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Sample records for perfused canine pancreas

  1. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  2. Pancreas tumor model in rabbit imaged by perfusion CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Jason; Tichauer, Kenneth; Moodie, Karen; Kane, Susan; Hoopes, Jack; Stewart, Errol E.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim; Pereira, Stephen P.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a pancreas tumor animal model to investigate the relationship between photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness and photosensitizer drug delivery. More specifically, this work lays the foundation for investigating the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced blood perfusion imaging to be used to inform subsequent PDT. A VX2 carcinoma rabbit cell line was grown in the tail of the pancreas of three New Zealand White rabbits and approximately 3-4 weeks after implantation the rabbits were imaged on a CT scanner using a contrast enhanced perfusion protocol, providing parametric maps of blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and vascular permeability surface area product.

  3. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance in isolated perfused rat pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki )

    1988-04-01

    Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to measure phosphorus energy metabolites in isolated perfused rat pancreas. The gland was perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25{degree}C). {sup 31}P resonances of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) and phosphomonoesters (PMEs) were observed in all the preparations of pancreas. In different individual preparations, the resonance of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of PCr and ATP in individual preparations, however, remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 h. When the perfusion was stopped, the levels of ATP and PCr decreased, while the levels of PME and P{sub i} increased. At that time, the P{sub i} resonance shfted to a higher magnetic field, indicating that the tissue pH decreased. On reperfusion, the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds and the tissue pH were restored to their initial resting levels. Continuous infusion of 0.1 {mu}M acetylcholine caused marked and sustained increases in the flow of pancreatic juice and protein output. During the stimulation the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds remained unchanged, while the tissue pH was decreased slightly.

  4. Canine pancreas and kidney transplantation following total-lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.; Allen, R.D.; Deane, S.A.; Ekberg, H.; Grierson, J.M.; Hawthorne, W.J.; Mears, D.C.; Tiver, K.; Little, J.M.; Stewart, G.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of total-lymphoid irradiation on survival of canine pancreas and kidney allografts was studied. TLI had a marked immunosuppressive effect as measured by in vitro immune responses and reduced circulating leukocytes. Despite the changes, median graft survival times for animals treated with 800 cGy (9 days) or 1800 cGy (9.5 days) were not significantly different from untreated control animals (7 days). The addition of low-dose antithymocyte globulin (10 mg/kg/day) on post-transplant days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 had no measurable synergistic effect. Similarly, median segmental pancreas allograft survival times after 1700-2200 cGy of TLI treatment (16.5 days) were only marginally longer than those of untreated controls (9 days). The only animal to maintain a graft for greater than 200 days was matched to the donor in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). This animal was able to reject a third-party skin graft after 8 days while a graft from the original donor was still surviving after 21 days when the pancreas graft failed from a chronic-type rejection. These results indicate that TLI alone or in combination with ATG will not be predictably effective as a method of prolonging allograft survival. The role of matching major histocompatibility complex antigens in TLI treatment requires clarification.

  5. Perfusion characteristics of preserved canine kidneys subjected to warm ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Modgill, V K; Wiggins, P A; Giles, G R

    1978-02-01

    Canine kidneys were subjected to 0, 15 or 30 min of warm ischaemia followed by 24 hours preservation by perfusion. Changes in perfusate concentration of acid radicles, lactate, free fatty acid and lactice dehydrogenase were assessed at 1 hour and 24 hours. With the exception of LDH concentration at 1 hour, no single parameter was capable of detecting kidneys which were so damaged as to be non-life supporting.

  6. The role of volume perfusion CT in the diagnosis of pathologies of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Grözinger, G; Grözinger, A; Horger, M

    2014-12-01

    The review discusses the potential role of volume perfusion CT (VPCT) in the diagnosis and follow-up of different pathologies of the pancreas. VPCT enables a differentiation of different pancreatic tumors like adenocarcinoma or neuroendocrine tumors based on functional parameters like blood flow, blood volume and permeability. Furthermore, the article discusses the potential indications for VPCT imaging of inflammatory diseases of the pancreas such as acute or chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis.

  7. Successful five-day perfusion preservation of the canine kidney.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, J F; Ploeg, R J; Southard, J H; Belzer, F O

    1989-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, successful 3-day-perfusion preservation of canine kidneys was obtained. Since then, consistent 5-day preservation has not been reported. In this study, we investigated how the perfusate calcium concentration affected both mitochondrial function and posttransplant viability in dog kidneys preserved for 5 days. Dog kidneys were preserved by machine perfusion (5 degrees C) using a hydroxyethyl starch-gluconate solution that contained either 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, or 5.0 mM calcium. Mitochondria isolated from preserved kidneys has a loss of respiratory control when either 0.0, 1.5, or 5.0 mM calcium were present. However, the use of a perfusate with 0.5 mM calcium preserved the mitochondrial function at levels equivalent to controls for 5 days. Transplantation of kidneys preserved for 5 days with 0.0 or 1.5 mM calcium yielded poor survival (0% and 17%, respectively). The use of a 0.5-mM calcium perfusate increased posttransplant survival to 63% (5 of 8 transplanted). Donor pretreatment of kidneys with chlorpromazine (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) did not improve the function of mitochondria isolated from preserved kidneys but did increase survival in the 1.5-mM calcium group to 67% (4 of 6 transplanted) and in the 0.5 mM calcium group to 100% (7 of 7 transplanted). This is the first report to document consistently successful 5-day preservation of canine kidneys and clearly shows the importance of the perfusate calcium concentration in long-term kidney preservation. The specific mechanism by which calcium or chlorpromazine exert their effect is not known, but it is apparent that excessively high or low concentrations of calcium are damaging to the preserved organ, and an optimal calcium concentration combined with metabolic inhibition of calcium-dependent pathways can significantly improve the function of organs preserved for extended time periods.

  8. Whole-organ perfusion of the pancreas using dynamic volume CT in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma: acquisition technique, post-processing and initial results.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Sonja; Kloeters, Christian; Meyer, Henning; Hein, Patrick; Hilbig, Andreas; Rogalla, Patrik

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a whole-organ perfusion protocol of the pancreas in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma and to analyse perfusion differences between normal and diseased pancreatic tissue. Thirty patients with primary pancreatic malignancy were imaged on a 320-slice CT unit. Twenty-nine cancers were histologically proven. CT data acquisition was started manually after contrast-material injection (8 ml/s, 350 mg iodine/ml) and dynamic density measurements in the right ventricle. After image registration, perfusion was determined with the gradient-relationship technique and volume regions-of-interest were defined for perfusion measurements. Contrast time-density curves and perfusion maps were generated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for analysis of normal distribution and Kruskal-Wallis test (nonparametric ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction for multiple stacked comparisons. In all 30 patients the entire pancreas was imaged, and registration could be completed in all cases. Perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas was significantly lower than of normal pancreatic tissue (P < 0.001) and could be visualized on colored perfusion maps. The 320-slice CT allows complete dynamic visualization of the pancreas and enables calculation of whole-organ perfusion maps. Perfusion imaging carries the potential to improve detection of pancreatic cancers due to the perfusion differences.

  9. Perfusion-decellularized pancreas as a natural 3D scaffold for pancreatic tissue and whole organ engineering

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Saik-Kia; Bertera, Suzanne; Olsen, Phillip; Candiello, Joe; Halfter, Willi; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Johnson, Scott; Sicari, Brian; Kollar, Elizabeth; Badylak, Stephen F.; Banerjee, Ipsita

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, with insulin supplementation as the most common treatment measure. Regenerative medicine approaches such as a bioengineered pancreas has been proposed as potential therapeutic alternatives. A bioengineered pancreas will benefit from the development of a bioscaffold that supports and enhances cellular function and tissue development. Perfusion-decellularized organs are a likely candidate for use in such scaffolds since they mimic compositional, architectural and biomechanical nature of a native organ. In this study, we investigate perfusion-decellularization of whole pancreas and the feasibility to recellularize the whole pancreas scaffold with pancreatic cell types. Our result demonstrates that perfusion-decellularization of whole pancreas effectively removes cellular and nuclear material while retaining intricate three-dimensional microarchitecture with perfusable vasculature and ductal network and crucial extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To mimic pancreatic cell composition, we recellularized the whole pancreas scaffold with acinar and beta cell lines and cultured up to 5 days. Our result shows successful cellular engraftment within the decellularized pancreas, and the resulting graft gave rise to strong up-regulation of insulin gene expression. These findings support biological utility of whole pancreas ECM as a biomaterials scaffold for supporting and enhancing pancreatic cell functionality and represent a step toward bioengineered pancreas using regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:23787110

  10. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Lopez-Solache, I.; Rendon, J.L.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Diaz-Zagoya, J.C.

    1988-04-15

    The mitochondrial fraction of the dog pancreas showed NAD(H)-dependent enzyme activity of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The enzyme catalyzes oxidoreduction between androstenedione and testosterone. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for androstenedione was 9.5 +/- 0.9 microM, the apparent Vmax was determined as 0.4 nmol mg-1 min-1, and the optimal pH was 6.5. In phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, maximal rate of androstenedione reduction was observed at 37 degrees C. The oxidation of testosterone by the enzyme proceeded at the same rate as the reduction of the androstenedione at a pH of 6.8-7.0. The apparent Km value and the optimal pH of the enzyme for testosterone were 3.5 +/- 0.5 microM and 7.5, respectively.

  11. Tungstate stimulates insulin release and inhibits somatostatin output in the perfused rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Ramona A; Egido, Eva M; Hernández, Raquel; Marco, José

    2005-09-05

    In the rat pancreas, infusion of sodium-tungstate stimulates basal insulin release in a dose-dependent manner. We have studied tungstate's effects on the insulin secretion elicited by various B-cell secretagogues. Somatostatin output was also measured. The study was performed in the perfused pancreas isolated from normal or somatostatin-depleted pancreases as induced by cysteamine pre-treatment. In control rats, tungstate co-infusion (5 mM) potentiated the insulin secretory responses to glucose (2.7-fold; P<0.01), arginine (2-fold; P<0.01), exendin-4 (3-fold; P<0.01), glucagon (4-fold; P<0.05), and tolbutamide (2-fold; P<0.01). It also inhibited the somatostatin secretory responses to glucose (90%; P<0.01), arginine (95%; P<0.01), glucagon (80%; P<0.025), exendin-4 (80%; P<0.05) and tolbutamide (85%; P<0.01). In somatostatin-depleted pancreases, the stimulatory effect of tungstate on basal insulin secretion and its potentiation of arginine-induced insulin output were comparable to those found in control rats. Our observations suggest an amplifying effect of tungstate on a common step in the insulin stimulus/secretion coupling process, and would rule out a paracrine effect mediated by the inhibition of somatostatin secretion induced by this compound.

  12. Dynamics of insulin release by perfused edible dormouse (Glis glis) pancreas. Seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Castex, C; Sutter, B C

    1981-04-01

    In order to characterize seasonal variations of beta cell function in the edible dormouse (Glis glis), the dynamics of insulin release were examined during perfusion of the isolated pancreas. The B cells exhibited biphasic insulin secretion; however, the dynamic response differed from that of the rat in that there was a steady-state second release phase. Glucose-induced insulin release changed according to the seasons. With 16.8 mmol/l glucose, the average insulin release of the late phase was 30.8 +/- 12.6 ng/min in winter, 7.4 +/- 3.2 ng/min in spring, 13.1 +/- 3 ng/min in summer and 23.3 +/- 4.4 ng/min in autumn. The glucose-induced insulin release, expressed as percent of the insulin content of the pancreas, varied according to the season: it represented 2.23 +/- 0.31% in winter, 1.28 +/- 0.10% in spring, 1.56 +/- 0.15 in summer and 2.6 +/- 0.11 in autumn. It is suggested that in spring and summer, the edible dormouse B cell secretion mechanism is less sensitive to glucose than in the other seasons.

  13. Effects of sodium tungstate on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gallardo, J; Silvestre, R A; Egido, E M; Marco, J

    2000-08-18

    Both the direct effect of sodium tungstate on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas, and the insulin response to glucose and arginine in pancreases isolated from tungstate-pretreated rats were studied. Infusion of tungstate stimulated insulin output in a dose-dependent manner. The insulinotropic effect of tungstate was observed at normal (5.5 mM), and moderately high (9 mM) glucose concentrations, but not at a low glucose concentration (3.2 mM). Tungstate-induced insulin output was blocked by diazoxide, somatostatin, and amylin, suggesting several targets for tungstate at the B-cell secretory machinery. Glucagon release was not modified by tungstate. Pancreases from chronically tungstate-treated rats showed an enhanced response to glucose but not to arginine. Our results indicate that the reported reduction of glycemia caused by tungstate administration is, at least in part, due to its direct insulinotropic activity. Furthermore, chronic tungstate treatment may prime the B-cell, leading to over-response to a glucose stimulus.

  14. Canine Pancreas-Specific Lipase and C-reactive Protein in Dogs Treated With Anticonvulsants (Phenobarbital and Potassium Bromide).

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Viviana; Teles, Mariana; Meléndez-Lazo, Antonio; Rodón, Jaume; Pastor, Josep

    2015-06-01

    Animals treated with anticonvulsant drugs may have increased canine pancreas-specific lipase (cPLI) values. Inflammatory conditions and specifically acute pancreatitis are of major concern in these animals. Elevation in C-reactive protein is being associated with inflammatory status in dogs and it has been correlated with the clinical severity of pancreatitis. In the present study, we investigated if there is a correlation between the cPLI increase, changes in C-reactive protein and hepatic enzymes, as well as the incidence of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) in dogs with anticonvulsant treatment (phenobarbital, or potassium bromide or both). Increased values of pancreas-specific lipase were found in 6.8% of the animals in treatment with anticonvulsants, and this increase is correlated with the increase in triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase but not with C-reactive protein levels, which suggests a possible induction or release phenomenon rather than a clear severe AP. C-reactive protein levels did not affect cPLI values on the population studied. Only 2 animals had clinical and analytical data suggestive of AP, indicating a low prevalence (0.6%). In conclusion, cPLI may be increased in a low percentage of animals with anticonvulsants treatment and its increase may not be associated with severe AP. It may be induced by the anticonvulsants drugs; however, further studies are advised to rule out other possible causes that increased cPLI.

  15. Release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity from the perfused canine thyroid. Selective stimulatory effect of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, P; Orskov, H

    1981-05-01

    It is well accepted that the C cells of the thyroid contain somatostatin, but the role in local endocrine function has not yet been firmly established in this organ, and it has not been proved that thyroidal somatostatin is released into the circulation. We have measured the contents of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the effluent of canine thyroid glands perfused without recirculation with a synthetic buffer medium. During basal conditions a definite release was consistently found in the order of 10 pg/ml corresponding to 12 pg/min. The somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was studied in dilution experiments and by gel-filtration chromatography, and found to have properties identical to those of synthetic cyclic somatostatin, which was also recovered quantitatively when added to sampling tubes. Various compounds were infused in concentrations that are highly active in pancreas perfusion experiments. 14-min infusion of arginine, 5 and 11.5 mmol/liter; isoproterenol, 10 and 23.7 nmol/liter and 68.7 mumol/liter; acetylcholine, 5 mumol/liter, carbamylcholine, 10 and 100 mumol/liter; glucagon, 1 and 30 nmol/liter; and porcine calcitonin, 1 and 100 ng/ml did not affect the basal release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity significantly. Neither did an increase from the control level of 4 mmol/liter glucose of 10 or 20 mmol/liter, nor an increase in the control level of 4.4 mmol/liter K+ to 7.5 or 14.4 mmol/liter. Each of these compounds were tested in three or four dogs. The effect of an increase in Ca++ from the control level of 1.5 mmol/liter to 2.25, 3.0, and 4.5 mmol/liter was tested in random order in five thyroid lobes. All three doses elicited an immediate increase in effluent somatostatin-like immunoreactivity. In most experiments the response was biphasic with an early spike, followed by a stable level that was maintained during prolonged Ca++ infusion. The secretory response was not diminished through a series of repeated short pulses of calcium infusion

  16. Somatostatin, insulin and glucagon secretion by the perfused pancreas from the cysteamine-treated rat

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestre, R.A.; Miralles, P.; Moreno, P.; Villanueva, M.L.; Marco, J.

    1986-02-13

    In rats, administration of a single dose of cysteamine (300 mg/kg, intragastrically) induces a depletion of pancreatic somatostatin content (approximately 60%) without modifying pancreatic insulin or glucagon content. In perfused pancreases from cysteamine-treated rats, there was a lack of somatostatin response to glucose, arginine or tolbutamide. In the absence of stimulated somatostatin release, the secretory responses of insulin and glucagon to glucose, to arginine, and to tolbutamide were not significantly different from those observed in pancreases from control rats. Our data do not support the concept that pancreatic somatostatin plays a major role in the control of insulin and glucagon release.

  17. Effects of calcium infusion on secretion and motor activity of totally isolated canine stomach perfused with homologous blood.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, K; Kolodej, A

    1976-01-01

    Isolated, ex vivo perfused, canine stomachs were used for this study. Gastric secretion, myoelectrical activity and mechanical activity were recorded during stimulation of gastric function with pentagastrin or histamine alone or combined with calcium gluconate. Secretagogues and calcium were infused into the gastric arterial circulation. Hypercalcemia induced significant inhibition of pentagastrin, stimulated gastric secretion, but did not affect the secretion stimulated by histamine. Hypercalcemia also induced an increase of frequency of cycles of electrical control activity and a decrease of mechanical activity of the gastric antrum. The effect of hypercalcemia on gastric motor function was similar in the nonstimulated stomach and during the infusion of secretagogues used in this experiment.

  18. Characterization of the Effects of Arginine and Glucose on Glucagon and Insulin Release from the Perfused Rat Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gerich, John E.; Charles, M. Arthur; Grodsky, Gerold M.

