotopic pancreas is also rare. We herein report a case of an elderly woman with a mass of unknown origin in the abdominal cavity. Computed tomography identified the extent of the tumor but not the organ of origin. The abdominal tumor eventually metastasized to the liver and lung. An autopsy and immunohistochemical examination revealed an anaplastic carcinoma possibly originating in an ectopic pancreas.

  18. Ultrasound perfusion signal processing for tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, MinWoo; Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced blood perfusion in a tissue mass is an indication of neo-vascularity and a sign of a potential malignancy. Ultrasonic pulsed-Doppler imaging is a preferred modality for noninvasive monitoring of blood flow. However, the weak blood echoes and disorganized slow flow make it difficult to detect perfusion using standard methods without the expense and risk of contrast enhancement. Our research measures the efficiency of conventional power-Doppler (PD) methods at discriminating flow states by comparing measurement performance to that of an ideal discriminator. ROC analysis applied to the experimental results shows that power Doppler methods are just 30-50 % efficient at perfusion flows less than 1ml/min, suggesting an opportunity to improve perfusion assessment through signal processing. A new perfusion estimator is proposed by extending the statistical discriminator approach. We show that 2-D perfusion color imaging may be enhanced using this approach.

  19. SOLID PSEUDOPAPILLARY NEOPLASM OF THE PANCREAS.

    PubMed

    Carlotto, Jorge Roberto Marcante; Torrez, Franz Robert Apodaca; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara; Linhares, Marcelo Moura; Triviño, Tarcisio; Herani-Filho, Benedito; Goldenberg, Alberto; Lopes-Filho, Gaspar de Jesus; Lobo, Edson José

    2016-01-01

    The solid pseudopapillary neoplasm is a rare tumor of the pancreas. However, it´s etiology still maintain discussions. To analyze it´s clinical data, diagnosis and treatment. A retrospective study of medical records of all patients treated from January 1997 until July 2015. Were identified 17 cases. Most patients were women (94.11%) and the average age was 32.88 years. The main complaint was abdominal mass (47.05%). The most frequent location was in the body/tail of the pancreas (72.22%) and the most frequently performed surgery was distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (64.70%). No patient had metastases at diagnosis. Conservative surgery for pancreatic parenchyma was performed in only three cases. The rate of complications in the postoperative period was 35.29% and the main complication was pancreatic fistula (29.41%). No patient underwent adjuvant treatment. The treatment is surgical and the most common clinical presentation is abdominal mass. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was the most frequently performed surgery for its treatment. A neoplasia sólida pseudopapilar é tumor raro de pâncreas de tratamento cirúrgico. No entanto, sua causa ainda gera discussões. Analisar os dados clínicos, do diagnóstico e do tratamento da dessa neoplasia. Estudo retrospectivo com dados médicos de pacientes tratados entre janeiro de 1997 a julho de 2015. Foram identificados 17 casos. A maioria era de mulheres (94,11%) e a média de idade foi de 32,88 anos. A principal queixa era massa abdominal (47,05%). A localização mais frequente era no corpo/cauda do pâncreas (72,22%) e a operação mais realizada foi a pancreatectomia corpocaudal com esplenectomia (64,70%). Nenhum caso apresentou metástase no momento do diagnóstico. Operação conservadora de parênquima pancreático foi realizada em apenas três casos. A taxa de complicações no pós-operatório foi de 35,29% e a principal complicação foi fístula pancreática (29,41%). Nenhum paciente realizou

  20. Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Redfield, Robert R.; Scalea, Joseph R.; Odorico, Jon S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Important trends are being observed in pancreas transplantation in the USA. We will describe recent trends in simultaneous pancreas kidney (SPK) transplantation related to immunosuppression, treatment of rejection, and transplantation for patients of advanced age and C-peptide positive diabetes. Recent findings Rates of pancreas transplantation have declined, despite improved pancreatic graft outcomes. Regarding immunosuppression, trends in SPK transplantation include T-cell depletion induction therapy, waning mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor use and steroid use in greater than 50% of pancreas transplant recipients with few patients undergoing late steroid weaning. Rejection of the pancreas may be discordant with the kidney after SPK and there is a greater appreciation of antibody-mediated rejection of the pancreas allograft. De-novo donor-specific antibody without graft dysfunction remains an active area of study, and the treatment for this condition is unclear. SPKs are being performed with greater frequency in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and in patients of advanced age, with exemplary results. Summary The current state of the art in SPK transplantation is yielding superb and improving results. PMID:25565444

  1. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: preoperative diagnosis and molecular alterations.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yujiro; Kanehiro, Tetsuya; Uemura, Kenichiro; Sasaki, Masaru; Morifuji, Masahiko; Sueda, Taijiro

    2003-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor which has a less favorable prognosis than common ductal cell carcinoma of the pancreas, and a definite preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is quite difficult. We herein report two cases of this rare variant. The patients were a 41-year-old man (patient 1) and a 67-year-old woman (patient 2). Patient 1 had a hypoechoic mass measuring 3 cm in the uncus of the pancreas, while patient 2 had a huge mass, measuring 8 cm, in the tail of the pancreas. Patient 2 was successfully diagnosed preoperatively as having an adenosquamous carcinoma, by cytological examination of the pure pancreatic juice obtained by endoscopic retrograde pancreatic juice aspiration. A pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed for patient 1, and a distal pancreatectomy with resection of the spleen and the left kidney was performed for patient 2. Subsequent pathological findings of these two tumors revealed adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas. K- ras point mutation, p53 overexpression, and telomerase activity in both tumor specimens were detected by the mutant allele specific amplification method, immunohistochemical staining, and telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, respectively. The two patients died of recurrent disease 5 and 4 months, respectively, after surgery. Cytological examination of pure pancreatic juice is a useful modality for the preoperative diagnosis of this tumor, and frequent molecular alterations may be associated with the poor prognosis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas.

  2. Has the gap between pancreas and islet transplantation closed?

    PubMed

    Niclauss, Nadja; Morel, Philippe; Berney, Thierry

    2014-09-27

    Both pancreas and islet transplantations are therapeutic options for complicated type 1 diabetes. Until recent years, outcomes of islet transplantation have been significantly inferior to those of whole pancreas. Islet transplantation is primarily performed alone in patients with severe hypoglycemia, and recent registry reports have suggested that results of islet transplantation alone in this indication may be about to match those of pancreas transplant alone in insulin independence. Figures of 50% insulin independence at 5 years for either procedure have been cited. In this article, we address the question whether islet transplantation has indeed bridged the gap with whole pancreas. Looking at the evidence to answer this question, we propose that although pancreas may still be more efficient in taking recipients off insulin than islets, there are in fact numerous "gaps" separating both procedures that must be taken into the equation. These "gaps" relate to organ utilization, organ allocation, indication for transplantation, and morbidity. In-depth analysis reveals that islet transplantation, in fact, has an edge on whole pancreas in some of these aspects. Accordingly, attempts should be made to bridge these gaps from both sides to achieve the same level of success with either procedure. More realistically, it is likely that some of these gaps will remain and that both procedures will coexist and complement each other, to ensure that β cell replacement can be successfully implemented in the greatest possible number of patients with type 1 diabetes.

  3. Enhancement of canine coronary collateral flow by nafazatrom.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, V B; Mardin, M

    1986-11-04

    The ability of oral nafazatrom treatment (10 mg/kg) 2 h preceding occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 h to limit expansion of myocardial injury was studied in anaesthetized canine hearts. Collateral blood flow was obtained with a load line analysis, employing aortic pressure, post-stenotic coronary pressure, and retrograde coronary flow from the occluded vessel. Contractile changes in the subendocardial ischemic perfused muscles were measured with ultrasonic techniques. Infarct size was determined post-mortem by a biochemical staining method and excision of necrosis. Post-stenotic coronary pressure was slightly below aortic pressure in both groups before coronary occlusion, and fell to 29 and 27% of aortic pressure in vehicle- and drug-treated hearts, respectively, after the insult. Retrograde flow was 2.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.7 ml/min in tylose- or nafazatrom-treated hearts. Collateral flow amounted to 1.5 +/- 0.06 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.04 ml/min in controls and drug-protected hearts. Contractility (dP/dtmax) and the %-segment shortening were greater in the ischaemic myocardium after nafazatrom treatment. Infarct size was 38 +/- 5.2 vs. 17 +/- 3.4 g/100 g left ventricle in the vehicle controls and nafazatrom group, respectively. Nafazatrom reduced infarct size by 46%. Besides other mechanisms, this was due to improved %-segment shortening and increased periinfarction collateral blood supply to jeopardized but viable myocardium. The drug may be of value in ischaemic heart disease as shown by the enhanced regional myocardial perfusion and improved contractility.

  4. Influence of different methods of collection from the canine epididymides on post-thaw caudal epididymal sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    HORI, Tatsuya; ATAGO, Tetsuya; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Canine epididymal sperm was collected from the cauda epididymis using 2 different methods (flushing and mincing) to compare the qualities (the percentage of progressively motile, viable, morphologically abnormal, immature and intact acrosomes) before and after freezing and thawing. No significant difference was noted in the quality of the cauda epididymal sperm immediately after collection and after freezing-thawing between the collection methods, although the mean levels of sperm quality with the flushing method were slightly better than that of the mincing method. The flushing method is simple and free of blood contamination, although the vas deferens was too small to be perfused in only 1 dog, and our results suggest that the flushing method is preferable to the mincing method for collecting sperm from the canine cauda epididymis. PMID:25649723

  5. A historical perspective on the discovery of the accessory duct of the pancreas, the ampulla 'of Vater' and pancreas divisum.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, C D

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of the accessory duct of the pancreas is usually ascribed to Giovanni Domenico Santorini (1681-1737), after whom this structure is named. The papilla duodeni (ampulla 'of Vater', or papilla 'of Santorini') is named after Abraham Vater (1684-1751) or after GD Santorini. Pancreas divisum, a persistence through non-fusion of the embryonic dorsal and ventral pancreas is a relatively common clinical condition, the discovery of which is usually ascribed to Joseph Hyrtl (1810-1894). In this review I report that pancreas divisum, the accessory duct and the papilla duodeni (ampulla 'of Vater') had all been observed and the observations published during the 17th century by at least seven anatomists before Santorini, Vater, and Hyrtl. I further suggest, in the light of frequent anatomical misattributions in common usage, that anatomical structures be referred to only by their proper anatomical names. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3512385

  6. Aging in the Canine Kidney.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, R E; Benali, S L; Aresu, L

    2016-03-01

    Given the irreversible nature of nephron loss, aging of the kidney is of special interest to diagnostic and toxicologic pathologists. There are many similarities among histologic lesions in aged human and canine kidneys, including increased frequency of glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy. Unfortunately, there are few studies in which renal tissue from aged healthy dogs was adequately examined with advanced diagnostics-namely, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence-so age-associated changes in canine podocytes and glomerular basement membranes are poorly characterized. An age-associated decrease in the glomerular filtration rate in humans and dogs (specifically small breed dogs) has been documented. Although lesions in aged rats and mice differ somewhat from those of aged dogs and humans, the knowledge gained from rodent models is still vital to elucidating the pathogenesis of age-associated renal disease. Many novel molecules implicated in renal aging have been identified through genetically modified rodent models and transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of human kidneys. These molecules represent intriguing therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers. Likewise, influencing critical pathways of cellular aging, such as telomere shortening, cellular senescence, and autophagy, could improve renal function in the elderly. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Ibuprofen in canine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, E R; Soulsby, M E; Bone, R C; Wilson, F J; Hiller, F C

    1982-01-01

    The participation of prostaglandins in the physiologic alterations of endotoxin shock has been well established with the aid of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. Our study was designed to investigate the potential of ibuprofen, a highly specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor, to reverse the hemodynamic and acid base abnormalities of canine endotoxin shock. Mean blood pressure fell to 49.8 +/- 6.6 mm Hg in dogs given endotoxin by 5 min after injection, and remained below 83 mm Hg for the duration of the 120-min observation period. In animals given endotoxin followed by ibuprofen, a similar initial drop of systemic blood pressure was seen, but it subsequently recovered to 150.2 +/- 4.1 mm Hg by 120 min (P less than 0.001). Cardiac index increased in animals given ibuprofen (2.3 +/- 0.28 liter/m2 per min) compared with animals given endotoxin alone (1.0 +/- 0.09 liter/m2 per min) by termination of the experiment. The arterial pH dropped in endotoxin treated animals to 7.18 +/- 0.03 by 120 min. Ibuprofen prevented the acidosis, the final pH in ibuprofen and endotoxin treated animals measuring 7.36 +/- 0.01. We conclude that ibuprofen protects against the hypotension, acidosis, and depression of cardiac index of canine endotoxin shock. PMID:7107893

  8. Identification of a Canine Adenovirus (Infectious Canine Hepatitis Virus) Inhibitor in Dog Liver Extracts as Arginase

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    Extracts of canine liver inhibited growth of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) virus, a canine adenovirus. Purified extracts from mammalian, but not avian, liver tissue contained the inhibitor, and evidence is presented that the inhibitory factor is the enzyme arginase (arginine ureohydrolase). This study further emphasized the need for arginine in adenovirus growth and may explain some of the difficulties in isolating small amounts of ICH virus from suspensions of liver. Images PMID:4344396

  9. [Pancreas and biliary tract: recent developments].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease that is associated with significant morbidity and considerable mortality. In this article, developments relating to this disease that were presented in DDW 2014 are reviewed. Pancreatic steatosis could be a cause of recurrent AP. Patients with DM have an increased incidence of AP and pancreatic cancer. The use of anti-TNF drugs in inflammatory bowel disease may protect against the occurrence of AP. The presence of pancreas divisum protects against acute biliary pancreatitis. The PANCODE system for describing local complications of AP has good interobserver agreement, when the new definitions of the revised Atlanta classification are applied. The use of prophylactic antibiotics in early-stage AP predisposes the development of intra-abdominal fungal infections. Fluid sequestration in AP is linked with young age, alcoholism and indicators of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The most common cause of mortality in AP is early onset of multiple organ failure, not pancreatic necrosis infection. Patients with AP and vitamin D deficiency could benefit from taking vitamin D supplements. Moderate fluid administration in emergencies (500-1000 mL) could be associated with better AP development.

  10. Regeneration of the Pancreas in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer B.; Koustubhan, Punita; Greenman, Melanie; Parsons, Michael J.; Walter, Ingrid; Moss, Larry G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Regenerating organs in diverse biological systems have provided clues to processes that can be harnessed to repair damaged tissue. Adult mammalian β-cells have a limited capacity to regenerate, resulting in diabetes and lifelong reliance on insulin. Zebrafish have been used as a model for the regeneration of many organs. We demonstrate the regeneration of adult zebrafish pancreatic β-cells. This nonmammalian model can be used to define pathways for islet-cell regeneration in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adult transgenic zebrafish were injected with a single high dose of streptozotocin or metronidazole and anesthetized at 3, 7, or 14 days or pancreatectomized. Blood glucose measurements were determined and gut sections were analyzed using specific endocrine, exocrine, and duct cell markers as well as markers for dividing cells. RESULTS Zebrafish recovered rapidly without the need for insulin injections, and normoglycemia was attained within 2 weeks. Although few proliferating cells were present in vehicles, ablation caused islet destruction and a striking increase of proliferating cells, some of which were Pdx1 positive. Dividing cells were primarily associated with affected islets and ducts but, with the exception of surgical partial pancreatectomy, were not extensively β-cells. CONCLUSIONS The ability of the zebrafish to regenerate a functional pancreas using chemical, genetic, and surgical approaches enabled us to identify patterns of cell proliferation in islets and ducts. Further study of the origin and contribution of proliferating cells in reestablishing islet function could provide strategies for treating human diseases. PMID:19491207

  11. Stromal reengineering to treat pancreas cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stromnes, Ingunn M.; DelGiorno, Kathleen E.; Greenberg, Philip D.; Hingorani, Sunil R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma co-opts multiple cellular and extracellular mechanisms to create a complex cancer organ with an unusual proclivity for metastasis and resistance to therapy. Cell-autonomous events are essential for the initiation and maintenance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but recent studies have implicated critical non-cell autonomous processes within the robust desmoplastic stroma that promote disease pathogenesis and resistance. Thus, non-malignant cells and associated factors are culprits in tumor growth, immunosuppression and invasion. However, even this increasing awareness of non-cell autonomous contributions to disease progression is tempered by the conflicting roles stromal elements can play. A greater understanding of stromal complexity and complicity has been aided in part by studies in highly faithful genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Insights gleaned from such studies are spurring the development of therapies designed to reengineer the pancreas cancer stroma and render it permissive to agents targeting cell-autonomous events or to reinstate immunosurveillance. Integrating conventional and immunological treatments in the context of stromal targeting may provide the key to a durable clinical impact on this formidable disease. PMID:24908682

  12. High precision innovative micropump for artificial pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappel, E.; Mefti, S.; Lettieri, G.-L.; Proennecke, S.; Conan, C.

    2014-03-01

    The concept of artificial pancreas, which comprises an insulin pump, a continuous glucose meter and a control algorithm, is a major step forward in managing patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The stability of the control algorithm is based on short-term precision micropump to deliver rapid-acting insulin and to specific integrated sensors able to monitor any failure leading to a loss of accuracy. Debiotech's MEMS micropump, based on the membrane pump principle, is made of a stack of 3 silicon wafers. The pumping chamber comprises a pillar check-valve at the inlet, a pumping membrane which is actuated against stop limiters by a piezo cantilever, an anti-free-flow outlet valve and a pressure sensor. The micropump inlet is tightly connected to the insulin reservoir while the outlet is in direct communication with the patient skin via a cannula. To meet the requirement of a pump dedicated to closed-loop application for diabetes care, in addition to the well-controlled displacement of the pumping membrane, the high precision of the micropump is based on specific actuation profiles that balance effect of pump elasticity in low-consumption push-pull mode.

  13. Transepithelial bicarbonate secretion: lessons from the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Woo; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-10-01

    Many cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-expressing epithelia secrete bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-))-containing fluids. Recent evidence suggests that defects in epithelial bicarbonate secretion are directly involved in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis, in particular by building up hyperviscous mucus in the ductal structures of the lung and pancreas. Pancreatic juice is one of the representative fluids that contain a very high concentration of bicarbonate among bodily fluids that are secreted from CFTR-expressing epithelia. We introduce up-to-date knowledge on the basic principles of transepithelial bicarbonate transport by showing the mechanisms involved in pancreatic bicarbonate secretion. The model of pancreatic bicarbonate secretion described herein may also apply to other exocrine epithelia. As a central regulator of bicarbonate transport at the apical membrane, CFTR plays an essential role in both direct and indirect bicarbonate secretion. The major role of CFTR in bicarbonate secretion would be variable depending on the tissue and cell type. For example, in epithelial cells that produce a low concentration of bicarbonate-containing fluid (up to 80 mm), either CFTR-dependent Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange or CFTR anion channel with low bicarbonate permeability would be sufficient to generate such fluid. However, in cells that secrete high-bicarbonate-containing fluids, a highly selective CFTR bicarbonate channel activity is required. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanism of transepithelial bicarbonate transport and the role of CFTR in each specific epithelium will provide therapeutic strategies to recover from epithelial defects induced by hyposecretion of bicarbonate in cystic fibrosis.

