Science.gov

Sample records for perfused canine pancreas

  1. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  2. Calcium secretion in the isolated perfused canine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Teufel, H; Stock, P; Rohrmoser, H; Forell, M M

    1979-10-01

    The quantitative relation of calcium and protein secretion was studied on the isolated perfused canine pancreas at different secretory states of hydrokinetic and ecbolic stimulation and various extracellular Ca++-concentrations. 1. Calcium and protein secretion are correlated at both ecbolic and hydrokinetic stimulation as well as by biological or synthetic secretion. 2. Enzyme-associated calcium was estimated at 35 nmol/mg protein and did not vary under differing stimulatory and secretory conditions. 3. During variable concentrations of synthetic secretin basal protein and calcium concentrations in the pancreatic juice show a hyperbolic relationship to the respective rates of fluid secretion. At flow rates beyond 3 ml/5 min the calcium concentrations asymptotically tend to 0.46 mEq/l while protein concentrations nearly decrease to zero. Moreover, the y-intercept of the regressionline correlating the calcium and protein concentrations gives with 0.48 mEq/l Ca++ additional evidence of the existence and magnitude of an enzyme-independent calcium fraction, which seems to remain constant over the whole range of secretory rates. 4. The omission of perfusate calcium does not abolish the calcium-protein correlation either at hydrokinetic or at ecbolic stimulation, but diminishes the enzyme-independent calcium fraction. 5. Enhancing perfusate Ca++-concentrations augments calcium output byt fails in stimulating enzyme secretion. It is concluded that at exclusively hydrokinetic stimulation basal secreted protein with a definite amount of chelated calcium is diluted by variable rates of pancreatic juice containing enzyme independent Ca++ at a constant concentration. During different secretory states of hydrokinetic or ecbolic stimulation the respective proportions of enzyme associated and independent calcium vary, and thus determine changes in the calcium-protein ratios. Extracellular calcium can only influence the non-protein-bound calcium fraction of the pancreatic juice

  3. Calcium secretion in the isolated perfused canine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Teufel, H; Stock, P; Rohrmoser, H; Forell, M M

    1979-10-01

    The quantitative relation of calcium and protein secretion was studied on the isolated perfused canine pancreas at different secretory states of hydrokinetic and ecbolic stimulation and various extracellular Ca++-concentrations. 1. Calcium and protein secretion are correlated at both ecbolic and hydrokinetic stimulation as well as by biological or synthetic secretion. 2. Enzyme-associated calcium was estimated at 35 nmol/mg protein and did not vary under differing stimulatory and secretory conditions. 3. During variable concentrations of synthetic secretin basal protein and calcium concentrations in the pancreatic juice show a hyperbolic relationship to the respective rates of fluid secretion. At flow rates beyond 3 ml/5 min the calcium concentrations asymptotically tend to 0.46 mEq/l while protein concentrations nearly decrease to zero. Moreover, the y-intercept of the regressionline correlating the calcium and protein concentrations gives with 0.48 mEq/l Ca++ additional evidence of the existence and magnitude of an enzyme-independent calcium fraction, which seems to remain constant over the whole range of secretory rates. 4. The omission of perfusate calcium does not abolish the calcium-protein correlation either at hydrokinetic or at ecbolic stimulation, but diminishes the enzyme-independent calcium fraction. 5. Enhancing perfusate Ca++-concentrations augments calcium output byt fails in stimulating enzyme secretion. It is concluded that at exclusively hydrokinetic stimulation basal secreted protein with a definite amount of chelated calcium is diluted by variable rates of pancreatic juice containing enzyme independent Ca++ at a constant concentration. During different secretory states of hydrokinetic or ecbolic stimulation the respective proportions of enzyme associated and independent calcium vary, and thus determine changes in the calcium-protein ratios. Extracellular calcium can only influence the non-protein-bound calcium fraction of the pancreatic juice

  4. [The influence of extracellular calcium on volume, enzyme and calcium secretion in the isolated perfused canine pancreas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Teufel, H; Stock, P; Rohrmoser, H; Forell, M M

    1977-01-28

    1. The kinetics of Ca++ and enzyme secretion are of corresponding pattern as well at hydrokinetic as at ecbolic stimulation. 2. Physiological respectively pathophysiologically relevant changes of perfusate Ca++ concentrations do not influence pancreatic Ca++ secretion. Extracellular Ca++ concentrations beyond 12 mEq/1 initiate an enzyme independent Ca++ secretion. 3. Hydrokinetic or ecbolic stimulated pancreatic secretion do not distinguish in calcium/protein ratio. 4. Basal and stimulated enzyme secretion of isolated perfused canine pancreas remain unaffected by increments of extracellular Ca++ concentrations even at pharmacological values. 5. The stimulated enzyme- and Ca++ secretion remain constant during hypocalcemic perfusate conditions but decrease to basal values in Ca++ free media, rapidly and completely reversible by recalcification of the perfusate. 6. The secretin stimulated volume secretion remains unchanged either by extremely hypercalcemic or Ca++ depleted perfusate conditions.

  5. [The influence of extracellular calcium on volume, enzyme and calcium secretion in the isolated perfused canine pancreas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Teufel, H; Stock, P; Rohrmoser, H; Forell, M M

    1977-01-28

    1. The kinetics of Ca++ and enzyme secretion are of corresponding pattern as well at hydrokinetic as at ecbolic stimulation. 2. Physiological respectively pathophysiologically relevant changes of perfusate Ca++ concentrations do not influence pancreatic Ca++ secretion. Extracellular Ca++ concentrations beyond 12 mEq/1 initiate an enzyme independent Ca++ secretion. 3. Hydrokinetic or ecbolic stimulated pancreatic secretion do not distinguish in calcium/protein ratio. 4. Basal and stimulated enzyme secretion of isolated perfused canine pancreas remain unaffected by increments of extracellular Ca++ concentrations even at pharmacological values. 5. The stimulated enzyme- and Ca++ secretion remain constant during hypocalcemic perfusate conditions but decrease to basal values in Ca++ free media, rapidly and completely reversible by recalcification of the perfusate. 6. The secretin stimulated volume secretion remains unchanged either by extremely hypercalcemic or Ca++ depleted perfusate conditions. PMID:841188

  6. [The influence of exogenous cyclic nucleotides and theophylline on the hydrokinetic and ecbolic function of the isolated perfused canine pancreas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Teufel, H; Skampraks, M; Forell, M M

    1981-05-01

    The influence of exogenous cyclic nucleotides or theophylline either on basal or stimulated volume and protein secretion is studied on the isolated perfused canine pancreas in dependence on varied extracellular calcium concentrations. Bt2cAMP or theophylline do not influence basal secretory rates of pancreatic juice but potentiate secretin-stimulated volume output. They additionally increase basal protein secretion under exclusive secretin stimulation and potentiate dose-dependently CCK- or acetylcholine-induced protein output. The hydrokinetic and ecbolic effects of Bt2cAMP and theophylline persist in a calcium-free medium but fail in normalizing inhibited protein secretion during calcium deprivation. Bt2cGMP neither increases basal nor stimulated volume and protein secretion. The demonstrated influence of Bt2cAMP and theophylline on ductal volume and acinar protein secretion accomplishes two criteria, as suggested by Sutherland, for cAMP as second messenger for secretin and CCK or acetylcholine as well.

  7. [The influence of exogenous cyclic nucleotides and theophylline on the hydrokinetic and ecbolic function of the isolated perfused canine pancreas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Teufel, H; Skampraks, M; Forell, M M

    1981-05-01

    The influence of exogenous cyclic nucleotides or theophylline either on basal or stimulated volume and protein secretion is studied on the isolated perfused canine pancreas in dependence on varied extracellular calcium concentrations. Bt2cAMP or theophylline do not influence basal secretory rates of pancreatic juice but potentiate secretin-stimulated volume output. They additionally increase basal protein secretion under exclusive secretin stimulation and potentiate dose-dependently CCK- or acetylcholine-induced protein output. The hydrokinetic and ecbolic effects of Bt2cAMP and theophylline persist in a calcium-free medium but fail in normalizing inhibited protein secretion during calcium deprivation. Bt2cGMP neither increases basal nor stimulated volume and protein secretion. The demonstrated influence of Bt2cAMP and theophylline on ductal volume and acinar protein secretion accomplishes two criteria, as suggested by Sutherland, for cAMP as second messenger for secretin and CCK or acetylcholine as well. PMID:6265335

  8. Pancreas transplants: Evaluation using perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; du Cret, R.P.; Boudreau, R.J.

    1989-07-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphic perfusion studies in evaluating pancreas transplant patients, we reviewed 56 of these studies in 22 patients who had 27 transplants. Seventeen patients underwent two or more studies. The perfusion studies were performed with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA injected as a bolus followed by eight to 16 serial 2-sec images and a 500,000-count immediate static image. Images were evaluated for (1) the time and intensity of pancreatic peak radioactivity relative to the time and intensity of the iliac arterial peak; (2) relative pancreatic to iliac arterial intensity on the static image; and (3) size, homogeneity, and definition of the pancreas. Clinical diagnoses at the time of scintigraphy of normal function (n = 36), rejection (n = 13), pancreatitis (n = 6), or arterial thrombosis (n = 1) were based on insulin requirement, urine amylase, serum glucose, serum amylase, response to therapy, cultures, CT, MR, sonography, scintigraphy with 67Ga or 111In-WBCs, percutaneous drainage results, angiography, surgery, and pathologic examination of resected transplants. Three 99mTc-DTPA perfusion studies showed no pancreatic perfusion, four showed decreasing perfusion on serial studies, and five showed progressive loss of definition of the pancreas on serial studies. Of the three patients with no detectable perfusion, one had a normally functioning transplant, one had arterial thrombosis with transplant infarction, and one had severe rejection with minimal function. Decreasing perfusion was associated with rejection in three patients and pancreatitis in one. Decreasing definition was seen in four patients with rejection and one with pancreatitis. We conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful, primarily when performed serially, although nonspecific for evaluating pancreas transplants.

  9. Pancreas tumor model in rabbit imaged by perfusion CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Jason; Tichauer, Kenneth; Moodie, Karen; Kane, Susan; Hoopes, Jack; Stewart, Errol E.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim; Pereira, Stephen P.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a pancreas tumor animal model to investigate the relationship between photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness and photosensitizer drug delivery. More specifically, this work lays the foundation for investigating the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced blood perfusion imaging to be used to inform subsequent PDT. A VX2 carcinoma rabbit cell line was grown in the tail of the pancreas of three New Zealand White rabbits and approximately 3-4 weeks after implantation the rabbits were imaged on a CT scanner using a contrast enhanced perfusion protocol, providing parametric maps of blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and vascular permeability surface area product.

  10. [Behavior of cellular cyclic nucleotides after hydrokinetic or ecbolic stimulation of the canine pancreas].

    PubMed

    Teufel, H; Joseph, W; Loeschke, K; Forell, M M

    1981-05-01

    The studies deal with the influence of secretin and various ecbolic secretagogues on tissue levels of cAMP and cGMP in vivo and in the isolated perfused canine pancreas. The mutual behaviour of cellular cAMP and cGMP is observed and compared with the time course of the respective secretory events. Synthetic secretin as well as CCK, acetylcholine or Caerulein likewise elevate tissue cAMP and cGMP simultaneously. There exists no difference in the magnitude of increase and in the time course of changes in tissue cyclic nucleotide levels between hydrokinetic and ecbolic stimulation. The rise in cAMP and cGMP coincides with the onset of the respective secretory events and reaches peak values contemporarily to the excretory maxima. The following decrease in tissue cyclic nucleotides approximatively parallels juice or enzyme secretion in the isolated perfused pancreas but differs widely in vivo. Under this condition cAMP and cGMP rapidly fall to basal levels during undiminished excretory function and show a second rise after cessation of the latter. Secretin and various ecbolic secretagogues do not increase tissue content of cyclic nucleotides in the same dose-dependent manner as can be observed with pancreatic secretion. The behaviour of cAMP and cGMP after addition of secretin and CCK or acetylcholine remains widely unchanged during calcium-free perfusion in spite of an extensive excretory inhibition. The corresponding rise in cellular cAMP and cGMP in the sequence of hydrokinetic as well as of ecbolic stimulation points to an analogous intracellular mediation of various secretagogues in different target cells of the exocrine canine pancreas.

  11. [Behavior of cellular cyclic nucleotides after hydrokinetic or ecbolic stimulation of the canine pancreas].

    PubMed

    Teufel, H; Joseph, W; Loeschke, K; Forell, M M

    1981-05-01

    The studies deal with the influence of secretin and various ecbolic secretagogues on tissue levels of cAMP and cGMP in vivo and in the isolated perfused canine pancreas. The mutual behaviour of cellular cAMP and cGMP is observed and compared with the time course of the respective secretory events. Synthetic secretin as well as CCK, acetylcholine or Caerulein likewise elevate tissue cAMP and cGMP simultaneously. There exists no difference in the magnitude of increase and in the time course of changes in tissue cyclic nucleotide levels between hydrokinetic and ecbolic stimulation. The rise in cAMP and cGMP coincides with the onset of the respective secretory events and reaches peak values contemporarily to the excretory maxima. The following decrease in tissue cyclic nucleotides approximatively parallels juice or enzyme secretion in the isolated perfused pancreas but differs widely in vivo. Under this condition cAMP and cGMP rapidly fall to basal levels during undiminished excretory function and show a second rise after cessation of the latter. Secretin and various ecbolic secretagogues do not increase tissue content of cyclic nucleotides in the same dose-dependent manner as can be observed with pancreatic secretion. The behaviour of cAMP and cGMP after addition of secretin and CCK or acetylcholine remains widely unchanged during calcium-free perfusion in spite of an extensive excretory inhibition. The corresponding rise in cellular cAMP and cGMP in the sequence of hydrokinetic as well as of ecbolic stimulation points to an analogous intracellular mediation of various secretagogues in different target cells of the exocrine canine pancreas. PMID:6265336

  12. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas: applications to acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, N.; Clemens, J.A.; Glickson, J.D.; Cameron, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The first nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas is described. Both in-vivo, ex-vivo protocols and NMR observables are discussed. The stability of the ex-vivo preparation based on the NMR observables is established for at least four hours. The spectra obtained from the in-vivo and ex-vivo preparations exhibited similar metabolite ratios, further validating the model. Metabolite levels were unchanged by a 50% increase in perfusion rate. Only trace amounts of phosphocreatine were observed either in the intact gland or in extracts. Acute alcoholic pancreatitis was mimicked by free fatty acid infusion. Injury resulted in hyperamylasemia, edema (weight gain), increased hematocrit and perfusion pressure, and depressed levels of high energy phosphates.

  13. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance in isolated perfused rat pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki )

    1988-04-01

    Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to measure phosphorus energy metabolites in isolated perfused rat pancreas. The gland was perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25{degree}C). {sup 31}P resonances of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) and phosphomonoesters (PMEs) were observed in all the preparations of pancreas. In different individual preparations, the resonance of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of PCr and ATP in individual preparations, however, remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 h. When the perfusion was stopped, the levels of ATP and PCr decreased, while the levels of PME and P{sub i} increased. At that time, the P{sub i} resonance shfted to a higher magnetic field, indicating that the tissue pH decreased. On reperfusion, the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds and the tissue pH were restored to their initial resting levels. Continuous infusion of 0.1 {mu}M acetylcholine caused marked and sustained increases in the flow of pancreatic juice and protein output. During the stimulation the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds remained unchanged, while the tissue pH was decreased slightly.

  14. A Modified Perfusion Method to Improve the Quality of Procured Donor Pancreas in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fu Tian; Lin, Hong Feng; Ding, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background In this animal study, we evaluated a modified pancreas perfusion method to improve the quality of harvested pancreas in rats. In this model, the portal vein was used as the outflow route during the pancreas perfusion. Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into study group and control group, with 24 rats in each group. In the study group, the portal vein was used as outflow of perfusion. While in the control group, the post-hepatic vein (right artrium) was used as perfusion outflow. UW solution was used as perfusion and preservation solution. Pancreas tissue samples were collected at 6, 10, and 14 hours after perfusion and cold preserved for histology and immunohistochemistry examination, P-selection (PS) and ICAM-1 were determined. Pancreas samples were also examined using electronic microscope for ultra-structures. Results Compared with the study group, in the pancreas of control group there were significant pathological impairments and cellular ultra-structural alterations observed by immunohistochemistry and electronic microscope, and these impairments aggravated with time. There were mild histological alterations in the pancreas of study group. Conclusions During the donor pancreas perfusion, the early opening of portal vein as the outflow is better than the opening of the post-hepatic vein for the preservation of donor graft pancreas and the reduction of tissue impairments.

  15. Properties of immunoreactive glucagon fractions of canine stomach and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Srikant, C B; McCorkle, K; Unger, R H

    1977-03-25

    The present study was designed to identify the physicochemical, immunologic, and biologic properties of the immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) moieties of canine gastric fundus and to compare them with those of the canine pancreas. Acid-alcohol extracts of the gastric fundus and pancreas of dogs were subjected to Bio-Gel P-10 chromatography, The elution profiles of extracts of both organs revealed IRG peaks in the Mr = 2,000 3,500, and 9,000 zones; in the gastric extracts, a void volume peak was also present. On the basis of Sephadex G-150 rechromatography and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation the latter IRG was estimated to have a Mr = 65,000. Incubation of fundic IRG65,000 in 8 M urea failed to alter its elution position. Its pI was 6.4, while fundic IRG3,500 had a pI of 6.15 and pancreatic glucagon 6.25. Fundic IRG9,000 had a pI of 4.5 and pancreatic IRG9,000 4.65. Dilution curves of these three fundic and two pancreatic IRGs were parallel to crystalline beef-pork glucagon. The glycogenolytic activity of fundic IRG3,500 and IRG65,000, measured in the isolated rat liver system, was not different from that of immunoequivalent amounts of dog pancreatic glucagon or crystalline beef-pork glucagon. Both fundic and pancreatic IRG9,000 were devoid of glycogenolytic activity and lacker adenylate cyclase stimulating activity and 125I-glucagon displacing activity when tested on partially purified rat liver membranes. Fundic IRG65,000, however, stimulated adenylate cyclase and displaced 125I-glucagon to the same degree as immunoequivalent amounts of pancreatic glucagon. Fundic IRG3,500 was more active than pancreatic glucagon in stimulating adenylate cyclase activity. This was not clearly attributable to differences in binding to liver cell membranes.

  16. Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kandaswamy, R; Skeans, M A; Gustafson, S K; Carrico, R J; Prentice, M A; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Even though pancreas transplant numbers have steadily declined over the past decade, new listings increased in 2014 compared with the previous year, notably for pancreas transplant alone (PTA) and simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant. The number of new PTAs also increased over the past two years. Whether this is a sustainable trend remains to be seen. Significant events in 2014 included implementation of a new pancreas allocation system and development of a proposed uniform definition of pancreas graft failure. Meanwhile, overall pancreas transplant rates and outcomes continued to improve. Substantial decline in pancreas after kidney transplants remains a serious concern. SRTR has not published pancreas graft failure data in the program-specific reports for the past two years. While this will not change in the near future, the acceptance of a uniform definition of graft failure is a crucial first step toward resuming graft failure reporting. Continued improvements and innovation, both surgical and immunological, will be critical to keep pancreas transplant as a viable option for treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. As alternative therapies for diabetes such as islet transplant and artificial pancreas are evolving, improved outcomes with minimizations of complications are more important than ever. PMID:26755263

  17. [The secretion of adenosin 3',5'-monophosphate after hydrokinetic and ecbolic stimulation in the canine pancreas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Teufel, H; Boeckmann, U

    1981-05-01

    The secretion of cAMP is studied in vivo and in the isolated perfused canine pancreas after administration of secretin and CCK or caerulein in comparison with hydrokinetic or ecbolic secretory events as well as with the magnitude and time course of changes in tissue cAMP. 1) The total output of cAMP and pancreatic juice shows a significant and positive correlation after stimulation with secretin. The linear correspondence between cAMP concentration and secretory rates of pancreatic juice beyond 3 ml/5 min and their non-linear, reciprocal correlation at lower rates of fluid secretion point to an active as well as to a passive secretory mechanism for cAMP. 2) CCK and caerulein increase secretion of cAMP too. The output of cAMP however neither corresponds to the time course of protein secretion nor correlates quantitatively with the latter. 3) The behaviour of cAMP secretion and concentration in the pancreatic juice after administration of secretin and CCK or caerulein as well as differs from the changes in tissue cAMP levels. The respective maximum of cAMP output after addition of secretin or ecbolic secretagogues during the greatest decrease in cellular cAMP levels yields on the average about 1% of the estimated reduction in total tissue cAMP content. The results indicate a functional coherence in secretion of pancreatic juice and cAMP but oppose the assumption, that essential amounts of cAMP are released during exocytosis of zymogen granules. The secretion of cAMP may be possibly influenced by cytoplasmatic cAMP levels, but neither reflects the present changes in cellular cAMP nor seems to be of a regulatory importance for the latter.

  18. [The secretion of adenosin 3',5'-monophosphate after hydrokinetic and ecbolic stimulation in the canine pancreas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Teufel, H; Boeckmann, U

    1981-05-01

    The secretion of cAMP is studied in vivo and in the isolated perfused canine pancreas after administration of secretin and CCK or caerulein in comparison with hydrokinetic or ecbolic secretory events as well as with the magnitude and time course of changes in tissue cAMP. 1) The total output of cAMP and pancreatic juice shows a significant and positive correlation after stimulation with secretin. The linear correspondence between cAMP concentration and secretory rates of pancreatic juice beyond 3 ml/5 min and their non-linear, reciprocal correlation at lower rates of fluid secretion point to an active as well as to a passive secretory mechanism for cAMP. 2) CCK and caerulein increase secretion of cAMP too. The output of cAMP however neither corresponds to the time course of protein secretion nor correlates quantitatively with the latter. 3) The behaviour of cAMP secretion and concentration in the pancreatic juice after administration of secretin and CCK or caerulein as well as differs from the changes in tissue cAMP levels. The respective maximum of cAMP output after addition of secretin or ecbolic secretagogues during the greatest decrease in cellular cAMP levels yields on the average about 1% of the estimated reduction in total tissue cAMP content. The results indicate a functional coherence in secretion of pancreatic juice and cAMP but oppose the assumption, that essential amounts of cAMP are released during exocytosis of zymogen granules. The secretion of cAMP may be possibly influenced by cytoplasmatic cAMP levels, but neither reflects the present changes in cellular cAMP nor seems to be of a regulatory importance for the latter. PMID:6265337

  19. Splanchnic neural regulation of somatostatin secretion in the isolated perfused human pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Brunicardi, F C; Elahi, D; Andersen, D K

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The somatostatin-secreting delta cells in the islets of Langerhans appear to be regulated by neural mechanisms that have not been defined clearly. In this study, the celiac neural bundle of the human pancreas was electrically stimulated in the presence and absence of selective neural antagonists. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors previously reported on studies of the splanchnic neural regulation of insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide secretion. In these studies, alpha-adrenergic fibers appeared to have a predominant effect, strongly inhibiting the secretion of insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide secretion. Cholinergic fibers appeared to stimulate strongly, although beta-adrenergic fibers weakly stimulated, the secretion of these hormones. Investigations of neural regulatory mechanisms governing human somatostatin release in vitro have not been previously reported. METHODS: Pancreata were obtained from eight cadaveric organ donors. The isolated perfused human pancreas technique was used to assess the regulation of somatostatin secretion by the various neural fibers contained within the celiac plexus. The secretory response of somatostatin was examined in the presence of 16.7 mmol/L glucose, with and without neural stimulation, and specific neural antagonists. RESULTS: The basal somatostatin secretion was 88 +/- 26 fmol/g/min and increased 131 +/- 23% (n = 8, p < 0.01) in response to 16.7 mmol/L glucose. The augmentation seen with glucose was inhibited 66 +/- 22% (n = 8, p < 0.05) during celiac neural bundle stimulation. Alpha-adrenergic blockade resulted in a 90 +/- 30% (n = 6, p < 0.01) augmentation of somatostatin release. Beta-adrenergic blockade caused a 13 +/- 2% (n = 6, p < 0.05) suppression of somatostatin release. Complete adrenergic blockade resulted in a 25 +/- 23% (n = 5, p = not significant) inhibition of somatostatin release. Cholinergic blockade resulted in a 40 +/- 10% (n = 6, p < 0.02) suppression of somatostatin

  20. Establishment of optimal scan delay for multi-phase computed tomography using bolus-tracking technique in canine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Young; Choi, Ho-Jung; Lee, Ki-Ja; Lee, Young-Won

    2015-09-01

    To establish a protocol for a multi-phase computed tomography (CT) of the canine pancreas using the bolus-tracking technique, dynamic scan and multi-phase CT were performed in six normal beagle dogs. The dynamic scan was performed for 60 sec at 1-sec intervals after the injection (4 ml/sec) of a contrast medium, and intervals from aortic enhancement appearance to aortic, pancreatic parenchymal and portal vein peaks were measured. The multi-phase CT with 3 phases was performed three times using a bolus-tracking technique. Scan delays were 0, 15 and 30 in first multi-phase scan; 5, 20 and 35 in second multi-phase scan; and 10, 25 and 40 sec in third multi-phase scan, respectively. Attenuation values and contrast enhancement pattern were analyzed from the aorta, pancreas and portal vein. The intervals from aortic enhancement appearance to aortic, pancreatic parenchymal and portal vein peaks were 3.8 ± 0.7, 8.7 ± 0.9 and 13.3 ± 1.5 sec, respectively. The maximum attenuation values of the aorta, pancreatic parenchyma and portal vein were present at scan sections with no scan delay, a 5-sec delay and a 10-sec delay, respectively. When a multi-phase CT of the canine pancreas is triggered at aortic enhancement appearance using a bolus-tracking technique, the recommended optimal delay times of the arterial and pancreatic parenchymal phases are no scan delay and 5 sec, respectively. PMID:25843155

  1. Response of arterial resistance and critical pressure to changes in perfusion pressure in canine hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Shrier, I; Magder, S

    1993-12-01

    The dynamic pressure-flow relationship in the canine hindlimb at normal arterial pressure is best explained by modeling a Starling resistor (critical pressure, Pcrit) at the level of the arterioles. Regulation of flow can therefore occur at the Starling resistor through changes in Pcrit or along the length of the vessel through changes in arterial resistance (Ra). We hypothesized that increasing perfusion pressure (Pper) would increase Pcrit due to the myogenic response but would decrease Ra because of flow-mediated vasodilation and passive effects. We pump-perfused vascularly isolated hindlimbs of anesthetized dogs and then measured Pcrit and calculated Ra over Pper range of 75-175 mmHg. When Pper was increased from 75 to 175 mmHg, Pcrit increased from 33 +/- 2 to 48 +/- 6 (means +/- SE) mmHg, whereas Ra decreased from 10.1 +/- 1.2 to 7.86 +/- 0.7 mmHg.min.100 g.ml-1 (P < 0.01). Thus the responses of Pcrit and Ra to an increase in Pper were dissociated. In a second part of the study, we lowered carotid sinus pressure to determine the effects of central factors on local autoregulation. A decrease in carotid sinus pressure increased Pcrit and Ra at each Pper (P < 0.05). We conclude that an increase in Pper causes the arterial vasculature to constrict at the level of the Starling resistor and dilate more proximally. The carotid baroreflex causes an increase in tone throughout the arterial vasculature but does not alter the local response to increases in Pper. PMID:8285232

  2. Effect of somatostatin and octreotide acetate on OP-CCK-stimulated exocrine secretion in the denervated canine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Garvin, P J; Burton, F R; Reese, J C; Dysarz, F A; Lingle, D; Niehoff, M L; Pandya, P K; Presti, M E

    1996-10-01

    Somatostatin and its analogue, octreotide acetate (Sandostatin), have been demonstrated to suppress exocrine secretion in a denervated canine pancreatic autograft model. To help define this inhibitory mechanism, the effect of these agents on cholecystokinin (CCK)-stimulated acinar cell secretion was evaluated. In vitro assessment evaluated the effect of somatostatin on octapeptide (OP)-CCK-stimulated amylase release of pancreatic tissue slices. In vivo assessment employed animals with pancreatic autografts and pancreaticocystostomies, evaluating the effect of a bolus intravenous injection of 100 micrograms of octreotide acetate on the basal and OP-CCK-stimulated (125 ng/kg/h) secretion of urinary (autograft) amylase and bicarbonate. Incubation of tissue slices with 0.16, 0.24, or 0.32 microgram/ml somatostatin had no significant effect on in vitro OP-CCK-simulated amylase release. Intravenous octreotide acetate resulted in a significant decrease in the basal rate of amylase secretion but had no significant effect on OP-CCK-stimulated autograft amylase or bicarbonate release. These studies demonstrate that octreotide acetate has an in vivo inhibitory effect on basal amylase release of pancreatic autografts but cannot counteract maximal stimulation with exogenous OP-CCK. Also, somatostatin does not inhibit OP-CCK-stimulated acinar cell secretion of pancreatic tissue slices. These results indicate that the exocrine inhibition produced by somatostatin analogues in the grafted pancreas occurs via an indirect mechanism.

  3. Effects of arterial and venous volume infusion on coronary perfusion pressures during canine CPR.

    PubMed

    Gentile, N T; Martin, G B; Appleton, T J; Moeggenberg, J; Paradis, N A; Nowak, R M

    1991-08-01

    Intraarterial (IA) volume infusion has been reported to be more effective than intravenous (IV) infusion in treating cardiac arrest due to exsanguination. A rapid IA infusion was felt to raise intraaortic pressure and improve coronary perfusion pressure (CPP). The purpose of this study was to determine if IA or IV volume infusion could augment the effect of epinephrine on CPP during CPR in the canine model. Nineteen mongrel dogs with a mean weight of 26.3 +/- 4.2 kg were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Thoracic aortic (Ao), right atrial (RA) and pulmonary artery catheters were placed for hemodynamic monitoring. Additional Ao and central venous catheters were placed for volume infusion. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and Thumper CPR was begun after 5 min (t = 5). At t = 10, all dogs received 45 micrograms/kg IV epinephrine. Six animals received epinephrine alone (EPI). Five dogs received EPI plus a 500 cc bolus of normal saline over 3 min intravenously (EPI/IV). Another group (n = 8) received EPI plus the same fluid bolus through the aortic catheter (EPI/IA). Resuscitation was attempted at t = 18 using a standard protocol. There was a significant increase in CPP over baseline in all groups. The changes in CPP from baseline induced by EPI, EPI/IV and EPI/IA were 20.6 +/- 3.7, 22.8 +/- 4.2 and 22.2 +/- 2.4 mmHg, respectively. Volume loading did not augment the effect of therapeutic EPI dosing. By increasing both preload and afterload, volume administration may in fact be detrimental during CPR. PMID:1658894

  4. Discrepancies between the Doses of Cholecystokinin or Caerulein-Stimulating Exocrine and Endocrine Responses in Perfused Isolated Rat Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Otsuki, Makoto; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Yuu, Hosai; Maeda, Mitsuo; Morita, Soichiro; Ohki, Atsuhi; Kobayashi, Noboru; Terashi, Katsuhiro; Okano, Kuniyasu; Baba, Shigeaki

    1979-01-01

    The effects of highly purified natural porcine cholecystokinin (CCK) and synthetic caerulein on the rate of flow of pancreatic juice, the rate of output of amylase, and the rate of release of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) were simultaneously investigated in the isolated perfused rat pancreas. The maximal flow rate of pancreatic juice was obtained with concentrations of CCK ranging from 0.5 to 10 mU/ml, whereas amylase output was maximal at CCK concentrations from 1 to 10 mU/ml. Caerulein at concentrations of 0.05-1 ng/ml induced a similar maximal flow rate and amylase secretion. Supramaximal stimulatory concentrations of these peptides resulted in lower rates of release of fluid and amylase than with the maximally effective concentrations. Stimulation of IRI and IRG release was elicited only with concentrations of peptides supramaximal for effects on the exocrine responses. The demonstration of very similar discrepancies between the doses of caerulein required to elicit maximal exocrine responses and those required to elicit endocrine responses provide strong evidence that the pattern of the effect of the porcine CCK is accounted for by CCK itself. Although caerulein had no influence on IRI response when superimposed on 100 or 150 mg/100 ml glucose stimulation, preperfusion of caerulein led to a significant enhancement of IRI response to a subsequent glucose stimulation in both phases. The augmentation effect was completely separate from the direct IRI-stimulating effect of caerulein, because the CCK-like peptide requires no glucose for insulinotropic action. Because the concentrations of the peptides necessary for stimulation of endocrine responses were inhibitory in their effects on exocrine responses, it may be inferred that it is unlikely that the endocrine effect is physiologically important, though the results of caerulein for augmenting glucose-stimulated IRI release suggests a possible role for CCK in carbohydrate metabolism

  5. Failure of human and mouse leptin to affect insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion by the perfused rat pancreas at physiological glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Meyer, V; Malaisse, W J

    1998-06-25

    In isolated perfused pancreas from normal rats, a rise in d-glucose concentration from 3.3 to 8.3 mM provoked a rapid phasic stimulation of both insulin and somatostatin secretion and rapid fall in glucagon output, these changes being reversed when the concentration of the hexose was brought back to its initial low level. In the presence of 8.3 mM d-glucose, the administration of either human or mouse leptin (10 nM in both cases) for 15 min failed to affect significantly the perfusion pressure and release of the three hormones. It is concluded that leptin does not exert any major immediate and direct effect upon pancreatic insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion, at least at the physiological concentration of d-glucose normally found in the plasma of fed rats. PMID:9723892

  6. Characterization of the Effects of Arginine and Glucose on Glucagon and Insulin Release from the Perfused Rat Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gerich, John E.; Charles, M. Arthur; Grodsky, Gerold M.

    1974-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms by which arginine and glucose affect pancreatic alpha and beta cell function, the effects of these agents over their full dose response, both alone and in various combinations, were studied using the perfused rat pancreas. Arginine (0-38 mM), in the absence of glucose, stimulated biphasic glucagon (IRG) secretion (Km≃3-4 mM) at concentrations less than 1 mM and caused nonphasic insulin (IRI) release (Km≃12-13 mM) but only at concentrations greater than 6 mM. Glucose (0-27.5 mM) alone stimulated biphasic IRI release (Km≃9-10 mM) at concentrations in excess of 5.5 mM and caused nonphasic inhibition of IRG secretion (Kt≃5-6 mM) at concentrations as low as 4.1 mM. These results demonstrate fundamental differences in pancreatic alpha and beta cell secretory patterns in response to glucose and arginine and suggest that glucagon secretion is more sensitive to the effect of both glucose and arginine. Various concentrations of arginine in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose stimulated biphasic IRG and IRI release: IRG responses were diminished and IRI responses were enhanced compared with those seen with arginine in the absence of glucose. Glucose (0-27.5 mM) in the presence of 3.2 or 19.2 mM arginine caused similar inhibition of IRG secretion (Km≃5-6 mM) and stimulation of IRI release (Km≃9-10 mM) as that seen with glucose alone, although greater IRG and IRI release occurred. This augmentation of IRI secretion was greater than that expected from mere additive effects of glucose and arginine. Classical Lineweaver-Burk analysis of these results indicates that glucose is a non-competitive inhibitor arginine-stimulated glucagon secretion and suggests that glucose and arginine affect pancreatic alpha and beta cell function via different mechanisms. In addition, comparison of simultaneous insulin and glucagon secretion patterns under various conditions suggests that endogenous insulin per se has little or no direct effect on IRG secretion

  7. Subcellular distribution of calcium-binding proteins and a calcium- ATPase in canine pancreas [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1990 Oct;111(4):1726

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Using a 45Ca blot-overlay assay, we monitored the subcellular fractionation pattern of several Ca binding proteins of apparent molecular masses 94, 61, and 59 kD. These proteins also appeared to stain blue with "Stains-All." Additionally, using a monoclonal antiserum raised against canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca- ATPase, we examined the subcellular distribution of a canine pancreatic 110-kD protein recognized by this antiserum. This protein had the same electrophoretic mobility as the cardiac protein against which the antiserum was raised. The three Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase cofractionated into the rough microsomal fraction (RM), previously shown to consist of highly purified RER, in a pattern highly similar to that of the RER marker, ribophorin I. To provide further evidence for an RER localization, native RM were subjected to isopycnic flotation in sucrose gradients. The Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase were found in dense fractions, along with ribophorin I. When RM were stripped of ribosomes with puromycin/high salt, the Ca binding proteins and the Ca- ATPase exhibited a shift to less dense fractions, as did ribophorin I. We conclude that, in pancreas, the Ca binding proteins and Ca-ATPase we detect are localized to the RER (conceivably a subcompartment of the RER) or, possibly, a structure intimately associated with the RER. PMID:2142161

  8. Myocardial Perfusion MRI Using SW-CG-HYPR in Canine with Stenotic Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lan; Kino, Aya; Lee, Daniel; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Carr, James C.; Li, Debiao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose First-pass perfusion MRI is a promising technique for detecting ischemic heart disease. However, the diagnostic value of the method is limited by the low spatial coverage, resolution, SNR, and cardiac motion related image artifacts. A combination of sliding window and CG-HYPR method has been proposed in healthy volunteer studies to reduce the acquisition window for each slice while maintaining the temporal resolution of one frame per heartbeat in myocardial perfusion MR imaging. This method allows for improved spatial coverage, resolution and SNR. Materials and Methods In this study, we use a controlled animal model to test whether the myocardial territory supplied by a stenotic coronary artery can be detected accurately by SW-CG-HYPR perfusion method under pharmacological stress. Results Results from six mongrel dogs (15–25 kg) studies demonstrate the feasibility of SW-CG-HYPR to detect regional perfusion defects. Using this method, the acquisition time per cardiac cycle was reduced by a factor of 4, and the spatial coverage was increased from 2–3 to 6 slices as compared to the conventional techniques including both turbo-FLASH and EPI. The SNR of the healthy myocardium at peak enhancement with SW-CG-HYPR (12.68±2.46) is significantly higher (p<0.01) than the turbo-FLASH (8.65±1.93) and EPI (5.48±1.24). The spatial resolution of SW-CG-HYPR images is 1.2×1.2×8.0 mm3, which is better than the turbo-FLASH (1.8×1.8×8.0 mm3) and EPI (2.0×1.8×8.0 mm3). Conclusion SW-CG-HYPR is a promising technique for myocardial perfusion MRI. This technique provides higher image quality with respect to significantly improved SNR and spatial resolution of the myocardial perfusion images, which might improve myocardial perfusion imaging in a clinical setting. PMID:20861770

  9. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  10. O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside (Venoruton) fails to block histamine or bradykinin-induced edema formation in the canine forelimb perfused at constant arterial inflow.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, D E; Soika, C Y; Dabney, J M

    1984-10-01

    O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside (Venoruton) has been reported to alleviate edema formation in chronic venous insufficiency. In an attempt to elucidate Venoruton's potential as an antiinflammatory agent, we infused Venoruton (20 mg/minute) intraarterially into the canine forelimb perfused at constant flow during the simultaneous intraarterial infusion of histamine (4 micrograms base/minute) or bradykinin (2 micrograms/minute). The infusion of Venoruton alone for forty minutes resulted in a small but significant increase in forelimb arterial pressures but no change in systemic pressure or forelimb skin lymph flow, protein concentration or protein transport. Subsequent infusion of either histamine or bradykinin resulted in a significant decrease in forelimb arterial pressures and a marked increase in skin lymph flow, lymph total protein concentration and lymph total protein transport. The changes in forelimb vascular pressures and skin lymph parameters were similar to those seen during the infusion of either histamine or bradykinin alone. These data indicate that the intraarterial infusion of Venoruton at this dosage does not inhibit the ability of simultaneously infused histamine or bradykinin to increase transvascular fluid and macromolecular efflux in the canine forelimb perfused at constant arterial inflow.

  11. The action of synthetic secretin, cholecystokinin-octapeptide and combinations of these hormones on the secretion of the isolated perfused rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Sommer, H; Kasper, H

    1981-12-01

    Determinations of dose-response curves for synthetic secretin and for the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8) in the isolated perfused rat pancreas reveal that both secretin and CCK stimulate the pancreatic secretory flow and enzyme secretion. The maximal secretory flow evoked by CCK-8 (1.75 +/- 0.24 microliter/min) equals that evoked by secretin, while the protein output (57.1 +/- 6.3 microgram/min) is approximately twice as high. Stimulation by secretin combined with CCK-8 results in summation of the hydrokinetic action and potentiation of the ecbolic action of these hormones. Since the secretory parameters decrease by supramaximal stimulation, the dose-response curves are biphasic. The secretion of pancreatic enzymes correlates significantly (p less than 0.0005) with the protein output. However, the ratio of amylase, lipase and chymotrypsinogen to protein depends on the degree of pancreatic stimulation in so far as amylase secretion increases significantly (p less than 0.01) more markedly than that of both other enzymes.

  12. The action of synthetic secretin, cholecystokinin-octapeptide and combinations of these hormones on the secretion of the isolated perfused rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Sommer, H; Kasper, H

    1981-12-01

    Determinations of dose-response curves for synthetic secretin and for the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8) in the isolated perfused rat pancreas reveal that both secretin and CCK stimulate the pancreatic secretory flow and enzyme secretion. The maximal secretory flow evoked by CCK-8 (1.75 +/- 0.24 microliter/min) equals that evoked by secretin, while the protein output (57.1 +/- 6.3 microgram/min) is approximately twice as high. Stimulation by secretin combined with CCK-8 results in summation of the hydrokinetic action and potentiation of the ecbolic action of these hormones. Since the secretory parameters decrease by supramaximal stimulation, the dose-response curves are biphasic. The secretion of pancreatic enzymes correlates significantly (p less than 0.0005) with the protein output. However, the ratio of amylase, lipase and chymotrypsinogen to protein depends on the degree of pancreatic stimulation in so far as amylase secretion increases significantly (p less than 0.01) more markedly than that of both other enzymes. PMID:6178671

  13. Pancreas Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  14. Adjunctive treatment with ticagrelor, but not clopidogrel, added to tPA enables sustained coronary artery recanalisation with recovery of myocardium perfusion in a canine coronary thrombosis model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Zhou, Xiaorong; Huang, Yanming; Khalil, Mazen; Wiktor, Dominik; van Giezen, J J J; Penn, Marc S

    2010-09-01

    Reperfusion therapy for myocardial infarction is limited by significant re-occlusion rates and less-than-optimal myocardial tissue perfusion. It was the objective of this study to assess and compare the effect of ticagrelor, the first reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, with that of clopidogrel, in conjunction with thrombolytic therapy, on platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and myocardial perfusion in a canine model. Thrombus formation was induced by electrolytic injury and blood flow was measured with a Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter. All animals received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (1 mg/kg over 20 min); 10 animals received clopidogrel (10 mg/kg IV bolus over 5 min), 10 animals received ticagrelor initiated with a 1-min bolus (75 microg/kg/min), followed by continuous infusion (10 microg/kg/min) for 2 h, and 10 animals received IV saline. Re-occlusion rate and cyclic flow variation decreased with ticagrelor compared to saline groups (p<0.05). Adenosine phosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation decreased with ticagrelor (1.9% +/- 2.67) and clopidogrel (1.11% +/- 2.0) vs. saline (26.3% +/- 23.5, p<0.05) at the end of adjunctive therapy. Bleeding time increased in the clopidogrel compared to the ticagrelor group (p=0.01). Infarct size was reduced with ticagrelor compared to the clopidogrel and saline groups (p<0.05). Blood flow remained significantly below baseline values at 20 min after tPA administration in the saline and clopidogrel groups but not in the ticagrelor group. In conclusion, in a dog coronary thrombosis model, ticagrelor blocks ADP-induced platelet activation and aggregation; prevents platelet-mediated thrombosis; prolongs reperfusion time and reduces re-occlusion and cyclic flow variation; and significantly decreases infarct size and rapidly restores myocardial tissue perfusion. PMID:20694285

  15. Physiological, biochemical, and morphological characteristics of myocardial anoxia: the use of a semi-perfusion canine preparation.

    PubMed

    Bornet, E P; Wood, J M; Goldstein, M A; Entman, M L; Lewis, R M; Dunn, F A; Schwartz, A

    1977-11-01

    Regional myocardial anoxia was produced in dogs by perfusion of the left circumflex artery (LCA) with deoxygenated blood. Isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum fragments (cardiac relaxing system) showed decreased Ca2+ binding and uptake. The ability of isolated mitochondria to utilise long-chain fatty acids was markedly reduced. This model has revealed inherent biochemical differences between ischaemia and anoxia. PMID:603880

  16. Pancreas Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Pancreas Transplantation Some patients with type 1 diabetes have ... weigh the potential benefits and risks. Benefits of Pancreas Transplants You may be able to maintain a ...

  17. UTP induces vascular responses in the isolated and perfused canine epicardial coronary artery via UTP-preferring P2Y receptors

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takako; Nakane, Tokio; Chiba, Shigetoshi

    1997-01-01

    Vasoconstrictor responses of the isolated and perfused canine epicardial coronary artery to uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP) were analysed pharmacologically. At basal perfusion pressure, UTP induced vasoconstriction in a dose-related manner and the vasoconstriction was sometimes followed by a slight vasodilatation at large doses (more than 10 nmol). The rank order of potency for vasoconstriction was UTP=UDP>ATP>TTP⩾ITP>> UMP. At raised perfusion pressure by 20 mM KCl, the vasoconstriction was not changed and a small vasodilatation was induced at large doses. The rank order of potency for vasodilatation was induced at large doses. The rank order of potency for vasodilatation was ATP>>ITP⩾UDP>UTP⩾TTP. The maximal vasodilator response to UTP was much less than that to ATP. UMP did not induce vasodilatation. The P2X receptor agonist and desensitizing agent α,β-methylene ATP (1 μM) and the P2 receptor antagonist suramin (100 μM) inhibited the vasoconstrictor responses to ATP but not those to UTP and UDP. The P2 receptor antagonist reactive blue 2 (30 μM) did not inhibit the vascular responses to UTP. UTP (200 μM) desensitized the vasoconstrictor responses to UTP, but not either the vasodilator responses to UTP or the vasoconstrictor responses to ATP and UDP. UDP (200 μM) did not desensitize the vascular responses to UTP. Preincubating the UDP stock solution and arterial preparation with hexokinase (10 and 1 uml−1, respectively) did not change the vasoconstrictor responses to UDP. The Ca channel blocker diltiazem (1 μM) inhibited the vasoconstrictor responses to UTP but not those to ATP and UDP. Incubation in a Ca2+-free solution containing 1 mM EGTA inhibited the vascular responses to ATP, UTP and UDP. Removal of the endothelium by an intraluminal injection of saponin (1 mg) inhibited the vasodilator responses to UTP. Indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (1 μM), inhibited the vasodilator responses to UTP, but NG

  18. What Is the Pancreas?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreas Function of the Pancreas What is the pancreas? The pancreas is a long flattened gland located ... controller of blood sugar levels. Where is the pancreas? The pancreas is located deep in the abdomen. ...

  19. Transmural Ultrasound Imaging of Thermal Lesion and Action Potential Changes in Perfused Canine Cardiac Wedge Preparations by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ziqi; Gudur, Madhu S. R.; Deng, Cheri X.

    2013-01-01

    Intra-procedural imaging is important for guiding cardiac arrhythmia ablation. It is difficult to obtain intra-procedural correlation of thermal lesion formation with action potential (AP) changes in the transmural plane during ablation. This study tested parametric ultrasound imaging for transmural imaging of lesion and AP changes in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation using coronary perfused canine ventricular wedge preparations (n = 13). The preparations were paced from epi/endocardial surfaces and subjected to HIFU application (3.5 MHz, 11 Hz pulse-repetition-frequency, 70% duty cycle, duration 4 s, 3500 W/cm2), during which simultaneous optical mapping (1 kframes/s) using di-4-ANEPPS and ultrasound imaging (30 MHz) of the same transmural surface of the wedge were performed. Spatiotemporally correlated AP measurements and ultrasound imaging allowed quantification of the reduction of AP amplitude (APA), shortening of AP duration at 50% repolarization, AP triangulation, decrease of optical AP rise, and change of conduction velocity along tissue depth direction within and surrounding HIFU lesions. The threshold of irreversible change in APA correlating to lesions was determined to be 43±1% with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under curve (AUC) of 0.96±0.01 (n = 13). Ultrasound imaging parameters such as integrated backscatter, Rayleigh (α) and log-normal (σ) parameters, cumulative extrema of σ were tested, with the cumulative extrema of σ performing the best in detecting lesion (ROC AUC 0.89±0.01, n = 13) and change of APA (ROC AUC 0.79±0.03, n = 13). In conclusion, characteristic tissue and AP changes in HIFU ablation were identified and spatiotemporally correlated using optical mapping and ultrasound imaging. Parametric ultrasound imaging using cumulative extrema of σ can detect HIFU lesion and APA reduction. PMID:24349337

  20. Feasibility Study of Myocardial Perfusion and Oxygenation by Non-Contrast MRI: Comparison with PET Study in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Zhang, Haosen; Herrero, Pilar; Gropler, Robert J.; Zheng, Jie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of quantifying myocardial blood flow (MBF) and rate of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) during pharmacologically induced stress without using a contrast agent. The former was measured by the arterial spin labeling (ASL) method and the later was obtained by measuring the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect and Fick's law. The MRI results were compared with the established positron emission tomography (PET) methods. Six mongrel dogs with induced acute moderate left coronary artery stenosis were scanned using a clinical PET and a 1.5T MRI system, in the same day. Regional MBF, myocardial OEF, and MVO2 were measured with both imaging modalities. Correlation coefficients (R2) of the three myocardial indexes (MBF, OEF, and MVO2) between MRI and PET methods ranged from 0.70 to 0.93. Bland-Altman statistics demonstrated that the estimated precision of the limits of agreement between MRI and PET measurements varied from 18% (OEF), to 37% (MBF), and 45% (MVO2). The detected changes in these indexes, at rest and during dobutamine stress, were similar between two image modalities. The proposed non-contrast MRI technique is a promising method to quantitatively assess myocardial perfusion and oxygenation. PMID:17566684

  1. Pancreas divisum

    MedlinePlus

    ... to form the pancreas. Each part has a tube, called a duct. When the parts join together, a final duct, called the pancreatic duct, is formed. Fluid and digestive juices (enzymes) produced by the pancreas normally flow through this duct. If the ducts do not ...

  2. Pancreas transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence that the complications of diabetes, such as diabetic retinopathy, may not get worse and may even improve after a pancreas-kidney transplant. More than 95% of people survive ... of the donated pancreas and kidney for the rest of your life.

  3. Artifical Pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, JDRF launched the Artificial Pancreas Project (APP) to accelerate the development of a commercially-viable artificial pancreas system to closely mimic the biological function of the pancreas individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes. By automating detection of blood sugar levels and delivery of insulin in response to those levels, an artificial pancreas has the potential to transform the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. The 6-step APP development pathway serves as JDRF's APP strategic funding plan and defines the priorities of product research and development. Each step in the plan represents incremental advances in automation beginning with devices that shut off insulin delivery to prevent episodes of low blood sugar and progressing ultimately to a fully automated ``closed loop'' system that maintains blood glucose at a target level without the need to bolus for meals or adjust for exercise.

  4. Organ Facts: Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Pancreas Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Pancreas Facts The pancreas is a five to six inch ...

  5. Formation of Collateral Veins in a Graft Pancreas After a Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, B H; Lee, H Y; Park, Y M; Yang, K H; Ryu, J H; Chu, C W

    2015-09-01

    A graft vein thrombosis is the main cause of early graft failure after pancreas transplantation. We report a case of formation of collateral veins in a graft pancreas after transplant. A 30-year-old woman underwent simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. She was discharged 16 days after the operation with good pancreas and kidney function. A total occlusion of the portal vein was discovered on computed tomography (CT) performed at an outpatient clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of hyperglycemia. Venography was attempted for vein thrombectomy but failed. After 2 weeks of heparinization therapy, the edema disappeared and perfusion of the graft pancreas improved. However, the thrombotic occlusion was not resolved on CT. Arteriography of the Y-graft revealed collateral veins. She was discharged with warfarin. She is currently doing well without any symptoms or signs. This is the first reported case of collateral vein formation in a grafted pancreas after pancreas transplantation.