    1974-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms by which arginine and glucose affect pancreatic alpha and beta cell function, the effects of these agents over their full dose response, both alone and in various combinations, were studied using the perfused rat pancreas. Arginine (0-38 mM), in the absence of glucose, stimulated biphasic glucagon (IRG) secretion (Km≃3-4 mM) at concentrations less than 1 mM and caused nonphasic insulin (IRI) release (Km≃12-13 mM) but only at concentrations greater than 6 mM. Glucose (0-27.5 mM) alone stimulated biphasic IRI release (Km≃9-10 mM) at concentrations in excess of 5.5 mM and caused nonphasic inhibition of IRG secretion (Kt≃5-6 mM) at concentrations as low as 4.1 mM. These results demonstrate fundamental differences in pancreatic alpha and beta cell secretory patterns in response to glucose and arginine and suggest that glucagon secretion is more sensitive to the effect of both glucose and arginine. Various concentrations of arginine in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose stimulated biphasic IRG and IRI release: IRG responses were diminished and IRI responses were enhanced compared with those seen with arginine in the absence of glucose. Glucose (0-27.5 mM) in the presence of 3.2 or 19.2 mM arginine caused similar inhibition of IRG secretion (Km≃5-6 mM) and stimulation of IRI release (Km≃9-10 mM) as that seen with glucose alone, although greater IRG and IRI release occurred. This augmentation of IRI secretion was greater than that expected from mere additive effects of glucose and arginine. Classical Lineweaver-Burk analysis of these results indicates that glucose is a non-competitive inhibitor arginine-stimulated glucagon secretion and suggests that glucose and arginine affect pancreatic alpha and beta cell function via different mechanisms. In addition, comparison of simultaneous insulin and glucagon secretion patterns under various conditions suggests that endogenous insulin per se has little or no direct effect on IRG secretion

  19. The effect of muscle contusion on cortical bone and muscle perfusion following reamed, intramedullary nailing: a novel canine tibia fracture model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Management of tibial fractures associated with soft tissue injury remains controversial. Previous studies have assessed perfusion of the fractured tibia and surrounding soft tissues in the setting of a normal soft tissue envelope. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of muscle contusion on blood flow to the tibial cortex and muscle during reamed, intramedullary nailing of a tibial fracture. Methods Eleven adult canines were distributed into two groups, Contusion or No-Contusion. The left tibia of each canine underwent segmental osteotomy followed by limited reaming and locked intramedullary nailing. Six of the 11 canines had the anterior muscle compartment contused in a standardized fashion. Laser doppler flowmetry was used to measure cortical bone and muscle perfusion during the index procedure and at 11 weeks post-operatively. Results Following a standardized contusion, muscle perfusion in the Contusion group was higher compared to the No-Contusion group at post-osteotomy and post-reaming (p < 0.05). Bone perfusion decreased to a larger extent in the Contusion group compared to the No-Contusion group following osteotomy (p < 0.05), and the difference in bone perfusion between the two groups remained significant throughout the entire procedure (p < 0.05). At 11 weeks, muscle perfusion was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). There was a sustained decrease in overall bone perfusion in the Contusion group at 11 weeks, compared to the No-Contusion group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Injury to the soft tissue envelope may have some deleterious effects on intraosseous circulation. This could have some influence on the fixation method for tibia fractures linked with significant soft tissue injury. PMID:21118566

  20. Computerized tomography versus perfusion lung scanning in canine radiation lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, I.H.; Logus, J.W.; El-Khatib, E.; Battista, J.J.; Ferri, H.; Lentle, B.C.; Man, G.C.; Man, S.F. )

    1990-03-01

    Computerized tomographic (CT) measurements of lung density were obtained before and serially after thoracic irradiation in dogs to detect the alterations caused by radiation therapy. Fourteen mongrel dogs were given either 2000 cGy (Group A, 10 dogs, right lower zone irradiation), 1000 cGy (Group B, 2 dogs, right lower zone irradiation), or 500 cGy (Group C, 2 dogs, right lung irradiation) in one fraction. Once before and bi-weekly after irradiation, the anesthetized dogs had thoracic CT scans. CT numbers for the irradiated area were compared to their preirradiation control values. Macro-aggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion lung scans were also obtained before and at weekly intervals after irradiation and were evaluated visually and quantitatively for abnormalities. When both these tests were abnormal, or at the end of the scheduled study, the dogs were sacrificed to confirm radiation lung injury histologically. Our results showed that CT numbers (as a measure of tissue density) were higher with higher doses of radiation. Among all the techniques used, only the quantitative assessment of macro-aggregated albumin perfusion scan detected abnormalities in all the dogs given 2000 cGy. Their abnormalities correlated well with the presence of radiation lung damage histologically, however, the applicability of these methods in the detection of early injury has to be further evaluated.

  1. Cerebral perfusion during canine hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass: effect of arterial carbon dioxide tension.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W E; Vinten-Johansen, J; DeWitt, D S; O'Steen, W K; Stump, D A; Prough, D S

    1991-09-01

    Cerebral blood flow (radioactive microspheres), intracranial pressure (subdural bolt), and retinal histopathology were examined in 20 dogs undergoing 150 minutes of hypothermic (28 degrees C) cardiopulmonary bypass to compare alpha-stat (arterial carbon dioxide tension, 40 +/- 1 mm Hg; n = 10) and pH-stat (arterial carbon dioxide tension, 61 +/- 1 mm Hg; n = 10) techniques of arterial carbon dioxide tension management. Pump flow (80 mL.kg-1.min-1), mean aortic pressure (78 +/- 2 mm Hg), and hemoglobin level (87 +/- 3 g/L [8.7 +/- 0.3 g/dL]) were maintained constant. During bypass, intracranial pressure progressively increased in the alpha-stat group from 6.0 +/- 1.0 to 13.9 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (p less than 0.05) and in the pH-stat group from 7.7 +/- 1.1 to 14.7 +/- 1.4 mm Hg (p less than 0.05), although there was no evidence of loss of intracranial compliance or intracranial edema formation as assessed by brain water content. With cooling, cerebral blood flow decreased by 56% to 62% in the alpha-stat group (p less than 0.05) and by 48% to 56% in the pH-stat group (p less than 0.05). However, 30 minutes after rewarming to 37 degrees C, cerebral blood flow in both groups failed to increase and remained significantly depressed compared with baseline values. Both groups showed similar amounts of ischemic retinal damage, with degeneration of bipolar cells found in the inner nuclear layer in 67% of animals. We conclude that, independent of the arterial carbon dioxide tension management technique, (1) cerebral perfusion decreased comparably during prolonged hypothermic bypass, (2) intracranial pressure increases progressively, (3) ischemic damage to retinal cells occurs despite maintenance of aortic pressure and flow, and (4) a significant reduction in cerebral perfusion persists after rewarming.

  2. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  3. TU-CD-BRA-08: Single-Energy Computed Tomography-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging: Proof-Of-Principle in a Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T; Boone, J; Kent, M; Wisner, E; Fujita, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary perfusion imaging has provided significant insights into pulmonary diseases, and can be useful in radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to prospectively establish proof-of-principle in a canine model for single-energy CT-based perfusion imaging, which has the potential for widespread clinical implementation. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on: (1) acquisition of inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) of the two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the pre-contrast image from post-contrast image, yielding a map of Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement. These subtraction image data sets hypothetically represent perfused blood volume, a surrogate for perfusion. In an IACUC-approved clinical trial, we acquired pre- and post-contrast CT scans in the prone posture for six anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated dogs. The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The registration accuracy was quantified using the target registration errors (TREs) for 50 pulmonary landmarks in each dog. The gradient of HU enhancement between gravity-dependent (ventral) and non-dependent (dorsal) regions was evaluated to quantify the known effect of gravity, i.e., greater perfusion in ventral regions. Results: The lung volume difference between the two scans was 4.3±3.5% on average (range 0.3%–10.1%). DIR demonstrated an average TRE of 0.7±1.0 mm. HU enhancement in lung parenchyma was 34±10 HU on average and varied considerably between individual dogs, indicating the need for improvement of the contrast injection protocol. HU enhancement in ventral (gravity-dependent) regions was found to be greater than in dorsal regions. A population average ventral-to-dorsal gradient of HU enhancement was strong (R{sup 2}=0.94) and statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: This canine study demonstrated relatively accurate DIR and a strong ventral

  4. Portal Venous Oxygen Persufflation of the Donation after Cardiac Death pancreas in a rat model is superior to static cold storage and hypothermic machine perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mettu S; Carter, Noel; Cunningham, Anne; Shaw, James; Talbot, David

    2014-06-01

    Success of clinical pancreatic islet transplantation depends on the mass of viable islets transplanted and the proportion of transplanted islets that survive early ischaemia reperfusion injury. Novel pancreas preservation techniques to improve islet preservation and viability can increase the utilization of donation after cardiac death donor pancreases for islet transplantation. Rat pancreases were retrieved after 30 min of warm ischaemia and preserved by static cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion or retrograde portal venous oxygen persufflation for 6 h. They underwent collagenase digestion and density gradient separation to isolate islets. The yield, viability, morphology were compared. In vitro function of isolated islets was compared using glucose stimulated insulin secretion test. Portal venous oxygen persufflation improved the islet yield, viability and morphology as compared to static cold storage. The percentage of pancreases with good in vitro function (stimulation index > 1.0) was also higher after oxygen persufflation as compared to static cold storage. Retrograde portal venous oxygen persufflation of donation after cardiac death donor rat pancreases has the potential to improve islet yield.

  5. Function of the vascular endothelium after hypothermic storage at four degrees Celsius in a canine tibial perfusion model. The role of adrenomedullin in reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Bishop, A T; Tu, Y K; Wood, M B

    1998-09-01

    The function of the vascular endothelium after cold storage at 4 degrees Celsius for one, three, five, and seven days was investigated in a canine tibial perfusion model. Function was assessed in terms of changes in perfusion pressure, changes in the concentration of endothelin in the venous effluent from the perfused tibiae, adrenomedullin-induced vascular smooth-muscle relaxation, and norepinephrine-induced pressor responses in the presence of acetylcholine, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis), or indomethacin (an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis) in phase 1 of the study. In phase 2 of the study, the effect of the infusion of tetraethylammonium (a potassium-channel blocker that inhibits the activity of endothelium-derived hyperpolarized factor) was analyzed. The baseline perfusion pressures increased in a time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). In tibiae that had been stored for one or three days, the production of endothelin-1 was less than one picogram per milliliter, but it markedly increased to a mean (and standard error of the mean) of 8.7 +/- 3.2 and 10.8 +/- 4.3 picograms per milliliter in tibiae that had been stored for five and seven days, respectively (p < 0.05). Acetylcholine attenuated the norepinephrine-induced pressor response in all groups (storage at 4 degrees Celsius for one, three, five, or seven days) compared with the response in the control tibiae (p < 0.05). Perfusion of acetylcholine in the tibiae that had been stored for three days significantly attenuated the pressor response to norepinephrine compared with that in the tibiae that had been stored for five days (p < 0.05). In the presence of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate, the norepinephrine-induced pressor response significantly increased only in the tibiae that had been stored for one day (p < 0.05). In the presence of indomethacin, the norepinephrine-induced pressor response significantly decreased in the tibiae that had been stored at 4 degrees

  6. Pancreas Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  7. Polycystic Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Amarapurkar, Deepak N.; Amarapurkar, Anjali D.

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic disease of the pancreas is a very rare entity with very few cases reported in the literature. We report a symptomatic case of polycystic pancreas associated with pheochromocytoma that was treated surgically. PMID:27144204

  8. Pancreas Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, David ER

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is generally treated with oral diabetic drugs and/or insulin. However, the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition increases over time, even in patients receiving intensive insulin treatment, and this is largely attributable to diabetic complications or the insulin therapy itself. Pancreas transplantation in humans was first conducted in 1966, since when there has been much debate regarding the legitimacy of this procedure. Technical refinements and the development of better immunosuppressants and better postoperative care have brought about marked improvements in patient and graft survival and a reduction in postoperative morbidity. Consequently, pancreas transplantation has become the curative treatment modality for diabetes, particularly for type I diabetes. An overview of pancreas transplantation is provided herein, covering the history of pancreas transplantation, indications for transplantation, cadaveric and living donors, surgical techniques, immunosuppressants, and outcome following pancreas transplantation. The impact of successful pancreas transplantation on the complications of diabetes will also be reviewed briefly. PMID:21253293

  9. Artifical Pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, JDRF launched the Artificial Pancreas Project (APP) to accelerate the development of a commercially-viable artificial pancreas system to closely mimic the biological function of the pancreas individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes. By automating detection of blood sugar levels and delivery of insulin in response to those levels, an artificial pancreas has the potential to transform the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. The 6-step APP development pathway serves as JDRF's APP strategic funding plan and defines the priorities of product research and development. Each step in the plan represents incremental advances in automation beginning with devices that shut off insulin delivery to prevent episodes of low blood sugar and progressing ultimately to a fully automated ``closed loop'' system that maintains blood glucose at a target level without the need to bolus for meals or adjust for exercise.

  10. Pancreas transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:511-5. Gruessner AC, Gruessner RWG. Pancreas and kidney transplantation for diabetic nephropathy. In: Morris PJ, Knechtle SJ, eds. Kidney Transplantation: ...

  11. Canine Autoanticoagulation during Extracorporeal Perfusion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-19

    eviscerated as .o’: atr midline laparatomy, the celiac , superior and inerior ee ..: re ligated and divided between ligatures and the following x-azr C...extreme care taken to prevent loss of blood. In half of the experiments, the hepatic artery was maintained. patent by sectioning the celiac artery distal...to the origin of the hepatic artery; in the other half, the celiac artery was divided near its origin at the aorta, thus preventing flow via the

  12. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Kidney/Pancreas Facts The kidneys are a pair of reddish- ... the chemical (electrolyte) composition of the blood. The pancreas is a five to six inch gland located ...

  13. Formation of Collateral Veins in a Graft Pancreas After a Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, B H; Lee, H Y; Park, Y M; Yang, K H; Ryu, J H; Chu, C W

    2015-09-01

    A graft vein thrombosis is the main cause of early graft failure after pancreas transplantation. We report a case of formation of collateral veins in a graft pancreas after transplant. A 30-year-old woman underwent simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. She was discharged 16 days after the operation with good pancreas and kidney function. A total occlusion of the portal vein was discovered on computed tomography (CT) performed at an outpatient clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of hyperglycemia. Venography was attempted for vein thrombectomy but failed. After 2 weeks of heparinization therapy, the edema disappeared and perfusion of the graft pancreas improved. However, the thrombotic occlusion was not resolved on CT. Arteriography of the Y-graft revealed collateral veins. She was discharged with warfarin. She is currently doing well without any symptoms or signs. This is the first reported case of collateral vein formation in a grafted pancreas after pancreas transplantation.

  14. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  15. National Pancreas Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... NPF Centers Animated Pancreas Patient About the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer Chronic Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis Children/Pediatric Other Pancreas ... Providing hope to those suffering from pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Support Pancreatic Research Slide2 Providing hope to those ...

  16. Getting a New Pancreas: Facts about Pancreas Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2003 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... the views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ Getting a New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants When you get a ...

  17. Pancreas transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100129.htm Pancreas transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 6 out of 6 Overview The pancreas resides in the back of the abdomen. It ...

  18. Annular pancreas (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  19. What Is the Pancreas?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer The Pancreas Parts of ...

  20. Pancreas transplantation: review

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascularized pancreas transplantation is the only treatment that establishes normal glucose levels and normalizes glycosylated hemoglobin levels in type 1 diabetic patients. The first vascularized pancreas transplant was performed by William Kelly and Richard Lillehei, to treat a type 1 diabetes patient, in December 1966. In Brazil, Edison Teixeira performed the first isolated segmental pancreas transplant in 1968. Until the 1980s, pancreas transplants were restricted to a few centers of the United States and Europe. The introduction of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil in 1994, led to a significant outcome improvement and consequently, an increase in pancreas transplants in several countries. According to the International Pancreas Transplant Registry, until December 31st, 2010, more than 35 thousand pancreas transplants had been performed. The one-year survival of patients and pancreatic grafts exceeds 95 and 83%, respectively. The better survival of pancreatic (86%) and renal (93%) grafts in the first year after transplantation is in the simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant group of patients. Immunological loss in the first year after transplant for simultaneous pancreas-kidney, pancreas after kidney, and pancreas alone are 1.8, 3.7, and 6%, respectively. Pancreas transplant has 10 to 20% surgical complications requiring laparotomy. Besides enhancing quality of life, pancreatic transplant increases survival of uremic diabetic patient as compared to uremic diabetic patients on dialysis or with kidney transplantation alone. PMID:26154551

  1. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, often, the nervous systems of puppies and dogs. The virus also infects wild canids (e.g. ... How is Canine Distemper virus spread? Puppies and dogs usually become infected through airborne exposure to the ...

  2. Canine lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Madewell, B R

    1985-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the literature regarding canine malignant lymphoma. It includes a discussion of etiology, classification, systemic manifestations of disease, therapy, and supportive care for patient management.

  3. Assessment of pancreas cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  4. Deconstructing Pancreas Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Benitez, Cecil M.; Goodyer, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The relentless nature and increasing prevalence of human pancreatic diseases, in particular, diabetes mellitus and adenocarcinoma, has motivated further understanding of pancreas organogenesis. The pancreas is a multifunctional organ whose epithelial cells govern a diversity of physiologically vital endocrine and exocrine functions. The mechanisms governing the birth, differentiation, morphogenesis, growth, maturation, and maintenance of the endocrine and exocrine components in the pancreas have been discovered recently with increasing tempo. This includes recent studies unveiling mechanisms permitting unexpected flexibility in the developmental potential of immature and mature pancreatic cell subsets, including the ability to interconvert fates. In this article, we describe how classical cell biology, genetic analysis, lineage tracing, and embryological investigations are being complemented by powerful modern methods including epigenetic analysis, time-lapse imaging, and flow cytometry-based cell purification to dissect fundamental processes of pancreas development. PMID:22587935

  5. Partial annular pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Gunjan; Mittal, Amit; Singal, Rikki; Singal, Samita

    2016-01-01

    Annular pancreas is a developmental anomaly that can be associated with other conditions such as Down syndrome, duodenal atresia, and Hirschsprung disease. A band of pancreatic tissue, in continuity with the pancreatic head, completely or incompletely encircles the descending duodenum, sometimes assuming a “crocodile jaw” configuration. We present the case of an adult who presented with epigastric pain and vomiting and was found to have annular pancreas. PMID:27695176

  6. [Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas].