  14. Epidemiology of pancreas cancer in Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, T.M.; Paganini-Hill, A.

    1981-03-15

    The characteristics of the 3614 Los Angeles County residents in whom cancer of the exocrine pancreas was diagnosed during the period 1972-1977 were compared with those of all county residents and patients in whom any cancer was diagnosed during the same period. Seventy-nine percent of the diagnoses had been pathologically verified. This disease still preferentially afflicts the old, the black, and men, although the differences in risk with factors other than age are modest. The disease is not evenly distributed by social class, or over time, although it is not clear that the observed differences reflect etiology. The distributions with respect to important categories of occupation and industry, religion, marital status, geography of residence, and birthplace were rather uniform. Although there is no obvious explanation for any of several unexpected minor inequities in the pattern of incidence, there is no compelling evidence to support any specific environmental cause. There is substantial evidence which is inconsistent with those environmental hypotheses that have been proposed previously.

  15. Canine size, shape, and bending strength in primates and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ruff, Christopher B

    2008-05-01

    Anthropoid primates are well known for their highly sexually dimorphic canine teeth, with males possessing canines that are up to 400% taller than those of females. Primate canine dimorphism has been extensively documented, with a consensus that large male primate canines serve as weapons for intrasexual competition, and some evidence that large female canines in some species may likewise function as weapons. However, apart from speculation that very tall male canines may be relatively weak and that seed predators have strong canines, the functional significance of primate canine shape has not been explored. Because carnivore canine shape and size are associated with killing style, this group provides a useful comparative baseline for primates. We evaluate primate maxillary canine tooth size, shape and relative bending strength against body size, skull size, and behavioral and demographic measures of male competition and sexual selection, and compare them to those of carnivores. We demonstrate that, relative to skull length and body mass, primate male canines are on average as large as or larger than those of similar sized carnivores. The range of primate female canine sizes embraces that of carnivores. Male and female primate canines are generally as strong as or stronger than those of carnivores. Although we find that seed-eating primates have relatively strong canines, we find no clear relationship between male primate canine strength and demographic or behavioral estimates of male competition or sexual selection, in spite of a strong relationship between these measures and canine crown height. This suggests either that most primate canines are selected to be very strong regardless of variation in behavior, or that primate canine shape is inherently strong enough to accommodate changes in crown height without compromising canine function.

  16. Successful Combined Pancreas Fourth-Kidney Third and Pancreas Third-Kidney Second Transplantation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bösmüller, Claudia; Maglione, Manuel; Margreiter, Christian; Dziodzio, Tomasz; Biebl, Matthias; Pratschke, Johann; Öllinger, Robert; Öfner, Dietmar; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely few reports have been published on experience with multiple combined pancreas-kidney re-transplantation including long-term results. We here analyze our experience with two patients following successful combined pancreas fourth-kidney third and pancreas third-kidney second transplantation. Methods Patient and graft survival as well as graft function and major complications were recorded. Patient 1 (women, 47 years) underwent combined pancreas fourth-kidney third transplantation after previous removal of the first and second renal and the second pancreatic grafts. Patient 2 (men, 51 years) underwent combined pancreas third-kidney second transplantation after nephrectomy of the first renal graft. Immunosuppression consisted of induction with alemtuzumab and maintenance with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid and steroids. Results After a follow-up of 44 and 49 months, respectively, both patients are doing well with stable graft function. Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, bacterial sepsis, and chronic hepatitis C as major complications were controllable. Conclusions Multiple pancreas-retransplantations combined with simultaneous renal transplantation are feasible. Meticulous immunosuppression, careful monitoring, and excellent patient adherence are of crucial importance. PMID:27500224

  17. Evidence for canine rehabilitation and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Millis, Darryl L; Ciuperca, Ionut Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews some important studies regarding canine physical rehabilitation. Bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, and tendons undergo atrophy if loading is decreased. Knowledge of the changes that occur with immobilization and the time course of events helps in the development of a rehabilitation program to improve tissue integrity. Outcome assessment instruments are clinically useful indicators of patient progress and the success of rehabilitation programs. A number of physical modalities are used in canine rehabilitation, although there are relatively few canine-specific studies. Rehabilitation has specific benefits in the treatment of various orthopedic and neurologic conditions.

  18. Magnetic resonance image-guided photodynamic therapy of xenograft pancreas tumors with verteporfin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Rizvi, Imran; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer generally has very poor prognosis, with less than 4% survival at 5 years after diagnosis. This dismal survival rate is in part due to the aggressive nature of the adenocarcinoma, leading to a late-stage at diagnosis and exhibits resistance to most therapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a model cellular and vascular therapy agent, which uses light activation of the delivered drug to photosensitize the local cellular millieu. We suggest that interstitial verteporfin (benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A) PDT has the potential to be an adjuvant therapy to the commonly used Gemcitabine chemotherapy. In the current study, an orthotopic pancreatic cancer model (Panc-1) has undergone interstitial verteporfin PDT (40 J/cm with verteporfin and 40 J/cm without verteporfin). Prior to PDT, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to determine the location and size of the tumor within the pancreas, allowing accurate placement of the diffusing fiber. The success of therapy was monitored in vivo by assessing the total tumor and vascular perfusion volumes 24 hours pre- and 48 hours post-PDT. Total tumor and vascular perfusion volumes were determined using T2 weighted (T2W) and Gd-DTPA difference T1 weighted (T1W) turbo spin echo (TSE) MR imaging sequences, respectively. The validity of the in vivo imaging for therapeutic response was confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence and histological staining of frozen tissue sections. The ex vivo DiOC7(3) fluorescence analysis correlates well with the information provided from the MR images, indicating that MR imaging will be a successful surrogate marker for interstitial PDT.

  19. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with quantitative perfusion analysis for objective characterization of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Mirko; Canestrini, Stefano; Crosara, Stefano; De Robertis, Riccardo; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-03-28

    The aim of this study was to determine whether contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) quantitative perfusion analysis allows an objective characterization of ductal adenocarcinoma (ADK) of the pancreas. Patients with pancreatic ADK underwent CEUS. All examinations were performed on an Acuson S2000 system (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) after the iv administration of 2.4 mL contrast agent (SonoVue(®), Bracco, Milan, Italy). All lesions were pathologically proved. An operator manually drew different regions of interest within the tumor and the adjacent parenchyma to allow the quantitative perfusion analysis. The mean values of peak of enhancement, time to peak and ascending curve were calculated and compared using the Student's t test. The quantitative perfusion analysis was possible in all lesions. The mean values of the peak of enhancement, time to peak and ascending curve were 17.19%, 7.97 s and 159.52% s within the tumor and 33.57%, 8.89 s and 355.29% s within the adjacent parenchyma. The peak of enhancement and the ascending curve values were significantly different within the tumor and the adjacent parenchyma. Thus, CEUS allows the quantitative perfusion analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  20. Clinicopathological study of canine transmissible venereal tumour in leishmaniotic dogs.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Gaglio, G; Zanghì, A

    2012-06-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour is occasionally observed in leishmaniotic dogs, and Leishmania amastigotes can be harboured in canine transmissible venereal tumour cells. The aim of this paper was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of the association of both diseases. Nineteen dogs affected by canine transmissible venereal tumour and canine leishmaniasis were studied retrospectively. In these dogs, the tumour manifested a large size and often aggressive behaviour (42%) and no predictive sign of spontaneous regression was observed. Sporadic Leishmania amastigotes were found within the canine transmissible venereal tumour in three cases, probably transported by infected macrophages often infiltrating the tumour. A high Leishmania parasitisation of canine transmissible venereal tumour was observed in two other cases and verified by immunohistochemistry. Canine transmissible venereal tumour is a tumour of the dog able to harbour a large number of Leishmania parasites. Alternatively, the systemic disease (canine leishmaniasis) may lower the immune defence against malignancy (canine transmissible venereal tumour). © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Canine distemper virus infection of canine footpad epidermis.

    PubMed

    Gröne, Andrea; Doherr, Marcus G; Zurbriggen, Andreas

    2004-06-01

    Infection of the footpad epidermis can occur in natural canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of dogs. Footpads from 19 dogs experimentally inoculated with virulent distemper strain A75/17 and from two nonexposed dogs were examined histopathologically and assessed for the presence of viral antigen and nucleoprotein mRNA, as well as number of inflammatory and apoptotic cells. Dogs were divided into four groups based on inoculation status and postmortem examination: inoculated dogs with severe distemper (group 1, n = 7); inoculated dogs with mild distemper (group 2, n = 4); inoculated dogs without distemper (group 3, n = 8); and noninoculated dogs (group 4, n = 2). Footpads from dogs of all groups had a comparably thick epidermis. Eosinophilic viral inclusions and syncytial cells were present in footpad epidermis of one dog of group 1. Footpads of group 1 dogs contained viral antigen and mRNA in the epidermis with strongest staining in a subcorneal location. Additionally, in these dogs footpad dermal structures including eccrine glands and vascular walls were positive for virus particles. No CDV antigen or mRNA was present in the footpad epidermis and dermis of any other dog. Group 1 dogs had more CD3-positive cells and apoptotic cells within the basal layer of the epidermis when compared to the other groups. These findings demonstrate that in experimental infection CDV antigen and mRNA were colocalized in all layers of the infected canine footpad epidermis. The scarcity of overt pathological reactions with absence of keratinocyte degeneration indicates a noncytocidal persisting infection of footpad keratinocytes by CDV.

  2. Estimating canine tooth crown height in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V; Paulus, Faydre L

    2009-07-01

    Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism in this species may have been greater than in other hominins. We evaluate canine root and crown dimensions in a series of extant hominoids, and estimate canine crown height in Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate estimates of canine crown height from basal canine crown and root dimensions with a moderate degree of accuracy. Estimates of maxillary canine crown size for A. anamensis are slightly larger than those of A. afarensis, and are approximately the same size as canines of modern female chimpanzees. Estimated mandibular canine crown height is very similar in the two species. Variation within the A. anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis.

  3. Comparative functional characterization of canine IgG subclasses.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Lisa M; McCandless, Erin E; Dunham, Steve; Dunkle, Bill; Zhu, Yaqi; Shelly, John; Lightle, Sandra; Gonzales, Andrea; Bainbridge, Graeme

    2014-01-15

    To date, very little is known about the functional characteristics of the four published canine IgG subclasses. It is not clear how each subclass engages the immune system via complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), or how long each antibody may last in serum. Such information is critical for understanding canine immunology and for the discovery of canine therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Through both in vitro and ex vivo experiments to evaluate canine Fc's for effector function, complement binding, FcRn binding, and ADCC, we are now able to categorize canine subclasses by function. The subclasses share functional properties with the four human IgG subclasses and are reported herein with their function-based human analog. Canine Fc fusions, canine chimeras, and caninized antibodies were characterized. Canine subclasses A and D appear effector-function negative while subclasses B and C bind canine Fc gamma receptors and are positive for ADCC. All canine subclasses bind the neonatal Fc receptor except subclass C. By understanding canine IgGs in this way, we can apply what is known of human immunology toward translational and veterinary medicine. Thus, this body of work lays the foundation for evaluating canine IgG subclasses for therapeutic antibody development and builds upon the fundamental scholarship of canine immunology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-01-01

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported

  5. Pancreas Transplantation—Registry Report and a Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, David E. R.; Kendall, David M.

    1985-01-01

    From December 1966 through December 1984, there were 561 pancreas transplants reported to the American College of Surgeons/National Institutes of Health Organ Transplant Registry, including 60 from 1966 through June 1977, 206 from July 1977 through December 1982 and 295 from January 1983 through December 1984. One-year graft function-survival rates (insulin-independent) in each of the three periods were 3%, 20% and 40%, and the corresponding patient survival rates were 40%, 72% and 77%. Currently 140 patients have functioning grafts, 76 for more than one year. Of the transplants since July 1977, one-year graft survival rates according to technique are 41% for enteric drainage (N = 155), 30% for polymer injection (N = 260) and 29% for urinary drainage (N = 47). Pancreas graft survival rates at one year according to whether or not the recipients have had a kidney transplant were 35% for recipients of simultaneous grafts (N = 281), 28% in recipients of a pancreas after a kidney (N = 112) and 26% in recipients of a pancreas only who did not have uremia (N = 106); corresponding patient survival rates were 69%, 83% and 83%. Overall, one-year pancreas graft survival rates according to whether the patients did or did not have end-stage diabetic nephropathy were 33% versus 25% and the corresponding patient survival rates were 73% versus 84% (P < .01). Patient survival rates were significantly higher in those without than in those with end-stage diabetic nephropathy. An analysis of technically successful grafts according to principal immunosuppressant showed one-year function rates of 46% in 258 cyclosporine-treated recipients and 26% in 143 azathioprine-treated recipients. Pancreas graft survival rates have progressively improved and the procedure has become safer with advances in surgical technique and immunosuppression. Pancreas transplantation is currently applicable to patients with diabetes mellitus whose complications are, or predictably will be, more serious than the

  6. Intrapancreatic Splenule in a Pancreas Allograft: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yadav, K; Serrano, O K; Kandaswamy, R

    2016-11-01

    A 16-year-old white man was involved in a motor vehicle collision and suffered head, chest, and abdominal trauma. Despite initial resuscitative efforts, he progressed to brain death and was designated to be an organ donor by his family. He had no earlier medical or surgical history and no high-risk behaviors. Blood work revealed normal creatinine, liver function tests, lipase, and amylase. Viral serologies were negative except for cytomegalovirus IgG and Epstein-Barr virus nucleic acid. Imaging revealed a right kidney contusion, a manubrial fracture, and fractures of right first rib and bilateral scapulae. No other abdominal trauma was identified, specifically to the pancreas, duodenum, or spleen. Our transplant center accepted the pancreas from this donor. During back-table inspection of the pancreas, a 1.5 × 1.5 cm dark purple rubbery mass was identified within the parenchyma of the pancreas in the tail. An incisional biopsy of the lesion was sent for frozen section, which yielded a mixed inflammatory infiltrate consisting of neutrophils and lymphocytes and an overlying fibrous capsule. The diagnosis of lymphoma or another neoplasm could not be definitely ruled out. Owing to uncertainty in diagnosis, the entire lesion was excised along with the distal pancreas with the use of a linear stapler. The staple line was oversewn with running 4-0 polypropylene suture, and the pancreas was transplanted. After surgery, the pancreas allograft functioned well with a small pancreatic leak, which had resolved by the first postoperative outpatient visit. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Radiofrequency ablation of the pancreas. I: Definition of optimal thermal kinetic parameters and the effect of simulated portal venous circulation in an ex-vivo porcine model.

    PubMed

    Date, Ravindra S; McMahon, Ray F; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2005-11-10

    Radiofrequency ablation of pancreatic tumours carries a risk of injury to important structures such as the bile duct and duodenum. We have recently developed an ex-vivo model of radiofrequency ablation of the porcine pancreas. This study evaluates the effect of variations in probe temperature, duration of ablation and simulated portal venous flow on radiofrequency-induced injury. SPECIMEN RETRIEVAL: Pancreata of 30 6-month-old healthy pigs undergoing sacrifice in a commercial abattoir were used. Radiofrequency energy was applied to a pre-marked area of the pancreatic head. Pancreatic head biopsies were taken after ablation to incorporate duodenum, portal vein and bile duct respectively and frozen in liquid nitrogen. For each experiment a portion of the tail of the pancreas was studied as non-ablated control. Paired slides using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) stains were prepared. The effects of variation in target temperature (100 degrees C to 80 degrees C), duration of ablation and of simulated portal perfusion were studied. Optimal thermal kinetic characteristics were produced by a target temperature of 90 degrees C applied for 5 minutes. At this temperature there was ablation of pancreas without injury to adjacent viscera. Higher temperatures resulted in injury to the bile duct and portal vein. Simulated portal circulation had no effect on ablation. In this ex-vivo study radiofrequency produced a temperature and duration dependent ablation with the optimal characteristics being 90 degrees C for 5 minutes.

  8. Fiber optical measurements of electrical activity in canine ventricular preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Amgad; Luther, Gisa E.; Enyeart, Michael; Gilmour, Robert F.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Luther, Stefan

    2006-03-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a cardiac arrhythmia that kills over 300,000 people every year in the US alone, yet efforts at finding a cure have been stymied by our incomplete information about patterns of electrical activity in the whole heart. As an excitable medium, the heart is a pattern forming system; but only a very limited subset of patterns is compatible with life. In particular, spiral waves have been associated with both tachycardia and VF, but their origin and spatial and temporal dynamics is not fully understood. We propose a novel measurement technique that combines optical mapping of the epicardial surface with data from intramural fiber optical probe arrays. The data obtained from the fiber optical probes is sparse in space but dense in time. The data processing is based on sequential data assimilation using an ensemble Kalman filter. The ensemble Kalman filter provides a numerically efficient (sub-) optimum state space estimate based on the available spatial and temporal observations. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated with numerical data and arterially perfused canine heart preparations.

  9. Villous motility and unstirred water layers in canine intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Mailman, D.; Womack, W.A.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N. )

    1990-02-01

    The possibility that villous motility reduces the mucosal unstirred water layer by mechanical stirring was examined. The frequency of contraction of villi was measured by using videomicroscopic techniques while a segment of anesthetized canine jejunum or ileum with its nerve and blood supply intact was maintained in a sealed chamber through which Tyrode solution was perfused. Radioisotopically labeled inulin, H{sub 2}O, and butyric and lauric acid were used to measure net and/or unidirectional fluxes from the chamber. The unidirectional absorptive transport of H{sub 2}O and butyric acid but not lauric acid by jejunal segments was significantly correlated with flow through the chamber. Plasma volume expansion increased villous motility but decreased the absorption of H{sub 2}O and lauric acid. Absorption of butyric acid from the ileum was little different than from the jejunum although the degree of villous motility was less and net water absorption was greater from the ileum. Absorption of butyric acid into dead tissue indicated that passive diffusion into the tissue accounted for between 7 and 25%, depending on flow rate, of the absorption in intact tissue and that nonspecific binding was low. It was concluded that villous motility did not stir the unstirred water layers and was not directly associated with altered transport.