  6. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  7. Pancreas donation for islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Frutos, M A; Ruiz, P; Mansilla, J J

    2005-04-01

    Islet transplantation, though still in the experimental phase, is a therapeutic option that has opened new expectations for the control of diabetes mellitus. Initial results are encouraging for the significant advantages compared with whole pancreas transplantation for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, with or without kidney failure. However, the success of transplantation, both at centers with more experience and others with less, is limited by the difficulty in obtaining a suitable number of donors and by laboratory isolation techniques. Significant advances require changes in donor selection, perfusion, oxygenation, and transfer of the pancreas, and in the process of isolation, purification, and culture in the laboratory. Of the 32 pancreases sent to the islet isolation laboratory from different hospitals in Andalusia, a viable percentage of islets was finally available in 19. However, in only 4 (18%) procedures were the preparations considered optimal for implantation in 2 recipients. PMID:15866673

  8. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePlus

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of health information. Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. ...

  9. Getting a New Pancreas: Facts about Pancreas Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2003 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... the views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ Getting a New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants When you get a ...

  10. THE INTERRELATION OF THE SURVIVING HEART AND PANCREAS OF THE DOG IN SUGAR METABOLISM : SECOND PAPER.

    PubMed

    Clark, A H

    1917-11-01

    When the pancreas of a dog is perfused aseptically with a Locke's solution containing dextrose in physiological concentrations, the optical rotation of the perfusate is diminished, but its reducing power is unaltered. This change also occurs if dextrose is added to a sugarfree pancreatic perfusate and the mixture incubated. These perfusates yield osazones with lower melting points than glucosazone, but when the perfusates are hydrolyzed with weak acid their optical, rotations and the melting points of their osazones are increased. These changes do not occur with levulose, or with an extract of the pancreas and dextrose. When the heart, spleen, or kidneys are perfused with dextrose solutions hydrolysis of the perfusates does not increase their optical rotation or power of reduction. When a pancreatic perfusate containing dextrose is circulated through a living heart not only do the above changes take place but, in addition, the reducing properties of the perfusate are altered. Hydrolysis of such a perfusate increases its reducing power, its optical rotation, and the melting point of its osazone. A heart does not cause this effect either alone or when perfused together with the spleen or kidneys. Levulose perfused through the heart and pancreas is unchanged. These phenomena are believed to be due to an enzyme or enzymes obtained from the perfused pancreas. The changes in optical rotation, in reduction, and in the osazones are accounted for by different degrees of dextrose condensation. While the living heart can destroy both dextrose and levulose to some extent, the experimental results suggest that the enzyme or enzymes derived from the perfused pancreas have a specific action on dextrose and are responsible for certain essential steps by which dextrose is prepared for normal utilization. PMID:19868178

  11. Annular pancreas (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  12. Pancreas transplantation: review.

    PubMed

    Meirelles Júnior, Roberto Ferreira; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Vascularized pancreas transplantation is the only treatment that establishes normal glucose levels and normalizes glycosylated hemoglobin levels in type 1 diabetic patients. The first vascularized pancreas transplant was performed by William Kelly and Richard Lillehei, to treat a type 1 diabetes patient, in December 1966. In Brazil, Edison Teixeira performed the first isolated segmental pancreas transplant in 1968. Until the 1980s, pancreas transplants were restricted to a few centers of the United States and Europe. The introduction of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil in 1994, led to a significant outcome improvement and consequently, an increase in pancreas transplants in several countries. According to the International Pancreas Transplant Registry, until December 31st, 2010, more than 35 thousand pancreas transplants had been performed. The one-year survival of patients and pancreatic grafts exceeds 95 and 83%, respectively. The better survival of pancreatic (86%) and renal (93%) grafts in the first year after transplantation is in the simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant group of patients. Immunological loss in the first year after transplant for simultaneous pancreas-kidney, pancreas after kidney, and pancreas alone are 1.8, 3.7, and 6%, respectively. Pancreas transplant has 10 to 20% surgical complications requiring laparotomy. Besides enhancing quality of life, pancreatic transplant increases survival of uremic diabetic patient as compared to uremic diabetic patients on dialysis or with kidney transplantation alone.

  13. Pancreas transplantation: review

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascularized pancreas transplantation is the only treatment that establishes normal glucose levels and normalizes glycosylated hemoglobin levels in type 1 diabetic patients. The first vascularized pancreas transplant was performed by William Kelly and Richard Lillehei, to treat a type 1 diabetes patient, in December 1966. In Brazil, Edison Teixeira performed the first isolated segmental pancreas transplant in 1968. Until the 1980s, pancreas transplants were restricted to a few centers of the United States and Europe. The introduction of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil in 1994, led to a significant outcome improvement and consequently, an increase in pancreas transplants in several countries. According to the International Pancreas Transplant Registry, until December 31st, 2010, more than 35 thousand pancreas transplants had been performed. The one-year survival of patients and pancreatic grafts exceeds 95 and 83%, respectively. The better survival of pancreatic (86%) and renal (93%) grafts in the first year after transplantation is in the simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant group of patients. Immunological loss in the first year after transplant for simultaneous pancreas-kidney, pancreas after kidney, and pancreas alone are 1.8, 3.7, and 6%, respectively. Pancreas transplant has 10 to 20% surgical complications requiring laparotomy. Besides enhancing quality of life, pancreatic transplant increases survival of uremic diabetic patient as compared to uremic diabetic patients on dialysis or with kidney transplantation alone. PMID:26154551

  14. Digital angiographic impulse response analysis of regional myocardial perfusion: linearity, reproducibility, accuracy, and comparison with conventional indicator dilution curve parameters in phantom and canine models.

    PubMed

    Eigler, N L; Pfaff, J M; Zeiher, A; Whiting, J S; Forrester, J S

    1989-05-01

    The system mean transit time (Tsys) of the impulse response function describing contrast material transit through the coronary circulation was determined from serial digital angiographic images. The linearity, reproducibility, and relations with regional myocardial perfusion and conventional time-density curve parameters, time to peak concentration (TPC), and exponential washout rate (k) were assessed in a dynamic flow x-ray phantom (n = 46) and in six open-chest dogs (n = 102) while coronary flow was altered by stenosis and/or hyperemic stimuli. In the phantom studies, the inverse of the system mean transit time (Tsys-1) closely predicted flow/volume (r = 0.99, slope = 0.99). In dogs, Tsys-1 was independent of the shape of the contrast bolus injection (single or double-peaked), class of contrast agent (ionic or nonionic), the type of hyperemic stimulus (dipyridamole, dipyridamole plus norepinephrine, transient total occlusion, or ionic contrast media), and was highly reproducible between adjacent myocardial regions served by the same artery (r = 0.98 +/- 0.01). There was a strong correlation between Tsys-1 and regional coronary flow for stenotic and/or hyperemic vessels (r = 0.94, distribution volume = 14.9 ml/100 g) over a wide range (0-514 ml/min/100 g). Tsys-1 performed better than conventional time-density curve parameters TPC-1 and k for predicting phantom flow/volume ratios and regional myocardial blood flow in the dog. These data suggest that both digital coronary angiography and coronary contrast transit can be modeled as linear systems and that impulse response analysis may provide accurate and reproducible estimates of regional myocardial blood flow.

  15. Xenopus pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Esther J; Bilogan, Cassandra K; Mukhi, Sandeep; Brown, Donald D; Horb, Marko E

    2009-06-01

    Understanding how the pancreas develops is vital to finding new treatments for a range of pancreatic diseases, including diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Xenopus is a relatively new model organism for the elucidation of pancreas development, and has already made contributions to the field. Recent studies have shown benefits of using Xenopus for understanding both early patterning and lineage specification aspects of pancreas organogenesis. This review focuses specifically on Xenopus pancreas development, and covers events from the end of gastrulation, when regional specification of the endoderm is occurring, right through metamorphosis, when the mature pancreas is fully formed. We have attempted to cover pancreas development in Xenopus comprehensively enough to assist newcomers to the field and also to enable those studying pancreas development in other model organisms to better place the results from Xenopus research into the context of the field in general and their studies specifically. Developmental Dynamics 238:1271-1286, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Canine papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Lange, Christian E; Favrot, Claude

    2011-11-01

    Papillomaviruses can infect epithelia and induce proliferative disorders. Different types of canine papillomaviruses have been found to be associated with distinct pathologies including exophytic warts as in canine oral papillomatosis, endophytic warts, and pigmented plaques and, in some cases, squamous cell carcinomas. Virus infection is followed by a phase of subclinical infection before the onset of symptoms. A diagnosis can in some cases be made clinically but should be verified if there are any doubts. Most papillomas do regress spontaneously within a few months. Preventative vaccination is possible but not on the market.

  17. Assessment of pancreas cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  18. Canine Parvovirus

    MedlinePlus

    Finally, do not let your puppy or adult dog to come into contact with the fecal waste of other dogs while walking or playing outdoors. Prompt and proper ... advisable as a way to limit spread of canine parvovirus infection as well as other diseases that ...

  19. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidneys is to remove waste from the body through the production of urine. They also help to regulate blood pressure, blood volume and the chemical (electrolyte) composition of the blood. The pancreas is a five ...

  20. National Pancreas Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to NPF Contact Us Newsletter Sign Up Social Networking Button – Medium Search: Main menu Skip to primary ... 20814 1.866.726.2737 | Contact Us Social Networking Button – Medium © 2014 The National Pancreas Foundation | Health ...

  1. Partial annular pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Gunjan; Mittal, Amit; Singal, Rikki; Singal, Samita

    2016-01-01

    Annular pancreas is a developmental anomaly that can be associated with other conditions such as Down syndrome, duodenal atresia, and Hirschsprung disease. A band of pancreatic tissue, in continuity with the pancreatic head, completely or incompletely encircles the descending duodenum, sometimes assuming a “crocodile jaw” configuration. We present the case of an adult who presented with epigastric pain and vomiting and was found to have annular pancreas. PMID:27695176

  2. [Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas].

    PubMed

    Davies, Nestor R; Kasparian, Andres C; Viotto, Lucas E; Moreno, Walter A; Gramática, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas represents around 6-36% of mucinous cystic neoplasm. The lesions are usually found in the body and tail of the pancreas and are generally solitary with a size range of 6-36 cm. We present a clinical case of a 63 years old patient with abdominal pain and weight loss. We used radiographic imaging studies. It was treated with surgery by distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and transverse colectomy. Patient was not post operative complications.

  3. Partial annular pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Gunjan; Mittal, Amit; Singal, Rikki; Singal, Samita

    2016-01-01

    Annular pancreas is a developmental anomaly that can be associated with other conditions such as Down syndrome, duodenal atresia, and Hirschsprung disease. A band of pancreatic tissue, in continuity with the pancreatic head, completely or incompletely encircles the descending duodenum, sometimes assuming a “crocodile jaw” configuration. We present the case of an adult who presented with epigastric pain and vomiting and was found to have annular pancreas.

  4. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  5. Canine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Prier, J. E.; Brodey, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    The authors review current knowledge of spontaneous neoplasms in the dog. The prevalence of certain types of canine tumour has been studied, and comparisons have been made with the occurrence of similar neoplasms in man. Where there are appropriate analogies between the two species, the dog with spontaneous tumours can be used for studies that are not practicable in man. Nutritional and morphological studies have been done on cells cultured from canine tumours. Some consistency has been demonstrated in the morphology of cultures of different tumours of the same type. Nutritional studies with the transmissible venereal sarcoma of the dog have shown the cells to be subject to a growth-repressing effect by SH-containing amino-acids. Attempts to transmit tumours to other dogs or other species have generally been unsuccessful. A transplantable tumour developed in a mouse injected with non-cellular material from a canine thyroid carcinoma, but it is not certain that the tumour was induced. Cell-culture studies have shown that some tumours yield a factor that is cytopathogenic for normal cells, but none has been shown capable of inducing neoplasms in vivo. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:14058226

  6. Portal Annular Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Harnoss, Jonathan M.; Harnoss, Julian C.; Diener, Markus K.; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B.; Büchler, Markus W.; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered. In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery). Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option. PMID:25207658

  7. Advances in pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dholakia, Shamik; Oskrochi, Youssof; Easton, Graham; Papalois, Vassilios

    2016-04-01

    The potential to reverse diabetes has to be balanced against the morbidity of long-term immunosuppression associated with transplantation. For a patient with renal failure, the treatment of choice is often a simultaneous transplant of the pancreas and kidney or pancreas after kidney. For a patient with glycaemic instability, choices between a solid organ or islet transplant have to be weighed against benefits and risks of remaining on insulin. Results of simultaneous transplant of the pancreas and kidney transplantation are comparable to other solid-organ transplants, and there is evidence of improved quality of life and life expectancy. There is some evidence of benefit with respect to the progression of secondary diabetic complications in patients with functioning transplants for several years.

  8. [Injuries of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Vasiutkov, V Ia; Murasheva, Z M; Sukhov, D V; Burakov, M B

    1989-08-01

    Trauma of the pancreas was studied in 48 patients. It has a typical mechanisms and is characterized by intensity of the exerted force. Due to the last named circumstance, extensive retroperitoneal hematomas, ruptures of the parenchymatous organs, ligaments, veins, and large arteries often occur A severe condition of the patients with fall of arterial pressure and the development of shock is characteristic. It is difficult to establish the diagnosis of trauma of the pancreas before the operation. The most frequent complication is traumatic pancreatitis which is often attended by the development of cysts, fistulas, and peritonitis. The surgeon's tactics is determined by the character of the injury and is individual in each patient.

  9. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    MedlinePlus

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  10. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Functioning pancreas graft with thromboses of splenic and superior mesenteric arteries after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, I; Shinzeki, M; Asari, S; Goto, T; Shirakawa, S; Ajiki, T; Fukumoto, T; Ku, Y

    2014-04-01

    Graft thrombosis is the most common cause of early graft loss after pancreas transplantation. The grafted pancreas is difficult to salvage after complete thrombosis, especially arterial thrombosis, and graft pancreatectomy is required. We describe a patient presenting with a functioning pancreas graft with thromboses of the splenic artery (SA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK). A 37-year-old woman with a 20-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus underwent SPK. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa with enteric drainage. A Carrel patch was anastomosed to the recipient's right common iliac artery, and the graft gastroduodenal artery was anastomosed to the common hepatic artery using an arterial I-graft. The donor portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava. Four days after surgery, graft thromboses were detected by Doppler ultrasound without increases in the serum amylase and blood glucose levels. Contrast enhanced computed tomography revealed thromboses in the SA, splenic vein and SMA. Selective angiography showed that blood flow was interrupted in the SA and SMA. However, pancreatic graft perfusion was maintained by the I-graft in the head of the pancreas and the transverse pancreatic artery in the body and tail of the pancreas. We performed percutaneous direct thrombolysis and adjuvant thrombolytic therapy. However, we had to stop the thrombolytic therapy because of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Thereafter, the postoperative course was uneventful and the pancreas graft was functioning with a fasting blood glucose level of 75 mg/dL, HbA1c of 5.1%, and serum C-peptide level of 1.9 ng/mL at 30 months post-transplantation.

  12. Retinoids in the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Pierre-Jacques; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn

    2016-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its natural and synthetic analogs) are required by most tissues for maintaining the normal health of the tissue. This is certainly true for the pancreas. The recent literature is convincing that retinoids are needed by the adult to assure normal pancreatic endocrine functions, especially those of the α- and β-cells. It is also well established that retinoids are required to insure normal pancreas development in utero, including the development of the endocrine pancreas. The actions of retinoids for maintaining normal pancreatic islet functions has drawn considerable research interest from investigators interested in understanding and treating metabolic disease. Pancreatic retinoids are also of interest to investigators studying the origins of pancreatic disease, including the development of pancreatic fibrosis and its sequelae. This research interest is focused on pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) which store retinoids and possess the metabolic machinery needed to metabolize retinoids. The literature on pancreatic disease and retinoids suggests that there is an association between impairments in pancreatic retinoid storage and metabolism and the development of pancreatic disease. These topics will be considered in this review. PMID:26904552

  13. MR imaging of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Erin; Hammond, Nancy; Miller, Frank H

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pancreas is useful as both a problem-solving tool and an initial imaging examination of choice. With newer imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging, MR offers improved ability to detect and characterize lesions and identify and stage tumors and inflammation. MR cholangiopancreatography can be used to visualize the pancreatic and biliary ductal system. In this article, the use of MR to evaluate the pancreas, including recent advances, is reviewed and the normal appearance of the pancreas on different imaging sequences, as well as inflammatory diseases, congenital abnormalities, and neoplasms of the pancreas, are discussed.

  14. Canine hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, P G; Steiner, J M

    2015-10-01

    Hyperlipidaemia refers to an increased concentration of lipids in the blood. Hyperlipidaemia is common in dogs and has recently emerged as an important clinical condition that requires a systematic diagnostic approach and appropriate treatment. Hyperlipidaemia can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidaemia is the most common form in dogs, and it can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, as well as other conditions and the use of certain drugs. Primary hyperlipidaemia is less common in the general canine population but it can be very common within certain breeds. Hypertriglyceridaemia of Miniature Schnauzers is the most common form of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs but other breeds are also affected. Possible complications of hyperlipidaemia in dogs include pancreatitis, liver disease, atherosclerosis, ocular disease and seizures. Management of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs is achieved by administration of ultra low-fat diets with or without the administration of lipid lowering drugs such as omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, niacin and statins. PMID:26456868

  15. Human pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes.

  16. [Prophylactic pancreas surgery].

    PubMed

    Langer, P; Rothmund, M; Bartsch, D K

    2006-01-01

    The goal of prophylactic surgery is to prevent malignant growth in patients with hereditary tumor predisposition. The pancreas presents as particularly challenging, due to the difficulty of operation and comparatively high risk of morbidity and even mortality. In addition, partial operative procedures and, more significantly, total resection lead to exocrine pancreas insufficiency and secondary diabetes, with grave consequences for the patient. Hereditary tumor predisposition syndromes that can result in pancreaticoduodenal endocrine tumors (PET) include multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. As penetrance is maximally 70-80% and the 10-year survival rate over 80%, prophylactic pancreatic resection without evidence of a tumor is not indicated. However, prophylactic extension of a resection would be advised, should a PET be diagnosed. Patients predisposed to developing ductal pancreatic carcinoma (PC) are at risk of familial pancreatic cancer syndrome (FPC), hereditary pancreatitis, and other hereditary tumor predisposition syndromes such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and familial atypical multiple mole-melanoma syndrome. As the gene defect responsible for FPC has yet to be identified and the penetrance of PC in the other tumor predisposition syndromes is low or unknown, a prophylactic pancreatectomy based on today's knowledge is not indicated. Prophylactic extension of the resection is advisable should PC or high-grade PanIN lesions be diagnosed, as these patients often present with multifocal dysplasia and even carcinoma.

  17. [Pancreas pseudocyst or metastasis?].

    PubMed

    Gyorffy, Hajnalka; Tihanyi, Tibor; Gyökeres, Tibor; Zsirka-Klein, Attila; Kádár, Péter; Kaszás, Ilona; Kovács, Margit

    2005-10-23

    The authors review a case of a 24-year-old male patient hospitalised for repeated acute abdominal symptoms. His medical history included no diseases worth of mentioning. By imaging techniques (abdominal US and CT scan) a cystic lesion, measuring 40 x 35 x 30 mm in diameter was found, and was diagnosed as pseudocyst in the region of the tail of the pancreas. Jejunal feeding was introduced. The lesion did not improve and the second CT scan suggested a suspicion of pancreatic cystadenoma. Three months after first presentation the surgical resection was performed. The tumour, however, was found independent of the pancreas (90 x 80 x 50 mm). Both histologically and immunohistochemically the lesion proved to be the metastasis of a germ cell (yolk-sac) tumour. Following the morphological diagnosis, detailed urological and medical check up was performed. A previously nonpalpable small tumour was found in the left testis which was radically resected. The testicular tumour measuring 9 x 9 x 5 mm in diameter was diagnosed as embryonal carcinoma. Later on the patient underwent chemotherapy. He has been undergoing close oncological followup. Clinically, he is disease free. Authors emphasize the importance of imaging techniques and fine needle aspiration cytology in the case of retroperitoneal masses in young males. The possibility of a metastasis, especially of germ cell origin, should be excluded (not only by physical examination, but by ultrasound of testis also) in case of retroperitoneal cystic tumours even with unusual morphology.

  18. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of canine pancreatic and duodenum homeobox 1 (Pdx-1).

    PubMed

    Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Lee, Peter; Ohta, Taizo; Mori, Nobuko; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-10-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx-1) is a critical insulin transcription factor expressed by pancreatic β-cells, and is crucial in the early stage of pancreas development. Unfortunately, nothing concerning Pdx-1 in canine has been elucidated yet. In this study, full length canine Pdx-1 cDNA was cloned and it was 1498 bp in length, consisting of a 99 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 849 bp coding region, and a 550 bp 3'-UTR region. A deduced 282 amino acid sequence of canine PDX-1 displayed high overall sequence identity with human, bovine, and mouse PDX-1. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that a high level of Pdx1 mRNA expression is exists in the duodenum and pancreas of canines. In addition, functional canine insulin promoter-luciferase reporter constructs with various canine insulin promoter region fragments revealed that our Pdx-1 isolated cDNA sequence encodes for a functionally active PDX-1 protein. Significant promoter activity was observed within the -583 bp 5'-upstream region of canine insulin gene with Chinese hamster ovary cells. In addition, Pdx-1 appears to have a synergistic effect with beta cell transactivator 2 (BETA2) and V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which also have important roles in the activation of the insulin gene promoter. Our results confirm that similar to humans, Pdx1 plays an important role in expression of insulin gene in canines.

  19. Microfluidic perfusion culture.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic perfusion culture is a novel technique to culture animal cells in a small-scale microchamber with medium perfusion. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most popular material to fabricate a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Photolithography and replica molding techniques are generally used for fabrication of a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Pressure-driven perfusion culture system is convenient technique to carry out the perfusion culture of animal cells in a microfluidic device. Here, we describe a general theory on microfluid network design, microfabrication technique, and experimental technique for pressure-driven perfusion culture in an 8 × 8 microchamber array on a glass slide-sized microchip made out of PDMS. PMID:24297421

  20. Molecular Pathways Controlling Pancreas induction

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kyle W.; Wells, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in generating pancreatic cell types from human pluripotent stem cells has depended on our knowledge of the developmental processes that regulate pancreas development in vivo. The developmental events between gastrulation and formation of the embryonic pancreatic primordia are both rapid and dynamic and studies in frog, fish, chick, and mouse have identified the molecular basis of how the pancreas develops from multipotent endoderm progenitors. Here, we review the current status of our understanding of molecular mechanisms that control endoderm formation, endoderm patterning, and pancreas specification and highlight how these discoveries have allowed for the development of robust methods to generate pancreatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:22743233

  1. Localization of Impacted Canines

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra; Singh, Ashish; Garg, Aarti; Kumar, Snehi; Sharma, Ashish; Yadav, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. The impaction of canine can be prevented in some situationsif the canine displacement is diagnosed in the early mixed dentition period and this would be extremely useful for the clinician. Hence,it is very important to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, the differentmodalities used to diagnose the impacted canine are reviewed with an insight into current 3-D modalities. PMID:25738100

  2. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disease becomes more chronic, patients can develop malnutrition and weight loss. If the pancreas becomes destroyed ... with these disorders may have chronic pain, diarrhea, malnutrition, or diabetes. Treatment focuses on pain control and ...

  3. Pancreas transplantation in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Pozza, G; Di Carlo, V

    1989-01-01

    After a brief historical background on pancreas transplantation in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, this review deals with the major surgical, pharmacological and functional aspects of this approach. In the Authors' opinion pancreas transplantation should be proposed only when the end-stage renal failure (ESRF), due to diabetic nephropathy, needs kidney transplantation. By using injection of polymers (mainly neoprene) into the pancreatic ducts, or urinary diversion of pancreatic juice and appropriate immunosuppressive therapy (cyclosporin, corticosteroids and azathioprine), dramatic advantages have been achieved in the last years, so that a satisfactory segmental or total pancreas graft survival on one hand, and the early graft rejection recognition on the other have been presently obtained. A prompt and good functional activity of pancreas graft has also been demonstrated by the Authors in successfully transplanted patients. As far as chronic diabetic complications are concerned, no conclusive results have been reported up to now; it is noteworthy, however, that pancreas transplantation may preserve the transplanted kidney from a relapse of diabetic nephropathy. The combined pancreas-kidney transplantation may actually be considered as a correct solution to the problem of diabetic patients with ESRF. Moreover, careful selection of patients, appropriate surgical technique and experienced immunosuppressive treatment are the major prerequisites to achieve a satisfactory improvement of diabetic status in addition to that of renal failure.

  4. Repurposed biological scaffolds: kidney to pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Willenberg, Bradley J; Oca-Cossio, Jose; Cai, Yunqing; Brown, Alicia R; Clapp, William L; Abrahamson, Dale R; Terada, Naohiro; Ellison, Gary W; Mathews, Clayton E; Batich, Christopher D; Ross, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Advances in organ regeneration have been facilitated by gentle decellularization protocols that maintain distinct tissue compartments, and thereby allow seeding of blood vessels with endothelial lineages separate from populations of the parenchyma with tissue-specific cells. We hypothesized that a reconstituted vasculature could serve as a novel platform for perfusing cells derived from a different organ: thus discordance of origin between the vascular and functional cells, leading to a hybrid repurposed organ. The need for a highly vascular bed is highlighted by tissue engineering approaches that involve transplantation of just cells, as attempted for insulin production to treat human diabetes. Those pancreatic islet cells present unique challenges since large numbers are needed to allow the cell-to-cell signaling required for viability and proper function; however, increasing their number is limited by inadequate perfusion and hypoxia. As proof of principle of the repurposed organ methodology we harnessed the vasculature of a kidney scaffold while seeding the collecting system with insulin-producing cells. Pig kidneys were decellularized by sequential detergent, enzymatic and rinsing steps. Maintenance of distinct vascular and collecting system compartments was demonstrated by both fluorescent 10 micron polystyrene microspheres and cell distributions in tissue sections. Sterilized acellular scaffolds underwent seeding separately via the artery (fibroblasts or endothelioma cells) and retrograde (murine βTC-tet cells) up the ureter. After three-day bioreactor incubation, histology confirmed separation of cells in the vasculature from those in the collecting system. βTC-tet clusters survived in tubules, glomerular Bowman's space, demonstrated insulin immunolabeling, and thereby supported the feasibility of kidney-to-pancreas repurposing. PMID:26252820

  5. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a health care ...

  6. Radionuclide surveillance of the allografted pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.A.; Salimi, Z.; Carney, K.; Castaneda, M.; Garvin, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphy to detect posttransplantation complications of the allografted pancreas, we retrospectively reviewed 209 scintigrams obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) and /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (/sup 99m/Tc-GH). The scintigraphic studies were performed in 37 recipients of simultaneous renal and pancreatic allografts harvested from the same donor. /sup 99m/Tc-SC was used as an indicator of thrombotic vasculitis; pancreatic perfusion and blood-pool parameters were monitored with /sup 99m/Tc-GH. In 11 of the 37 recipients, scintigraphic abnormalities suggested posttransplantation infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute rejection of the pancreatic allograft, which always coincided with acute rejection of the renal allograft, were monitored in 24 recipients. Rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis was suggested in 12 of the 24 recipients and persisted in 10 recipients for several weeks after improvement of renal allograft rejection. Pancreatic atrophy was suggested scintigraphically in 16 of the 24 recipients with recurrent episodes of rejection. Spontaneous pancreatic-duct obstruction and obstructive pancreatitis were associated with a scintigraphic pattern similar to that of rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis. We concluded that the specific radionuclides used in this series are useful for the surveillance and assessment of posttransplantation pancreatic infarction, acute rejection, pancreatitis, and atrophy

  7. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis.

  8. Clinical imaging of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    May, G.; Gardiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Featuring more than 300 high-quality radiographs and scan images, clinical imaging of the pancreas systematically reviews all appropriate imaging modalities for diagnosing and evaluating a variety of commonly encountered pancreatic disorders. After presenting a succinct overview of pancreatic embryology, anatomy, and physiology, the authors establish the clinical indications-including postoperative patient evaluation-for radiologic examination of the pancreas. The diagnostic capabilities and limitations of currently available imaging techniques for the pancreas are thoroughly assessed, with carefully selected illustrations depicting the types of images and data obtained using these different techniques. The review of acute and chronic pancreatitis considers the clinical features and possible complications of their variant forms and offers guidance in selecting appropriate imaging studies.

  9. Motilin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum, pyloric stomach and pancreas of caimans (Caiman latirostris and Caiman crocodilus, alligatorinae): a further comparison using region-specific motilin antisera.

    PubMed

    Yamada, J; Rodrigues, M A; Kitamura, N; Pai, V D; Yamashita, T; Motizuki, T; Yanaihara, N

    1991-07-01

    Motilin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum, pyloric stomach and pancreas of Caiman latirostris and Caiman crocodilus were investigated using region specific antisera for porcine and canine motilin molecules. Motilin-immunoreactive cells were found in the duodenum, pyloric stomach and pancreas of both caiman species. These cells were primarily open-type endocrine ones in the epithelium of the duodenum and pyloric stomach. Motilin-immunoreactive cells were observed in both the exocrine and endocrine portions of the pancreas, and frequently exhibited one or more cytoplasmic processes of variable length. Since motilin-immunoreactive cells do not cross-react with serotonin or any of the other pancreatic and gut hormones, they are considered to be cell type independent from any of the other known pancreatic or gut endocrine cells. The molecular similarity between caiman motilin and porcine and canine motilins and the heterogeneity of the motilin molecule in the caiman digestive system is discussed.

  10. Additional Resection of the Pancreas Body Prevents Postoperative Pancreas Fistula in Patients with Portal Annular Pancreas Who Undergo Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Jun; Mano, Yohei; Harada, Noboru; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is a rare variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends to the dorsal surface of the pancreas body and surrounds the portal vein or superior mesenteric vein. Upon pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), when the pancreas is cut at the neck, two cut surfaces are created. Thus, the cut surface of the pancreas becomes larger than usual and the dorsal cut surface is behind the portal vein, therefore pancreatic fistula after PD has been reported frequently. We planned subtotal stomach-preserving PD in a 45-year-old woman with underlying insulinoma of the pancreas head. When the pancreas head was dissected, the uncinate process was extended and fused to the dorsal surface of the pancreas body. Additional resection of the pancreas body 1 cm distal to the pancreas tail to the left side of the original resection line was performed. The new cut surface became one and pancreaticojejunostomy was performed as usual. No postoperative complications such as pancreatic fistula occurred. Additional resection of the pancreas body may be a standardized procedure in patients with PAP in cases of pancreas cut surface reconstruction. PMID:22532811

  11. Antithrombin therapy in pancreas retransplantation and pancreas-after-kidney/pancreas-transplantation-alone patients.

    PubMed

    Fertmann, Jan M; Arbogast, Helmut P; Illner, Wolf-Dieter; Tarabichi, Anwar; Dieterle, Christoph; Land, Walter; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Hoffmann, Johannes N

    2011-01-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a coagulatory inhibitor with pleiotropic activities. AT reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury and has been successfully used in patients with simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation. This study retrospectively analyzes prophylactic high-dose AT application in patients with solitary pancreas transplantation traditionally related to suboptimal results. In our center, 31 patients received solitary pancreas transplantation between 7/1994 and 7/2005 (pancreas retransplantation, PAK/PTA). The perioperative treatment protocol was modified in 5/2002 now including application of 3000 IU. AT was given intravenously before pancreatic reperfusion (AT, n = 18). Patients receiving standard therapy served as controls (n = 13). Daily blood sampling was performed during five postoperative days. Standard coagulatory parameters and number of transfused red blood cell units were not altered by AT. In AT patients serum amylase (p < 0.01) and lipase (p < 0.01) on postoperative days 1, 2 and 3 were significantly reduced. Our actual perioperative management protocol including high dose AT application in human solitary pancreas transplantation reduced postoperative liberation of pancreatic enzymes in this pilot study. Prophylactic AT application should deserve further clinical testing in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:21999781

  12. Collection protocol for human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Thompson, Martha L; Montgomery, Emily L; Foss, Robin M; Kolheffer, Kerwin M; Phipps, Gerald; Schneider, Lynda; Atkinson, Mark A

    2012-05-23

    This dissection and sampling procedure was developed for the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) program to standardize preparation of pancreas recovered from cadaveric organ donors. The pancreas is divided into 3 main regions (head, body, tail) followed by serial transverse sections throughout the medial to lateral axis. Alternating sections are used for fixed paraffin and fresh frozen blocks and remnant samples are minced for snap frozen sample preparations, either with or without RNAse inhibitors, for DNA, RNA, or protein isolation. The overall goal of the pancreas dissection procedure is to sample the entire pancreas while maintaining anatomical orientation. Endocrine cell heterogeneity in terms of islet composition, size, and numbers is reported for human islets compared to rodent islets. The majority of human islets from the pancreas head, body and tail regions are composed of insulin-containing β-cells followed by lower proportions of glucagon-containing α-cells and somatostatin-containing δ-cells. Pancreatic polypeptide-containing PP cells and ghrelin-containing epsilon cells are also present but in small numbers. In contrast, the uncinate region contains islets that are primarily composed of pancreatic polypeptide-containing PP cells. These regional islet variations arise from developmental differences. The pancreas develops from the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds in the foregut and after rotation of the stomach and duodenum, the ventral lobe moves and fuses with the dorsal. The ventral lobe forms the posterior portion of the head including the uncinate process while the dorsal lobe gives rise to the rest of the organ. Regional pancreatic variation is also reported with the tail region having higher islet density compared to other regions and the dorsal lobe-derived components undergoing selective atrophy in type 1 diabetes. Additional organs and tissues are often recovered from the organ donors and include pancreatic lymph

  13. Lymphoepithelial Cyst of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Prabhu; Fletcher, Natalie; Kyriakides, Charis; Mears, Lisa; Kocher, Hemant M.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of the pancreas is an extremely rare, benign pancreatic cystic lesion that is difficult to differentiate preoperatively from other cystic pancreatic lesions. LEC may have malignant potential. Here, we describe a case of LEC of the pancreas – initially suspected to be a mucinous cyst neoplasm – in an elderly man presenting with abdominal pain, who went on to have a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. We also review the relevant literature and discuss implications for the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion. PMID:27403123

  14. Nodular Elastosis of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Wedel, Whitney; Talmon, Geoffrey; Sasson, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Elastofibromatous change is a benign process that has been increasingly recognized in the tubular gastrointestinal tract. These changes can present as a colonic polyp or be seen in conjunction with inflammatory changes. Similar lesions have been noted in the liver, apparently associated with vascular injury. We describe a case in which multiple circumscribed nodules of elastofibromatous change within the pancreas had a similar morphology to nodular elastosis of the liver. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such a finding occurring within the pancreas. PMID:26346767

  15. The economics of pancreas surgery.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Charles M

    2013-06-01

    Pancreas surgery is a paradigm for high-acuity surgical specialization. Given the current intrigue over containing health care expenditures, pancreas surgery provides an ideal model to investigate the cost of care. This article explores the economics of this field from literature accrued over the last 2 decades. The cost of performing a pancreatic resection is established and then embellished with a discussion of the effects of clinical care paths. Then the influence of complications on costs is explored. Next, cost is investigated as an emerging outcome metric regarding variations in pancreatic surgical care. Finally, the societal-level fiscal impact is considered.

  16. Collection Protocol for Human Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Thompson, Martha L.; Montgomery, Emily L.; Foss, Robin M.; Kolheffer, Kerwin M.; Phipps, Gerald; Schneider, Lynda; Atkinson, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissection and sampling procedure was developed for the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) program to standardize preparation of pancreas recovered from cadaveric organ donors. The pancreas is divided into 3 main regions (head, body, tail) followed by serial transverse sections throughout the medial to lateral axis. Alternating sections are used for fixed paraffin and fresh frozen blocks and remnant samples are minced for snap frozen sample preparations, either with or without RNAse inhibitors, for DNA, RNA, or protein isolation. The overall goal of the pancreas dissection procedure is to sample the entire pancreas while maintaining anatomical orientation. Endocrine cell heterogeneity in terms of islet composition, size, and numbers is reported for human islets compared to rodent islets 1. The majority of human islets from the pancreas head, body and tail regions are composed of insulin-containing β-cells followed by lower proportions of glucagon-containing α-cells and somatostatin-containing δ-cells. Pancreatic polypeptide-containing PP cells and ghrelin-containing epsilon cells are also present but in small numbers. In contrast, the uncinate region contains islets that are primarily composed of pancreatic polypeptide-containing PP cells 2. These regional islet variations arise from developmental differences. The pancreas develops from the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds in the foregut and after rotation of the stomach and duodenum, the ventral lobe moves and fuses with the dorsal 3. The ventral lobe forms the posterior portion of the head including the uncinate process while the dorsal lobe gives rise to the rest of the organ. Regional pancreatic variation is also reported with the tail region having higher islet density compared to other regions and the dorsal lobe-derived components undergoing selective atrophy in type 1 diabetes4,5. Additional organs and tissues are often recovered from the organ donors and include pancreatic

  17. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  18. Pancreas transplant for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hannah R; Hatipoglu, Betul; Krishnamurthi, Venkatesh

    2015-11-01

    Pancreas transplant is an option for patients with type 1 diabetes and for some patients with type 2 diabetes and advanced diabetic kidney disease. The procedure has a high success rate, and performing it earlier in the course of diabetes could help prevent or reverse the long-term complications of diabetes.

  19. Perfusion-related stimuli for compensatory lung growth following pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Dane, D Merrill; Yilmaz, Cuneyt; Gyawali, Dipendra; Iyer, Roshni; Ravikumar, Priya; Estrera, Aaron S; Hsia, Connie C W

    2016-07-01

    Following pneumonectomy (PNX), two separate mechanical forces act on the remaining lung: parenchymal stress caused by lung expansion, and microvascular distension and shear caused by increased perfusion. We previously showed that parenchymal stress and strain explain approximately one-half of overall compensation; the remainder was presumptively attributed to perfusion-related factors. In this study, we directly tested the hypothesis that perturbation of regional pulmonary perfusion modulates post-PNX lung growth. Adult canines underwent banding of the pulmonary artery (PAB) to the left caudal (LCa) lobe, which caused a reduction in basal perfusion to LCa lobe without preventing the subsequent increase in its perfusion following right PNX while simultaneously exaggerating the post-PNX increase in perfusion to the unbanded lobes, thereby creating differential perfusion changes between banded and unbanded lobes. Control animals underwent sham pulmonary artery banding followed by right PNX. Pulmonary function, regional pulmonary perfusion, and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest were analyzed pre-PNX and 3-mo post-PNX. Terminally, the remaining lobes were fixed for detailed morphometric analysis. Results were compared with corresponding lobes in two control (Sham banding and normal unoperated) groups. PAB impaired the indices of post-PNX extravascular alveolar tissue growth by up to 50% in all remaining lobes. PAB enhanced the expected post-PNX increase in alveolar capillary formation, measured by the prevalence of double-capillary profiles, in both unbanded and banded lobes. We conclude that perfusion distribution provides major stimuli for post-PNX compensatory lung growth independent of the stimuli provided by lung expansion and parenchymal stress and strain.

  20. Lack of Evidence for a Role of Islet Autoimmunity in the Aetiology of Canine Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Landegren, Nils; Grimelius, Lars; von Euler, Henrik; Sundberg, Katarina; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Lobell, Anna; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene; Lernmark, Åke; Kämpe, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical presentation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine diabetes are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported. Methods Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 40 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by in vitro transcription and translation (ITT) of human and canine GAD65, followed by immune precipitation. Sections of pancreata from five diabetic dogs and two control dogs were examined histopathologically including immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreas polypeptide. Results None of the canine sera analysed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay. Histopathology showed marked degenerative changes in endocrine islets, including vacuolisation and variable loss of immune-staining for insulin. No sign of inflammation was noted. Conclusions/Interpretations Contrary to previous observations, based on results from tests for humoral autoreactivity towards islet proteins using four different assays, and histopathological examinations, we do not find any support for an islet autoimmune aetiology in canine diabetes mellitus. PMID:25153886

  1. Hepatic Perfusion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Rahul; Gamblin, T Clark; Turaga, Kiran K

    2016-04-01

    Isolated hepatic perfusion uses the unique vascular supply of hepatic malignancies to deliver cytotoxic chemotherapy. The procedure involves vascular isolation of the liver and delivery of chemotherapy via the hepatic artery and extraction from retrohepatic vena cava. Benefits of hepatic perfusion have been observed in hepatic metastases of ocular melanoma and colorectal cancer and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Percutaneous and prophylactic perfusions are avenues of ongoing research.

  2. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreas carcinoma occurring in the annular pancreas: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kawaida, Hiromichi; Kono, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Maki, Akira; Amemiya, Hidetake; Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Takahashi, Ei; Sano, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2015-08-01

    The annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly in which a ring of the pancreas parenchyma surrounds the second part of the duodenum. Malignant tumors are extremely rare in patients with an annular pancreas. A 64-year-old man presented with appetite loss and vomiting. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) indicated pancreas parenchyma surrounding the second part of the duodenum, and a hypovascular area occupying lesion in the annular pancreas. Subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathology showed pancreatic carcinoma occurring in the complete annular pancreas.

  3. Endocrine pancreas development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Zahra; Lin, Shuo

    2011-10-15

    Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Current efforts to cure diabetes are aimed at replenishing damaged cells by generating a new supply of β cells in vitro. The most promising strategy for achieving this goal is to differentiate embryonic stem (ES) cells by sequentially exposing them to signaling molecules that they would normally encounter in vivo. This approach requires a thorough understanding of the temporal sequence of the signaling events underlying pancreatic β-cell induction during embryonic development. The zebrafish system has emerged as a powerful tool in the study of pancreas development. In this review, we provide a temporal summary of pancreas development in zebrafish with a special focus on the formation of pancreatic β cells.

  4. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Domen, Hiromitsu; Ohara, Masanori; Kimura, Noriko; Takahashi, Mizuna; Yamabuki, Takumi; Komuro, Kazuteru; Iwashiro, Nozomu; Ishizaka, Masanori

    2012-09-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas can be divided into true cysts, pseudocysts, and cystic neoplasms. Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are a type of true cyst that can mimic pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. LECs are rare lesions; fewer than 90 cases have been reported in the English language literature. The case of a 60-year-old man with an LEC of the pancreas is reported. He was admitted with upper abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography showed a 64 × 39 mm cystic mass in the retroperitoneum behind the duodenum and inferior caval vein. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right-sided mass on T1-weighted imaging, with a clear boundary between the mass and its surroundings, except for the pancreas. The mass had an inhomogeneous intensity on T2-weighted imaging. Within the mass, small floating nodules with low intensity were seen. Endoscopic ultrasound showed many high-echoic nodules and smaller grains scattered everywhere in the mass. Fine needle aspiration and cytologic examination were performed. Characteristic chylaceous fluid was obtained in which anucleate squamous cells were found. There were also a few atypical large cells with irregularly shaped marked nucleoli and degenerative cytoplasm. Cytologic diagnosis was suspicious for malignancy. The lesion was diagnosed as a retroperitoneal cyst, probably of pancreatic origin. Since a neoplastic lesion could not be ruled out, surgery was performed. The lesion was palpable on the dorsal side of the second portion of the duodenum. The mass was completely resected. Macroscopically, the lesion was a multilocular cyst with a thin septal wall. The cyst was filled with cottage cheese-like substance. Microscopically, the cyst wall was composed of stratified squamous epithelium and dense subepithelial lymphatic tissue with developed lymph follicles. The epithelial cells had no atypia. The histopathologic diagnosis was LEC of the pancreas. The patient's postoperative course was good.

  5. Pancreas imaging by computed tomography after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. [Dogs; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; O'Leary, J.F.; Salomonowitz, E.; Stoltenberg, E.; Hutton, S.; Gedgaudas, E.

    1984-01-01

    A method using CT after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (CT-ERP) is described for pancreatic imaging. When using an ERP technique in the canine model comparable to that used in humans, small amounts of contrast material in peripheral pancreatic radicles resulted in enhancement of the pancreas on CT scans. Nine patients were also studied by CT-ERP images. The main pancreatic duct was seen on delayed images. In cases of chronic pancreatitis (n = 2), pancreatic opacification was patchy and heterogeneous. There was no contrast-material enhancement in areas of pancreatic carcimomas (n = 2). CT-ERP showed the true extent of carcinoma better than ERP alone.

  6. Thermographic studies of phantom and canine kidneys thawed by microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Schmehl, M K; Graham, E F; Kilkowski, S M

    1990-06-01

    Whole organs, such as kidneys, must be thawed quickly and uniformly to prevent damage during thawing due to excessive heating. Electromagnetic heating with microwaves thaws the kidneys quickly but frequently produces "hot spots" with heat damage. To study heat damage, phantom gelatin kidneys with different dielectric constants and canine kidneys perfused with 12.5% glycerol, ethylene glycol, or dimethyl sulfoxide before freezing were microwave thawed, and the interior temperature was measured by thermography. Phantom kidneys were thawed free standing and canine kidneys were either free standing or packed in a gel mixture. Both phantom and canine kidneys were split symmetrically and separated with a sheet of Styrofoam to facilitate immediate separation and evaluation of the halves after thawing (approximately 3 sec). All the phantoms, regardless of dielectric properties, had areas less than 0 degrees C or greater than 37 degrees C after thawing. The free-standing canine kidneys and the gel-packed ethylene glycol-perfused kidneys had frozen areas (less than 0 degrees C) and hot spots (greater than 37 degrees C). However, glycerol- and dimethyl sulfoxide-perfused kidneys packed in gel before thawing had no areas less than 0 degrees C or greater than 37 degrees C. Altering the geometry from a "kidney shape" to a cylindrical shape with increased volume improved the uniformity of thawing and was more effective than altering the dielectric constant over the range evaluated.

  7. Thermographic studies of phantom and canine kidneys thawed by microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmehl, M.K.; Graham, E.F.; Kilkowski, S.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Whole organs, such as kidneys, must be thawed quickly and uniformly to prevent damage during thawing due to excessive heating. Electromagnetic heating with microwaves thaws the kidneys quickly but frequently produces hot spots with heat damage. To study heat damage, phantom gelatin kidneys with different dielectric constants and canine kidneys perfused with 12.5% glycerol, ethylene glycol, or dimethyl sulfoxide before freezing were microwave thawed, and the interior temperature was measured by thermography. Phantom kidneys were thawed free standing and canine kidneys were either free standing or packed in a gel mixture. Both phantom and canine kidneys were split symmetrically and separated with a sheet of Styrofoam to facilitate immediate separation and evaluation of the halves after thawing (approximately 3 sec). All the phantoms, regardless of dielectric properties, had areas less than 0 degrees C or greater than 37 degrees C after thawing. The free-standing canine kidneys and the gel-packed ethylene glycol-perfused kidneys had frozen areas (less than 0 degrees C) and hot spots (greater than 37 degrees C). However, glycerol- and dimethyl sulfoxide-perfused kidneys packed in gel before thawing had no areas less than 0 degrees C or greater than 37 degrees C. Altering the geometry from a kidney shape to a cylindrical shape with increased volume improved the uniformity of thawing and was more effective than altering the dielectric constant over the range evaluated.

  8. Pancreas Transplantation in the Modern Era.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Robert R; Rickels, Michael R; Naji, Ali; Odorico, Jon S

    2016-03-01

    The field of pancreas transplantation has evolved from an experimental procedure in the 1980s to become a routine transplant in the modern era. With short- and long-term outcomes continuing to improve and the significant mortality, quality-of-life, and end-organ disease benefits, pancreas transplantation should be offered to more patients. In this article, we review current indications, patient selection, surgical considerations, complications, and outcomes in the modern era of pancreas transplantation.

  9. Canine epilepsy genetics.

    PubMed

    Ekenstedt, Kari J; Patterson, Edward E; Mickelson, James R

    2012-02-01

    There has been much interest in utilizing the dog as a genetic model for common human diseases. Both dogs and humans suffer from naturally occurring epilepsies that share many clinical characteristics. Investigations of inherited human epilepsies have led to the discovery of several mutated genes involved in this disease; however, the vast majority of human epilepsies remain unexplained. Mouse models of epilepsy exist, including single-gene spontaneous and knockout models, but, similar to humans, other, polygenic models have been more difficult to discern. This appears to also be the case in canine epilepsy genetics. There are two forms of canine epilepsies for which gene mutations have been described to date: the progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) and idiopathic epilepsy (IE). Gene discovery in the PMEs has been more successful, with eight known genes; six of these are orthologous to corresponding human disorders, while two are novel genes that can now be used as candidates for human studies. Only one IE gene has been described in dogs, an LGI2 mutation in Lagotto Romagnolos with a focal, juvenile remitting epilepsy. This gene is also a novel candidate for human remitting childhood epilepsy studies. The majority of studies of dog breeds with IE, however, have either failed to identify any genes or loci of interest, or, as in complex mouse and human IEs, have identified multiple QTLs. There is still tremendous promise in the ongoing canine epilepsy studies, but if canine IEs prove to be as genetically complex as human and murine IEs, then deciphering the bases of these canine epilepsies will continue to be challenging.

  10. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  11. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  12. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments

    PubMed Central

    O'Keeffe, Derek T.; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  13. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Truong, L D; Rangdaeng, S; Jordan, P H

    1987-11-01

    A rare cystic lesion of the pancreas is reported. Morphologically, this unilocular cyst was filled with keratin material and lined by mature, keratinizing squamous epithelium; it was surrounded by lymphoid tissue and also focally by pancreatic tissue. Clinically, the lesion was associated with diarrhea and abdominal pain, both of which promptly disappeared after its removal. Although the histogenesis of this lesion is not known, it can be histologically differentiated from other pancreatic and retroperitoneal cysts. We propose the name "lymphoepithelial cyst" for this lesion and note that only one similar case has been described previously.

  14. Pancreas Transplantation: An Alarming Crisis in Confidence.

    PubMed

    Stratta, R J; Gruessner, A C; Odorico, J S; Fridell, J A; Gruessner, R W G

    2016-09-01

    In the past decade, the annual number of pancreas transplantations performed in the United States has steadily declined. From 2004 to 2011, the overall number of simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantations in the United States declined by 10%, whereas the decreases in pancreas after kidney (PAK) and pancreas transplant alone (PTA) procedures were 55% and 34%, respectively. Paradoxically, this has occurred in the setting of improvements in graft and patient survival outcomes and transplanting higher-risk patients. Only 11 centers in the United States currently perform ≥20 pancreas transplantations per year, and most centers perform <5 pancreas transplantations annually; many do not perform PAKs or PTAs. This national trend in decreasing numbers of pancreas transplantations is related to a number of factors including lack of a primary referral source, improvements in diabetes care and management, changing donor and recipient considerations, inadequate training opportunities, and increasing risk aversion because of regulatory scrutiny. A national initiative is needed to "reinvigorate" SPK and PAK procedures as preferred transplantation options for appropriately selected uremic patients taking insulin regardless of C-peptide levels or "type" of diabetes. Moreover, many patients may benefit from PTAs because all categories of pancreas transplantation are not only life enhancing but also life extending procedures. PMID:27232750

  15. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Shah; Qari, Hasina; Banday, Tanveer; Altaf, Asma; Para, Mah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual management of mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas. A systematic review was performed in December 2009 by consulting PubMed MEDLINE for publications and matching the key words “pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm”, “pancreatic mucinous cystic tumor”, “pancreatic mucinous cystic mass”, “pancreatic cyst” and “pancreatic cystic neoplasm” to identify English language articles describing the diagnosis and treatment of the MCN of the pancreas. In total, 16,322 references ranging from January 1969 to December 2009 were analyzed and 77 articles were identified. No articles published before 1996 were selected because MCNs were not previously considered to be a completely autonomous disease. Definition, epidemiology, anatomopathological findings, clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, treatment and prognosis were reviewed. MCNs are pancreatic mucin-producing cysts with a distinctive ovarian-type stroma localized in the body-tail of the gland and occurring in middle-aged females. The majority of MCNs are slow growing and asymptomatic. The prevalence of invasive carcinoma varies between 6% and 55%. Preoperative diagnosis depends on a combination of clinical features, tumor markers, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound with cyst fluid analysis and positron emission tomography-CT. Surgery is indicated for all MCNs.