    PubMed

    Davies, Nestor R; Kasparian, Andres C; Viotto, Lucas E; Moreno, Walter A; Gramática, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas represents around 6-36% of mucinous cystic neoplasm. The lesions are usually found in the body and tail of the pancreas and are generally solitary with a size range of 6-36 cm. We present a clinical case of a 63 years old patient with abdominal pain and weight loss. We used radiographic imaging studies. It was treated with surgery by distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and transverse colectomy. Patient was not post operative complications.

  7. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    MedlinePlus

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  8. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  9. Canine gastritis.

    PubMed

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  10. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Up About Us Board of Directors Newsletter Partners Financial & Privacy Policy Contact Us Patient Information About the Pancreas NPF ... here . About Us Board of Directors Newsletter Partners Financial & Privacy Policy Contact Us Patient Information About the Pancreas Genetics & ...

  11. A solution to organ shortage: vascular reconstructions for pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gałazka, Z; Grochowiecki, T; Nazarewski, S; Rowiński, O; Chudziński, W; Pietrasik, K; Jakimowicz, T; Solonynko, B; Nawrot, I; Kański, A; Szmidt, J

    2006-01-01

    Multiorgan harvesting (MOH) accounts for approximately 40% of all organ procurements in Poland. Simultaneous procurement of the pancreas and liver necessitates division of the vessels supplying both organs. Therefore, reconstruction of the pancreas vasculature is mandatory for proper function of the transplanted organ. The aim of this study was to present various methods of vascular reconstruction to prepare the pancreas for transplantation. Between January 1999 and April 2005, among 42 whole pancreas transplantations, 35 came from MOH necessitating arterial reconstruction. In 32 cases, the splenic artery (SA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were sewn into a single trunk using the common iliac arterial bifurcation. Occasionally, the iliac Y-graft was unsuitable for vascular reconstruction due to atherosclerosis or iatrogenic injury. Therefore, the SA was anastomosed to the side of the SMA in two cases. In one case we utilized the brachiocephalic trunk bifurcation. Portal vein elongation employed an external iliac vein procured from the donor in all 35 cases. Good perfusion was achieved in all transplanted pancreata. During the early follow-up period, two venous and one arterial thromboses were noted. No negative effects of pancreatic vessel reconstruction were observed in postoperative graft function. Reconstruction of the pancreas vasculature did not affect the long-term function of the allograft while significantly increasing the available donor organ pool.

  12. Pig Pancreas Anatomy: Implications for Pancreas Procurement, Preservation, and Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Joana; Scott, William E; Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2009-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. The limited human islet supply from cadavers and poor islet yield and quality remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Use of porcine islets holds great promise for large-scale application of islet transplantation. Consistent isolation of porcine islets is dependent on advances in pancreas procurement and preservation, and islet isolation requiring detailed knowledge of the porcine pancreatic anatomy. The primary aim of this study was to describe the vascular and ductal anatomy of the porcine pancreas in order to guide and improve organ preservation and enzyme perfusion. Methods Pancreata were removed by en bloc viscerectomy from 65 female Landrace pigs. Results 15% of organs exhibited inconsistent vascular branching from the celiac trunk. All organs had uniform patterns of branching at the superior mesenteric artery. The superior and inferior mesenteric veins (IMV) merged to become the portal vein in all but one case in which the IMV drained into the splenic vein. 97% of pancreata had three lobes: duodenal (DL), connecting (CL), and splenic (SL); 39% demonstrated ductal communication between the CL and the other two lobes; 50% had ductal communication only between the CL and DL; and 11% presented other types of ductal delineation. Conclusions Accounting for the variations in vascular and ductal anatomy, as detailed in this study, will facilitate development of protocols for preservation, optimal enzyme administration, and pancreas distention and digestion, and ultimately lead to substantial improvements in isolation outcomes. PMID:19077881

  13. Retinoids in the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Pierre-Jacques; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn

    2016-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its natural and synthetic analogs) are required by most tissues for maintaining the normal health of the tissue. This is certainly true for the pancreas. The recent literature is convincing that retinoids are needed by the adult to assure normal pancreatic endocrine functions, especially those of the α- and β-cells. It is also well established that retinoids are required to insure normal pancreas development in utero, including the development of the endocrine pancreas. The actions of retinoids for maintaining normal pancreatic islet functions has drawn considerable research interest from investigators interested in understanding and treating metabolic disease. Pancreatic retinoids are also of interest to investigators studying the origins of pancreatic disease, including the development of pancreatic fibrosis and its sequelae. This research interest is focused on pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) which store retinoids and possess the metabolic machinery needed to metabolize retinoids. The literature on pancreatic disease and retinoids suggests that there is an association between impairments in pancreatic retinoid storage and metabolism and the development of pancreatic disease. These topics will be considered in this review. PMID:26904552

  14. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. The left-sided pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, G.D.; Gibson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    Ultrasonography (US) performed in nine patients (two with pancreatic carcinoma, one with hepatomegaly), six with no relevant abdominal disease) showed the pancreas to lie wholly to the left of the aorta. This not uncommon location may give rise to difficulty in demonstrating the pancreas on real-time US scans. The superior mesenteric vessels and splenic vein remain useful land-marks for locating the head of the pancreas in this position.

  16. MR imaging of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Erin; Hammond, Nancy; Miller, Frank H

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pancreas is useful as both a problem-solving tool and an initial imaging examination of choice. With newer imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging, MR offers improved ability to detect and characterize lesions and identify and stage tumors and inflammation. MR cholangiopancreatography can be used to visualize the pancreatic and biliary ductal system. In this article, the use of MR to evaluate the pancreas, including recent advances, is reviewed and the normal appearance of the pancreas on different imaging sequences, as well as inflammatory diseases, congenital abnormalities, and neoplasms of the pancreas, are discussed.

  17. Histologic effects of University of Wisconsin two-layer method preservation of rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Gioviale, M C; Damiano, G; Puleio, R; Bellavia, M; Cassata, G; Palumbo, V D; Spinelli, G; Altomare, R; Barone, R; Cacciabaudo, F; Buscemi, G; Lo Monte, A I

    2013-06-01

    Marginal donors represent a poorly utilized source of organs for transplantation despite their availability. The key is to reduce the ischemic damage in the effort to improve organ quality. This study investigated the histologic effects after in situ perfusion of preservation with a two-layer method compared with the classic University of Wisconsin preservation in term of tissue integrity and number of viable exocrine cells in the rat pancreas both after exsanguination and at 8 weeks of cryopreservation. Pancreata harvested from 60 rats were collected using 3 methods: two-layer method following University of Wisconsin perfusion; exsanguination; and classic University of Wisconsin perfusion/storage. In addition to histologic analysis of collected pancreata, we analyzed the number of CK19(+) cells and their viability using chi-square tests with values P < .05 considered to be significant. Rat pancreas histology showed as University of Wisconsin in situ perfusion and preservation by the two-layer method to be more effective to maintain the morphologic integrity of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. There were a larger number of CK19(+) cells with good viability. Moreover, the effects of oxygenation were visible in pancreas biopsies preserved after exsanguination. In situ University of Wisconsin perfusion and preservation for 240 minutes with the two-layer method yielded greater numbers and viability of CK19(+) cells even after 8 weeks of cryopreservation.

  18. Human pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes.

  19. Canine thymoma.

    PubMed

    Aronsohn, M

    1985-07-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog.

  20. Surgery for pancreas divisum.

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Subodh; Johnson, Colin D.

    2002-01-01

    We present our experience of open surgical treatment in 5 patients with symptomatic pancreas divisum (PD). Choice of therapy was based on allocation of patients to one of five clinical presentation groups: (i) with minor symptoms (no operation); (ii) with recurrent acute pancreatitis or upper abdominal pain (RAP/RUAP)--3 patients; (iii) with radiological evidence of chronic pancreatitis (CP)--1 patient; (iv) chronic pancreatic pain without radiological evidence of chronic pancreatitis (CPP); and (v) other pancreatic complications--1 patient. This classification helps to decide management and predict possible outcome. Various types of operation were performed as indicated (open surgical accessory sphincteroplasty [2 also had distal pancreatectomy], n = 3; Puestow's operation, n = 1; or Beger's pancreatectomy, n = 1). All patients improved significantly and are now leading normal personal, professional, and social lives. We conclude that, with careful selection of patients and appropriate therapy, the response to surgical treatment is good. PMID:12092866

  1. Fluconazole Penetration into the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Shrikhande, Shailesh; Friess, Helmut; Issenegger, Claudia; Martignoni, Marcus E.; Yong, Huang; Gloor, Beat; Yeates, Rodney; Kleeff, Jörg; Büchler, Markus W.

    2000-01-01

    Because of antibiotic prophylaxis for necrotizing pancreatitis, the frequency of fungal superinfection in patients with pancreatic necrosis is increasing. In this study we analyzed the penetration of fluconazole into the human pancreas and in experimental acute pancreatitis. In human pancreatic tissues, the mean fluconazole concentration was 8.19 ± 3.38 μg/g (96% of the corresponding concentration in serum). In experimental edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis, 88 and 91% of the serum fluconazole concentration was found in the pancreas. These data show that fluconazole penetration into the pancreas is sufficient to prevent and/or treat fungal contamination in patients with pancreatic necrosis. PMID:10952621

  2. [Laparoscopic distal resection of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Gürlich, R; Sixta, B; Oliverius, M; Kment, M; Rusina, R; Spicák, J; Sváb, J

    2005-09-01

    During the last two years, reports on laparoscopic procedures of the pancreas have been on increase. Laparoscopic resection of the pancreatic cauda is indicated, primarily, for benign cystic lesions of the cauda of the pancreas and for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (mainly insulinomas). We have not recorded any report on the above procedure in the Czech literature. Therefore, in our case review, we have described laparoscopic distal resection of the pancreas with splenectomy for a pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas.

  3. Generating new pancreas from old.

    PubMed

    Hardikar, Anandwardhan A

    2004-07-01

    Pancreas regeneration after tissue damage is a key response to pancreatic injury, involving pancreatic duct progenitor cells and intra-islet precursor cells. Surgical removal of the pancreas, duct obstruction by cellophane wrapping and bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation act as inductive stimuli, leading to pancreas regeneration. The exact role of growth and differentiation factors regulating pancreatic beta-cell mass remains unknown. Here, I will attempt to integrate recent findings and speculate on the factors that trigger this fascinating response, wherein the pancreas responds to a deficit in cell mass and undergoes new islet formation, leading to restoration of normal beta-cell mass. I will also discuss recent advances in regenerating endocrine pancreatic cells, which could affect stem cell-based approaches to treating diabetes mellitus.

  4. Lesions of the avian pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R

    2014-01-01

    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  5. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... States is chronic alcohol consumption. Additional causes include cystic fibrosis and other hereditary disorders ofthe pancreas. For a ... inherited disorder that leads to chronic pancreatitis is cystic fibrosis. Recent research demonstrates genetic testing can be a ...

  6. Engineering an endocrine Neo-Pancreas by repopulation of a decellularized rat pancreas with islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Napierala, H.; Hillebrandt, K.-H.; Haep, N.; Tang, P.; Tintemann, M.; Gassner, J.; Noesser, M.; Everwien, H.; Seiffert, N.; Kluge, M.; Teegen, E.; Polenz, D.; Lippert, S.; Geisel, D.; Reutzel Selke, A.; Raschzok, N.; Andreou, A.; Pratschke, J.; Sauer, I. M.; Struecker, B.

    2017-01-01

    Decellularization of pancreata and repopulation of these non-immunogenic matrices with islets and endothelial cells could provide transplantable, endocrine Neo- Pancreata. In this study, rat pancreata were perfusion decellularized and repopulated with intact islets, comparing three perfusion routes (Artery, Portal Vein, Pancreatic Duct). Decellularization effectively removed all cellular components but conserved the pancreas specific extracellular matrix. Digital subtraction angiography of the matrices showed a conserved integrity of the decellularized vascular system but a contrast emersion into the parenchyma via the decellularized pancreatic duct. Islets infused via the pancreatic duct leaked from the ductular system into the peri-ductular decellularized space despite their magnitude. TUNEL staining and Glucose stimulated insulin secretion revealed that islets were viable and functional after the process. We present the first available protocol for perfusion decellularization of rat pancreata via three different perfusion routes. Furthermore, we provide first proof-of-concept for the repopulation of the decellularized rat pancreata with functional islets of Langerhans. The presented technique can serve as a bioengineering platform to generate implantable and functional endocrine Neo-Pancreata. PMID:28150744

  7. Time course of a new ultrashort-acting beta-adrenoceptor-blocking drug, ONO-1101: comparison with those of esmolol and propranolol by using the canine isolated, blood-perfused heart preparations.

    PubMed

    Motomura, S; Hagihara, A; Narumi, Y; Hashimoto, K

    1998-03-01

    Time courses of beta-adrenoceptor-blocking actions of ONO-1101, a new cardioselective beta-blocker, were compared with those of esmolol and propranolol by using the isolated, blood-perfused sinoatrial node (SAN) and papillary muscle (PM) preparations of dogs. ONO-1101 per se given intraarterially (i.a.) in each nutrient artery did not affect basal sinoatrial rates (SARs; 99 +/- 2 beats/min, n = 7) in the SAN and developed tension (DT; 3.2 +/- 0.7 g, n = 7) of the PM preparations. Norepinephrine (NE) injected i.a. into the each artery induced increases in SAR (42 +/- 6 beats/min at 0.051 +/- 0.014 microg) and PMDT (2.9 +/- 0.4 g at 0.048 +/- 0.011 microg). The i.a. injections of NE were repeated every 3 min after i.v. bolus injections of ONO- 1101 into the support dog. NE-induced increases in SAR and PMDT were maximally inhibited 3 to 6 min after the i.v. injections of ONO-1101. Maximal percentage inhibitions by ONO-1101 of NE-induced increases in SAR were 54 +/- 6, 78 +/- 3, and 96 +/- 2% at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg of the drug, respectively. Similarly, maximal percentage inhibitions by ONO-1101 of NE-induced increases in PMDT were 50 +/- 12, 93 +/- 2, and 100% +/- 0, respectively. The inhibition was quickly recovered; times required for 50% recovery (RT1/2) were 12 +/- 3. 17 +/- 3, and 32 +/- 10 min in the SAN preparation, and 13 +/- 3, 16 +/- 2, and 39 +/- 11 min in the PM preparations, after i.v. injections of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg of ONO-1101, respectively. In comparison, maximal percentage inhibitions by esmolol of NE-induced increases in SAR were 45 +/- 5, 79 +/- 6, and 96 +/- 2%, and those in PMDT were 34 +/- 4, 75 +/- 5, and 97 +/- 1%, whereas the RT1/2 values were 11 +/- 2, 15 +/- 4, and 40 +/- 12 min in the SAN preparation, and 10 +/- 2, 16 +/- 7, and 27 +/- 6 min in the PM preparations, after i.v. injections of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg of esmolol, respectively. In contrast, the maximal percentage inhibitions by an i.v. bolus injection of 0.1 mg/kg of

  8. Localization of Impacted Canines

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra; Singh, Ashish; Garg, Aarti; Kumar, Snehi; Sharma, Ashish; Yadav, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. The impaction of canine can be prevented in some situationsif the canine displacement is diagnosed in the early mixed dentition period and this would be extremely useful for the clinician. Hence,it is very important to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, the differentmodalities used to diagnose the impacted canine are reviewed with an insight into current 3-D modalities. PMID:25738100

  9. Radionuclide surveillance of the allografted pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.A.; Salimi, Z.; Carney, K.; Castaneda, M.; Garvin, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphy to detect posttransplantation complications of the allografted pancreas, we retrospectively reviewed 209 scintigrams obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) and /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (/sup 99m/Tc-GH). The scintigraphic studies were performed in 37 recipients of simultaneous renal and pancreatic allografts harvested from the same donor. /sup 99m/Tc-SC was used as an indicator of thrombotic vasculitis; pancreatic perfusion and blood-pool parameters were monitored with /sup 99m/Tc-GH. In 11 of the 37 recipients, scintigraphic abnormalities suggested posttransplantation infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute rejection of the pancreatic allograft, which always coincided with acute rejection of the renal allograft, were monitored in 24 recipients. Rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis was suggested in 12 of the 24 recipients and persisted in 10 recipients for several weeks after improvement of renal allograft rejection. Pancreatic atrophy was suggested scintigraphically in 16 of the 24 recipients with recurrent episodes of rejection. Spontaneous pancreatic-duct obstruction and obstructive pancreatitis were associated with a scintigraphic pattern similar to that of rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis. We concluded that the specific radionuclides used in this series are useful for the surveillance and assessment of posttransplantation pancreatic infarction, acute rejection, pancreatitis, and atrophy

  10. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis.

  11. Design of a bioartificial pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Pareta, Rajesh A; Farney, Alan C; Opara, Emmanuel C

    2013-01-01

    Summary Islet transplantation has been shown to be a viable treatment option for patients afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles to routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets in hydrogels for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this review article, we will discuss the need for bioartificial pancreas, provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process, and review the status of the technology in clinical development. We will also critically review the various factors that need to be taken into consideration in order to achieve the ultimate goal of routine clinical application. PMID:23652283

  12. Possible link between ectopic pancreas and holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Kin, Tatsuya; Korbutt, Gregory S; Shapiro, A M James

    2012-01-01

    We report on the incidental observation of ectopic pancreas in a donor for islet cell transplantation. The donor's clinical and imaging presentation was definitive for holoprosencephaly. This case report discusses a possible link between ectopic pancreas and holoprosencephaly.