  10. Effect of Dirofilaria immitis on canine cardiopulmonary physiology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of canine heartworm disease (CHD) were studied using in vitro and in vivo preparation to gain insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the characteristics lesions. The in vitro studies examined the contractile responses of pulmonary artery strips, bronchial spirals and lung parenchymal strips from normal and CHD dogs. Carbamylcholine failed to contract arteries and bronchial and parenchymal responses were the same for both groups. Decreased arterial responsiveness to histamine in both magnitude and number of strips responding was seen in the CHD group, suggesting tachyphylaxis of the histamine receptors. Enhanced responses were seen i the CHD pulmonary artery strips with norepinephrine and in the lung parenchymal strips with histamine. Hypoxia caused increased pulmonary perfusion pressures in the anesthetized dogs. Only heart rate changes and percent change in cardiac index differed. Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors of the lung parenchyma were studied by radioligand binding using (H{sup 3}) prazosin. Low amount of specific binding necessitated the use of a single high concentration of ligand to determine receptor density. No differences in binding were seen.

  11. Mapping the literature of perfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, E F

    1999-01-01

    Perfusionists select and operate the equipment necessary for monitoring, supporting, or temporarily replacing the patient's circulatory or respiratory function. There are over 3,000 perfusionists working in U.S. hospitals, medical and perfusionist groups, and as independent contractors. The purpose of this study was to identify the core literature of perfusion and to determine which major databases provide the most thorough access to this literature. This paper is part of the Medical Library Association Nursing and Allied Health Resource Section's project to map the literature of the allied health professions. It uses a bibliometric methodology to identify core journals. A group of forty-three journals was determined to make up the core journal literature of perfusion. MEDLINE provided the best overall indexing coverage for these journals, but librarians and perfusionists will wish to supplement its use with the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature in order to access the journals written primarily for perfusionists. The study results can guide purchasing and database searching decisions of collection development and reference librarians, encourage the database producer to increase coverage of titles that are unindexed or underindexed, and advise perfusionists of the best access to their core literature. PMID:10427432

  12. Noise characteristics of CT perfusion imaging: how does noise propagate from source images to final perfusion maps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral CT perfusion (CTP) imaging is playing an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic strokes. Meanwhile, the reliability of CTP-based ischemic lesion detection has been challenged due to the noisy appearance and low signal-to-noise ratio of CTP maps. To reduce noise and improve image quality, a rigorous study on the noise transfer properties of CTP systems is highly desirable to provide the needed scientific guidance. This paper concerns how noise in the CTP source images propagates to the final CTP maps. Both theoretical deviations and subsequent validation experiments demonstrated that, the noise level of background frames plays a dominant role in the noise of the cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps. This is in direct contradiction with the general belief that noise of non-background image frames is of greater importance in CTP imaging. The study found that when radiation doses delivered to the background frames and to all non-background frames are equal, lowest noise variance is achieved in the final CBV maps. This novel equality condition provides a practical means to optimize radiation dose delivery in CTP data acquisition: radiation exposures should be modulated between background frames and non-background frames so that the above equality condition is satisïnAed. For several typical CTP acquisition protocols, numerical simulations and in vivo canine experiment demonstrated that noise of CBV can be effectively reduced using the proposed exposure modulation method.

  13. Oral alprazolam acutely increases nucleus accumbens perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey; Smith, Mark A.; Detre, John A.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2014-01-01

    Benzodiazepines treat anxiety, but can also produce euphoric effects, contributing to abuse. Using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct evidence in humans that alprazolam (Xanax) acutely increases perfusion in the nucleus accumbens, a key reward-processing region linked to addiction. PMID:23070072

  14. Personality factors correlate with regional cerebral perfusion.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, R L; Kumari, V; Williams, S C R; Zelaya, F O; Connor, S E J; Alsop, D C; Gray, J A

    2006-06-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence pointing to a neurobiological basis of personality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological bases of the major dimensions of Eysenck's and Cloninger's models of personality using a noninvasive magnetic resonance perfusion imaging technique in 30 young, healthy subjects. An unbiased voxel-based analysis was used to identify regions where the regional perfusion demonstrated significant correlation with any of the personality dimensions. Highly significant positive correlations emerged between extraversion and perfusion in the basal ganglia, thalamus, inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum and between novelty seeking and perfusion in the cerebellum, cuneus and thalamus. Strong negative correlations emerged between psychoticism and perfusion in the basal ganglia and thalamus and between harm avoidance and perfusion in the cerebellar vermis, cuneus and inferior frontal gyrus. These observations suggest that personality traits are strongly associated with resting cerebral perfusion in a variety of cortical and subcortical regions and provide further evidence for the hypothesized neurobiological basis of personality. These results may also have important implications for functional neuroimaging studies, which typically rely on the modulation of cerebral hemodynamics for detection of task-induced activation since personality effects may influence the intersubject variability for both task-related activity and resting cerebral perfusion. This technique also offers a novel approach for the exploration of the neurobiological correlates of human personality.

  15. Technetium myocardial perfusion agents: an introduction

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.J.; Kozlowski, J.; Tumeh, S.S.; Holman, B.L.

    1987-09-01

    This is the third in a series of four Continuing Education articles on developing radiopharmaceuticals. After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1) understand the basic concepts of myocardial perfusion imaging; and 2) discuss the advantages of the technetium myocardial perfusion complexes over thallium-201.

  16. Luxury perfusion following anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Friedland, S; Winterkorn, J M; Burde, R M

    1996-09-01

    We present five patients who developed luxury perfusion following anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in whom fluorescein angiography was misinterpreted as "capillary hemangioma" or neovascularization of the disc. In each case, the segment of disc hyperemia corresponded to a spared region of visual field. Luxury perfusion represents a reparative autoregulatory reaction to ischemia.

  17. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  18. Myocardial perfusion with rubidium-82. III. Theory relating severity of coronary stenosis to perfusion deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Mullani, N.A.

    1984-11-01

    The relation between the quantitative perfusion deficit, as measured by emission computerized tomography, and the severity of coronary artery stenosis is important for the noninvasive clinical evaluation of coronary artery disease in man. Positron emission tomography allows direct noninvasive measurement of myocardial perfusion and quantification of the size of the perfusion defect. Given this important imformation, a mathematical model has been derived to gauge the severity of a coronary stenosis from quantitative perfusion measurements in the normal and poststenotic regions of the heart. The theoretical basis is presented for relating regional myocardial perfusion and regional perfusion resistance to total, coronary blood flow and resistance at normal resting flow and during maximal coronary vasodilation. The concept of perfusion reserve is presented as a clinical measure of the severity of a stenosis.

  19. Interstitial cells of Cajal in pancreas.

    PubMed

    Popescu, L M; Hinescu, M E; Ionescu, N; Ciontea, Sanda M; Cretoiu, D; Ardelean, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    We show here (presumably for the first time) a special type of cell in the human and rat exocrine pancreas. These cells have phenotypic characteristics of the enteric interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). To identify pancreatic interstitial cells of Cajal (pICC) we used routine light microscopy, non-conventional light microscopy (less than 1 mum semi-thin sections of Epon-embedded specimens cut by ultramicrotomy and stained with Toluidine blue), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunocytochemistry. The results showed that pICC can be recognized easily by light microscopy, particularly on semi-thin sections, as well as by TEM. Two-dimensional reconstructions from serial photos suggest a network-like spatial distribution of pICC. pICC represent 3.3+/-0.5% of all pancreatic cells, and seem to establish close spatial relationships with: capillaries (43%), acini (40%), stellate cells (14%), nerve fibres (3%). Most of pICC (88%) have 2 or 3 long processes (tens of mum) emerging from the cell body. TEM data show that pICC meet the criteria for positive diagnosis as ICC (e.g. numerous mitochondria, 8.7+/-0.8% of cytoplasm). Immunocytochemistry revealed that pICC are CD117/c-kit and CD34 positive. We found pICC positive (40-50%) for smooth muscle alpha-actin or S-100, and, occasionally, for CD68, NK1 neurokinin receptor and vimentin. The reactions for desmin and chromogranin A were negative in pICC. At present, only hypotheses and speculations can be formulated on the possible role of the pICC (e.g., juxtacrine and/or paracrine roles). In conclusion, the quite-established dogma: "ICC only in cavitary organs" is overpassed.

  20. Clinical Evaluation of a Personalized Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard; Harvey, Rebecca A.; Percival, Matthew W.; Grosman, Benyamin; Bevier, Wendy; Atlas, Eran; Miller, Shahar; Nimri, Revital; Jovanovič, Lois; Doyle, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An artificial pancreas (AP) that automatically regulates blood glucose would greatly improve the lives of individuals with diabetes. Such a device would prevent hypo- and hyperglycemia along with associated long- and short-term complications as well as ease some of the day-to-day burden of frequent blood glucose measurements and insulin administration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a pilot clinical trial evaluating an individualized, fully automated AP using commercial devices. Two trials (n = 22, nsubjects = 17) were conducted using a multiparametric formulation of model predictive control and an insulin-on-board algorithm such that the control algorithm, or “brain,” can be embedded on a chip as part of a future mobile device. The protocol evaluated the control algorithm for three main challenges: 1) normalizing glycemia from various initial glucose levels, 2) maintaining euglycemia, and 3) overcoming an unannounced meal of 30 ± 5 g carbohydrates. RESULTS Initial glucose values ranged from 84–251 mg/dL. Blood glucose was kept in the near-normal range (80–180 mg/dL) for an average of 70% of the trial time. The low and high blood glucose indices were 0.34 and 5.1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These encouraging short-term results reveal the ability of a control algorithm tailored to an individual’s glucose characteristics to successfully regulate glycemia, even when faced with unannounced meals or initial hyperglycemia. To our knowledge, this represents the first truly fully automated multiparametric model predictive control algorithm with insulin-on-board that does not rely on user intervention to regulate blood glucose in individuals with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23193210

  1. Transepithelial Bicarbonate Secretion: Lessons from the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Woo; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-01-01

    Many cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-expressing epithelia secrete bicarbonate (HCO3−)-containing fluids. Recent evidence suggests that defects in epithelial bicarbonate secretion are directly involved in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis, in particular by building up hyperviscous mucus in the ductal structures of the lung and pancreas. Pancreatic juice is one of the representative fluids that contain a very high concentration of bicarbonate among bodily fluids that are secreted from CFTR-expressing epithelia. We introduce up-to-date knowledge on the basic principles of transepithelial bicarbonate transport by showing the mechanisms involved in pancreatic bicarbonate secretion. The model of pancreatic bicarbonate secretion described herein may also apply to other exocrine epithelia. As a central regulator of bicarbonate transport at the apical membrane, CFTR plays an essential role in both direct and indirect bicarbonate secretion. The major role of CFTR in bicarbonate secretion would be variable depending on the tissue and cell type. For example, in epithelial cells that produce a low concentration of bicarbonate-containing fluid (up to 80 mm), either CFTR-dependent Cl−/HCO3− exchange or CFTR anion channel with low bicarbonate permeability would be sufficient to generate such fluid. However, in cells that secrete high-bicarbonate-containing fluids, a highly selective CFTR bicarbonate channel activity is required. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanism of transepithelial bicarbonate transport and the role of CFTR in each specific epithelium will provide therapeutic strategies to recover from epithelial defects induced by hyposecretion of bicarbonate in cystic fibrosis. PMID:23028131

  2. Endocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Ferro, S; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Cavicchioli, L

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic amyloidosis and loss of α and β cells have been shown to occur in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. Furthermore, it is not known whether pancreatic islet inflammation is a common feature. The aims of the present study were to characterize islet lesions and to investigate whether diabetic cats have inflammation of the pancreatic islets. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Congo red; double labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and glucagon/Ki67; and single labeled for amylin and Iba1. Mean insulin-positive cross-sectional area was approximately 65% lower in diabetic than control cats (P = .009), while that of amylin and glucagon was similar. Surprisingly, amyloid deposition was similar between groups (P = .408). Proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-positive cells and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and T (CD3) and B (CD20) lymphocytes in the islets did not differ. The presence of T and B lymphocytes combined tended to be more frequent in diabetic cats (n = 8 of 37; 21.6%) than control cats (n = 1 of 20; 5.0%). The results confirm previous observations that loss of β cells but not α cells occurs in diabetic cats. Islet amyloidosis was present in diabetic cats but was not greater than in controls. A subset of diabetic cats had lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, which might be associated with β-cell loss. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  4. Parturition prediction and timing of canine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, YeunHee; Travis, Alexander J.; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki N.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate method of predicting the date of parturition in the bitch is clinically useful to minimize or prevent reproductive losses by timely intervention. Similarly, an accurate method of timing canine ovulation and gestation is critical for development of assisted reproductive technologies, e.g. estrous synchronization and embryo transfer. This review discusses present methods for accurately timing canine gestational age and outlines their use in clinical management of high-risk pregnancies and embryo transfer research. PMID:17904630

  5. [Fractures of the canines require attention].

    PubMed

    van Foreest, Andries

    2005-01-15

    Hardly any attention was paid to a barely visible fracture of a canine tooth (104) in an 18-month-old dog. When the dog was 6-years old, a fistulous opening was seen on the bridge of the nose. A year later, radiography revealed a periapical process. The investigations performed and treatment given are described, as is the correct way to handle fractures of the canines.

  6. [Compromized myocardial perfusion in arrhythmias (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simon, H; Neumann, G; Felix, R; Hedde, H; Schaede, A; Thurn, P; Winkler, C

    1977-09-15

    In 7 patients with arrhythmias of various origin the myocardial scintigram displayed either a diffuse or circumscript defect of the perfusion. The coronary arteriogram was normal in all patients. The localized defect of the perfusion in 2 patients was in the region of the upper part of the interventricular septum. Both had a left bundle brunch block. A correlation between the perfusion defect and the electrophysiological abnormality seems probable. The perfusion defect in one of the patients is most probably caused by a previous myocarditis followed by fibrous changes. In the other 6 patients the cause for the perfusion defect is not obvious. A history of myocarditis is missing. The presence of "small vessel disease" in those patients has however to be considered. Our results point to the relation between an abnormality of the microcirculation and arrhythmias in younger patients.

  7. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing.

  8. Endodontic treatment of a multirooted permanent maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Galhotra, Virat; Pandit, I K; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report an unusual case of multirooted permanent maxillary canine. A 16-year-old female patient presented with pain and swelling related to the upper right permanent canine. Radiographic examination revealed a multirooted permanent maxillary canine--an unusual finding. Endodontic treatment was performed after amputation of 2 extra roots, and then the tooth was intentionally reimplanted. The prevalence of birooted permanent mandibular canines in the Japanese population has been reported, but the prevalence of this 3-rooted maxillary canine is still unknown. This report also states the potential etiological factors, effects on the developing dentition, and various treatment options for the multirooted maxillary permanent canine.

  9. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  10. Canine viral enteritis. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L

    1979-05-01

    Two apparently novel viral gastroenteritides of dogs were recognized in 1978: one caused by a parvo-like virus (CPV) and one by a corona-like virus (CCV). A rotavirus has also been tentatively associated with neonatal pup enteritis. Canine viral enteritis is characterized by a sudden onset of vomiting and diarrhea, rapid spread and high morbidity. Treatment is only supportive but must be initiated promptly. Infected animals should be isolated immediately; the extremely contagious nature of these diseases makes them difficult to contain. Feces from infected dogs appear to be the primary means of transmission. Sodium hypochlorite solutions (eg, Clorox) are recommended for disinfection. The development of effective vaccines is an immediate and pressing problem.

  11. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  12. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-02-13

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings.

  13. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  14. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  15. Similar results with solitary pancreas transplantation compared with simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Stratta, R J; Farney, A C; Orlando, G; Farooq, U; Al-Shraideh, Y; Rogers, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze our single-center outcomes according to pancreas transplant (PT) category in the new millennium by using standardized management protocols. We retrospectively studied 202 consecutive PTs (179 with portal-enteric drainage) in 192 patients; all received either rabbit antithymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab induction in combination with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and tapered corticosteroids or early steroid withdrawal. Unlike simultaneous pancreas/kidney (SPK) transplant, solitary PT (SPT) recipients were managed with routine perioperative anticoagulation and surveillance pancreas biopsies. From November 2001 to March 2013, we performed 162 SPK transplants, 35 pancreas after kidney transplants, and 5 pancreas-alone transplants (40 SPTs). Demographic characteristics were mostly comparable; however, the SPT group had younger donors, shorter waiting time, fewer HLA mismatches, and fewer African-American recipients but more retransplants (all, P < .05). With a mean follow-up of 5.5 versus 7.5 years, overall patient (86.4% SPK vs 86.8% SPT), kidney graft (74% SPK vs 80% SPT), and pancreas graft (both 65%) survival rates were comparable. Although mortality rates were similar, mortality patterns differed because no SPT recipients died early, whereas the 1-, 3-, and 5-year mortality rates after SPK transplant were 4%, 9% and 12%, respectively (P < .05). The most common causes of pancreas graft loss were death with functioning grafts in SPK recipients and acute/chronic rejection in SPT recipients. Rates of early thrombosis were 8.6% in SPK patients and 5% in SPT patients. Cumulative clinical acute rejection rates were similar between groups (SPK 29% vs SPT 27.5%; P = NS). In the setting of depleting antibody induction and tacrolimus-based therapy, HLA matching, careful donor and recipient selection, portal-enteric drainage, selective perioperative anticoagulation, and surveillance SPT biopsy monitoring, similar medium

  16. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationship.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, Faraj; Roy, Rino; Al-Jame, Badreia

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of occlusal asymmetries in the molar and canine regions in a large population-based sample of adolescent Kuwaitis. Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 1299 Kuwaiti adolescents (674 boys mean age 13.3 years and 625 girls mean age 13.2 years), representing approximately 6.7 per cent of that age stratum in the population, were examined clinically for sagittal molar and canine relationships, with a view to recording half and full-step asymmetries. In this sample, 1244 subjects were examined clinically, while for the remaining 55, pre-treatment study models were assessed. All subjects were in the early permanent dentition stage. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to determine the proportion of different molar and canine asymmetries. Antero-posterior asymmetries were found to be a distinctive and common feature of the dental arches, with half-step outweighing full-step asymmetries both in the anterior and posterior regions. The total prevalence of an asymmetric molar or canine relationship was 29.7 and 41.4 per cent, respectively, with more than 95 per cent falling in the mild category. Patient gender did not influence the prevalence or magnitude of asymmetry. The results showed a clinically significant prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationships, which were mainly in the category of half-step asymmetry. Class II half and full-step asymmetries were more prevalent than Class III asymmetries in the molar and canine regions.