  16. Molecular therapeutics in pancreas cancer

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Vignesh; Weekes, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of the “precision-medicine” paradigm in oncology has ushered in tremendous improvements in patient outcomes in a wide variety of malignancies. However, pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has remained an obstinate challenge to the oncology community and continues to be associated with a dismal prognosis with 5-year survival rates consistently less than 5%. Cytotoxic chemotherapy with gemcitabine-based regimens has been the cornerstone of treatment in PDAC especially because most patients present with inoperable disease. But in recent years remarkable basic science research has improved our understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of PDAC. Whole genomic analysis has exemplified the genetic heterogeneity of pancreas cancer and has led to ingenious efforts to target oncogenes and their downstream signaling cascades. Novel stromal depletion strategies have been devised based on our enhanced recognition of the complex architecture of the tumor stroma and the various mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment that sustain tumorigenesis. Immunotherapy using vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors has also risen to the forefront of therapeutic strategies against PDAC. Furthermore, adoptive T cell transfer and strategies to target epigenetic regulators are being explored with enthusiasm. This review will focus on the recent advances in molecularly targeted therapies in PDAC and offer future perspectives to tackle this lethal disease. PMID:27096032

  17. Enlarged pancreas: not always a cancer.

    PubMed

    Calculli, Lucia; Festi, Davide; Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic fat accumulation has been described with various terms including pancreatic lipomatosis, pancreatic steatosis, fatty replacement, fatty infiltration, fatty pancreas, lipomatous pseudohypertrophy and nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease. It has been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and the formation of pancreatic fistula. The real incidence of this condition is still unknown. We report a case of pancreatic steatosis in a non-obese female patient initially diagnosed with a mass in the head of the pancreas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out to define the characteristics of the pancreatic mass. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of fat pancreas. Enlarged pancreas is not always a cancer, but pancreatic steatosis is characterized by pancreatic enlargement. MRI could give a definite diagnosis of pancreatic steatosis or cancer.

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew R; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision.

  19. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew R; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision. PMID:26628714

  20. Impacted Canines: Our Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sonia; Marya, Karan; Jhamb, Aakarsh; Bhatia, Hind Pal

    2011-01-01

    Background To discuss the management of impacted canines and the various approaches used for the same. Materials and methods The data of 33 cases, with 43 impacted canine teeth, seen and operated over a period of 3-year in Santosh Dental College and Hospital has been compiled. The diagnostic methods and treatment modalities undertaken are described and discussed. Results Canine impactions were more common in the maxilla as compared with mandible in our study, which was statistically significant. Impacted canine position was mostly palatal in maxilla and labial in mandible. Chi-square test yielded a p-value of 0.002 which shows that there is an association between arch and position. The treatment options used were surgical exposure and orthodontic repositioning, cyst enucleation with extraction of impacted canine and surgical removal of impacted canine. Conclusion Surgical exposure and orthodontic repositioning was successfully applied as first-line treatment for correcting ectopic positioned canine. In cases where exposure and subsequent orthodontic treatment was not indicated, the impacted canine was surgically removed to prevent future problems and surgical procedure was designed according to position of impacted canine.

  1. [Alignment of malpositioned canines].

    PubMed

    Wagner, L

    1991-03-01

    This article presents a system for aligning impacted canines. The base of this system is the lingual arch, a rigid reaction unit of four teeth, molars and premolars. From this base unit an impacted canine can be extruded, moved distally, jumped over the occlusion and derotated by segment arches, coil springs and elastic ligatures. The efficiency of this appliance is due to the elimination of undesired reactive forces, the safe moving of teeth, the possibility of an exact force application and the simple manipulation; also the esthetic inconvenience is minimal. All this results in a better prognosis and an essentially shorter treatment time. This appliance can be used in the upper and the lower jaw. Schematic drawings and clinical examples demonstrate this method.

  2. Control of canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Chappuis, G

    1995-05-01

    Control of canine distemper can realistically only be achieved by the use of vaccination. The types of vaccine in current use are described, together with some of the problems encountered such as interference by maternal antibodies, and usage in species other than dogs. Modified live viral vaccines, as used for more than thirty years, have proved very effective. Nevertheless there is scope for some improvement in vaccine efficacy and recent developments in genetic recombinant methods are described. PMID:8588329

  3. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  4. Lung ischaemia–reperfusion injury in a canine model: dual-energy CT findings with pathophysiological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, K; Zhang, L J; Morelli, J; Krazinski, A W; Silverman, J R; Schoepf, U J; Lu, G M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate dual-energy CT (DECT) findings of pulmonary ischaemic–reperfusion injury (PIRI) and its pathophysiological correlation in the canine model. Methods: A PIRI model was established in 11 canines, utilizing closed pectoral balloon occlusion. Two control canines were also included. For the PIRI model, the left pulmonary artery was occluded with a balloon, which was deflated and removed after 2 h. DECT was performed before, during occlusion and at 2, 3 and 4 h thereafter and was utilized to construct pulmonary perfusion maps. Immediately after the CT scan at the fourth hour post reperfusion, the canines were sacrificed, and lung specimens were harvested for pathological analysis. CT findings, pulmonary artery pressure and blood gas results were then analysed. Results: Data at every time point were available for 10 animals (experimental group, n = 8; control group, n = 2). Quantitative measurements from DECT pulmonary perfusion maps found iodine attenuation values of the left lung to be the lowest at 2 h post embolization and the highest at 1 h post reperfusion. In the contralateral lung, perfusion values also peaked at 1 h post reperfusion. Continuous hypoxia and acid–based disorders were observed during PIRI, and comprehensive analysis showed physiological changes to be worst at 3 h post reperfusion. Conclusion: DECT pulmonary perfusion mapping demonstrated pulmonary perfusion of the bilateral lungs to be the greatest at 1 h post reperfusion. These CT findings corresponded with pathophysiological changes. Advances in knowledge: DECT pulmonary perfusion mapping can be used to evaluate lung ischaemia–reperfusion injury. PMID:24611753

  5. Transcriptional control of mammalian pancreas organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cano, David A; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Francisco; Rojas, Anabel

    2014-07-01

    The field of pancreas development has markedly expanded over the last decade, significantly advancing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control pancreas organogenesis. This growth has been fueled, in part, by the need to generate new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of diabetes. The creation of sophisticated genetic tools in mice has been instrumental in this progress. Genetic manipulation involving activation or inactivation of genes within specific cell types has allowed the identification of many transcription factors (TFs) that play critical roles in the organogenesis of the pancreas. Interestingly, many of these TFs act at multiple stages of pancreatic development, and adult organ function or repair. Interaction with other TFs, extrinsic signals, and epigenetic regulation are among the mechanisms by which TFs may play context-dependent roles during pancreas organogenesis. Many of the pancreatic TFs directly regulate each other and their own expression. These combinatorial interactions generate very specific gene regulatory networks that can define the different cell lineages and types in the developing pancreas. Here, we review recent progress made in understanding the role of pancreatic TFs in mouse pancreas formation. We also summarize our current knowledge of human pancreas development and discuss developmental pancreatic TFs that have been associated with human pancreatic diseases.

  6. Pancreas transplant imaging: how I do it.

    PubMed

    Tolat, Parag P; Foley, W Dennis; Johnson, Christopher; Hohenwalter, Mark D; Quiroz, Francisco A

    2015-04-01

    Pancreas transplantation aims to restore physiologic normoglycemia in diabetic patients with glomerulopathy and avoid or delay the onset of diabetic retinopathy and arteriopathy. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant is the most common approach, using a cadaveric pancreas donation in conjunction with either cadaveric or live donor renal transplant. Alternative techniques include pancreas after kidney transplant, in which the pancreas transplant is performed some years after renal transplant. Pancreas transplant alone is utilized rarely in diabetic patients with compensated renal function. Pancreas grafts have vascular and enteric connections that vary in their anatomic approach, and understanding of this is critical for imaging with ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging techniques are directed to display the pancreatic transplant arterial and venous vasculature, parenchyma, and intestinal drainage pathway. Critical vascular information includes venous thrombosis (partial or complete), arterial occlusion, or aneurysm. Parenchymal abnormalities are nonspecific and occur in pancreatitis, graft rejection, and subsequent graft ischemia. Peripancreatic fluid collections include hematoma/seroma, pseudocyst, and abscess. The latter two are related to pancreatitis, duct disruption, or leak from the duodenojejunostomy. An understanding of transplant anatomy and complications will lead to appropriate use of imaging techniques to diagnose or exclude important complications.

  7. What You Need to Know about Cancer of the Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Need To Know About™ Cancer of the Pancreas This booklet is about cancer of the pancreas, also called pancreatic cancer. There are two main ... care. This booklet covers: The anatomy of the pancreas and basics about cancer of the pancreas Treatments ...

  8. A Pre-Clinical Canine Model for Composite Tissue Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, David W.; Noland, Marie; Graves, Scott; Schlenker, Robert; Miwongtum, Tiffany; Storb, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of composite tissue allografts (CTA) has been demonstrated by the successful transplantation of the hand, abdomen and face. However, the survival of these transplants is dependent on immunosupression. Our laboratory is interested in achieving tolerance in order to decrease the risks associated with the use of chronic immunosuppression. The purpose of this experiment was to develop a large animal model for CTA. Four canine flaps were auto-transplanted to examine the use of a myocutaneous rectus flap based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels. Five CTA transplants were performed between Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) identical littermates without any therapy. The allografts were followed clinically and underwent routine biopsies. The anatomic dissections and auto-transplants were all successful and revealed that the flap could be divided into two separate components. Skin is routinely perfused by the superficial epigastric artery. Rectus muscle is perfused by the deep inferior epigastrc system. This allows the allografts to be transplanted as muscle, skin or with both components based on the external iliac artery and veins. The DLA-identical littermates rejected the allografts in 15 to 30 days. This study demonstrates the versatility of the myocutaneous rectus flap for use in canines as composite tissue allograft models. PMID:20108180

  9. Stimulation of bile and pancreatic secretion by duodenal perfusion with Na-taurocholate in the cat compared with jejunal and ileal perfusion.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, W; Hotz, J; Ormai, S; Aufgebauer, J; Schneider, F; Goebell, H

    1980-01-01

    In the anesthetized cat duodenal perfusion with Na-taurocholate (TC, 0.2 M, pH 6.1, 290 mosmol, 45 ml x h-1) stimulated pancreatic volume (0 to 326 +/- 236 mg x 10 min-1) and bicarbonate secretion (0 to 34.2 +/- 4.1 mumol x 10 min-1), whereas pancreatic enzyme output was sparse. Simultaneously with the pancreatic response, bile flow increased from 139 +/- 74 mg to 484 +/- 146 mg x 15 min-1 (p < 0.05). During perfusion of the upper jejunum both pancreatic and biliary responses were significantly lower than the responses to duodenal TC perfusion (p < 0.05). During TC perfusion of the terminal ileum there was no response from the pancreas, whereas the increase in bile flow accounted only for an increase in the bile-acid-dependent fraction. The concomitant stimulation of both the hydrokinetic function of the pancreas and the bile-acid-independent bile flow might be mediated by a release of secretin.

  10. Stimulation of bile and pancreatic secretion by duodenal perfusion with Na-taurocholate in the cat compared with jejunal and ileal perfusion.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, W; Hotz, J; Ormai, S; Aufgebauer, J; Schneider, F; Goebell, H

    1980-01-01

    In the anesthetized cat duodenal perfusion with Na-taurocholate (TC, 0.2 M, pH 6.1, 290 mosmol, 45 ml x h-1) stimulated pancreatic volume (0 to 326 +/- 236 mg x 10 min-1) and bicarbonate secretion (0 to 34.2 +/- 4.1 mumol x 10 min-1), whereas pancreatic enzyme output was sparse. Simultaneously with the pancreatic response, bile flow increased from 139 +/- 74 mg to 484 +/- 146 mg x 15 min-1 (p < 0.05). During perfusion of the upper jejunum both pancreatic and biliary responses were significantly lower than the responses to duodenal TC perfusion (p < 0.05). During TC perfusion of the terminal ileum there was no response from the pancreas, whereas the increase in bile flow accounted only for an increase in the bile-acid-dependent fraction. The concomitant stimulation of both the hydrokinetic function of the pancreas and the bile-acid-independent bile flow might be mediated by a release of secretin. PMID:7433905

  11. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation. PMID:26700566

  12. Isolated lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2012-01-01

    Isolated lung perfusion (ILP) has been historically used as a method to study basic lung physiologic concepts using animal models. More recently, ILP has been applied in lung transplantation and thoracic oncology. In lung transplantation, ILP has been used to assess physiological integrity of donor lungs after the organ is removed from the donor. This procedure is called Ex vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP), and it has also been proposed as a method for active treatment and repair of injured unsuitable donor organs ex vivo. In oncology, ILP is an attractive method to deliver high dose chemotherapy to treat pulmonary metastatic disease. Since the lung vasculature is isolated in vivo, this technique is called in vivo lung perfusion (IVLP). This review will focus on the rationale, technical aspects, experimental and clinical experience of EVLP and IVLP. A perspective on the future use of these techniques is described. PMID:22202033

  13. Absence of canine papillomavirus sequences in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sardon, D; Blundell, R; Burrai, G P; Alberti, A; Tore, G; Passino, E Sanna; Antuofermo, E

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (PVs) are found in human breast cancer tissue; however, it remains controversial as to whether these viruses play a role in the aetiology of this tumour. There has been minimal study of whether PVs are found in normal or abnormal mammary glands of animals. The present study investigated whether a PV sequence could be found in the mammary glands of 33 female dogs by rolling circle amplification and polymerase chain reaction. No PV DNA was found in normal or neoplastic canine mammary tissues, suggesting that canine PVs are probably not involved in the pathogenesis of canine mammary neoplasia. PMID:25435511

  14. Cystic lesions of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Karoumpalis, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K.

    2016-01-01

    Different types of benign or malignant cystic lesions can be observed in the pancreas. Pancreatic cystic lesions are classified under pathology terms into simple retention cysts, pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. Mucinous cystic neoplasm is a frequent type of cystic neoplasm and has a malignant potential. Serous cystadenoma follows in frequency and is usually benign. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are the most commonly resected cystic pancreatic neoplasms characterized by dilated segments of the main pancreatic duct and/or side branches, the wall of which is covered by mucus secreting cells. These neoplasms can occupy the pancreatic head or any part of the organ. Solid pseudopapillary tumor is rare, has a low tendency for malignancy, and is usually located in the pancreatic body or tail. Endoscopic ultrasound with the use of fine-needle aspiration and cytology permits discrimination of those lesions. In this review, the main characteristics of those lesions are presented, as well as recommendations regarding their follow up and management according to recent guidelines. PMID:27065727

  15. Ductal Injection Does Not Increase the Islet Yield or Function after Cold Storage in a Vascular Perfusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Wataru; Imura, Takehiro; Inagaki, Akiko; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Fujimori, Keisei; Satomi, Susumu; Goto, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    alternative for vascular perfusion prior to pancreas harvest, but is not necessary in most cases, since vascular perfusion is routinely performed. PMID:22900012

  16. Is a fatty pancreas a banal lesion?

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    So far, a fatty pancreas has been related to obesity and the ageing processes in the body. The current list of pathogenetic factors of the condition is clearly extended with genetically conditioned diseases (cystic fibrosis, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and Johanson-Blizzard syndrome), pancreatitis, especially hereditary and obstructive, metabolic and hormonal disorders (hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypercortisolemia), alcohol overuse, taking some medicines (especially adrenal cortex hormones), disease of the liver and visceral adiposis. As regards lipomatosis of that organ resulting mainly from dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, the term "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease" was introduced. Experimental studies on animals and histological preparations of the pancreatic fragments show that the lipotoxicity of the collected adipocytes collected ion the organ release a cascade of proinflammatory phenomena, and even induces the processes of carcinogenesis. Pancreas adiposis is best defined in Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. However, a series of works proved the usefulness in the diagnostics of that pathology of transabdominal and endoscopic ultrasonography. In that method, the degree of adiposis was based on the comparison of echogenicity of the pancreas and the liver, renal parenchyma, spleen and/or retroperitoneal adipose. Recently, the evaluation was expanded by the evaluation of the degree of pancreatic adipose with the pancreas-to-liver index, utilizing to that end a special computer program. According to our experience, the simplest solution is the method utilized by us. On one crosssection of the body of the pancreas, its echogenicity is assessed in comparison to retroperitoneal adipose and the visibility of the splenic vein, pancreatic duct and the major retroperitoneal vessels. Depending on the visualization of these structures, it is possible to determine the degree of pancreas adiposis. Such a study applies

  17. Is a fatty pancreas a banal lesion?

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    So far, a fatty pancreas has been related to obesity and the ageing processes in the body. The current list of pathogenetic factors of the condition is clearly extended with genetically conditioned diseases (cystic fibrosis, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and Johanson-Blizzard syndrome), pancreatitis, especially hereditary and obstructive, metabolic and hormonal disorders (hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypercortisolemia), alcohol overuse, taking some medicines (especially adrenal cortex hormones), disease of the liver and visceral adiposis. As regards lipomatosis of that organ resulting mainly from dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, the term “nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease” was introduced. Experimental studies on animals and histological preparations of the pancreatic fragments show that the lipotoxicity of the collected adipocytes collected ion the organ release a cascade of proinflammatory phenomena, and even induces the processes of carcinogenesis. Pancreas adiposis is best defined in Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. However, a series of works proved the usefulness in the diagnostics of that pathology of transabdominal and endoscopic ultrasonography. In that method, the degree of adiposis was based on the comparison of echogenicity of the pancreas and the liver, renal parenchyma, spleen and/or retroperitoneal adipose. Recently, the evaluation was expanded by the evaluation of the degree of pancreatic adipose with the pancreas-to-liver index, utilizing to that end a special computer program. According to our experience, the simplest solution is the method utilized by us. On one crosssection of the body of the pancreas, its echogenicity is assessed in comparison to retroperitoneal adipose and the visibility of the splenic vein, pancreatic duct and the major retroperitoneal vessels. Depending on the visualization of these structures, it is possible to determine the degree of pancreas adiposis. Such a study

  18. Is a fatty pancreas a banal lesion?

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    So far, a fatty pancreas has been related to obesity and the ageing processes in the body. The current list of pathogenetic factors of the condition is clearly extended with genetically conditioned diseases (cystic fibrosis, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and Johanson-Blizzard syndrome), pancreatitis, especially hereditary and obstructive, metabolic and hormonal disorders (hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypercortisolemia), alcohol overuse, taking some medicines (especially adrenal cortex hormones), disease of the liver and visceral adiposis. As regards lipomatosis of that organ resulting mainly from dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, the term “nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease” was introduced. Experimental studies on animals and histological preparations of the pancreatic fragments show that the lipotoxicity of the collected adipocytes collected ion the organ release a cascade of proinflammatory phenomena, and even induces the processes of carcinogenesis. Pancreas adiposis is best defined in Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. However, a series of works proved the usefulness in the diagnostics of that pathology of transabdominal and endoscopic ultrasonography. In that method, the degree of adiposis was based on the comparison of echogenicity of the pancreas and the liver, renal parenchyma, spleen and/or retroperitoneal adipose. Recently, the evaluation was expanded by the evaluation of the degree of pancreatic adipose with the pancreas-to-liver index, utilizing to that end a special computer program. According to our experience, the simplest solution is the method utilized by us. On one crosssection of the body of the pancreas, its echogenicity is assessed in comparison to retroperitoneal adipose and the visibility of the splenic vein, pancreatic duct and the major retroperitoneal vessels. Depending on the visualization of these structures, it is possible to determine the degree of pancreas adiposis. Such a study

  19. Use of Ex Vivo Normothermic Perfusion for Quality Assessment of Discarded Human Donor Pancreases.

    PubMed

    Barlow, A D; Hamed, M O; Mallon, D H; Brais, R J; Gribble, F M; Scott, M A; Howat, W J; Bradley, J A; Bolton, E M; Pettigrew, G J; Hosgood, S A; Nicholson, M L; Saeb-Parsy, K

    2015-09-01

    A significant number of pancreases procured for transplantation are deemed unsuitable due to concerns about graft quality and the associated risk of complications. However, this decision is subjective and some declined grafts may be suitable for transplantation. Ex vivo normothermic perfusion (EVNP) prior to transplantation may allow a more objective assessment of graft quality and reduce discard rates. We report ex vivo normothermic perfusion of human pancreases procured but declined for transplantation, with ABO-compatible warm oxygenated packed red blood cells for 1-2 h. Five declined human pancreases were assessed using this technique after a median cold ischemia time of 13 h 19 min. One pancreas, with cold ischemia over 30 h, did not appear viable and was excluded. In the remaining pancreases, blood flow and pH were maintained throughout perfusion. Insulin secretion was observed in all four pancreases, but was lowest in an older donation after cardiac death pancreas. Amylase levels were highest in a gland with significant fat infiltration. This is the first study to assess the perfusion, injury, as measured by amylase, and exocrine function of human pancreases using EVNP and demonstrates the feasibility of the approach, although further refinements are required.

  20. Melatonin, endocrine pancreas and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Peschke, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    Melatonin influences insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro. (i) The effects are MT(1)-and MT(2)-receptor-mediated. (ii) They are specific, high-affinity, pertussis-toxin-sensitive, G(i)-protein-coupled, leading to inhibition of the cAMP-pathway and decrease of insulin release. [Correction added after online publication 4 December 2007: in the preceding sentence, 'increase of insulin release' was changed to 'decrease of insulin release'.] Furthermore, melatonin inhibits the cGMP-pathway, possibly mediated by MT(2) receptors. In this way, melatonin likely inhibits insulin release. A third system, the IP(3)-pathway, is mediated by G(q)-proteins, phospholipase C and IP(3), which mobilize Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, with a resultant increase in insulin. (iii) Insulin secretion in vivo, as well as from isolated islets, exhibits a circadian rhythm. This rhythm, which is apparently generated within the islets, is influenced by melatonin, which induces a phase shift in insulin secretion. (iv) Observation of the circadian expression of clock genes in the pancreas could possibly be an indication of the generation of circadian rhythms in the pancreatic islets themselves. (v) Melatonin influences diabetes and associated metabolic disturbances. The diabetogens, alloxan and streptozotocin, lead to selective destruction of beta-cells through their accumulation in these cells, where they induce the generation of ROS. Beta-cells are very susceptible to oxidative stress because they possess only low-antioxidative capacity. Results suggest that melatonin in pharmacological doses provides protection against ROS. (vi) Finally, melatonin levels in plasma, as well as the arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity, are lower in diabetic than in nondiabetic rats and humans. In contrast, in the pineal gland, the AANAT mRNA is increased and the insulin receptor mRNA is decreased, which indicates a close interrelationship between insulin and melatonin. PMID:18078445

  1. Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease1

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Abhishek; Marine, Megan; Lu, Debao; Swartz-Basile, Deborah A.; Saxena, Romil; Zyromski, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Obesity leads to fat infiltration of multiple organs including the heart, kidneys, and liver. Under conditions of oxidative stress, fat-derived cytokines are released locally and result in an inflammatory process and organ dysfunction. In the liver, fat infiltration has been termed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which may lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. No data are available, however, on the influence of obesity on pancreatic fat and cytokines, and nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) has not been described. Therefore, we designed a study to determine whether obesity is associated with increased pancreatic fat and cytokines. Materials and methods. Thirty C57BL/6J lean control and 30 leptin-deficient obese female mice were fed a 15% fat diet for 4 weeks. At 12 weeks of age all animals underwent total pancreatectomy. Pancreata from each strain were pooled for measurement of a) wet and dry weight, b) histologic presence of fat, c) triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFAs), cholesterol, phospholipids, and total fat, and d) interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Data were analyzed by Student's t test and Fisher's exact test. Results. Pancreata from obese mice were heavier (p<0.05) and had more fat histologically (p<0.05). Pancreata from obese mice had more triglycerides, FFAs, cholesterol, and total fat (p<0.05). Triglycerides represented 11% of pancreatic fat in lean mice compared with 67% of pancreatic fat in obese mice (p<0.01). Cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α also were elevated in the pancreata of obese mice (p<0.05). Conclusions. These data suggest that obese mice have 1) heavier pancreata, 2) more pancreatic fat, especially triglycerides and FFAs, and 3) increased cytokines. We conclude that obesity leads to nonalcoholic fatty pancreatic disease. PMID:18345311

  2. Giant gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2012-09-01

    A 57-year-old man developed haematemesis and was referred to our institution. His discomfort had begun 3 weeks earlier and localised to the upper abdomen. Abdominal CT showed a defect of gastric mucosa and gastric wall thickening. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed that he had an active gastric ulcer, 40 mm in diameter, on the lesser curvature in the upper third of the corpus and the presence of a pancreatic body at the ulcer base, penetration to the pancreas. Open gastrectomy was performed with a preoperative diagnosis of localised peritonitis caused by penetration of the stomach into the pancreas. Histopathology of resected specimens showed a benign peptic ulcer, 40×40 mm in size, was found on the lesser curvature in the antrum, and this had penetrated through the pancreas. The most serious complications of PUD include haemorrhage, perforation, penetration, and gastric outlet obstruction. Approximately 7% of patients experience perforation, which occurs when an ulcer erodes through the wall and leaks air and digestive contents into the peritoneal cavity. Antral and duodenal ulcers can penetrate into the pancreas. We report a case of gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

  3. Canine hypoadrenocorticism: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Susan C.; Peterson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease) has been referred to as “the great pretender,” due to its ability to mimic other common diseases in the dog and thereby represent a diagnostic challenge. Naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism is an uncommon canine disease. Young, female dogs are overrepresented. Hypoadrenocorticism typically results from immune-mediated destruction of all adrenocortical layers, resulting in deficiencies of min-eralocorticoids (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol). A small number of dogs suffer from glucocorticoid deficiency only. Dogs suffering from hypoadrenocorticism may present in a variety of conditions, from a mildly ill dog to a shocky and recumbent dog. This review discusses etiology, pathophysiology, history, physical examination findings, and diagnostic findings in the Addisonian patient. A follow-up article (Part II) will discuss the definitive diagnosis and management strategies for these patients. PMID:20357943

  4. QUILT-2.014: Gemcitabine and AMG 479 in Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Advanced Solid Tumors; Cancer; Cancer of Pancreas; Cancer of the Pancreas; Metastases; Metastatic Cancer; Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Bone Metastases; Endocrine Cancer; Oncology; Oncology Patients; Solid Tumors; Advanced Malignancy

  5. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kallen, Michael E; Naini, Bita V

    2016-09-01

    Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs) are cystic neoplasms with intraductal growth and complex papillae composed of oncocytic cells. IOPNs have been reported both in the pancreas and biliary tree, and are most likely closely related in these 2 locations. In the pancreas, these rare tumors are now considered 1 of the 4 histologic subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Significant differences in histology, immunophenotype, and molecular genetics have been reported between IOPNs and other IPMN subtypes. However, there are limited data regarding the clinical behavior and prognosis of IOPNs in comparison to other subtypes of IPMN. We review features of pancreatic IOPNs and discuss the differential diagnosis of other intraductal lesions in the pancreas. PMID:27575268

  6. Multipotent pancreas progenitors: Inconclusive but pivotal topic.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2015-12-26

    The establishment of multipotent pancreas progenitors (MPP) should have a significant impact not only on the ontology of the pancreas, but also for the translational research of glucose-responding endocrine β-cells. Deficiency of the latter may lead to the pandemic type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder. An ideal treatment of which would potentially be the replacement of destroyed or failed β-cells, by restoring function of endogenous pancreatic endocrine cells or by transplantation of donor islets or in vitro generated insulin-secreting cells. Thus, considerable research efforts have been devoted to identify MPP candidates in the pre- and post-natal pancreas for the endogenous neogenesis or regeneration of endocrine insulin-secreting cells. In order to advance this inconclusive but critical field, we here review the emerging concepts, recent literature and newest developments of potential MPP and propose measures that would assist its forward progression. PMID:26730269

  7. Progenitor cells in the adult pancreas.

    PubMed

    Holland, Andrew M; Góñez, L Jorge; Harrison, Leonard C

    2004-01-01

    The beta-cell mass in the adult pancreas possesses the ability to undergo limited regeneration following injury. Identifying the progenitor cells involved in this process and understanding the mechanisms leading to their maturation will open new avenues for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, despite steady advances in determining the molecular basis of early pancreatic development, the identification of pancreatic stem cells or beta-cell progenitors and the molecular mechanisms underlying beta-cell regeneration remain unclear. Recent advances in the directed differentiation of embryonic and adult stem cells has heightened interest in the possible application of stem cell therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Drawing on the expanding knowledge of pancreas development, beta-cell regeneration and stem cell research, this review focuses on progenitor cells in the adult pancreas as a potential source of beta-cells. PMID:14737742

  8. Three-dimensional pancreas organogenesis models.

    PubMed

    Grapin-Botton, A

    2016-09-01

    A rediscovery of three-dimensional culture has led to the development of organ biogenesis, homeostasis and disease models applicable to human tissues. The so-called organoids that have recently flourished serve as valuable models bridging between cell lines or primary cells grown on the bottom of culture plates and experiments performed in vivo. Though not recapitulating all aspects of organ physiology, the miniature organs generated in a dish are useful models emerging for the pancreas, starting from embryonic progenitors, adult cells, tumour cells and stem cells. This review focusses on the currently available systems and their relevance to the study of the pancreas, of β-cells and of several pancreatic diseases including diabetes. We discuss the expected future developments for studying human pancreas development and function, for developing diabetes models and for producing therapeutic cells. PMID:27615129

  9. Circumportal pancreas with retroportal main pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yasushi; Ross, Andrew S; Traverso, L William

    2009-08-01

    There have been 6 cases of circumportal pancreas reported, and 2 of them had the main pancreatic duct in a retroportal dorsal portion. This extremely uncommon anomaly is asymptomatic and therefore incidentally discovered. For the surgeon, it is important to discover this during pancreatic resection so the pancreatic duct can be closed and fistula is avoided. We describe the third case where a circumportal pancreas had its main pancreatic duct passing under the portal vein. The duct was identified and ligated. A fistula did not occur.

  10. OPTN/SRTR 2013 Annual Data Report: pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kandaswamy, R; Skeans, M A; Gustafson, S K; Carrico, R J; Tyler, K H; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L

    2015-01-01

    Pancreas listings and transplants decreased during the past decade, most notably pancreas after kidney transplants. Center-reported outcomes of pancreas transplant across all groups, short-term and long-term, improved during the same period. Changes to the pancreas allocation system creating an efficient, uniform national system will be implemented in late 2014. Pancreas-alone and simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) candidates will form a single match-run list with priority to most SPK candidates ahead of kidney-alone candidates to decrease waiting times for SPK candidates, given their higher waitlist mortality compared with nondiabetic kidney transplant candidates. The changes are expected to eliminate local variability, providing more consistent pancreas allocation nationwide. Outcomes after pancreas transplant are challenging to interpret due to lack of a uniform definition of graft failure. Consequently, SRTR has not published data on pancreas graft failure for the past 2 years. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Pancreas Transplantation Committee is working on a definition that could provide greater validity for future outcomes analyses. Challenges in pancreas transplantation include high risk of technical failures, rejection (early and late), and surgical complications. Continued outcome improvement and innovation has never been more critical, as alternatives such as islet transplant and artificial pancreas move closer to clinical application.

  11. [Endoscopic ultrasonography in diagnosis of surgical treatment of pancreas].

    PubMed

    Starkov, Iu G; Solodinina, E N; Shishin, K V; Plotnikova, L S

    2008-01-01

    Results of endoscopic ultrasonography at 137 patients suspected for pancreas pathology are analyzed. Methodology of endoscopic ultrasonography, semiotics of pancreas surgical diseases, advantages over other diagnostic methods are described. Endosonography is informative method for final diagnosis of different disease of pancreas. Diagnostic value of method and area of its clinical application are described.

  12. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  13. Perfusion Bioreactor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

  14. New variant for whole pancreas grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Kootstra, G.; van Hooff, J.P.; Joerning, P.J.L.; Leunissen, K.M.; van der Linden, C.J.; Beukers, E.; Buurman, W.A.

    1987-02-01

    A new variant for whole pancreas grafting is described in which a segment of the duodenum and the spleen is included in the graft. The graft is placed extraperitoneally as in kidney transplantation. The exocrine drainage is with side-to-side anastomosis between duodenum and bladder. The spleen is irradiated to prevent the occurrence of GVHD, as is reported in splenic transplantation.

  15. [Sonographic topography of the pancreas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Triller, J

    1978-07-01

    Vascular abdominal structures can be demonstrated by the gray-scale-B-scan-technique. These vascular anatomical structures are important to differentiate pathological lesions from normal structures and to evaluate the localisation of space occupying lesions within the pancreas, liver and retroperitoneal space.

  16. Mesenteric and splenic contributions to portal venous CT perfusion in hepatic diffuse disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongzan; Lu, Zaiming; Liang, Hongyuan; Xin, Jun; Gao, Yuying; Guo, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the changes and contributions of superior mesenteric venous perfusion (SMVP) and splenic venous perfusion (SpVP) to portal venous CT perfusion in canine model of hepatic diffuse disease. Materials and methods: By selective catheterization in superior mesenteric and splenic arteries respectively after CT perfusion scanning, SMVP and SpVP became available. Sixteen dogs were adopted and induced by carbon tetrachloride after data under normal conditions were collected. After 3, 6, 9 and 12 months from carbon tetrachloride intervention, liver biopsies by puncture or operation were performed after CT perfusion scanning. SMVP and SpVP under different pathologic conditions were compared and analyzed. Results: Three stages of hepatic diffuse lesions were defined according to pathologic changes, namely hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The number of dogs which survived from each stage was: 16 from normal, 12 from hepatitis, 10 from hepatic fibrosis and 4 from cirrhosis. During this progressive period, SpVP ml/(min·100 ml) declined slightly, but there were no significant differences between different stages (P > 0.05). SMVP ml/(min·100 ml) in stage of normal (64.1 ± 8.1) and hepatic fibrosis (44.4 ± 4.5), normal and cirrhosis (42.6 ± 5.4), hepatitis (61.3 ± 6.4) and hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis and cirrhosis was significantly different, but there was no significant difference of SMVP between normal and hepatitis (P = 0.326) or hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis (P = 0.668). Conclusions: With our evidence of interventional CT perfusion, it is mesenteric, not splenic, perfusion that might coincide with hepatic portal venous perfusion during the progressive period of hepatic diffuse disease. PMID:25550855

  17. Pancreas After Islet Transplantation: A First Report of the International Pancreas Transplant Registry.

    PubMed

    Gruessner, R W G; Gruessner, A C

    2016-02-01

    Pancreas after islet (PAI) transplantation is a treatment option for patients seeking insulin independence through a whole-organ transplant after a failed cellular transplant. This report from the International Pancreas Transplant Registry (IPTR) and the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) studied PAI transplant outcomes over a 10-year time period. Forty recipients of a failed alloislet transplant subsequently underwent pancreas transplant alone (50%), pancreas after previous kidney transplant (22.5%), or simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplant (27.5%). Graft and patient survival rates were not statistically significantly different compared with matched primary pancreas transplants. Regardless of the recipient category, overall 1- and 5-year PAI patient survival rates for all 40 cases were 97% and 83%, respectively; graft survival rates were 84% and 65%, respectively. A failed previous islet transplant had no negative impact on kidney graft survival in the SPK category: It was the same as for primary SPK transplants. According to this IPTR/UNOS analysis, a PAI transplant is a safe procedure with low recipient mortality, high graft-function rates in both the short and long term and excellent kidney graft outcomes. Patients with a failed islet transplant should know about this alternative in their quest for insulin independence through transplantation.

  18. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan? A lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or VQ scan, is a ... that measures air and blood flow in your lungs. A VQ scan most often is used to ...

  19. Ex-vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Neyrinck, Arne; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2015-06-01

    This review outlines the new and promising technique of ex vivo lung perfusion and its clinical potential to increase the number of transplantable lungs and to improve the early and late outcome after transplantation. The rationale, the experimental background, the technique and protocols, and available devices for ex vivo lung perfusion are discussed. The current clinical experience worldwide and ongoing clinical trials are reviewed.

  20. Temperatures Achieved in Human and Canine Neocortex During Intraoperative Passive or Active Focal Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rowland H.; Yarbrough, Chester K.; Patterson, Edward E.; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Miller, John W.; Rothman, Steven M.; D'Ambrosio, Raimondo

    2015-01-01

    Focal cortical cooling inhibits seizures and prevents acquired epileptogenesis in rodents. To investigate the potential clinical utility of this treatment modality, we examined the thermal characteristics of canine and human brain undergoing active and passive surface cooling in intraoperative settings. Four patients with intractable epilepsy were treated in a standard manner. Before the resection of a neocortical epileptogenic focus, multiple intraoperative studies of active (custom-made cooled irrigation-perfused grid) and passive (stainless steel probe) cooling were performed. We also actively cooled the neocortices of two dogs with perfused grids implanted for 2 hours. Focal surface cooling of the human brain causes predictable depth-dependent cooling of the underlying brain tissue. Cooling of 0.6–2°C was achieved both actively and passively to a depth of 10–15 mm from the cortical surface. The perfused grid permitted comparable and persistent cooling of canine neocortex when the craniotomy was closed. Thus, the human cortex can easily be cooled with the use of simple devices such as a cooling grid or a small passive probe. These techniques provide pilot data for the design of a permanently implantable device to control intractable epilepsy. PMID:25902001

  1. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo

    2014-08-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  2. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Tiago N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  3. Current developments in canine genetics.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified. PMID:20690545

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Sakai, Shinya; Aono, Shoji; Takahashi, Tadaaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Ohta, Koji; Tanada, Minoru; Teramoto, Norihiro

    2010-07-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) originating in the pancreas is rare. We report a 55-year-old woman with an asymptomatic pancreatic mass incidentally discovered on abdominal ultrasonography. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a well-demarcated exophytic mass in the pancreatic head with prolonged and delayed enhancement. The mass showed hypointensity on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous hypointensity with spotty hyperintensity foci on T2-weighted images. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT showed no significant FDG uptake. The resected mass was composed of spindle cells that were positive for CD34; and hemangiopericytomatous vessels were focally detected. The mass was finally diagnosed as an SFT of the pancreas.

  5. Imaging of the pancreas: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of anomalies of pancreas and the pancreatic duct system are commonly encountered at radiological evaluation. Diagnosing pancreatic lesions generally requires a multimodality approach. This review highlights the new advances in pancreatic imaging and their applications in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic pathologies. The mainstay techniques include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), radionuclide imaging (RNI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:21847450

  6. [Extracorporeal perfusion of the sheep rumen].

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Bajo, M; Várady, J; Szányiová, M

    1977-06-01

    We constructed a modified perfusion apparatus and elaborated a method of extracorporal perfusion of the rumen of sheep. As perfusates we used the bovine plasma diluted in a ratio of 1:1 of an isotonic sodium chloride (NaCl) solution and the whole autologous blood. Transaminases GOT and GPT, ammonia and pH were determined in the perfusate. The different perfusions were evaluated according to previously determined perfusion conditions and criteria. A subject for discussion is the question of suitability of the parameters under examination for judging the state of the perfused organ. The described method is suitable for the study of metabolical processes in the rumen wal.

  7. Pancreas sparing duodenectomy as an emergency procedure

    PubMed Central

    Paluszkiewicz, Piotr; Dudek, Wojciech; Lowery, Kathryn; Hart, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    Background The operative techniques to close extensive wounds to the duodenum are well described. However, postoperative morbidity is common and includes suture line leak and the formation of fistulae. The aim of this case series is to present pancreas sparing duodenectomy as a safe and viable alternative procedure in the emergency milieu. Methods Five patients underwent emergency pancreas sparing duodenal excisions. Re-implantation of the papilla of Vater or the papilla with a surrounding mucosal patch was performed in two patients. In one, the procedure was further supplemented with a duodenocholangiostomy, stapled pyloric exclusion and enterogastrostomy to defunction the pylorus. In another three patients, distal duodenal excisions were done. Results In four patients, an uneventful recovery was made. One patient died following a myocardial infarction. The surgery lasted meanly 160 minutes with average blood loss of approximately 500 milliliters. The mean hospital stay was 12 days. Enteral nutrition was introduced within the 20 hours after the surgery. Long term follow-up of all surviving patients confirmed a good outcome and normal nutritional status. Conclusion Based on the presented series of patients, we suggest that pancreas-sparing duodenectomy can be considered in selected patients with laceration of the duodenum deemed unsuitable for surgical reconstruction. PMID:19445694

  8. Stereological analyses of the whole human pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Ananta; Fowler, Jonas L.; Zielinski, Mark C.; Kilimnik, German; Hara, Manami

    2016-01-01

    The large size of human tissues requires a practical stereological approach to perform a comprehensive analysis of the whole organ. We have developed a method to quantitatively analyze the whole human pancreas, as one of the challenging organs to study, in which endocrine cells form various sizes of islets that are scattered unevenly throughout the exocrine pancreas. Furthermore, the human pancreas possesses intrinsic characteristics of intra-individual variability, i.e. regional differences in endocrine cell/islet distribution, and marked inter-individual heterogeneity regardless of age, sex and disease conditions including obesity and diabetes. The method is built based on large-scale image capture, computer-assisted unbiased image analysis and quantification, and further mathematical analyses, using widely-used software such as Fiji/ImageJ and MATLAB. The present study includes detailed protocols of every procedure as well as all the custom-written computer scripts, which can be modified according to specific experimental plans and specimens of interest. PMID:27658965

  9. Bringing the Artificial Pancreas Home: Telemedicine Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Lanzola, Giordano; Capozzi, Davide; Serina, Nadia; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The design and implementation of telemedicine systems able to support the artificial pancreas need careful choices to cope with technological requirements while preserving performance and decision support capabilities. This article addresses the issue of designing a general architecture for the telemedicine components of an artificial pancreas and illustrates a viable solution that is able to deal with different use cases and is amenable to support mobile-health implementations. The goal is to enforce interoperability among the components of the architecture and guarantee maximum flexibility for the ensuing implementations. Thus, the design stresses modularity and separation of concerns along with adoption of clearly defined protocols for interconnecting the necessary components. This accounts for the implementation of integrated telemedicine systems suitable as short-term monitoring devices for supporting validation of closed-loop algorithms as well as devices meant to provide a lifelong tighter control on the patient state once the artificial pancreas has become the preferred treatment for patients with diabetes. PMID:22226255

  10. Pancreas Transplantation: Solid Organ and Islet

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Shruti; Johnson, Paul; Friend, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of the pancreas, either as a solid organ or as isolated islets of Langerhans, is indicated in a small proportion of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes in whom severe complications develop, particularly severe glycemic instability and progressive secondary complications (usually renal failure). The potential to reverse diabetes has to be balanced against the morbidity of long-term immunosuppression. For a patient with renal failure, the treatment of choice is often a simultaneous transplant of the pancreas and kidney (SPK), whereas for a patient with glycemic instability, specifically hypoglycemic unawareness, the choice between a solid organ and an islet transplant has to be individual to the patient. Results of SPK transplantation are comparable to other solid-organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart) and there is evidence of improved quality of life and life expectancy, but the results of solitary pancreas transplantation and islets are inferior with respect to graft survival. There is some evidence of benefit with respect to the progression of secondary diabetic complications in patients with functioning transplants for several years. PMID:24616200

  11. An Integrated Multivariable Artificial Pancreas Control System

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T.; Littlejohn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system. PMID:24876613

  12. An integrated multivariable artificial pancreas control system.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system.

  13. Distributed perfusion educational model: a shift in perfusion economic realities.

    PubMed

    Austin, Jon W; Evans, Edward L; Hoerr, Harry R

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, a steady decline in the number of perfusion education programs in the United States has been noted. At the same time, there has been a parallel decline in the number of students graduated from perfusion educational programs in the United States. Also, as noted by several authors, there has been an increase in demand for perfusion graduates. The decline in programs and graduates has also been noted in anesthesia and surgical residency programs. The shift is caused by a combination of economic and clinical factors. First, decreased reimbursement has led to reallocation of hospital resources. Second, the original enthusiasm for beating heart coronary artery bypass surgery was grossly overestimated and has led to further reallocation of hospital resources and denigration of cardiopulmonary bypass. This paper describes two models of perfusion education programs: serial perfusion education model (SPEM) and the distributed perfusion education model (DPEM). Arguments are presented that the SPEM has some serious limitations and challenges for long-term economic survival. The authors feel the DPEM along with dependence on tuition funding can survive the current clinical and economic conditions and allow the profession to adapt to changes in scope of practice. PMID:16524152

  14. Ex-vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Neyrinck, Arne; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2015-06-01

    This review outlines the new and promising technique of ex vivo lung perfusion and its clinical potential to increase the number of transplantable lungs and to improve the early and late outcome after transplantation. The rationale, the experimental background, the technique and protocols, and available devices for ex vivo lung perfusion are discussed. The current clinical experience worldwide and ongoing clinical trials are reviewed. PMID:24629039

  15. Early Gastric Cancer Just above a Heterotopic Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Murabayashi, Toji; Kawaguchi, Shinya; Okuda, Naoko; Oyamada, Jun; Yabana, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of early gastric cancer just above a heterotopic pancreas for which the differential diagnosis was carcinoma arising from heterotopic pancreas. Routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in an 83-year-old man with sigmoid colon cancer revealed a gastric cancer in the lesser curvature of the antrum. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for evaluating the depth of tumor invasion revealed a hypoechoic mass in the submucosal layer. The depth of tumor invasion was diagnosed as muscularis propria. Distal gastrectomy and sigmoidectomy were performed. Histologically, the resected specimen of the stomach unexpectedly revealed a heterotopic pancreas just below the gastric cancer. They were not linked, and the heterotopic pancreas had no dysplasia. The gastric cancer had slightly invaded the submucosa. The hypoechoic mass on EUS was not the invasive tumor but the heterotopic pancreas. The preoperative staging of the gastric cancer on EUS was confounded by the presence of the heterotopic pancreas just below the gastric cancer. PMID:27482189

  16. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F. N.; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed. PMID:26266250

  17. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure.

  18. Interdisciplinary approach to palatally impacted canine

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ashish; Loomba, Anju; Goel, Poonam; Sharma, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. The article highlights the salient features and various surgical and orthodontic considerations to approach cases with impacted canines. It is exemplified with a case in which a palatally impacted canine and a highly placed canine in the buccal vestibule have been surgically intervened and orthodontically extruded with sequential traction and aligned in the arch. PMID:22442552

  19. Human pancreas scintigraphy using iodine-123-labeled HIPDM and SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, K.; Shibata, T.; Saji, H.; Kubo, S.; Aoki, E.; Fujita, T.; Yonekura, Y.; Konishi, J.; Yokoyama, A. )

    1990-06-01

    The pancreatic affinity of iodine-123-labeled HIPDM (N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propane diamine) (({sup 123}I)HIPDM) was studied in 18 cases (5 normal volunteers, 7 cases with pancreas cancer, and 6 with chronic pancreatitis). In the normal cases, the pancreas was visualized in the planar images as early as 3 hr, and again at 20 hr postinjection. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed following 3-hr planar scintigraphy, provided excellent pancreas images without an overlap of activity in the liver or spleen. The mean pancreas-to-liver (P/L) ratio was 1.26 +/- 0.22 in normal controls. With the exception of one case of massive calcification in the pancreas, the entire pancreas could be observed in the cases with chronic pancreatitis, but the P/L ratio was 0.74 +/- 0.15, significantly lower than that of normal cases. Defective areas of the distal portion of the pancreas were clearly seen in those with cancer of the pancreas. The results of our study indicate that ({sup 123}I) HIPDM may have clinical potential as a human pancreas imaging agent.

  20. Portal annular pancreas: the pancreatic duct ring sign on MRCP

    PubMed Central

    Lath, Chinar O.; Agrawal, Dilpesh S.; Timins, Michael E.; Wein, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends and fuses to the dorsal surface of the body of the pancreas by surrounding the portal vein. It is asymptomatic, but it can be mistaken for a pancreatic head mass on imaging and could also have serious consequences during pancreatic surgery, if unrecognized. We report this case of a 53-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have portal annular pancreas on the basis of an unusual course (ring appearance) of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, not described earlier in the radiology literature. PMID:26649117

  1. Persufflation (or gaseous oxygen perfusion) as a method of organ preservation.

    PubMed

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Rizzari, Michael D; Scott, William E; Tempelman, Linda A; Taylor, Michael J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2012-06-01

    Improved preservation techniques have the potential to improve transplant outcomes by better maintaining donor organ quality and by making more organs available for allotransplantation. Persufflation, (PSF, gaseous oxygen perfusion) is potentially one such technique that has been studied for over a century in a variety of tissues, but has yet to gain wide acceptance for a number of reasons. A principal barrier is the perception that ex vivo PSF will cause in vivo embolization post-transplant. This review summarizes the extensive published work on heart, liver, kidney, small intestine and pancreas PSF, discusses the differences between anterograde and retrograde PSF, and between PSF and other conventional methods of organ preservation (static cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion). Prospective implications of PSF within the broader field of organ transplantation, and in the specific application with pancreatic islet isolation and transplant are also discussed. Finally, key issues that need to be addressed before PSF becomes a more widely utilized preservation strategy are summarized and discussed.

  2. Canine histiocytic neoplasia: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Amanda K.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2007-01-01

    Canine histiocytic neoplasms include cutaneous histiocytoma, as well as localized and disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. These tumors have variable biologic behavior, although the malignant disorders often have a poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry plays an essential role in differentiating histiocytic tumors from other neoplasias that may have similar histological appearances. This allows a definitive diagnosis to be established and provides a more accurate prediction of prognosis. This article reviews the biologic behavior, diagnosis, and treatment of histiocytic tumors in the dog. PMID:17987966

  3. Canine Blastomycosis in Southern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Harasen, Greg L.G.; Randall, James W.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of canine blastomycosis in southern Saskatchewan is examined and three clinical cases are described. Nineteen cases of the disease have been diagnosed in southern Saskatchewan since April of 1981. Eight cases were diagnosed during a six month period from August 1985 to February 1986 in dogs residing in a small central area of Regina. The geographical and chronological clustering of cases suggests a local source of exposure to Blastomyces dermatitidis, not previously considered to be endemic to Saskatchewan. PMID:17422705

  4. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  5. Current State of Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Preservation of Organs: The Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael J.; Baicu, Simona, C.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the application of hypothermic perfusion technology as a topic of current interest with the potential to have a salutary impact on the mounting clinical challenges to improve the quantity and quality of donor organs and the outcome of transplantation. The ex vivo perfusion of donor organs on a machine prior to transplant, as opposed to static cold storage on ice, is not a new idea but is being re-visited because of the prospects of making available more and better organs for transplantation. The rationale for pursuing perfusion technology will be discussed in relation to emerging data on clinical outcomes and economic benefits for kidney transplantation. Reference will also be made to on-going research using other organs with special emphasis on the pancreas for both segmental pancreas and isolated islet transplantation. Anticipated and emerging benefits of hypothermic machine perfusion of organs are: i) maintaining the patency of the vascular bed, ii) providing nutrients and low demand oxygen to support reduced energy demands, iii) removal of metabolic by-products and toxins, iv) provision of access for administration of cytoprotective agents and/or immunomodulatory drugs, v) increase of available assays for organ viability assessment and tissue matching, vi) facilitation of a change from emergency to elective scheduled surgery with reduced costs and improved outcomes, vii) improved clinical outcomes as demonstrated by reduced PNF and DGF parameters, viii) improved stabilization or rescue of ECD kidneys or organs from NHBD that increase the size of the donor pool, ix) significant economic benefit for the transplant centers and reduced health care costs, and x) provision of a technology for ex vivo use of non-transplanted human organs for pharmaceutical development research. PMID:19857479

  6. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Konstantinos V.; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Wilkie, Gavin S.; McDonald, Michael; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Davison, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154) isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp) and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp) that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively). The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease. PMID:27213534

  7. Radiofrequency ablation of the pancreas: protective effect of local cooling techniques.

    PubMed

    Geranios, Angelos; Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Papalois, Apostolos; Kontos, Michael; Agrogiannis, George; Petrou, Athanasios; Pavlakis, Emmanuel; Felekouras, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the commonest malignant diseases today and the majority of patients are suitable for palliative treatment only. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been used extensively for the treatment of solid organ tumors but little is known on the efficacy and safety of pancreatic ablation. To further investigate the safety of pancreatic RFA, 18 pigs had RFA of the pancreas, close to superior mesenteric vein and duodenum. Group A (nine animals) was protected with peripancreatic cool perfusion and Group B (nine animals) with portal vein (PV) intravenous injection of cool saline. Biochemical and histological evidence suggested lateral thermal injury of the duodenal wall and superior mesenteric vein and acute pancreatitis in most animals. However, clinically and at autopsy, Group B animals fared much better. PV thrombosis, hepatic abscess, duodenal perforation, ascites, and extensive pancreatic necrosis were observed in Group A but not in Group B. The present study suggests that PV cool saline perfusion can prevent major complications caused by pancreatic RFA and may be used in combination with other protective techniques in the clinical setting to reduce RFA-associated morbidity.