  13. Lymphoepithelial Cyst of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Prabhu; Fletcher, Natalie; Kyriakides, Charis; Mears, Lisa; Kocher, Hemant M.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of the pancreas is an extremely rare, benign pancreatic cystic lesion that is difficult to differentiate preoperatively from other cystic pancreatic lesions. LEC may have malignant potential. Here, we describe a case of LEC of the pancreas – initially suspected to be a mucinous cyst neoplasm – in an elderly man presenting with abdominal pain, who went on to have a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. We also review the relevant literature and discuss implications for the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion. PMID:27403123

  14. The economics of pancreas surgery.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Charles M

    2013-06-01

    Pancreas surgery is a paradigm for high-acuity surgical specialization. Given the current intrigue over containing health care expenditures, pancreas surgery provides an ideal model to investigate the cost of care. This article explores the economics of this field from literature accrued over the last 2 decades. The cost of performing a pancreatic resection is established and then embellished with a discussion of the effects of clinical care paths. Then the influence of complications on costs is explored. Next, cost is investigated as an emerging outcome metric regarding variations in pancreatic surgical care. Finally, the societal-level fiscal impact is considered.

  15. The increased echogenicity of the pancreas in infants and children: the white pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schneider, K; Harms, K; Fendel, H

    1987-09-01

    An increased echogenicity of the pancreas ("white pancreas") was sonographically found in 25 children with various pancreatic and systemic diseases. Fifteen patients with cystic fibrosis had a small white pancreas. Five patients with haemosiderosis, two with pancreatitis and one with Shwachman-syndrome presented with a normal-sized or slightly enlarged pancreas. Fatty infiltration and calcifications of the pancreas can also increase its echogenicity.

  16. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  17. Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  18. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  19. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreas carcinoma occurring in the annular pancreas: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kawaida, Hiromichi; Kono, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Maki, Akira; Amemiya, Hidetake; Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Takahashi, Ei; Sano, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2015-08-01

    The annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly in which a ring of the pancreas parenchyma surrounds the second part of the duodenum. Malignant tumors are extremely rare in patients with an annular pancreas. A 64-year-old man presented with appetite loss and vomiting. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) indicated pancreas parenchyma surrounding the second part of the duodenum, and a hypovascular area occupying lesion in the annular pancreas. Subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathology showed pancreatic carcinoma occurring in the complete annular pancreas.

  20. Exercise, Insulin Absorption Rates, and Artificial Pancreas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Spencer; Hinshaw, Ling; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Type 1 Diabetes is characterized by an inability of a person to endogenously produce the hormone insulin. Because of this, insulin must be injected - usually subcutaneously. The size of the injected dose and the rate at which the dose reaches the circulatory system have a profound effect on the ability to control glucose excursions, and therefore control of diabetes. However, insulin absorption rates via subcutaneous injection are variable and depend on a number of factors including tissue perfusion, physical activity (vasodilation, increased capillary throughput), and other tissue geometric and physical properties. Exercise may also have a sizeable effect on the rate of insulin absorption, which can potentially lead to dangerous glucose levels. Insulin-dosing algorithms, as implemented in an artificial pancreas controller, should account accurately for absorption rate variability and exercise effects on insulin absorption. The aforementioned factors affecting insulin absorption will be discussed within the context of both fluid mechanics and data driven modeling approaches.

  1. Toward a hybrid artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A

    1989-06-01

    Management of insulinopenic diabetic individuals centers on administration of insulin by means of multiple injections, a wearable or implantable insulin-infusion pump, or a whole-organ or segmental-pancreas transplant. Preliminary trials indicate that surgical implantation of a hybrid device containing living insulin-secreting tissue may function as a combined glucose sensor and insulin-infusion pump. By means of a chamber composed of a semipermeable membrane shaped into hollow fibers or a box surrounding endocrine tissue, pilot studies have shown that isolated islets of Langerhans, fragments of insulinoma, or a fetal pancreas retains function for days to weeks, as judged by the ability to sustain euglycemic conditions in chemically induced diabetic rats. Lacking clear proof that normalizing blood glucose levels will prevent vascular complications of diabetes in humans, the case for further development of a hybrid (tissue plus fabricated components) device rests mainly on optimistic extrapolation of results attained in the chemically induced diabetic rat and dog. For the minority of diabetic patients who have insulin-dependent diabetes, the benefit afforded by a bionic device establishing internal insulin release regulated by silently sensed blood glucose level is more than enough payoff for the discomfort and surgery involved in its implantation. Further trials of a hybrid artificial pancreas in the dog appear warranted as a logical extension of preliminary studies with this species.

  2. Pancreas imaging by computed tomography after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. [Dogs; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; O'Leary, J.F.; Salomonowitz, E.; Stoltenberg, E.; Hutton, S.; Gedgaudas, E.

    1984-01-01

    A method using CT after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (CT-ERP) is described for pancreatic imaging. When using an ERP technique in the canine model comparable to that used in humans, small amounts of contrast material in peripheral pancreatic radicles resulted in enhancement of the pancreas on CT scans. Nine patients were also studied by CT-ERP images. The main pancreatic duct was seen on delayed images. In cases of chronic pancreatitis (n = 2), pancreatic opacification was patchy and heterogeneous. There was no contrast-material enhancement in areas of pancreatic carcimomas (n = 2). CT-ERP showed the true extent of carcinoma better than ERP alone.

  3. Pancreas Transplantation in the Modern Era.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Robert R; Rickels, Michael R; Naji, Ali; Odorico, Jon S

    2016-03-01

    The field of pancreas transplantation has evolved from an experimental procedure in the 1980s to become a routine transplant in the modern era. With short- and long-term outcomes continuing to improve and the significant mortality, quality-of-life, and end-organ disease benefits, pancreas transplantation should be offered to more patients. In this article, we review current indications, patient selection, surgical considerations, complications, and outcomes in the modern era of pancreas transplantation.

  4. Quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Tsui, B M; Frey, E C; LaCroix, K J; Lalush, D S; McCartney, W H; King, M A; Gullberg, G T

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the clinical application of attenuation compensation to myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the promise that accurate quantitative images can be obtained to improve clinical diagnoses. The different attenuation compensation methods that are available create confusion and some misconceptions. Also, attenuation-compensated images reveal other image-degrading effects including collimator-detector blurring and scatter that are not apparent in uncompensated images. This article presents basic concepts of the major factors that degrade the quality and quantitative accuracy of myocardial perfusion SPECT images, and includes a discussion of the various image reconstruction and compensation methods and misconceptions and pitfalls in implementation. The differences between the various compensation methods and their performance are demonstrated. Particular emphasis is directed to an approach that promises to provide quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT images by accurately compensating for the 3-dimensional (3-D) attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter effects. With advances in the computer hardware and optimized implementation techniques, quantitatively accurate and high-quality myocardial perfusion SPECT images can be obtained in clinically acceptable processing time. Examples from simulation, phantom, and patient studies are used to demonstrate the various aspects of the investigation. We conclude that quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT, which holds great promise to improve clinical diagnosis, is an achievable goal in the near future.

  5. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity.

  6. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments

    PubMed Central

    O'Keeffe, Derek T.; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  7. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation.

  8. Canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabrielle; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-07-01

    Vaccine-based prophylaxis has greatly helped to keep distemper disease under control. Notwithstanding, the incidence of canine distemper virus (CDV)-related disease in canine populations throughout the world seems to have increased in the past decades, and several episodes of CDV disease in vaccinated animals have been reported, with nation-wide proportions in some cases. Increasing surveillance should be pivotal to identify new CDV variants and to understand the dynamics of CDV epidemiology. In addition, it is important to evaluate whether the efficacy of the vaccine against these new strains may somehow be affected.

  9. [Portable peristaltic perfusion pumps].

    PubMed

    Magallón Pedrera, I; Soto Torres, I

    1999-11-01

    Portable peristaltic perfusion pumps allow one to administer pharmaceuticals in hospitals as well as in primary health care centers and furthermore these pumps present multiple advantages for patients and their families since they make it possible to carry out treatment in a patient's home while at the same time lowering the costs involved. The authors analyze the most out standing aspects of portable peristaltic perfusion pumps along with their characteristics, installation, programming, and how to turn them on; in addition, the authors list the maintenance care which these pumps require.

  10. Chronic metabolic acidosis destroys pancreas.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Peter; Melamed, Felix

    2014-11-28

    One primary reason for the current epidemic of digestive disorders might be chronic metabolic acidosis, which is extremely common in the modern population. Chronic metabolic acidosis primarily affects two alkaline digestive glands, the liver, and the pancreas, which produce alkaline bile and pancreatic juice with a large amount of bicarbonate. Even small acidic alterations in the bile and pancreatic juice pH can lead to serious biochemical/biomechanical changes. The pancreatic digestive enzymes require an alkaline milieu for proper function, and lowering the pH disables their activity. It can be the primary cause of indigestion. Acidification of the pancreatic juice decreases its antimicrobial activity, which can lead to intestinal dysbiosis. Lowering the pH of the pancreatic juice can cause premature activation of the proteases inside the pancreas with the potential development of pancreatitis. The acidification of bile causes precipitation of the bile acids, which irritate the entire biliary system and create bile stone formation. Aggressive mixture of the acidic bile and the pancreatic juice can cause erratic contractions of the duodenum's walls and subsequent bile reflux into the stomach and the esophagus. Normal exocrine pancreatic function is the core of proper digestion. Currently, there is no effective and safe treatment for enhancing the exocrine pancreatic function. Restoring normal acid-base homeostasis can be a useful tool for pathophysiological therapeutic approaches for various gastrointestinal disorders. There is strong research and practical evidence that restoring the HCO3(-) capacity in the blood can improve digestion.

  11. Enlarged pancreas: not always a cancer.

    PubMed

    Calculli, Lucia; Festi, Davide; Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic fat accumulation has been described with various terms including pancreatic lipomatosis, pancreatic steatosis, fatty replacement, fatty infiltration, fatty pancreas, lipomatous pseudohypertrophy and nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease. It has been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and the formation of pancreatic fistula. The real incidence of this condition is still unknown. We report a case of pancreatic steatosis in a non-obese female patient initially diagnosed with a mass in the head of the pancreas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out to define the characteristics of the pancreatic mass. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of fat pancreas. Enlarged pancreas is not always a cancer, but pancreatic steatosis is characterized by pancreatic enlargement. MRI could give a definite diagnosis of pancreatic steatosis or cancer.

  12. Determination of regional myocardial perfusion by x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.M.; McInerney, J.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Validation studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of an x-ray induced fluorescence system in quantitating regional myocardial perfusion in vivo. In a series of 13 open-chested canines, x-ray induced fluorescence was used to simultaneously monitor iodine concentration transients which arose in the left ventricular lumen and in the myocardium after the intravenous injection of an iodinated flow tracer. Deconvolution of the recorded transients produced a transfer function from which the mean transit time for the tracer to travel between the left ventricular lumen and the myocardium was calculated. Measurements of regional myocardial perfusion (Q) made by radioactive microspheres were compared with the reciprocals of the mean transit times (MTT-1) and gave a linear correlation (n = 38): MTT-1 = 0.033 + 0.069 Q, r = 0.71. Comparison of the percent change in perfusion (dQ) relative to a control study for each dog with the percent change in the respective reciprocals of the mean transit times (dMTT-1) produced a linear correlation coefficient of r = 0.88 for the regression line dMTT-1 = 0.46 dQ - 10.7. The x-ray induced fluorescence system may provide a minimally invasive means for monitoring iodine concentration transients and determining relative, if not absolute, measures of regional myocardial perfusion.

  13. Apoptosis in canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Moro, L; de Sousa Martins, A; de Moraes Alves, C; de Araújo Santos, F G; dos Santos Nunes, J E; Carneiro, R A; Carvalho, R; Vasconcelos, A C

    2003-01-01

    Canine distemper is a systemic viral disease characterized by immunosuppression followed by secondary infections. Apoptosis is observed in several immunosuppressive diseases and its occurrence on canine distemper in vivo has not been published. In this study, the occurrence of apoptosis was determined in lymphoid tissues of thirteen naturally infected dogs and nine experimentally inoculated puppies. Healthy dogs were used as negative controls. Samples of lymph nodes, thymus, spleen and brain were collected for histopathological purposes. Sections, 5 microm thick, of retropharingeal lymph nodes were stained by HE, Shorr, Methyl Green-Pyronin and TUNEL reaction. Shorr stained sections were further evaluated by morphometry. Canine distemper virus nucleoprotein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Retropharingeal lymph nodes of naturally and experimentally infected dogs had more apoptotic cells per field than controls. In addition, DNA from thymus of infected dogs were more fragmented than controls. Therefore, apoptosis is increased in lymphoid depletion induced by canine distemper virus and consequently play a role in the immunosuppression seen in this disease.

  14. Clinical canine dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Kristin M

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide small animal veterinarians in private practice a guideline for interpretation of the most common findings in canine intraoral radiology. Normal oral and dental anatomy is presented. A brief review of variations of normal, common periodontal and endodontic pathology findings and developmental anomalies is provided.

  15. CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS AND IN DOGS WITH ACUTE PANCREATITIS.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Schur, David; Gaschen, Frédéric; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most frequent disease affecting the exocrine pancreas in dogs and reliable diagnostic techniques for predicting fatal complications are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) improves detection of tissue perfusion as well as organ lesion vascular pattern. Objectives of this prospective case control study were to compare perfusion characteristics and enhancement patterns of the pancreas in healthy dogs and dogs with pancreatitis using CEUS. Ten healthy dogs and eight dogs with pancreatitis were selected based on physical examination, abdominal ultrasound, and blood analysis findings. A CEUS study of the pancreas was performed for each dog and two observers who were aware of clinical status used advanced ultrasound quantification software to analyze time-intensity curves. Perfusion patterns were compared between healthy and affected dogs. In dogs with acute pancreatitis, mean pixel and peak intensity of the pancreatic parenchyma was significantly higher than that of normal dogs (P = 0.05) in between 6 and 60 s (P = <0.0001-0.046). This corresponds to a 311% increase in mean pixel intensity in dogs with acute pancreatitis compared to healthy dogs. Wash-in rates were greater and had a consistently steeper slope to peak in dogs with pancreatitis as opposed to healthy dogs. All dogs with pancreatitis showed a decrease in pixel intensity 10-15 days after the initial examination (P = 0.011) and their times to peak values were prolonged compared to the initial exam. Findings from the current study supported the use of CEUS for diagnosing pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis, and disease monitoring following therapy in dogs.

  16. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  17. Do canine parvoviruses affect canine neurons? An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Schmidt, P

    2005-08-01

    In cats (most of which died from panleukopenia), cerebral neurons have recently been shown to be susceptible to canine parvovirus infection. In addition to positive immunostaining and distinct in situ hybridization signals, signs of neurodegeneration were identified by histopathology, mainly in the diencephalic area. Similar histological lesions of the diencephalic regions in dogs have also attracted attention; therefore, an immunohistochemical study was initiated to determine the possible infection of canine neurons with canine parvoviruses. The study was carried out on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue, with and without signs of neurodegeneration, from 40 dogs, most of them dying from parvovirus enteritis. Immunohistochemistry, using polyclonal antiserum against canine parvoviruses, was negative in all 40 cases, suggesting that, unlike cats, canine parvoviruses do not seem capable of infecting canine neurons.

  18. Robotic surgery of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities. PMID:25356035

  19. Robotic surgery of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-10-28

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities.

  20. Glucagon in the Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of glucagon, in conjunction with insulin, in a dual chamber pump (artificial pancreas, AP) is a working goal for multiple companies and researchers. However, capital investment to create, operate, and maintain facilities with sufficient scale to produce enough glucagon to treat millions of patients, at a level of profit that makes it feasible, will be substantial. It can be assumed that the marketplace will expect the daily cost of glucagon (to the consumer) to be similar to the daily cost of insulin. After one subtracts wholesaler and pharmacy markup, there may be very few dollars remaining for the drug company to cover profit, capital expenditures, marketing, burden, and other costs. Without the potential for adequate margins, manufacturers may not be willing to take the risk. Assuming that the projections discussed in this article are in the right ballpark, advance planning for the supply for glucagon needs to start today and not wait for the AP to come to market. PMID:25139825

  1. Pancreas transplant imaging: how I do it.

    PubMed

    Tolat, Parag P; Foley, W Dennis; Johnson, Christopher; Hohenwalter, Mark D; Quiroz, Francisco A

    2015-04-01

    Pancreas transplantation aims to restore physiologic normoglycemia in diabetic patients with glomerulopathy and avoid or delay the onset of diabetic retinopathy and arteriopathy. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant is the most common approach, using a cadaveric pancreas donation in conjunction with either cadaveric or live donor renal transplant. Alternative techniques include pancreas after kidney transplant, in which the pancreas transplant is performed some years after renal transplant. Pancreas transplant alone is utilized rarely in diabetic patients with compensated renal function. Pancreas grafts have vascular and enteric connections that vary in their anatomic approach, and understanding of this is critical for imaging with ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging techniques are directed to display the pancreatic transplant arterial and venous vasculature, parenchyma, and intestinal drainage pathway. Critical vascular information includes venous thrombosis (partial or complete), arterial occlusion, or aneurysm. Parenchymal abnormalities are nonspecific and occur in pancreatitis, graft rejection, and subsequent graft ischemia. Peripancreatic fluid collections include hematoma/seroma, pseudocyst, and abscess. The latter two are related to pancreatitis, duct disruption, or leak from the duodenojejunostomy. An understanding of transplant anatomy and complications will lead to appropriate use of imaging techniques to diagnose or exclude important complications.