  18. Genetic and Biochemical Biomarkers in Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Graham, K L; McCowan, C; White, A

    2017-03-01

    In many health-related fields, there is great interest in the identification of biomarkers that distinguish diseased from healthy individuals. In addition to identifying the diseased state, biomarkers have potential use in predicting disease risk, monitoring disease progression, evaluating treatment efficacy, and informing pathogenesis. This review details the genetic and biochemical markers associated with canine primary glaucoma. While there are numerous molecular markers (biochemical and genetic) associated with glaucoma in dogs, there is no ideal biomarker that allows early diagnosis and/or identification of disease progression. Genetic mutations associated with canine glaucoma include those affecting ADAMTS10, ADAMTS17, Myocilin, Nebulin, COL1A2, RAB22A, and SRBD1. With the exception of Myocilin, there is very limited crossover in genetic biomarkers identified between human and canine glaucomas. Mutations associated with canine glaucoma vary between and within canine breeds, and gene discoveries therefore have limited overall effects as a screening tool in the general canine population. Biochemical markers of glaucoma include indicators of inflammation, oxidative stress, serum autoantibodies, matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β. These markers include those that indicate an adaptive or protective response, as well as those that reflect the damage arising from oxidative stress.

  19. Ectopic Pancreas Imitating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) In The Stomach.

    PubMed

    Zińczuk, Justyna; Bandurski, Roman; Pryczynicz, Anna; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia; Kemona, Andrzej; Kędra, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital disorder defined as pancreatic tissue lacking vascular or anatomic communication with the normal body of the pancreas. Most cases of ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic, but it may become clinically evident depending on the size, location and the pathological changes similar to those observed in case of the normal pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be located at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common locations are: the stomach, duodenum or the proximal part of small intestine. The risk of malignancy, bleeding and occlusion are the most serious complications. Despite the development in diagnostics, it still remains a challenge for the clinician to differentiate it from neoplasm. In this report, we described a case of 28-years old woman who presented recurrent epigastric pain. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastrointestinal stromal tumor on the border of the body and antrum of the back wall of great curvature of the stomach. The histopathological examination after surgery showed heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Ectopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric mass lesions.

  20. Portal annular pancreas: a systematic review of a clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Harnoss, Jonathan M; Harnoss, Julian C; Diener, Markus K; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B; Büchler, Markus W; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H

    2014-10-01

    Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF).On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered.In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery).Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option.

  1. Elastography for the pancreas: Current status and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Natsuko; Tanaka, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Elastography for the pancreas can be performed by either ultrasound or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). There are two types of pancreatic elastographies based on different principles, which are strain elastography and shear wave elastography. The stiffness of tissue is estimated by measuring the grade of strain generated by external pressure in the former, whereas it is estimated by measuring propagation speed of shear wave, the transverse wave, generated by acoustic radiation impulse (ARFI) in the latter. Strain elastography is difficult to perform when the probe, the pancreas and the aorta are not located in line. Accordingly, a fine elastogram can be easily obtained in the pancreatic body but not in the pancreatic head and tail. In contrast, shear wave elastography can be easily performed in the entire pancreas because ARFI can be emitted to wherever desired. However, shear wave elastography cannot be performed by EUS to date. Recently, clinical guidelines for elastography specialized in the pancreas were published from Japanese Society of Medical Ultrasonics. The guidelines show us technical knacks of performing elastography for the pancreas. PMID:27076756

  2. Elastography for the pancreas: Current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Natsuko; Tanaka, Sachiko

    2016-04-14

    Elastography for the pancreas can be performed by either ultrasound or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). There are two types of pancreatic elastographies based on different principles, which are strain elastography and shear wave elastography. The stiffness of tissue is estimated by measuring the grade of strain generated by external pressure in the former, whereas it is estimated by measuring propagation speed of shear wave, the transverse wave, generated by acoustic radiation impulse (ARFI) in the latter. Strain elastography is difficult to perform when the probe, the pancreas and the aorta are not located in line. Accordingly, a fine elastogram can be easily obtained in the pancreatic body but not in the pancreatic head and tail. In contrast, shear wave elastography can be easily performed in the entire pancreas because ARFI can be emitted to wherever desired. However, shear wave elastography cannot be performed by EUS to date. Recently, clinical guidelines for elastography specialized in the pancreas were published from Japanese Society of Medical Ultrasonics. The guidelines show us technical knacks of performing elastography for the pancreas.

  3. GATA4 and GATA6 control mouse pancreas organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Manuel; Delgado, Irene; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Francisco; Rojas, Anabel

    2012-01-01

    Recently, heterozygous mutations in GATA6 have been found in neonatal diabetic patients with failed pancreatic organogenesis. To investigate the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse pancreas organogenesis, we conditionally inactivated these genes within the pancreas. Single inactivation of either gene did not have a major impact on pancreas formation, indicating functional redundancy. However, double Gata4/Gata6 mutant mice failed to develop pancreata, died shortly after birth, and displayed hyperglycemia. Morphological defects in Gata4/Gata6 mutant pancreata were apparent during embryonic development, and the epithelium failed to expand as a result of defects in cell proliferation and differentiation. The number of multipotent pancreatic progenitors, including PDX1+ cells, was reduced in the Gata4/Gata6 mutant pancreatic epithelium. Remarkably, deletion of only 1 Gata6 allele on a Gata4 conditional knockout background severely reduced pancreatic mass. In contrast, a single WT allele of Gata4 in Gata6 conditional knockout mice was sufficient for normal pancreatic development, indicating differential contributions of GATA factors to pancreas formation. Our results place GATA factors at the top of the transcriptional network hierarchy controlling pancreas organogenesis. PMID:23006330

  4. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  5. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  6. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  7. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  8. The histological analysis of the anterior cruciate ligament of canine after radiofrequency shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Ma, W-P; Yuan, Z-F; Li, J-M; Li, W-P; Wang, D-W; Xin, H

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) shrinkage has been widely conducted in clinical practice and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) laxity is regarded as one of the indications. However, basic researches regarding the postoperative histological changes were still insufficient. The study aimed to investigate postoperative histological changes of different areas of ACL for further identifying the optimal area for RF shrinkage. A total of 29 healthy canine (16.5 ± 2.2 kg, 4.1 ± 0.7 years) were recruited, 24 of which were randomly divided into group A and group B. The epiphyseal arrest was confirmed by X-ray examination in all animals. On one canine, an ACL's vascular perfusion model was established by the ink-perfusion method to observe the blood supply of the ACL. The mid-portion of ACL was conducted by RF in group A while the amph-portions of ACL were conducted in group B. Two legs of each canine were sub-divided into fixation group (group A1 and B1) and non-fixation group (group A2 and B2). 8 ACLs were separated from the rest 4 canine. 2 ACLs were sent for the histological examination after RF shrinkage and the rest 6 ACLs were served as blank controls. Masson staining and hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) staining were applied to observe the features of inner fibrous changes of ACL, cell count and vascular density. According to the Masson staining, collagenous tissues were observed in area after RF shrinkage, which was more evident among group B1 than the others. The cellar density in both group A and B was found lower at 12 weeks postoperatively than that at 6 weeks postoperatively (p < 0.05). In addition, the cellar density in B1 group was found higher than that in A1 group at both 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively (p < 0.05). The density of subsynovial vessel in B1 group was found higher than that in A1 group at 6 weeks postoperatively (p < 0.05) and the density of subsynovial vessel in both A1 and B1 groups was found lower at 12 postoperatively weeks than that at 6 weeks

  9. Factors affecting self-eruption of displaced permanent maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    Smailienė, Dalia; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Lopatienė, Kristina; Guzevičienė, Vesta; Juodžbalys, Gintaras

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of the spontaneous eruption of displaced unerupted maxillary canines after the extraction of the deciduous canine and dental arch expansion and to determine the impact of initial canine position on treatment success rate. Materials and METHODS. The study sample included 50 patients (mean age, 13.5 years [SD, 2.2]) with unilaterally displaced unerupted maxillary canines. Deciduous canines were extracted, and the space for displaced canine was created at the beginning of the study. The follow-up period for the spontaneous eruption was 12 months. The initial vertical, horizontal, labio-palatal position and angle of inclination to the midline of the displaced canine were assessed on panoramic radiographs. RESULTS. Only 42% of displaced canines erupted spontaneously within one-year period (52.9% of labially displaced canines and 36.4% of palatally displaced canines). A significant difference of inclination was determined between spontaneously erupted and unerupted teeth in the labially displaced canine group (P<0.01), with no difference in the palatally displaced canine group. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the critical angle of inclination for the spontaneous eruption of the retained canine was 20º (sensitivity 0.759; specificity 0.571; P<0.05). The majority of unerupted canines (75.9%) were inclined more than 20º. The initial height of canine was crucial for spontaneous eruption (sensitivity 0.966; specificity 0.81; P<0.001). This was true for both palatal and labial cases. CONCLUSIONS. The initial vertical position of the labially and palatally displaced canines and the inclination of the labially displaced canines were the most important predictors for spontaneous eruption of the cuspid.

  10. Correlated response, competition, and female canine size in primates.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J M

    1998-12-01

    Recently, comparative analyses of female canine tooth size in primates have yielded two hypotheses to explain interspecific variation in female relative canine size. Greenfield ([1992] Int. J. Primatol. 13:631-657; [1992] Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 35:153-184; [1996] J. Hum. Evol. 31:1-19) suggested that covariation in male and female canine size across species indicates that female canine size reflects correlated response (in which the expression of a trait in one sex causes the expression of the same trait in the other sex). Plavcan et al. ([1995] J. Hum. Evol. 28:245-276) noted that female canine size in primates is associated with variation in categorical estimates of the intensity of female-female agonistic competition, suggesting that selection favors large female canine size in many species. While it may seem that the two models are in conflict, they are not. To simultaneously evaluate these two models, this analysis examines the joint relations between male canine size, female canine size, and estimates of female-female competition in a sample of 108 primate species. Overall, female canine size is correlated with variation in male canine size. Controlling for variation in male canine size, female canine size is also correlated with estimates of the intensity of female-female agonistic competition. The relation between these variables differs strongly between anthropoid and strepsirhine primates. In anthropoids, the data suggest that selection for the development of large canines in females is not constrained by any affect of correlated response. In strepsirhines, the evidence suggests that sexual selection may affect male canine size but that correlated response affects female canine size, resulting in monomorphism for most species. These observations help reconcile the observations of Greenfield ([1992] Int. J. Primatol. 13:631-657; [1996] J. Hum. Evol. 31:1-19) and Plavcan et al. ([1995] J. Hum. Evol. 28:245-276) and provide a more precise model for

  11. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-02-27

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection.

  12. Canine treatment with SnET2 for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Donita L.; Milligan, Andrew J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Morgan, Alan R.; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1990-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a treatment technique that utilizes the photoactived species of a drug to destroy tumor tissue. To be successful, the drug must localize in tumor tissue preferentially over normal tissue and must be activated by light of a specific wavelength. Currently the only drug to be approved for clinical use is Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) although a series of new drugs are being developed for use in the near future. One of the drugs belongs to a class called purpurins which display absorp-' tions between 630-711 nm. Along with several other investigators, we are currently exploring the characteristics of a specific purpurin (SnET2) in normal and tumorous canine tissue. The use of this compound has demonstrated increased tumor control rates in spontaneous dog tumors. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have been performed on 6 normal beagle dogs. SnET2 (2 mg/kg) was injected intravenously over 10 minutes and blood was collected at 5, 15, 30, 45 minutes and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours following administration for determination of drug concentration and calculation of pharinacokinetic parameters. Skin biopsies were collected at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours. Dogs were euthanized at 24 hours and tissues (liver, kidney muscle, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileura, colon, adrenal gland, thyroid, heart, lung, urinary bladder, prostate, pancreas, eye, brain) were collected for drug raeasurement. Drug was shown to persist in liver and kidney for a prolonged period of time coiapared to other tissues. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug will greatly add to the ability to treat patients with effective protocols.

  13. Tissue-specific deletion of c-Jun in the pancreas has limited effects on pancreas formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ayako; Toyoda, Shuichi; Kato, Ken; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Fujitani, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Hori, Masatsugu; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2007-11-30

    It is well known that activating protein-1 (AP-1) is involved in a variety of cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. AP-1 is a dimer complex consisting of different subunits, and c-Jun is known to be one of its major components. In addition, it has been shown that mice lacking c-Jun are embryonic lethal and that c-Jun is essential for liver and heart development. However, the role of c-Jun in the pancreas is not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of c-Jun in the pancreas. First, c-Jun was strongly expressed in pancreatic duct-like structures at an embryonic stage, while a lower level of expression was observed in some part of the adult pancreas, implying that c-Jun might play a role during pancreas development. Second, to address this point, we generated pancreas-specific c-Jun knock-out mice (Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} mice) by crossing Ptf1a-Cre knock-in mice with c-Jun floxed mice. Ptf1a is a pancreatic transcription factor and its expression is confined to pancreatic stem/progenitor cells, which give rise to all three types of pancreatic tissue: endocrine, exocrine, and duct. Contrary to our expectation, however, there was no morphological difference in the pancreas between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} and control mice. In addition, there was no difference in body weight, pancreas weight, and the expression of various pancreas-related factors (insulin, glucagon, cytokeratin, and amylase) between the two groups. Furthermore, there was no difference in glucose tolerance between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} and control mice. Taken together, although we cannot exclude the possibility that c-Jun ablation is compensated by some unknown factors, c-Jun appears to be dispensable for pancreas development at least after ptf1a gene promoter is activated.

  14. Molecular cloning of canine Wilms' tumor 1 for immunohistochemical analysis in canine tissues.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Osamu; Sakurai, Masashi; Sakai, Hiroki; Kubo, Masahito; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Baba, Kenji; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2017-07-28

    Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) expression has been investigated in various human cancers as a target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. However, few studies have focused on WT1 expression in dogs. Firstly, cDNA of canine WT1 (cWT1) was molecularly cloned from normal canine kidney. The cross-reactivity of the anti-human WT1 monoclonal antibody (6F-H2) with cWT1 was confirmed via Western blotting using cells overexpressing cWT1. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cWT1 expression was detected in all canine lymphoma tissues and in some normal canine tissues, including the kidney and lymph node. cWT1 is a potential immunotherapy target against canine cancers.

  15. Acinar cell cystadenoma of the pancreas in a cat.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, H; Matsuda, Y; Kawamoto, Y; Michishita, M; Ohkusu-Tsukada, K; Takahashi, K; Naito, Z; Ishiwata, T

    2013-01-01

    Cystic tumours of the pancreas are heterogeneous lesions with a spectrum of morphology and biological behaviour in people. These are poorly characterized in animals. A multicystic tumour of the pancreas was identified in an 11-year-old, female, mixed breed cat. The tumour was 5.5 cm in diameter and the largest cysts were 1.5 cm in diameter. Microscopically, the cysts were lined by single layered or pseudostratified, flat, cuboidal or columnar epithelial cells that occasionally formed papillary structures with a thin fibrous core. The tumour cells had eosinophilic granules in the apical cytoplasm, similar to zymogen granules, and the nuclei were uniform in size and shape. Mitotic figures were not observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells expressed trypsin, but not cytokeratin 7. A diagnosis of acinar cell cystadenoma of the pancreas was made and this is the first report of this tumour in a cat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Portal Annular Pancreas: A Rare and Overlooked Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Puneet; Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Amit; Ahmed, Arshad

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic developmental anomaly which is often overlooked at imaging, and often diagnosed retrospectively when it is detected incidentally at the time of surgery. Although the anomaly itself is asymptomatic, it becomes important in cases where pancreatic resection/anastomosis is planned, because of varying ductal anatomy, risk of ductal injury and increased risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula formation. Case Report We present imaging findings in a case of portal annular pancreas in a 45-year-old male patient. Conclusions Portal annular pancreas is a rare and often neglected pancreatic anomaly due to a lack of awareness of this entity. With the advent of MDCT and MRI, accurate preoperative diagnosis of this condition is possible. PMID:28203311

  17. Heterotopic pancreas in excluded stomach diagnosed after gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heterotopic pancreas is defined as finding of pancreatic tissue without anatomic and vascular continuity with the normal pancreas. Heterotopic pancreas is a rare condition difficult to diagnose and with controversial clinical management. Case presentation We describe a 43 year old female patient previously submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass for primary treatment of morbid obesity; 5 years later, the patient was discovered to have a mass in the antrum of the excluded stomach that was found to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Before gastric bypass surgery, the presence of the pancreatic mass in the gastric wall was unnoticed in the imagiologic records. Conclusion This is the first reported case of pancreatic heterotopy diagnosed in the excluded stomach after gastric bypass. A putative role of incretin hormones in mediating pancreatic cell hyperplasia of heterotopic pancreatic remnants should be considered an additional hypothesis that requires further research. PMID:24267291

  18. Heterotopic pancreas in excluded stomach diagnosed after gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marta; Rodrigues, Pedro; Gonçalves, Gil; Nora, Mário; Monteiro, Mariana P

    2013-11-23

    Heterotopic pancreas is defined as finding of pancreatic tissue without anatomic and vascular continuity with the normal pancreas. Heterotopic pancreas is a rare condition difficult to diagnose and with controversial clinical management. We describe a 43 year old female patient previously submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass for primary treatment of morbid obesity; 5 years later, the patient was discovered to have a mass in the antrum of the excluded stomach that was found to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Before gastric bypass surgery, the presence of the pancreatic mass in the gastric wall was unnoticed in the imagiologic records. This is the first reported case of pancreatic heterotopy diagnosed in the excluded stomach after gastric bypass. A putative role of incretin hormones in mediating pancreatic cell hyperplasia of heterotopic pancreatic remnants should be considered an additional hypothesis that requires further research.

  19. Molecular pathogenesis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Thosani, Nirav; Dasari, Chandra S; Bhutani, Manoop S; Raimondo, Massimo; Guha, Sushovan

    2010-11-01

    Over the last 3 decades, there have been substantial improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques to evaluate pancreatic diseases. The modern technology has helped us to recognize premalignant conditions of pancreas including mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Differentiation between benign and malignant lesions and early detection of any malignant transformation in premalignant lesion are extremely important for further management decisions. Diagnostic cytology has limited sensitivity to further differentiate between benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions of the pancreas. There is limited information about the epidemiological risk factors and molecular mechanisms leading to development and further progression to malignancy of IPMNs. Several studies have shown that pancreatic juice and pancreatic tissue from the lesion can be tested for molecular markers including K-ras, p53, and p16 to differentiate between cancer and chronic inflammatory process. We review cellular signaling pathways that contribute to pathogenesis of IPMNs of the pancreas to further identify potential biomarkers and molecular targets.