  8. Expression patterns of epiplakin1 in pancreas, pancreatic cancer and regenerating pancreas.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tetsu; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Baba, Hideo; Goto, Mizuki; Fujiwara, Sakuhei; Kume, Kazuhiko; Kume, Shoen

    2008-07-01

    Epiplakin1 (Eppk1) is a plakin family gene with its function remains largely unknown, although the plakin genes are known to function in interconnecting cytoskeletal filaments and anchoring them at plasma membrane-associated adhesive junction. Here we analyzed the expression patterns of Eppk1 in the developing and adult pancreas in the mice. In the embryonic pancreas, Eppk1+/Pdx1+ and Eppk1+/Sox9+ pancreatic progenitor cells were observed in early pancreatic epithelium. Since Pdx1 expression overlapped with that of Sox9 at this stage, these multipotent progenitor cells are Eppk1+/Pdx1+/Sox9+ cells. Then Eppk1 expression becomes confined to Ngn3+ or Sox9+ endocrine progenitor cells, and p48+ exocrine progenitor cells, and then restricted to the duct cells and a cells at birth. In the adult pancreas, Eppk1 is expressed in centroacinar cells (CACs) and in duct cells. Eppk1 is observed in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), previously identified as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursor lesions. In addition, the expansion of Eppk1-positive cells occurs in a caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, an acinar cell regeneration model. Furthermore, in the partial pancreatectomy (Px) regeneration model using mice, Eppk1 is expressed in "ducts in foci", a tubular structure transiently induced. These results suggest that Eppk1 serves as a useful marker for detecting pancreatic progenitor cells in developing and regenerating pancreas.

  9. Cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in pancreas transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Munda, R; Schroeder, T J; Pedersen, S A; Clardy, C W; Wadhwa, N K; Myre, S A; Stephens, G W; Pesce, A J; Alexander, J W; First, M R

    1988-04-01

    Ten CsA pharmacokinetic studies were performed on five pancreas transplant recipients to determine proper doses and dosing intervals. These cadaver pancreas transplants were performed with exocrine ductal drainage into the urinary tract through a bladder anastomosis in four cases and into the bowel in one case. Four CsA pharmacokinetic studies were performed on diabetic renal transplant recipients and an additional six studies were performed while with pancreas transplant patients taking metoclopramide in an effort to enhance absorption of CsA. Mean CsA dose was 3.7 mg/kg/dose (range 2.1 to 7.5 mg/kg/dose). All patients but one were on twice daily dosing intervals yielding an average daily dose of 7.4 mg/kg/d. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were used. The adequacy of a 1-, 2-, or 3-exponential model was determined by breakpoint analysis of the log concentration v time curve using the F statistic. The terminal rate constant was calculated by nonlinear regression analysis. The AUC and AUMC were calculated by the trapezoidal method with exponential extrapolation and these were used to calculate the MRT and Vdss. The unknown fractional absorption, F, was used to correct the oral data. The average CsA concentration maximum (Cmax) was 528 ng/mL with an average time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of 4.7 hours, a mean residence time of 7.75 hours, with a Vdss/%F of 9.61 L/kg in the pancreas transplant recipients. Additional studies of six patients receiving metoclopramide with CsA revealed an average Cmax of 723 ng/mL, an average Tmax of 2.3 hours, an average MRT of 6.08 hours, and an average Vdss/%F of 5.7% L/kg. These results indicate that coexistent gastroparesis in diabetic recipients of either pancreatic or renal transplants may result in reduced bioavailability of CsA. PMID:3284095

  10. Tracheal gas exchange: perfusion-related differences in inert gas elimination.

    PubMed

    Souders, J E; George, S C; Polissar, N L; Swenson, E R; Hlastala, M P

    1995-09-01

    Exchange of inert gases across the conducting airways has been demonstrated by using an isolated dog tracheal preparation and has been characterized by using a mathematical model (E. R. Swenson, H. T. Robertson, N. L. Polissar, M. E. Middaugh, and M. P. Hlastala, J. Appl. Physiol. 72: 1581-1588, 1992). Theory predicts that gas exchange is both diffusion and perfusion dependent, with gases with a higher blood-gas partition coefficient exchanging more efficiently. The present study evaluated the perfusion dependence of airway gas exchange in an in situ canine tracheal preparation. Eight dogs were studied under general anesthesia with the same isolated tracheal preparation. Tracheal perfusion (Q) was altered from control blood flow (Qo) by epinephrine or papaverine instilled into the trachea and was measured with fluorescent microspheres. Six inert gases of differing blood-gas partition coefficients were used to measure inert gas elimination. Gas exchange was quantified as excretion (E), equal to exhaled partial pressure divided by arterial partial pressure. Data were plotted as ln [E/(l-E)] vs. In (Q/Qo), and the slopes were determined by least squares. Excretion was a positive function of Q, and the magnitude of the response of each gas to changes in Q was similar and highly significant (P < or = 0.0002). These results confirm a substantial perfusion dependence of airway gas exchange.

  11. Cholecystokinin-destroying activities of canine tissue homogenates.

    PubMed

    Lonovics, J; Penke, B; Rayford, P L; Thompson, J C

    1986-02-01

    We have studied the capacity of different canine tissue homogenates to destroy cholecystokinin in vitro. Tissues from the kidney cortex, lung, pancreas, and small bowel contained significant cholecystokinin-destroying activity. Only small amounts of activity were found in the liver, and no activity was detected in the kidney medulla, the gastric antrum, gallbladder, spleen, or in serum or plasma. The kidney cortex was the richest source of activity. The cholecystokinin-destroying enzyme isolated from the kidney cortex was heat-labile, non-dialyzable, and trypsin-resistant, with an optimum pH between 7 and 7.4. The enzyme was inhibited by chelating agents and by phenylalanine amide, although it was little affected by phenylalanine itself or proteinase inhibitors. The enzyme required divalent cation cofactors for its activity. After inhibition by EDTA, the enzyme could be reactivated completely with Mn2+, but not with Ca2+ or Mg2+ alone. The cholecystokinin-destroying enzyme was bound strongly to membranes, and during differental centrifugation, was sedimented with mitochondrial fractions of kidney cortex. The supernatant fraction of the solubilized enzyme obtained at 105,000 X g had a molecular weight of about 480,000 dalton. Since the enzyme could be inhibited by phenylalanine-amide, it would appear to act at the C-terminal end of the cholecystokinin molecule.

  12. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Wang, Huamin; Bhosale, Priya R; Evans, Harry L; Abraham, Susan C

    2015-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising in the pancreas is exceedingly rare, with only 11 cases reported in the English literature. All cases described thus far have exhibited benign histology. We report the first case of malignant SFT of the pancreas. The patient was a 52-year-old woman who presented with obstructive jaundice and a 15-cm pancreatic head mass. The mass showed areas with typical histologic features for SFT including small fibroblastlike cells arranged in the well-characterized "patternless pattern" of architecture, hemangiopericytomalike vessels, areas with dense collagen and infrequent mitoses (0-2 per 10 high-power fields [HPFs]). In addition, multiple areas with an overtly sarcomatous morphology were present, containing large spindle and epithelioid cells with nuclear pleomorphism, marked cellularity, up to17 mitoses per 10 HPFs, and necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD34 and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in both benign and malignant components and showed strong, diffuse p53 and p16 staining in the malignant component. At last follow-up (40 months), the patient was alive and well without evidence of disease. However, given that the presence of a malignant component in extrapancreatic SFT has been associated with recurrence/metastasis and death, complete surgical resection and close long-term follow-up is required.

  13. Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013.

    PubMed

    Hovorka, R

    2015-08-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade.

  14. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Wang, Huamin; Bhosale, Priya R; Evans, Harry L; Abraham, Susan C

    2015-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising in the pancreas is exceedingly rare, with only 11 cases reported in the English literature. All cases described thus far have exhibited benign histology. We report the first case of malignant SFT of the pancreas. The patient was a 52-year-old woman who presented with obstructive jaundice and a 15-cm pancreatic head mass. The mass showed areas with typical histologic features for SFT including small fibroblastlike cells arranged in the well-characterized "patternless pattern" of architecture, hemangiopericytomalike vessels, areas with dense collagen and infrequent mitoses (0-2 per 10 high-power fields [HPFs]). In addition, multiple areas with an overtly sarcomatous morphology were present, containing large spindle and epithelioid cells with nuclear pleomorphism, marked cellularity, up to17 mitoses per 10 HPFs, and necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD34 and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in both benign and malignant components and showed strong, diffuse p53 and p16 staining in the malignant component. At last follow-up (40 months), the patient was alive and well without evidence of disease. However, given that the presence of a malignant component in extrapancreatic SFT has been associated with recurrence/metastasis and death, complete surgical resection and close long-term follow-up is required. PMID:26166470

  15. SOLID PSEUDOPAPILLARY NEOPLASM OF THE PANCREAS

    PubMed Central

    CARLOTTO, Jorge Roberto Marcante; TORREZ, Franz Robert Apodaca; GONZALEZ, Adriano Miziara; LINHARES, Marcelo Moura; TRIVIÑO, Tarcisio; HERANI-FILHO, Benedito; GOLDENBERG, Alberto; LOPES-FILHO, Gaspar de Jesus; LOBO, Edson José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The solid pseudopapillary neoplasm is a rare tumor of the pancreas. However, it´s etiology still maintain discussions. Aim: To analyze it´s clinical data, diagnosis and treatment. Methods: A retrospective study of medical records of all patients treated from January 1997 until July 2015. Results: Were identified 17 cases. Most patients were women (94.11%) and the average age was 32.88 years. The main complaint was abdominal mass (47.05%). The most frequent location was in the body/tail of the pancreas (72.22%) and the most frequently performed surgery was distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (64.70%). No patient had metastases at diagnosis. Conservative surgery for pancreatic parenchyma was performed in only three cases. The rate of complications in the postoperative period was 35.29% and the main complication was pancreatic fistula (29.41%). No patient underwent adjuvant treatment. Conclusions: The treatment is surgical and the most common clinical presentation is abdominal mass. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was the most frequently performed surgery for its treatment. PMID:27438034

  16. Vascular anatomy of canine hepatic venous system: a basis for liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Mari, L; Acocella, F

    2015-06-01

    Detailed knowledge of the vascular anatomy is important for improving surgical approaches to the liver. Twelve canine livers were skeletonized to describe the anatomy of their portal and hepatic veins in details. Our data suggest that the liver can be divided into two sections, three divisions, seven lobes and two to four sub-lobes. This differs from the classic division into four lobes, four sub-lobes and two processes. The right section was perfused by the right portal branch and drained by independent hepatic veins, while most of the left section, perfused by the left portal branch, was drained by the main hepatic vein deriving from the middle and the left hepatic vein confluence. Part of the right medial lobe, and in some cases the papillary process of the caudate lobe, drained directly into the caudal vena cava. A proper right hepatic vein draining blood from more than one lobe was never observed. Portal connections between the quadrate and the left medial lobe were frequently recorded. Two sub-lobes with different portal blood supply and venous drainage could be identified in the right lateral (33.3% of cases) and the left lateral (100% of cases) lobes. From our results, the classic nomenclature of the liver lobes does not reflect their vascularization. Based on similarities between canine lobes and human segments, a new nomenclature is possible and may be less confounding in surgical settings.

  17. Purinergic signalling in the pancreas in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, G; Novak, I

    2012-05-01

    Pancreatic cells contain specialised stores for ATP. Purinergic receptors (P2 and P1) and ecto-nucleotidases are expressed in both endocrine and exocrine calls, as well as in stromal cells. The pancreas, especially the endocrine cells, were an early target for the actions of ATP. After the historical perspective of purinergic signalling in the pancreas, the focus of this review will be the physiological functions of purinergic signalling in the regulation of both endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Next, we will consider possible interaction between purinergic signalling and other regulatory systems and their relation to nutrient homeostasis and cell survival. The pancreas is an organ exhibiting several serious diseases - cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes - and some are associated with changes in life-style and are increasing in incidence. There is upcoming evidence for the role of purinergic signalling in the pathophysiology of the pancreas, and the new challenge is to understand how it is integrated with other pathological processes.

  18. Diagnosis of early pancreas graft failure via antibody-mediated rejection: single-center experience with 256 pancreas transplantations.

    PubMed

    de Kort, H; Mallat, M J K; van Kooten, C; de Heer, E; Brand-Schaaf, S H; van der Wal, A M; Roufosse, C; Roelen, D L; Bruijn, J A; Claas, F H; de Fijter, J W; Bajema, I M

    2014-04-01

    Early pancreas graft loss is usually attributed to technical failure while the possibility of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is generally overlooked. To investigate the role of AMR in early pancreas graft loss, we retrospectively assessed 256 patients with simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) between 1985 and 2010 at our institute. We included 33 SPK patients who lost their pancreas graft <1 year after transplantation. AMR was diagnosed based on donor-specific antibodies, C4d and histology in 7 cases, 8 cases were suspicious for AMR and 18 pancreas graft losses were not due to AMR. Acute AMR occurred >1 month after transplantation in 6/7 cases, whereas all other causes typically led to loss <1 month after transplantation. Thrombotic lesions occurred equally among the 33 cases. In 12/18 concurrent kidney specimens, the diagnostic results paralleled those of the pancreas graft. All patients with acute AMR of the pancreas graft lost their renal grafts <1 year after transplantation. In the setting of a thrombotic event, histopathological analysis of early pancreas graft loss is advisable to rule out the possibility of AMR, particularly because a diagnosis of acute AMR has important consequences for renal graft outcomes.

  19. Subtotal resection of the head of the pancreas combined with ductal obliteration of the distal pancreas in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Kerremans, R P; Penninckx, F M; De Groote, J; Fevery, J

    1987-01-01

    Subtotal resection of the head of the pancreas combined with duct obliteration of the distal pancreas by prolamine was performed in 12 selected patients who had chronic alcohol-induced pancreatitis with most destruction in the proximal pancreas. The main indication for operation was intractable pain. There was no postoperative mortality but morbidity was high when no pancreaticojejunostomy was constructed. After a follow-up period of 32 months, lasting pain relief was obtained in 10 patients; pseudocyst formation occurred in three patients; calcification of the distal pancreas, absent before operation, was demonstrated in four of six patients; six of 11 nondiabetic patients became hyperglycemic either abruptly (1 patient) or progressively (5 patients); quality of life improved in most patients. This procedure preserves the stomach, duodenum, spleen, distal pancreas and common bile duct if possible. However, pancreatic ductal obliteration with prolamine does not prevent relapses of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:3827358

  20. A review of canine pseudocyesis.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C; de la Sota, R L; Goya, R G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches at the end of metaoestrus. PSC is a frequent finding in domestic dogs. Although it is generally admitted that prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in the appearance of PSC, its precise aetiophysiology is not completely understood yet. A number of clinical studies suggest that at some point of metaoestrus circulating PRL levels rise in overtly pseudopregnant bitches. Individual differences in sensitivity to PRL as well as the existence of molecular variants of canine PRL with different bioactivity versus immunoreactivity ratios may help clarify the aetiopathology of PSC. Diagnosis of PSC is based on the presence of typical clinical signs in metaoestrous non-pregnant bitches. Considering that PSC is a self limiting physiological state, mild cases usually need no treatment. Discouraging maternal behaviour and sometimes fitting Elizabethan collars to prevent licking of the mammary glands may suffice in these cases. Sex steroids (oestrogens, progestins and androgens) have been traditionally used to treat PSC but the side-effects usually outweigh the benefits of these medications. Inhibition of PRL release by ergot derivatives [bromocriptine (10-100 microg/kg per day for 10-14 days], cabergoline (5 microg/kg per day during 5-10 days), metergoline (0.2 mg/kg per day during 8-10 days) has proved to be effective for the treatment of canine PSC. Although some of these ergot derivatives present some untoward side-effects, they are transient and can usually be managed. Predisposed bitches not intended for breeding should be spayed as ovariectomy is the only permanent preventive measure.

  1. Artificial tissues in perfusion culture.

    PubMed

    Sittinger, M; Schultz, O; Keyszer, G; Minuth, W W; Burmester, G R

    1997-01-01

    In the stagnant environment of traditional culture dishes it is difficult to generate long term experiments or artificial tissues from human cells. For this reason a perfusion culture system with a stable supply of nutrients was developed. Human chondrocytes were seeded three-dimensionally in resorbable polymer fleeces. The cell-polymer tissues were then mounted in newly developed containers (W.W. Minuth et al, Biotechniques, 1996) and continuously perfused by fresh medium for 40 days. Samples from the effluate were analyzed daily, and the pH of the medium and glucose concentration remained stable during this period. The lactid acid concentration increased from 0.17 mg/ml to 0.35 mg/ml, which was influenced by the degradation of the resorbable polymer fibers used as three dimensional support material for the cells. This perfusion system proved to be reliable especially in long term cultures. Any components in the culture medium of the cells could be monitored without disturbances as caused by manual medium replacement. These results suggest the described perfusion culture system to be a valuable and convenient tool for many applications in tissue engineering, especially in the generation of artificial connective tissue.

  2. Developing a tissue perfusion sensor.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S L R; Parker, K H; O'Hare, D

    2007-01-01

    The development of a electrochemical tissue perfusion sensor is presented. The sensor is a platinum/platinum ring-disc microelectrode that relies on the principle of collector-generator to monitor mass transport within its vicinity. Tissue perfusion is a mass transport mechanism that describes the movement of respiratory gases, nutrients and metabolites in tissue. The sensor's capability of detecting perfusion at the cellular level in a continuous fashion is unique. This sensor will provide insight into the way nutrients and metabolites are transported in tissue especially in cases were perfusion is low such as in wounds or ischemic tissue. We present experimental work for the development and testing of the sensors in vitro. Experimental flow recordings in free steam solutions as well as the flow through tissue-like media are shown. Tests on post operative human tissue are also presented. The sensor's feature such as the continuous recoding capacities, spatial resolution and the measurement range from ml/min to microl/min are highlighted. PMID:18002549

  3. Premalignant cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Dudeja, Vikas; Allen, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Due to increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, asymptomatic pancreatic cysts are frequently being diagnosed. Many of these cysts have premalignant potential and offer a unique opportunity for cancer prevention. Mucinous cystic neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm are the major premalignant cystic neoplasms of pancreas. The prediction of the risk of malignancy (incidental and future risk of malignant transformation) and balancing the risks of watchful waiting with that of operative management with associated mortality and morbidity is the key to the management of these lesions. We review the literature that has contributed to the development of our approach to the management of these cystic neoplasms. We provide an overview of the key features used in diagnosis and in predicting malignancy. Particular attention is given to the natural history and management decision making.

  4. Influence of different methods of collection from the canine epididymides on post-thaw caudal epididymal sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tatsuya; Atago, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kawakami, Eiichi

    2015-05-01

    Canine epididymal sperm was collected from the cauda epididymis using 2 different methods (flushing and mincing) to compare the qualities (the percentage of progressively motile, viable, morphologically abnormal, immature and intact acrosomes) before and after freezing and thawing. No significant difference was noted in the quality of the cauda epididymal sperm immediately after collection and after freezing-thawing between the collection methods, although the mean levels of sperm quality with the flushing method were slightly better than that of the mincing method. The flushing method is simple and free of blood contamination, although the vas deferens was too small to be perfused in only 1 dog, and our results suggest that the flushing method is preferable to the mincing method for collecting sperm from the canine cauda epididymis.

  5. [Function of pancreas transplants in increased metabolic stress].

    PubMed

    Teuscher, A U; Seaquist, E R; Barrou, Z; Kendall, D M; Robertson, R P

    1995-01-01

    Patients undergoing successful pancreas transplantation have normal glucose levels in the fasting and fed states and normal levels of hemoglobin A1c without use of exogenous inulin or any other medications for diabetes. In some of these patients, these measures have remained stable for more than 10 years. Additionally pancreas transplant recipients recover from short-term hypoglycemia produced by an intravenous pulse of insulin. However, metabolic success has been determined by relatively routine, unsophisticated tests such as oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests or stimulation with intravenous arginine. These tests may not provide measures of the functional reserve of the pancreas, which is called on during periods of maximal stress. Consequently, we designed studies to ascertain beta and alpha cell performance in recipients of whole pancreas transplants and recipients of a segment of a living related donor. All recipients were recruited from the University of Minnesota Transplant Registry, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Successfully transplanted recipients were subjected to prolonged hyperglycemia to assess insulin secretory reserve using the method of glucose potentiation of arginine induced insulin secretion and to prolonged hypoglycemia to assess glucagon responsiveness and hepatic glucose production using the technique of the hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp. Our studies show that pancreas transplant recipients have markedly diminished insulin secretory reserve, a defect not evident with conventional tests of beta-cell function. No difference was found between the whole graft and segmental graft recipients. Pancreas transplantation restores the defective glucagon secretory response and enhances hepatic glucose production during prolonged hypoglycemia in subjects with type I diabetes. We conclude that pancreas transplantation does not completely restore beta-cell secretory reserve. This defect might be probably caused in part by cyclosporine and by the

  6. The Association between Nonalcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Ming-Fong; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty infiltration of the pancreas has been shown to interfere with insulin secretion. Both insulin sensitivity and secretion are important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and prediabetes. However, the relationship between diabetes, prediabetes, and fatty pancreas remains unknown. We aim to investigate the relationships that fatty pancreas and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have with prediabetes and diabetes in a Chinese population. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 7,464 subjects were recruited. NAFLD and fatty pancreas were assessed by sonography. Clinico-metabolic parameters were compared among subjects with normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between fatty pancreas and NAFLD and diabetes or prediabetes with adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors. Results With an increase in glycemia, a significantly greater proportion of subjects had NAFLD and fatty pancreas (test for trend p<0.05). Similar trends were also found for hypertension, general and central obesity, low-HDL cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. In the logistic regression analysis, age, hypertension, male gender, hypertriglyceridemia, and central obesity were significantly associated with prediabetes and diabetes. Furthermore, the ORs of prediabetes and diabetes for NAFLD were 1.798 (95% CI 1.544–2.094) and 2.578 (95% CI 2.024–3.284), respectively. In addition, fatty pancreas was independently related to diabetes (OR, 1.379; 95% CI, 1.047–1.816) and prediabetes (OR, 1.222; 95% CI, 1.002–1.491) in male subjects. Conclusions Both NAFLD and fatty pancreas were associated with diabetes independent of age, gender, adiposity, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Fatty pancreas was also related to prediabetes in males. PMID:23671610

  7. Neuroinflammation in advanced canine glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing; Harper, Matthew M.; Kecova, Helga; Adamus, Grazyna; Kardon, Randy H.; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The pathophysiological events that occur in advanced glaucoma are not well characterized. The principal purpose of this study is to characterize the gene expression changes that occur in advanced glaucoma. Methods Retinal RNA was obtained from canine eyes with advanced glaucoma as well as from healthy eyes. Global gene expression patterns were determined using oligonucleotide microarrays and confirmed by real-time PCR. The presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors was evaluated by immunolabeling. Finally, we evaluated the presence of serum autoantibodies directed against retinal epitopes using western blot analyses. Results We identified over 500 genes with statistically significant changes in expression level in the glaucomatous retina. Decreased expression levels were detected for large number of functional groups, including synapse and synaptic transmission, cell adhesion, and calcium metabolism. Many of the molecules with decreased expression levels have been previously shown to be components of retinal ganglion cells. Genes with elevated expression in glaucoma are largely associated with inflammation, such as antigen presentation, protein degradation, and innate immunity. In contrast, expression of many other pro-inflammatory genes, such as interferons or interleukins, was not detected at abnormal levels. Conclusions This study characterizes the molecular events that occur in the canine retina with advanced glaucoma. Our data suggest that in the dog this stage of the disease is accompanied by pronounced retinal neuroinflammation. PMID:21042562

  8. Canine size, shape, and bending strength in primates and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ruff, Christopher B

    2008-05-01

    Anthropoid primates are well known for their highly sexually dimorphic canine teeth, with males possessing canines that are up to 400% taller than those of females. Primate canine dimorphism has been extensively documented, with a consensus that large male primate canines serve as weapons for intrasexual competition, and some evidence that large female canines in some species may likewise function as weapons. However, apart from speculation that very tall male canines may be relatively weak and that seed predators have strong canines, the functional significance of primate canine shape has not been explored. Because carnivore canine shape and size are associated with killing style, this group provides a useful comparative baseline for primates. We evaluate primate maxillary canine tooth size, shape and relative bending strength against body size, skull size, and behavioral and demographic measures of male competition and sexual selection, and compare them to those of carnivores. We demonstrate that, relative to skull length and body mass, primate male canines are on average as large as or larger than those of similar sized carnivores. The range of primate female canine sizes embraces that of carnivores. Male and female primate canines are generally as strong as or stronger than those of carnivores. Although we find that seed-eating primates have relatively strong canines, we find no clear relationship between male primate canine strength and demographic or behavioral estimates of male competition or sexual selection, in spite of a strong relationship between these measures and canine crown height. This suggests either that most primate canines are selected to be very strong regardless of variation in behavior, or that primate canine shape is inherently strong enough to accommodate changes in crown height without compromising canine function.

  9. Does machine perfusion decrease ischemia reperfusion injury?

    PubMed

    Bon, D; Delpech, P-O; Chatauret, N; Hauet, T; Badet, L; Barrou, B

    2014-06-01

    In 1990's, use of machine perfusion for organ preservation has been abandoned because of improvement of preservation solutions, efficient without perfusion, easy to use and cheaper. Since the last 15 years, a renewed interest for machine perfusion emerged based on studies performed on preclinical model and seems to make consensus in case of expanded criteria donors or deceased after cardiac death donations. We present relevant studies highlighted the efficiency of preservation with hypothermic machine perfusion compared to static cold storage. Machines for organ preservation being in constant evolution, we also summarized recent developments included direct oxygenation of the perfusat. Machine perfusion technology also enables organ reconditioning during the last hours of preservation through a short period of perfusion on hypothermia, subnormothermia or normothermia. We present significant or low advantages for machine perfusion against ischemia reperfusion injuries regarding at least one primary parameter: risk of DFG, organ function or graft survival.

  10. Sodium efflux from perfused giant algal cells.

    PubMed

    Clint, G M; Macrobbie, E A

    1987-06-01

    Internodal cells of the giant alga Chara corallina were perfused internally to replace the native cytoplasm, tonoplast and vacuole with artificial cytoplasm. Sodium efflux from perfused cells, measured by including (22)Na in the perfusion media, was increased by increasing the internal sodium concentration and by decreasing the external pH, and was inhibited by external application of the renal diuretic amiloride. The sodium efflux was markedly ATP-dependent, with a 50-fold decrease in efflux observed after perfusion with media lacking ATP. Efflux in the presence of ATP was reduced by 33% by inclusion of 10 μM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in the perfusion medium. The membrane potential of the perfused cells approximated that of intact cells from the same culture. It is suggested that sodium efflux in perfused Chara cells proceeds via a secondary antiporter with protons, regulated by ATP in a catalytic role and with the proton motive force acting as the energy source.

  11. Obstructing pseudocyst of the duct of Santorini in pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Browder, W; Gravois, E; Vega, P; Ertan, A

    1987-03-01

    Pancreas divisum is a pancreatic duct anomaly that occurs due to failure of fusion of the dorsal and ventral ducts. While recognition of this anomaly is increasing due to more aggressive endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, its significance remains unclear. A patient with chronic pancreatitis and a history of alcohol abuse was noted to have pancreas divisum. At surgical exploration, intraoperative pancreatography revealed an obstructing pseudocyst of the duct of Santorini. Extended sphincteroplasty and cystduodenostomy as well as Roux-en-Y pancreatojejunostomy were necessary to insure adequate accessory duct drainage. Surgical therapy of pancreas divisum in chronic pancreatitis should be designed to correct existing pancreatic duct obstruction.

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rajesh; Manrai, Manish; Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Alfadda, Abdulrahman A

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important component in the diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma pancreas. With the advent of advanced imaging techniques and tissue acquisition methods the role of EUS is becoming increasingly important. Small pancreatic tumors can be reliably diagnosed with EUS. EUS guided fine needle aspiration establishes diagnosis in some cases. EUS plays an important role in staging of carcinoma pancreas and in some important therapeutic methods that include celiac plexus neurolysis, EUS guided biliary drainage and drug delivery. In this review we attempt to review the role of EUS in diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas. PMID:26839647

  13. Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic porcine pancreas and preliminary case study on the human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wex, C; Fröhlich, M; Brandstädter, K; Bruns, C; Stoll, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the mechanical properties of the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanical properties of the pancreas are not sufficiently characterized. The possibility of intraoperative mechanical testing of pathological pancreata will allow the classification of pancreatic diseases in the future. The application of mechanical parameters instead of the intraoperative frozen section analysis shortens waiting times in the operating room. This study proves the general applicability of shear rheology for the determination of the mechanical properties of pancreas and the assessment of graft quality for transplantation. Porcine and human pancreas samples were examined ex vivo and a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was observed. Pancreas was found to be more viscous than liver but both abdominal organs showed a similar flow behavior. The shear deformation dependence of healthy human pancreas was similar to porcine pancreas. An increase in the post-mortem time led to an increase in the complex modulus for a post-mortem time up to 8.5 days. Histological investigations showed that an increased amount of collagen coincides with the stiffening of the pancreatic tissue.

  14. Effects of pancreatic polypeptide on insulin action in exocrine secretion of isolated rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H J; Lee, Y L; Kwon, H Y

    1993-01-01

    1. Effects of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) on insulin action in pancreatic exocrine secretion was investigated by using an isolated rat pancreas that was perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 2.5 mM glucose, 0.1% bovine serum albumin and 3% Dextran T-70 at a vascular flow rate of 1.2 ml min-1. 2. Cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) at a concentration of 14 pM stimulated basal flow rate and amylase output of the isolated pancreas. Twenty-five millimolar glucose not only increased the basal flow rate and amylase output but also potentiated the CCK-stimulated flow rate and amylase output. 3. Porcine insulin, administered intra-arterially at a concentration of 100 nM, also increased the basal flow rate and amylase output, and also potentiated the CCK-stimulated flow rate and amylase output. 4. Rat PP, given intra-arterially at a concentration of 10 pM, completely abolished the potentiation effects of both the 25 mM glucose and the exogenous insulin on the CCK-stimulated flow rate and amylase output. Rat PP also inhibited the flow rate and amylase output increased by either 25 mM glucose alone or exogenous insulin alone. However, rat PP did not change the flow rate and amylase output stimulated by CCK-8 alone. 5. These results indicate that insulin is an important stimulatory hormone of pancreatic exocrine secretion, and that PP exerts the inhibitory role in pancreatic exocrine secretion by modulating the insulin action. PMID:7504106

  15. Etiology of maxillary canine impaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Becker, Adrian; Chaushu, Stella

    2015-10-01

    This article is a review that enumerates the causes of impaction of the maxillary permanent canines, including hard tissue obstructions, soft tissue lesions, and anomalies of neighboring teeth, and discusses the much-argued relationship between environmental and genetic factors. These phenomena have been shown in many investigations to accompany the diagnosis of canine impaction and have been presented as unrelated anomalous features, each of which is etiologically construed as genetic, including the aberrant canine itself. While in general the influence of genetics pervades the wider picture, a guidance theory proposes an alternative etiologic line of reasoning and interpretation of these studies, in which the same genetically determined anomalous features provide an abnormal milieu in which the canine is reared and from which it is guided in its misdirected and often abortive path of eruption. PMID:26432311

  16. Canine atopic dermatitis - what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Tim; Uri, Maarja; Halliwell, Richard

    2013-02-23

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a complex multifactorial disease. Here, Tim Nuttall, Maarja Uri and Richard Halliwell, representing three generations of veterinary dermatologists, describe the research underpinning our understanding of the condition and highlight its relevance to clinical practice.

  17. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-02-08

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis.

  18. Occupational exposure and cancer of the pancreas: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, F; Clavel, F

    1991-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed about the aetiology of cancer of the pancreas, especially concerning the effects of tobacco, coffee, alcohol, diet, and pancreatic pathology. Results of numerous epidemiological studies are, however, inconsistent. Chemical carcinogens have been implicated as possible risk factors. Animal studies have been carried out to determine the role of these chemical factors but, except for nitrosamines and their derivatives (components of tobacco), chemicals have not been proved carcinogenic for the pancreas. Many studies have also been conducted among occupational groups. Several of them showed an excess risk of cancer of the pancreas, especially in the chemical and petroleum industries. The lack of accuracy about the nature of products used, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion as to their carcinogenic role. This paper is a review of publications about occupational exposures and cancer of the pancreas. PMID:1911399

  19. Pancreas procurement and preservation for islet transplantation: personal considerations.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising option for the treatment of type 1 diabetic patients. After the successful demonstration of the Edmonton protocol, islet transplantation has advanced significantly on several fronts, including improved pancreas procurement and preservation systems. Since we frequently use pancreata from donors after cardiac death in Japan,we have applied the in situ regional organ cooling system for pancreas procurement to reduce the warm ischemic time. To reduce the apoptosis of pancreatic tissue during cold preservation, we have applied the ductal injection of preservation solution. For pancreas preservation, we use modified Kyoto solution, which is advantageous at trypsin inhibition and less collagenase inhibition. In this paper, we show pancreas procurement and preservation in our group for islet transplantation.

  20. Villous motility and unstirred water layers in canine intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Mailman, D.; Womack, W.A.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N. )

    1990-02-01

    The possibility that villous motility reduces the mucosal unstirred water layer by mechanical stirring was examined. The frequency of contraction of villi was measured by using videomicroscopic techniques while a segment of anesthetized canine jejunum or ileum with its nerve and blood supply intact was maintained in a sealed chamber through which Tyrode solution was perfused. Radioisotopically labeled inulin, H{sub 2}O, and butyric and lauric acid were used to measure net and/or unidirectional fluxes from the chamber. The unidirectional absorptive transport of H{sub 2}O and butyric acid but not lauric acid by jejunal segments was significantly correlated with flow through the chamber. Plasma volume expansion increased villous motility but decreased the absorption of H{sub 2}O and lauric acid. Absorption of butyric acid from the ileum was little different than from the jejunum although the degree of villous motility was less and net water absorption was greater from the ileum. Absorption of butyric acid into dead tissue indicated that passive diffusion into the tissue accounted for between 7 and 25%, depending on flow rate, of the absorption in intact tissue and that nonspecific binding was low. It was concluded that villous motility did not stir the unstirred water layers and was not directly associated with altered transport.

  1. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  2. Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D J

    1997-06-01

    Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin present a clinical spectrum from the innocuous self-limiting solitary dermal lesion of cutaneous histiocytoma, through the recurrent deep dermal nodules of cutaneous histiocytosis to the generally fatal condition of Bernese Mountain Dogs termed systemic histiocytosis, in which visceral involvement is commonly encountered. Immunocytochemical characterization of the constituent histiocytic cells and accompanying lymphoid infiltrate using canine species specific reagents has elucidated considerably the mechanism by which these conditions exhibit their various biologic behaviours.

  3. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  4. Imaging spectrum after pancreas transplantation with enteric drainage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Ling; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Wang, Sing-E; Tseng, Hsiuo-Shan; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Huang, Shan-Su; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of pancreas transplantation more than 40 years ago, surgical techniques and immunosuppressive regiments have improved and both have contributed to increase the number and success rate of this procedure. However, graft survival corresponds to early diagnosis of organ-related complications. Thus, knowledge of the transplantation procedure and postoperative image anatomy are basic requirements for radiologists. In this article, we demonstrate the imaging spectrum of pancreas transplantation with enteric exocrine drainage.

  5. Stem cells versus plasticity in liver and pancreas regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Janel L; Grompe, Markus; Sander, Maike

    2016-03-01

    Cell replacement in adult organs can be achieved through stem cell differentiation or the replication or transdifferentiation of existing cells. In the adult liver and pancreas, stem cells have been proposed to replace tissue cells, particularly following injury. Here we review how specialized cell types are produced in the adult liver and pancreas. Based on current evidence, we propose that the plasticity of differentiated cells, rather than stem cells, accounts for tissue repair in both organs.

  6. Anaplastic Carcinoma Possibly Arising from a Heterotopic Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yasushi; Mita, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hideaki; Akino, Kimishige; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Endo, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic carcinoma is a rare pancreatic cancer, and the malignant transformation of a heterotopic pancreas is also rare. We herein report a case of an elderly woman with a mass of unknown origin in the abdominal cavity. Computed tomography identified the extent of the tumor but not the organ of origin. The abdominal tumor eventually metastasized to the liver and lung. An autopsy and immunohistochemical examination revealed an anaplastic carcinoma possibly originating in an ectopic pancreas.

  7. Automatic segmentation of abdominal vessels for improved pancreas localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Amal; Liu, Jiamin; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate automatic detection and segmentation of abdominal organs from CT images is important for quantitative and qualitative organ tissue analysis as well as computer-aided diagnosis. The large variability of organ locations, the spatial interaction between organs that appear similar in medical scans and orientation and size variations are among the major challenges making the task very difficult. The pancreas poses these challenges in addition to its flexibility which allows for the shape of the tissue to vastly change. Due to the close proximity of the pancreas to numerous surrounding organs within the abdominal cavity the organ shifts according to the conditions of the organs within the abdomen, as such the pancreas is constantly changing. Combining these challenges with typically found patient-to-patient variations and scanning conditions the pancreas becomes harder to localize. In this paper we focus on three abdominal vessels that almost always abut the pancreas tissue and as such useful landmarks to identify the relative location of the pancreas. The splenic and portal veins extend from the hila of the spleen and liver, respectively, travel through the abdominal cavity and join at a position close to the head of the pancreas known as the portal confluence. A third vein, the superior mesenteric vein, anastomoses with the other two veins at the portal confluence. An automatic segmentation framework for obtaining the splenic vein, portal confluence and superior mesenteric vein is proposed using 17 contrast enhanced computed-tomography datasets. The proposed method uses outputs from the multi-organ multi-atlas label fusion and Frangi vesselness filter to obtain automatic seed points for vessel tracking and generation of statistical models of the desired vessels. The approach shows ability to identify the vessels and improve localization of the pancreas within the abdomen.

  8. Stem cells versus plasticity in liver and pancreas regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Janel L; Grompe, Markus; Sander, Maike

    2016-03-01

    Cell replacement in adult organs can be achieved through stem cell differentiation or the replication or transdifferentiation of existing cells. In the adult liver and pancreas, stem cells have been proposed to replace tissue cells, particularly following injury. Here we review how specialized cell types are produced in the adult liver and pancreas. Based on current evidence, we propose that the plasticity of differentiated cells, rather than stem cells, accounts for tissue repair in both organs. PMID:26911907

  9. Endovascular Management of Acute Enteric Bleeding from Pancreas Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2007-04-15

    Arterioenteric fistula is a rare but serious complication of enteric drained pancreas transplant, which may lead to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. We present 3 patients with failed enteric drained pancreas transplants and massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to arterioenteric fistula. One patient was treated by embolization and the 2 others by stent graft placement. Bleeding was successfully controlled in all cases, at follow up of 5 days, 8 months, and 12 months, respectively. One patient died 24 days after embolization, of unknown causes.

  10. Spontaneous hemorrhage due to pseudocysts of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wu, T K; Zaman, S N; Gullick, H D; Powers, S R

    1977-09-01

    Spontaneous hemorrhage caused by erosion of major arteries by a pseudocyst of the pancreas is a rare condition. We have encountered three cases, one involving the abdominal aorta and two the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. It is important to keep in mind that pseudocyst of the pancreas may cause massive gastrointestinal or intraabdominal bleeding. Operative treatment offers a better chance of survival than more conservative management.

  11. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  12. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  13. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  14. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  15. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  16. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  17. Canine Cytogenetics - From band to basepair

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Humans and dogs have coexisted for thousands of years, during which time we have developed a unique bond, centered on companionship. Along the way, we have developed purebred dog breeds in a manner that has resulted unfortunately in many of them being affected by serious genetic disorders, including cancers. With serendipity and irony the unique genetic architecture of the 21st Century genome of Man's best friend may ultimately provide many of the keys to unlock some of nature's most intriguing biological puzzles. Canine cytogenetics has advanced significantly over the past 10 years, spurred on largely by the surge of interest in the dog as a biomedical model for genetic disease and the availability of advanced genomics resources. As such the role of canine cytogenetics has moved rapidly from one that served initially to define the gross genomic organization of the canine genome and provide a reliable means to determine the chromosomal location of individual genes, to one that enabled the assembled sequence of the canine genome to be anchored to the karyotype. Canine cytogenetics now presents the biomedical research community with a means to assist in our search for a greater understanding of how genome architectures altered during speciation and in our search for genes associated with cancers that affect both dogs and humans. The cytogenetics ‘toolbox’ for the dog is now loaded. This review aims to provide a summary of some of the recent advancements in canine cytogenetics. PMID:18467825

  18. Has the gap between pancreas and islet transplantation closed?

    PubMed

    Niclauss, Nadja; Morel, Philippe; Berney, Thierry

    2014-09-27

    Both pancreas and islet transplantations are therapeutic options for complicated type 1 diabetes. Until recent years, outcomes of islet transplantation have been significantly inferior to those of whole pancreas. Islet transplantation is primarily performed alone in patients with severe hypoglycemia, and recent registry reports have suggested that results of islet transplantation alone in this indication may be about to match those of pancreas transplant alone in insulin independence. Figures of 50% insulin independence at 5 years for either procedure have been cited. In this article, we address the question whether islet transplantation has indeed bridged the gap with whole pancreas. Looking at the evidence to answer this question, we propose that although pancreas may still be more efficient in taking recipients off insulin than islets, there are in fact numerous "gaps" separating both procedures that must be taken into the equation. These "gaps" relate to organ utilization, organ allocation, indication for transplantation, and morbidity. In-depth analysis reveals that islet transplantation, in fact, has an edge on whole pancreas in some of these aspects. Accordingly, attempts should be made to bridge these gaps from both sides to achieve the same level of success with either procedure. More realistically, it is likely that some of these gaps will remain and that both procedures will coexist and complement each other, to ensure that β cell replacement can be successfully implemented in the greatest possible number of patients with type 1 diabetes.

  19. GDNF is required for neural colonization of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Bravo, José Luis; Hidalgo-Figueroa, María; Pascual, Alberto; López-Barneo, José; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso; Cano, David A

    2013-09-01

    The mammalian pancreas is densely innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which control exocrine and endocrine secretion. During embryonic development, neural crest cells migrating in a rostrocaudal direction populate the gut, giving rise to neural progenitor cells. Recent studies in mice have shown that neural crest cells enter the pancreatic epithelium at E11.5. However, the cues that guide the migration of neural progenitors into the pancreas are poorly defined. In this study we identify glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a key player in this process. GDNF displays a dynamic expression pattern during embryonic development that parallels the chronology of migration and differentiation of neural crest derivatives in the pancreas. Conditional inactivation of Gdnf in the pancreatic epithelium results in a dramatic loss of neuronal and glial cells and in reduced parasympathetic innervation in the pancreas. Importantly, the innervation of other regions of the gut remains unaffected. Analysis of Gdnf mutant mouse embryos and ex vivo experiments indicate that GDNF produced in the pancreas acts as a neurotrophic factor for gut-resident neural progenitor cells. Our data further show that exogenous GDNF promotes the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells in organ culture. In summary, our results point to GDNF as crucial for the development of the intrinsic innervation of the pancreas.

  20. A historical perspective on the discovery of the accessory duct of the pancreas, the ampulla 'of Vater' and pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Stern, C D

    1986-02-01

    The discovery of the accessory duct of the pancreas is usually ascribed to Giovanni Domenico Santorini (1681-1737), after whom this structure is named. The papilla duodeni (ampulla 'of Vater', or papilla 'of Santorini') is named after Abraham Vater (1684-1751) or after GD Santorini. Pancreas divisum, a persistence through non-fusion of the embryonic dorsal and ventral pancreas is a relatively common clinical condition, the discovery of which is usually ascribed to Joseph Hyrtl (1810-1894). In this review I report that pancreas divisum, the accessory duct and the papilla duodeni (ampulla 'of Vater') had all been observed and the observations published during the 17th century by at least seven anatomists before Santorini, Vater, and Hyrtl. I further suggest, in the light of frequent anatomical misattributions in common usage, that anatomical structures be referred to only by their proper anatomical names.

  1. Epidemiology of pancreas cancer in Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, T.M.; Paganini-Hill, A.

    1981-03-15

    The characteristics of the 3614 Los Angeles County residents in whom cancer of the exocrine pancreas was diagnosed during the period 1972-1977 were compared with those of all county residents and patients in whom any cancer was diagnosed during the same period. Seventy-nine percent of the diagnoses had been pathologically verified. This disease still preferentially afflicts the old, the black, and men, although the differences in risk with factors other than age are modest. The disease is not evenly distributed by social class, or over time, although it is not clear that the observed differences reflect etiology. The distributions with respect to important categories of occupation and industry, religion, marital status, geography of residence, and birthplace were rather uniform. Although there is no obvious explanation for any of several unexpected minor inequities in the pattern of incidence, there is no compelling evidence to support any specific environmental cause. There is substantial evidence which is inconsistent with those environmental hypotheses that have been proposed previously.

  2. [Pancreas and biliary tract: recent developments].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease that is associated with significant morbidity and considerable mortality. In this article, developments relating to this disease that were presented in DDW 2014 are reviewed. Pancreatic steatosis could be a cause of recurrent AP. Patients with DM have an increased incidence of AP and pancreatic cancer. The use of anti-TNF drugs in inflammatory bowel disease may protect against the occurrence of AP. The presence of pancreas divisum protects against acute biliary pancreatitis. The PANCODE system for describing local complications of AP has good interobserver agreement, when the new definitions of the revised Atlanta classification are applied. The use of prophylactic antibiotics in early-stage AP predisposes the development of intra-abdominal fungal infections. Fluid sequestration in AP is linked with young age, alcoholism and indicators of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The most common cause of mortality in AP is early onset of multiple organ failure, not pancreatic necrosis infection. Patients with AP and vitamin D deficiency could benefit from taking vitamin D supplements. Moderate fluid administration in emergencies (500-1000 mL) could be associated with better AP development.

  3. Microendoscopes for imaging of the pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Angelique L.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Kroto, Shona M.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2004-07-01

    Patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have a 5-year survival rate of only 3%. Endoscopic imaging of the pancreas is limited by the small size of the pancreatic duct, which has an average size of 3 mm. To improve imaging capabilities for the pancreatic duct, two small catheter-based imaging systems have been developed that will fit through the therapeutic channel of a clinical endoscope and into the pancreatic duct. One is a miniature endoscope designed to provide macro-imaging of tissue with both white light reflectance and fluorescence imaging modes. The 1.75 mm diameter catheter consists of separate illumination and imaging channels. At a nominal focal distance of 10 mm, the field of view of the system is ~ 10 mm, and the corresponding in-plane resolution is 60 microns. To complement the broadfield view of the tissue, a confocal microendoscope with 2 micron lateral resolution over a field of view of 450 microns and 25 micron axial resolution has been developed. With an outer diameter of 3 mm, the catheter in this system will also fit through the therapeutic channel and into the pancreatic duct. Images of tissue with both the miniature endoscope and confocal microendoscope are presented.

  4. Stromal reengineering to treat pancreas cancer.

    PubMed

    Stromnes, Ingunn M; DelGiorno, Kathleen E; Greenberg, Philip D; Hingorani, Sunil R

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma co-opts multiple cellular and extracellular mechanisms to create a complex cancer organ with an unusual proclivity for metastasis and resistance to therapy. Cell-autonomous events are essential for the initiation and maintenance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but recent studies have implicated critical non-cell autonomous processes within the robust desmoplastic stroma that promote disease pathogenesis and resistance. Thus, non-malignant cells and associated factors are culprits in tumor growth, immunosuppression and invasion. However, even this increasing awareness of non-cell autonomous contributions to disease progression is tempered by the conflicting roles stromal elements can play. A greater understanding of stromal complexity and complicity has been aided in part by studies in highly faithful genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Insights gleaned from such studies are spurring the development of therapies designed to reengineer the pancreas cancer stroma and render it permissive to agents targeting cell-autonomous events or to reinstate immunosurveillance. Integrating conventional and immunological treatments in the context of stromal targeting may provide the key to a durable clinical impact on this formidable disease. PMID:24908682

  5. High precision innovative micropump for artificial pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappel, E.; Mefti, S.; Lettieri, G.-L.; Proennecke, S.; Conan, C.

    2014-03-01

    The concept of artificial pancreas, which comprises an insulin pump, a continuous glucose meter and a control algorithm, is a major step forward in managing patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The stability of the control algorithm is based on short-term precision micropump to deliver rapid-acting insulin and to specific integrated sensors able to monitor any failure leading to a loss of accuracy. Debiotech's MEMS micropump, based on the membrane pump principle, is made of a stack of 3 silicon wafers. The pumping chamber comprises a pillar check-valve at the inlet, a pumping membrane which is actuated against stop limiters by a piezo cantilever, an anti-free-flow outlet valve and a pressure sensor. The micropump inlet is tightly connected to the insulin reservoir while the outlet is in direct communication with the patient skin via a cannula. To meet the requirement of a pump dedicated to closed-loop application for diabetes care, in addition to the well-controlled displacement of the pumping membrane, the high precision of the micropump is based on specific actuation profiles that balance effect of pump elasticity in low-consumption push-pull mode.

  6. [Peroperative ultrasound scanning of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Alexandre, J H; Hernigou, A; Billebaud, T; Bouillot, J L; Plainfosse, M C

    1985-01-01

    Intraoperative realtime high resolution ultrasound scanning of the pancreas seems to be a new and promising procedure. We have performed it in 28 patients: the normal ultrasound picture of pancreatic ducts and parenchyma was defined in 9 patients without pancreatic disease; in 19 patients with pancreatic disease, intraoperative ultrasound was compared with preoperative ultrasound examination. Seven of 8 patients with pancreatic carcinoma and 4 of 6 with calcifying chronic pancreatitis had positive findings, respectively. In 3 cancer patients, intraoperative ultrasound investigation avoided a long and unavailing dissection of the tumor by revealing extensive spread. In selected cases, intraoperative sonography allowed to characterize and to localize pancreatic carcinoma: portal vein invasion, relationship of the tumor to the duct of Wirsung and small hepatic metastases. In chronic pancreatitis, intraoperative ultrasound information concerning the dimensions of the pancreatic duct, the structure and the localization of pseudocysts was comparable to that obtained by radiological opacification. Furthermore, intraoperative ultrasound exploration guided proper incision and evacuation of pancreatic pseudocysts in two patients. Operative ultrasound seems to us to be mandatory during pancreatic surgery. Further experience with this technique is needed in a larger number of patients. However, we believe that it could replace intraoperative cholangiography and pancreaticography in the assessment of extension and complications of pancreatic disease.

  7. [Pancreas and biliary tract: recent developments].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease that is associated with significant morbidity and considerable mortality. In this article, developments relating to this disease that were presented in DDW 2014 are reviewed. Pancreatic steatosis could be a cause of recurrent AP. Patients with DM have an increased incidence of AP and pancreatic cancer. The use of anti-TNF drugs in inflammatory bowel disease may protect against the occurrence of AP. The presence of pancreas divisum protects against acute biliary pancreatitis. The PANCODE system for describing local complications of AP has good interobserver agreement, when the new definitions of the revised Atlanta classification are applied. The use of prophylactic antibiotics in early-stage AP predisposes the development of intra-abdominal fungal infections. Fluid sequestration in AP is linked with young age, alcoholism and indicators of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The most common cause of mortality in AP is early onset of multiple organ failure, not pancreatic necrosis infection. Patients with AP and vitamin D deficiency could benefit from taking vitamin D supplements. Moderate fluid administration in emergencies (500-1000 mL) could be associated with better AP development. PMID:25294273

  8. Ultrasound perfusion signal processing for tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, MinWoo; Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced blood perfusion in a tissue mass is an indication of neo-vascularity and a sign of a potential malignancy. Ultrasonic pulsed-Doppler imaging is a preferred modality for noninvasive monitoring of blood flow. However, the weak blood echoes and disorganized slow flow make it difficult to detect perfusion using standard methods without the expense and risk of contrast enhancement. Our research measures the efficiency of conventional power-Doppler (PD) methods at discriminating flow states by comparing measurement performance to that of an ideal discriminator. ROC analysis applied to the experimental results shows that power Doppler methods are just 30-50 % efficient at perfusion flows less than 1ml/min, suggesting an opportunity to improve perfusion assessment through signal processing. A new perfusion estimator is proposed by extending the statistical discriminator approach. We show that 2-D perfusion color imaging may be enhanced using this approach.