  2. Immediate retransplantation for pancreas allograft thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hollinger, E F; Powelson, J A; Mangus, R S; Kazimi, M M; Taber, T E; Goble, M L; Fridell, J A

    2009-04-01

    Early pancreas allograft failure most commonly results from thrombosis and requires immediate allograft pancreatectomy. Optimal timing for retransplantation remains undefined. Immediate retransplantation facilitates reuse of the same anatomic site before extensive adhesions have formed. Some studies suggest that early retransplantation is associated with a higher incidence of graft loss. This study is a retrospective review of immediate pancreas retransplants performed at a single center. All cases of pancreas allograft loss within 2 weeks were examined. Of 228 pancreas transplants, 12 grafts were lost within 2 weeks of surgery. Eleven of these underwent allograft pancreatectomy for thrombosis. One suffered anoxic brain injury and was not a retransplantation candidate, one was retransplanted at 3.5 months and nine patients underwent retransplantation 1-16 days following the original transplant. Of the nine early retransplants, one pancreas was lost to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, one recipient died with function at 2.9 years and the other grafts continue to function at 76-1137 days (mean 572 days). One-year graft survival for early retransplantation was 89% compared to 91% for all pancreas transplants at our center. Immediate retransplantation following pancreatic graft thrombosis restores durable allograft function with outcomes comparable to first-time pancreas transplantation.

  3. Morphometric Study of Pancreas in Human Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Dhende, Abhijeet S.; Joshi, Deepak S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The pancreas arises from the endoderm as a dorsal and a ventral bud which fuse together to form the single organ. It extends transversely across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum to the spleen. Functionally, it is endocrine and exocrine. Aim This study was undertaken to study the morphometry of human pancreas at different gestational age groups of normal, still born fetuses. Materials and Methods Forty aborted human fetuses (25 male and 15 female) of 12-40 weeks gestational age with no obvious congenital abnormality were obtained. The fetuses were dissected and pancreas was removed. The length and weight of the pancreas as well as height of its head were noted. Results It was observed that there was increase in body weight and crown rump length with increasing gestational age. The average length of pancreas was 1.80 cm in 12th week and 4.70 cm in 40th week of gestation. The average height of pancreas head was 0.80 cm in the 12th and 2.70 cm in 40th week of gestation. Conclusion The knowledge of development of pancreas helps in planning new therapeutic interventions in the treatment of various congenital and functional pancreatic anomalies. PMID:28050352

  4. Transcriptional control of mammalian pancreas organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cano, David A; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Francisco; Rojas, Anabel

    2014-07-01

    The field of pancreas development has markedly expanded over the last decade, significantly advancing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control pancreas organogenesis. This growth has been fueled, in part, by the need to generate new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of diabetes. The creation of sophisticated genetic tools in mice has been instrumental in this progress. Genetic manipulation involving activation or inactivation of genes within specific cell types has allowed the identification of many transcription factors (TFs) that play critical roles in the organogenesis of the pancreas. Interestingly, many of these TFs act at multiple stages of pancreatic development, and adult organ function or repair. Interaction with other TFs, extrinsic signals, and epigenetic regulation are among the mechanisms by which TFs may play context-dependent roles during pancreas organogenesis. Many of the pancreatic TFs directly regulate each other and their own expression. These combinatorial interactions generate very specific gene regulatory networks that can define the different cell lineages and types in the developing pancreas. Here, we review recent progress made in understanding the role of pancreatic TFs in mouse pancreas formation. We also summarize our current knowledge of human pancreas development and discuss developmental pancreatic TFs that have been associated with human pancreatic diseases.

  5. What You Need to Know about Cancer of the Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Need To Know About™ Cancer of the Pancreas This booklet is about cancer of the pancreas, also called pancreatic cancer. There are two main ... care. This booklet covers: The anatomy of the pancreas and basics about cancer of the pancreas Treatments ...

  6. Santorinirrhage: hemosuccus pancreaticus in pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Iglesias, J L; Durana, J A; Yañez, J; Rodriguez, H; Garcia-Vallejo, L; Arnal, F

    1988-08-01

    We describe a previously unreported complication of pancreas divisum: severe and repeated episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding through the main pancreatic duct (hemosuccus pancreaticus) in a 34-yr-old woman over a period of 10 months. She had negative investigations, including a blank laparotomy, until an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a pancreas divisum with chronic pancreatitis and a small pseudocyst at the tail of the dorsal pancreas. During the procedure, bleeding through the papilla minor was observed coming from Santorini's duct. A corporocaudal pancreatectomy was done and the bleeding episodes have subsided.

  7. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease.

  8. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  9. Who needs an artificial pancreas? (?).

    PubMed

    Winikoff, Janet; Drexler, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The development of a closed-loop "artificial pancreas" would be a welcome advance for both endocrinologists and diabetic patients struggling to attain near normal glycemic control. While great strides in automatically controlling blood sugar in the fasting, sedentary state have been made through complex mathematical modeling, management of blood sugar excursions due to food and exercise have been more problematic. An artificial pancreas is not feasible at this time because of limitations inherent in the currently available technology.

  10. [Mucinous papillary cystadenoma of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Ledezma, G; Salloum, S; de Sulbarán, Y; de Armas, L

    1992-01-01

    The case of a 15-years-old female patient is presented, who referred pain and presence of a mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Diagnostic imaging showed a 9 cm diameter cystic lesion in the tail of the pancreas which was removed surgically. Histology demonstrated a pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma with borderline biological behaviour. A review of the literature related to cystic neoplasms of the pancreas is realized.

  11. A Pre-Clinical Canine Model for Composite Tissue Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, David W.; Noland, Marie; Graves, Scott; Schlenker, Robert; Miwongtum, Tiffany; Storb, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of composite tissue allografts (CTA) has been demonstrated by the successful transplantation of the hand, abdomen and face. However, the survival of these transplants is dependent on immunosupression. Our laboratory is interested in achieving tolerance in order to decrease the risks associated with the use of chronic immunosuppression. The purpose of this experiment was to develop a large animal model for CTA. Four canine flaps were auto-transplanted to examine the use of a myocutaneous rectus flap based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels. Five CTA transplants were performed between Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) identical littermates without any therapy. The allografts were followed clinically and underwent routine biopsies. The anatomic dissections and auto-transplants were all successful and revealed that the flap could be divided into two separate components. Skin is routinely perfused by the superficial epigastric artery. Rectus muscle is perfused by the deep inferior epigastrc system. This allows the allografts to be transplanted as muscle, skin or with both components based on the external iliac artery and veins. The DLA-identical littermates rejected the allografts in 15 to 30 days. This study demonstrates the versatility of the myocutaneous rectus flap for use in canines as composite tissue allograft models. PMID:20108180

  12. The Pancreas: Causes for Malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Hackert, Thilo; Schütte, Kerstin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The pancreas has a central function in digestion and glucose homeostasis. With regard to the exocrine function, which is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients and vitamins, the most important disturbances of these physiological processes are based on deficiencies in enzyme production and secretion, either due to impaired excretion caused by obstruction of the pancreatic duct or due to loss of pancreatic tissue. Both conditions result in maldigestion, malabsorption, and malnutrition. Methods Systematic literature review. Results Symptoms associated with pancreatic exocrine failure are gastrointestinal discomfort, steatorrhea, and weight loss. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency caused by ductal obstruction occurs in chronic pancreatitis or with neoplasia of the pancreatic head. Loss of functional parenchyma can be caused either by chronic pancreatitis resulting in fibrotic replacement of the destroyed parenchyma or by a postoperative state of pancreatic resection. Conclusion In patients with chronic pancreatitis, a stage-adapted and timely therapy including conservative as well as surgical measures is essential to prevent functional deterioration and to preserve residual function. In the case of pancreatic resection for chronic pancreatitis, this can be achieved with modern organ-sparing surgery such as the duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection. In patients requiring more extended pancreatic resections and even total duodenopancreatectomy, regardless of the underlying indication, adequate enzyme replacement and monitoring of the nutritional status is critical to prevent impairment of quality of life as well as detrimental malnutrition in the long term. PMID:26288593

  13. Giant serous microcystic pancreas adenoma.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, Kursat; Bostanci, Hasan; Yildirim, Ali Cihat; Sakrak, Omer; Kerem, Mustafa

    2012-10-10

    Serous cystadenomas are rare tumors comprising 1-2% of exocrine pancreas tumors. They are mostly known as benign conditions but malign transformation as serous cystadenocarcinoma is also reported. It is usually seen in females. Non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or symptoms due to mass affect, are usually seen. A 64-year old female patient was investigated for abdominal pain. Physical and laboratory findings were normal. Abdomen ultrasonography confirmed an 11×9.5 cm solid cystic lesion and abdomen computed tomography scan confirmed a 12×11 cm lobulated cystic solid lesion which had central cystic necrotic areas extending from liver hilus inferiorly. Fine needle biopsy confirmed benign cytology and trucut biopsy of the pancreatic mass reported chronic inflamation. Nevertheless, this mass could have malignant contents and transformation potential. A laparatomy was decided due to patient's symptoms and mass effect. Due to vascular invasion of the tumor, Whipple procedure was performed. The pathology report confirmed serous microcystic adenoma. These rare tumors are usually benign but pre-operative malignity criterias are not identified. There are few differential diagnostic tools for excluding malignity. We suggest surgical resection as best treatment approach for selected cases.

  14. Development of Canine Models of Type 1 Diabetes With Partial Pancreatectomy and the Administration of Streptozotocin

    PubMed Central

    Seita, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Kubota, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Hironobu; Nakaji, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Naoya; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We created canine models of type 1 diabetes that were suitable for the assessment of cell therapies, such as islet transplantation and bioartificial pancreas, with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection and partial pancreatectomy. In our model, a 50% pancreatectomy was performed with general anesthesia, followed by systemic injection of 35 mg/kg STZ into a vein of the foreleg. Four weeks after the administration of STZ, the fasting blood glucose level of our model dogs was found to be over 200 mg/dl twice on different days, and we could not detect any canine insulin by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). We therefore diagnosed the dogs to have induced diabetes. Some studies have reported high-dose STZ to be very toxic for both the kidney and liver, and therefore a lower dose is desirable to induce diabetic models without any associated kidney or liver damage. We think that the combination of a partial pancreatectomy can thus make it possible to reduce the dose of STZ, and it is therefore useful for the creation of type 1 diabetes models. We believe that our model is a safe and reliable model for type 1 diabetes in canines to assess the efficacy of pancreas-targeted cell therapies. PMID:26858877

  15. Restoration of missing or misplaced canines.

    PubMed

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A

    1985-06-01

    Restorative treatments for canines were discussed to correct three clinical abnormalities: (1) fully erupted permanent canine in the lateral incisor position, (2) missing permanent canines, and (3) partially exposed canines in normal arch position. The primary concerns are the development of esthetics, anterior guidance, and adequate support for fixed restorations.

  16. A simple physiologic pulsatile perfusion system for the study of intact vascular tissue.

    PubMed

    Conklin, B S; Surowiec, S M; Lin, P H; Chen, C

    2000-07-01

    Perfusion vascular culture models may provide a useful link between cell culture models and animal culture models by allowing a high level of control over important parameters while maintaining physiologic structure. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new vascular culture system for pulsatile perfusion culture of intact vascular tissue. The system generates a pulsatile component of flow by means of a cam-driven syringe and a peristaltic pump and compliance chamber. Cams were designed, constructed and tested to simulate canine femoral and common carotid artery flows. The mean pressure was adjusted between 60 and 200 mmHg without significantly affecting flow rate, flow waveform, or the pressure waveform. Porcine common carotid artery segments were cultured in this pulsatile perfusion system. The viability of vascular segments was tested after various culture times with a functional assay that demonstrated both smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell response to vasomotor challenge.

  17. Adrenergically mediated intrapancreatic control of the glucagon response to glucopenia in the isolated rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Hisatomi, A; Maruyama, H; Orci, L; Vasko, M; Unger, R H

    1985-01-01

    Alpha adrenergic blockade with phentolamine (10 microM) reduces the glucagon response to severe glucopenia (from 150 to 25 mg/dl) to 22% of the control values in the isolated perfused rat pancreas. Propranolol (10 microM) had no significant effect. Neither alpha nor beta adrenergic blockade reduced the magnitude of glucopenic suppression of insulin secretion, but phentolamine increased insulin levels before and during glucopenia. The pattern of somatostatin secretion in these experiments resembled that of insulin. Depletion of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve endings by pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine lowered the pancreatic norepinephrine content to less than 20% of control values and reduced the glucagon response to glucopenia to 69% of the controls. Combined alpha and beta adrenergic blockade during less severe glucopenia (from 120 to 60 mg/dl) reduced the glucagon response to 21% of controls. However, slight glucopenia (from 100 to 80 mg/dl), which elicited only 11% increase in glucagon in the control experiments, was not altered significantly by combined alpha and beta adrenergic blockade. Morphologic studies of adrenergic nerve terminals labeled with [3H]norepinephrine revealed associations with alpha cells. It is concluded that in the isolated rat pancreas adrenergic mediation accounts for most of the glucagon but not insulin response to glucopenia. It is controlled within the pancreas itself, possibly through a direct enhancement by glucopenia of norepinephrine release from nerve endings. Images PMID:2857731

  18. Perfusion estimation using contrast enhanced three-dimensional subharmonic ultrasound imaging: an in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Machado, Priscilla; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Zhao, Hongjia; He, Yu; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The ability to estimate tissue perfusion (in mL/min/g) in vivo using contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging was investigated. Materials and Methods A Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) equipped with a 4D10L probe was modified to perform 3D harmonic imaging (HI; ftransmit = 5 MHz and freceive = 10 MHz) and subharmonic imaging (SHI; ftransmit= 5.8 MHz and freceive= 2.9 MHz). In vivo imaging was performed in the lower pole of both kidneys in five open-abdomen canines after injection of the ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, MA). The canines received a 5 μL/kg bolus injection of Definity for HI and a 20 μL/kg bolus for SHI in triplicate for each kidney. Ultrasound data acquisition was started just prior to injection of UCA (in order to capture the wash-in) and continued until washout. A microvascular staining technique based on stable (non-radioactive) isotope-labeled microspheres (Biophysics Assay Laboratory Inc, Worcester, MA) was used to quantify the degree of perfusion in each kidney (the reference standard). Ligating a surgically exposed branch of the renal arteries induced lower perfusion rates. This was followed by additional contrast-enhanced imaging and microsphere injections to measure post-ligation perfusion. Slice data were extracted from the 3D ultrasound volumes and used to generate time-intensity curves off-line in the regions corresponding to the tissue samples used for microvascular staining. The mid-line plane was also selected from the 3D volume (as a quasi-2D image) and compared to the 3D imaging modes. Perfusion was estimated from the initial slope of the fractional blood volume uptake (for both HI and SHI) and compared to the reference standard using linear regression analysis. Results Both 3D HI and SHI were able to provide visualization of flow and, thus, perfusion in the kidneys. However, SHI provided near complete tissue

  19. The artificial pancreas: is it important to understand how the β cell controls blood glucose?

    PubMed

    Steil, Garry M; Grodsky, Gerold M

    2013-09-01

    It has been more than 7 years since the first fully automated closed-loop insulin delivery system that linked subcutaneous insulin delivery and glucose sensing was published. Since the initial report, the physiologic insulin delivery (PID) algorithm used to emulate the β cell has been modified from the original proportional-integral-derivative terms needed to fit the β cell's biphasic response to a hyperglycemic clamp to include terms emulating cephalic phase insulin release and the effect of insulin per se to inhibit insulin secretion. In this article, we compare the closed-loop glucose profiles obtained as each new term has been added, reassess the ability of the revised PID model to describe the β cells' insulin response to a hyperglycemic clamp, and look for the first time at its ability to describe the response to a hypoglycemic clamp. We also consider changes that might be added to the model based on perfused pancreas data. We conclude that the changes introduced in the PID model have systematically improved the closed-loop meal response. We note that the changes made do not adversely affect the ability of the model to fit hyperglycemic clamp data but are necessary to fit the response to a hypoglycemic clamp. Finally, we note a number of β cell characteristics observed in the perfused pancreas have not been included in the model. We suggest that continuing the effort to understand and incorporate aspects of how the β cell achieves glucose control can provide valuable insights into how improvements in future artificial pancreas algorithms might be achieved.

  20. The Artificial Pancreas: Is It Important to Understand How the β Cell Controls Blood Glucose?

    PubMed Central

    Steil, Garry M.; Grodsky, Gerold M.

    2013-01-01

    It has been more than 7 years since the first fully automated closed-loop insulin delivery system that linked subcutaneous insulin delivery and glucose sensing was published. Since the initial report, the physiologic insulin delivery (PID) algorithm used to emulate the β cell has been modified from the original proportional-integral-derivative terms needed to fit the β cell’s biphasic response to a hyperglycemic clamp to include terms emulating cephalic phase insulin release and the effect of insulin per se to inhibit insulin secretion. In this article, we compare the closed-loop glucose profiles obtained as each new term has been added, reassess the ability of the revised PID model to describe the β cells’ insulin response to a hyperglycemic clamp, and look for the first time at its ability to describe the response to a hypoglycemic clamp. We also consider changes that might be added to the model based on perfused pancreas data. We conclude that the changes introduced in the PID model have systematically improved the closed-loop meal response. We note that the changes made do not adversely affect the ability of the model to fit hyperglycemic clamp data but are necessary to fit the response to a hypoglycemic clamp. Finally, we note a number of β cell characteristics observed in the perfused pancreas have not been included in the model. We suggest that continuing the effort to understand and incorporate aspects of how the β cell achieves glucose control can provide valuable insights into how improvements in future artificial pancreas algorithms might be achieved. PMID:24124965

  1. Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox.

  2. Melatonin, endocrine pancreas and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Peschke, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    Melatonin influences insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro. (i) The effects are MT(1)-and MT(2)-receptor-mediated. (ii) They are specific, high-affinity, pertussis-toxin-sensitive, G(i)-protein-coupled, leading to inhibition of the cAMP-pathway and decrease of insulin release. [Correction added after online publication 4 December 2007: in the preceding sentence, 'increase of insulin release' was changed to 'decrease of insulin release'.] Furthermore, melatonin inhibits the cGMP-pathway, possibly mediated by MT(2) receptors. In this way, melatonin likely inhibits insulin release. A third system, the IP(3)-pathway, is mediated by G(q)-proteins, phospholipase C and IP(3), which mobilize Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, with a resultant increase in insulin. (iii) Insulin secretion in vivo, as well as from isolated islets, exhibits a circadian rhythm. This rhythm, which is apparently generated within the islets, is influenced by melatonin, which induces a phase shift in insulin secretion. (iv) Observation of the circadian expression of clock genes in the pancreas could possibly be an indication of the generation of circadian rhythms in the pancreatic islets themselves. (v) Melatonin influences diabetes and associated metabolic disturbances. The diabetogens, alloxan and streptozotocin, lead to selective destruction of beta-cells through their accumulation in these cells, where they induce the generation of ROS. Beta-cells are very susceptible to oxidative stress because they possess only low-antioxidative capacity. Results suggest that melatonin in pharmacological doses provides protection against ROS. (vi) Finally, melatonin levels in plasma, as well as the arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity, are lower in diabetic than in nondiabetic rats and humans. In contrast, in the pineal gland, the AANAT mRNA is increased and the insulin receptor mRNA is decreased, which indicates a close interrelationship between insulin and melatonin.