  20. Multiple metastatic renal cell carcinoma isolated to pancreas.

    PubMed

    Comunoğlu, Cem; Altaca, Gülüm; Demiralay, Ebru; Moray, Gökhan

    2012-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastases to the pancreas are reported to be rare. Isolated multiple pancreatic metastases are even rarer. We report a 68-year-old asymptomatic male patient who presented with multiple metastatic nodular lesions in the pancreas demonstrated by computerized tomography 3.5 years after radical nephrectomy performed for clear cell RCC. Spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy was performed. Gross examination revealed five well-demarcated tumoral nodules in the head, body and tail of the pancreas. Histopathological examination revealed clusters of epithelial clear cells, immunohistochemically positive for CD10 and vimentin, and negative for CK19 and chromogranin, supporting a diagnosis of metastatic RCC. The patient has remained well at 29 months post-resection, in agreement with recent experience that radical resection for multiple isolated metastatic nodular lesions can achieve improved survival and better quality of life.

  1. [Endosonography for differential diagnosis of malignant findings of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Prinz, C

    2009-02-01

    Due to recent technical innovations endosonography has attained a special importance for the examination of malignant pancreatic tumors. Modern high-resolution radial instruments with 360 degrees imaging give a very good overall view with fine resolution and contrast and allow excellent detection of solid space-occupying lesions in the region of the pancreas. In meta-analyses a very good sensitivity for tumor detection of over 90% could be demonstrated, comparable to the results of the modern CT pancreas spiral technique. Endosonography has an advantage over CT examination especially for the diagnostics of very small neuroendocrine tumors (<1 cm), for example for the detection of insulinomas. For cystic pancreas processes only endosonography allows further specific differential diagnostics by the determination of important prognostic tumor markers, such as CEA or CA-19-9 by simultaneous puncture of the lesion.

  2. Pancreatic endometrial cyst mimics mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Mederos, Michael A; Villafañe, Nicole; Dhingra, Sadhna; Farinas, Carlos; McElhany, Amy; Fisher, William E; Van Buren Ii, George

    2017-02-14

    Pancreatic cysts include a variety of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions. Endometrial cysts in the pancreas are exceedingly rare lesions that are difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. This report describes the findings in a 43-year-old patient with a recent episode of acute pancreatitis who presented with a large cyst in the tail of the pancreas. Imaging demonstrated a loculated pancreatic cyst, and cyst fluid aspiration revealed an elevated amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen. The patient experienced an interval worsening of abdominal pain, fatigue, diarrhea, and a 15-pound weight loss 3 mo after the initial episode of pancreatitis. With concern for a possible pre-malignant lesion, the patient underwent a laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, which revealed a 16 cm × 12 cm × 4 cm lesion. Final histopathology was consistent with an intra-pancreatic endometrial cyst. Here we discuss the overlapping imaging and laboratory features of pancreatic endometrial cysts and mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.

  3. Under Utilization of Pancreas Transplants in Cystic Fibrosis Recipients in the United Network Organ Sharing (UNOS) Data 1987-2014.

    PubMed

    Usatin, D J; Perito, E R; Posselt, A M; Rosenthal, P

    2016-05-01

    Despite a high prevalence of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine insufficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF), pancreas transplantation is rarely reported. United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data were used to examine utilization of pancreas transplant and posttransplant outcomes in CF patients. Between 1987-2014, CF patients (N = 4600) underwent 17 liver-pancreas, three lung-pancreas, one liver-lung pancreas, four kidney-pancreas, and three pancreas-only transplants. Of the 303 CF patients who received liver transplantation, 20% had CF-related diabetes (CFRD) before transplantation, and nine of those received a liver-pancreas transplant. Of 4241 CF patients who underwent lung transplantation, 33% had CFRD before transplantation, and three of those received a pancreas transplant. Of 49 CF patients who received a liver-lung transplant, 57% had CFRD before transplantation and one received a pancreas transplant. Posttransplantation diabetes developed in 7% of CF pancreas transplant recipients versus 24% of CF liver and 29% of CF lung recipients. UNOS has no data on pancreas exocrine insufficiency. Two-year posttransplantation survival was 88% after liver-pancreas transplant, 33% after lung-pancreas transplant, and 100% after pancreas-kidney and pancreas-only transplants. Diabetes is common pretransplantation and posttransplantation in CF solid organ transplant recipients, but pancreas transplantation remains rare. Further consideration of pancreas transplant in CF patients undergoing other solid organ transplant may be warranted. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Giant mucinous cystic adenoma with pancreatic atrophy mimicking dorsal agenesis of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gagnière, Johan; Dupré, Aurélien; Ines, David Da; Tixier, Lucie; Pezet, Denis; Buc, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mucinous cystic adenoma (MCA) of the pancreas is a rare benign cystic tumor with ovarian-like stroma and lack of communication with the pancreatic ductal system. The ovarian tissue is incorporated from the left gonad within the dorsal pancreas during embryogenesis. Consequently, congenital dorsal agenesis of the pancreas (DAP) cannot be associated with MCA. We report the case of a giant MCA associated with atrophy of the dorsal pancreas mimicking complete DAP. Pancreato-magnetic resonance imaging failed to identify the dorsal pancreas but the absence of diabetes mellitus and compression of the splenic vein with major tributaries rectified the diagnosis of secondary atrophy of the distal pancreas. Unusual proximal location of the cyst in the pancreas may have induced chronic obstruction of both the dorsal pancreatic duct and the splenic vein, with secondary atrophy of the distal pancreas. PMID:24672649

  5. The Artificial Pancreas: How Sweet Engineering Will Solve Bitter Problems

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.

    2007-01-01

    An artificial pancreas is a closed-loop system containing only synthetic materials which substitutes for an endocrine pancreas. No artificial pancreas system is currently approved; however, devices that could become components of such a system are now becoming commercially available. An artificial pancreas will consist of functionally integrated components that will continuously sense glucose levels, determine appropriate insulin dosages, and deliver the insulin. Any proposed closed loop system will be closely scrutinized for its safety, efficacy, and economic impact. Closed loop control utilizes models of glucose homeostasis which account for the influences of feeding, stress, insulin, exercise, and other factors on blood glucose levels. Models are necessary for understanding the relationship between blood glucose levels and insulin dosing; developing algorithms to control insulin dosing; and customizing each user's system based on individual responses to factors that influence glycemia. Components of an artificial pancreas are now being developed, including continuous glucose sensors; insulin pumps for parenteral delivery; and control software, all linked through wireless communication systems. Although a closed-loop system providing glucagon has not been reported in 40 years, the use of glucagon to prevent hypoglycemia is physiologically attractive and future devices might utilize this hormone. No demonstration of long-term closed loop control of glucose in a free-living human with diabetes has been reported to date, but many centers around the world are working on closed loop control systems. It is expected that many types of artificial pancreas systems will eventually be available, and they will greatly benefit patients with diabetes. PMID:19888383

  6. The artificial pancreas: how sweet engineering will solve bitter problems.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C

    2007-01-01

    An artificial pancreas is a closed-loop system containing only synthetic materials which substitutes for an endocrine pancreas. No artificial pancreas system is currently approved; however, devices that could become components of such a system are now becoming commercially available. An artificial pancreas will consist of functionally integrated components that will continuously sense glucose levels, determine appropriate insulin dosages, and deliver the insulin. Any proposed closed loop system will be closely scrutinized for its safety, efficacy, and economic impact. Closed loop control utilizes models of glucose homeostasis which account for the influences of feeding, stress, insulin, exercise, and other factors on blood glucose levels. Models are necessary for understanding the relationship between blood glucose levels and insulin dosing; developing algorithms to control insulin dosing; and customizing each user's system based on individual responses to factors that influence glycemia. Components of an artificial pancreas are now being developed, including continuous glucose sensors; insulin pumps for parenteral delivery; and control software, all linked through wireless communication systems. Although a closed-loop system providing glucagon has not been reported in 40 years, the use of glucagon to prevent hypoglycemia is physiologically attractive and future devices might utilize this hormone. No demonstration of long-term closed loop control of glucose in a free-living human with diabetes has been reported to date, but many centers around the world are working on closed loop control systems. It is expected that many types of artificial pancreas systems will eventually be available, and they will greatly benefit patients with diabetes.

  7. A case of invasive hemolymphangioma of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Hakamada, Kenichi; Narumi, Shunji; Nara, Masaki; Kudoh, Daisuke; Ishido, Keinosuke; Sasaki, Mutsuo

    2008-01-01

    Hemolymphangioma of the pancreas is a very rare benign tumor. There were only five reports of this disease until March 2008. Herein, we report a case of hemolymphangioma of the pancreas with gastrointestinal bleeding due to duodenal invasion. A 53-year-old man had been admitted a referral hospital because of severe anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding in December 2005. He was then transferred to our institute with a diagnosis of a tumor of the head of the pancreas with duodenal invasion in January 2006. No abnormalities were revealed except for anemia in laboratory data including CEA and CA19-9. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed bleeding at the duodenum. Computed tomography also demonstrated a heterogenous mass at the pancreatic head and suspected invasion to the duodenal wall. Ultrasonography showed a huge mass at the pancreatic head with a mixture of high and low echoic areas. Pylorous-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. The pancreatic tumor was soft and had invaded to the duodenum. The pathological diagnosis was a hemolymphangioma of the pancreas invaded to the duodenum. His postoperative course was uneventful and he was discharged on the 26th d after surgery. Hemolymphangioma of the pancreas is a very rare benign tumor. In a literature review until March 2008, we found five case reports. Major symptoms are abdominal pain and distension due to the enlarged tumor. However, we experienced a case of hemolymphangioma of the pancreas with gastrointestinal bleeding due to invasion to the duodenum. This disease is a very rare entity, but should be considered when patients have gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:18473426

  8. A case of invasive hemolymphangioma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Hakamada, Kenichi; Narumi, Shunji; Nara, Masaki; Kudoh, Daisuke; Ishido, Keinosuke; Sasaki, Mutsuo

    2008-05-14

    Hemolymphangioma of the pancreas is a very rare benign tumor. There were only five reports of this disease until March 2008. Herein, we report a case of hemolymphangioma of the pancreas with gastrointestinal bleeding due to duodenal invasion. A 53-year-old man had been admitted a referral hospital because of severe anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding in December 2005. He was then transferred to our institute with a diagnosis of a tumor of the head of the pancreas with duodenal invasion in January 2006. No abnormalities were revealed except for anemia in laboratory data including CEA and CA19-9. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed bleeding at the duodenum. Computed tomography also demonstrated a heterogenous mass at the pancreatic head and suspected invasion to the duodenal wall. Ultrasonography showed a huge mass at the pancreatic head with a mixture of high and low echoic areas. Pylorous-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. The pancreatic tumor was soft and had invaded to the duodenum. The pathological diagnosis was a hemolymphangioma of the pancreas invaded to the duodenum. His postoperative course was uneventful and he was discharged on the 26th d after surgery. Hemolymphangioma of the pancreas is a very rare benign tumor. In a literature review until March 2008, we found five case reports. Major symptoms are abdominal pain and distension due to the enlarged tumor. However, we experienced a case of hemolymphangioma of the pancreas with gastrointestinal bleeding due to invasion to the duodenum. This disease is a very rare entity, but should be considered when patients have gastrointestinal bleeding.

  9. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil; al Qadhi, Hani; al Wahibi, Khalifa

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN) and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN). The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of size ≥10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as “worrisome features.” Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The understanding of

  10. Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adsay, N V; Adair, C F; Heffess, C S; Klimstra, D S

    1996-08-01

    We describe the clinical and pathologic features of 11 intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas, a hitherto unrecognized tumor. The patients were six men and five women, and most of the tumors were in the head (head: body/tail = 8:3). The mean patient age was 62 (range, 39-78), and the average tumor size was 6 cm. Grossly the tumors exhibited mucin-filled cysts containing nodular papillary projections. Dilated ducts communicating with the main tumor were sometimes noted. Microscopically the cystic structures appeared to represent dilated ducts containing intraductal tumor. The tumors were characterized by variably complex, arborizing papillary structures. The papillae had thin, delicate fibrovascular cores with focal myxoid changes and were lined by stratified oncocytic cells. Goblet cells and intra-epithelial mucin-containing lumina were present, the latter resulting in a characteristic cribriform pattern. The exuberance of the epithelial proliferation varied from case to case and between different regions within individual tumors; solid sheets of cells were often identified. Although the degree of cytologic atypia was not generally severe, the complexity of the architecture justified a designation of intraductal oncocytic papillary carcinoma in 10 of the 11 cases. In nine cases the tumor was entirely intraductal; one case exhibited focal microinvasion and another showed widespread invasive carcinoma, the invasive elements appearing cytologically similar to the intraductal papillary components. The oncocytic cells stained positively with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin and Novelli stains. Immunohistochemically, all cases stained positively for B72.3, and five cases showed focal, weak luminal membrane staining for carcinoembryonic antigen. Ultrastructurally many of the cells were packed with mitochondria, and mucin was also identified. Seven patients were alive and free of tumor from 1 month to 3 years (average, 1 year) after resection. Two

  11. The Mouse Isolated Perfused Kidney Technique.

    PubMed

    Czogalla, Jan; Schweda, Frank; Loffing, Johannes

    2016-11-17

    The mouse isolated perfused kidney (MIPK) is a technique for keeping a mouse kidney under ex vivo conditions perfused and functional for 1 hr. This is a prerequisite for studying the physiology of the isolated organ and for many innovative applications that may be possible in the future, including perfusion decellularization for kidney bioengineering or the administration of anti-rejection or genome-editing drugs in high doses to prime the kidney for transplantation. During the time of the perfusion, the kidney can be manipulated, renal function can be assessed, and various pharmaceuticals administered. After the procedure, the kidney can be transplanted or processed for molecular biology, biochemical analysis, or microscopy. This paper describes the perfusate and the surgical technique needed for the ex vivo perfusion of mouse kidneys. Details of the perfusion apparatus are given and data are presented showing the viability of the kidney's preparation: renal blood flow, vascular resistance, and urine data as functional, transmission electron micrographs of different nephron segments as morphological readouts, and western blots of transport proteins of different nephron segments as molecular readout.

  12. MRI-based quantification of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a canine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiahui; Fan, Zheng; Kornegay, Joe N.; Styner, Martin A.

    2011-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive and fatal X-linked disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown potential to provide non-invasive and objective biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic effect in DMD. In this paper, we propose a semi-automated scheme to quantify MRI features of golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD), a canine model of DMD. Our method was applied to a natural history data set and a hydrodynamic limb perfusion data set. The scheme is composed of three modules: pre-processing, muscle segmentation, and feature analysis. The pre-processing module includes: calculation of T2 maps, spatial registration of T2 weighted (T2WI) images, T2 weighted fat suppressed (T2FS) images, and T2 maps, and intensity calibration of T2WI and T2FS images. We then manually segment six pelvic limb muscles. For each of the segmented muscles, we finally automatically measure volume and intensity statistics of the T2FS images and T2 maps. For the natural history study, our results showed that four of six muscles in affected dogs had smaller volumes and all had higher mean intensities in T2 maps as compared to normal dogs. For the perfusion study, the muscle volumes and mean intensities in T2FS were increased in the post-perfusion MRI scans as compared to pre-perfusion MRI scans, as predicted. We conclude that our scheme successfully performs quantitative analysis of muscle MRI features of GRMD.

  13. Intercalated clear cells or pale cells in the sinus node of canine hearts? An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Stoletzki, S; Schmiedl, A; Richter, J

    2000-09-01

    Two types of sinus nodal cells were responsible for the main differences in the literature concerning the ultrastructure of the sinuatrial node: the intercalated clear cells and pale cells. Canine hearts were arrested by (1) aortic cross clamping, (2) coronary perfusion with the cardioplegic solution St. Thomas, and (3) coronary perfusion with the cardioplegic solution HTK (Custodiol(R)). After fixation by immersion or perfusion the sinus node tissue was prepared for electron microscopy. Following cardioplegic arrest and perfusion fixation, three nodal cell types in the non-ischemic sinuatrial node were observed: typical nodal cells, transitional cells, and intercalated clear cells. Less than 1% of the non-ischemic sinuatrial cells were intercalated clear cells, surrounded by typical nodal cells or transitional cells. The contractile apparatus of the intercalated clear cells was extremely poorly developed. Great structural variations in the mitochondria were observed in intercalated clear cells, variations that would not appear under conditions of ischemia. In contrast, after 15-25 min of ischemia at 25 degrees C the appearance of the sinus nodal cells was strikingly different from that of the non-ischemic sinuatrial cells. More than 10% of the nodal cells showed typical ischemic alterations, e.g., mitochondrial swelling, clumping of nuclear chromatin, loss of glycogen particles, and cell swelling in varying degrees. Because they look very pale, these nodal cells have been described as pale cells in the literature. Intercalated clear cells appear mainly in non-ischemic nodal tissue. Pale cells are ischemically damaged sinus nodal cells. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Pancreatic ductal perfusion at organ procurement enhances islet yield in human islet isolation.

    PubMed

    Takita, Morihito; Itoh, Takeshi; Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanak, Mazhar A; Shahbazov, Rauf; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Lawrence, Michael C; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F

    2014-11-01

    Pancreas preservation is a major factor influencing the results of islet cell transplantation. This study evaluated the effects of 2 different solutions for pancreatic ductal perfusion (PDP) at organ procurement. Eighteen human pancreases were assigned to 3 groups: non-PDP (control), PDP with ET-Kyoto solution, and PDP with cold storage/purification stock solution. Pancreatic islets were isolated according to the modified Ricordi method. No significant differences in donor characteristics, including cold ischemia time, were observed between the 3 groups. All islet isolations in the PDP groups had more than 400,000 islet equivalence in total islet yield after purification, a significant increase when compared with the control (P = 0.04 and P < 0.01). The islet quality assessments, including an in vivo diabetic nude mice assay and the response of high-mobility group box protein 1 to cytokine stimulation, also showed no significant differences. The proportion of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells showing apoptosis in islets in the PDP groups was significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). Both ET-Kyoto solution and cold storage/purification stock solution are suitable for PDP and consistently resulted in isolation success. Further studies with a larger number of pancreas donors should be done to compare the effects of the PDP solutions.