  9. Magnetic resonance image-guided photodynamic therapy of xenograft pancreas tumors with verteporfin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Rizvi, Imran; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer generally has very poor prognosis, with less than 4% survival at 5 years after diagnosis. This dismal survival rate is in part due to the aggressive nature of the adenocarcinoma, leading to a late-stage at diagnosis and exhibits resistance to most therapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a model cellular and vascular therapy agent, which uses light activation of the delivered drug to photosensitize the local cellular millieu. We suggest that interstitial verteporfin (benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A) PDT has the potential to be an adjuvant therapy to the commonly used Gemcitabine chemotherapy. In the current study, an orthotopic pancreatic cancer model (Panc-1) has undergone interstitial verteporfin PDT (40 J/cm with verteporfin and 40 J/cm without verteporfin). Prior to PDT, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to determine the location and size of the tumor within the pancreas, allowing accurate placement of the diffusing fiber. The success of therapy was monitored in vivo by assessing the total tumor and vascular perfusion volumes 24 hours pre- and 48 hours post-PDT. Total tumor and vascular perfusion volumes were determined using T2 weighted (T2W) and Gd-DTPA difference T1 weighted (T1W) turbo spin echo (TSE) MR imaging sequences, respectively. The validity of the in vivo imaging for therapeutic response was confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence and histological staining of frozen tissue sections. The ex vivo DiOC7(3) fluorescence analysis correlates well with the information provided from the MR images, indicating that MR imaging will be a successful surrogate marker for interstitial PDT.

  10. Perfusion patterns of ischemic stroke on computed tomography perfusion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Longting; Bivard, Andrew; Parsons, Mark W

    2013-09-01

    CT perfusion (CTP) has been applied increasingly in research of ischemic stroke. However, in clinical practice, it is still a relatively new technology. For neurologists and radiologists, the challenge is to interpret CTP results properly in the context of the clinical presentation. In this article, we will illustrate common CTP patterns in acute ischemic stroke using a case-based approach. The aim is to get clinicians more familiar with the information provided by CTP with a view towards inspiring them to incorporate CTP in their routine imaging workup of acute stroke patients.

  11. Canine treatment with SnET2 for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Donita L.; Milligan, Andrew J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Morgan, Alan R.; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1990-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a treatment technique that utilizes the photoactived species of a drug to destroy tumor tissue. To be successful, the drug must localize in tumor tissue preferentially over normal tissue and must be activated by light of a specific wavelength. Currently the only drug to be approved for clinical use is Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) although a series of new drugs are being developed for use in the near future. One of the drugs belongs to a class called purpurins which display absorp-' tions between 630-711 nm. Along with several other investigators, we are currently exploring the characteristics of a specific purpurin (SnET2) in normal and tumorous canine tissue. The use of this compound has demonstrated increased tumor control rates in spontaneous dog tumors. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have been performed on 6 normal beagle dogs. SnET2 (2 mg/kg) was injected intravenously over 10 minutes and blood was collected at 5, 15, 30, 45 minutes and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours following administration for determination of drug concentration and calculation of pharinacokinetic parameters. Skin biopsies were collected at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours. Dogs were euthanized at 24 hours and tissues (liver, kidney muscle, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileura, colon, adrenal gland, thyroid, heart, lung, urinary bladder, prostate, pancreas, eye, brain) were collected for drug raeasurement. Drug was shown to persist in liver and kidney for a prolonged period of time coiapared to other tissues. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug will greatly add to the ability to treat patients with effective protocols.

  12. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission. PMID:25686382

  13. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  14. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-01-01

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported

  15. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to <10 °C after 30 min. Using an intravascular flush (Method B) improved cooling during the entire duration of procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and

  16. MRI-based quantification of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a canine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiahui; Fan, Zheng; Kornegay, Joe N.; Styner, Martin A.

    2011-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive and fatal X-linked disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown potential to provide non-invasive and objective biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic effect in DMD. In this paper, we propose a semi-automated scheme to quantify MRI features of golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD), a canine model of DMD. Our method was applied to a natural history data set and a hydrodynamic limb perfusion data set. The scheme is composed of three modules: pre-processing, muscle segmentation, and feature analysis. The pre-processing module includes: calculation of T2 maps, spatial registration of T2 weighted (T2WI) images, T2 weighted fat suppressed (T2FS) images, and T2 maps, and intensity calibration of T2WI and T2FS images. We then manually segment six pelvic limb muscles. For each of the segmented muscles, we finally automatically measure volume and intensity statistics of the T2FS images and T2 maps. For the natural history study, our results showed that four of six muscles in affected dogs had smaller volumes and all had higher mean intensities in T2 maps as compared to normal dogs. For the perfusion study, the muscle volumes and mean intensities in T2FS were increased in the post-perfusion MRI scans as compared to pre-perfusion MRI scans, as predicted. We conclude that our scheme successfully performs quantitative analysis of muscle MRI features of GRMD.

  17. Histology of Type 1 Diabetes Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Abby; Gillespie, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans play a critical role in glucose homeostasis. Islets are predominantly composed of insulin-secreting beta cells and glucagon-secreting alpha cells. In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells are destroyed by autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells resulting in hyperglycemia. This is a gradual process, taking from several months to decades. Much of the beta cell destruction takes place during a silent, asymptomatic phase. Type 1 diabetes becomes clinically evident upon destruction of approximately 70-80 % of beta cell mass. Studying the decline in beta cell mass and the cells which are responsible for their demise is difficult as pancreatic biopsies are not feasible in patients with type 1 diabetes. The relative size of islets and their dispersed location throughout the pancreas means in vivo imaging of human islets is currently not manageable. At present, there are no validated biomarkers which accurately track the decline in beta cell mass in individuals who are at risk of developing, or have already developed, type 1 diabetes. Therefore, studies of pancreatic tissue retrieved at autopsy from donors with type 1 diabetes, or donors with high risk markers of type 1 diabetes such as circulating islet-associated autoantibodies, is currently the best method for studying beta cells and the associated inflammatory milieu in situ. In recent years, concerted efforts have been made to source such tissues for histological studies, enabling great insights to be made into the relationship between islets and the inflammatory insult to which they are subjected. This article describes in detail, a robust immunohistochemical method which can be utilized to study both recent, and archival human pancreatic tissue, in order to examine islet endocrine cells and the surrounding immune cells. PMID:26801316

  18. Noise characteristics of CT perfusion imaging: how does noise propagate from source images to final perfusion maps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral CT perfusion (CTP) imaging is playing an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic strokes. Meanwhile, the reliability of CTP-based ischemic lesion detection has been challenged due to the noisy appearance and low signal-to-noise ratio of CTP maps. To reduce noise and improve image quality, a rigorous study on the noise transfer properties of CTP systems is highly desirable to provide the needed scientific guidance. This paper concerns how noise in the CTP source images propagates to the final CTP maps. Both theoretical deviations and subsequent validation experiments demonstrated that, the noise level of background frames plays a dominant role in the noise of the cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps. This is in direct contradiction with the general belief that noise of non-background image frames is of greater importance in CTP imaging. The study found that when radiation doses delivered to the background frames and to all non-background frames are equal, lowest noise variance is achieved in the final CBV maps. This novel equality condition provides a practical means to optimize radiation dose delivery in CTP data acquisition: radiation exposures should be modulated between background frames and non-background frames so that the above equality condition is satisïnAed. For several typical CTP acquisition protocols, numerical simulations and in vivo canine experiment demonstrated that noise of CBV can be effectively reduced using the proposed exposure modulation method.

  19. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed. PMID:23942635

  20. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  1. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Bianchi, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever on the Segmented Arch Technique (SAT) concept. A 14.7-year-old female patient appeared at clinic complaining about the absence of the upper right permanent canine. The proposed treatment prioritized the traction of the upper right canine without changing the occlusion and aesthetics. For this, it only installed the upper fixed appliance (Roth with slot 0.018), opting for SAT in order to minimize unwanted side effects. The use of cantilever to the traction of the upper right canine has enabled an efficient and predictable outcome, because it is of statically determined mechanics. PMID:27800192

  2. Epidemiologic study of canine blastomycosis in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Archer, J R; Trainer, D O; Schell, R F

    1987-05-15

    An epidemiologic study was designed to investigate the increasing number of cases of canine blastomycosis being reported in Wisconsin. From January 1980 through July 1982, 200 cases of canine blastomycosis from 39 Wisconsin counties were examined to assess epidemiologic and environmental aspects of this disease. Based on a survey of 176 dog owners, principal disease characteristics for canine blastomycosis were anorexia, lethargy, shortness of breath, chronic cough, and weight loss. The greatest number of cases of canine blastomycosis was in the northwest, north central, northeast, central, and southeast regions of Wisconsin. The northeast and central regions were determined to be new enzootic areas. Sporting breeds accounted for the largest percentage of cases among the various breeds of dogs in Wisconsin. Most of the affected dogs were 3 years old or younger and there was no apparent sexual predilection. Canine blastomycosis was diagnosed more frequently from late spring through late fall. Enzootic areas, except for the southeast region of Wisconsin, were located where the soil was sandy and acid. The results of this study suggested a possible association of enzootic areas with waterways, especially impoundments.

  3. Membrane dipeptidase in the pig exocrine pancreas. Ultrastructural localization and secretion.

    PubMed

    LeBel, D; Grondin, G; Cook, S; Hooper, N M

    1998-07-01

    The GPI-anchored membrane dipeptidase is the major peptidase activity of the secretory granule membrane in the exocrine pancreas. The enzyme is also found in the granule content and in pancreatic secretions. Immunocytochemical localization confirmed its location in the granule membrane and in the acinar cell apical plasma membrane. In the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, membrane dipeptidase was strictly membrane-bound. There was no membrane dipeptidase in duct cells. The release of membrane dipeptidase from the membrane starts in the immature granule. To identify the mechanism responsible for its release, secretions were collected from cannulated conscious pig under basal conditions and atropine perfusion. The latter treatment caused complete inhibition of protein secretion but had a negligible effect on membrane dipeptidase activity in the secretions. In secretions, membrane dipeptidase partitioned into the detergent-rich phase on phase separation in Triton X-114, whereas treatment with bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C caused the peptidase to partition into the aqueous phase, indicating that the secreted enzyme could come from shedding of membrane fragments at the apical surface or via the action of a previously characterized phospholipase A activity.

  4. Pancreas Development Ex Vivo: Culturing Embryonic Pancreas Explants on Permeable Culture Inserts, with Fibronectin-Coated Glass Microwells, or Embedded in Three-Dimensional Matrigel™

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hung Ping; Sander, Maike

    2015-01-01

    Pancreas development is a complex and dynamic process orchestrated by cellular and molecular events, including morphogenesis and cell differentiation. As a result of recent explorations into possible cell-therapy-based treatments for diabetes, researchers have made significant progress in deciphering the developmental program of pancreas formation. In vitro pancreas organ culture systems provide a valuable tool for exploring the mechanisms of gene regulation, cellular behaviors, and cell differentiation. In this chapter, we review three common techniques for culturing embryonic pancreas explants. Each technique is suitable for different applications. Specifically, culturing embryonic pancreas on culture inserts provides an excellent platform to test the effects of chemical compounds. Conversely, when the embryonic pancreas is cultured in fibronectin-coated glass microwells, the system provides unique culture conditions to monitor organ growth and cellular dynamic events. Lastly, when the embryonic pancreas is embedded in Matrigel, organogenesis can be studied in a three-dimensional environment instead of limiting the analysis to one plane. PMID:25173172

  5. In Vitro Pancreas Organogenesis from Dispersed Mouse Embryonic Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is an essential organ that regulates glucose homeostasis and secretes digestive enzymes. Research on pancreas embryogenesis has led to the development of protocols to produce pancreatic cells from stem cells 1. The whole embryonic organ can be cultured at multiple stages of development 2-4. These culture methods have been useful to test drugs and to image developmental processes. However the expansion of the organ is very limited and morphogenesis is not faithfully recapitulated since the organ flattens. We propose three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions that enable the efficient expansion of dissociated mouse embryonic pancreatic progenitors. By manipulating the composition of the culture medium it is possible to generate either hollow spheres, mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors expanding in their initial state, or, complex organoids which progress to more mature expanding progenitors and differentiate into endocrine, acinar and ductal cells and which spontaneously self-organize to resemble the embryonic pancreas. We show here that the in vitro process recapitulates many aspects of natural pancreas development. This culture system is suitable to investigate how cells cooperate to form an organ by reducing its initial complexity to few progenitors. It is a model that reproduces the 3D architecture of the pancreas and that is therefore useful to study morphogenesis, including polarization of epithelial structures and branching. It is also appropriate to assess the response to mechanical cues of the niche such as stiffness and the effects on cell´s tensegrity. PMID:25079453

  6. In vitro pancreas organogenesis from dispersed mouse embryonic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Figueiredo-Larsen, Manuel; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2014-07-19

    The pancreas is an essential organ that regulates glucose homeostasis and secretes digestive enzymes. Research on pancreas embryogenesis has led to the development of protocols to produce pancreatic cells from stem cells (1). The whole embryonic organ can be cultured at multiple stages of development (2-4). These culture methods have been useful to test drugs and to image developmental processes. However the expansion of the organ is very limited and morphogenesis is not faithfully recapitulated since the organ flattens. We propose three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions that enable the efficient expansion of dissociated mouse embryonic pancreatic progenitors. By manipulating the composition of the culture medium it is possible to generate either hollow spheres, mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors expanding in their initial state, or, complex organoids which progress to more mature expanding progenitors and differentiate into endocrine, acinar and ductal cells and which spontaneously self-organize to resemble the embryonic pancreas. We show here that the in vitro process recapitulates many aspects of natural pancreas development. This culture system is suitable to investigate how cells cooperate to form an organ by reducing its initial complexity to few progenitors. It is a model that reproduces the 3D architecture of the pancreas and that is therefore useful to study morphogenesis, including polarization of epithelial structures and branching. It is also appropriate to assess the response to mechanical cues of the niche such as stiffness and the effects on cell´s tensegrity.

  7. RNA isolation from mouse pancreas: a ribonuclease-rich tissue.

    PubMed

    Azevedo-Pouly, Ana Clara P; Elgamal, Ola A; Schmittgen, Thomas D

    2014-08-02

    Isolation of high-quality RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissue such as mouse pancreas presents a challenge. As a primary function of the pancreas is to aid in digestion, mouse pancreas may contain as much a 75 mg of ribonuclease. We report modifications of standard phenol/guanidine thiocyanate lysis reagent protocols to isolate RNA from mouse pancreas. Guanidine thiocyanate is a strong protein denaturant and will effectively disrupt the activity of ribonuclease under most conditions. However, critical modifications to standard protocols are necessary to successfully isolate RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissues. Key steps include a high lysis reagent to tissue ratio, removal of undigested tissue prior to phase separation and inclusion of a ribonuclease inhibitor to the RNA solution. Using these and other modifications, we routinely isolate RNA with RNA Integrity Number (RIN) greater than 7. The isolated RNA is of suitable quality for routine gene expression analysis. Adaptation of this protocol to isolate RNA from ribonuclease rich tissues besides the pancreas should be readily achievable.

  8. Portal annular pancreas: a systematic review of a clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Harnoss, Jonathan M; Harnoss, Julian C; Diener, Markus K; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B; Büchler, Markus W; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H

    2014-10-01

    Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF).On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered.In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery).Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option.

  9. In vitro pancreas organogenesis from dispersed mouse embryonic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Figueiredo-Larsen, Manuel; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is an essential organ that regulates glucose homeostasis and secretes digestive enzymes. Research on pancreas embryogenesis has led to the development of protocols to produce pancreatic cells from stem cells (1). The whole embryonic organ can be cultured at multiple stages of development (2-4). These culture methods have been useful to test drugs and to image developmental processes. However the expansion of the organ is very limited and morphogenesis is not faithfully recapitulated since the organ flattens. We propose three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions that enable the efficient expansion of dissociated mouse embryonic pancreatic progenitors. By manipulating the composition of the culture medium it is possible to generate either hollow spheres, mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors expanding in their initial state, or, complex organoids which progress to more mature expanding progenitors and differentiate into endocrine, acinar and ductal cells and which spontaneously self-organize to resemble the embryonic pancreas. We show here that the in vitro process recapitulates many aspects of natural pancreas development. This culture system is suitable to investigate how cells cooperate to form an organ by reducing its initial complexity to few progenitors. It is a model that reproduces the 3D architecture of the pancreas and that is therefore useful to study morphogenesis, including polarization of epithelial structures and branching. It is also appropriate to assess the response to mechanical cues of the niche such as stiffness and the effects on cell´s tensegrity. PMID:25079453

  10. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Raja, Waseem K; Wang, Rebecca Y; Stinson, Jordan A; Glettig, Dean L; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogenesis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  11. Sumatriptan and cerebral perfusion in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Scott, A K; Grimes, S; Ng, K; Critchley, M; Breckenridge, A M; Thomson, C; Pilgrim, A J

    1992-04-01

    1. The effect of sumatriptan on regional cerebral perfusion was studied in healthy volunteers. 2. Intravenous sumatriptan (2 mg) had no detectable effect on regional cerebral perfusion as measured using a SPECT system with 99technetiumm labelled hexemethylpropyleneamineoxime. 3. Sumatriptan had no effect on pulse, blood pressure or ECG indices. 4. All six volunteers experienced minor adverse effects during the intravenous infusion.

  12. Personality factors correlate with regional cerebral perfusion.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, R L; Kumari, V; Williams, S C R; Zelaya, F O; Connor, S E J; Alsop, D C; Gray, J A

    2006-06-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence pointing to a neurobiological basis of personality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological bases of the major dimensions of Eysenck's and Cloninger's models of personality using a noninvasive magnetic resonance perfusion imaging technique in 30 young, healthy subjects. An unbiased voxel-based analysis was used to identify regions where the regional perfusion demonstrated significant correlation with any of the personality dimensions. Highly significant positive correlations emerged between extraversion and perfusion in the basal ganglia, thalamus, inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum and between novelty seeking and perfusion in the cerebellum, cuneus and thalamus. Strong negative correlations emerged between psychoticism and perfusion in the basal ganglia and thalamus and between harm avoidance and perfusion in the cerebellar vermis, cuneus and inferior frontal gyrus. These observations suggest that personality traits are strongly associated with resting cerebral perfusion in a variety of cortical and subcortical regions and provide further evidence for the hypothesized neurobiological basis of personality. These results may also have important implications for functional neuroimaging studies, which typically rely on the modulation of cerebral hemodynamics for detection of task-induced activation since personality effects may influence the intersubject variability for both task-related activity and resting cerebral perfusion. This technique also offers a novel approach for the exploration of the neurobiological correlates of human personality.

  13. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  14. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Raja, Waseem K; Wang, Rebecca Y; Stinson, Jordan A; Glettig, Dean L; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogenesis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight.

  15. Effects of aortic pressure and vasoactive agents on the vascular resistance of the vasa vasorum in canine isolated thoracic aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Ohhira, A; Ohhashi, T

    1992-01-01

    1. We have developed a new preparation for continuously measuring changes in vascular resistance of the vasa vasorum of the canine isolated thoracic aorta perfused at a constant flow rate with Krebs-bicarbonate solution. 2. An increase of more than 150 mmHg in aortic pressure caused a significant increase in the vascular resistance of the vasa vasorum. 3. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline and dopamine caused dose-dependent increases in the vascular resistance of the vasa vasorum. The decreasing order of potency in the vasoconstrictor responses was as follows: 5-HT >> NA = adrenaline >> dopamine. The 5-HT- and adrenaline-induced vasoconstrictor responses were inhibited by methysergide and by phentolamine plus propranolol, respectively. 4. Acetylcholine (ACh), isoprenaline (ISP), histamine (His), ATP, ADP and adenosine produced dose-related decreases in the vascular resistance of aortic vasa vasorum perfused with the Krebs solution containing 10(-5) M-NA. The decreasing order of potency in the response was as follows: ACh = ISP > His >> adenosine = ATP = ADP. The ACh-, ISP- and His-induced vasodilator responses were antagonized by atropine, propranolol and famotidine, respectively. 5. The results suggest that the preparation described is useful for studying the regulation of vascular resistance of aortic vasa vasorum and that aortic pressure and vasoactive compounds may directly regulate the vascular resistance of the vasa vasorum in canine isolated thoracic aorta. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1464829

  16. Epidemiologic features of canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Milne, K L; Hayes, H M

    1981-01-01

    This study investigates the epidemiologic features of 3,206 dogs diagnosed with hypothyroidism (including myxedema) from 1.1 million dogs seen at 15 veterinary teaching hospitals between March, 1964 and June, 1978. Nine breeds found to be at high-risk for hypothyroidism were: golden retrievers, Doberman pinschers, dachshunds, Shetland sheepdogs, Irish setters, Pomeranians, miniature schnauzers, cocker spaniels, and Airedales. Two breed with a significant deficit of risk were German shepherds and mixed breed (mongrel) dogs. Age risk was greatest among younger dogs of high-risk breeds, further suggesting a genetic component to the etiology of this disease. In contrast, low-risk dogs had increasing relative risk through nine years of age. Spayed female dogs displayed a significantly higher risk when compared to intact females. Though not statistically significant, male castrated dogs had 30% more hypothyroidism compared to their intact counterparts. Among the case series were 91 endocrine and hormone-related neoplasms and 198 other endocrine-related disorders. Further studies linking canine hypothyroidism to other conditions, particularly cancer, could provide valuable insight into human disease experience.

  17. [Assessing myocardial perfusion with positron emission tomography].

    PubMed

    vom Dahl, J

    2001-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) of the heart has gained widespread scientific and clinical acceptance with regard to two indications: 1) The detection of perfusion abnormalities by qualitative and semiquantitative analyses of perfusion images at rest and during physical or pharmacological stress using well-validated perfusion tracers, such as N-13 ammonia, Rb-82 rubidium chloride, or O-15 labeled water. 2) Viability imaging of myocardial regions with reduced contractility by combining perfusion measurements with substrate metabolism as assessed from F-18 deoxyglucose utilization. This overview summarizes the use of PET as a perfusion imaging method. With a sensitivity > 90% in combination with high specificity, PET is today the best-validated available nuclear imaging technique for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The short half-life of the perfusion tracers in combination with highly sophisticated hard- and software enables rapid PET studies with high patient throughput. The high diagnostic accuracy and the methological advantages as compared to conventional scintigraphy allows one to use PET perfusion imaging to detect subtle changes in the perfusion reserve for the detection of CAD in high risk but asymptomatic patients as well as in patients with proven CAD undergoing various treatment forms such as risk factor reduction or coronary revascularization. In patients following orthotopic heart transplantation, evolving transplant vasculopathy can be detected at an early stage. Quantitative PET imaging at rest allows for detection of myocardial viability since cellular survival is based on maintenance of a minimal perfusion and structural changes correlate to the degree of perfusion reduction. Furthermore, quantitative assessment of the myocardial perfusion reserve detects the magnitude and competence of collaterals in regions with occluded epicardial collaterals and, thus, imaging of several coronary distribution territories in one noninvasive

  18. Heterogeneity in stabilization phenomena in FLT PET images of canines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoncic, Urban; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-12-01

    3ʹ-(18F)fluoro-3ʹ-deoxy-L-thymidine (FLT) is a PET marker of cellular proliferation. Its tissue uptake rate is often quantified with a Standardized Uptake Value (SUV), although kinetic analysis provides a more accurate quantification. The purpose of this study is to investigate the heterogeneity in FLT stabilization phenomena. The study was done on 15 canines with spontaneously occurring sinonasal tumours. They were imaged dynamically for 90 min with FLT PET/CT twice; before and during the radiotherapy. Images were analyzed for kinetics on a voxel basis through compartmental analysis. Stabilization curves were calculated as a time-dependant correlation between the time-dependant SUV and the kinetic parameters (voxel values within the tumour were correlated). Stabilization curves were analyzed for stabilization speed, maximal correlation and correlation decrease following the maximal correlation. These stabilization parameters were correlated with the region-averaged kinetic parameters. The FLT SUV was highly correlated with vasculature fraction immediately post-injection, followed by maximum in correlation with the perfusion/permeability. At later times post-injection the FLT SUV was highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient above 0.95) with the FLT influx parameter for cases with tumour-averaged SUV30-50 min above 2, while others were indeterminate (correlation coefficients from 0.1 to 0.97). All cases with highly correlated SUV and FLT influx parameter had correlation coefficient within 0.5% of its maximum in the period of 30-50 min post-injection. Stabilization time was inversely proportional to the FLT influx rate. Correlation between the FLT SUV and FLT influx parameter dropped at later times post-injection with drop being proportional to the dephosphorylation rate. The FLT was found to be metabolically stable in canines. FLT PET imaging protocol should define minimal and maximal FLT uptake period, which would be 30-50 min for our patients

  19. Heterogeneity in stabilization phenomena in FLT PET images of canines.

    PubMed

    Simoncic, Urban; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-12-21

    3'-((18)F)fluoro-3'-deoxy-L-thymidine (FLT) is a PET marker of cellular proliferation. Its tissue uptake rate is often quantified with a Standardized Uptake Value (SUV), although kinetic analysis provides a more accurate quantification. The purpose of this study is to investigate the heterogeneity in FLT stabilization phenomena. The study was done on 15 canines with spontaneously occurring sinonasal tumours. They were imaged dynamically for 90 min with FLT PET/CT twice; before and during the radiotherapy. Images were analyzed for kinetics on a voxel basis through compartmental analysis. Stabilization curves were calculated as a time-dependant correlation between the time-dependant SUV and the kinetic parameters (voxel values within the tumour were correlated). Stabilization curves were analyzed for stabilization speed, maximal correlation and correlation decrease following the maximal correlation. These stabilization parameters were correlated with the region-averaged kinetic parameters. The FLT SUV was highly correlated with vasculature fraction immediately post-injection, followed by maximum in correlation with the perfusion/permeability. At later times post-injection the FLT SUV was highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient above 0.95) with the FLT influx parameter for cases with tumour-averaged SUV(30-50 min) above 2, while others were indeterminate (correlation coefficients from 0.1 to 0.97). All cases with highly correlated SUV and FLT influx parameter had correlation coefficient within 0.5% of its maximum in the period of 30-50 min post-injection. Stabilization time was inversely proportional to the FLT influx rate. Correlation between the FLT SUV and FLT influx parameter dropped at later times post-injection with drop being proportional to the dephosphorylation rate. The FLT was found to be metabolically stable in canines. FLT PET imaging protocol should define minimal and maximal FLT uptake period, which would be 30-50 min for our patients

  20. Tissue-specific deletion of c-Jun in the pancreas has limited effects on pancreas formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ayako; Toyoda, Shuichi; Kato, Ken; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Fujitani, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Hori, Masatsugu; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2007-11-30

    It is well known that activating protein-1 (AP-1) is involved in a variety of cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. AP-1 is a dimer complex consisting of different subunits, and c-Jun is known to be one of its major components. In addition, it has been shown that mice lacking c-Jun are embryonic lethal and that c-Jun is essential for liver and heart development. However, the role of c-Jun in the pancreas is not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of c-Jun in the pancreas. First, c-Jun was strongly expressed in pancreatic duct-like structures at an embryonic stage, while a lower level of expression was observed in some part of the adult pancreas, implying that c-Jun might play a role during pancreas development. Second, to address this point, we generated pancreas-specific c-Jun knock-out mice (Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} mice) by crossing Ptf1a-Cre knock-in mice with c-Jun floxed mice. Ptf1a is a pancreatic transcription factor and its expression is confined to pancreatic stem/progenitor cells, which give rise to all three types of pancreatic tissue: endocrine, exocrine, and duct. Contrary to our expectation, however, there was no morphological difference in the pancreas between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} and control mice. In addition, there was no difference in body weight, pancreas weight, and the expression of various pancreas-related factors (insulin, glucagon, cytokeratin, and amylase) between the two groups. Furthermore, there was no difference in glucose tolerance between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} and control mice. Taken together, although we cannot exclude the possibility that c-Jun ablation is compensated by some unknown factors, c-Jun appears to be dispensable for pancreas development at least after ptf1a gene promoter is activated.

  1. Canine rabies ecology in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bingham, John

    2005-09-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio > or =1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in > or =1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids.

  2. Multiple metastatic renal cell carcinoma isolated to pancreas.

    PubMed

    Comunoğlu, Cem; Altaca, Gülüm; Demiralay, Ebru; Moray, Gökhan

    2012-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastases to the pancreas are reported to be rare. Isolated multiple pancreatic metastases are even rarer. We report a 68-year-old asymptomatic male patient who presented with multiple metastatic nodular lesions in the pancreas demonstrated by computerized tomography 3.5 years after radical nephrectomy performed for clear cell RCC. Spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy was performed. Gross examination revealed five well-demarcated tumoral nodules in the head, body and tail of the pancreas. Histopathological examination revealed clusters of epithelial clear cells, immunohistochemically positive for CD10 and vimentin, and negative for CK19 and chromogranin, supporting a diagnosis of metastatic RCC. The patient has remained well at 29 months post-resection, in agreement with recent experience that radical resection for multiple isolated metastatic nodular lesions can achieve improved survival and better quality of life.

  3. The evolution of diabetic chronic complications after pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    de Sá, João R; Monteagudo, Patricia T; Rangel, Erika B; Melaragno, Cláudio S; Gonzalez, Adriano M; Linhares, Marcelo M; Salzedas, Alcides; Neves, Maria-Deolinda F; Stela, Camila; Medina-Pestana, José O

    2009-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation is an invasive procedure that can restore and maintain normoglycemic level very successfully and for a prolonged period in DM1 patients. The procedure elevates the morbimortality rates in the first few months following the surgery if compared to kidney transplants with living donors, but it offers a better quality of life to patients.Although controversial, several studies have shown the stabilization or the improvement of some of the chronic complications related to diabetes, as well as the extra number of years of life that patients submitted to a double pancreas-kidney transplantation may gain.Recent studies have demonstrated clashing outcomes regarding isolated pancreas transplantations, a fact which reinforces the need for a more discerning selection of patients for this procedure. PMID:19825148

  4. Heterogeneity of endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine in canine femoral arteries and veins. Separation of the role played by endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Rubanyi, G M; Vanhoutte, P M

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether heterogeneity in endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine between canine blood vessels of different anatomical origin reflects variations in endothelial function or in responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle cells. Experiments were conducted in a bioassay system, where segments of femoral artery or vein with endothelium were perfused intraluminally and the perfusate used to superfuse rings of femoral arteries or veins without endothelium. Indomethacin was present in all experiments to prevent the synthesis of prostanoids. The blood vessels were contracted by phenylephrine. Measurement of wall tension in both the perfused segment and bioassay ring allowed simultaneous detection of endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s) released abluminally (segment) and intraluminally (ring). Intraluminal infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) induced relaxations in the perfused artery but not in vein segments. During arterial superfusion ACh induced relaxation in femoral arterial rings but contraction in venous rings. After treatment with atropine the arterial perfusate evoked relaxations in venous rings. Infusion of ACh through the femoral vein evoked only moderate relaxations in arterial rings. These data demonstrate that depressed endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh in femoral veins compared to femoral arteries is due to a masking effect of the direct stimulating action of ACh and decreased release of the same mediator or the release of a different relaxing factor from venous endothelium.

  5. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil; al Qadhi, Hani; al Wahibi, Khalifa

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN) and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN). The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of size ≥10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as “worrisome features.” Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The understanding of

  6. Effects of nifedipine on vascular waterfall and arterial resistance in canine hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Shrier, I; Magder, S

    1995-01-01

    Pressure-flow relations in the canine hindlimb can be well explained by a vascular waterfall at the arteriolar level. Under these conditions, P(art) = Pcrit + Q.Rart, where P(art) is the arterial pressure, Pcrit is the waterfall pressure, Q is regional flow, and Rart is the arterial resistance of the vessels upstream from the waterfall. To determine whether calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle affect Pcrit in addition to Rart, we pump perfused canine hindlimbs and measured both variables over a range of perfusion pressures (Pper) before and during the infusion of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine. Nifedipine significantly decreased Pcrit and Rart at each Pper. Increasing Pper under control conditions from 50 to 150 mmHg significantly increased Pcrit from 24.2 +/- 1.5 to 42.5 +/- 2.2 mmHg. During nifedipine infusion, increasing Pper from 25 to 100 mmHg also increased Pcrit from 14.5 +/- 1.5 to 20.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, but the rate of increase was less. In contrast to the rise in Pcrit with increasing Pper, Rart significantly decreased from 10.7 +/- 1.1 to 8.1 +/- 1.2 mmHg.min.100 g.ml-1 before nifedipine infusion, and from 5.7 +/- 0.4 to 2.2 +/- 0.1 mmHg.min.100 g.ml-1 during nifedipine infusion. Venous resistance (Rven) significantly decreased with increases in Pper and during nifedipine infusion. The regional elastic recoil pressure (Pel, a measure of small venular pressure) increased with both an increase in Pper and nifedipine. These results suggest that nifedipine decreases Pcrit, Rart, and Rven and that at constant Pper nifedipine increases Pel.

  7. The Artificial Pancreas: How Sweet Engineering Will Solve Bitter Problems

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.

    2007-01-01

    An artificial pancreas is a closed-loop system containing only synthetic materials which substitutes for an endocrine pancreas. No artificial pancreas system is currently approved; however, devices that could become components of such a system are now becoming commercially available. An artificial pancreas will consist of functionally integrated components that will continuously sense glucose levels, determine appropriate insulin dosages, and deliver the insulin. Any proposed closed loop system will be closely scrutinized for its safety, efficacy, and economic impact. Closed loop control utilizes models of glucose homeostasis which account for the influences of feeding, stress, insulin, exercise, and other factors on blood glucose levels. Models are necessary for understanding the relationship between blood glucose levels and insulin dosing; developing algorithms to control insulin dosing; and customizing each user's system based on individual responses to factors that influence glycemia. Components of an artificial pancreas are now being developed, including continuous glucose sensors; insulin pumps for parenteral delivery; and control software, all linked through wireless communication systems. Although a closed-loop system providing glucagon has not been reported in 40 years, the use of glucagon to prevent hypoglycemia is physiologically attractive and future devices might utilize this hormone. No demonstration of long-term closed loop control of glucose in a free-living human with diabetes has been reported to date, but many centers around the world are working on closed loop control systems. It is expected that many types of artificial pancreas systems will eventually be available, and they will greatly benefit patients with diabetes. PMID:19888383

  8. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. PMID:24841386

  9. Dens invaginatus (dilated odontome) in mandibular canine

    PubMed Central

    Halawar, Sangamesh S; Satyakiran, GVV; Krishnanand, PS; Prashanth, R

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth related to shape of the teeth. Affected teeth show a deep infolding of enamel and dentin starting from the tip of the cusps and may extend deep into the root. It results from the invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla before calcification has occurred. Teeth most affected are maxillary lateral incisors. The presence of dens invaginatus in mandibular canine is extremely rare. The tooth was symptomatic in that it was mobile and was oriented horizontally. This article presents a case of symptomatic dens invaginatus in mandibular canine. PMID:25364169

  10. Medical Treatment of Primary Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Alario, Anthony F; Strong, Travis D; Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a painful and often blinding group of ocular diseases for which there is no cure. Although the definition of glaucoma is rapidly evolving, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the most consistent risk factor of glaucoma in the canine patient. Therapy should be aimed at neuroprotection. The mainstay of therapy focuses on reducing IOP and maintaining a visual and comfortable eye. This article discusses the most current ocular hypotensive agents, focusing on their basic pharmacology, efficacy at lowering IOP, and recommended use in the treatment of idiopathic canine glaucoma.

  11. Tubular vimentin metaplasia in canine nephropathies.

    PubMed

    Vilafranca, M; Domingo, M; Ferrer, L

    1994-09-01

    The expression of the intermediate filament vimentin was examined immunocytochemically in 17 cases of histologically confirmed primary canine nephropathy, and compared with its expression in normal canine kidney. In normal renal tissue, the expression of vimentin was restricted to glomerular elements, but in all cases of chronic interstitial nephritis it extended to the cortical tubular epithelia, and was correlated with the degree of tubulo-interstitial damage. Three of four cases of renal cell carcinoma had vimentin reactivity in neoplastic cells. In only one case of familial renal disease was vimentin expressed in scattered epithelial cells of the cortical tubules.

  12. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15–53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration. PMID:27433532

  13. Under Utilization of Pancreas Transplants in Cystic Fibrosis Recipients in the United Network Organ Sharing (UNOS) Data 1987-2014.

    PubMed

    Usatin, D J; Perito, E R; Posselt, A M; Rosenthal, P

    2016-05-01

    Despite a high prevalence of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine insufficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF), pancreas transplantation is rarely reported. United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data were used to examine utilization of pancreas transplant and posttransplant outcomes in CF patients. Between 1987-2014, CF patients (N = 4600) underwent 17 liver-pancreas, three lung-pancreas, one liver-lung pancreas, four kidney-pancreas, and three pancreas-only transplants. Of the 303 CF patients who received liver transplantation, 20% had CF-related diabetes (CFRD) before transplantation, and nine of those received a liver-pancreas transplant. Of 4241 CF patients who underwent lung transplantation, 33% had CFRD before transplantation, and three of those received a pancreas transplant. Of 49 CF patients who received a liver-lung transplant, 57% had CFRD before transplantation and one received a pancreas transplant. Posttransplantation diabetes developed in 7% of CF pancreas transplant recipients versus 24% of CF liver and 29% of CF lung recipients. UNOS has no data on pancreas exocrine insufficiency. Two-year posttransplantation survival was 88% after liver-pancreas transplant, 33% after lung-pancreas transplant, and 100% after pancreas-kidney and pancreas-only transplants. Diabetes is common pretransplantation and posttransplantation in CF solid organ transplant recipients, but pancreas transplantation remains rare. Further consideration of pancreas transplant in CF patients undergoing other solid organ transplant may be warranted.

  14. Giant mucinous cystic adenoma with pancreatic atrophy mimicking dorsal agenesis of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gagnière, Johan; Dupré, Aurélien; Ines, David Da; Tixier, Lucie; Pezet, Denis; Buc, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mucinous cystic adenoma (MCA) of the pancreas is a rare benign cystic tumor with ovarian-like stroma and lack of communication with the pancreatic ductal system. The ovarian tissue is incorporated from the left gonad within the dorsal pancreas during embryogenesis. Consequently, congenital dorsal agenesis of the pancreas (DAP) cannot be associated with MCA. We report the case of a giant MCA associated with atrophy of the dorsal pancreas mimicking complete DAP. Pancreato-magnetic resonance imaging failed to identify the dorsal pancreas but the absence of diabetes mellitus and compression of the splenic vein with major tributaries rectified the diagnosis of secondary atrophy of the distal pancreas. Unusual proximal location of the cyst in the pancreas may have induced chronic obstruction of both the dorsal pancreatic duct and the splenic vein, with secondary atrophy of the distal pancreas. PMID:24672649

  15. [Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas. A case report].

    PubMed

    Chatti, Kais; Nouira, Kais; Ben Reguigua, Meher; Bedioui, Haykel; Oueslati, Saddik; Laabidi, Besma; Alaya, Mohamed; Ben Abdallah, Nejmeddine

    2006-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT), a rare mesenchymal neoplasm usually arising from the pleura, may also occur in many other extra pleural sites. It has exceptionally been described in the pancreas. This report describes the case of a benign SFT of the pancreas occurring in a 41-year-old man who presented with a solid epigastric mass. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings are presented. Imaging features on ultrasonography, CT, MRI, and arteriography are widely detailed. Surgical resection of the tumour was performed, and the patient died from postoperative complications.

  16. Attempted suicide by insulin injection treated with artificial pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Gin, H; Larnaudie, B; Aubertin, J

    1983-01-01

    An elderly woman with longstanding insulin dependent diabetes tried to commit suicide by injecting 400 units of insulin subcutaneously (usual total daily dose 56 units). She was admitted to hospital within the hour and treated with the aid of an artificial pancreas. This avoided the usual difficulty of the physician having to cope with rapid and substantial fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations and 67 hours after the overdose insulin was reinstituted. Using an artificial pancreas in insulin overdose is an important advance in management and may avoid the need for surgical intervention such as excising the site of injection. Images p250-a PMID:6409269

  17. Reduction of aneurysm pressure and wall stress after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Marston, W A; Criado, E; Baird, C A; Keagy, B A

    1996-03-01

    A canine model was designed to evaluate the changes in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pressure and wall stress after endovascular repair. Eight canines underwent laparotomy and creation of an AAA. The aneurysm was then excluded with a transluminally placed endovascular graft (TPEG) inserted through the right femoral artery and deployed across the AAA to exclude the infrarenal aortic branches from aortic perfusion. Blood pressure and flow data were recorded for 6 hours. The AAA blood pressure decreased from 135 +/- 9.3 mm Hg before exclusion to 45 +/- 17.6 mm Hg at 10 minutes after exclusion (p < 0.001). At 6 hours, AAA blood pressure had declined further to 26 +/- 12.5 mm Hg. Blood flow in the excluded iliac artery decreased from a baseline of 242 +/- 58 ml/min to 41 +/- 29 ml/min 10 minutes after TPEG placement (p < 0.001). At 6 hours, flow was reduced to 12 +/- 3.5 ml/min (p < 0.05 compared with that at 10 minutes). Aortic wall stress was significantly reduced by TPEG placement but was only slightly lower than baseline aortic wall stress before AAA creation. The lumbar arteries were patent with retrograde flow in all cases and were found to be the major contributors to postexclusion aneurysm pressure. Endovascular AAA exclusion results in an immediate decrease in blood pressure and wall stress within the excluded aneurysm, but the aneurysm remains perfused by retrograde flow through the lumbar arteries, which resulted in near-baseline levels of aneurysm wall stress in this canine model. Embolization of patient lumbar vessels at prosthesis placement may further reduce the risk of late rupture. PMID:8733869

  18. Canine parvovirus enteritis, canine distemper, and major histocompatibility complex genetic variation in Mexican wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lee, Rhonda N; Buchanan, Colleen

    2003-10-01

    The endangered Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was recently reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico (USA). In 1999 and 2000, pups from three litters that were part of the reintroduction program died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. Overall, half (seven of 14) of the pups died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. The parents and their litters were analyzed for variation at the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene DRB1. Similar MHC genes are related to disease resistance in other species. All six of the surviving pups genotyped for the MHC gene were heterozygous while five of the pups that died were heterozygous and one was homozygous. Resistance to pathogens is an important aspect of the management and long-term survival of endangered taxa, such as the Mexican wolf.

  19. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  20. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value <70 mg/dL and a bio-hormonal pump system consisting of insulin and glucagon pumps. Perioperative tight glycemic control using a bedside artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations. PMID:27142278

  1. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value <70 mg/dL and a bio-hormonal pump system consisting of insulin and glucagon pumps. Perioperative tight glycemic control using a bedside artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations.

  2. Ampullary carcinoma in a patient with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Jitendra H; Yadav, Amitabh; Nundy, Samiran

    2015-04-01

    The most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas is pancreatic divisum (Tadokoro et al. in Anat Res Int 2011:1-7, 2011). Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is extremely rare (Schnedl et al. in World J Gastroenterol 15(3):376-377, 2009). We are reporting a case of agenesis of dorsal pancreas presented with ampullary carcinoma.

  3. Pancreatic Ductal Perfusion at Organ Procurement Enhances Islet Yield in Human Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanak, Mazhar A.; Shahbazov, Rauf; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Lawrence, Michael C.; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pancreas preservation is a major factor influencing the results of islet cell transplantation. This study evaluated the effects of two different solutions for pancreatic ductal perfusion (PDP) at organ procurement. Methods Eighteen human pancreases were assigned to three groups: non-PDP (control), PDP with ET-Kyoto solution, and PDP with cold storage/purification stock solution. Pancreatic islets were isolated according to the modified Ricordi method. Results No significant differences in donor characteristics, including cold ischemia time, were observed between the three groups. All islet isolations in the PDP groups had >400,000 IEQ in total islet yield post-purification, a significant increase when compared with the control (P = 0.04 and <0.01). The islet quality assessments—including an in vivo diabetic nude mice assay and the response of high-mobility group box protein 1 to cytokine stimulation—also showed no significant differences. The proportion of TUNEL-positive cells showing apoptosis in islets in the PDP groups was significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Both ET-Kyoto solution and cold storage/purification stock solution are suitable for PDP and consistently resulted in isolation success. Further studies with a larger number of pancreas donors should be done to compare the effects of the PDP solutions. PMID:25058879

  4. Cellular proliferation in the canine pancreas after d,l-ethionine dosage as detected by double immunohistochemical labelling.

    PubMed

    Govendir, Merran; Canfield, Paul J; Church, David B

    2003-09-01

    d,l-Ethionine produces pancreatic exocrine necrosis and islet proliferation in hamsters and dogs. As a first step in examining whether induction of islet proliferation has therapeutic applications in animals with exhausted or destroyed insulin-producing beta-cells, we studied pancreatic cellular proliferation after intravenous administration of d,l-ethionine in normal dogs. Double immunohistochemical labelling of pancreatic tissue was used to identify proliferating cells in three groups of six clinically normal crossbred dogs administered d,l-ethionine (100 mg/kg) intravenously three times a week for two weeks. Six additional dogs served as untreated controls. Group I was euthanased and necropsied on day 15 (72 hours after the final dose of ethionine). Groups II and III were euthanased on days 29 and 43 respectively. Utilising markers for proliferating nuclei, insulin and cytokeratin, proliferating cells were classified as acinar, endocrine (both intra or extra-islet), duct or 'other' (i.e. infiltrative or interstitial) and counted under the light microscope (40x magnification). Compared to controls, an increase in the number of proliferating cells was found in all categories except ducts. Acinar cells demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) proliferation, greatest two weeks after ethionine cessation continuing over four weeks. The interstitial, infiltrative or 'other' group also showed proliferation, however this was a more immediate response, which substantially decreased two weeks after ethionine administration. Endocrine cells showed only minor and non-significant proliferative activity and were probably not responsible for a significant increase in apparent beta-cell mass. The number of proliferating duct cells was inconsequential and there appeared to be no specific relationship between any cell populations and duct cells.

  5. Cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2016-07-01

    The flow of viscous fluid in the cochlea induces shear forces, which could provide benefit in clinical practice, for example to guide cochlear implant insertion or produce static pressure to the cochlear partition or wall. From a research standpoint, studying the effects of a viscous fluid in the cochlea provides data for better understanding cochlear fluid mechanics. However, cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid may damage the cochlea. In this work we studied the physiological and anatomical effects of perfusing the cochlea with a viscous fluid. Gerbil cochleae were perfused at a rate of 2.4 μL/min with artificial perilymph (AP) and sodium hyaluronate (Healon, HA) in four different concentrations (0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%). The different HA concentrations were applied either sequentially in the same cochlea or individually in different cochleae. The perfusion fluid entered from the round window and was withdrawn from basal scala vestibuli, in order to perfuse the entire perilymphatic space. Compound action potentials (CAP) were measured after each perfusion. After perfusion with increasing concentrations of HA in the order of increasing viscosity, the CAP thresholds generally increased. The threshold elevation after AP and 0.0625% HA perfusion was small or almost zero, and the 0.125% HA was a borderline case, while the higher concentrations significantly elevated CAP thresholds. Histology of the cochleae perfused with the 0.0625% HA showed an intact Reissner's membrane (RM), while in cochleae perfused with 0.125% and 0.25% HA RM was torn. Thus, the CAP threshold elevation was likely due to the broken RM, likely caused by the shear stress produced by the flow of the viscous fluid. Our results and analysis indicate that the cochlea can sustain, without a significant CAP threshold shift, up to a 1.5 Pa shear stress. Beside these finding, in the 0.125% and 0.25% HA perfusion cases, a temporary CAP threshold shift was observed, perhaps due to the presence and

  6. Cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2016-07-01

    The flow of viscous fluid in the cochlea induces shear forces, which could provide benefit in clinical practice, for example to guide cochlear implant insertion or produce static pressure to the cochlear partition or wall. From a research standpoint, studying the effects of a viscous fluid in the cochlea provides data for better understanding cochlear fluid mechanics. However, cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid may damage the cochlea. In this work we studied the physiological and anatomical effects of perfusing the cochlea with a viscous fluid. Gerbil cochleae were perfused at a rate of 2.4 μL/min with artificial perilymph (AP) and sodium hyaluronate (Healon, HA) in four different concentrations (0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%). The different HA concentrations were applied either sequentially in the same cochlea or individually in different cochleae. The perfusion fluid entered from the round window and was withdrawn from basal scala vestibuli, in order to perfuse the entire perilymphatic space. Compound action potentials (CAP) were measured after each perfusion. After perfusion with increasing concentrations of HA in the order of increasing viscosity, the CAP thresholds generally increased. The threshold elevation after AP and 0.0625% HA perfusion was small or almost zero, and the 0.125% HA was a borderline case, while the higher concentrations significantly elevated CAP thresholds. Histology of the cochleae perfused with the 0.0625% HA showed an intact Reissner's membrane (RM), while in cochleae perfused with 0.125% and 0.25% HA RM was torn. Thus, the CAP threshold elevation was likely due to the broken RM, likely caused by the shear stress produced by the flow of the viscous fluid. Our results and analysis indicate that the cochlea can sustain, without a significant CAP threshold shift, up to a 1.5 Pa shear stress. Beside these finding, in the 0.125% and 0.25% HA perfusion cases, a temporary CAP threshold shift was observed, perhaps due to the presence and

  7. Temperature controlled machine perfusion system for liver.

    PubMed

    Obara, H; Matsuno, N; Shigeta, T; Hirano, T; Enosawa, S; Mizunuma, H

    2013-06-01

    Organ preservation using machine perfusion is an effective method compared with conventional preservation techniques using static cold storage. A newly developed MP preservation system to control perfusate temperatures from hypothermic to subnormothermic conditions is introduced. This system is useful not only for liver preservation, but also for evaluation of graft viability for recovery. This novel method has been proposed for preservation of porcine liver grafts. An innovative preservation system is especially important to obtain viable organs from extended criteria or donation after cardiac death donors. In this study, we introduce a new machine perfusion preservation system (NES-01) to evaluate graft viability for recovery of liver functions, using porcine grafts.

  8. Lysis of human tumor cell lines by canine complement plus monoclonal antiganglioside antibodies or natural canine xenoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Helfand, S C; Hank, J A; Gan, J; Sondel, P M

    1996-01-10

    Because certain antiganglioside monoclonal antibodies can facilitate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against GD2+ ganglioside-bearing human and canine tumor cells, we wished to determine if clinically relevant antiganglioside monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) could also fix canine complement to lyse tumor cells in vitro. Using flow cytometry, human tumor cell lines (M21 melanoma and OHS osteosarcoma) were shown to highly express ganglioside GD2 and, to a lesser degree, GD3. In 51Cr release assays, M21 cells were lysed with canine serum, as a source of complement, plus either Mab 14.G2a or its mouse-human chimera, ch 14.18, specific for GD2. Heating canine serum abrogated its lytic activity and addition of rabbit complement reconstituted M21 lysis. Similar results were obtained with M21 cells when Mab R24 (against GD3) and canine serum were used. OHS cells were also lysed with canine serum plus Mab 14.G2a and lytic activity was abolished by heating canine serum but reconstituted with rabbit complement. Alone, canine serum or Mabs were not lytic to M21 or OHS cells. Conversely, human neuroblastoma (LAN-5) and K562 erythroleukemia cells were lysed by canine serum alone which was shown by flow cytometry to contain naturally occurring canine IgM antibodies that bound LAN-5 and K562 cells. The lytic activity of canine serum for LAN-5 or K562 cells was abolished by heating and restored by addition of either human or rabbit complement. Thus, human tumor cell lines can be lysed with antiganglioside Mabs through fixation and activation of canine complement-dependent lytic pathways. Canine xenoantibodies also mediate complement-dependent cytotoxicity of some human tumor cell lines. Together, these results are significant because they demonstrate an antitumor effect of the canine immune system which is of potential importance for cancer immunotherapy in a promising animal model.