  3. The case for pancreas after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fridell, Jonathan A; Mangus, Richard S; Hollinger, Edward F; Taber, Tim E; Goble, Michelle L; Mohler, Elaine; Milgrom, Martin L; Powelson, John A

    2009-01-01

    Pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation has historically demonstrated inferior pancreas allograft survival compared to simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation. Under our current immunosuppression protocol, we have noted excellent outcomes and rare immunological graft loss. The goal of this study was to compare pancreas allograft survival in PAK and SPK recipients using this regimen. This was a single center retrospective review of all SPK and PAK transplants performed between January 2003 and November 2007. All transplants were performed with systemic venous drainage and enteric exocrine drainage. Immunosuppression included induction with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (thymoglobulin), early steroid withdrawal, and maintenance with tacrolimus and sirolimus or mycophenolate mofetil. Study end points included graft and patient survival and immunosuppression related complications. Transplants included PAK 61 (30%) and SPK 142 (70%). One-yr patient survival was PAK 98% and SPK 95% (p = 0.44) and pancreas graft survival was PAK 95% and SPK 90% (p = 0.28). Acute cellular rejection was uncommon with 2% requiring treatment in each group. Survival for PAK using thymoglobulin induction, early steroid withdrawal and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression is at least comparable to SPK and should be pursued in the recipient with a potential living donor.

  4. Progress and challenges of the bioartificial pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Patrick T. J.; Shah, Dishant K.; Garcia, Jacob A.; Bae, Chae Yun; Lim, Dong-Jin; Huiszoon, Ryan C.; Alexander, Grant C.; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has been validated as a treatment for type 1 diabetes since it maintains consistent and sustained type 1 diabetes reversal. However, one of the major challenges in pancreatic islet transplantation is the body's natural immune response to the implanted islets. Immunosuppressive drug treatment is the most popular immunomodulatory approach for islet graft survival. However, administration of immunosuppressive drugs gives rise to negative side effects, and long-term effects are not clearly understood. A bioartificial pancreas is a therapeutic approach to enable pancreatic islet transplantation without or with minimal immune suppression. The bioartificial pancreas encapsulates the pancreatic islets in a semi-permeable environment which protects islets from the body's immune responses, while allowing the permeation of insulin, oxygen, nutrients, and waste. Many groups have developed various types of the bioartificial pancreas and tested their efficacy in animal models. However, the clinical application of the bioartificial pancreas still requires further investigation. In this review, we discuss several types of bioartificial pancreases and address their advantages and limitations. We also discuss recent advances in bioartificial pancreas applications with microfluidic or micropatterning technology.

  5. Harmonic analysis of perfusion pumps.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, F Carroll; Donovan, F M; Townsley, Mary I

    2003-12-01

    The controversy over the use of nonpulsatile versus pulsatile pumps for maintenance of normal organ function during ex vivo perfusion has continued for many years, but resolution has been limited by lack of a congruent mathematical definition of pulsatility. We hypothesized that the waveform frequency and amplitude, as well as the underlying mean distending pressure are all key parameters controlling vascular function. Using discrete Fourier Analysis, our data demonstrate the complexity of the pulmonary arterial pressure waveform in vivo and the failure of commonly available perfusion pumps to mimic in vivo dynamics. In addition, our data show that the key harmonic signatures are intrinsic to the perfusion pumps, are similar for flow and pressure waveforms, and are unchanged by characteristics of the downstream perfusion circuit or perfusate viscosity.

  6. Carboxypeptidase B and other kininases of the rat coronary and mesenteric arterial bed perfusates.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eduardo B; Souza, Laura L; Sivieri, Disney O; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz B; Pereira, Hugo J V; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Sousa, Marcelo V; Salgado, Maria Cristina O

    2007-12-01

    We describe the enzymes that constitute the major bradykinin (BK)-processing pathways in the perfusates of mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) and coronary vessels isolated from Wistar normotensive rats (WNR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The contribution of particular proteases to BK degradation was revealed by the combined analysis of fragments generated during incubation of BK with representative perfusate samples and the effect of selective inhibitors on the respective reactions. Marked differences were seen among the perfusates studied; MAB secretes, per minute of perfusion, kininase activity capable of hydrolyzing approximately 300 pmol of BK/min, which is approximately 250-fold larger amount on a per unit time basis than that of its coronary counterpart. BK degradation in the coronary perfusate seems to be mediated by ANG I-converting enzyme, neutral endopeptidase 24.11-like enzyme, and a dl-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid-sensitive basic carboxypeptidase; coronary perfusate of WNR contains an additional BK-degrading enzyme whose specificity resembles that of neurolysin or thimet oligopeptidase. Diversely, a des-Arg(9)-BK-forming enzyme, responsible for nearly all of the kininase activity of MAB perfusates of WNR and spontaneously hypertensive rats, could be purified by a procedure that involved affinity chromatography over potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor-Sepharose column and shown to be structurally identical to rat pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (CPB). Comparable levels of CPB mRNA expression were observed in pancreas, liver, mesentery, and kidney, but very low levels were detected in lung, heart, aorta, and carotid artery. In conclusion, distinct BK-processing pathways operate in the perfusates of rat MAB and coronary bed, with a substantial participation of a des-Arg(9)-BK-forming enzyme identical to pancreatic CPB.

  7. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  8. Canine spinal cord glioma.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Barber, Renee; Burnum, Annabelle; Miller, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord. All dogs had a presumptive clinical diagnosis of intraparenchymal neoplasia or myelitis based on history, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Euthanasia was elected in all cases because of poor outcome despite anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive treatment or because of poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis. Tumor location during autopsy ranged from C1 to L6, with no clear predilection for a specific spinal cord segment. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the immunohistochemistry expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Diagnoses consisted of 4 cases of oligodendroglioma, 2 cases of gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 astrocytoma. This case series further defines the clinicopathologic features of canine spinal glioma and highlights the need for comprehensive immunohistochemistry in addition to routine histopathology to confirm the diagnosis of these tumors.

  9. Bringing the artificial pancreas home: telemedicine aspects.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, Giordano; Capozzi, Davide; Serina, Nadia; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2011-11-01

    The design and implementation of telemedicine systems able to support the artificial pancreas need careful choices to cope with technological requirements while preserving performance and decision support capabilities. This article addresses the issue of designing a general architecture for the telemedicine components of an artificial pancreas and illustrates a viable solution that is able to deal with different use cases and is amenable to support mobile-health implementations. The goal is to enforce interoperability among the components of the architecture and guarantee maximum flexibility for the ensuing implementations. Thus, the design stresses modularity and separation of concerns along with adoption of clearly defined protocols for interconnecting the necessary components. This accounts for the implementation of integrated telemedicine systems suitable as short-term monitoring devices for supporting validation of closed-loop algorithms as well as devices meant to provide a lifelong tighter control on the patient state once the artificial pancreas has become the preferred treatment for patients with diabetes.

  10. Conservative Pancreas Graft Preservation at the Extreme

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, Jerome Martin; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Selzner, Markus; Norgate, Andrea; Kumar, Deepali; McGilvary, Ian D.; Preig, Paul D.; Schiff, Jeffrey; Cattral, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the value some patients place in remaining insulin-independent after pancreas transplantation, they may be reluctant to undergo graft pancreatectomy, even in the face of extreme complications, such as graft thrombosis and duodenal segment leak. Partly, for this reason, a variety of complex salvage techniques have been described to save the graft in such circumstances. We report a case of a series of extreme complications related to a leak from the duodenal segment after a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant. These included infected thrombosis of the inferior vena cava associated with a graft venous thrombosis and a retroperitoneal fistula. The patient retained graft function with insulin independence and repeatedly declined graft pancreatectomy against the advice of the transplant team. Conservative treatment with percutaneous drainage, antibiotics, and anticoagulation was eventually successful. This outcome is unique in our experience and may be instructive to teams caring for pancreas transplant recipients. PMID:27500244

  11. JSUM ultrasound elastography practice guidelines: pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Yoshiki; Kuwahara, Takamichi; Irisawa, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Uchida, Hiroki; Sasahira, Naoki; Kawada, Natsuko; Itoh, Yuya; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound elastography is a relatively new diagnostic technique for measuring the elasticity (hardness) of tissue. Eleven years have passed since the debut of elastography. Various elastography devices are currently being marketed by manufacturers under different names. Pancreatic elastography can be used not only with transabdominal ultrasonography but also with endoscopic ultrasonography, but some types of elastography are difficult to perform for the pancreas. These guidelines aim to classify the various types of elastography into two major categories depending on the differences in the physical quantity (strain, shear wave), and to present the evidence for pancreatic elastography and how to use pancreatic elastography in the present day. But the number of reports on ultrasound elastography for the pancreas is still small, and there are no reports on some elastography devices for the pancreas. Therefore, these guidelines do not recommend methods of imaging and analysis by elastography device.

  12. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kallen, Michael E; Naini, Bita V

    2016-09-01

    Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs) are cystic neoplasms with intraductal growth and complex papillae composed of oncocytic cells. IOPNs have been reported both in the pancreas and biliary tree, and are most likely closely related in these 2 locations. In the pancreas, these rare tumors are now considered 1 of the 4 histologic subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Significant differences in histology, immunophenotype, and molecular genetics have been reported between IOPNs and other IPMN subtypes. However, there are limited data regarding the clinical behavior and prognosis of IOPNs in comparison to other subtypes of IPMN. We review features of pancreatic IOPNs and discuss the differential diagnosis of other intraductal lesions in the pancreas.

  13. Multipotent pancreas progenitors: Inconclusive but pivotal topic

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of multipotent pancreas progenitors (MPP) should have a significant impact not only on the ontology of the pancreas, but also for the translational research of glucose-responding endocrine β-cells. Deficiency of the latter may lead to the pandemic type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder. An ideal treatment of which would potentially be the replacement of destroyed or failed β-cells, by restoring function of endogenous pancreatic endocrine cells or by transplantation of donor islets or in vitro generated insulin-secreting cells. Thus, considerable research efforts have been devoted to identify MPP candidates in the pre- and post-natal pancreas for the endogenous neogenesis or regeneration of endocrine insulin-secreting cells. In order to advance this inconclusive but critical field, we here review the emerging concepts, recent literature and newest developments of potential MPP and propose measures that would assist its forward progression. PMID:26730269

  14. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Tiago N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  15. Circumportal pancreas with retroportal main pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yasushi; Ross, Andrew S; Traverso, L William

    2009-08-01

    There have been 6 cases of circumportal pancreas reported, and 2 of them had the main pancreatic duct in a retroportal dorsal portion. This extremely uncommon anomaly is asymptomatic and therefore incidentally discovered. For the surgeon, it is important to discover this during pancreatic resection so the pancreatic duct can be closed and fistula is avoided. We describe the third case where a circumportal pancreas had its main pancreatic duct passing under the portal vein. The duct was identified and ligated. A fistula did not occur.

  16. Torsion of wandering spleen and distal pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Sheflin, J.R.; Lee, C.M.; Kretchmar, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Wandering spleen is the term applied to the condition in which a long pedicle allows the spleen to lie in an abnormal location. Torsion of a wandering spleen is an unusual cause of an acute abdomen and is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Associated torsion of the distal pancreas is even more uncommon. The authors describe a patient with torsion of a wandering spleen and distal pancreas, who was correctly diagnosed, and define the merits of the imaging methods used. The initial examination should be /sup 99//sup m/Tc-sulfur colloid liner-spleen scanning.

  17. Retrieval of the pancreas allograft for whole-organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fridell, Jonathan A; Powelson, John A; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Burke, George W; Sageshima, Junichiro; Rogers, Jeffrey; Stratta, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Proper pancreas retrieval during multi-organ recovery is one of the cornerstones of technically successful whole-organ pancreas transplantation. With evolving surgical approaches for organ retrieval and implantation, it has become standard to procure the pancreas in conjunction with other abdominal organs without compromising either vasculature, graft quality, or transplant outcomes. This review summarizes the major steps required for proper whole-organ retrieval of the pancreas allograft with suggestions and tips whenever alternative approaches are available.

  18. Cerebral-Body Perfusion Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    compared to the 0.5g curve) fall in flow. Fig. 9b, showing the 5g case, strongly suggests a possible, so-called, " luxury perfusion ", in which natural...as the luxury perfusion situation which bypasses the flow with the nutrients it carries (through newly opened collaterals) and result in a "blackout...89-0054 CEREBRAL-BODY PERFUSION MODEL S. Sorek’, J. Bear2, and M., Feinsod3 in Collaboration with K. Allen4, L. Bunt5 and S. Ben-IHaiM6 July 1990

  19. Qualitative and quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasonography of the pancreas using bolus injection and continuous infusion methods in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sue Yee; Nakamura, Kensuke; Morishita, Keitaro; Sasaki, Noboru; Murakami, Masahiro; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-12-30

    Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound is a major breakthrough for ultrasound imaging in recent years. However, contrast enhancement of the pancreas is brief with bolus injection. To assess if continuous infusion of Sonazoid(®) can prolong the duration of pancreatic enhancement over bolus injections, eight adult dogs received bolus injection and continuous infusion of Sonazoid(®) on separate days. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of the pancreatic parenchyma and proximal descending duodenum was performed, and time intensity curves reflecting tissue perfusions were generated. Perfusion parameters- time to initial upslope, peak time, time to wash-out and peak intensity were calculated and evaluated. Fast wash-in to intense peak, followed by rapid wash-out was observed for time intensity curves of bolus injection. With continuous infusion, contrast wash-in to peak intensity was gradual, followed by long plateau and slow wash-out. Median contrast enhancement durations of the pancreas and duodenum were significantly prolonged by continuous infusion from 11 sec (range, 10 to 23 sec) and 16 sec (range, 3 to 43 sec) at bolus injection to 205 sec (range, 170 to 264 sec, P<0.01) and 193 sec (range, 169 to 216 sec, P<0.05), respectively. Median peak intensity of the pancreas was 100.9 MPV (range, 80.2 to 124.3 MPV) at bolus injection and 77.6 MPV (range, 58.2 to 99.5 MPV, P<0.05) at continuous infusion. Prolonged continuous imaging is afforded by continuous infusion of contrast agent. Peak intensity of the pancreas was slightly diminished in continuous infusion, but offered adequate imaging subjectively.

  20. [Pancreas divisum: endoscopic management. Case report].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Henry; Espinoza, Miguel; Huaman, César; Monge, Eduardo; Salazar, Sonia; Tapia, Abel

    2002-01-01

    This is a case report of a 19 year-old woman, with an acute recurrent pancreatitis diagnose, and pancreas divisum as anatomic alteration. An extensive evaluation including specialized labs, ERCP was done. The diagnosis is suspected during ERCP and confirmed by minor papilla injection. Treatment is directed towards relieving outflow obstruction at the level of the minor papilla, with successful results.

  1. Wandering spleen with volvulus of pancreas.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Karcaaltıncaba, Musturay

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal location of the spleen, which is called wandering spleen, results from laxity or absence of the splenic pedicle. In the presence of an elongated splenic pedicle, torsion of the spleen or neighboring organs may occur, which results in acute or chronic abdominal pain. In this case report, we present imaging findings of a wandering spleen that manifested with volvulus of the pancreas.

  2. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation ( ... In: Mettler FA, Guiberteau MJ, eds. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  3. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  4. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  5. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  6. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  7. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  8. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  9. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  10. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  11. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  12. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  13. Pancreas After Islet Transplantation: A First Report of the International Pancreas Transplant Registry.

    PubMed

    Gruessner, R W G; Gruessner, A C

    2016-02-01

    Pancreas after islet (PAI) transplantation is a treatment option for patients seeking insulin independence through a whole-organ transplant after a failed cellular transplant. This report from the International Pancreas Transplant Registry (IPTR) and the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) studied PAI transplant outcomes over a 10-year time period. Forty recipients of a failed alloislet transplant subsequently underwent pancreas transplant alone (50%), pancreas after previous kidney transplant (22.5%), or simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplant (27.5%). Graft and patient survival rates were not statistically significantly different compared with matched primary pancreas transplants. Regardless of the recipient category, overall 1- and 5-year PAI patient survival rates for all 40 cases were 97% and 83%, respectively; graft survival rates were 84% and 65%, respectively. A failed previous islet transplant had no negative impact on kidney graft survival in the SPK category: It was the same as for primary SPK transplants. According to this IPTR/UNOS analysis, a PAI transplant is a safe procedure with low recipient mortality, high graft-function rates in both the short and long term and excellent kidney graft outcomes. Patients with a failed islet transplant should know about this alternative in their quest for insulin independence through transplantation.

  14. CAD of myocardial perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Corstiaan J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2007-03-01

    Our purpose is in the automated evaluation of the physiological relevance of lesions in coronary angiograms. We aim to extract as much as possible quantitative information about the physiological condition of the heart from standard angiographic image sequences. Coronary angiography is still the gold standard for evaluating and diagnosing coronary abnormalities as it is able to locate precisely the coronary artery lesions. The dimensions of the stenosis can be assessed nowadays successfully with image processing based Quantitative Coronary Angiography (QCA) techniques. Our purpose is to assess the clinical relevance of the pertinent stenosis. We therefore analyze the myocardial perfusion as revealed in standard angiographic image sequences. In a Region-of-Interest (ROI) on the angiogram (without an overlaying major blood vessel) the contrast is measured as a function of time (the so-called time-density curve). The required hyperemic state of exercise is induced artificially by the injection of a vasodilator drug e.g. papaverine. In order to minimize motion artifacts we select based on the recorded ECG signal end-diastolic images in both a basal and a hyperemic run in the same projection to position the ROI. We present the development of the algorithms together with results of a small study of 20 patients which have been catheterized following the standard protocol.