  15. Pancreatic Ductal Perfusion at Organ Procurement Enhances Islet Yield in Human Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanak, Mazhar A.; Shahbazov, Rauf; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Lawrence, Michael C.; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pancreas preservation is a major factor influencing the results of islet cell transplantation. This study evaluated the effects of two different solutions for pancreatic ductal perfusion (PDP) at organ procurement. Methods Eighteen human pancreases were assigned to three groups: non-PDP (control), PDP with ET-Kyoto solution, and PDP with cold storage/purification stock solution. Pancreatic islets were isolated according to the modified Ricordi method. Results No significant differences in donor characteristics, including cold ischemia time, were observed between the three groups. All islet isolations in the PDP groups had >400,000 IEQ in total islet yield post-purification, a significant increase when compared with the control (P = 0.04 and <0.01). The islet quality assessments—including an in vivo diabetic nude mice assay and the response of high-mobility group box protein 1 to cytokine stimulation—also showed no significant differences. The proportion of TUNEL-positive cells showing apoptosis in islets in the PDP groups was significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Both ET-Kyoto solution and cold storage/purification stock solution are suitable for PDP and consistently resulted in isolation success. Further studies with a larger number of pancreas donors should be done to compare the effects of the PDP solutions. PMID:25058879

  16. Multivariable adaptive identification and control for artificial pancreas systems.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Laurie; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-03-01

    A constrained weighted recursive least squares method is proposed to provide recursive models with guaranteed stability and better performance than models based on regular identification methods in predicting the variations of blood glucose concentration in patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Use of physiological information from a sports armband improves glucose concentration prediction and enables earlier recognition of the effects of physical activity on glucose concentration. Generalized predictive controllers (GPC) based on these recursive models are developed. The performance of GPC for artificial pancreas systems is illustrated by simulations with UVa-Padova simulator and clinical studies. The controllers developed are good candidates for artificial pancreas systems with no announcements from patients.

  17. Malakoplakia of the pancreas with diffuse lymph-node involvement.

    PubMed

    Nuciforo, Paolo Giovanni; Moneghini, Laura; Braidotti, Paola; Castoldi, Laura; De Rai, Paolo; Bosari, Silvano

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of malakoplakia involving the pancreas in a 74-year-old man with associated regional lymphoadenopathy. Histological examination of both pancreas and lymph nodes revealed a diffuse histiocytic infiltrate containing numerous Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Electron microscopy supported the diagnosis of malakoplakia and showed bacterial-like structures. Differential diagnosis includes myofibroblastic inflammatory tumor and histiocytic neoplasms. Lymph-node involvement during malakoplakia is extremely rare and it has never been documented microscopically. Lymphohematogenous spread of bacteria may be the cause of the nodal involvement, which, however, does not appear to influence the clinical course of the disease.

  18. [Rare forms of the ductal carcinoma of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Setdikova, G R; Filippova, E M; Paklina, O V; Kriger, A G; Chekmareva, I A; Gorin, D S; Berelavichus, S V; Bedin, V V; Tavobilov, M M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical cases of patients with rare forms of ductal pancreatic carcinoma are described. Difficulties of preoperative radiologic verification of ostheoclast-like giantcell tumor and cricoids-cell carcinoma of the pancreas are described. Morphologigic and immunohistochemical features of these tumors are highlighted. One of the clinical cases demonstrate the aggressive tumor behavior, led to liver metastases 4 months after the radical operation. Literature review highlights historical aspects and the state-of-art of diagnostics and treatment of rare forms of the ductal carcinoma of the pancreas.

  19. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  20. Ventilation-perfusion imaging in pulmonary papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Espinola, D; Rupani, H; Camargo, E E; Wagner, H N

    1981-11-01

    Three children with laryngeal papillomas involving the lungs had serial ventilation-perfusion scintigrams to assess results of therapy designed to reduce the bronchial involvement. Different imaging patterns were observed depending on size, number, and location of lesions. In early parenchymal involvement a ventilation-perfusion mismatch was seen. The initial and follow-up studies correlated well with clinical and radiographic findings. This noninvasive procedure is helpful in evaluating ventilatory and perfusion impairment in these patients as well as their response to treatment.

  1. Ventilation-perfusion imaging in pulmonary papillomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Espinola, D.; Rupani, H.; Camargo, E.E.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Three children with laryngeal papillomas involving the lungs had serial ventilation-perfusion scintigrams to assess results of therapy designed to reduce the bronchial involvement. Different imaging patterns were observed depending on size, number, and location of lesions. In early parenchymal involvement a ventilation-perfusion mismatch was seen. The initial and follow-up studies correlated well with clinical and radiographic findings. This noninvasive procedure is helpful in evaluating ventilatory and perfusion impairment in these patients as well as their response to treatment.

  2. Cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2016-07-01

    The flow of viscous fluid in the cochlea induces shear forces, which could provide benefit in clinical practice, for example to guide cochlear implant insertion or produce static pressure to the cochlear partition or wall. From a research standpoint, studying the effects of a viscous fluid in the cochlea provides data for better understanding cochlear fluid mechanics. However, cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid may damage the cochlea. In this work we studied the physiological and anatomical effects of perfusing the cochlea with a viscous fluid. Gerbil cochleae were perfused at a rate of 2.4 μL/min with artificial perilymph (AP) and sodium hyaluronate (Healon, HA) in four different concentrations (0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%). The different HA concentrations were applied either sequentially in the same cochlea or individually in different cochleae. The perfusion fluid entered from the round window and was withdrawn from basal scala vestibuli, in order to perfuse the entire perilymphatic space. Compound action potentials (CAP) were measured after each perfusion. After perfusion with increasing concentrations of HA in the order of increasing viscosity, the CAP thresholds generally increased. The threshold elevation after AP and 0.0625% HA perfusion was small or almost zero, and the 0.125% HA was a borderline case, while the higher concentrations significantly elevated CAP thresholds. Histology of the cochleae perfused with the 0.0625% HA showed an intact Reissner's membrane (RM), while in cochleae perfused with 0.125% and 0.25% HA RM was torn. Thus, the CAP threshold elevation was likely due to the broken RM, likely caused by the shear stress produced by the flow of the viscous fluid. Our results and analysis indicate that the cochlea can sustain, without a significant CAP threshold shift, up to a 1.5 Pa shear stress. Beside these finding, in the 0.125% and 0.25% HA perfusion cases, a temporary CAP threshold shift was observed, perhaps due to the presence and

  3. Cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of viscous fluid in the cochlea induces shear forces, which could provide benefit in clinical practice, for example to guide cochlear implant insertion or produce static pressure to the cochlear partition or wall. From a research standpoint, studying the effects of a viscous fluid in the cochlea provides data for better understanding cochlear fluid mechanics. However, cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid may damage the cochlea. In this work we studied the physiological and anatomical effects of perfusing the cochlea with a viscous fluid. Gerbil cochleae were perfused at a rate of 2.4 μL/min with artificial perilymph (AP) and sodium hyaluronate (Healon, HA) in four different concentrations (0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%). The different HA concentrations were applied either sequentially in the same cochlea or individually in different cochleae. The perfusion fluid entered from the round window and was withdrawnfrom basal scala vestibuli, in order to perfuse the entire perilymphatic space. Compound action potentials (CAP) were measured after each perfusion. After perfusion with increasing concentrations of HA in the order of increasing viscosity, the CAP thresholds generally increased. The threshold elevation after AP and 0.0625% HA perfusion was small or almost zero, and the 0.125% HA was a borderline case, while the higher concentrations significantly elevated CAP thresholds. Histology of the cochleae perfused with the 0.0625% HA showed an intact Reissner’s membrane, while in cochleae perfused with 0.125% and 0.25% HA Reissner’s membrane (RM) was torn. Thus, the CAP threshold elevation was likely due to the broken of RM, which likely caused by the shear stress produced by the flow of the viscous fluid. Our results and analysis indicate that the cochlea can sustain, without a significant CAP threshold shift, up to a 1.5 Pa shear stress. Beside these finding, in the 0.125% and 0.25% HA perfusion cases, a temporary CAP threshold shift was observed

  4. [Perfusion computed tomography for diffuse liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S A; Juchems, M S

    2012-08-01

    Perfusion computed tomography (CT) has its main application in the clinical routine diagnosis of neuroradiological problems. Polyphase multi-detector spiral computed tomography is primarily used in liver diagnostics. The use of perfusion CT is also possible for the diagnostics and differentiation of diffuse hepatic diseases. The differentiation between cirrhosis and cirrhosis-like parenchymal changes is possible. It also helps to detect early stages of malignant tumors. However, there are some negative aspects, particularly that of radiation exposure. This paper summarizes the technical basics and possible applications of perfusion CT in cases of diffuse liver disease and weighs up the advantages and disadvantages of the examinations.

  5. Canine distemper virus infection: proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Gröne, A; Engelhardt, P; Zurbriggen, A

    2003-09-01

    The proliferation of footpad keratinocytes of canine distemper virus (CDV)-infected dogs was investigated. Footpads of 19 dogs inoculated experimentally with a virulent distemper strain (A75/17) and of two noninoculated control dogs were collected at necropsy. Dogs were divided into four groups according to results of the postmortem examination: dogs with severe distemper (group 1), dogs with mild distemper (group 2), inoculated dogs without distemper (group 3) and noninoculated dogs (group 4). There was no distinct difference of epidermal thickness among the four groups. Infection of the footpad epidermis with CDV was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry for viral nucleoprotein and in situ hybridization for nucleoprotein messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Only group 1 dogs had viral antigen and mRNA in the footpad epidermis with the same distribution. Footpad epidermis of group 1 dogs had more mitotic figures in the basal layer, and significantly more basal keratinocytes were positive for the proliferation markers Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Double-staining for Ki-67 and viral nucleoprotein identified rare double-labeled basal keratinocytes. These findings suggest that the presence of CDV particles in the footpad epidermis is associated with keratinocyte proliferation.

  6. Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Protocol of the Normal Canine Brain

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Krystina L.; Pease, Anthony P.; Ballegeer, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically dynamic susceptibility MRI (DSC-MRI) is routinely performed as a supplement to conventional MRI in human medicine for patients with intracranial neoplasia and cerebrovascular events. There is minimal data on the use of DSC-MRI in veterinary patients and a DSC-MRI protocol in the veterinary patient has not been described. Sixteen normal dogs, 6 years or older were recruited for this study. The sample population included 11 large dogs (>11 kg) and 5 small dogs (<11 kg). DSC-MRI was performed on a 1.5-T MRI using an adjusted protocol inherent to the MRI. Contrast media was injected using an automatic power injector. Injections were made after five MR measurements were obtained. Following image acquisition, an arterial input function (AIF) graph mapping the transit time of contrast within the cerebral arteries was generated. The manually selected time points along this graph were used to compute perfusion maps. A dose and rate of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast media at 3 ml/s followed by 10 ml saline flush at 3 ml/s was used in all dogs greater than 11 kg. In all dogs >11 kg, a useable AIF and perfusion map was generated. One dog less than 11 kg received the same contrast dose and rate. In this patient, the protocol did not generate a useable AIF. The remainder of the dogs less than 11 kg followed a protocol of 0.2 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast media at 1.5 ml/s with a 10 ml saline flush at 1.5 ml/s. A useable AIF and perfusion map was generated in the remaining dogs <11 kg using the higher contrast dose and slower rate protocol. This study establishes a contrast dose and administration rate for canine DSC-MRI imaging that is different in dogs greater than 11 kg compared to dogs less than 11 kg. These protocols may be used for future applications to evaluate hemodynamic disturbances in canine intracranial pathology. PMID:28377923

  7. Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Protocol of the Normal Canine Brain.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Krystina L; Pease, Anthony P; Ballegeer, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically dynamic susceptibility MRI (DSC-MRI) is routinely performed as a supplement to conventional MRI in human medicine for patients with intracranial neoplasia and cerebrovascular events. There is minimal data on the use of DSC-MRI in veterinary patients and a DSC-MRI protocol in the veterinary patient has not been described. Sixteen normal dogs, 6 years or older were recruited for this study. The sample population included 11 large dogs (>11 kg) and 5 small dogs (<11 kg). DSC-MRI was performed on a 1.5-T MRI using an adjusted protocol inherent to the MRI. Contrast media was injected using an automatic power injector. Injections were made after five MR measurements were obtained. Following image acquisition, an arterial input function (AIF) graph mapping the transit time of contrast within the cerebral arteries was generated. The manually selected time points along this graph were used to compute perfusion maps. A dose and rate of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast media at 3 ml/s followed by 10 ml saline flush at 3 ml/s was used in all dogs greater than 11 kg. In all dogs >11 kg, a useable AIF and perfusion map was generated. One dog less than 11 kg received the same contrast dose and rate. In this patient, the protocol did not generate a useable AIF. The remainder of the dogs less than 11 kg followed a protocol of 0.2 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast media at 1.5 ml/s with a 10 ml saline flush at 1.5 ml/s. A useable AIF and perfusion map was generated in the remaining dogs <11 kg using the higher contrast dose and slower rate protocol. This study establishes a contrast dose and administration rate for canine DSC-MRI imaging that is different in dogs greater than 11 kg compared to dogs less than 11 kg. These protocols may be used for future applications to evaluate hemodynamic disturbances in canine intracranial pathology.

  8. Ampullary carcinoma in a patient with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Jitendra H; Yadav, Amitabh; Nundy, Samiran

    2015-04-01

    The most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas is pancreatic divisum (Tadokoro et al. in Anat Res Int 2011:1-7, 2011). Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is extremely rare (Schnedl et al. in World J Gastroenterol 15(3):376-377, 2009). We are reporting a case of agenesis of dorsal pancreas presented with ampullary carcinoma.

  9. [Heterotopic pancreas is a rare cause of bleeding and intestinal intussusception].

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mette Winther; Østergaard, John R; Tøtterup, Anders; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Grønbæk, Henning

    2015-01-12

    A young female had neurofibromatosis, annular pancreas and heterotopic pancreas, a combination not previously described. The tumour caused bleeding and intussusception of the distal part of the small intestine. An extensive range of examinations was initiated; however, the diagnosis was not clarified until explorative laparoscopy was performed. Heterotopic pancreas is worth considering as an infrequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding and invagination.

  10. Imaging findings in a case of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Chung, Won Jung; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2010-01-01

    Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma (MAEC) of the pancreas is extremely uncommon. We report here a rare case of MAEC of the pancreas presenting as watery diarrhea. This is the first report in the English-language literature that describes the imaging findings of MAEC of the pancreas, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR cholangiopancreatography features.

  11. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value <70 mg/dL and a bio-hormonal pump system consisting of insulin and glucagon pumps. Perioperative tight glycemic control using a bedside artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations.

  12. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine...

  13. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine...

  14. Correlation of quantitative dual-energy computed tomography iodine maps and abdominal computed tomography perfusion measurements: are single-acquisition dual-energy computed tomography iodine maps more than a reduced-dose surrogate of conventional computed tomography perfusion?

    PubMed

    Stiller, Wolfram; Skornitzke, Stephan; Fritz, Franziska; Klauss, Miriam; Hansen, Jens; Pahn, Gregor; Grenacher, Lars; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Study objectives were the quantitative evaluation of whether conventional abdominal computed tomography (CT) perfusion measurements mathematically correlate with quantitative single-acquisition dual-energy CT (DECT) iodine concentration maps, the determination of the optimum time of acquisition for achieving maximum correlation, and the estimation of the potential for radiation exposure reduction when replacing conventional CT perfusion by single-acquisition DECT iodine concentration maps. Dual-energy CT perfusion sequences were dynamically acquired over 51 seconds (34 acquisitions every 1.5 seconds) in 24 patients with histologically verified pancreatic carcinoma using dual-source DECT at tube potentials of 80 kVp and 140 kVp. Using software developed in-house, perfusion maps were calculated from 80-kVp image series using the maximum slope model after deformable motion correction. In addition, quantitative iodine maps were calculated for each of the 34 DECT acquisitions per patient. Within a manual segmentation of the pancreas, voxel-by-voxel correlation between the perfusion map and each of the iodine maps was calculated for each patient to determine the optimum time of acquisition topt defined as the acquisition time of the iodine map with the highest correlation coefficient. Subsequently, regions of interest were placed inside the tumor and inside healthy pancreatic tissue, and correlation between mean perfusion values and mean iodine concentrations within these regions of interest at topt was calculated for the patient sample. The mean (SD) topt was 31.7 (5.4) seconds after the start of contrast agent injection. The mean (SD) perfusion values for healthy pancreatic and tumor tissues were 67.8 (26.7) mL per 100 mL/min and 43.7 (32.2) mL per 100 mL/min, respectively. At topt, the mean (SD) iodine concentrations were 2.07 (0.71) mg/mL in healthy pancreatic and 1.69 (0.98) mg/mL in tumor tissue, respectively. Overall, the correlation between perfusion values and

  15. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-01-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age. PMID:22379198

  16. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  17. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  18. Under Utilization of Pancreas Transplants in Cystic Fibrosis Recipients in the United Network Organ Sharing (UNOS) Data 1987–2014

    PubMed Central

    Usatin, D. J.; Perito, E. R.; Posselt, A. M.; Rosenthal, P.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine insufficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF), pancreas transplantation is rarely reported. United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data were used to examine utilization of pancreas transplant and posttransplant outcomes in CF patients. Between 1987–2014, CF patients (N = 4600) underwent 17 liver–pancreas, three lung–pancreas, one liver–lung pancreas, four kidney–pancreas, and three pancreas-only transplants. Of the 303 CF patients who received liver transplantation, 20% had CF-related diabetes (CFRD) before transplantation, and nine of those received a liver–pancreas transplant. Of 4241 CF patients who underwent lung transplantation, 33% had CFRD before transplantation, and three of those received a pancreas transplant. Of 49 CF patients who received a liver–lung transplant, 57% had CFRD before transplantation and one received a pancreas transplant. Posttransplantation diabetes developed in 7% of CF pancreas transplant recipients versus 24% of CF liver and 29% of CF lung recipients. UNOS has no data on pancreas exocrine insufficiency. Two-year post-transplantation survival was 88% after liver–pancreas transplant, 33% after lung–pancreas transplant, and 100% after pancreas–kidney and pancreas-only transplants. Diabetes is common pretransplantation and posttransplantation in CF solid organ transplant recipients, but pancreas transplantation remains rare. Further consideration of pancreas transplant in CF patients undergoing other solid organ transplant may be warranted. PMID:26603034

  19. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Bianchi, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever on the Segmented Arch Technique (SAT) concept. A 14.7-year-old female patient appeared at clinic complaining about the absence of the upper right permanent canine. The proposed treatment prioritized the traction of the upper right canine without changing the occlusion and aesthetics. For this, it only installed the upper fixed appliance (Roth with slot 0.018), opting for SAT in order to minimize unwanted side effects. The use of cantilever to the traction of the upper right canine has enabled an efficient and predictable outcome, because it is of statically determined mechanics. PMID:27800192

  20. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage.