  9. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sa-Hyeok; Eun, Seok-Chan

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  10. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  11. Canine models of human rare disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hytönen, Marjo K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Millions of children worldwide are born with rare and debilitating developmental disorders each year. Although an increasing number of these conditions are being recognized at the molecular level, the characterization of the underlying pathophysiology remains a grand challenge. This is often due to the lack of appropriate patient material or relevant animal models. Dogs are coming to the rescue as physiologically relevant large animal models. Hundreds of spontaneous genetic conditions have been described in dogs, most with close counterparts to human rare disorders. Our recent examples include the canine models of human Caffey (SLC37A2), van den Ende-Gupta (SCARF2) and Raine (FAM20C) syndromes. These studies demonstrate the pathophysiological similarity of human and canine syndromes, and suggest that joint efforts to characterize both human and canine rare diseases could provide additional benefits to the advancement of the field of rare diseases. Besides revealing new candidate genes, canine models allow access to experimental resources such as cells, tissues and even live animals for research and intervention purposes. PMID:27803843

  12. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    PubMed

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  13. Canine notoedric mange: a case report.

    PubMed

    Leone, Federico

    2007-04-01

    Notoedric mange is a cutaneous ectoparasitic disease of cats caused by Notoedres cati, a mite belonging to the Sarcoptidae family. The disease occurs in felids, occasionally in other mammals and in humans. The canine form, even if cited by some authors, has never been documented. This report describes for the first time a case of notoedric mange in a dog.

  14. Immune-mediated canine and feline keratitis.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Stacy E

    2008-03-01

    Although the normal cornea is devoid of vasculature and lymphatics, there are still several immune-mediated corneal conditions that can occur in dogs and cats. An overview of corneal immunology is presented. Diseases of dogs, including chronic superficial keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, and canine adenovirus endotheliitis, as well as feline diseases, including eosinophilic keratitis and herpesvirus-related conditions, are discussed.

  15. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A.; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; Takahashi, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains. PMID:11329473

  16. Infectious canine hepatitis associated with prednisone treatment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Valerie M; Marche, Candace; Simko, Elemir

    2012-11-01

    An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment.

  17. Pancreas β cell regeneration and type 1 diabetes (Review)

    PubMed Central

    WU, JINXIAO; YANG, XIYAN; CHEN, BIN; XU, XIUPING

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, which may cause hyperglycemia and a number of complications, mostly results from a deficiency of β cell mass (type 1 diabetes) or a limitation of β cell function (type 2 diabetes). Currently, enhancing β cell regeneration and increasing cell proliferation have not only been described in experimental diabetes models, but have also been proven to improve outcomes for patients with diabetes. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms controlling the development and regeneration of β cells in the human pancreas may be helpful for the treatment of β cell-deficient disease. In this review, we first introduce the various cell types in the adult pancreas and thereby clarify their functions and origins. Then, the known mechanisms of β cell development and expansion in the normal human pancreas are described. The potential mechanisms of β cell regeneration, including β cell self-replication, neogenesis from non-β cell precursors and transdifferentiation from α cells, are discussed in the next part. Finally, the ability of the pancreas to regenerate mature β cells is explored in pathological conditions, including type 1 diabetes, chronic pancreatitis and persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. PMID:25667609

  18. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as “fatty infiltration” or “nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease” (NAFPD). The term “fatty replacement” describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of “ectopic fat deposition”, which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula. PMID:27678349

  19. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-09-14

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as "fatty infiltration" or "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease" (NAFPD). The term "fatty replacement" describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of "ectopic fat deposition", which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula.

  20. Stimulus-secretion coupling in the developing exocrine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.Y.S.

    1986-01-01

    Acinar cells of the embryonic pancreas are filled with zymogen granules containing, among others, the secretory protein, cholecystokinin (CCK) ..cap alpha..-amylase, the rate of amylase secretion from pancreatic lobules incubated in vitro was not increased in response to CCK. In contrast, the rate of CCK-stimulated amylase discharge from the neonatal pancreas was increased 4- to 8-fold above that seen in the embryonic gland. The postnatal amplification of secretory responsiveness was not associated with an increase in the level of /sup 125/I-CCK octapeptide specifically bound/cell equivalent or a change in the affinity of binding. Light microscopic autoradiography revealed a similar /sup 125/I-CCK-33 labeling pattern in pancreatic lobules from both ages with autoradiographic grains specifically localized at the periphery of acinar cells. In order to determine whether CCK binding is coupled to a rise in the cytosolic Ca/sup + +/concentration, (Ca/sup + +/)c, in the embryonic pancreas, /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ efflux from tracer-loaded lobules was measured. Efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ from both embryonic and neonatal pancreas was comparably increased in the presence of CCK.

  1. The surgical anatomy of the lymphatic system of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Malefant, Jason; Patel, Swetal D; Du Plessis, Maira; Renna, Sarah; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-05-01

    The lymphatic system of the pancreas is a complex, intricate network of lymphatic vessels and nodes responsible for the drainage of the head, neck, body, and tail of the pancreas. Its anatomical divisions and embryological development have been well described in the literature with emphasis on its clinical relevance in regards to pancreatic pathologies. A thorough knowledge and understanding of the lymphatic system surrounding the pancreas is critical for physicians in providing diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients with pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis. Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis and is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although a surgeon may try to predict the routes for metastasis for pancreatic cancer, the complexity of this system presents difficulty due to variable drainage patterns. Pancreatitis also presents as another severe disease which has been shown to have an association with the lymphatics. The aim of this article is to review the literature on the lymphatics of the pancreas, pancreatic pathologies, and the available imaging methodologies used to study the pancreatic lymphatics.

  2. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-09-14

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as "fatty infiltration" or "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease" (NAFPD). The term "fatty replacement" describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of "ectopic fat deposition", which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula. PMID:27678349

  3. FDA Approves 1st 'Artificial Pancreas' for Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation), said until there's a cure for type 1 diabetes, "I know that the artificial pancreas will change ... welcome step forward for people with type 1 diabetes," he added. "It will be many years for a biologic cure or prevention, and it is exciting to know ...

  4. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as “fatty infiltration” or “nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease” (NAFPD). The term “fatty replacement” describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of “ectopic fat deposition”, which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula.

  5. Heat loss and blood flow during hyperthermia in normal canine brain. I: Empirical study and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B E; Samulski, T V; Cox, R S; Fessenden, P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of blood flow and thermal conduction during microwave hyperthermia were investigated in normal canine brain. Heating was accomplished with an external microstrip spiral antenna and temperature measurements were made using a multichannel fluoroptic thermometry system. In order to determine cooling rates, temperature measurements made during cooling were fitted with a model consisting of a constant value and an exponential term. Data from experiments in both perfused and non-perfused brains could be fitted with this simple model. The resulting cooling rates indicated that heat loss by conduction is comparable to that by blood flow. In another series of experiments, temperature measurements were made during several 1 min cooling intervals in which the power was shut off intermittently during a 35 min heating episode. Results were consistent with a 2-3-fold increase in blood flow rate which occurred gradually throughout the course of heating. Parameters that affect the determination of cooling rates are discussed in terms of the bioheat transfer equation. These investigations demonstrate that a simple heat sink model provides a good representation of the cooling data for the thermal distributions obtained. PMID:2926187

  6. Maximal vasodilation does not eliminate the vascular waterfall in the canine hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Shrier, I; Magder, S

    1995-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood flow through skeletal muscle is regulated by changes in an arteriolar vascular waterfall [critical pressure (Pcrit)] and a proximal (arterial) resistance (Ra) element. To determine whether Pcrit still exists during maximal vasodilation, we pump perfused vascularly isolated canine hindlimbs. We set outflow pressure to zero and measured Pcrit, perfusion pressure (Pper), and regional elastic recoil pressure (Pcl; by a stop-flow technique) and calculated both Ra and venous resistance before and after maximal vasodilation with adenosine and nitroprusside. Pcrit was 56.4 +/- 5.1 mmHg before vasodilation and decreased to 11.0 +/- 0.6 mmHg after vasodilation, which was less than the downstream pressure in the venous compliant region (Pel). Therefore, Pcrit should not have affected flow at normal Pper levels under vasodilated conditions. However, we could still measure Pcrit because our technique allowed Pel to decline and Pcrit becomes apparent once Pel < Pcrit. With vasodilation, Ra decreased to < 8.1 +/- 2.6% and Rv decreased to 41 +/- 6% of control values. In contrast to the nonvasodilated vasculature, increases in venous pressure during maximal vasodilation caused immediate increases in Pper. This also suggests that the vascular waterfall is inactive under conditions of maximal vasodilation. We conclude that a small arteriolar Pcrit is still present in the maximally vasodilated hindlimb but is less than the downstream pressure and does not affect flow under these conditions.

  7. Mandibular canine dimensions as an aid in gender estimation

    PubMed Central

    Rajarathnam, Basetty Neelakantam; David, Maria Priscilla; Indira, Annamalai Ponnuswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: All humans have an identity in life; compassionate societies require this identity to be recognized even after death. Objectives: To measure the dimensions of the mandibular canine and assess the usefulness of the mandibular canine as an aid in gender estimation. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised 200 subjects inclusive of 100 males and 100 females with an age range of 18–25 years. Measurements made in mm at the contact point were of mesiodistal width of the right and left canines and intercanine distance both intraorally and on casts, and the mandibular canine index (MCI) was calculated. The obtained data were subjected to t-test/Mann-Whitney test and discriminant function analysis. Results: All parameters of mandibular canines, namely, intercanine distance, canine width, and canine index were greater in males compared to females suggesting significant sexual dimorphism of mandibular canines. On subjecting the data to discriminant function analysis, it classified sex correctly in 73% of the samples. Conclusion: The result of our study establishes the existence of significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines. We can therefore, recommend the use of mandibular canine dimensions as an applicable and additional method for gender determination in human identification. PMID:27555724

  8. Microcirculation Perfusion Monitor on the Back of the Health Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanqi; Li, Xiaomei; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Kang; Liu, Yangyang; Guo, Yi; Qiu, Shuang; Zhai, Tianchen; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Jingjing; Ming, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To observe the dermal microcirculation blood perfusion characterization of meridians channels (acupoints). Methods. 20 healthy human subjects were monitored using Pericam Perfusion Speckle Imager (PSI) for the changes in dermal microcirculation blood perfusion on governor meridian and other respective dermal regions as a control. Result. The microcirculation blood perfusion on Governor Meridian is higher than its control area. Conclusion. The dermal microcirculation blood perfusion on certain parts of Governor Meridian of healthy human subjects showed specifics. PMID:24371463

  9. Luminal distension as a possible consequence of experimental intestinal perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Wingate, David; Hyams, Ashley; Phillips, Sidney

    1974-01-01

    In an experimental jejunal perfusion study, distress in healthy subjects occurred during eight out of 16 perfusions in which intestinal secretion was provoked. Calculation demonstrates the volumetric consequences of inadequate recovery of secretory perfusates, and analysis of the perfusion studies shows that distress was significantly associated with poor recovery of the perfusate. These observations are pertinent to increasing interest in the phenomenon of intestinal fluid secretion. PMID:4435588

  10. Deep convolutional networks for pancreas segmentation in CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Holger R.; Farag, Amal; Lu, Le; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Automatic organ segmentation is an important prerequisite for many computer-aided diagnosis systems. The high anatomical variability of organs in the abdomen, such as the pancreas, prevents many segmentation methods from achieving high accuracies when compared to state-of-the-art segmentation of organs like the liver, heart or kidneys. Recently, the availability of large annotated training sets and the accessibility of affordable parallel computing resources via GPUs have made it feasible for "deep learning" methods such as convolutional networks (ConvNets) to succeed in image classification tasks. These methods have the advantage that used classification features are trained directly from the imaging data. We present a fully-automated bottom-up method for pancreas segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images of the abdomen. The method is based on hierarchical coarse-to-fine classification of local image regions (superpixels). Superpixels are extracted from the abdominal region using Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC). An initial probability response map is generated, using patch-level confidences and a two-level cascade of random forest classifiers, from which superpixel regions with probabilities larger 0.5 are retained. These retained superpixels serve as a highly sensitive initial input of the pancreas and its surroundings to a ConvNet that samples a bounding box around each superpixel at different scales (and random non-rigid deformations at training time) in order to assign a more distinct probability of each superpixel region being pancreas or not. We evaluate our method on CT images of 82 patients (60 for training, 2 for validation, and 20 for testing). Using ConvNets we achieve maximum Dice scores of an average 68% +/- 10% (range, 43-80%) in testing. This shows promise for accurate pancreas segmentation, using a deep learning approach and compares favorably to state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Pancreatic autoantibodies after pancreas-kidney transplantation - do they matter?

    PubMed

    Martins, La Salete; Henriques, Antonio C; Fonseca, Isabel M; Rodrigues, Anabela S; Oliverira, José C; Dores, Jorge M; Dias, Leonidio S; Cabrita, Antonio M; Silva, José D; Noronha, Irene L

    2014-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes recurrence has been documented in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants (SPKT), but this diagnosis may be underestimated. Antibody monitoring is the most simple, noninvasive, screening test for pancreas autoimmune activity. However, the impact of the positive autoimmune markers on pancreas graft function remains controversial. In our cohort of 105 SPKT, we studied the cases with positive pancreatic autoantibodies. They were immunosuppressed with antithymocyte globulin, tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and steroids. The persistence or reappearance of these autoantibodies after SPKT and factors associated with their evolution and with graft outcome were analyzed. Pancreatic autoantibodies were prospectively monitored. Serum samples were collected before transplantation and at least once per year thereafter. At the end of the follow-up (maximum 138 months), 43.8% of patients were positive (from pre-transplant or after recurrence) for at least one autoantibody - the positive group. Antiglutamic acid decarboxylase was the most prevalent (31.4%), followed by anti-insulin (8.6%) and anti-islet cell autoantibodies (3.8%). Bivariate analysis showed that the positive group had higher fasting glucose, higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lower C-peptide levels, and a higher number of HLA-matches. Analyzing the sample divided into four groups according to pre-/post-transplant autoantibodies profile, the negative/positive group tended to present the higher HbA1c values. Multivariate analysis confirmed the significant association between pancreas autoimmunity and HbA1c and C-peptide levels. Positivity for these autoantibodies pre-transplantation did not influence pancreas survival. The unfavorable glycemic profile observed in the autoantibody-positive SPKT is a matter of concern, which deserves further attention.

  12. Pancreatic stellate cells--multi-functional cells in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a pivotal role in pancreatic fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In addition, we have seen great progress in our understanding of the cell biology of PSCs and the interactions between PSCs and other cell types in the pancreas. In response to pancreatic injury or inflammation, quiescent PSCs are activated to myofibroblast-like cells. Recent studies have shown that the activation of intracellular signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinases plays a role in the activation of PSCs. microRNAs might also play a role, because the microRNA expression profiles are dramatically altered in the process of activation. In addition to producing extracellular matrix components such as type I collagen, PSCs have a wide variety of cell functions related to local immunity, inflammation, angiogenesis, and exocrine and endocrine functions in the pancreas. From this point of view, the interactions between PSCs and other cell types such as pancreatic exocrine cells, endocrine cells, and cancer cells have attracted increasing attention of researchers. PSCs might regulate exocrine functions in the pancreas through the cholecystokinin-induced release of acetylcholine. PSCs induce apoptosis and decrease insulin expression in β-cells, suggesting a novel mechanism of diabetes in diseased pancreas. PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by multiple mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that PSCs induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and enhance the stem-cell like features of pancreatic cancer cells. In conclusion, PSCs should now be recognized as not only profibrogenic cells but as multi-functional cells in the pancreas.

  13. Ex vivo lung perfusion and reconditioning.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jonathan C; Cypel, Marcelo; Massad, Ehab; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-01-01

    Normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion can act as a platform for the evaluation and repair of donor lungs. An acellular hyperosmolar solution is perfused anterograde through the donor lungs at 40% of the estimated cardiac output. Following oxygenation of the perfusate by the lung, it passes through a hollow fiber oxygenator supplied with a hypoxic gas mixture to remove oxygen and to maintain physiological carbon dioxide levels. Flow through a heat exchanger to maintain normothermia and a leukocyte filter to remove demarginated leukocytes completes the circuit. Lung function can be measured by the difference in PO2 between the perfusate postlung and postmembrane and by physiological parameters. Utilization of this method of ex vivo donor lung evaluation should reduce concerns of primary graft dysfunction and increase utilization rates of donor lungs. PMID:24412979

  14. Noninvasive methods of measuring bone blood perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, J.P.; Aaron, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of bone blood flow and perfusion characteristics in a noninvasive and serial manner would be advantageous in assessing revascularization after trauma and the possible risk of avascular necrosis. Many disease states, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone neoplasms, result in disturbed bone perfusion. A causal link between bone perfusion and remodeling has shown its importance in sustained healing and regrowth following injury. Measurement of perfusion and permeability within the bone was performed with small and macromolecular contrast media, using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in models of osteoarthritis and the femoral head. Bone blood flow and remodeling was estimated using 18F-Fluoride positron emission tomography in fracture healing and osteoarthritis. Multimodality assessment of bone blood flow, permeability, and remodeling by using noninvasive imaging techniques may provide information essential in monitoring subsequent rates of healing and response to treatment as well as identifying candidates for additional therapeutic or surgical interventions. PMID:20392223

  15. Bubble dynamics in perfused tissue undergoing decompression.

    PubMed

    Meisel, S; Nir, A; Kerem, D

    1981-02-01

    A mathematical model describing bubble dynamics in a perfused tissue undergoing decompression is presented, taking into account physical expansion and inward diffusion from surrounding supersaturated tissue as growth promoting factors and tissue gas elimination by perfusion, tissue elasticity, surface tension and inherent unsaturation as resolving driving forces. The expected behavior after a step reduction of pressure of a bubble initially existing in the tissue, displaying both growth and resolution has been demonstrated. A strong perfusion-dependence of bubble resolution time at low perfusion rates is apparent. The model can account for various exposure pressures and saturation fractions of any inert gas-tissue combination for which a set of physical and physiological parameters is available.

  16. Vicarious Audiovisual Learning in Perfusion Education

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Thomas E.; Holt, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Perfusion technology is a mechanical and visual science traditionally taught with didactic instruction combined with clinical experience. It is difficult to provide perfusion students the opportunity to experience difficult clinical situations, set up complex perfusion equipment, or observe corrective measures taken during catastrophic events because of patient safety concerns. Although high fidelity simulators offer exciting opportunities for future perfusion training, we explore the use of a less costly low fidelity form of simulation instruction, vicarious audiovisual learning. Two low fidelity modes of instruction; description with text and a vicarious, first person audiovisual production depicting the same content were compared. Students (n = 37) sampled from five North American perfusion schools were prospectively randomized to one of two online learning modules, text or video. These modules described the setup and operation of the MAQUET ROTAFLOW standalone centrifugal console and pump. Using a 10 question multiple-choice test, students were assessed immediately after viewing the module (test #1) and then again 2 weeks later (test #2) to determine cognition and recall of the module content. In addition, students completed a questionnaire assessing the learning preferences of today’s perfusion student. Mean test scores from test #1 for video learners (n = 18) were significantly higher (88.89%) than for text learners (n = 19) (74.74%), (p < .05). The same was true for test #2 where video learners (n = 10) had an average score of 77% while text learners (n = 9) scored 60% (p < .05). Survey results indicated video learners were more satisfied with their learning module than text learners. Vicarious audiovisual learning modules may be an efficacious, low cost means of delivering perfusion training on subjects such as equipment setup and operation. Video learning appears to improve cognition and retention of learned content and may play an important

  17. Improved exercise myocardial perfusion during lidoflazine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, W.; Narahara, K.A.; Park, J.

    1983-11-01

    Lidoflazine is a synthetic drug with calcium-channel blocking effects. In a study of 6 patients with severe classic angina pectoris, single-blind administration of lidoflazine was associated with improved myocardial perfusion during exercise as determined by thallium-201 stress scintigraphy. These studies demonstrate that lidoflazine therapy is associated with relief of angina, an increased physical work capacity, and improved regional myocardial perfusion during exercise.

  18. Use of the Electronic Medical Record to Assess Pancreas Size in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Virostko, John; Hilmes, Melissa; Eitel, Kelsey; Moore, Daniel J.; Powers, Alvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study harnessed the electronic medical record to assess pancreas volume in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and matched controls to determine whether pancreas volume is altered in T1D and identify covariates that influence pancreas volume. Methods This study included 25 patients with T1D and 25 age-, sex-, and weight-matched controls from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center enterprise data warehouse. Measurements of pancreas volume were made from medical imaging studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Results Patients with T1D had a pancreas volume 47% smaller than matched controls (41.16 ml vs. 77.77 ml, P < 0.0001) as well as pancreas volume normalized by subject body weight, body mass index, or body surface area (all P < 0.0001). Pancreatic volume was smaller with a longer duration of T1D across the patient population (N = 25, P = 0.04). Additionally, four individual patients receiving multiple imaging scans displayed progressive declines in pancreas volume over time (~ 6% of volume/year), whereas five controls scanned a year apart did not exhibit a decline in pancreas size (P = 0.03). The pancreas was uniformly smaller on the right and left side of the abdomen. Conclusions Pancreas volume declines with disease duration in patients with T1D, suggesting a protracted pathological process that may include the exocrine pancreas. PMID:27391588

  19. Persufflation (or Gaseous Oxygen Perfusion) as a Method of Organ Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Suszynski, Thomas M.; Rizzari, Michael D.; Scott, William E.; Tempelman, Linda A.; Taylor, Michael J.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2012-01-01

    Improved preservation techniques have the potential to improve transplant outcomes by better maintaining donor organ quality and by making more organs available for allotransplantation. Persufflation, (PSF, gaseous oxygen perfusion) is potentially one such technique that has been studied for over a century in a variety of tissues, but has yet to gain wide acceptance for a number of reasons. A principal barrier is the perception that ex vivo PSF will cause in vivo embolization post-transplant. This review summarizes the extensive published work on heart, liver, kidney, small intestine and pancreas PSF, discusses the differences between anterograde and retrograde PSF and between PSF and other conventional methods of organ preservation (static cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion). Prospective implications of PSF within the broader field of organ transplantation, and in the specific application with pancreatic islet isolation and transplant are also discussed. Finally, key issues that need to be addressed before PSF becomes a more widely utilized preservation strategy are summarized and discussed. PMID:22301419

  20. Perfusion visualization and analysis for pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Michael S.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

    2005-04-01

    Given the nature of pulmonary embolism (PE), timely and accurate diagnosis is critical. Contrast enhanced high-resolution CT images allow physicians to accurately identify segmental and sub-segmental emboli. However, it is also important to assess the effect of such emboli on the blood flow in the lungs. Expanding upon previous research, we propose a method for 3D visualization of lung perfusion. The proposed method allows users to examine perfusion throughout the entire lung volume at a single glance, with areas of diminished perfusion highlighted so that they are visible independent of the viewing location. This may be particularly valuable for better accuracy in assessing the extent of hemodynamic alterations resulting from pulmonary emboli. The method also facilitates user interaction and may help identify small peripheral sub-segmental emboli otherwise overlooked. 19 patients referred for possible PE were evaluated by CT following the administration of IV contrast media. An experienced thoracic radiologist assessed the 19 datasets with 17 diagnosed as being positive for PE with multiple emboli. Since anomalies in lung perfusion due to PE can alter the distribution of parenchymal densities, we analyzed features collected from histograms of the computed perfusion maps and demonstrate their potential usefulness as a preliminary test to suggest the presence of PE. These histogram features also offer the possibility of distinguishing distinct patterns associated with chronic PE and may even be useful for further characterization of changes in perfusion or overall density resulting from associated conditions such as pneumonia or diffuse lung disease.

  1. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas and its association with pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Sakpal, Sujit Vijay; Sexcius, Lucretia; Babel, Nitin; Chamberlain, Ronald Scott

    2009-05-01

    Morphogenesis of the pancreas is a complex process; nevertheless, congenital anomalies are rare. At embryogenesis, the pancreas develops from the endoderm-lined dorsal and ventral buds of the duodenum. The ventral bud gives rise to the lower head and uncinate process of the pancreas; whereas, the dorsal bud gives rise to the upper head, isthmus, body, and tail of the pancreas. Rarely, developmental failure of the dorsal pancreatic bud at embryogenesis results in the agenesis of the dorsal pancreas--neck, body, and tail. Even rarer is the association of pancreatic tumors with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas. In addition to citing our case, we provide a comprehensive review on agenesis of the dorsal pancreas and its association with pancreatic tumors.

  2. Technical aspects of MR perfusion.

    PubMed

    Sourbron, Steven

    2010-12-01

    The most common methods for measuring perfusion with MRI are arterial spin labelling (ASL), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC-MRI), and T(1)-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). This review focuses on the latter approach, which is by far the most common in the body and produces measures of capillary permeability as well. The aim is to present a concise but complete overview of the technical issues involved in DCE-MRI data acquisition and analysis. For details the reader is referred to the references. The presentation of the topic is essentially generic and focuses on technical aspects that are common to all DCE-MRI measurements. For organ-specific problems and illustrations, we refer to the other papers in this issue. In Section 1 "Theory" the basic quantities are defined, and the physical mechanisms are presented that provide a relation between the hemodynamic parameters and the DCE-MRI signal. Section 2 "Data acquisition" discusses the issues involved in the design of an optimal measurement protocol. Section 3 "Data analysis" summarizes the steps that need to be taken to determine the hemodynamic parameters from the measured data. PMID:20363574

  3. Human islet isolation--a prospective randomized comparison of pancreatic vascular perfusion with hyperosmolar citrate or University of Wisconsin solution.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D; Thirdborough, S; Swift, S; Davies, J; James, R; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1993-09-01

    University of Wisconsin solution has become the most commonly used vascular perfusate during multiorgan donation world-wide. In the UK however, hyperosmolar citrate remains in common use. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the effect of systemic perfusion with UW or HOC on subsequent islet yield and purification for pancreata with short cold ischemic times. Seven pancreata were randomized to each group, with the donor age, pancreas weight, and period of cold ischemia being similar in both. Perfusion with UW was shown to inhibit collagenase digestion, and a higher concentration of this enzyme was needed to achieve comparable numbers of islets with good separation of exocrine and islet tissue after a similar period of digestion. There were no differences in the number, size, purity, or viability of islets between the two groups. In conclusion, UW solution offers no benefits over HOC for pancreata with short cold ischemic times, and because of its expense and need to use greater amounts of collagenase enzyme, we continue to use HOC.

  4. Human islet isolation--a prospective randomized comparison of pancreatic vascular perfusion with hyperosmolar citrate or University of Wisconsin solution.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D; Thirdborough, S; Swift, S; Davies, J; James, R; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1993-09-01

    University of Wisconsin solution has become the most commonly used vascular perfusate during multiorgan donation world-wide. In the UK however, hyperosmolar citrate remains in common use. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the effect of systemic perfusion with UW or HOC on subsequent islet yield and purification for pancreata with short cold ischemic times. Seven pancreata were randomized to each group, with the donor age, pancreas weight, and period of cold ischemia being similar in both. Perfusion with UW was shown to inhibit collagenase digestion, and a higher concentration of this enzyme was needed to achieve comparable numbers of islets with good separation of exocrine and islet tissue after a similar period of digestion. There were no differences in the number, size, purity, or viability of islets between the two groups. In conclusion, UW solution offers no benefits over HOC for pancreata with short cold ischemic times, and because of its expense and need to use greater amounts of collagenase enzyme, we continue to use HOC. PMID:8212148

  5. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John; Klaver, Peter; O'Gorman, Ruth L

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  6. Rhabdomyolysis as a complication of canine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, L S; Lobetti, R G

    1996-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed in two dogs with babesiosis. The first animal presented with muscle pain and caramel-coloured urine, and had markedly elevated serum myoglobin and muscle enzymes. Acute renal failure complicated the clinical picture. The second dog exhibited muscle pain and tremors, together with neurological signs and pulmonary oedema, and died soon after admission. Muscle necrosis and haemorrhage were found at necropsy. In human malaria, a disease clinically similar to canine babesiosis, rhabdomyolysis is unusual, but clinically silent muscle damage appears to be common. Likewise, biochemical evidence of muscle damage is readily found in experimental bovine babesiosis. Muscle enzymes were mildly elevated in three dogs with severe babesiosis and pigmenturia but there was no obvious muscle damage, indicating that this might also apply to canine babesiosis. The pathogenesis of infection-associated rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure remains unclear, but inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide could play an important role. PMID:8965483

  7. Characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciane D; Barros, Iracema N; Budaszewski, Renata F; Weber, Matheus N; Mata, Helena; Antunes, Jéssica R; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angélica T B; Driemeier, David; Brandão, Paulo E; Canal, Cláudio W

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection.

  8. Cryptosporidium muris in a Texas canine population.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Philip J; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C; Robinson, Mary; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Chappell, Cynthia L

    2008-06-01

    Molecular technology has led to the discovery of previously unrecognized Cryptosporidium species in new hosts, such as C. canis in humans. The notion that dogs may transmit Cryptosporidium species to humans has significant public health implications, and additional studies are merited. The purpose of this study was to examine a group of kenneled dogs to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species infection and to identify parasite species. Prevalence of active infection was 71%. Six positive samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the Cryptosporidium species. Restriction digest patterns identified C. muris as the infecting species in all six dogs; species identity was confirmed by genetic sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring C. muris infection in a canine host. The finding of C. muris in asymptomatic canines supports the notion of dogs as potential sources of human infection.

  9. Identification of link proteins in canine synovial cell cultures and canine articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Link proteins are glycoproteins in cartilage that are involved in the stabilization of aggregates of proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid. We have identified link proteins in synovial cell cultures form normal canine synovium using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunofluorescence, and immunolocation with specific antibodies by electrophoretic transfer. We have also found evidence for the synthesis of link proteins in these cultures by fluorography of radiolabeled synovial cell extracts. We have identified a 70,000 mol-wt protein in canine synovial cell culture extracts that has antigenic cross-reactivity with the 48,000-mol-wt link protein. Three link proteins were identified in normal canine articular cartilage. These results indicate that link proteins are more widely distributed in connective tissues than previously recognized and may have biological functions other than aggregate stabilization. PMID:3980578

  10. Serologic investigations of canine parvovirus and canine distemper in relation to wolf (Canis lupus) pup mortalities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Boyd, D K; Pletscher, D H

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern Montana (USA) and southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper (CD), infectious canine hepatitis, and Lyme disease; we found prevalences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of 20 wolves for these diseases, respectively. Pups died or disappeared in three of the eight packs studied. In these three packs, adult pack members had CPV titers > or = 1,600 or CD titers > or = 1,250. In packs that successfully raised pups, CPV and CD titers were low. We propose that CPV or CD may have caused some pup mortalities. PMID:8028116

  11. Generation of E3-deleted canine adenoviruses expressing canine parvovirus capsid by homologous recombination in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Mark D; Reid, Dorothy; Onions, David; Spibey, Norman; Nicolson, Lesley

    2002-02-01

    E3-deleted canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) was generated by homologous recombination in bacterial cells, using an antibiotic resistance marker to facilitate the recovery of recombinants. This marker was flanked by unique restriction endonuclease sites, which allowed its subsequent removal and the insertion of cassettes expressing the canine parvovirus capsid at the E3 locus. Infectious virus was recovered following transfection of canine cells and capsid expression was observed by RT-PCR from one of the virus constructs. A second construct, containing a different promoter, showed delayed growth and genome instability which, based on the size difference between these inserts, suggests a maximum packaging size of 106 to 109% wild-type genome size for CAV-1. PMID:11853396

  12. Surgical treatment of hydatid cysts of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ismail, K; Haluk, G I; Necati, O

    1991-01-01

    This series consists of seven patients with hydatid cysts of the pancreas; five females and two males, with an average age of 31 years. In a follow-up extending up to 33 years, about a 50% rate of correct preoperative diagnosis was recorded. The most sensitive and effective diagnostic modalities such as latex agglutination, ultrasonic, radionuclide, computerized tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques were not available till the late seventies and therefore were only used during diagnosis of the latter 3 cases. Four patients had cysts located in the head of the pancreas. Three cysts were situated in the body and tail. Two distal pancreatectomies, two cystectomies and three marsupialization and external drainage procedures were performed for the surgical management of these cases. Two of the marsupialized and externally drained patients had fistulas which eventually dried up within a month leading to a total morbidity of 29% and a mortality rate of nil. PMID:1938210

  13. Immunosuppression in pancreas transplantation: the Euro SPK trials and beyond.

    PubMed

    Malaise, J; De Roover, A; Squifflet, J P; Land, W; Neuhaus, P; Pratschke, J; Kahl, A; Pascher, A; Boas-Knoop, S; Arbogast, H; Hoffmann, J; Illner, W D; Seissler; Schlamp; Viebahn; Wunsch; Hajt; Klar, E; Scharek, W; Hopt; Pisarski, P; Drognitz, O; Thurow, C; Dette, K; Bechstein, W O; Woeste, G; Klempnauer, J; Becker, T; Lück; Neipp; Königsrainer, A; Steurer, W; Margreiter, R; Mark; Bonatti; Saudek, F; Boucek, P; Adamec, M; Havrdova, T; Koznarova, R; Vanrenterghem, Y; Pirenne, J; Maes, B; Kuypers, D; Coosemans, W; Evenepoel, P; van Ophem, D; Marcelis, V; van Vlem; Peeters; de Hemptinne; de Roose; Fernandez-Cruz, L; Ricart, M J; Nakache, R; Morel, P; Berney, T; Demuylder, S

    2008-01-01

    The Immunosuppression in Pancreas Transplantation was historically based on the fact that the pancreas is an extremely immunogenic organ. Quadruple drug therapy with polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies induction was the mainstay therapy since the introduction of Cyclosporine A. In the modern era of Immunosuppression, Mycophenolate Mofetil replaced Azathioprine while Tacrolimus-another potent calcineurin inhibitor-had-and still has-a difficult challenge to replaced Cyclosporine A, due to its potential diabetogenic effect. Thanks to the first two EuroSPK studies which prospectively tried to answer several questions in that field. But, the future challenge will be in understanding the impact of innate immunity and ischemic reperfusion injuries on the long-term graft function. Hopefully, new drugs will be available and tested to block unspecific deleterious reactions to attenuate the proinflammatory response. It will be the aim of the third Euro SPK Study.

  14. Implication of epigenetics in pancreas development and disease.

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Evans; Haumaitre, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    Pancreas development is controlled by a complex interaction of signaling pathways and transcription factor networks that determine pancreatic specification and differentiation of exocrine and endocrine cells. Epigenetics adds a new layer of gene regulation. DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs recently appeared as important epigenetic factors regulating pancreas development. In this review, we report recent findings obtained by analyses in model organisms as well as genome-wide approaches that demonstrate the role of these epigenetic regulators in the control of exocrine and endocrine cell differentiation, identity, function, proliferation and regeneration. We also highlight how altered epigenetic processes contribute to pancreatic disorders: diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Uncovering these epigenetic events can help to better understand these diseases, provide novel therapeutical targets for their treatment, and improve cell-based therapies for diabetes. PMID:26696517

  15. A novel strategy for long-term implantable artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Assaf, Tareq; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Technology has recently changed type 1 diabetes treatment by introducing several advancements able to improve patients' quality of life. However, despite of several decades of research efforts, the dream of a fully-automated implanted artificial pancreas is quite far from its realization. The need for periodically restoring the implanted battery charge and refilling the implanted insulin reservoir are the main issues, for which invasive surgery, transcutaneous catheters or external portable devices are presently the only solutions. In this paper we propose a novel approach to these issues, describing a totally implanted closed-loop artificial pancreas with a wireless battery charger and a non-invasive strategy for insulin refilling, based on sensorized swallowable "insulin carrier" capsules. Such system has the potential to represent a final solution for diabetes treatment, by fully restoring patients' quality of life.

  16. Minor papilla cannulation and dorsal ductography in pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Benage, D; McHenry, R; Hawes, R H; O'Connor, K W; Lehman, G A

    1990-01-01

    Until recently, pancreas divisum represented a major technical barrier to a complete evaluation of pancreatic ductal anatomy. Technical refinements have now made it possible to achieve minor papilla cannulation and dorsal ductography in more than 90% of attempts. In 120 consecutive dorsal ductograms, structural pathology was demonstrated in 36 subjects (30%): chronic pancreatitis in 23, pancreatic stones in 10, pseudocyst(s) in 4, ductal "cut-off" in 7, pancreatic cancer in 3, and partial agenesis in 1 (some patients had more than one finding). For patients in whom alcohol abuse was excluded, ductal pathology was present in 25%. Abnormal ventral ductograms were present in only 8% of cases, demonstrating that dorsal ductography has an appreciable additional diagnostic yield. When the clinical situation indicates the need for pancreatography, minor papilla cannulation should be performed if major papilla cannulation fails or reveals only the ventral pancreatogram of pancreas divisum.

  17. PDX-1 functions as a master factor in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Kawamori, Dan; Katakami, Naoto; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Matsuhisa, Munehide

    2008-05-01

    Various pancreatic transcription factors are involved in pancreas development and beta-cell differentiation. Among them, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) plays a crucial role in pancreas development and beta-cell differentiation, and maintaining mature beta-cell function. MafA is a recently isolated beta-cell-specific transcription factor and functions as a potent activator of insulin gene transcription. These pancreatic transcription factors also play a crucial role in inducing surrogate beta-cells from non-beta-cells and thus could be therapeutic targets for diabetes. On the other hand, under diabetic conditions, expression and/or activities of PDX-1 and MafA in beta-cells are reduced, which leads to suppression of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Thus, it is likely that alteration of such transcription factors explains, at least in part, the molecular mechanism for beta-cell glucose toxicity found in diabetes.

  18. Outcome Measures for Artificial Pancreas Clinical Trials: A Consensus Report.

    PubMed

    Maahs, David M; Buckingham, Bruce A; Castle, Jessica R; Cinar, Ali; Damiano, Edward R; Dassau, Eyal; DeVries, J Hans; Doyle, Francis J; Griffen, Steven C; Haidar, Ahmad; Heinemann, Lutz; Hovorka, Roman; Jones, Timothy W; Kollman, Craig; Kovatchev, Boris; Levy, Brian L; Nimri, Revital; O'Neal, David N; Philip, Moshe; Renard, Eric; Russell, Steven J; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Zisser, Howard; Lum, John W

    2016-07-01

    Research on and commercial development of the artificial pancreas (AP) continue to progress rapidly, and the AP promises to become a part of clinical care. In this report, members of the JDRF Artificial Pancreas Project Consortium in collaboration with the wider AP community 1) advocate for the use of continuous glucose monitoring glucose metrics as outcome measures in AP trials, in addition to HbA1c, and 2) identify a short set of basic, easily interpreted outcome measures to be reported in AP studies whenever feasible. Consensus on a broader range of measures remains challenging; therefore, reporting of additional metrics is encouraged as appropriate for individual AP studies or study groups. Greater consistency in reporting of basic outcome measures may facilitate the interpretation of study results by investigators, regulatory bodies, health care providers, payers, and patients themselves, thereby accelerating the widespread adoption of AP technology to improve the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. PMID:27330126

  19. An immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in raptors.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-12-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the endocrine pancreas of 10 raptors (golden eagles, peregrine falcons, Saker falcon, turkey vultures, red-tailed hawk and unspecified falcon) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Three islet types were identified: type A mixed islets composed mainly by glucagon (A)-secreting cells, type B mixed islets with predominantly insulin (B)-secreting cell component and type M mixed islets (type M) consisting of variable number of glucagon-, insulin- and somatostatin (D)-secreting cells. The latter were further characterized into Type I, II or III according to the cell distribution of the three cell types. A and D cells were also randomly scattered within the exocrine pancreas. The results of this study suggest that the classical concept in birds of a segregation of A and B cells in well-defined and distinct islets is not applicable in raptors, reflecting an evolutionary adaptation to different dietary habits and variation in developmental mechanisms. PMID:25468799

  20. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.

    1983-03-01

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed. (DLC)

  1. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected.

  2. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected. PMID:8801016

  3. Lipomatous infiltration of the canine salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J; Lucke, V M; Sozmen, M; Whitbread, T J; Wyatt, J M

    1997-06-01

    Benign connective tumours of the canine salivary glands are rare. This report describes lipomatous infiltration of parotid or submandibular salivary glands in seven dogs in which the glands were enlarged as a result of infiltration by fat cells; they appeared to have been successfully treated by local excision. The precise cause of the lipomatous infiltration in the dogs is unclear but different causes of similar lesions in humans are discussed.

  4. Dynamic development of the pancreas from birth to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Weir, Gordon C.

    2016-01-01

    After birth the endocrine pancreas continues its development, a complex process that involves both the maturation of islet cells and a marked expansion of their numbers. New beta cells are formed both by duplication of pre-existing cells and by new differentiation (neogenesis) across the first postnatal weeks, with the result of beta cells of different stages of maturation even after weaning. Improving our understanding of this period of beta cell expansion could provide valuable therapeutic insights. PMID:26998806

  5. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  6. Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  7. Cytodiagnostics of canine lymphomas - possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Sapierzyński, R; Kliczkowska-Klarowicz, K; Jankowska, U; Jagielski, D

    2016-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas are one of the most common malignant tumours occurring in dogs. The basic method of lymphoma diagnosis in human, as well as in canine oncology is histopathology supported by immunohistochemistry. It was suggested that in veterinary medicine excisional biopsy of lymph node and histopathology should be considered only where the cytologic diagnosis is equivocal or needs to be confirmed. There are at least three basic reasons for which cytological examination ought to be accepted as a sufficient and reliable diagnostic method for lymphoma in dogs. Firstly, most dog owners consider the fine-needle biopsy as an acceptable non-harmful method of sample collection. Secondly, an increasing number of studies recommend cytology as an accurate test for diagnosing and subtyping canine lymphoma. Finally, the vast majority of canine lymphoma subtypes belong to 4-5 categories characterized by a typical cytological picture. Immunocytochemical staining of cytological smears gives new diagnostic possibilities, such as detection of markers better characterizing given growth or a potential goal for target therapy in individual cases (for example inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor). PMID:27487521

  8. Identification of canine helper T-cell epitopes from the fusion protein of canine distemper virus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Souravi; Walker, John; Jackson, David C

    2001-01-01

    The fusion protein of canine distemper virus (CDV-F), a 662 amino-acid envelope protein, was used as the target molecule for identification of canine T helper (Th) epitopes. A library of 94 peptides, each 17 residues in length overlapping by 10 residues and covering the entire sequence of CDV-F, was screened using a lymphocyte proliferation assay with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from dogs inoculated with canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine. Initially we observed low and inconsistent proliferation of PBMC in response to these peptides, even when using cells obtained from dogs that had received multiple doses of CDV. Subsequently, the use of expanded cell populations derived by in vitro stimulation of canine PBMC with pools of peptides allowed the identification of a number of putative canine Th-epitopes within the protein sequence of CDV-F. There were two major clusters of Th-epitopes identified close to the cleavage site of the F0 fusion protein, while some others were scattered in both the F1 and F2 fragments of the protein. Some of these peptides, in particular peptide 35 (p35), were stimulatory in dogs of different breeds and ages. The identification of such promiscuous canine Th-epitopes encouraged us to assemble p35 in tandem with luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) a 10 amino-acid residue synthetic peptide representing a B-cell epitope which alone induces no antibody in dogs. The totally synthetic immunogen was able to induce the production of very high titres of antibodies against LHRH in all dogs tested. These results indicate that p35 could be an ideal candidate for use as a Th-epitope for use in outbred dogs. PMID:11576221

  9. Monitoring Artificial Pancreas Trials Through Agent-based Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Scarpellini, Stefania; Di Palma, Federico; Toffanin, Chiara; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the availability and reliability of network connections lets envision systems supporting a continuous remote monitoring of clinical parameters useful either for overseeing chronic diseases or for following clinical trials involving outpatients. We report here the results achieved by a telemedicine infrastructure that has been linked to an artificial pancreas platform and used during a trial of the AP@home project, funded by the European Union. The telemedicine infrastructure is based on a multiagent paradigm and is able to deliver to the clinic any information concerning the patient status and the operation of the artificial pancreas. A web application has also been developed, so that the clinic staff and the researchers involved in the design of the blood glucose control algorithms are able to follow the ongoing experiments. Albeit the duration of the experiments in the trial discussed in the article was limited to only 2 days, the system proved to be successful for monitoring patients, in particular overnight when the patients are sleeping. Based on that outcome we can conclude that the infrastructure is suitable for the purpose of accomplishing an intelligent monitoring of an artificial pancreas either during longer trials or whenever that system will be used as a routine treatment. PMID:24876570

  10. Autoimmune diabetes recurrence should be routinely monitored after pancreas transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Martins, La Salete

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune type 1 diabetes recurrence in pancreas grafts was first described 30 years ago, but it is not yet completely understood. In fact, the number of transplants affected and possibly lost due to this disease may be falsely low. There may be insufficient awareness to this entity by clinicians, leading to underdiagnosis. Some authors estimate that half of the immunological losses in pancreas transplantation are due to autoimmunity. Pancreas biopsy is the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis. However, as an invasive procedure, it is not the ideal approach to screen the disease. Pancreatic autoantibodies which may be detected early before graft dysfunction, when searched for, are probably the best initial tool to establish the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to revisit the autoimmune aspects of type 1 diabetes and to analyse data about the identified autoantibodies, as serological markers of the disease. Therapeutic strategies used to control the disease, though with unsatisfactory results, are also addressed. In addition, the author’s own experience with the prospective monitoring of pancreatic autoantibodies after transplantation and its correlation with graft outcome will be discussed. PMID:25346891

  11. Making β(-like)-cells from exocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Staels, W; De Groef, S; Bussche, L; Leuckx, G; Van de Casteele, M; De Leu, N; Baeyens, L; Heremans, Y; Heimberg, H

    2016-09-01

    Creating an abundant source of β(-like)-cells has been a major goal in diabetes research for many decades. The concept of cell plasticity has inspired many strategies towards regenerative medicine, but its successes have been limited until very recently. Today, most cell types in the pancreas are considered candidates for the generation of β(-like)-cells through transdifferentiation. While β(-like)-cells that are in vitro differentiated from human embryonic stem cells are already being grafted in patients, β(-like)-cells generated by transdifferentiation are not yet ready for clinical application. These cells would however offer several advantages over the current β(-like)-cells generated by directed differentiation, especially concerning safety issues. In addition, perfect control of the transdifferentiation efficiency would through targeted drug delivery support a non-invasive cell therapy for diabetes. Lastly, focusing on the exocrine pancreas as prime candidate makes sense in view of their abundance and high plasticity. Keeping these hopeful perspectives in mind, it is worth to continue focused research on the mechanisms that control transdifferentiation from pancreas exocrine to β-cells. PMID:27615144

  12. Composite pheochromocytoma masquerading as solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Geetanjali; Saran, Ravindra Kumar; Godhi, Satyajit; Srivastava, Siddharth; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma form rare composite tumours of the adrenal medulla comprising less than 3% of all sympathoadrenal tumours. We present a case of intraoperatively detected adrenal medullary tumour of composite pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma diagnosed on histopathology, in a normotensive patient. A 50-year-old male with a past history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with abdominal pain and significant weight loss since one month. Ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen revealed a large lobulated lesion in the distal body and tail of pancreas suggestive of solid and papillary neoplasm of body and tail of pancreas. Intra-operatively, a 15 cm × 10 cm solid lesion with cystic areas was seen arising from the left lower pole of the adrenal gland pushing the pancreas which appeared unremarkable. In our case, exploratory laparotomy with tumour excision was done. Extensive sectioning and microscopic examination of this adrenal tumour confirmed a diagnosis of composite Pheochromocytoma with Ganglioneuroma on histopathology. Immunophenotyping with S-100 further supported the diagnosis. The goal of this report is to increase the awareness of this rare disease and to further identify its variable presentation. PMID:25984524

  13. [Symptomatic cyst of the pancreas and asymptomatic bilateral phaeochromocytoma

    PubMed

    Karvar, S; Breidert, M; Nagel, M; Kirsch, C; Pinkert, J; Ehninger, G

    2001-01-01

    Symptomatic cyst of the pancreas and asymptomatic bilateral phaeochromocytoma. HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: A 39-year-old woman was admitted to our department of gastroenterology with recurrent epigastrical pain. Ten years previously the diagnosis of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-syndrome has been established. Two years before a germ line mutation in exon 3 of the VHL-tumour suppressor gene has been detected. The patient has a healthy son with a normal VHL-gene and four healthy siblings who had refused a genetic blood test. INVESTIGATIONS: At abdominal ultrasound at the head of the pancreas three 4 2 cm large cysts and in the region of the left adrenal gland a 2,9 2,7 cm large tumor were visible. MRI of the abdomen revealed in addition a 2,2 1,5 cm large tumour of the right adrenal gland. An asymptomatic biadrenal phaeochromocytoma was detected by elevated urine catecholamines and 123I-MIBG-scintigraphy. TREATMENT AND COURSE: The cysts of the pancreas were punctured under endosonographical control and analysis of the cyst fluid was not suspicious of a malignant cystic tumour. The patient had no further abdominal complaints. After oral treatment with the alpha-blocker phentolamine the biadrenal phaeochromocytoma was treated by retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery in an organ-sparing fashion. Postoperatively ACTH-stimulating test revealed a normal cortisol response. CONCLUSION: Adrenocortical function can be preserved by la-paroscopic adrenal-sparing surgery in bilateral phaeochromocytoma.

  14. Radionuclide cerebral perfusion imaging: Normal pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.J.; Stritzke, P.; Losonczy, M.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Holan, V.; DaCosta, M.; Muzinic, M.

    1991-12-31

    Regional cerebral perfusion imaging using a new class of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I labeled compounds which traverse the blood brain barrier and SPECT imaging technology provides an opportunity to assess this physiologic phenomenon during normal cerebral function and as a manifestation of disease in the central nervous system disease. These applications pose a challenge to the nuclear medicine physician for several reasons: (a) the complex and somewhat unfamiliar functional anatomy, (b) the marked regional differences in regional cerebral perfusion at rest, (c) the lack of understanding of the effect of variations in ambient conditions on regional cerebral perfusion. The difficulties in interpretation are augmented by the display itself. There is frequently no difficulty in differentiating between gray and white matter. However, the frequently used {open_quotes}hot body{close_quotes} color maps, introduce a good deal of contrast, producing displays with apparent interruption in regional cortical perfusion whereas black and white displays provide minimal contrast in the regional cortical activity. The authors sought to define how much variation in regional cerebral perfusion is {open_quotes}allowed{close_quotes} under controlled conditions, to establish a basis to interpret if changes in the environment, psychological interventions, or disease states are accompanied by a measurable change. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Perfusion harmonic imaging of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Volker H.; Seidel, Guenter; Wiesmann, Martin; Meyer, Karsten; Aach, Til

    2003-05-01

    The fast visualisation of cerebral microcirculation supports diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular diseases. However, the commonly used CT/MRI-based methods are time consuming and, moreover, costly. Therefore we propose an alternative approach to brain perfusion imaging by means of ultrasonography. In spite of the low signal/noise-ratio of transcranial ultrasound and the high impedance of the skull, flow images of cerebral blood flow can be derived by capturing the kinetics of appropriate contrast agents by harmonic ultrasound image sequences. In this paper we propose three different methods for human brain perfusion imaging, each of which yielding flow images indicating the status of the patient's cerebral microcirculation by visualising local flow parameters. Bolus harmonic imaging (BHI) displays the flow kinetics of bolus injections, while replenishment (RHI) and diminution harmonic imaging (DHI) compute flow characteristics from contrast agent continuous infusions. RHI measures the contrast agents kinetics in the influx phase and DHI displays the diminution kinetics of the contrast agent acquired from the decay phase. In clinical studies, BHI- and RHI-parameter images were found to represent comprehensive and reproducible distributions of physiological cerebral blood flow. For DHI it is shown, that bubble destruction and hence perfusion phenomena principally can be displayed. Generally, perfusion harmonic imaging enables reliable and fast bedside imaging of human brain perfusion. Due to its cost efficiency it complements cerebrovascular diagnostics by established CT/MRI-based methods.

  16. [Absorption of amino acids from the perfused ovine rumen].