  15. Genomic Sequence of Canine Papillomavirus 19

    PubMed Central

    Tisza, Michael J.; Yuan, Hang; Schlegel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that individual papillomas (warts) are caused by infection with individual papillomavirus types. Deep sequencing of virions extracted from a canine oral papilloma revealed the presence of canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1), CPV2, and a novel canine papillomavirus, CPV19. This suggests that papillomas sometimes harbor multiple viral species. PMID:27932663

  16. Anorectal autotransplantation in a canine model: the first successful report in the short term with the non-laparotomy approach

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Jun; Nishizawa, Yuji; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Sato, Tomoyuki; Naito, Munekazu; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Tashiro, Kensuke; Koshima, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Colostomy is conventional treatment for anal dysfunction. Recently, a few trials of anorectal transplantation in animals have been published as a potential alternative to colostomies; however, further development of this technique is required. In this study, we utilized a canine model of anorectal transplantation, evaluated the patency of our microsurgical anastomoses, and assessed the perfusion of the transplanted anus. We designed a canine anorectal transplantation model, wherein anorectal autotransplantation was performed in four healthy beagle dogs by anastomoses of the lower rectum, the bilateral pudendal arteries (PAs) and veins (PVs), and pudendal nerves (PNs). Postoperative graft perfusion was measured by indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and histological examination. The length of the anorectal graft including perianal skin, anal sphincter muscle, bilateral PAs, PVs, and PNs was 4.9 ± 0.3 cm. All diameters of the PAs, PVs, and PNs were large enough to be microscopically anastomosed. Both ICG angiography and histological examination demonstrated good graft perfusion, except for one case that lead to venous congestion. These results show that anastomosis of the bilateral PAs, PVs, and PNs is required for anorectal transplantation. This is the first successful report of canine anorectal autotransplantation. PMID:25204282

  17. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers.

  18. Pancreas-Specific Deletion of Prox1 Affects Development and Disrupts Homeostasis of the Exocrine Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    WESTMORELAND, JOBY J.; KILIC, GAMZE; SARTAIN, CAROLINE; SIRMA, SEMA; BLAIN, JENNIFER; REHG, JEROLD; HARVEY, NATASHA; SOSA–PINEDA, BEATRIZ

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The exocrine portion of the pancreas functions in digestion and preserves pancreatic homeostasis. Learning how this tissue forms during embryogenesis could improve our understanding of human pancreatic diseases. Expression of the homeo-box gene Prox1 in the exocrine pancreas changes throughout development in mice. We investigated the role of Prox1 in development of the exocrine pancreas in mice. METHODS Mice with pancreas-specific deletion of Prox1 (Prox1ΔPanc) were generated and their pancreatic tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, histologic techniques, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and morphometric analysis. RESULTS Loss of Prox1 from the pancreas led to multiple exocrine alterations, most notably premature acinar cell differentiation, increased ductal cell proliferation, altered duct morphogenesis, and imbalanced expression of claudin proteins. Prox1ΔPanc mice also had some minor alterations in islet cells, but beta-cell development was not affected. The exocrine congenital defects of Prox1ΔPanc pancreata appeared to initiate a gradual process of deterioration that resulted in extensive loss of acinar cells, lipomatosis, and damage to ductal tissue in adult mice. CONCLUSIONS Pancreas-specific deletion of Prox1 causes premature differentiation of acinar cells and poor elongation of epithelial branches; these defects indicate that Prox1 controls the expansion of tip progenitors in the early developing pancreas. During later stages of embryogenesis, Prox1 appears to regulate duct cell proliferation and morphogenesis. These findings identify Prox1 as an important regulator of pancreatic exocrine development. PMID:22178591

  19. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  20. Canine "honing" in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L O

    1990-06-01

    The maxillary canines of Australopithecus afarensis show a distal wear facet that extends from the apex of the crown to a point near the distal cingulum. Although these facets bear a superficial resemblance to the honing facets found on the projecting portions of the canines of other anthropoids, a more detailed examination provided in this paper shows that they are not homologous or functionally equivalent. The facets are not related to the use of the maxillary canine as a weapon or as an additional masticatory surface. Instead, their presence in A. afarensis represented a blunting or dulling of the posterior edge of C so that its occlusion with P3 would be consistent with cheek tooth occlusion.

  1. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas. PMID:27918691

  2. [Artificial pancreas for automated glucose control].

    PubMed

    Blauw, Helga; van Bon, Arianne C; de Vries, J H Hans

    2013-01-01

    Strict glucose control is important for patients with diabetes mellitus in order to prevent complications. However, many patients find it difficult to achieve the recommended HbA1c level. The possibility of hypoglycaemia plays an important role in this. The artificial pancreas automates glucose control, improving glucose levels without increasing hypoglycaemic events. The required insulin dose is calculated and administered on the basis of continuous glucose measurements, taking over a large part of the treatment from the patient. Several research groups are working on making this technique suitable for home use. It is expected that the artificial pancreas will become available in the near future. However, effectiveness and safety will have to be investigated in long-term studies. A large number of insulin-dependent patients with diabetes could be eligible for this treatment.

  3. Mandibular canine index in establishing sex identity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shishir; Nagabhushana, D; Rao, B Balaji; Mamatha, G P

    2002-01-01

    An investigation study on sex identity through mandibular canine index directed to detect sexual dimorphism using the Mesio-Distal width of mandibular permanent canines and inter canine and inter canine arch width in the mandible was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere. 360 patients were subjected to the mesio-distal measurement and inter canine arch width. Males were detected correctly in 83.3% and in females 81%. They were statistically significant and the related literatures reviewed.

  4. Imaging of the pancreas: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of anomalies of pancreas and the pancreatic duct system are commonly encountered at radiological evaluation. Diagnosing pancreatic lesions generally requires a multimodality approach. This review highlights the new advances in pancreatic imaging and their applications in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic pathologies. The mainstay techniques include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), radionuclide imaging (RNI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:21847450

  5. Epidural anesthesia improves pancreatic perfusion and decreases the severity of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Samira M; Andres, Axel; Morel, Philippe; Schiffer, Eduardo; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Bühler, Leo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety of epidural anesthesia (EA), its effect on pancreatic perfusion and the outcome of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: From 2005 to August 2010, patients with predicted severe AP [Ranson score ≥ 2, C-reactive protein > 100 or necrosis on computed tomography (CT)] were prospectively randomized to either a group receiving EA or a control group treated by patient controlled intravenous analgesia. Pain management was evaluated in the two groups every eight hours using the visual analog pain scale (VAS). Parameters for clinical severity such as length of hospital stay, use of antibiotics, admission to the intensive care unit, radiological/clinical complications and the need for surgical necrosectomy including biochemical data were recorded. A CT scan using a perfusion protocol was performed on admission and at 72 h to evaluate pancreatic blood flow. A significant variation in blood flow was defined as a 20% difference in pancreatic perfusion between admission and 72 h and was measured in the head, body and tail of the pancreas. RESULTS: We enrolled 35 patients. Thirteen were randomized to the EA group and 22 to the control group. There were no differences in demographic characteristics between the two groups. The Balthazar radiological severity score on admission was higher in the EA group than in the control group (mean score 4.15 ± 2.54 vs 3.38 ± 1.75, respectively, P = 0.347) and the median Ranson scores were 3.4 and 2.7 respectively (P = NS). The median duration of EA was 5.7 d, and no complications of the epidural procedure were reported. An improvement in perfusion of the pancreas was observed in 13/30 (43%) of measurements in the EA group vs 2/27 (7%) in the control group (P = 0.0025). Necrosectomy was performed in 1/13 patients in the EA group vs 4/22 patients in the control group (P = 0.63). The VAS improved during the first ten days in the EA group compared to the control group (0.2 vs 2.33, P = 0.034 at 10 d). Length

  6. Current State of Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Preservation of Organs: The Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael J.; Baicu, Simona, C.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the application of hypothermic perfusion technology as a topic of current interest with the potential to have a salutary impact on the mounting clinical challenges to improve the quantity and quality of donor organs and the outcome of transplantation. The ex vivo perfusion of donor organs on a machine prior to transplant, as opposed to static cold storage on ice, is not a new idea but is being re-visited because of the prospects of making available more and better organs for transplantation. The rationale for pursuing perfusion technology will be discussed in relation to emerging data on clinical outcomes and economic benefits for kidney transplantation. Reference will also be made to on-going research using other organs with special emphasis on the pancreas for both segmental pancreas and isolated islet transplantation. Anticipated and emerging benefits of hypothermic machine perfusion of organs are: i) maintaining the patency of the vascular bed, ii) providing nutrients and low demand oxygen to support reduced energy demands, iii) removal of metabolic by-products and toxins, iv) provision of access for administration of cytoprotective agents and/or immunomodulatory drugs, v) increase of available assays for organ viability assessment and tissue matching, vi) facilitation of a change from emergency to elective scheduled surgery with reduced costs and improved outcomes, vii) improved clinical outcomes as demonstrated by reduced PNF and DGF parameters, viii) improved stabilization or rescue of ECD kidneys or organs from NHBD that increase the size of the donor pool, ix) significant economic benefit for the transplant centers and reduced health care costs, and x) provision of a technology for ex vivo use of non-transplanted human organs for pharmaceutical development research. PMID:19857479

  7. An integrated multivariable artificial pancreas control system.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system.

  8. Perforation of jejunal diverticulum with ectopic pancreas.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Shintani, Yukako; Murono, Koji; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Yasuda, Koji; Otani, Kensuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Perforation of jejunal diverticulum is a rare complication. Here, we report a case of jejunal diverticulum penetration with surrounding ectopic pancreas. An 83-year-old female patient was admitted to our department with acute onset of severe abdominal pain lasting for half a day. Abdominal computed tomography showed outpouching of the small intestine that contained air/fluid, with multiple surrounding air bubbles in the mesentery of the small intestine. She was diagnosed with penetration of the small intestine, and an emergency laparotomy was indicated. The penetrated jejunal diverticulum was identified ~20-cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. Partial resection of the jejunum was performed, and her postoperative course was uneventful. The pathological findings confirmed diverticulum penetration into the mesentery and severe inflammation at the site, with surrounding ectopic pancreas. Furthermore, the pancreatic ducts were opened through the penetrated diverticulum. This rare case shows that the ectopic pancreas might have caused penetration of jejunal diverticulum owing to the pancreatic duct opening through the diverticulum.

  9. Stereological analyses of the whole human pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Ananta; Fowler, Jonas L.; Zielinski, Mark C.; Kilimnik, German; Hara, Manami

    2016-01-01

    The large size of human tissues requires a practical stereological approach to perform a comprehensive analysis of the whole organ. We have developed a method to quantitatively analyze the whole human pancreas, as one of the challenging organs to study, in which endocrine cells form various sizes of islets that are scattered unevenly throughout the exocrine pancreas. Furthermore, the human pancreas possesses intrinsic characteristics of intra-individual variability, i.e. regional differences in endocrine cell/islet distribution, and marked inter-individual heterogeneity regardless of age, sex and disease conditions including obesity and diabetes. The method is built based on large-scale image capture, computer-assisted unbiased image analysis and quantification, and further mathematical analyses, using widely-used software such as Fiji/ImageJ and MATLAB. The present study includes detailed protocols of every procedure as well as all the custom-written computer scripts, which can be modified according to specific experimental plans and specimens of interest. PMID:27658965

  10. Canine tooth size variability in primates.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, G

    1989-01-01

    I present an analysis of canine tooth size variability in male and female primates. The coefficient of variation (CV = SD X 100/mean) as an index of canine size variability proved to be dependent on mean canine size in males and, to a lower extent, in females. Therefore, variability tends to increase with increasing values of mean canine size. Using residuals from the regression of log SD on log mean canine size in male and female primates, I analysed the contribution of diet, habitat and mating system to canine size variability. Habitat and mating system are known to influence to a certain extent the degree of sexual dimorphism in canine size. Given the well-known relationship between sexual dimorphism and phenotypic variability, it was suggested that these factors might influence variability in canine size. Everything else being equal, males of polygynous species are characterized by more variable canine sizes than males of monogamous species. Habitat and diet did not contribute to the level of variability observed in either males or females. It is proposed that a high level of variability in canine size may be related to the likelihood that enlarged canines evolved as a result of male-male competition for mates in polygynous species.

  11. Release of NPY in pig pancreas: Dual parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, S.P.; Holst, J.J.; Skak-Nielsen, T.; Knigge, U.; Warberg, J.; Theodorsson-Norheim, E.; Hoekfelt, T.; Lundberg, J.M.; Schwartz, T.W. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm )

    1988-07-01

    Several lines of evidence have connected neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-residue polypeptide, to the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The authors studied the localization, the molecular characteristics, and the release of NPY and norepinephrine (NE) in the porcine pancreas. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed that NPY nerves around blood vessels were likely to be of adrenergic nature, whereas NPY-immunoreactive fibers close to exocrine and endocrine cells may originate from local ganglia also containing VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) and PHI (peptide histidine isoleucine). Electrical stimulation of the splanchnic nerve supply to the isolated perfused pig pancreas resulted in a corelease of NPY and NE into the venous effluent. Stimulation of the vagal nerves caused a sevenfold larger release of NPY without affecting the NE secretion. Characterization of the NPY immunoreactivity in the pancreatic tissue and in the venous effluent by gel filtration, high-performance liquid chromatography, and isoelectric focusing shoed that the immunoreactive NPY was indistinguishable from synthetic porcine NPY. It is concluded that, although NPY is associated with sympathetic perivascular neurons, the majority of the pancreatic NPY-containing nerve fibers are likely to belong to the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

  12. Canine and feline colostrum.

    PubMed

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2016-11-30

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr). Immune quality of colostrum is highly variable between bitches, with no relationship with maternal blood IgG level, dam's age, breed size or litter size. In addition to systemic immune protection, colostrum also plays a major role for local digestive protection, due to IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and various cytokines. Energetic concentration of canine and feline colostrum is not superior to that of mature milk. It depends on colostrum fat concentration and is affected by breed size (higher in breeds <10 kg adult body weight). As puppies and kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival.

  13. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  14. Viable neurons with luxury perfusion in hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Wong, C Y; Luciano, M G; MacIntyre, W J; Brunken, R C; Hahn, J F; Go, R T

    1997-09-01

    A woman with hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis had functional imaging of cerebral perfusion and metabolism to demonstrate the effects of endoscopic third ventriculostomy--a new form of internal surgical shunting. Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT and 18F-FDG PET showed regional luxury perfusion at the left frontal region. Three months after a successful third ventriculostomy, a repeated imaging of cerebral perfusion and metabolism showed resolution of luxury perfusion and global improvement of both perfusion and metabolism. This concurred with postoperative clinical improvement. The paired imaging of cerebral perfusion and metabolism provides more information than just imaging perfusion or metabolism. Thus, the detection of perfusion and metabolism mismatch may open a new window of opportunity for surgical intervention.

  15. ADAPTATION OF GROUP B COXSACKIE VIRUS TO ADULT MOUSE PANCREAS

    PubMed Central

    Dalldorf, Gilbert; Gifford, Rebecca

    1952-01-01

    An alteration of tissue tropism of a Coxsackie virus has been observed following different methods of propagation of the virus in animals. Tropism for the adult mouse pancreas, as described by Pappenheimer, appeared to be irrevocably lost following prolonged brain-to-brain transfer. It was present in the same strain on reisolation from human feces, was intensified following pancreas transfers, and suppressed by brain transfers. Pancreatotropism may be correlated with the titer of virus in the pancreas. PMID:13000059

  16. Expression of claudin-5 in canine pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma - An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Gálfi, Péter; Halász, Judit; Kulka, Janina

    2011-03-01

    Claudin-5 is an endothelium-specific tight junction protein. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression pattern of this molecule in intact pancreatic tissues and in well-differentiated and poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas from dogs by the use of cross-reactive humanised anticlaudin-5 antibody. The necropsy samples taken from dogs included 10 nonneoplastic pancreatic tissues, 10 well-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 10 poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 5 intrahepatic metastases of well-differentiated and 5 intrahepatic metastases of poorly differentiated acinar cell carcinomas. A strong lateral membrane claudin-5 positivity was detected in exocrine cells in all intact pancreas samples. The endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans and the epithelial cells of the ducts were negative for claudin-5. The endothelial cells of vessels and lymphatic channels in the stroma of the intact pancreas showed strong membrane positivity for this claudin. All well-differentiated exocrine pancreas carcinomas and all poorly-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma samples showed a diffuse loss of claudin-5 expression. The claudin-5-positive peritumoural vessels and lymphatic channels facilitated the detection of vascular invasion of the claudin-5-negative cancer cells. In liver metastasis samples, the pancreatic carcinomas were negative for claudin-5. It seems that the loss of expression of claudin-5 may lead to carcinogenesis in canine exocrine pancreatic cells.

  17. Current developments in canine genetics.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified.

  18. Perfusion decellularization of whole organs.

    PubMed

    Guyette, Jacques P; Gilpin, Sarah E; Charest, Jonathan M; Tapias, Luis F; Ren, Xi; Ott, Harald C

    2014-01-01

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) outlines the architecture of organs and tissues. It provides a unique niche of composition and form, which serves as a foundational scaffold that supports organ-specific cell types and enables normal organ function. Here we describe a standard process for pressure-controlled perfusion decellularization of whole organs for generating acellular 3D scaffolds with preserved ECM protein content, architecture and perfusable vascular conduits. By applying antegrade perfusion of detergents and subsequent washes to arterial vasculature at low physiological pressures, successful decellularization of complex organs (i.e., hearts, lungs and kidneys) can be performed. By using appropriate modifications, pressure-controlled perfusion decellularization can be achieved in small-animal experimental models (rat organs, 4-5 d) and scaled to clinically relevant models (porcine and human organs, 12-14 d). Combining the unique structural and biochemical properties of native acellular scaffolds with subsequent recellularization techniques offers a novel platform for organ engineering and regeneration, for experimentation ex vivo and potential clinical application in vivo.