  1. Evolution of pulmonary perfusion defects demonstrated with contrast-enhanced dynamic MR perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Howarth, N R; Beziat, C; Berthezène, Y

    1999-01-01

    Pulmonary perfusion defects can be demonstrated with contrast-enhanced dynamic MR perfusion imaging. We present the case of a patient with a pulmonary artery sarcoma who presented with a post-operative pulmonary embolus and was followed in the post-operative period with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion imaging. This technique allows rapid imaging of the first passage of contrast material through the lung after bolus injection in a peripheral vein. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe the use of this MR technique in showing the evolution of peripheral pulmonary perfusion defects associated with pulmonary emboli.

  2. Canine pyometra: What is new?

    PubMed

    Hagman, R

    2016-11-03

    Pyometra is a common disease in countries where elective spaying is not routinely performed. Hormonal and bacterial factors are fundamental in the pathogenesis of the disease, which manifests itself as a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus. Surgical ovariohysterectomy is the safest and most effective treatment for pyometra, and it has recently been shown that laparoscopically assisted methods for surgical treatment are feasible to use in selected cases. New protocols for improved medical treatment alternatives have also been tested with promising results. To be able to predict outcome and presence of complications early would be valuable in clinical practice for optimizing therapy and increasing survival. Results of commonly investigated clinical and laboratory investigations have been shown to be useful as predictive markers, with leucopenia being associated with increased risk of peritonitis as well as prolonged post-operative hospitalization after surgical treatment. A cage-side rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test would be highly valuable in clinical practice, and detection of pyometra-specific upregulated genes in the uterus and the corresponding products is a potential start in identifying novel markers suitable for such as test. The focus of the present review is to highlight recent findings on pathogenesis, prediction of outcome, diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, central research questions and suggestions for future investigations about several aspects of canine pyometra will be addressed.

  3. Canine and feline abortion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, D H

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the causes of canine or feline pregnancy loss is limited and the success rate for making a definitive diagnosis is disappointingly low. Although these facts are discouraging, there are some things that can be done to improve success rates. This paper will address limitations and explore ways for improvement. For abortions caused by microbial infections, there are many reasons why it may not possible to identify the agents. "Non-infectious" causes are much more difficult to diagnose, and their relative importance is unknown. These include endocrine failure, underlying endometrial disease, genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, and toxicosis from drugs or environmental sources. Genetic abnormalities are a major cause of human pregnancy loss, yet we have little specific information about genetic diseases leading to abortion in animals. This paper addresses ways clinicians and diagnosticians can work together to improve diagnostic success. Necropsy techniques for fetal and placental examination and sampling are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that this series of papers will stimulate discussion on the causes and pathogenesis of pregnancy failure, and focus attention on areas where abortion diagnostics can be improved.

  4. Conditions associated with canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Panciera, D L

    2001-09-01

    Careful review of the literature regarding clinical signs caused by hypothyroidism in dogs has shown that some assumptions regarding the relation of hypothyroidism to other conditions are based on anecdotal evidence. Cutaneous manifestations are present in most hypothyroid dogs, but the specific abnormalities and breed variations remain to be clearly defined. Decreased metabolic rate manifested by obesity and lethargy is also common. Neurologic manifestations, although uncommon, clearly occur in hypothyroid dogs. Cardiac abnormalities seem to be common, but their clinical significance is questionable. The only consistent hematologic abnormality that occurs in hypothyroid dogs is anemia; evidence for acquired von Willebrand's disease or other bleeding disorders is negligible. Reproductive dysfunction secondary to hypothyroidism is unlikely to occur in male dogs, and there is no evidence to support abnormalities in female dogs. The relation of megaesophagus, laryngeal paralysis, ocular abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders with hypothyroidism remains to be established. Future research into canine hypothyroidism may serve to convert dogma into a more clear understanding of the manifestations and pathophysiologic findings of this common endocrinopathy.

  5. Luminal distension as a possible consequence of experimental intestinal perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Wingate, David; Hyams, Ashley; Phillips, Sidney

    1974-01-01

    In an experimental jejunal perfusion study, distress in healthy subjects occurred during eight out of 16 perfusions in which intestinal secretion was provoked. Calculation demonstrates the volumetric consequences of inadequate recovery of secretory perfusates, and analysis of the perfusion studies shows that distress was significantly associated with poor recovery of the perfusate. These observations are pertinent to increasing interest in the phenomenon of intestinal fluid secretion. PMID:4435588

  6. Heterogeneity in stabilization phenomena in FLT PET images of canines

    PubMed Central

    Simoncic, Urban; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-01-01

    3′-(18F)fluoro-3′-deoxy-L-thymidine (FLT) is a PET marker of cellular proliferation. Its tissue uptake rate is often quantified with a Standardized Uptake Value (SUV), although kinetic analysis provides a more accurate quantification. The purpose of this study is to investigate the heterogeneity in FLT stabilization phenomena. The study was done on 15 canines with spontaneously occurring sinonasal tumours. They were imaged dynamically for 90 min with FLT PET/CT twice; before and during the radiotherapy. Images were analyzed for kinetics on a voxel basis through compartmental analysis. Stabilization curves were calculated as a time-dependant correlation between the time-dependant SUV and the kinetic parameters (voxel values within the tumour were correlated). Stabilization curves were analyzed for stabilization speed, maximal correlation and correlation decrease following the maximal correlation. These stabilization parameters were correlated with the region-averaged kinetic parameters. The FLT SUV was highly correlated with vasculature fraction immediately post-injection, followed by maximum in correlation with the perfusion/permeability. At later times post-injection the FLT SUV was highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient above 0.95) with the FLT influx parameter for cases with tumour-averaged SUV30–50min above 2, while others were indeterminate (correlation coefficients from 0.1 to 0.97). All cases with highly correlated SUV and FLT influx parameter had correlation coefficient within 0.5% of its maximum in the period of 30–50 min post-injection. Stabilization time was inversely proportional to the FLT influx rate. Correlation between the FLT SUV and FLT influx parameter dropped at later times post-injection with drop being proportional to the dephosphorylation rate. The FLT was found to be metabolically stable in canines. FLT PET imaging protocol should define minimal and maximal FLT uptake period, which would be 30–50 min for our patients

  7. Stimulus-secretion coupling in the developing exocrine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.Y.S.

    1986-01-01

    Acinar cells of the embryonic pancreas are filled with zymogen granules containing, among others, the secretory protein, cholecystokinin (CCK) ..cap alpha..-amylase, the rate of amylase secretion from pancreatic lobules incubated in vitro was not increased in response to CCK. In contrast, the rate of CCK-stimulated amylase discharge from the neonatal pancreas was increased 4- to 8-fold above that seen in the embryonic gland. The postnatal amplification of secretory responsiveness was not associated with an increase in the level of /sup 125/I-CCK octapeptide specifically bound/cell equivalent or a change in the affinity of binding. Light microscopic autoradiography revealed a similar /sup 125/I-CCK-33 labeling pattern in pancreatic lobules from both ages with autoradiographic grains specifically localized at the periphery of acinar cells. In order to determine whether CCK binding is coupled to a rise in the cytosolic Ca/sup + +/concentration, (Ca/sup + +/)c, in the embryonic pancreas, /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ efflux from tracer-loaded lobules was measured. Efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ from both embryonic and neonatal pancreas was comparably increased in the presence of CCK.

  8. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as “fatty infiltration” or “nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease” (NAFPD). The term “fatty replacement” describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of “ectopic fat deposition”, which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula. PMID:27678349

  9. Telocytes in pancreas of the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhong, Shengwei; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-11-01

    Telocytes (TCs), novel interstitial cells, have been identified in various organs of many mammals. However, information about TCs of lower animals remains rare. Herein, pancreatic TCs of the Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus) were identified by CD34 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The IHC micrographs revealed CD34(+) TCs with long telopodes (Tps) that were located in the interstitium of the pancreas. CD34(+) TCs/Tps were frequently observed between exocrine acinar cells and were close to blood vessels. The TEM micrographs also showed the existence of TCs in the interstitium of the pancreas. TCs had distinctive ultrastructural features, such as one to three very long and thin Tps with podoms and podomers, caveolae, dichotomous branching, neighbouring exosomes and vesicles. The Tps and exosomes were found in close proximity to exocrine acinar cells and α cells. It is suggested that TCs may play a role in the regeneration of acinar cells and α cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the presence of TCs in the pancreas of the Chinese giant salamander. This finding will assist us in a better understanding of TCs functions in the amphibian pancreas. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-09-14

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as "fatty infiltration" or "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease" (NAFPD). The term "fatty replacement" describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of "ectopic fat deposition", which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula.

  11. Effects of soybean flour on the pancreas of rats.

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, E E; Morgan, R G; Wormsley, K G

    1984-01-01

    We have reviewed the growth-promoting and carcinogenic effects of feeding raw soya flour to rats. If the raw soya flour-containing diets are fed for more than a year, about 10% of the animals develop pancreatic cancer. In addition, feeding raw soya flour markedly potentiates the action of even subthreshold amounts of pancreatic carcinogens. The raw soya flour therefore acts as a potent promoter, as well as a weak carcinogen. In view of this promotion, the rat fed raw soya flour is a sensitive model for screening pancreatic carcinogens. It is not known whether the human pancreas responds to dietary trypsin inhibitors in a manner similar to the rat. However, in view of the use of soya-based products in human nutrition--especially in infant foods--we urge that the effect of all soya-based products intended for human use be tested on the rat pancreas in long-term feeding studies, combined with subthreshold doses of azaserine to highlight any promoting activity of the product. It seems probable that if a product exerts no effect on the rat pancreas, the human pancreas will also be spared from noxious effects. PMID:6207016

  12. Usefulness of artificial endocrine pancreas during resection of insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Kayo; Kawahito, Shinji; Mita, Naoji; Takaishi, Kazumi; Kawahara, Tomiya; Soga, Tomohiro; Katayama, Toshiko; Imura, Satoru; Morine, Yuji; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Shimada, Mitsuo; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman had an episode of syncope due to hypoglycemia of 27 mg/dl. She was diagnosed with insulinoma and scheduled for laparoscopic enucleation along with the use of an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Her blood glucose level was controlled using the artificial endocrine pancreas, which enabled continuous blood glucose monitoring and computer-operated glucose and insulin infusion to maintain the blood glucose level at a steady state. The target concentration of blood glucose was set at 80-120 mg/dl during surgery. Until removal of the tumor, the blood glucose level was kept at around 80-100 mg/dl. After removal of the tumor, the blood glucose level gradually increased, but it was kept in the normal range by the artificial endocrine pancreas. The artificial endocrine pancreas was useful to monitor and maintain blood glucose levels during and after the removal of insulinoma, without any hyper- or hypoglycemia.

  13. The head of the pancreas: another unusual site of coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Sam; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Barry, Maged; Yavrouian, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The lung is the most common site of coccidioidomycosis, with extrapulmonary sites of infection being described rarely. To date, the pancreas has not been reported as an isolated site of coccidioidomycosis. Case report and literature review. Computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy and gram staining of the pancreatic lesion of an immunocompetent patient without known risk factors revealed coccidioidomycosis of the head of the pancreas without malignant neoplasm or atypia. Serologic tests yielded positive titers for antibodies to Coccidioides lmmitis. The patient responded to treatment with fluconazole, as evidenced by regression of her pancreatic lesion by CT and negative serologic test results for Coccidioides upon completion of treatment. Solid masses in the head of the pancreas encountered in surgical practice are challenging in terms of both surgical technique and diagnosis. Although malignant disease remains a high possibility in the differential diagnosis of such masses, and must always be considered until proved to be absent, non-malignant etiologies should also be considered. In a number of patients with benign lesions of the pancreatic head, unnecessary surgical exploration and resection is avoidable. Although they are rare, several fungal infections of the pancreas have been reported in the literature. The unusual case of coccidioidomycosis of the pancreatic head presented here adds to the list of uncommon causes of pancreatic lesions. Surgeons and physicians managing patients in areas in which coccidioidomycosis is endemic should be aware of this rare entity.

  14. Improved exercise myocardial perfusion during lidoflazine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, W.; Narahara, K.A.; Park, J.

    1983-11-01

    Lidoflazine is a synthetic drug with calcium-channel blocking effects. In a study of 6 patients with severe classic angina pectoris, single-blind administration of lidoflazine was associated with improved myocardial perfusion during exercise as determined by thallium-201 stress scintigraphy. These studies demonstrate that lidoflazine therapy is associated with relief of angina, an increased physical work capacity, and improved regional myocardial perfusion during exercise.

  15. Vicarious Audiovisual Learning in Perfusion Education

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Thomas E.; Holt, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Perfusion technology is a mechanical and visual science traditionally taught with didactic instruction combined with clinical experience. It is difficult to provide perfusion students the opportunity to experience difficult clinical situations, set up complex perfusion equipment, or observe corrective measures taken during catastrophic events because of patient safety concerns. Although high fidelity simulators offer exciting opportunities for future perfusion training, we explore the use of a less costly low fidelity form of simulation instruction, vicarious audiovisual learning. Two low fidelity modes of instruction; description with text and a vicarious, first person audiovisual production depicting the same content were compared. Students (n = 37) sampled from five North American perfusion schools were prospectively randomized to one of two online learning modules, text or video. These modules described the setup and operation of the MAQUET ROTAFLOW standalone centrifugal console and pump. Using a 10 question multiple-choice test, students were assessed immediately after viewing the module (test #1) and then again 2 weeks later (test #2) to determine cognition and recall of the module content. In addition, students completed a questionnaire assessing the learning preferences of today’s perfusion student. Mean test scores from test #1 for video learners (n = 18) were significantly higher (88.89%) than for text learners (n = 19) (74.74%), (p < .05). The same was true for test #2 where video learners (n = 10) had an average score of 77% while text learners (n = 9) scored 60% (p < .05). Survey results indicated video learners were more satisfied with their learning module than text learners. Vicarious audiovisual learning modules may be an efficacious, low cost means of delivering perfusion training on subjects such as equipment setup and operation. Video learning appears to improve cognition and retention of learned content and may play an important

  16. The effect of canine characteristics and symmetry on perceived smile attractiveness when canine teeth are substituted for lateral incisors.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Wendy Jane; Barber, Sophy K; Spencer, Richard James

    2015-03-01

    To determine the effect of canine tooth characteristics and symmetry on perceived smile attractiveness when maxillary canine teeth are substituted for missing lateral incisors. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Non-clinical study undertaken from Leeds Dental Institute, UK. A composite full-face image of a smiling female was used to display various dentitions; a control image with an 'ideal' smile, plus six further images substituting the maxillary lateral incisors with canine teeth either unilaterally or bilaterally with varying size, shape, colour and gingival margin level. The seven images were shown to orthodontists (n = 30), dentists (n = 30) and lay people (n = 30) who were asked to rate smile attractiveness using a visual analogue scale. Dental professionals rated smiles with canine substitution for lateral incisor agenesis to be significantly less attractive than an ideal smile unless the substituted canine teeth approximated the lateral incisor in terms of size, shape, colour and gingival margin. Lay people did not find smiles where canine teeth were substituted for lateral incisors significantly more or less attractive than an ideal smile regardless of the canine tooth characteristics. Dental professionals were significantly more perceptive than lay people to the deviation from ideal smile aesthetics due to canine substitution. Smiles with unilateral canine substitution were not found to be significantly less attractive than bilateral canine substitution by all groups. Canine characteristics and observer status will affect how canine substitution for lateral incisor agenesis is viewed in terms of aesthetic outcome.

  17. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to <10 °C after 30 min. Using an intravascular flush (Method B) improved cooling during the entire duration of procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and

  18. Response of cyt a,a3 in the situ canine heart to transient ischemic episodes.

    PubMed

    Snow, T R; Kleinmann, L H; LaManna, J C; Wechsler, A S; Jöbsis, F F

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the response of cyt a,a3 to transient ischemic and hypoxic episodes in the empty, fibrillating canine heart in situ. Using a dual wavelength, differential spectrophotometer, reaction spectra show an absorption peak at approximately 605 nm consistent with that obtained from purified cyt a,a3. The characteristics of the averaged reaction spectrum in the interval 590 nm to 610 nm indicate that hemoglobin/myoglobin contribute no more than 23% to the signal measured at 605 nm. A regimen of one 30 sec global ischemia (GI) repeated once every 3 minutes over a 90 min period showed no appreciable signal deterioration. Therefore, five such interventions were subsequently used as the test perturbation. Studies of the effects of ischemic episodes of 30 and 60 min show that the response of cyt a,a3 to this test intervention was smaller (90 +/- 6% and 89 +/- 7%) than that observed prior to the ischemic episode. Changes in coronary perfusion pressure (+/- 10 Torr) produced an immediate oxidation/reduction of cyt a,a3. In the working heart, just prior to fibrillation, 6 sec to interrupted ventilation resulted in a continuous reduction of cyt a,a3. The data from these studies show: 1) The redox state of cyt a,a3 may be continuously monitored in the canine heart in situ. 2) Following ischemias of 30 and 60 min duration, respiratory chain function may be impaired; and 3) The well-perfused epicardium is extremely sensitive to small changes in oxygen delivery.

  19. Role of perfusion imaging in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, N

    2013-03-01

    Imaging has a central role in the diagnosis and classification of acute stroke, the triage of patients to different treatment approaches and the prediction of the clinical outcome and the risk of hemorrhagic complications. A multimodal imaging protocol that includes a perfusion study allows diagnostics beyond anatomical findings by enabling the characterization of the ischemic brain tissue and the cerebral hemodynamic state. This information potentially leads to more accurate clinical decision making with the intention to select the right patients for different revascularization therapies regardless of fixed time windows. Perfusion imaging enables the detection and quantification of the irreversibly damaged infarct core and the at-risk penumbra. Parameters derived from perfusion studies can serve as surrogate markers for stroke severity and are independent predictors of the clinical outcome and the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications. The validation and standardization of the perfusion methodology is still ongoing. Currently there is emerging but no high level evidence that perfusion imaging improves the clinical outcome or has a direct impact on the decision to treat the patient with intravenous thrombolytic therapy or intra-arterial interventions. Thus, definite guidelines on the role of the perfusion imaging in the context of acute stroke cannot yet be given.

  20. Hydroxyethyl starch solution for extracorporeal tissue perfusion.

    PubMed

    Taeger, Christian D; Friedrich, Oliver; Drechsler, Caroline; Weigand, Annika; Hobe, Frieder; Geppert, Carol I; Münch, Frank; Birkholz, Torsten; Buchholz, Rainer; Horch, Raymund E; Präbst, Konstantin

    2016-11-04

    In the field of free flap transfer in reconstructive surgery, the trans- or replanted tissue always undergoes cell damage during ischemia to a more or less strong extent. In previous studies we already showed that conserving muscle transplants by means of extracorporeal perfusion over a period of 6 hours by using a crystalloid solution for perfusion. However, we observed significant edema formation. In this study we aimed at reducing the edema formation by using an iso-oncotic colloid as perfusion solution. This way we wanted to evaluate a possible new application of hydroxyl-ethyl starch in an extracorporeal setup to exploit potential benefits of the colloid.Examined parameters include the muscles' functionality with external field stimulation, histological examination and edema formation. Perfused muscles showed a statistically significant higher ability to exert force compared to nonperfused ones. These findings can be confirmed using Annexin V as marker for cell damage, as perfusion of muscle tissue limits damage significantly compared to nonperfused tissue. Substituting the electrolyte perfusion solution with a colloidal one shows the tendency to reduce the edema formation however without statistical significance.