    PubMed

    L' Leng; Tomás, J; Várady, J; Szányiová, M

    1978-06-01

    The experiments with extracoroporeal perfusion of sheep rumen were performed [Leng et al., 1977]. Bovine plasma, diluted in a 1:1ratio with an isotonic solution of sodium chloride, was used for four perfusions, and autologous blood was used for two perfusions in the course of 150 minutes. After 60 minutes perfusion 20 g enzymatic casein hydrolyzate were applied to the rumen. The levels of free amino acids in the perfusate were recorded after 60 minutes' perfusion [the first phase of perfusion] and at the end of the experiment [the second phase]. The levels of lysine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid increased after perfusions with bovine plasma during the first phase, the levels of glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and in one case of alanine, increased after perfusions with autologus blood. Simultaneously the level of valine decreased after perfusions with bovine plasma, and after perfusions with blood the levels of arginine and valine, and/or lysine, dropped. During the second phase of perfusion, the levels of all the observed amino acids except methionine [bovine plasma], and/or orginine and methionine [blood] rose in the perfusate. The experiments showed that the level of amino acids in the rumen content presented a decisive factor affecting amino acid absorption from the rumen into the blood. Transformation of the amino acids during their passage through the remen wall may be assumed, and glutamic acid is one of the chief products of this process.

  17. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    PubMed Central

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  18. Successful treatment for graft-versus-host disease after pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jei wen; Sageshima, Junichiro; Ciancio, Gaetano; Mattiazzi, Adela; Chen, Linda; Tsai, Hsin-Lin; Ruiz, Phillip; Burke, George W

    2014-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after pancreas transplantation is a rare but serious complication: All previously reported cases were fatal. We herein report three cases of GVHD after pancreas transplantation with favorable outcomes. Patients with a history of kidney (and pancreas) transplantation subsequently received a pancreas (and kidney) transplantation (i.e., pancreas retransplantation or pancreas after kidney transplantation) and developed acute GVHD. All of them responded to increased immunosuppression (e.g., steroid bolus, antithymocyte globulin) and retained normal graft function. Because the clinical manifestations are non-specific, vigilance is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis. We underscored the importance of a biopsy of involved organs and the clinicopathologic correlation in the early diagnosis of GVHD. Augmented immunosuppression to prevent progression from a self-limited disease to life-threatening pancytopenia or sepsis may be most critical to improve outcome.

  19. Elastase Deficiency Phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Canine Otitis Externa Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Shana R.; Doetkott, Curt; Rust, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa veterinary isolates were assayed for elastase and total matrix protease activity. The elastase activity of canine ear isolates was much less than that of strain PAO1 and that of all other veterinary isolates (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that canine ear isolates have a distinct elastase phenotype. PMID:11329471

  20. Displacement of maxillary canines after facemask treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oz, Aslihan Zeynep; Taner, Tülin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of case report is to present the displacement of maxillary canines after orthopedic treatment. A 9 year-old male patient with Class III malocclusion had treated by facemask treatment combination with rapid maxillary expansion and orthopedic changes were obtained. After two years, palatally impactions of maxillary canines were observed.

  1. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Streck, André Felipe; de Souza, Carine Kunzler; Gonçalves, Karla Rathje; Zang, Luciana; Pinto, Luciane Dubina; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2009-01-01

    The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population. PMID:24031389

  2. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    PubMed

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  3. Dependency of tissue necrosis on gelatin sponge particle size after canine hepatic artery embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Ryusaku; Kishi, Kazushi; Nishida, Norifumi; Yang, Ren J.; Sato, Morio

    1997-01-15

    Purpose. To determine the optimal size of gelatin sponge particles (GSPs) to produce maximum tumor necrosis with minimum side effects after canine hepatic artery embolization (HAE). Methods. GSPs were separated into four size ranges: A, up to 200 {mu}m (mean 152) as Gelfoam powder; B, 200-500 {mu}m (mean 336) as Gelfoam powder; C, 500-1000 {mu}m (mean 649) as Spongel; and D, 1000-2000 {mu}m (mean 1382) as Spongel. Three mongrel dogs were assigned randomly to HAE with each particle size. On day 7 after HAE, the livers were removed and subjected to pathological examination. Results. The mean volume of liver necrosis was 11% after embolization, with particle size A, 36.3% with B, 0% with C, and 1% with D. Coagulation necrosis was found in all livers with particles of sizes A and B, and in 1 of 6 with sizes C and D. Bile duct injury was found in five of six dogs with sizes A and B and in none with sizes C and D. Gallbladder necrosis was found in one dog with size B and pancreas necrosis in one with size A. Conclusion. GSPs of 500 {mu}m are considered optimally effective for tissue necrosis according to this model.

  4. Perfusion safety: new initiatives and enduring principles.

    PubMed

    Kurusz, M

    2011-09-01

    Perfusion safety has been studied and discussed extensively for decades. Many initiatives occurred through efforts of professional organizations to achieve recognition, establish accreditation and certification, promote consensus practice guidelines, and develop peer-reviewed journals as sources for dissemination of clinical information. Newer initiatives have their basis in other disciplines and include systems approach, Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement processes, error recognition, evidence-based methodologies, registries, equipment automation, simulation, and the Internet. Use of previously established resources such as written protocols, checklists, safety devices, and enhanced communication skills has persisted to the present in promoting perfusion safety and has reduced current complication rates to negligible levels.

  5. [Tertiary syphilis of the pancreas and liver in 82-year-old patient: case study].

    PubMed

    Denisova, T L; Tiul'tiaeva, L A; Lipatova, T E; Bakulev, A L; Alipova, L N; Apanasevich, A V; Bezrodnaia, L A; Borisova, E A

    2013-01-01

    It has been described a clinical case of late diagnosis of syphilis of the pancreas and liver of elderly patients. Two years before that it was wrongly diagnosed with cancer of the pancreas with liver metastases, and the patient was operated on with the imposition of cholecystostomy. It was conducted appropriate therapy and reconstructive surgery after verification of the diagnosis of syphilis of the pancreas and liver. PMID:24772875

  6. Effects of laser acupuncture on blood perfusion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-ju; Zeng, Chang-chun; Liu, Han-ping; Liu, Song-hao; Liu, Liang-gang

    2006-09-01

    Based on Pennes equation, the influences of the intensity and the impulse frequency of laser acupuncture on the point tissues' blood flow perfusion rate are discussed. We find that the blood perfusion rate of point tissue increases with the intensity of laser acupuncture increasing. After impulse laser acupuncture the point tissue blood perfusion rate increase little, but after continuum laser acupuncture the point tissues blood perfusion rate increase much.

  7. [Design of the Rolling Type Nasal Feeding Perfusion Apparatus].

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong; Yang, Yonghuan; Hu, Huiqin; Luo, Hongjun; Feng, Yunhao; Hao, Xiali

    2015-09-01

    At present, the existing problem in nasal feeding perfusion apparatus is laborious and instability. Designing the rolling type perfusion apparatus by using a roller pump, the problem is solved. Compared with the traditional perfusion apparatus, the advantage lies in liquid carrying only need once and simulating human swallowing process. Through testing and verification, the apparatus can be used in nasal feeding perfusion for elderly or patients.

  8. Studies on the three-dimensional temperature transients in the canine prostate during transurethral microwave thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Zhu, L; Xu, L X

    2000-08-01

    Thermal therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia requires accurate prediction of the temperature distribution induced by the heating within the prostatic tissue. In this study, the Pennes bioheat transfer equation was used to model the transient heat transfer inside the canine prostate during transurethral microwave thermal therapy. Incorporating the specific absorption rate of microwave energy in tissue, a closed-form analytical solution was obtained. Good agreement was found between the theoretical predictions and in-vivo experimental results. Effects of blood perfusion and the cooling at the urethral wall on the temperature rise were investigated within the prostate during heating. The peak intraprostatic temperatures attained by application of 5, 10, or 15 W microwave power were predicted to be 38 degrees C, 41 degrees C, and 44 degrees C. Results from this study will help optimize the thermal dose that can be applied to target tissue during the therapy.

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in canine intracranial meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, J H; Robertson, J L; Zimmerman, K L; Higgins, M A; Geiger, D A

    2009-09-01

    Meningiomas are the most common canine intracranial tumour. Neurologic disability and death from treatment failure remain problematic despite current surgical and radiotherapeutic treatments for canine intracranial meningiomas. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over-expression has been demonstrated in multiple canine malignancies, and COX-2 inhibitory treatment strategies have been shown to have both preventative and therapeutic effects in spontaneous and experimental models of cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate COX-2 expression in canine intracranial meningiomas. Immunohistochemical and Western blot (WB) analyses showed COX-2 expression in multiple tissues of the normal canine brain, and 87% (21/24) of intracranial meningiomas studied were immunoreactive to COX-2. No significant associations between COX-2 immunoreactivity and tumour grade were identified. Further studies are required to elucidate the physiologic roles of constitutive COX-2 expression in the central nervous system as well as its participation in meningioma tumourigenesis. PMID:19691646

  10. Apicotomy: surgical management of maxillary dilacerated or ankylosed canines.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Eustáquio A; Araújo, Cristiana V; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2013-12-01

    This clinical article reports a technique, apicotomy, for managing dilacerated or ankylosed canines. The records of 3 patients successfully treated with apicotomy are presented. Orthodontists observe clinically significant incidences of impacted maxillary canines in their daily practices. Several procedures have been described to bring an ankylosed, impacted tooth into occlusion. Luxation is the most widely used solution, but there are risks involved with that approach, and the success rate is low. Surgical repositioning has also been used, but morbidity is high, and the aggressiveness of the procedure might also contraindicate it. Ankylosis might be related to the anatomic position of the canine's root apex and its adjacent anatomic structures. Apicotomy is a guided fracture of a canine root apex, followed by its orthodontic traction. It is a conservative surgical alternative for treating impacted canines with dilacerations or apical root ankylosis.

  11. Morphology and immunoreactivity of canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytomas.

    PubMed

    Mikiewicz, M; Otrocka-Domagała, I; Paździor-Czapula, K; Gesek, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of morphology and immunophenotype of canine (19 cases) and feline (7 cases) extramedullary plasmacytomas. Tumours, located in skin, oral cavity and spleen were surgically excised, fixed and processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (CD79α, CD18, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein). Histologically, tumours were classified into mature, cleaved, asynchronous, polymorphous blastic, hyalin, or monomorphous blastic type. All evaluated tumours showed cytoplasmic expression of CD79α antigen. The expression of CD18 was observed in canine cutaneous and splenic tumours. In canine tumours expression of metallothionein was low to moderate, while in feline plasmacytomas - absent or low. In canine tumours, the mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index were positively correlated with the expression of metallothionein. In feline tumours no correlation between mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and metallothionein was found. This is the first study describing expression of metallothionein in canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytoma. PMID:27487508

  12. Apicotomy: surgical management of maxillary dilacerated or ankylosed canines.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Eustáquio A; Araújo, Cristiana V; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2013-12-01

    This clinical article reports a technique, apicotomy, for managing dilacerated or ankylosed canines. The records of 3 patients successfully treated with apicotomy are presented. Orthodontists observe clinically significant incidences of impacted maxillary canines in their daily practices. Several procedures have been described to bring an ankylosed, impacted tooth into occlusion. Luxation is the most widely used solution, but there are risks involved with that approach, and the success rate is low. Surgical repositioning has also been used, but morbidity is high, and the aggressiveness of the procedure might also contraindicate it. Ankylosis might be related to the anatomic position of the canine's root apex and its adjacent anatomic structures. Apicotomy is a guided fracture of a canine root apex, followed by its orthodontic traction. It is a conservative surgical alternative for treating impacted canines with dilacerations or apical root ankylosis. PMID:24286914

  13. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals. PMID:22698451

  14. Solid Serous Adenoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Katsourakis, Anastasios; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Noussios, Georgios; Chatzis, Iosiph; Chatzitheoclitos, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of a solid-type serous cystadenoma of the pancreas which is the 16th case reported worldwide and the first ever reported in Greece. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a hypervascular mass in the tail of the pancreas of a 72-year-old female who presented with mild abdominal pain. Distal pancreatectomy was performed by laparotomy and histological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a solid-type serous cystadenoma of the pancreas. Preoperative diagnosis of a solid-type serous cystadenoma of the pancreas is difficult, and, due to its benign nature, simple excision of the tumor is the recommended treatment. PMID:27525151

  15. Solid Serous Adenoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Noussios, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of a solid-type serous cystadenoma of the pancreas which is the 16th case reported worldwide and the first ever reported in Greece. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a hypervascular mass in the tail of the pancreas of a 72-year-old female who presented with mild abdominal pain. Distal pancreatectomy was performed by laparotomy and histological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a solid-type serous cystadenoma of the pancreas. Preoperative diagnosis of a solid-type serous cystadenoma of the pancreas is difficult, and, due to its benign nature, simple excision of the tumor is the recommended treatment. PMID:27525151

  16. An alternative method for neonatal cerebro-myocardial perfusion.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; De Rita, Fabrizio; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Several techniques have already been described for selective cerebral perfusion during repair of aortic arch pathology in children. One method combining cerebral with myocardial perfusion has also been proposed. A novel technique is reported here for selective and independent cerebro-myocardial perfusion for neonatal and infant arch surgery. Technical aspects and potential advantages are discussed.

  17. Role of hypothermic machine perfusion in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Andrea; Dutkowski, Philipp

    2015-06-01

    Machine liver perfusion has significantly evolved during the last ten years to optimize extended criteria liver grafts and to address the worldwide organ shortage. This review gives an overview on available ex vivo and in vivo data on hypothermic machine liver perfusion. We discuss also possible protective pathways and show most recent clinical applications of hypothermic machine liver perfusion in human.

  18. Early and late healing responses of normal canine artery to excimer laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Prevosti, L G; Leon, M B; Smith, P D; Dodd, J T; Bonner, R F; Robinowitz, M; Clark, R E; Virmani, R

    1988-07-01

    Acute in vitro histologic studies have shown that the pulsed xenon chloride excimer laser causes precise microablation without the surrounding thermal tissue injury associated with frequently used continuous-wave lasers such as the argon, carbon dioxide, and neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet lasers. However, the in vivo healing response of artery wall to excimer laser injury is not known. Accordingly, a xenon chloride excimer laser (308 nm, 40 nsec pulse width, 39 mJ/mm2/pulse) was transmitted via a 600 micron fused silica fiber to create 420 craters of varying depths (30 to 270 micron) in 21 normal canine femoral and carotid arteries. At 2 hours, 2 days, 10 days, and 42 days after excimer laser ablation, the artery segments were perfusion fixed in situ and analyzed by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. At 2 hours, craters were covered by a carpet of platelets and entrapped red blood cells. Fibrin and exposed collagen fibers were seen at the crater base. There was a sharp demarcation of the crater-artery wall interface without lateral laser tissue injury. At 2 days, adherent platelets persisted with thrombus covering the base of the craters. Early healing responses were present, consisting of polymorphonucleated leukocytes and new endothelial cells, which extended over the crater rims. At 10 days, no thrombi were seen, and healing continued with almost complete reendothelialization. Macrophages, fibroblasts, fibrin, and entrapped red blood cells were present below the reendothelialized surface. At 42 days, healing was complete with obliteration of the craters by fibrointimal ingrowth. The surface was completely covered by a smooth monolayer of axially aligned endothelial cells. There were no aneurysms or surface hyperplastic responses. These favorable healing responses in normal canine arteries suggest that pulsed lasers with high tissue absorption coefficients, such as the xenon chloride excimer laser, may be suitable energy sources for

  19. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism.

  20. Development of a bioartificial pancreas: II. Effects of oxygen on long-term entrapped betaTC3 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Papas, K K; Long, R C; Sambanis, A; Constantinidis, I

    1999-01-01

    Tissue-engineered pancreatic constructs based on immunoisolated, insulin-secreting cells are promising in providing an effective, relatively inexpensive, long-term treatment for type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes. An in vitro characterization of construct function under conditions mimicking the in vivo environment is essential prior to any extensive animal experimentation. Encapsulated cells may experience hypoxic conditions postimplantation as a result of one or more of the following: the design of the construct; the environment at the implantation site; or the development of fibrosis around the construct. In this work, we studied the effects of 3- and 4-day-long hypoxic episodes on the metabolic and secretory activities and on the levels of intracellular metabolites detectable by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) of alginate/poly-L-lysine/alginate entrapped betaTC3 mouse insulinomas continuously perfused with culture medium. Results show that, upon decreasing the oxygen concentration in the surrounding medium, the encapsulated cell system reached a new, lower metabolic and secretory state. Hypoxia drove the cells to a more anaerobic glycolytic metabolism, increased the rates of glucose consumption (GCR) and lactate production (LPR), and reduced the rates of oxygen consumption (OCR) and insulin secretion (ISR). Furthermore, hypoxia reduced the levels of intracellular nucleotide triphosphates (NTP) and phosphorylcholine (PC) and caused a rapid transient increase in inorganic phosphate (P(i)). Upon restoration of the oxygen concentration in the perfusion medium, all parameters returned to their prehypoxic levels within 2 to 3 days following either gradual unidirectional changes (ISR, NTP, PC) or more complicated dynamic patterns (OCR, GCR, LPR). A further increase in oxygen concentration in the perfusion medium drove OCR, ISR, NTP, PC, and P(i) to new, higher levels. It is concluded that (31)P NMR spectroscopy can be used for the prolonged

  1. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A; Kamshilin, Alexei A; Närhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  2. Simplified prototyping of perfusable polystyrene microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Reginald; Ahn, Byungwook; R. Myers, David; Qiu, Yongzhi; Sakurai, Yumiko; Moot, Robert; Mihevc, Emma; Trent Spencer, H.; Doering, Christopher; A. Lam, Wilbur

    2014-01-01

    Cell culture in microfluidic systems has primarily been conducted in devices comprised of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or other elastomers. As polystyrene (PS) is the most characterized and commonly used substrate material for cell culture, microfluidic cell culture would ideally be conducted in PS-based microsystems that also enable tight control of perfusion and hydrodynamic conditions, which are especially important for culture of vascular cell types. Here, we report a simple method to prototype perfusable PS microfluidics for endothelial cell culture under flow that can be fabricated using standard lithography and wet laboratory equipment to enable stable perfusion at shear stresses up to 300 dyn/cm2 and pumping pressures up to 26 kPa for at least 100 h. This technique can also be extended to fabricate perfusable hybrid PS-PDMS microfluidics of which one application is for increased efficiency of viral transduction in non-adherent suspension cells by leveraging the high surface area to volume ratio of microfluidics and adhesion molecules that are optimized for PS substrates. These biologically compatible microfluidic devices can be made more accessible to biological-based laboratories through the outsourcing of lithography to various available microfluidic foundries. PMID:25379106

  3. Nuclear cardiology: Myocardial perfusion and function

    SciTech Connect

    Seldin, D.W. )

    1991-08-01

    Myocardial perfusion studies continue to be a major focus of research, with new investigations of the relationship of exercise-redistribution thallium imaging to diagnosis, prognosis, and case management. The redistribution phenomenon, which seemed to be fairly well understood a few years ago, is now recognized to be much more complex than originally thought, and various strategies have been proposed to clarify the meaning of persistent defects. Pharmacologic intervention with dipyridamole and adenosine has become available as an alternative to exercise, and comparisons with exercise imaging and catheterization results have been described. Thallium itself is no longer the sole single-photon perfusion radiopharmaceutical; two new technetium agents are now widely available. In addition to perfusion studies, advances in the study of ventricular function have been made, including reports of studies performed in conjunction with technetium perfusion studies, new insights into cardiac physiology, and the prognostic and case-management information that function studies provide. Finally, work has continued with monoclonal antibodies for the identification of areas of myocyte necrosis. 41 references.

  4. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss.

  5. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss. PMID:26456751

  6. Cytogenetic investigations in four canine lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Susanne; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Reimann-Berg, Nicola; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Nolte, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    Four cases of canine lymphoma are presented, including histological examination and cytogenetic investigation. The first case showed a derivative chromosome 13, the second case showed a clonal trisomy 8 and the third case showed a complex karyotype with a clonal trisomy 13 and additional clonal trisomies of the chromosomes 20, 30 and 37, as well as a non-clonal tetrasomy 9. Case four showed a single trisomy 2. Comparing these results with human hematopoietic malignancies, there are notable similarities between both species. PMID:16309190

  7. Canine distemper epizootic in Everglades mink.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M W; Shindle, D B; Allison, A B; Terrell, S P; Mead, D G; Owen, M

    2009-10-01

    Four free-ranging mink, Neovison vison, collected between June and September 2004 in the Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park (FSPSP, Florida, USA), were examined for canine distemper virus (CDV) infection. Microscopic lesions and viral inclusions consistent with CDV infection were observed in three mink. Virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on all mink were positive for CDV. Anecdotal records of mink observations in FSPSP suggest a postepizootic decline in the mink population followed by an apparent recovery. We recommend further research to assess the status of the Everglades mink and the impact of CDV on this and other American mink populations in Florida. PMID:19901388

  8. Lactoferrin in canine sera: a pyometra study.

    PubMed

    Bartoskova, A; Adlerova, L; Kudlackova, H; Leva, L; Vitasek, R; Faldyna, M

    2009-07-01

    The concentration of lactoferrin was measured in canine sera from groups of healthy male dogs as well as pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs and was compared with that of bitches with pyometra. Lactoferrin concentrations were higher in bitches with pyometra. The role of elevated lactoferrin concentrations in the suppression of lymphocyte activity was examined in sera from bitches with pyometra in a series of investigations. Although the sera from bitches with pyometra were capable of suppressing lymphocyte activity, lactoferrin was not found to be involved in this action. PMID:19754566

  9. The genetics of canine skull shape variation.

    PubMed

    Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2013-02-01

    A dog's craniofacial diversity is the result of continual human intervention in natural selection, a process that began tens of thousands of years ago. To date, we know little of the genetic underpinnings and developmental mechanisms that make dog skulls so morphologically plastic. In this Perspectives, we discuss the origins of dog skull shapes in terms of history and biology and highlight recent advances in understanding the genetics of canine skull shapes. Of particular interest are those molecular genetic changes that are associated with the development of distinct breeds.

  10. Robot-Assisted Subtotal Pancreas-Preserving Duodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gheza, Federico; Raimondi, Paolo; D'Ugo, Stefano; Calatayud, David; Giulianotti, Pier C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Angiodysplasia of the duodenum is a rare disorder, often requiring surgical resection. Technical difficulties have made the use of the minimally invasive approach uncommon. Herein, we present a subtotal pancreas-preserving duodenectomy using robotic assistance. Methods: The patient is a 60-y-old female with a long medical history including chronic gastrointestinal bleeding due to angiodysplasia with intermittent melena, and requiring multiples blood transfusions. A capsule endoscopy and double-balloon upper endoscopy showed angiectasis, which appeared to be limited to the third and fourth portion of the duodenum and the proximal loops of the jejunum. Despite multiple endoscopic cauterizations, the patient continued to require blood transfusion for several years. The patient underwent a robot-assisted subtotal pancreas-preserving duodenectomy. Results: The operation lasted 420 min with minimal blood loss. The postoperative course was uneventful. The pathology report showed multiple small bowel mucosal and submucosal distorted and dilated vasculature, consistent with angiodysplasia. At 2-mo follow-up, the patient was totally asymptomatic. A barium swallow study showed contrast passed antegrade through the duodenojejunostomy with no evidence of obstruction, stricture, or leakage. Conclusion: The use of robotic assistance to perform a subtotal pancreas-preserving duodenectomy for the treatment of benign duodenal disease, such as angiodysplasia, is feasible and safe. The technical advantages include a high degree of freedom offered by the robotic instruments, as well as enhanced visualization, which allows for precise microdissection and microsuture, thereby preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. The use of robotic technology allows for a wider range of indications for minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23484581

  11. Endotherapy in symptomatic pancreas divisum: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kanth, Rajan; Samji, N Swetha; Inaganti, Anupama; Komanapalli, Sarah D; Rivera, Ramon; Antillon, Mainor R; Roy, Praveen K

    2014-01-01

    Pancreas divisum (PD) is the most common congenital variant of the pancreas and has been implicated as a cause of pancreatitis; however, endoscopic treatment is controversial. Our objective was to examine patient response to endotherapy for treatment of symptomatic PD in adult patients in a systematic review of the literature. A systematic review of all case series and case-control studies with ten or more patients undergoing endotherapy for treatment of symptomatic PD indicated by acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP), chronic pancreatitis (CP), or chronic abdominal pain (CAP) was performed. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception through February 2013 using [pancreas divisum] AND [endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)] OR [endotherapy] OR [endoscopy] as search terms. Importantly, the majority of studies were retrospective in nature, significantly limiting analysis capacity. Main outcomes measures included endotherapy response rate in patients with PD and ARP, CP, or CAP. Twenty-two studies were included in the review, with a total of 838 patients. Response to endoscopy was seen in 528 patients, but response rate varied by clinical presentation. Patients with ARP had a response rate ranging from 43% to 100% (median 76%). Reported response rates were lower in the other two groups, ranging from 21% to 80% (median 42%) for patients with CP and 11%-55% (median 33%) for patients with CAP. Complications reported included perforation, post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis, bleeding, and clogged stents. Endotherapy appears to offer an effective treatment option for patients with symptomatic PD, with the best results in patients presenting with ARP.

  12. Strategy to differentiate autoimmune pancreatitis from pancreas cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takuma, Kensuke; Kamisawa, Terumi; Gopalakrishna, Rajesh; Hara, Seiichi; Tabata, Taku; Inaba, Yoshihiko; Egawa, Naoto; Igarashi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a newly described entity of pancreatitis in which the pathogenesis appears to involve autoimmune mechanisms. Based on histological and immunohistochemical examinations of various organs of AIP patients, AIP appears to be a pancreatic lesion reflecting a systemic “IgG4-related sclerosing disease”. Clinically, AIP patients and patients with pancreatic cancer share many features, such as preponderance of elderly males, frequent initial symptom of painless jaundice, development of new-onset diabetes mellitus, and elevated levels of serum tumor markers. It is of uppermost importance not to misdiagnose AIP as pancreatic cancer. Since there is currently no diagnostic serological marker for AIP, and approach to the pancreas for histological examination is generally difficult, AIP is diagnosed using a combination of clinical, serological, morphological, and histopathological features. Findings suggesting AIP rather than pancreatic cancer include: fluctuating obstructive jaundice; elevated serum IgG4 levels; diffuse enlargement of the pancreas; delayed enhancement of the enlarged pancreas and presence of a capsule-like rim on dynamic computed tomography; low apparent diffusion coefficient values on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance image; irregular narrowing of the main pancreatic duct on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; less upstream dilatation of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, presence of other organ involvement such as bilateral salivary gland swelling, retroperitoneal fibrosis and hilar or intrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis; negative work-up for malignancy including endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration; and steroid responsiveness. Since AIP responds dramatically to steroid therapy, accurate diagnosis of AIP can avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection. PMID:22416175

  13. Effects of prolonged ethanol intake and malnutrition on rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    López, J M; Bombi, J A; Valderrama, R; Giménez, A; Parés, A; Caballería, J; Imperial, S; Navarro, S

    1996-01-01

    Nutritional factors, especially the protein and fat content of the diet, may change pancreatic morphology after ethanol induced injury. This study was performed to delineate the combined effects of a low fat diet and longterm ethanol ingestion on the rat pancreas. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained with five different diets for 12 weeks and the pancreas removed on the day they were killed. Rats fed a very low fat diet without ethanol (5% of total calories as lipid) developed malnutrition, pancreatic steatosis, and reduction in zymogen granules content. Animals fed a 35% lipid diet with ethanol also developed pancreatic steatosis but changes in zymogen granules content were not detected. Both malnutrition and longterm ethanol consumption increased pancreatic cholesterol ester content, and their effects were additive. Pancreatic steatosis was accompanied with hypercholesterolaemia. Amylase, lipase, and cholesterol esterase content were reduced in malnourished rats; but longterm ethanol ingestion, regardless of the nutritional state, increased lipase content and decreased amylase. It is suggested that high serum cholesterol concentrations and increased pancreatic lipase activity could cause accumulation of cholesterol esters in acinar cells. Fat accumulation in the pancreas has been reported as the earliest histopathological feature in alcoholic patients and may be responsible for cytotoxic effects on the acinar cells at the level of the cell membrane. Although it is difficult to extrapolate results in this animal study to the human situation, the results presented in this work might explain the higher incidence of pancreatitis is malnourished populations as well as in alcoholic subjects that is reported in dietary surveys. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8801213

  14. Automatic Data Processing to Achieve a Safe Telemedical Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, M. Elena; García-Sáez, Gema; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; Rigla, Mercedes; de Leiva, Alberto; Capel, Ismael; Pons, Belén; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of telemedicine for diabetes care has evolved over time, proving that it contributes to patient self-monitoring, improves glycemic control, and provides analysis tools for decision support. The timely development of a safe and robust ambulatory artificial pancreas should rely on a telemedicine architecture complemented with automatic data analysis tools able to manage all the possible high-risk situations and to guarantee the patient's safety. Methods The Intelligent Control Assistant system (INCA) telemedical artificial pancreas architecture is based on a mobile personal assistant integrated into a telemedicine system. The INCA supports four control strategies and implements an automatic data processing system for risk management (ADP-RM) providing short-term and medium-term risk analyses. The system validation comprises data from 10 type 1 pump-treated diabetic patients who participated in two randomized crossover studies, and it also includes in silico simulation and retrospective data analysis. Results The ADP-RM short-term risk analysis prevents hypoglycemic events by interrupting insulin infusion. The pump interruption has been implemented in silico and tested for a closed-loop simulation over 30 hours. For medium-term risk management, analysis of capillary blood glucose notified the physician with a total of 62 alarms during a clinical experiment (56% for hyperglycemic events). The ADP-RM system is able to filter anomalous continuous glucose records and to detect abnormal administration of insulin doses with the pump. Conclusions Automatic data analysis procedures have been tested as an essential tool to achieve a safe ambulatory telemedical artificial pancreas, showing their ability to manage short-term and medium-term risk situations. PMID:20144417

  15. Comparing Normothermic Machine Perfusion Preservation With Different Perfusates on Porcine Livers From Donors After Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Nassar, A; Farias, K; Buccini, L; Mangino, M J; Baldwin, W; Bennett, A; O'Rourke, C; Iuppa, G; Soliman, B G; Urcuyo-Llanes, D; Okamoto, T; Uso, T D; Fung, J; Abu-Elmagd, K; Miller, C; Quintini, C

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) may be an effective strategy to resuscitate livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD). There is no consensus regarding the efficacy of different perfusates on graft and bile duct viability. The aim of this study was to compare, in an NMP porcine DCD model, the preservation potential of three different perfusates. Twenty porcine livers with 60 min of warm ischemia were separated into four preservation groups: cold storage (CS), NMP with Steen solution (Steen; XVIVO Perfusion Inc., Denver, CO), Steen plus red blood cells (RBCs), or whole blood (WB). All livers were preserved for 10 h and reperfused to simulate transplantation for 24 h. During preservation, the NMP with Steen group presented the highest hepatocellular injury. At reperfusion, the CS group had the lowest bile production and the worst hepatocellular injury compared with all other groups, followed by NMP with Steen; the Steen plus RBC and WB groups presented the best functional and hepatocellular injury outcomes, with WB livers showing lower aspartate aminotransferase release and a trend toward better results for most parameters. Based on our results, a perfusate that contains an oxygen carrier is most effective in a model of NMP porcine DCD livers compared with Steen solution. Specifically, WB-perfused livers showed a trend toward better outcomes compared with Steen plus RBCs. PMID:26663737

  16. Plasticity and dedifferentiation within the pancreas: development, homeostasis, and disease.

    PubMed

    Puri, Sapna; Folias, Alexandra E; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Cellular identity is established by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that regulate organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Although some flexibility in fate potential is beneficial to overall organ health, dramatic changes in cellular identity can have disastrous consequences. Emerging data within the field of pancreas biology are revising current beliefs about how cellular identity is shaped by developmental and environmental cues under homeostasis and stress conditions. Here, we discuss the changes occurring in cellular states upon fate modulation and address how our understanding of the nature of this fluidity is shaping therapeutic approaches to pancreatic disorders such as diabetes and cancer.

  17. Asymptomatic leukemic-cell infiltration of the pancreas: US findings.

    PubMed

    Collado, Laura; Dardanelli, Esteban; Sierre, Sergio; Moguillansky, Silvia; Lipsich, José

    2011-06-01

    Pancreatic infiltration of leukemic cells is a very rare manifestation at the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood. Pancreatic enlargement in this situation is unusual and pancreatic involvement is often associated with biliary obstruction, cholestasis and pancreatitis. We report a 3-month-old girl who presented with asymptomatic leukemic infiltration of the pancreas, demonstrated by US with heterogeneous pancreatic enlargement associated with multiple hypoechogenic lesions, without cholestasis. Although these manifestations are rare, ALL should be considered a cause of pancreatic enlargement.

  18. Agent-based model of macrophage action on endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ignacio V; Gómez, Enrique J; Hernando, M Elena; Villares, Ricardo; Mellado, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an agent-based model of the action of macrophages on the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas. The aim of this model is to simulate the processes of beta cell proliferation and apoptosis and also the process of phagocytosis of cell debris by macrophages, all of which are related to the onset of the autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes. We have used data from the scientific literature to design the model. The results show that the model obtains good approximations to real processes and could be used to shed light on some open questions concerning such processes.

  19. [Differential sonographic diagnosis. Pancreas (pseudo) cyst--choledochus cyst].

    PubMed

    Brockmann, W P; Klapdor, R; Kremer, B

    1984-10-01

    The case of a woman patient with an extended prepapillary choledochal cyst and pancreaticobiliary reflux shows that it is necessary to consider the possibility of a choledochal cyst on detecting a cystic structure in the head of the pancreas (condition after acute pancreatitis); besides this, differential diagnosis will have to consider a pancreatic pseudocyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, a retroperitoneal cyst or even vascular aneurysm. If necessary, the physician should take suitable diagnostic measures before performing any percutaneous cyst drainage which he may have planned, since this may entail the risk of biliary peritonitis.

  20. The human pancreas proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Angelika; Pontén, Fredrik; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Schwenk, Jochen M; Uhlén, Mathias; Korsgren, Olle; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of both exocrine glands and intermingled endocrine cells to execute its diverse functions, including enzyme production for digestion of nutrients and hormone secretion for regulation of blood glucose levels. To define the molecular constituents with elevated expression in the human pancreas, we employed a genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of the human transcriptome to identify genes with elevated expression in the human pancreas. This quantitative transcriptomics data was combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to allow mapping of the corresponding proteins to different compartments and specific cell types within the pancreas down to the single cell level. Analysis of whole pancreas identified 146 genes with elevated expression levels, of which 47 revealed a particular higher expression as compared to the other analyzed tissue types, thus termed pancreas enriched. Extended analysis of in vitro isolated endocrine islets identified an additional set of 42 genes with elevated expression in these specialized cells. Although only 0.7% of all genes showed an elevated expression level in the pancreas, this fraction of transcripts, in most cases encoding secreted proteins, constituted 68% of the total mRNA in pancreas. This demonstrates the extreme specialization of the pancreas for production of secreted proteins. Among the elevated expression profiles, several previously not described proteins were identified, both in endocrine cells (CFC1, FAM159B, RBPJL and RGS9) and exocrine glandular cells (AQP12A, DPEP1, GATM and ERP27). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the pancreas transcriptome and proteome with a comprehensive list of genes and proteins with elevated expression in pancreas. This list represents an important starting point for further studies of the molecular repertoire of pancreatic cells and their relation to disease states or treatment effects.

  1. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    PubMed

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly.

  2. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nora M; Sayar, Beyza S; Origgi, Francesco C; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-03-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients.

  3. The Incidence of Impacted Maxillary Canines in a Kosovar Population

    PubMed Central

    Gashi, Ali; Kamberi, Blerim; Ademi-Abdyli, Resmije; Perjuci, Ferijale; Sahatçiu-Gashi, Arjeta

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of impacted maxillary canines in a Kosovar population. Materials and Methods. The study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the records of 8101 patients treated in the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo between August 2001 and February 2004. The chi-squared test was used to examine potential differences in the distribution of impacted maxillary canines stratified by gender, age, location (left or right), and position. P < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results. It was found that the incidence of impacted maxillary canines was 1.62%. Of the 131 impacted maxillary canines, 101 were in female patients and 30 were in male patients, a statistically significant difference. Ages were in the range of 9 to >20 years, with a mean age of 24.38 ± 8.09 years. Of these subjects, 99 (75.57%) had unilaterally impacted maxillary canines, while 32 (24.43%) had bilateral impactions, a statistically significant difference (P < 0.00002). Impacted canines in 92 subjects (70.2%) were palatally placed, and 18 (13.7%) were labially placed. This difference was also statistically significant (P < 0.00001). Conclusion. The incidence of impacted maxillary canines in the sample Kosovar population was 1.62%, which is comparable to the findings from previous studies. PMID:27355063

  4. Cone-beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Luana Costa; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; da Silva, Silvio José Albergaria; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Campos, Paulo Sérgio Flores

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Materials and Methods Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Results Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Conclusion Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth. PMID:25473636

  5. Rapid maxillary canine retraction by dental distraction: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Chitharanjan, Arun; Kailasam, Vignesh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to perform rapid maxillary canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament and investigate the rate and amount of canine retraction, amount of anchor loss, the nature of tooth movement achieved, and radiographic changes in the periodontal ligament region during and after canine distraction. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 distractions ranging in age from 14 years to 25 years who needed canine retraction and first premolar extraction in the maxillary arch. Ten canine distractions were carried out with custom-made, tooth-borne intra-oral distraction device. Results: The results indicate that the periodontal ligament can be distracted just like the mid-palatal suture in rapid palatal expansion and the maxillary canines are retracted rapidly into the first premolar extraction space at the rate of about 2.53 mm/week. Conclusion: Though this study indicates that the periodontal ligament can be distracted to elicit rapid tooth movement, the long-term effects of canine distraction are not well known and need close monitoring. PMID:25298710

  6. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nora M; Sayar, Beyza S; Origgi, Francesco C; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-03-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. PMID:26739040

  7. Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.

    1985-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

  8. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted. PMID:26861285

  9. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-02-04

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted.

  10. Immunology and pathogenesis of canine demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Lluis; Ravera, Ivan; Silbermayr, Katja

    2014-10-01

    Demodex mites colonized the hair follicles and sebaceous glands of mammals millions of years ago and have remained relatively unchanged in this protected ecologic niche since then. The host immune system detects and tolerates their presence. Toll-like receptor-2 of keratinocytes has been demonstrated to recognize mite chitin and to elicit an innate immune response. The subsequent acquired immune response is poorly understood at present, but there is experimental and clinical evidence that this is the main mechanism in the control of mite proliferation. A transgenic mouse model (STAT(-/-) /CD28(-/-) ) has demonstrated that the immune response is complex, probably involving both cellular and humoral mechanisms and requiring the role of co-stimulatory molecules (CD28). It is known that a genetic predisposition for developing canine juvenile generalized demodicosis exists; however, the primary defect leading to the disease remains unknown. Once the mite proliferation is advanced, dogs show a phenotype that is similar to the T-cell exhaustion characterized by low interleukin-2 production and high interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β production by lymphocytes, as described in other viral and parasitic diseases. Acaricidal treatment (macrocyclic lactones) decreases the antigenic load and reverses T-cell exhaustion, leading to a clinical cure. Although in recent years there have been significant advances in the management and understanding of this important and complex canine disease, more research in areas such as the aetiology of the genetic predisposition and the immune control of the mite populations is clearly needed.

  11. Gene expression pattern in canine mammary osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, K M; Majewska, A; Szyszko, K; Dolka, I; Motyl, T; Król, M

    2011-01-01

    Canine mammary sarcomas are usually very aggressive and easily metastasize. Unfortunately the biology of this type of tumor is not well known because they are a very rare type of tumors. The aim of this study was to find differences in gene expression patterns in canine mammary osteosarcomas (malignant) versus osteomas (benign) using DNA microarrays. Our microarray experiment showed that 11 genes were up-regulated in osteosarcoma in comparison to osteoma whereas 36 genes were down-regulated. Among the up-regulated genes were: PDK1, EXT1, and EIF4H which are involved in AKT/PI3K and GLI/Hedgehog pathways. These genes play an important role in cell biology (cancer cell proliferation) and may be essential in osteosarcoma formation and development. Analyzing the down-regulated genes, the most interesting seemed to be HSPB8 and SEPP1. HSPB8 is a small heat shock protein that plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and breast carcinogenesis. Also SEPP1 may play a role in carcinogenesis, as its down-regulation may induce oxidative stress possibly resulting in carcinogenesis. The preliminary results of the present study indicate that the up-regulation of three genes EXT1, EIF4H, and PDK1 may play an essential role in osteosarcoma formation, development and proliferation. In our opinion the cross-talk between GLI/Hedgehog and PI3K/AKT pathways may be a key factor to increase tumor proliferation and malignancy. PMID:21528706

  12. Molecular epidemiology of canine histoplasmosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yoshiteru; Sano, Ayako; Ueda, Yachiyo; Inomata, Tomo; Takayama, Akiko; Poonwan, Nateewan; Nanthawan, Mekha; Mikami, Yuzuru; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2007-05-01

    A recent case of canine histoplasmosis, the first confirmed case of disseminated infection accompanied by carcinoma in Japan, was diagnosed by clinical characteristics, histopathological examination, chest radiographs, ocular fundoscopy and molecular biological data. The clinical manifestations were not limited to cutaneous symptoms but were referable to disseminated infection, similar to human autochthonous cases. The partial sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1/2) regions of the ribosomal DNA genes of this and other Japanese canine histoplasmosis strains were 99-100% identical to the sequence AB211551 derived from a human isolate in Thailand, and showed a close relationship to the sequences derived from Japanese autochthonous systemic and cutaneous human cases. The phylogenetic analysis of 97 sequences of the ITS1/2 region disclosed six genotypes. The genotypes derived from Japanese autochthonous human and dog cases belonged to the cluster consisting of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. farciminosum sequences, indicating that these varieties might cause not only cutaneous but also systemic histoplasmosis, regardless of their host species. The current status of the 3 varieties of Histoplasma capsulatum according to the host species remains a subject of further investigation. PMID:17464845

  13. Canine hematopoiesis in a model of combined injury

    SciTech Connect

    MacVittie, T.J.; Monroy, R.L.; Fink, M.; Gruber, D.F.; Patchen, M.L.

    1983-04-29

    The development of a large animal model for CI within the context of a nuclear disaster required that we describe, experimentally, the essential features of the radiobiology of acute effects in the canine. The large-animal model is also appropriate for assessing the immunologic, pharmacologic, and surgical modes of intervention of following CI. The canine model of CI at the AFRRI has stressed three developmental aspects: (a) establishing the radiobiology of the canine hemopoietic system, (b) choosing a relevant model for peritoneal sepsis, and (c) identifying several choices for physical trauma. This paper stresses the relevance of the first aspect, the radiation-induced suppression and recovery of the hemopoietic system.

  14. Canine Pluripotent Stem Cells: Are They Ready for Clinical Applications?

    PubMed

    Betts, Dean H; Tobias, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    The derivation of canine embryonic stem cells and generation of canine-induced pluripotent stem cells are significant achievements that have unlocked the potential for developing novel cell-based disease models, drug discovery platforms, and transplantation therapies in the dog. A progression from concept to cure in this clinically relevant companion animal will not only help our canine patients but also help advance human regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved before pluripotent cells can be used clinically in a safe and reproducible manner. PMID:26664969

  15. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Brijbassie, Alan; Stelow, Edward; Shami, Vanessa M

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is an extremely rare tumor with the normal pancreas being entirely devoid of squamous cells. It, however, has been noted that during inflammatory episodes, squamous metaplasia of ductal columnar cells has been observed; however, transformation to SCC is rare. We herein describe a case of pancreatic SCC and provide a review of existing literature.

  16. Using pancreas tissue slices for in situ studies of islet of Langerhans and acinar cell biology.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Anja; Cohrs, Christian M; Tsata, Vasiliki; Chouinard, Julie A; Selck, Claudia; Stertmann, Julia; Reichelt, Saskia; Rose, Tobias; Ehehalt, Florian; Weitz, Jürgen; Solimena, Michele; Slak Rupnik, Marjan; Speier, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Studies on the cellular function of the pancreas are typically performed in vitro on its isolated functional units, the endocrine islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acini. However, these approaches are hampered by preparation-induced changes of cell physiology and the lack of an intact surrounding. We present here a detailed protocol for the preparation of pancreas tissue slices. This procedure is less damaging to the tissue and faster than alternative approaches, and it enables the in situ study of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cell physiology in a conserved environment. Pancreas tissue slices facilitate the investigation of cellular mechanisms underlying the function, pathology and interaction of the endocrine and exocrine components of the pancreas. We provide examples for several experimental applications of pancreas tissue slices to study various aspects of pancreas cell biology. Furthermore, we describe the preparation of human and porcine pancreas tissue slices for the validation and translation of research findings obtained in the mouse model. Preparation of pancreas tissue slices according to the protocol described here takes less than 45 min from tissue preparation to receipt of the first slices.

  17. Roles of Commensal Microbiota in Pancreas Homeostasis and Pancreatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Lopes, Camila; Velloso, Fernando J.; Campopiano, Julia C.; Sogayar, Mari C.; Correa, Ricardo G.

    2015-01-01

    The pancreas plays a central role in metabolism, allowing ingested food to be converted and used as fuel by the cells throughout the body. On the other hand, the pancreas may be affected by devastating diseases, such as pancreatitis, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC), and diabetes mellitus (DM), which generally results in a wide metabolic imbalance. The causes for the development and progression of these diseases are still controversial; therefore it is essential to better understand the underlying mechanisms which compromise the pancreatic homeostasis. The interest in the study of the commensal microbiome increased extensively in recent years, when many discoveries have illustrated its central role in both human physiology and maintenance of homeostasis. Further understanding of the involvement of the microbiome during the development of pathological conditions is critical for the improvement of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the present review, we discuss recent findings on the behavior and functions played by the microbiota in major pancreatic diseases and provide further insights into its potential roles in the maintenance of pancreatic steady-state activities. PMID:26347203

  18. Metastatic tumors to the pancreas: The role of surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sperti, Cosimo; Moletta, Lucia; Patanè, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases from other primary malignancies are a rare entity. By far, the most common primary cancer site resulting in an isolated pancreatic metastasis is the kidney, followed by colorectal cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, lung carcinoma and sarcoma. Only few data on the surgical outcome of pancreatic resections performed for metastases from other primary tumor have been published, and there are no guidelines to address the surgical treatment for these patients. In this study, we performed a review of the published literature, focusing on the early and long-term results of surgery for the most frequent primary tumors metastasizing to the pancreas. Results for the Literature’s analysis show that in last years an increasing number of surgical resections have been performed in selected patients with limited pancreatic disease. Pancreatic resection for metastatic disease can be performed with acceptable mortality and morbidity rates. The usefulness of pancreatic resection is mainly linked to the biology of the primary tumor metastasizing to the pancreas. The benefit of metastasectomy in terms of patient survival has been observed for metastases from renal cell cancer, while for other primary tumors, such as lung and breast cancers, the role of surgery is mainly palliative. PMID:25320654

  19. Pdx1 regulates pancreas tubulogenesis and E-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Marty-Santos, Leilani; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    Current efforts in developing treatments for diabetes focus on in vitro generation of functional β-cells for cell replacement therapies; however, these attempts have only been partly successful because factors involved in islet formation remain incompletely understood. The embryonic pancreas, which gives rise to β-cells, undergoes early epithelial rearrangements, including transient stratification of an initially monolayered epithelium, followed by microlumen formation and later resolution into branches. Within the epithelium, a multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) population is specified, giving rise to three important lineages: acinar, ductal and endocrine. Pdx1 is a transcription factor required for pancreas development and lineage specification; however, few Pdx1 targets that regulate pancreatogenesis have been identified. We find that pancreatic defects in Pdx1(-/-) embryos initiate at the time when the progenitor pool is specified and the epithelium should resolve into branches. Pdx1(-/-) microlumen diameters expand aberrantly, resulting in failure of epithelial tubulogenesis and ductal plexus formation. Pdx1(-/-) epithelial cell proliferation is decreased and the MPC pool is rapidly lost. We identify two conserved Pdx1 binding sites in the epithelial cadherin (E-cad, Cdh1) promoter, and show that Pdx1 directly binds and activates E-cad transcription. In addition, Pdx1 is required in vivo for maintenance of E-cad expression, actomyosin complex activity and cell shape. These findings demonstrate a novel link between regulators of epithelial architecture, specification of pancreatic cell fate and organogenesis.

  20. The bioartificial pancreas (BAP): Biological, chemical and engineering challenges.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Veronica; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The bioartificial pancreas (BAP) represents a viable solution for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). By encapsulating pancreatic cells in a semipermeable membrane to allow nutrient, insulin and glucose exchange, the side effects produced by islets and whole organ transplantation-related immunosuppressive therapy can be circumvented. Several factors, mainly related to materials properties, capsule morphology and biological environment, play a key role in optimizing BAP systems. The BAP is an extremely complex delivery system for insulin. Despite considerable efforts, in some instances meeting with limited degree of success, a BAP capable of restoring physiological pancreas functions without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and of controlling blood glucose levels especially in large animal models and a few clinical trials, does not exist. The state of the art in terms of materials, fabrication techniques and cell sources, as well as the current status of commercial devices and clinical trials, are described in this overview from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. In addition, challenges to the creation of effective BAP systems are highlighted including future perspectives in terms of component integration from both a biological and an engineering viewpoint.

  1. [A case of solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Kuroiwa, Ganji; Sato, Yasushi; Kobune, Masayoshi; Takimoto, Rishu; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Hirata, Koichi; Kato, Junji

    2009-07-01

    A 58-year-old woman without any clinical symptoms had a routine health check-up, during which a mass in the head of the pancreas was detected by US. Abdominal US showed a round, hypoechogenic nodule of the pancreatic head. The tumor measured 3cm in diameter and contained an anechoic area. CT revealed a well-demarcated tumor in the pancreatic head. The tumor was partially enhanced by contrast medium, but the left portion of the tumor, which US had shown to be an anechoic area was not enhanced. Imaging findings suggested an endocrine tumor with cystic changes. A pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. The tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells. There was a typical patternless growth of short fascicles and a short storiform arrangement of cells in the stroma with varying degrees of collagenization. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD34 and Bcl-2. Based on the light microscopic morphology and immunostaining profile, the tumor was classified as a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pancreas.

  2. Pancreatic pseudocyst or a cystic tumor of the pancreas?

    PubMed Central

    Rabie, Mohammad Ezzedien; El Hakeem, Ismail; Al Skaini, Mohammad Saad; El Hadad, Ahmad; Jamil, Salim; Tahir Shah, Mian; Obaid, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesions of the pancreas and may complicate acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, or pancreatic trauma. While the majority of acute pseudocysts resolve spontaneously, few may require drainage. On the other hand, pancreatic cystic tumors, which usually require extirpation, may disguise as pseudocysts. Hence, the distinction between the two entities is crucial for a successful outcome. We conducted this study to highlight the fundamental differences between pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic tumors so that relevant management plans can be devised. We reviewed the data of patients with pancreatic cystic lesions that underwent intervention between June 2007 and December 2010 in our hospital. We identified 9 patients (5 males and 4 females) with a median age of 40 years (range, 30–70 years). Five patients had pseudocysts, 2 had cystic tumors, and 2 had diseases of undetermined pathology. Pancreatic pseudocysts were treated by pseudocystogastrostomy in 2 cases and percutaneous drainage in 3 cases. One case recurred after percutaneous drainage and required pseudocystogastrostomy. The true pancreatic cysts were serous cystadenoma, which was treated by distal pancreatectomy, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, which was initially treated by drainage, like a pseudocyst, and then by distal pancreatectomy when its true nature was revealed. We conclude that every effort should be exerted to distinguish between pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic tumors of the pancreas to avoid the serious misjudgement of draining rather than extirpating a pancreatic cystic tumor. Additionally, percutaneous drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst is a useful adjunct that may substitute for surgical drainage. PMID:23958054

  3. Management of mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Testini, Mario; Gurrado, Angela; Lissidini, Germana; Venezia, Pietro; Greco, Luigi; Piccinni, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual management of mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas. A systematic review was performed in December 2009 by consulting PubMed MEDLINE for publications and matching the key words “pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm”, “pancreatic mucinous cystic tumour”, “pancreatic mucinous cystic mass”, “pancreatic cyst”, and “pancreatic cystic neoplasm” to identify English language articles describing the diagnosis and treatment of the mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. In total, 16 322 references ranging from January 1969 to December 2009 were analysed and 77 articles were identified. No articles published before 1996 were selected because MCNs were not previously considered to be a completely autonomous disease. Definition, epidemiology, anatomopathological findings, clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, treatment and prognosis were reviewed. MCNs are pancreatic mucin-producing cysts with a distinctive ovarian-type stroma localized in the body-tail of the gland and occurring in middle-aged females. The majority of MCNs are slow growing and asymptomatic. The prevalence of invasive carcinoma varies between 6% and 55%. Preoperative diagnosis depends on a combination of clinical features, tumor markers, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound with cyst fluid analysis, and positron emission tomography-CT. Surgery is indicated for all MCNs. PMID:21128317

  4. Elucidation of cell secretion: pancreas led the way.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    Secretion is a basic process in all cells and is required for several important functions such as neurotransmission, the secretion of digestive juices from the exocrine pancreas and the release of hormones from endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. Due to these important functions, the mechanism of cell secretion has been intensely investigated for over half a century. However, it is only in the last decade, with the discovery of a new cellular structure, the 'porosome' or 'fusion pore', and the elucidation of SNARE-induced membrane fusion, that has finally provided us with an understanding of cell secretion at the molecular level. The 'porosome', a supramolecular structure at the cell plasma membrane, was first discovered in the exocrine pancreas, and subsequently in endocrine/neuroendocrine cells and in neurons. The structure and dynamics of the 'porosome' in live cells at nanometer resolution and in real-time, its composition and functional reconstitution in lipid membrane, have all been determined. These findings have fundamentally changed our understanding of cell secretion and provide a clear understanding of this highly regulated process in cells.

  5. Dorothy Hodgkin Lecture 2013: Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hovorka, R.

    2015-01-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade. PMID:25819473

  6. Polyomavirus associated nephropathy after kidney and pancreas transplantation: case report.

    PubMed

    Gracin, Sonja; Vojtusek, Ivana Kovacević; Vidas, Zeljko; Knotek, Mladen; Skelin, Ika Kardum; Ljubanović, Danica

    2010-06-01

    Polyomavirus virus associated nephropathy (PVAN) is an important cause of graft failure in the renal transplant population. The prevalence of PVAN has increased from 1% to 10% in the past decade, leading to loss of transplanted organ in 30% to 80% of cases. In the absence of specific antiviral drugs, early detection of disease and modification/reduction of immunosuppressive regimen is currently the cornerstone of therapy. In the setting of multiorgan transplantation, like simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPKT), diagnosis and therapy of PVAN can be even more challenging problem. We report a first described case of PVAN in patient after SPKT in Croatia. Patient is a 32 years old Caucasian male with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal failure, diagnosed for PVAN 6 month after SPKT. Patient was treated with reduced immunosuppressive regimen. At 32 month follow up, patient has preserved kidney and pancreas function with estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) rate of 91 mL/min and no signs of PVAN on his 2 year protocol kidney biopsy.

  7. Role of Connexins and Pannexins in the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cigliola, Valentina; Allagnat, Florent; Berchtold, Lukas Adrian; Lamprianou, Smaragda; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Meda, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    The pancreas produces enzymes with a digestive function and hormones with a metabolic function, which are produced by distinct cell types of acini and islets, respectively. Within these units, secretory cells coordinate their functioning by exchanging information via signals that flow in the intercellular spaces and are generated either at distance (several neural and hormonal inputs) or nearby the pancreatic cells themselves (inputs mediated by membrane ionic-specific channels and by ionic- and metabolite-permeant pannexin channels and connexin "hemichannels"). Pancreatic secretory cells further interact via the extracellular matrix of the pancreas (inputs mediated by integrins) and directly with neighboring cells, by mechanisms that do not require extracellular mediators (inputs mediated by gap and tight junction channels). Here, we review the expression and function of the connexins and pannexins that are expressed by the main secretory cells of the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells. Available data show that the patterns of expression of these proteins differ in acini and islets, supporting distinct functions in the physiological secretion of pancreatic enzymes and hormones. Circumstantial evidence further suggests that alterations in the signaling provided by these proteins are involved in pancreatic diseases.

  8. European experts consensus statement on cystic tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Verbeke, Caroline; Salvia, Roberto; Klöppel, Gunter; Werner, Jens; McKay, Colin; Friess, Helmut; Manfredi, Riccardo; Van Cutsem, Eric; Löhr, Matthias; Segersvärd, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas are increasingly recognized. While some lesions show benign behaviour (serous cystic neoplasm), others have an unequivocal malignant potential (mucinous cystic neoplasm, branch- and main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and solid pseudo-papillary neoplasm). European expert pancreatologists provide updated recommendations: diagnostic computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging are indicated in all patients with cystic lesion of the pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound with cyst fluid analysis may be used but there is no evidence to suggest this as a routine diagnostic method. The role of pancreatoscopy remains to be established. Resection should be considered in all symptomatic lesions, in mucinous cystic neoplasm, main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and solid pseudo-papillary neoplasm as well as in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with mural nodules, dilated main pancreatic duct >6mm and possibly if rapidly increasing in size. An oncological partial resection should be performed in main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and in lesions with a suspicion of malignancy, otherwise organ preserving procedures may be considered. Frozen section of the transection margin in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is suggested. Follow up after resection is recommended for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, solid pseudo-papillary neoplasm and invasive cancer.

  9. Purification of monolayer cell cultures of the endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Braaten, J T; Järlfors, U; Smith, D S; Mintz, D H

    1975-01-01

    Experimental use of primary cultures of endocrine pancreas is constrained by early, vigorous proliferation of fibroblastoid cells. The addition of heavy metals, sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate, phenyl mercuric acetate, phenyl mercuric nitrate and sodium aurothiomalate to the culture media selectively destroys these fibroblastoid cells yielding highly enriched, morphologically intact, functionally competent endocrine cells that are capable of cell replication. This action of heavy metals appears to be due to reversible inhibition of sulfhydryl enzymes since glutathione and thioglycolate were demonstrated to completely inhibit the cytotoxic effects of the mercury and gold containing agents, respectively. Certain variables in the application of the mercurial agents to pancreatic endocrine cell cultures were defined, most notably the enhanced sensitivity of fetal vs. neonatal tissue, and in inverse relationship of cell density to effective toxicity. After removal of the heavy metal agent from the culture media, many pancreatic islets send out cytoplasmic projections, containing large numbers of oriented microtubules which serve as bridging units to adjacent endocrine cells. The sustained availability of virtually pure pancreatic endocrine cell cultures, which results from the application of mercury to the culture media will undoubtedly permit many aspects of the cell biology of the endocrine pancreas to be directly and sequentially assailed. PMID:1239830

  10. Kinetics of canine dental calculus crystallization: an in vitro study on the influence of inorganic components of canine saliva.

    PubMed

    Borah, Ballav M; Halter, Timothy J; Xie, Baoquan; Henneman, Zachary J; Siudzinski, Thomas R; Harris, Stephen; Elliott, Matthew; Nancollas, George H

    2014-07-01

    This work identifies carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) as the primary component of canine dental calculus, and corrects the long held belief that canine dental calculus is primarily CaCO3 (calcite). CAP is known to be the principal crystalline component of human dental calculus, suggesting that there are previously unknown similarities in the calcification that occurs in these two unique oral environments. In vitro kinetic experiments mimicking the inorganic components of canine saliva have examined the mechanisms of dental calculus formation. The solutions were prepared so as to mimic the inorganic components of canine saliva; phosphate, carbonate, and magnesium ion concentrations were varied individually to investigate the roll of these ions in controlling the nature of the phases that is nucleated. To date, the inorganic components of the canine oral systems have not been investigated at concentrations that mimic those in vivo. The mineral composition of the synthetic calculi grown under these conditions closely resembled samples excised from canines. This finding adds new information about calculus formation in humans and canines, and their sensitivity to chemicals used to treat these conditions. PMID:24776659

  11. The effects of dipyridamole on blood flow and oxygen handling in the acutely ischaemic and normal canine myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, R. J.; Parratt, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    1. The effects of the intravenous administration of dipyridamole (0·25 mg/kg) were examined in a canine preparation that enabled simultaneous measurements to be made of blood flow in ischaemic and in essentially normal areas of the myocardium and also of oxygen handling (availability, consumption and extraction) in both these regions. 2. When administered to dogs anaesthetized with trichlorethylene 2-3 h after acute ligation of the descending branch of the left coronary artery, dipyridamole markedly increased blood flow in essentially normal regions (left circumflex flow) but failed to increase flow in the area supplied by the ligated vessel (measured by 133xenon clearance and by retrograde flow). In five of the six animals definite decreases in flow (` stealing ') were observed in the ischaemic region. These flow changes were related to the decreased trans-ventricular perfusion pressure (diastolic peripheral coronary pressure minus left ventricular end-diastolic pressure) and were accompanied by electrocardiographic evidence of increasingly severe myocardial ischaemia. The results support the suggestion that only increasing the perfusion gradient will usefully improve blood flow (and hence oxygen availability) to the acutely ischaemic myocardium. 3. Despite these effects on ischaemic muscle blood flow, the oxygen tension of the blood draining the infarcting muscle was markedly elevated. The conclusion is drawn that dipyridamole decreases the efficiency of the myocardial circulation by opening up vessels that do not take part in tissue exchange. PMID:4777702

  12. Luminal perfusion of isolated gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Waisbren, S J; Geibel, J; Boron, W F; Modlin, I M

    1994-04-01

    We have extended to rabbit gastric glands the technique for perfusing single isolated renal tubules. We isolated glands by hand dissection and used concentric glass pipettes to hold them and perfuse their lumina. Parietal cells (PCs), which tended to be located toward the gland opening, were identified by their pyramidal shape, large size, and autofluorescence. Chief cells (CCs) were identified by their round shape and smaller size. In some experiments, we perfused the lumen with hydroxypyrenetrisulfonate, a pH-sensitive fluorophore, at pH 7.4 and used digital image processing to monitor luminal pH (pH1). Solutions were buffered with N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid to pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C. With fast perfusion, we found no evidence of decreased pH1, even with stimulation by 10 microM carbachol. With slow perfusion, pH1 often fell below the dye's sensitive range (pH < 5), especially at low perfusate buffering power. In other experiments, we loaded cells with the pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein and monitored intracellular pH (pHi) in multiple individual PCs and CCs in a single gland. Mean pHi was 7.21 +/- 0.02 (n = 136 cells) for PCs and 7.27 +/- 0.03 (n = 103) for CCs. To examine the response to decreased pH1 and basolateral pH (pHb), we lowered pHb to 6.4 or lowered pH1 to 3.4 or 1.4. Lowering pHb to 6.4 for approximately 1 min caused pHi to fall reversibly by 0.39 +/- 0.05 (n = 53) in PCs and 0.58 +/- 0.03 (n = 50) in CCs. Lowering pH1 to 3.4 or 1.4 caused no significant pHi changes in PCs (n = 38 and 82) or in CCs (n = 44 and 77). Carbachol did not affect the response to changes in pH1 or pHb. We conclude that the apical surfaces of PCs and CCs are unusually resistant to extreme pH gradients.

  13. Validation of a commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. Objective The purpose of the study was to validate a new automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP method (Gentian cCRP). Methods Studies of imprecision, accuracy, prozone effect, interference, limit of quantification, and stability under different storage conditions were performed. The new method was compared with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. Results Total imprecision was < 2.4% for 4 tested serum pools analyzed twice daily over 10 days. The method was linear under dilution, and no prozone effect was detected at a concentration of 1200 mg/L. Recovery after spiking serum with purified canine CRP at 2 different concentrations was 123% and 116%, respectively. No interference from hemoglobin or triglycerides (10 g/L) was detected. CRP was stable for 14 days at 4°C and 22°C. In the method comparison study, there was good agreement between the validated human CRP assay and the new canine-specific assay. Healthy dogs had CRP concentrations that were less than the limit of quantification of the Gentian cCRP method (6.8 mg/L). Conclusions The new canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay is a reliable and rapid method for measuring canine CRP, suitable for clinical use due to the option for an automated assay. PMID:24798319

  14. Pancreas and Diabetes Mellitus: The Relationship between the Organ and the Disease.

    PubMed

    Menon, Saumya; Rajesh, Gopalakrishna; Balakrishnan, Vallath

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a fascinating disease from the dawn of medical history. The first breakthrough in its treatment came in 1922, with the discovery of insulin which was extracted from the pancreas of a dog. Even earlier, a relationship between pancreas and diabetes mellitus had been suspected by medical scientists. However, the study of diabetes mellitus is much more than its relationship with the pancreas. On the other hand the pancreas has been known to be a very reclusive organ that is hidden away from physicians and surgeons for centuries. In recent times, it has become more accessible and has yielded some of its secrets. The relationship between the pancreas and diabetes mellitus is a story full of complexities and surprises. This article attempts to reveal some of the important events and persons in the story and the controversies surrounding them. PMID:27608692

  15. LGR5 and Nanog identify stem cell signature of pancreas beta cells which initiate pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Polin, Nava; Givol, David

    2013-04-01

    Pancreas cancer, is the fourth leading cause of cancer death but its cell of origin is controversial. We compared the localization of stem cells in normal and cancerous pancreas using antibodies to the stem cell markers Nanog and LGR5. Here we show, for the first time, that LGR5 is expressed in normal pancreas, exclusively in the islets of Langerhans and it is co-localized, surprisingly, with Nanog and insulin in clusters of beta cells. In cancerous pancreas Nanog and LGR5 are expressed in the remaining islets and in all ductal cancer cells. We observed insulin staining among the ductal cancer cells, but not in metastases. This indicates that the islet's beta cells, expressing LGR5 and Nanog markers are the initiating cells of pancreas cancer, which migrated from the islets to form the ductal cancerous tissue, probably after mutation and de-differentiation. This discovery may facilitate treatment of this devastating cancer.

  16. Analyses of pancreas development by generation of gfp transgenic zebrafish using an exocrine pancreas-specific elastaseA gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Haiyan; Korzh, Svitlana; Li Zhen; Mudumana, Sudha Puttur; Korzh, Vladimir; Jiang Yunjin; Lin Shuo; Gong Zhiyuan . E-mail: dbsgzy@nus.edu.sg

    2006-05-15

    In contrast to what we know on development of endocrine pancreas, the formation of exocrine pancreas remains poorly understood. To create an animal model that allows observation of exocrine cell differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis in living animals, we used the zebrafish elastaseA (elaA) regulatory sequence to develop transgenic zebrafish that display highly specific exocrine pancreas expression of GFP in both larvae and adult. By following GFP expression, we found that the pancreas in early development was a relatively compact organ and later extended posterior along the intestine. By transferring the elaA:gfp transgene into slow muscle omitted mutant that is deficient in receiving Hedgehog signals, we further showed that Hedgehog signaling is required for exocrine morphogenesis but not for cell differentiation. We also applied the morpholino knockdown and toxin-mediated cell ablation approaches to this transgenic line. We showed that the development of exocrine pancreas is Islet-1 dependent. Injection of the diphtheria toxin A (DTA) construct under the elastaseA promoter resulted in selective ablation of exocrine cells while the endocrine cells and other endodermal derivatives (liver and intestine) were not affected. Thus, our works demonstrated the new transgenic line provided a useful experimental tool in analyzing exocrine pancreas development.

  17. Imaging of drug effects in perfused liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammann, Marc; Mahlke, Christine; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2002-06-01

    Various medications affect the systemic circulation and organ oxygenation causing dilatation or constriction of blood vessels. Imminent liver failure can be generated by reduced perfusion of different origins. In this case hepatic vasodilatation would be a therapeutical approach for improving patient's condition. Our examinations have been performed in perfused rat liver using spectrometric methods. Two defined areas of the liver were measured punctually. We compared the influence of Tetramethylpyrazine and Glyceroltrinitrate on hemoglobin oxygenation (HbO2) and concentration (Hb-conc.) in rat liver after application of Norepinephrine, which caused a mid decrease in hemoglobin oxygenation of 47,9 %. Both increased the HbO2, but differed from each other in manner of time and extent. Tetramethylpyrazine indicated a longer effect than Glyceroltrinitrate. Furthermore, HbO2 and Hb-conc. showed a conversed relation. From the shape of the absorption spectra it is possible to derive the oxygenation of hemoglobin.

  18. Non-ECG-Gated Myocardial Perfusion MRI Using Continuous Magnetization-Driven Radial Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Behzad; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Arsanjani, Reza; Thomson, Louise; Merz, C. Noel Bairey; Berman, Daniel S.; Li, Debiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Establishing a high-resolution non-ECG-gated first-pass perfusion (FPP) cardiac MRI technique may improve accessibility and diagnostic capability of FPP imaging. We propose a non-ECG-gated FPP imaging technique using continuous magnetization-driven golden-angle radial acquisition. The main purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate whether, in the simple case of single-slice 2D imaging, adequate myocardial contrast can be obtained for accurate visualization of hypoperfused territories in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Methods A T1-weighted pulse sequence with continuous golden-angle radial sampling was developed for non-ECG-gated FPP imaging. A sliding-window scheme with no temporal acceleration was used to reconstruct 8 frames/second. Canines were imaged at 3T with and without coronary stenosis using the proposed scheme and a conventional magnetization-prepared ECG-gated FPP method. Results Our studies showed that the proposed non-ECG-gated method is capable of generating high-resolution (1.7×1.7×6 mm3) artifact-free FPP images of a single slice at high heart rates (92±21 beats/minute), while matching the performance of conventional FPP imaging in terms of hypoperfused-to-normal myocardial contrast-to-noise ratio (proposed: 5.18±0.70, conventional: 4.88±0.43). Furthermore, the detected perfusion defect areas were consistent with the conventional FPP images. Conclusion Non-ECG-gated FPP imaging using optimized continuous golden-angle radial acquisition achieves desirable image quality (i.e., adequate myocardial contrast, high spatial resolution, and minimal artifacts) in the setting of ischemia. PMID:24443160

  19. The evolution of perfusion education in America.

    PubMed

    Toomasian, John M; Searles, Bruce; Kurusz, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Clinical cardiopulmonary perfusion has evolved significantly during its 50 years. The science, technology and educational processes related to cardiopulmonary bypass have undergone continual change and metamorphosis. Perfusionists were initially trained on the job or in the laboratory, but with the advent of myocardial revascularization and the explosion in cardiac surgery, the need for formal educational training programs became apparent. The American Society of Extracorporeal Technology began the arduous processes of credentialing and developing certification guidelines that have continued under the American Board of Cardiovascular Perfusion. Licensure has also been adopted in many states during the past 10 years where nearly 50% of all perfusionists are covered by some legislative act. One additonal challenge has been developing minimal standards in which perfusionists practice. The initial standards included the use of a checklist and have evolved to monitoring and recording the significant events and parameters of each clinical procedure. The education of perfusionists will continue to be a challenge related primarily to reduced fiscal resources, the applicant pool and the ever-changing demands for extracorporeal circulation services. According to demographic and census information, it is expected the overall number of cardiovascular interventions will increase dramatically towards the latter end of the current decade in the US. The question arises as to what role perfusionists will play, as treatment strategies continue to change. If the number of education programs and new graduates continue to decline, the total number of perfusionists will decline, especially as many senior perfusionists leave the field or retire. It may be difficult to predict the total number of cardiovascular interventions that will be required in the next several years. However, if the total number of cardiovascular interventions that require perfusion services increase as a function

  20. Restoration of canine disocclusion by using etched porcelain onlays.

    PubMed

    Glaser, C G; Nagy, W W

    1991-03-01

    The restoration of a progressive delayed disocclusion on periodontally healthy canines by etched porcelain onlays has been presented as a suitable treatment alternative to interrupt bruxism and reverse destructive occlusal neuroses.

  1. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

    PubMed Central

    Prabhat, K. C.; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Gupta, N. D.; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Goyal, Lata

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of “distracting the periodontal ligament” is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks. PMID:22628978

  2. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  3. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  4. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

  5. Cytotoxic Effects of Loperamide Hydrochloride on Canine Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    REGAN, Rebecca Cohen; GOGAL, Robert Michael; BARBER, James Perry; TUCKFIELD, Richard Cary; HOWERTH, Elizabeth Wynne; LAWRENCE, Jessica Ann

    2014-01-01

    Loperamide is a peripheral opiate agonist that can cause apoptosis and G2/M arrest in human cancer cell lines and may sensitize cells to chemotherapy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of loperamide on viability, apoptosis and cell cycle kinetics in canine cancer cells and to establish whether the drug sensitizes cells to doxorubicin. Cell viability was assessed using Alamar Blue. Cell death and cell cycle were studied using flow cytometry with 7-Aminoactinomycin-D (7-AAD) and propidium iodide (PI), respectively. Loperamide decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion and was most effective against canine osteosarcoma cells. In all cell lines, it induced a dose and time dependent apoptosis and resulted in accumulation in G0/G1. When co-incubated with doxorubicin, loperamide induced a synergistic cell kill in canine carcinoma cells. Investigation is warranted into the role of loperamide in the treatment of canine cancer. PMID:25649936

  6. [Isolation of canine rotavirus and study of its immunobiological properties].

    PubMed

    Ramishvili, L G; Maglakelidze, D A; Labadze, T N

    2001-01-01

    Canine rotavirus was isolated in MA104 roller culture of rhesus macaque cells. Two passages in gnotobiotic puppies and two in colostrum-free puppies resulted in isolation of strain P of canine rotavirus. After 20 passages in MA104 culture the virus was adapted to MDCK culture. Optimal conditions for accumulation of canine rotavirus and its antigen (9.01 g TCD50/ml) in MDCK culture are trypsin pretreatment of the virus inoculate in the final concentration of 50 mcg/ml for 30 min at 37 degrees C, presence of trypsin (10 mcg/ml) in the maintenance medium, multiplicity of infection 0.1 TCD50/ml, and incubation in roller culture at 37 degrees C during 24-30 h. After 60 passages in cell culture, canine rotavirus completely lost its virulence for colostrum-free puppies but retained antigenic activity and induced manifest seroconversion in infected. PMID:11449799

  7. Myocardial perfusion imaging with dual energy CT.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kwang Nam; De Cecco, Carlo N; Caruso, Damiano; Tesche, Christian; Spandorfer, Adam; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2016-10-01

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) enables simultaneous use of two different tube voltages, thus different x-ray absorption characteristics are acquired in the same anatomic location with two different X-ray spectra. The various DECT techniques allow material decomposition and mapping of the iodine distribution within the myocardium. Static dual-energy myocardial perfusion imaging (sCTMPI) using pharmacological stress agents demonstrate myocardial ischemia by single snapshot images of myocardial iodine distribution. sCTMPI gives incremental values to coronary artery stenosis detected on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) by showing consequent reversible or fixed myocardial perfusion defects. The comprehensive acquisition of CCTA and sCTMPI offers extensive morphological and functional evaluation of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have revealed that dual-energy sCTMPI shows promising diagnostic accuracy for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease compared to single-photon emission computed tomography, invasive coronary angiography, and cardiac MRI. The aim of this review is to present currently available DECT techniques for static myocardial perfusion imaging and recent clinical applications and ongoing investigations.

  8. Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in man were studied by performing hyperventilation-breathhold single-breath measurements before, during and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase 4, were both markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60 of their preflight standing size, while the height of phase 4 was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of preflights standing. The terminal change in CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close at the end of expiration and units that remain open. This may result from the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographical inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiographic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity at a level larger than acinar.

  9. Noncontact blood perfusion mapping in clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovlev, Dmitry; Dwyer, Vincent; Hu, Sijung; Silberschmidt, Vadim

    2016-04-01

    Non-contact imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) to detect pulsatile blood microcirculation in tissue has been selected as a successor to low spatial resolution and slow scanning blood perfusion techniques currently employed by clinicians. The proposed iPPG system employs a novel illumination source constructed of multiple high power LEDs with narrow spectral emission, which are temporally modulated and synchronised with a high performance sCMOS sensor. To ensure spectrum stability and prevent thermal wavelength drift due to junction temperature variations, each LED features a custom-designed thermal management system to effectively dissipate generated heat and auto-adjust current flow. The use of a multi-wavelength approach has resulted in simultaneous microvascular perfusion monitoring at various tissue depths, which is an added benefit for specific clinical applications. A synchronous detection algorithm to extract weak photoplethysmographic pulse-waveforms demonstrated robustness and high efficiency when applied to even small regions of 5 mm2. The experimental results showed evidences that the proposed system could achieve noticeable accuracy in blood perfusion monitoring by creating complex amplitude and phase maps for the tissue under examination.

  10. Perfusion computed tomography in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chandan J; Thingujam, Usha; Panda, Ananya; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Various imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis, staging and response evaluation of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). While contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) is used as the standard of imaging for size, morphological evaluation and response assessment in RCC, a new functional imaging technique like perfusion CT (pCT), goes down to the molecular level and provides new perspectives in imaging of RCC. pCT depicts regional tumor perfusion and vascular permeability which are indirect parameters of tumor angiogenesis and thereby provides vital information regarding tumor microenvironment. Also response evaluation using pCT may predate the size criteria used in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, as changes in the perfusion occurs earlier following tissue kinase inhibitors before any actual change in size. This may potentially help in predicting prognosis, better selection of therapy and more accurate and better response evaluation in patients with RCC. This article describes the techniques and role of pCT in staging and response assessment in patients with RCCs. PMID:26217456

  11. CT perfusion: principles, applications, and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ting-Yim

    2004-10-01

    The fast scanning speed of current slip-ring CT scanners has enabled the development of perfusion imaging techniques with intravenous injection of contrast medium. In a typical CT perfusion study, contrast medium is injected and rapid scanning at a frequency of 1-2 Hz is used to monitor the first circulation of the injected contrast medium through a 1-2 cm thick slab of tissue. From the acquired time-series of CT images, arteries can be identified within the tissue slab to derive the arterial contrast concentration curve, Ca(t) while each individual voxel produces a tissue residue curve, Q(t) for the corresponding tissue region. Deconvolution between the measured Ca(t) and Q(t) leads to the determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in brain studies. In this presentation, an important application of CT perfusion in acute stroke studies - the identification of the ischemic penumbra via the CBF/CBV mismatch and factors affecting the quantitative accuracy of deconvolution, including partial volume averaging, arterial delay and dispersion are discussed.

  12. Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.

  13. SU-E-J-65: Motion Difference Between the Pancreas and Nearby Veins for Pancreas Motion Monitoring Using Ultrasound During Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Omari, E; Erickson, B; Li, X; Zhang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: As it is generally difficult to outline the pancreas on an ultrasound b-mode image, visualized structures such as the portal or the splenic veins are assumed to have the same motion as the pancreas. These structures can be used as a surrogate for monitoring pancreas motion during radiation therapy (RT) delivery using ultrasound. To verify this assumption, we studied the motion difference between the head of the pancreas, the portal vein, the tail of the pancreas, and splenic vein. Methods: 4DCT data acquired during RT simulation were analyzed for a total of 5 randomly selected patients with pancreatic cancer. The data was sorted into 10 respiratory phases from 0% to 90% (0%: end of the inspiration, 50%: end of expiration) . The head of the pancreas (HP), tail of the pancreas (TP), portal vein (PV), and splenic vein (SV) were contoured on all 10 phases. The volume change and motion were measured in the left-right (LR), anterior-superior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Results: The volume change for all patients/phases were: 1.2 ± 3% for HP, 0.78 ± 1.6% for PV, 2.5 ± 2.9% for TP, and 0.53 ± 2.1% for SV. Motion for each structure was estimated from the centroid displacements due to the uniformity of the structures and the small volume change. The measured motion between HP and PV was: LR: 0.1 ± 0.17 mm, AP: 0.04 ± 0.1 mm, SI: 0.17 ± 0.16 mm and between TP and the PV was: LR: 0.05 ± 0.3 mm, AP: 0.1 ± 0.4 mm, SI: 0.01 ± 0.022 mm. Conclusion: There are small motion differences between the portal vein and the head of the pancreas, and the splenic vein and the tail of the pancreas. This suggests the feasibility of utilizing these features for monitoring the pancreas motion during radiation therapy.

  14. Impairment of aminopyrine clearance in aspirin-damaged canine gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.A.; Henagan, J.M.; Loy, T.M.

    1983-09-01

    Using an in vivo canine chambered stomach preparation, the clearance of (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine across mucosa when intravenously infused and the back-diffusion of this substance from gastric lumen to mucosa when topically applied to gastric epithelium were evaluated in aspirin-damaged gastric epithelium. In mucosa damaged by either 20 mM or 40 mM aspirin, the recovery of (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine, when topically mixed with acid (pH . 1.1) perfusate solution, was not significantly different from nondamaged control mucosa. In addition, the degree of ''trapping'' of this substance from back-diffusion was not different in damaged mucosa from that observed in nondamaged epithelium. In contrast, when (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine was intravenously infused, its clearance was significantly impaired in aspirin-damaged mucosa when compared with control studies, as evidenced by the increased ''trapping'' of this substance in injured epithelium. These findings indicate that movement of aminopyrine from plasma to gastric lumen is impaired in damaged epithelium, making the aminopyrine clearance technique an unreliable method to accurately measure absolute gastric blood flow in this experimental setting.

  15. Management of an Unusual Maxillary Canine: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Muppalla, Jaya Nagendra Krishna; Kavuda, Krishnamurthy; Punna, Rajani; Vanapatla, Amulya

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians need to have intimate knowledge and thorough understanding of both pulp chamber and root canal anatomy. They should be aware of possibility of anatomical variations in the root canal system during endodontic treatment. Maxillary canines usually have single root and root canal but rarely may have single root with two root canals. This case describes a lengthier maxillary canine with two root canals. PMID:26779354

  16. Recent epidemiological status of canine viral enteric infections and Giardia infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, M; Hashimoto, M; Ishida, T

    2001-05-01

    Epidemiology of canine enteric infections was studied. Rectal swabs collected from 95 dogs presented at animal hospitals during a period from January to June of 2000 were examined for enteric pathogens, including viruses and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia). Most frequently detected in both diarrheal and normal feces were canine coronavirus (55.4%) and G. lamblia (48.2%). Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was specifically associated with diarrheal cases and CPV-2b was the predominant antigenic type. Although canine rotavirus, canine adenovirus, and canine distemper virus were also detected in a small number of diarrheal cases, no evidence for calicivirus infection was obtained. PMID:11411507

  17. Transmigration of mandibular canine: report of four cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2011-01-01

    Transmigration of canine is a rare phenomenon. The prevalence of transmigration of mandibular canine has been found to be only 0.14%-0.31%. The treatment of impacted transmigrated canine is very complicated if it is diagnosed at a later stage. We report 4 cases of transmigration of mandibular canine and review the literature regarding the etiology and treatment. Panoramic radiograph should be taken during the mixed dentition period if the mandibular canine has not erupted from more than one year from its normal chronological age of eruption as intraoral periapical radiograph examination will not always detect an impacted or transmigrated canine. PMID:22570797

  18. Three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine.

    PubMed

    Larson, L J; Schultz, R D

    2007-01-01

    A group of client-owned dogs and a group of dogs at a commercial kennel were evaluated for duration of antibody responses against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) after receiving a combination vaccine containing recombinant canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus (CDV) and modified-live CPV-2, CAV-2, and canine parainfluenza virus, with (C6) or without (C4) two serovars of Leptospira (Recombitek C4 or C6, Merial). Duration of antibody, which correlates with protective immunity, was found to be at least 36 months in both groups. Recombitek combination vaccines can confidently be given every 3 years with assurance of protection in immunocompetent dogs against CPV-2 and CAV-1 as well as CDV. This allows this combination vaccine, like other, similar modified- live virus combination products containing CDV, CAV-2, and CPV-2, to be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force. PMID:18183549

  19. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  20. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  1. Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher H.; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M. Karen; Malcolm, James R.; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world’s rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005–2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%–87% vs. 34%–39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP’s Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  2. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore.

  3. Reemergence of Canine Echinococcus granulosus Infection, Wales

    PubMed Central

    Buishi, Imad; Walters, Tom; Guildea, Zoë; Palmer, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    As a consequence of large-scale outdoor slaughter of sheep during the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United Kingdom and the possibility of increased risk for transmission of Echinococcus granulosus between sheep and dogs, a large survey of canine echinococcosis was undertaken in mid-Wales in 2002. An Echinococcus coproantigen-positive rate of 8.1% (94/1,164) was recorded on 22% of farms surveyed, which compares to a rate of 3.4% obtained in the same region in 1993. Positivity rates between FMD-affected properties and unaffected ones did not differ significantly. Significant risk factors for positive results in farm dogs were allowing dogs to roam free and the infrequent dosing (>4-month intervals) of dogs with praziquantel. When these data are compared to those of a previous pilot hydatid control program in the area (1983–1989), an increase in transmission to humans appears probable. PMID:15829195

  4. A direct comparison of the sensitivity of CT and MR cardiac perfusion using a myocardial perfusion phantom

    PubMed Central

    Otton, James; Morton, Geraint; Schuster, Andreas; Bigalke, Boris; Marano, Riccardo; Olivotti, Luca; Nagel, Eike; Chiribiri, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Background Direct comparison of CT and magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion techniques has been limited and in vivo assessment is affected by physiological variability, timing of image acquisition, and parameter selection. Objective We precisely compared high-resolution k-t SENSE MR cardiac perfusion at 3 T with single-phase CT perfusion (CTP) under identical imaging conditions. Methods We used a customized MR imaging and CT compatible dynamic myocardial perfusion phantom to represent the human circulation. CT perfusion studies were performed with a Philips iCT (256 slice) CT, with isotropic resolution of 0.6 mm3. MR perfusion was performed with k-t SENSE acceleration at 3 T and spatial resolution of 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm. The image contrast between normal and underperfused myocardial compartments was quantified at various perfusion and photon energy settings. Noise estimates were based on published clinical data. Results Contrast by CTP highly depends on photon energy and also timing of imaging within the myocardial perfusion upslope. For an identical myocardial perfusion deficit, the native image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) generated by CT and MR are similar. If slice averaging is used, the CNR of a perfusion deficit is expected to be greater for CTP than MR perfusion (MRP). Perfect timing during single time point CTP imaging is difficult to achieve, and CNR by CT decreases by 24%–31% two seconds from the optimal imaging time point. Although single-phase CT perfusion offers higher spatial resolution, MRP allows multiple time point sampling and quantitative analysis. Conclusion The ability of CTP and current optimal MRP techniques to detect simulated myocardial perfusion deficits is similar. PMID:23622506

  5. Why segment the maxilla between laterals and canines?

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Lucas Senhorinho; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Sullivan, Steven M.; Martins, Luana Maria Rosário; Ávila, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Maxillary surgery on a bone segment enables movement in the sagittal and vertical planes. When performed on multiple segments, it further provides movement in the transverse plane. Typical sites for interdental osteotomies are between laterals and canines, premolars and canines, or between incisors. Additionally, osteotomies can be bilateral, unilateral or asymmetric. The ability to control intercanine width, buccolingual angulation of incisors, and correct Bolton discrepancy are some of the advantages of maxillary segmentation between laterals and canines. Objective: This article describes important features to be considered in making a clinical decision to segment the maxilla between laterals and canines when treating a dentoskeletal deformity. It further discusses the history of this surgical approach, the indications for its clinical use, the technique used to implement it, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, complications and stability. It is therefore hoped that this paper will contribute to disseminate information on this topic, which will inform the decision-making process of those professionals who wish to make use of this procedure in their clinical practice. Conclusions: Segmental maxillary osteotomy between laterals and canines is a versatile technique with several indications. Furthermore, it offers a host of advantages compared with single-piece osteotomy, or between canines and premolars. PMID:27007769

  6. Canine malignant melanoma alpha-3 integrin binding peptides

    PubMed Central

    Aina, Olulanu H.; Maeda, Yoshiko; Harrison, Matthew; Zwingenberger, Allison L.; Walker, Naomi J.; Lam, Kit S.; Kent, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to develop novel targeted imaging and therapeutic agents that can aid in early diagnosis, detection of metastasis and treatment of melanoma. Alpha-3 integrin is overexpressed in 82% of metastatic melanomas in humans and may be a potential target for peptide ligands carrying therapeutic agents. Five melanoma cell lines were generated from canine primary oral and metastatic canine tumors, grown in mice, and validated with melanoma markers Melan A, S-100, Micropthalmia transcription factor (MITF), Tyrosinase, and MART-1. The melanoma cell lines were tested for binding affinity to previously published alpha-3 integrin-binding peptides containing the cdGXGXXc motif. Fluorescent conjugates of the alpha-3 integrin binding OA02 peptide were used to quantify receptor affinity in the cell lines, a specimen of canine primary oral melanoma, and melanoma xenografts. Alpha-3 integrin was expressed by all 5 canine melanoma cell lines. Four of the 5 lines as well as the primary canine tumor showed affinity to alpha-3 integrin binding peptides with the cdGXGXXc motif. Optical imaging of canine melanoma xenografts in nude mice indicates rapid, strong uptake of the optical tracer in the tumor with an average persistence of approximately 48 hours. Ex vivo images showed high tumor-to-background ratio, with tumor signals more than twice that of the kidney and other vital organs. We propose that integrin alpha-3 integrin binding ligands could potentially become useful probes for imaging and delivery of cytotoxic agents for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:21722969

  7. [Skeletal anchorage: use of miniscrews for impacted maxillary canine management].

    PubMed

    Kocsis, András; Seres, László; Kocsis-Savanya, Gábor; Kovács, Adám

    2010-03-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Patients' refusal to a long orthodontic treatment or ankylosis of the impacted tooth results in various treatment difficulties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of miniscrews in the management of impacted upper canines. In a series of 28 consecutive patients with a total of 31 impacted maxillary canines (12 men and 16 women aged from 14 to 63 years, mean 24 years), each impacted tooth was surgically exposed and an attachment was bonded. An intraosseous screw (1.5 mm in diameter and 8-10 mm long) with an endosseous body and intraoral neck section was inserted into the premolar-molar interradicular space. Following soft tissue healing, orthodontic traction was initiated. After correction of the angulation of the canine, the mini-screw was removed and traditional orthodontic therapy was completed. Twenty-seven canines were extruded successfully (87%), the duration of the orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances was decreased. In the 3 cases that failed due to ankylosis, the skeletal anchorage spared the patients and the clinicans the disappointment of a long-term unsuccessful traditional orthodontic treatment. In one patient, the mini-screw was removed because of inflammation and pain before the beginning of the orthodontic traction. This study shows that mini screw anchorage should be taken into consideration when extrusion of an impacted canine is planned. PMID:20443350

  8. Towards robust deconvolution of low-dose perfusion CT: Sparse perfusion deconvolution using online dictionary learning

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ruogu; Chen, Tsuhan; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is an important functional imaging modality in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases, particularly in acute stroke and vasospasm. However, the post-processed parametric maps of blood flow tend to be noisy, especially in low-dose CTP, due to the noisy contrast enhancement profile and the oscillatory nature of the results generated by the current computational methods. In this paper, we propose a robust sparse perfusion deconvolution method (SPD) to estimate cerebral blood flow in CTP performed at low radiation dose. We first build a dictionary from high-dose perfusion maps using online dictionary learning and then perform deconvolution-based hemodynamic parameters estimation on the low-dose CTP data. Our method is validated on clinical data of patients with normal and pathological CBF maps. The results show that we achieve superior performance than existing methods, and potentially improve the differentiation between normal and ischemic tissue in the brain. PMID:23542422

  9. Canine RBC osmotic tolerance and membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Christian, J A; Critser, J K

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the cryobiological characteristics of canine red blood cells (RBC). These included the hydraulic conductivity (L(p)), the permeability coefficients (P(s)) of common cryoprotectant agents (CPAs), the associated reflection coefficient (sigma), the activation energies (E(a)) of L(p) and P(s) and the osmotic tolerance limits. By using a stopped-flow apparatus, the changes of fluorescence intensity emitted by intracellularly entrapped 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) were recorded when cells were experiencing osmotic volume changes. After the determination of the relationship between fluorescence intensity and cell volume, cell volume changes were calculated. These volume changes were used in three-parameter fitting calculations to determine the values of L(p), P(s), and sigma for common CPAs. These volume measurements and data analyses were repeated at three different temperatures (22, 14, 7 degrees C). Using the Arrhenius equation, the activation energies of L(p) and P(s) in the presence of CPAs were determined. The osmotic tolerance limits for canine RBC were determined by measuring the percentage of free hemoglobin in NaCl solutions with various osmolalities compared to that released by RBC incubated in double distilled water. The upper and lower osmotic tolerance limits were found to be 150mOsm (1.67V(iso)) and 1200mOsm (0.45V(iso)), respectively. These parameters were then used to calculate the amount of non-permeating solute needed to keep cell volume excursions within the osmotic tolerance limits during CPA addition and removal. PMID:12237091

  10. Brain perfusion: computed tomography and magnetic resonance techniques.

    PubMed

    Copen, William A; Lev, Michael H; Rapalino, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion imaging provides assessment of regional microvascular hemodynamics in the living brain, enabling in vivo measurement of a variety of different hemodynamic parameters. Perfusion imaging techniques that are used in the clinical setting usually rely upon X-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This chapter reviews CT- and MRI-based perfusion imaging techniques, with attention to image acquisition, clinically relevant aspects of image postprocessing, and fundamental differences between CT- and MRI-based techniques. Correlations with cerebrovascular physiology and potential clinical applications of perfusion imaging are reviewed, focusing upon the two major classes of neurologic disease in which perfusion imaging is most often performed: primary perfusion disorders (including ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and reperfusion syndrome), and brain tumors.

  11. A Phantom Tissue System for the Calibration of Perfusion Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mudaliar, Ashvinikumar V.; Ellis, Brent E.; Ricketts, Patricia L.; Lanz, Otto I.; Scott, Elaine P.; Diller, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    A convenient method for testing and calibrating surface perfusion sensors has been developed. A phantom tissue model is used to simulate the nondirectional blood flow of tissue perfusion. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was constructed in Fluent® to design the phantom tissue and validate the experimental results. The phantom perfusion system was used with a perfusion sensor based on clearance of thermal energy. A heat flux gage measures the heat flux response of tissue when a thermal event (convective cooling) is applied. The blood perfusion and contact resistance are estimated by a parameter estimation code. From the experimental and analytical results, it was concluded that the probe displayed good measurement repeatability and sensitivity. The experimental perfusion measurements in the tissue were in good agreement with those of the CFD models and demonstrated the value of the phantom tissue system. PMID:19045509

  12. Developing a benchmarking process in perfusion: a report of the Perfusion Downunder Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert A; Newland, Richard F; Fenton, Carmel; McDonald, Michael; Willcox, Timothy W; Merry, Alan F

    2012-03-01

    Improving and understanding clinical practice is an appropriate goal for the perfusion community. The Perfusion Downunder Collaboration has established a multi-center perfusion focused database aimed at achieving these goals through the development of quantitative quality indicators for clinical improvement through benchmarking. Data were collected using the Perfusion Downunder Collaboration database from procedures performed in eight Australian and New Zealand cardiac centers between March 2007 and February 2011. At the Perfusion Downunder Meeting in 2010, it was agreed by consensus, to report quality indicators (QI) for glucose level, arterial outlet temperature, and pCOz management during cardiopulmonary bypass. The values chosen for each QI were: blood glucose > or =4 mmol/L and < or =10 mmol/L; arterial outlet temperature < or = 37 degrees C; and arterial blood gas pCO2 > or =35 and < or =45 mmHg. The QI data were used to derive benchmarks using the Achievable Benchmark of Care (ABC) methodology to identify the incidence of QIs at the best performing centers. Five thousand four hundred and sixty-five procedures were evaluated to derive QI and benchmark data. The incidence of the blood glucose QI ranged from 37-96% of procedures, with a benchmark value of 90%. The arterial outlet temperature QI occurred in 16-98% of procedures with the benchmark of 94%; while the arterial pCO2 QI occurred in 21-91%, with the benchmark value of 80%. We have derived QIs and benchmark calculations for the management of several key aspects of cardiopulmonary bypass to provide a platform for improving the quality of perfusion practice.

  13. Effect of vasodilators on pulmonary perfusion defects in asthma using sequential Kr-81m perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ertle, A.R.; Tashkin, D.P.; Webber, M.M.; Soffer, M.J.; Frank, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to determine if vasodilator agents may enhance the diagnostic utility of perfusion lung imaging (Q) by normalizing regional perfusion abnormalities in bronchospastic patients. The effect of oxygen (02), nitroglycerine (NTG), hydralazine (H), and nifedipine (N) on regional lung perfusion defects was studied in 6 mild to severe asthmatics (ages defects was studied in 6 mild to severe asthmatics (ages 31-72yrs) using sequential Kr-81m imaging which permits repetitive imaging due to very low radiation dose and 13 sec T-1/2. Each patient was studied once weekly for 3 wks. Baseline Q scans were obtained using 10mCi of I.V. Kr-81m. the best view showing perfusion defects was used for subsequent images. At each visits, 30% 02 by ventimask was given for 20 min followed by a repeat Q scan. Subsequently, on separate visits, subjects were given either 1 dose of sublingual (sl)N 20 mg or 2 doses (1 hr between) of s1 NTG 1/150gr or po H 25mg according to a random-order crossover design. Q scans were obtained 2 min after NTG, 60 min after H, and 30 and 60 min after N. 30% 02 was given again for 20 min, and a final scan was obtained. Scan were reviewed by 2 observers and showed relatively fixed defects in 4 pts improvement in defects in 3 pts with NTG, 1 with N, 1 with H, and 2 with 02 alone. Additive effects of 02 and N or NTG were seen in 2 pts. These preliminary results suggest that vasodilators and 02 may improve regional perfusion in patients with bronchospastic disease and that this effect may be additive. These medications may thus improve the specificity of perfusion lung scanning in the diagnostic evaluation of pulmonary embolism.

  14. Abnormalities of the Exocrine Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Calvo, Teresa; Battaglia, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is considered a pancreatic beta cell-specific disease that results in absolute insulin deficiency. Nevertheless, clinical studies from 1940 onwards showed that patients with T1D had an abnormal exocrine pancreas due to the presence of subclinical exocrine insufficiency and acinar atrophy. Exocrine abnormalities are an important, and mostly neglected, characteristic associated with T1D. It is however still unclear whether the exocrine dysfunction in T1D is a primary damage caused by the same pathogenic event that led to beta cell destruction or secondary to beta cell loss. In this review, we collect evidence supporting the hypothesis that T1D is a combined endocrine-exocrine disease in which the loss of functional beta cell mass is most clinically apparent. PMID:26318606

  15. Glucagon in the artificial pancreas: supply and marketing challenges.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The use of glucagon, in conjunction with insulin, in a dual chamber pump (artificial pancreas, AP) is a working goal for multiple companies and researchers. However, capital investment to create, operate, and maintain facilities with sufficient scale to produce enough glucagon to treat millions of patients, at a level of profit that makes it feasible, will be substantial. It can be assumed that the marketplace will expect the daily cost of glucagon (to the consumer) to be similar to the daily cost of insulin. After one subtracts wholesaler and pharmacy markup, there may be very few dollars remaining for the drug company to cover profit, capital expenditures, marketing, burden, and other costs. Without the potential for adequate margins, manufacturers may not be willing to take the risk. Assuming that the projections discussed in this article are in the right ballpark, advance planning for the supply for glucagon needs to start today and not wait for the AP to come to market. PMID:25139825

  16. Hydro-proteolytic activity in rat's pancreas after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Koćmierska-Grodzka, D; Radwan, J

    1975-07-01

    Investigations were carried out on the problem of hydrolytic ability of rat's pancreas 24 h after whole body irradiation with the single dose of 800 R and after fractionated irradiation (5 x 150 R). Besides kallikrein, enzymes of intracellular digestion (B-glucuronidase, acid phosphatase, cathepsin) and enzymes of intraluminal digestion (amylase, lipase) were chosed for examination. It was stated, that single irradiation evokes rather moderate changes in the activity of examined enzymes causing increase of catheptic and lipolytic activity and decrease in amylase activity accompanied by sharp increase of kallikrein activity in the tissue. Mechanical obstruction of biliopancreatic duct renders trend to decrease of enzymatic activity in almost all enzymes of irradiated group. After fractionated irradiation the general increase of hydroproteolytic activity (with one exception of pancreatic amylase) was stated. PMID:241136

  17. The Human Endocrine Pancreas: New Insights on Replacement and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Bendala, Juan; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Klein, Dagmar; Álvarez-Cubela, Silvia; Pastori, Ricardo L

    2016-03-01

    Islet transplantation is an effective cell therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) but its clinical application is limited due to shortage of donors. After a decade-long period of exploration of potential alternative cell sources, the field has only recently zeroed in on two of them as the most likely to replace islets. These are pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) (through directed differentiation) and pancreatic non-endocrine cells (through directed differentiation or reprogramming). Here we review progress in both areas, including the initiation of Phase I/II clinical trials using human embryonic stem cell (hESc)-derived progenitors, advances in hESc differentiation in vitro, novel insights on the developmental plasticity of the pancreas, and groundbreaking new approaches to induce β cell conversion from the non-endocrine compartment without genetic manipulation. PMID:26774512

  18. Glucagon in the artificial pancreas: supply and marketing challenges.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The use of glucagon, in conjunction with insulin, in a dual chamber pump (artificial pancreas, AP) is a working goal for multiple companies and researchers. However, capital investment to create, operate, and maintain facilities with sufficient scale to produce enough glucagon to treat millions of patients, at a level of profit that makes it feasible, will be substantial. It can be assumed that the marketplace will expect the daily cost of glucagon (to the consumer) to be similar to the daily cost of insulin. After one subtracts wholesaler and pharmacy markup, there may be very few dollars remaining for the drug company to cover profit, capital expenditures, marketing, burden, and other costs. Without the potential for adequate margins, manufacturers may not be willing to take the risk. Assuming that the projections discussed in this article are in the right ballpark, advance planning for the supply for glucagon needs to start today and not wait for the AP to come to market.

  19. Facultative stem cells in liver and pancreas: fact and fancy.

    PubMed

    Yanger, Kilangsungla; Stanger, Ben Z

    2011-03-01

    Tissue turnover is a regular feature of higher eukaryotes, either as part of normal wear and tear (homeostasis) or in response to injury (regeneration). Cell replacement is achieved either through replication of existing cells or differentiation from a self-renewing pool of stem cells. The major distinction regards cellular potential, because stem cells by definition have a capacity to differentiate, while replication implies that cells adopt a single fate under physiologic conditions. A hybrid model, the facultative stem cell (FSC) model, posits that tissues contain cells that normally exhibit unipotency but have the capacity to function as stem cells upon injury. The FSC paradigm is well established in urodele amphibians, but the nature and role of FSCs in mammals is less defined. Here, we review the evidence for FSCs in two mammalian organs, the liver and the pancreas, and discuss alternative models that could account for regeneration in these organs.

  20. Refinement of the canine CD1 locus topology and investigation of antibody binding to recombinant canine CD1 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Schjaerff, Mette; Keller, Stefan M; Fass, Joseph; Froenicke, Lutz; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie; Affolter, Verena K; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Moore, Peter F

    2016-03-01

    CD1 molecules are antigen-presenting glycoproteins primarily found on dendritic cells (DCs) responsible for lipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells. Despite their pivotal role in immunity, little is known about CD1 protein expression in dogs, notably due to lack of isoform-specific antibodies. The canine (Canis familiaris) CD1 locus was previously found to contain three functional CD1A genes: canCD1A2, canCD1A6, and canCD1A8, where two variants of canCD1A8, canCD1A8.1 and canCD1A8.2, were assumed to be allelic variants. However, we hypothesized that these rather represented two separate genes. Sequencing of three overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) spanning the entire canine CD1 locus revealed canCD1A8.2 and canCD1A8.1 to be located in tandem between canCD1A7 and canCD1C, and canCD1A8.1 was consequently renamed canCD1A9. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused canine CD1 transcripts were recombinantly expressed in 293T cells. All proteins showed a highly positive GFP expression except for canine CD1d and a splice variant of canine CD1a8 lacking exon 3. Probing with a panel of anti-CD1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) showed that Ca13.9H11 and Ca9.AG5 only recognized canine CD1a8 and CD1a9 isoforms, and Fe1.5F4 mAb solely recognized canine CD1a6. Anti-CD1b mAbs recognized the canine CD1b protein, but also bound CD1a2, CD1a8, and CD1a9. Interestingly, Ca9.AG5 showed allele specificity based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 321. Our findings have refined the structure of the canine CD1 locus and available antibody specificity against canine CD1 proteins. These are important fundamentals for future investigation of the role of canine CD1 in lipid immunity. PMID:26687789