  1. Perfusion visualization and analysis for pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Michael S.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

    2005-04-01

    Given the nature of pulmonary embolism (PE), timely and accurate diagnosis is critical. Contrast enhanced high-resolution CT images allow physicians to accurately identify segmental and sub-segmental emboli. However, it is also important to assess the effect of such emboli on the blood flow in the lungs. Expanding upon previous research, we propose a method for 3D visualization of lung perfusion. The proposed method allows users to examine perfusion throughout the entire lung volume at a single glance, with areas of diminished perfusion highlighted so that they are visible independent of the viewing location. This may be particularly valuable for better accuracy in assessing the extent of hemodynamic alterations resulting from pulmonary emboli. The method also facilitates user interaction and may help identify small peripheral sub-segmental emboli otherwise overlooked. 19 patients referred for possible PE were evaluated by CT following the administration of IV contrast media. An experienced thoracic radiologist assessed the 19 datasets with 17 diagnosed as being positive for PE with multiple emboli. Since anomalies in lung perfusion due to PE can alter the distribution of parenchymal densities, we analyzed features collected from histograms of the computed perfusion maps and demonstrate their potential usefulness as a preliminary test to suggest the presence of PE. These histogram features also offer the possibility of distinguishing distinct patterns associated with chronic PE and may even be useful for further characterization of changes in perfusion or overall density resulting from associated conditions such as pneumonia or diffuse lung disease.

  2. Persufflation (or Gaseous Oxygen Perfusion) as a Method of Organ Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Suszynski, Thomas M.; Rizzari, Michael D.; Scott, William E.; Tempelman, Linda A.; Taylor, Michael J.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2012-01-01

    Improved preservation techniques have the potential to improve transplant outcomes by better maintaining donor organ quality and by making more organs available for allotransplantation. Persufflation, (PSF, gaseous oxygen perfusion) is potentially one such technique that has been studied for over a century in a variety of tissues, but has yet to gain wide acceptance for a number of reasons. A principal barrier is the perception that ex vivo PSF will cause in vivo embolization post-transplant. This review summarizes the extensive published work on heart, liver, kidney, small intestine and pancreas PSF, discusses the differences between anterograde and retrograde PSF and between PSF and other conventional methods of organ preservation (static cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion). Prospective implications of PSF within the broader field of organ transplantation, and in the specific application with pancreatic islet isolation and transplant are also discussed. Finally, key issues that need to be addressed before PSF becomes a more widely utilized preservation strategy are summarized and discussed. PMID:22301419

  3. Intracellular calcium in canine muscle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Valentine, B A; Cooper, B J; Gallagher, E A

    1989-04-01

    Intracellular staining for calcium was studied in muscle biopsies from 15 dogs by the alizarin red S (ARS) stain. Rare positive fibres were present in normal muscle and in denervation atrophy. The percentage of positive fibres was slightly increased in polymyositis, dermatomyositis and canine temporal/masseter myositis and markedly increased in progressive muscular dystrophy. Calcium-positive fibres were usually so-called large-dark (hypercontracted) fibres or necrotic fibres, although there was occasional staining of normal and atrophied fibres. These results indicate the probable involvement of calcium in muscle injury in canine inflammatory myopathies and in canine muscular dystrophy. In addition, use of the ARS stain appears to be useful for detecting the earliest lesions of acute muscle fibre injury.

  4. Biomarkers in canine inflammatory bowel disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak, M; Rychlik, A; Kołodziejska-Sawerska, A

    2013-01-01

    Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous group of chronic gastrointestinal disorders. The etiology, similar to human IBD, remains unknown. Canine IBD is diagnosed by exclusion, which is a long, time and money-consuming process due to the need of elimination of other diseases presenting with similar symptoms. Therefore, a search for a specific and sensitive marker is needed to overcome these difficulties. The article is divided into 3 sections presenting up-to-date information about laboratory markers, immunohistochemical markers and changes in the neurochemical coding of the enteric nervous system, concentrating on their usefulness and future applications. Data concerning laboratory and immunohistochemical markers is based mainly on canine IBD, while the neuroimmunohistochemistry section presents knowledge from human IBD due to the lack of such studies in veterinary medicine.

  5. Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio >1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in >1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  6. An analysis of the lack of donor pancreas utilization from younger adult organ donors.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Alexander C; Wainright, Jennifer L; Sleeman, Elizabeth; McBride, Maureen A; Baker, Tim; Samana, Ciara; Stock, Peter

    2010-09-15

    Donor pancreas utilization rates for whole organ transplant have remained low and have decreased over time. To identify the reasons for nonuse of pancreas from donors who meet common baseline acceptance criteria, we examined Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data from 2005 to 2007 and identified a subgroup of 1763 "potential pancreas donors" defined by age (19-40 years), body mass index (<30 kg/m), successful liver donation, and negative viral serology testing, which were not used. We characterize this cohort of potential donors including reasons for refusal, factors that may contribute to pancreas acceptance and function, and potential explanations for the lack of growth in pancreas organ utilization.

  7. A stubborn anemia caused by ectopic pancreas bleeding in the jejunum revealed by capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qun-Ying; Yang, Xiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is extremely rare in clinical setting. Meanwhile, a stubborn anemia without obvious dark bloody stool due to ectopic pancreas diagnosed by capsule endoscopy has not been reported. We reported a case of an ectopic pancreas inducing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in a 70-year-old woman presenting as stubborn anemia, which was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy. The patient recovered well after resection the lesion. Diagnosis of ectopic pancreas is extremely difficult with conventional techniques. Endoscopists should pay more attention to the ectopic pancreas as a rare differential consideration for occult intestinal bleeding. PMID:26682148

  8. Pancreatic stellate cells--multi-functional cells in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a pivotal role in pancreatic fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In addition, we have seen great progress in our understanding of the cell biology of PSCs and the interactions between PSCs and other cell types in the pancreas. In response to pancreatic injury or inflammation, quiescent PSCs are activated to myofibroblast-like cells. Recent studies have shown that the activation of intracellular signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinases plays a role in the activation of PSCs. microRNAs might also play a role, because the microRNA expression profiles are dramatically altered in the process of activation. In addition to producing extracellular matrix components such as type I collagen, PSCs have a wide variety of cell functions related to local immunity, inflammation, angiogenesis, and exocrine and endocrine functions in the pancreas. From this point of view, the interactions between PSCs and other cell types such as pancreatic exocrine cells, endocrine cells, and cancer cells have attracted increasing attention of researchers. PSCs might regulate exocrine functions in the pancreas through the cholecystokinin-induced release of acetylcholine. PSCs induce apoptosis and decrease insulin expression in β-cells, suggesting a novel mechanism of diabetes in diseased pancreas. PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by multiple mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that PSCs induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and enhance the stem-cell like features of pancreatic cancer cells. In conclusion, PSCs should now be recognized as not only profibrogenic cells but as multi-functional cells in the pancreas.

  9. Pancreatic autoantibodies after pancreas-kidney transplantation - do they matter?

    PubMed

    Martins, La Salete; Henriques, Antonio C; Fonseca, Isabel M; Rodrigues, Anabela S; Oliverira, José C; Dores, Jorge M; Dias, Leonidio S; Cabrita, Antonio M; Silva, José D; Noronha, Irene L

    2014-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes recurrence has been documented in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants (SPKT), but this diagnosis may be underestimated. Antibody monitoring is the most simple, noninvasive, screening test for pancreas autoimmune activity. However, the impact of the positive autoimmune markers on pancreas graft function remains controversial. In our cohort of 105 SPKT, we studied the cases with positive pancreatic autoantibodies. They were immunosuppressed with antithymocyte globulin, tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and steroids. The persistence or reappearance of these autoantibodies after SPKT and factors associated with their evolution and with graft outcome were analyzed. Pancreatic autoantibodies were prospectively monitored. Serum samples were collected before transplantation and at least once per year thereafter. At the end of the follow-up (maximum 138 months), 43.8% of patients were positive (from pre-transplant or after recurrence) for at least one autoantibody - the positive group. Antiglutamic acid decarboxylase was the most prevalent (31.4%), followed by anti-insulin (8.6%) and anti-islet cell autoantibodies (3.8%). Bivariate analysis showed that the positive group had higher fasting glucose, higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lower C-peptide levels, and a higher number of HLA-matches. Analyzing the sample divided into four groups according to pre-/post-transplant autoantibodies profile, the negative/positive group tended to present the higher HbA1c values. Multivariate analysis confirmed the significant association between pancreas autoimmunity and HbA1c and C-peptide levels. Positivity for these autoantibodies pre-transplantation did not influence pancreas survival. The unfavorable glycemic profile observed in the autoantibody-positive SPKT is a matter of concern, which deserves further attention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Deep convolutional networks for pancreas segmentation in CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Holger R.; Farag, Amal; Lu, Le; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Automatic organ segmentation is an important prerequisite for many computer-aided diagnosis systems. The high anatomical variability of organs in the abdomen, such as the pancreas, prevents many segmentation methods from achieving high accuracies when compared to state-of-the-art segmentation of organs like the liver, heart or kidneys. Recently, the availability of large annotated training sets and the accessibility of affordable parallel computing resources via GPUs have made it feasible for "deep learning" methods such as convolutional networks (ConvNets) to succeed in image classification tasks. These methods have the advantage that used classification features are trained directly from the imaging data. We present a fully-automated bottom-up method for pancreas segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images of the abdomen. The method is based on hierarchical coarse-to-fine classification of local image regions (superpixels). Superpixels are extracted from the abdominal region using Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC). An initial probability response map is generated, using patch-level confidences and a two-level cascade of random forest classifiers, from which superpixel regions with probabilities larger 0.5 are retained. These retained superpixels serve as a highly sensitive initial input of the pancreas and its surroundings to a ConvNet that samples a bounding box around each superpixel at different scales (and random non-rigid deformations at training time) in order to assign a more distinct probability of each superpixel region being pancreas or not. We evaluate our method on CT images of 82 patients (60 for training, 2 for validation, and 20 for testing). Using ConvNets we achieve maximum Dice scores of an average 68% +/- 10% (range, 43-80%) in testing. This shows promise for accurate pancreas segmentation, using a deep learning approach and compares favorably to state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Compative study of bladder versus enteric drainage in pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Romero, C; Manrique, A; Meneu, J C; Cambra, F; Andrés, A; Morales, J M; González, E; Hernández, E; Morales, E; Praga, M; Gutierrez, E; Moreno, E

    2009-01-01

    There is some controversy concerning the choice of best technique for drainage of exocrine secretions in pancreas transplantation. We compared patients with bladder drainage (BD) versus those with enteric drainage (ED). From March 1995 to September 2008, 118 patients (68 men and 50 women) of overall mean age of 37.8 +/- 7.8 years underwent pancreas transplantation. There were 109 simultaneous pancreas-kidney, and 9 pancreas after kidney procedures. Recipients were divided in a BD (n = 66 patients) and an ED group (n = 52). Donor characteristics were similar in both groups. Thirty-two patients (48.5%) of the BD group versus none in the ED group experienced urinary tract infections (UTI; P < .001), and 16 patients (24.2%) BD versus 15 (29.4%) ED developed intraabdominal infections (P = NS). The overall rate of relaparotomies was 33.9% (n = 40): 34.8% (n = 23) in the BD versus 32.7% (n = 17) in the ED group (P = NS). Thirty patients (25.4%) lost their pancreas grafts: 21 (31.8%) in the BD group versus 9 (17.3%) in the ED group (P = .055). The acute rejection rates were 12.7%; namely, 15.2% in the BD versus 9.8% in the ED (P = NS). Three-year patient and graft survivals were equivalent in both groups: 96.1% and 65.3% in the BD versus 89.0% and 74.0% in the ED group, respectively (P = NS). ED is a good alternative to BD for drainage of pancreatic graft exocrine secretions because both techniques have the same patient and graft survival, but BD is associated with a significantly higher rate of UTI and urologic complications.

  12. Pancreas transplantation: Advantages of a retroperitoneal graft position.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Joana; Molina, Víctor; Rull, Ramón; López-Boado, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Santiago; García, Rocío; Ricart, Ma José; Ventura-Aguiar, Pedro; García-Criado, Ángeles; Esmatjes, Enric; Fuster, Josep; Garcia-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos

    2017-07-05

    In the 50 years since the first pancreas transplant performed at the University of Minnesota, the surgical techniques employed have undergone many modifications. Techniques such as retroperitoneal graft placement have further improved the ability to reproduce the physiology of the «native» pancreas. We herein present our experience of a modified technique for pancreatic transplant, with the organ placed into a fully retroperitoneal position with systemic venous and enteric drainage of the graft by duodeno-duodenostomy. All pancreas transplantations performed between May 2016 and January 2017 were prospectively entered into our transplant database and retrospectively analyzed. A total of 10 transplants were performed using the retroperitoneal technique (6 men: median age of 41 years [IQR 36-54]). Median cold ischemia times was 10,30h [IQR 5,30-12,10]. The preservation solution used was Celsior (n=7), IGL-1 (n=2), and UW (n=1). No complications related to the new surgical technique were identified. In one patient, transplantectomy at 12h was performed due to graft thrombosis, probably related to ischemic conditions from a donor with prolonged cardio-respiratory arrest. Another procedure was aborted without completing the graft implant due to an intraoperative immediate arterial thrombosis in a patient with severe iliac atheromatosis. No primary pancreas non-function occurred in the remaining 8patients. The median hospital stay was 13,50 days [IQR 10-27]. Retroperitoneal graft placement appears feasible with easy access for dissection the vascular site; comfortable technical vascular reconstruction; and a decreased risk of intestinal obstruction by separation of the small bowel from the pancreas graft. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. MRI-guided cryoablation - in vivo assessment of focal canine prostate cryolesions

    PubMed Central

    Josan, Sonal; Bouley, Donna M.; van den Bosch, Maurice; Daniel, Bruce L.; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the appearance of acute and chronic canine prostate cryolesions on T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI, compare them with contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI and histology, for a variety of freezing protocols. Methods Three different freezing protocols were used in canine prostate cryoablation experiments. Six acute and seven chronic (survival times ranging between 4-53 days) experiments were performed. The change in T2w signal intensity was correlated with freezing protocol parameters. The lesion area on T2w MRI was compared to CE-MRI. Histopathologic evaluation of the cryolesions was performed and visually compared to appearance on MRI. Results The T2w signal increased from pre-to-post freeze at the site of the cryolesion, and the enhancement was higher for smaller freeze area and duration. The T2w lesion area was between the CE non-perfused area and the hyper-enhancing CE rim. The appearance of the lesion on T1w and T2w imaging over time correlated with outcome on pathology. Conclusion T1w and T2w MRI can potentially be used to assess cryolesions and to monitor tissure response over time following cryoablation. PMID:19557805

  14. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. PMID:24841386

  15. Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

  16. Oncolytic virotherapy of canine and feline cancer.

    PubMed

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-05-16

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

  17. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  18. Use of the Electronic Medical Record to Assess Pancreas Size in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Virostko, John; Hilmes, Melissa; Eitel, Kelsey; Moore, Daniel J.; Powers, Alvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study harnessed the electronic medical record to assess pancreas volume in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and matched controls to determine whether pancreas volume is altered in T1D and identify covariates that influence pancreas volume. Methods This study included 25 patients with T1D and 25 age-, sex-, and weight-matched controls from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center enterprise data warehouse. Measurements of pancreas volume were made from medical imaging studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Results Patients with T1D had a pancreas volume 47% smaller than matched controls (41.16 ml vs. 77.77 ml, P < 0.0001) as well as pancreas volume normalized by subject body weight, body mass index, or body surface area (all P < 0.0001). Pancreatic volume was smaller with a longer duration of T1D across the patient population (N = 25, P = 0.04). Additionally, four individual patients receiving multiple imaging scans displayed progressive declines in pancreas volume over time (~ 6% of volume/year), whereas five controls scanned a year apart did not exhibit a decline in pancreas size (P = 0.03). The pancreas was uniformly smaller on the right and left side of the abdomen. Conclusions Pancreas volume declines with disease duration in patients with T1D, suggesting a protracted pathological process that may include the exocrine pancreas. PMID:27391588

  19. Use of the Electronic Medical Record to Assess Pancreas Size in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Virostko, John; Hilmes, Melissa; Eitel, Kelsey; Moore, Daniel J; Powers, Alvin C

    2016-01-01

    This study harnessed the electronic medical record to assess pancreas volume in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and matched controls to determine whether pancreas volume is altered in T1D and identify covariates that influence pancreas volume. This study included 25 patients with T1D and 25 age-, sex-, and weight-matched controls from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center enterprise data warehouse. Measurements of pancreas volume were made from medical imaging studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Patients with T1D had a pancreas volume 47% smaller than matched controls (41.16 ml vs. 77.77 ml, P < 0.0001) as well as pancreas volume normalized by subject body weight, body mass index, or body surface area (all P < 0.0001). Pancreatic volume was smaller with a longer duration of T1D across the patient population (N = 25, P = 0.04). Additionally, four individual patients receiving multiple imaging scans displayed progressive declines in pancreas volume over time (~ 6% of volume/year), whereas five controls scanned a year apart did not exhibit a decline in pancreas size (P = 0.03). The pancreas was uniformly smaller on the right and left side of the abdomen. Pancreas volume declines with disease duration in patients with T1D, suggesting a protracted pathological process that may include the exocrine pancreas.

  20. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas and its association with pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Sakpal, Sujit Vijay; Sexcius, Lucretia; Babel, Nitin; Chamberlain, Ronald Scott

    2009-05-01

    Morphogenesis of the pancreas is a complex process; nevertheless, congenital anomalies are rare. At embryogenesis, the pancreas develops from the endoderm-lined dorsal and ventral buds of the duodenum. The ventral bud gives rise to the lower head and uncinate process of the pancreas; whereas, the dorsal bud gives rise to the upper head, isthmus, body, and tail of the pancreas. Rarely, developmental failure of the dorsal pancreatic bud at embryogenesis results in the agenesis of the dorsal pancreas--neck, body, and tail. Even rarer is the association of pancreatic tumors with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas. In addition to citing our case, we provide a comprehensive review on agenesis of the dorsal pancreas and its association with pancreatic tumors.