  19. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this.

  20. Effects of pancreas transplantation on late complications of diabetes and metabolic effects of pancreas and islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Caldara, R; La Rocca, E; Maffi, P; Secchi, A

    1999-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation has become an accepted therapeutic approach to treat insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, successfully restoring normoglycemia. In contrast, islet transplantation is still in the experimental phase, only a few operations having being performed world-wide. The aim of this review is to analyze the effects of pancreas transplantation on the late complications of diabetes and to report the endocrino-metabolic effects of pancreas and islet transplantation.

  1. Current Perspectives on Laparoscopic Robot-Assisted Pancreas and Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Boggi, Ugo; Signori, Stefano; Vistoli, Fabio; Amorese, Gabriella; Consani, Giovanni; De Lio, Nelide; Perrone, Vittorio; Croce, Chiara; Marchetti, Piero; Cantarovich, Diego; Mosca, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas transplant recipients continue to suffer high surgical morbidity. Current robotic technology provides a unique opportunity to test whether laparoscopy can improve the post-operative course of pancreas transplantation (PT). Current knowledge on robotic pancreas and renal transplantation was reviewed to determine feasibility and safety of robotic PT. Information available from literature was included in this review, together with personal experience including three PT, and two renal allotransplants. As of April 2011, the relevant literature provides two case reports on robotic renal transplantation. The author’s experience consists of one further renal allotransplantation, two solitary PT, and one simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Information obtained at international conferences include several other renal allotransplants, but no additional PT. Preliminary data show that PT is feasible laparoscopically under robotic assistance, but raises concerns regarding the effects of increased warm ischemia time on graft viability. Indeed, during construction of vascular anastomoses, graft temperature progressively increases, since maintenance of a stable graft temperature is difficult to achieve laparoscopically. There is no proof that progressive graft warming produces actual damage to transplanted organs, unless exceedingly long. However, this important question is likely to elicit a vibrant discussion in the transplant community. PMID:21720670

  2. Expression patterns of epiplakin1 in pancreas, pancreatic cancer and regenerating pancreas.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tetsu; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Baba, Hideo; Goto, Mizuki; Fujiwara, Sakuhei; Kume, Kazuhiko; Kume, Shoen

    2008-07-01

    Epiplakin1 (Eppk1) is a plakin family gene with its function remains largely unknown, although the plakin genes are known to function in interconnecting cytoskeletal filaments and anchoring them at plasma membrane-associated adhesive junction. Here we analyzed the expression patterns of Eppk1 in the developing and adult pancreas in the mice. In the embryonic pancreas, Eppk1+/Pdx1+ and Eppk1+/Sox9+ pancreatic progenitor cells were observed in early pancreatic epithelium. Since Pdx1 expression overlapped with that of Sox9 at this stage, these multipotent progenitor cells are Eppk1+/Pdx1+/Sox9+ cells. Then Eppk1 expression becomes confined to Ngn3+ or Sox9+ endocrine progenitor cells, and p48+ exocrine progenitor cells, and then restricted to the duct cells and a cells at birth. In the adult pancreas, Eppk1 is expressed in centroacinar cells (CACs) and in duct cells. Eppk1 is observed in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), previously identified as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursor lesions. In addition, the expansion of Eppk1-positive cells occurs in a caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, an acinar cell regeneration model. Furthermore, in the partial pancreatectomy (Px) regeneration model using mice, Eppk1 is expressed in "ducts in foci", a tubular structure transiently induced. These results suggest that Eppk1 serves as a useful marker for detecting pancreatic progenitor cells in developing and regenerating pancreas.

  3. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Kadota, K.; Kambara, H.; Torizuka, K.

    1985-08-01

    TI-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in six patients with clinically documented myocarditis. Each case manifested electrocardiographic abnormalities with elevation of serum cardiac enzymes and no significant stenosis of the coronary arteries observed on angiogram. Resting TI-201 images were visually assessed by three observers. Focal perfusion defects were observed in three cases (50%), among which two showed multiple perfusion defects. Emission computed tomography using TI-201 clearly delineated multifocal lesions in the first case. On the other hand, no significant perfusion defects were noted in the remaining three cases. Thus, myocarditis should be considered as one of the disease entities that may produce perfusion defects on TI-201 myocardial imaging.

  4. Novel diabetes mellitus treatment: mature canine insulin production by canine striated muscle through gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Niessen, S J M; Fernandez-Fuente, M; Mahmoud, A; Campbell, S C; Aldibbiat, A; Huggins, C; Brown, A E; Holder, A; Piercy, R J; Catchpole, B; Shaw, J A M; Church, D B

    2012-07-01

    Muscle-targeted gene therapy using insulin genes has the potential to provide an inexpensive, low maintenance alternative or adjunctive treatment method for canine diabetes mellitus. A canine skeletal muscle cell line was established through primary culture, as well as through transdifferentiation of canine fibroblasts after infection with a myo-differentiation gene containing adenovirus vector. A novel mutant furin-cleavable canine preproinsulin gene insert (cppI4) was designed and created through de novo gene synthesis. Various cell lines, including the generated canine muscle cell line, were transfected with nonviral plasmids containing cppI4. Insulin and desmin immunostaining were used to prove insulin production by muscle cells and specific canine insulin ELISA to prove mature insulin secretion into the medium. The canine myoblast cultures proved positive on desmin immunostaining. All cells tolerated transfection with cppI4-containing plasmid, and double immunostaining for insulin and desmin proved present in the canine cells. Canine insulin ELISA assessment of medium of cppI4-transfected murine myoblasts and canine myoblast and fibroblast mixture proved presence of mature fully processed canine insulin, 24 and 48 h after transfection. The present study provides proof of principle that canine muscle cells can be induced to produce and secrete canine insulin on transfection with nonviral plasmid DNA containing a novel mutant canine preproinsulin gene that produces furin-cleavable canine preproinsulin. This technology could be developed to provide an alternative canine diabetes mellitus treatment option or to provide a constant source for background insulin, as well as C-peptide, alongside current treatment options.

  5. Annular pancreas associated with duodenal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brönnimann, Enrico; Potthast, Silke; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Oertli, Daniel; Heizmann, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly. Coexisting malignancy has been reported only in a few cases. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case in the English literature of duodenal adenocarcinoma in a patient with AP. In a 55-year old woman with duodenal outlet stenosis magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed an aberrant pancreatic duct encircling the duodenum. Duodenojejunostomy was performed. Eight weeks later she presented with painless jaundice. Duodenopancreatectomy revealed a duodenal adenocarcinoma, surrounded by an incomplete AP. Thus, co-existent malignancy with AP can be present without obstructive jaundice and without being visible through preoperative diagnostics. PMID:20593508

  6. The Cystic Fibrosis of Exocrine Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Wilschanski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is highly expressed in the pancreatic duct epithelia, and permits anions and water to enter the ductal lumen. This results in an increased volume of alkaline fluid allowing the highly concentrated proteins secreted by the acinar cells to remain in a soluble state. This work will expound on the pathophysiology and pathology caused by the malfunctioning CFTR protein with special reference to ion transport and acid-base abnormalities both in humans and animal models. We will also discuss the relationship between cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatitis, and outline present and potential therapeutic approaches in CF treatment relevant to the pancreas. PMID:23637307

  7. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Haley C; Schlarb, Alexander C; Ubert, H Adam; Schlarb, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor is a rare tumor accounting for 1-2% of exocrine neoplasms involving the pancreas. This typically benign tumor is predominately found in young females of non-Caucasian descent between the second and fourth decades of life. Despite the reported increasing incidence of this neoplasm, many physicians are unfamiliar with this tumor, which may lead to uncertainty of diagnosis and treatment. While further delineating the clinical and imaging features of this tumor, we present two cases with review of the literature.

  8. Does machine perfusion decrease ischemia reperfusion injury?

    PubMed

    Bon, D; Delpech, P-O; Chatauret, N; Hauet, T; Badet, L; Barrou, B

    2014-06-01

    In 1990's, use of machine perfusion for organ preservation has been abandoned because of improvement of preservation solutions, efficient without perfusion, easy to use and cheaper. Since the last 15 years, a renewed interest for machine perfusion emerged based on studies performed on preclinical model and seems to make consensus in case of expanded criteria donors or deceased after cardiac death donations. We present relevant studies highlighted the efficiency of preservation with hypothermic machine perfusion compared to static cold storage. Machines for organ preservation being in constant evolution, we also summarized recent developments included direct oxygenation of the perfusat. Machine perfusion technology also enables organ reconditioning during the last hours of preservation through a short period of perfusion on hypothermia, subnormothermia or normothermia. We present significant or low advantages for machine perfusion against ischemia reperfusion injuries regarding at least one primary parameter: risk of DFG, organ function or graft survival.

  9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas: Mystery and Facts.

    PubMed

    Raghavapuram, Saikiran; Vaid, Arjun; Rego, Rayburn F

    2015-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is very rare as pancreas does not have any squamous cells. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. We describe such a case where in the patient presented with painless jaundice. CT and EUS confirmed the pancreatic mass biopsy of which showed squamous cell cancer.

  10. [Ectopic pancreas mimicking advanced gastric malignancy--case report].

    PubMed

    Zawada, Iwona; Lewosiuk, Agnieszka; Hnatyszyn, Krzysztof; Patalan, Michał; Woyke, Stanisław; Kostyrka, Roman; Marlicz, Krzysztof; Starzyńska, Teresa

    2012-04-01

    Ectopic pancreas is the most common type of ectopic tissue in gastrointestinal tract. It is typically asymptomatic, presenting as a small submucosal lesion in prepyloric region of stomach. The diagnosis is usually incidental, during gastroscopy. The patient with symptomatic heterotropic pancreas, mimicking gastric malignancy was described.

  11. Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013.

    PubMed

    Hovorka, R

    2015-08-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade.

  12. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W

    2016-07-01

    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems.

  13. [Tuberculosis of the pancreas--a clinical rarity].

    PubMed

    Heitmann, P; Kratsch, B; Löschke, S; Klempa, I

    2001-06-01

    Pancreas tuberculosis is a rare diagnosis and is usually associated with miliary spread. Only a few cases are reported in the literature. A female patient was admitted with a history of uncharacteristic abdominal pain, weight loss, weakness, and intermittent fever. CA 19-9 was increased and the CT scan showed an irregular mass in the pancreatic tail. Suspecting the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, a pancreas tail resection with splenectomy was performed. The histological examination showed pancreas tuberculosis. Mimicking pancreatic cancer or presenting with acute/chronic pancreatitis or obstructive jaundice, the diagnosis of pancreas tuberculosis is very difficult to make and is usually established after surgical treatment. Although pancreas tuberculosis is rare, it should be considered when evaluating a pancreatic mass.

  14. Pancreas development is promoted by cyclopamine, a hedgehog signaling inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Melton, D A

    1998-10-27

    Exposure to cyclopamine, a steroid alkaloid that blocks Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, promotes pancreatic expansion in embryonic chicks. Heterotopic development of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine structures occurs in regions adjacent to the pancreas including stomach and duodenum, and insulin-producing islets in the pancreas are enlarged. The homeodomain transcription factor PDX1, required for pancreas development, is expressed broadly in the posterior foregut but pancreas development normally initiates only in a restricted region of PDX1-expressing posterior foregut where endodermal Shh expression is repressed. The results suggests that cyclopamine expands the endodermal region where Shh signaling does not occur, resulting in pancreatic differentiation in a larger region of PDX1-expressing foregut endoderm. Cyclopamine reveals the capacity of a broad region of the posterior embryonic foregut to form pancreatic cells and provides a means for expanding embryonic pancreas development.

  15. Purinergic signalling in the pancreas in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, G; Novak, I

    2012-05-01

    Pancreatic cells contain specialised stores for ATP. Purinergic receptors (P2 and P1) and ecto-nucleotidases are expressed in both endocrine and exocrine calls, as well as in stromal cells. The pancreas, especially the endocrine cells, were an early target for the actions of ATP. After the historical perspective of purinergic signalling in the pancreas, the focus of this review will be the physiological functions of purinergic signalling in the regulation of both endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Next, we will consider possible interaction between purinergic signalling and other regulatory systems and their relation to nutrient homeostasis and cell survival. The pancreas is an organ exhibiting several serious diseases - cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes - and some are associated with changes in life-style and are increasing in incidence. There is upcoming evidence for the role of purinergic signalling in the pathophysiology of the pancreas, and the new challenge is to understand how it is integrated with other pathological processes.

  16. Canine histiocytic neoplasia: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Amanda K.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2007-01-01

    Canine histiocytic neoplasms include cutaneous histiocytoma, as well as localized and disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. These tumors have variable biologic behavior, although the malignant disorders often have a poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry plays an essential role in differentiating histiocytic tumors from other neoplasias that may have similar histological appearances. This allows a definitive diagnosis to be established and provides a more accurate prediction of prognosis. This article reviews the biologic behavior, diagnosis, and treatment of histiocytic tumors in the dog. PMID:17987966

  17. Early Support of Intracranial Perfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    automated real-time vital signs monitoring data” was funded by USAF (MSA); UM PI: Deborah Stein  The project, titled “Noninvasive intracranial pressure ...scoring of cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure provides a Brain Trauma Index that predicts outcome in patients with severe TBI... intracranial pressure dose index: Dynamic 3-D scoring in the assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury Proceedings of American Association for the Surgery of

  18. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  19. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control.

  20. Characterization of canine neutrophil granules.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, R T; Andersen, B R

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate distinct populations of canine neutrophil granules and to compare them with neutrophil granules from other species. Size, shape, density, and content of canine neutrophil granules were determined. Neutrophils obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation were homogenized, and granule populations were separated by isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient (rho, 1.14 to 1.22 g/ml). The most dense granule population (rho, 1.197 g/ml) contained all of the myeloperoxidase, beta-glucuronidase, and elastase, more than half of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase, and most of the lysozyme. The population with intermediate density (rho, 1.179 g/ml) contained lactoferrin, vitamin B12-binding protein, and the remainder of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase and lysozyme. The least dense granule population did not contain a major peak of any of the enzymes or binding proteins tested but was distinguished by density and morphology. The size and shape of the granules were determined from scanning electron micrographs and assessment of shape was aided by transmission electron micrographs. By these methods three populations of canine neutrophil granules were characterized and named: myeloperoxidase granules, vitamin B12-binding protein granules, and low-density granules. Images PMID:6292095

  1. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  2. Ultrasound perfusion signal processing for tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, MinWoo; Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced blood perfusion in a tissue mass is an indication of neo-vascularity and a sign of a potential malignancy. Ultrasonic pulsed-Doppler imaging is a preferred modality for noninvasive monitoring of blood flow. However, the weak blood echoes and disorganized slow flow make it difficult to detect perfusion using standard methods without the expense and risk of contrast enhancement. Our research measures the efficiency of conventional power-Doppler (PD) methods at discriminating flow states by comparing measurement performance to that of an ideal discriminator. ROC analysis applied to the experimental results shows that power Doppler methods are just 30-50 % efficient at perfusion flows less than 1ml/min, suggesting an opportunity to improve perfusion assessment through signal processing. A new perfusion estimator is proposed by extending the statistical discriminator approach. We show that 2-D perfusion color imaging may be enhanced using this approach.

  3. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation.

  4. Early prediction of maxillary canine impaction

    PubMed Central

    Storms, Ann-Sophie; Voet, Martine; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish prediction criteria for maxillary canine impaction in young patients, based on angular and linear measurements on panoramic radiographs. Methods: From 828 records having at least 2 panoramic radiographs, both taken between the ages of 7 and 14 years, with a minimum 1-year and maximum 3-year interval (T1 and T2), a training data set consisting of 30 subjects with unilateral canine impaction (12 males and 18 females) was selected. The patients' mean age was 10.1 years [standard deviation (SD) 1.3 years] at T1 and 11.9 years (SD 1.1 years) at T2. The training data set also consisted of 30 maxillary canines from the contralateral sides and an additional 60 normal erupted canines from 30 subjects. Those 30 subjects of a test data set were selected based on displaying bilateral maxillary canine eruption at T2 and being matched for gender and age with the subjects of the training data set [12 males and 18 females; mean age at T1, 10.1 years (SD 1.3 years) and at T2, 11.1 years (SD 1.2 years)]. Angular and linear measurements were performed separately by two observers on the total study sample at T1. Linear measurements were expressed as a multiplication of the maxillary central incisor width at the non-impacted side. Results: Significant differences for linear and angular measurements and radiographic factors were found between the maxillary impacted canine and erupted maxillary canine. The three best-discriminating parameters were canine to first premolar angle, canine cusp to midline distance and canine cusp to maxillary plane distance. These three parameters were combined in a multiple logistic regression model to calculate the probability of impaction, yielding a high area under the curve (AUC) equal to 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.94–0.99), with 90% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusions: Prediction of maxillary canine impaction from a combination of parameters relating to angles and distances measured

  5. Molecular signalling pathways in canine gliomas.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, C E; York, D; Higgins, R J; LeCouteur, R A; Dickinson, P J

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we determined the expression of key signalling pathway proteins TP53, MDM2, P21, AKT, PTEN, RB1, P16, MTOR and MAPK in canine gliomas using western blotting. Protein expression was defined in three canine astrocytic glioma cell lines treated with CCNU, temozolamide or CPT-11 and was further evaluated in 22 spontaneous gliomas including high and low grade astrocytomas, high grade oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Response to chemotherapeutic agents and cell survival were similar to that reported in human glioma cell lines. Alterations in expression of key human gliomagenesis pathway proteins were common in canine glioma tumour samples and segregated between oligodendroglial and astrocytic tumour types for some pathways. Both similarities and differences in protein expression were defined for canine gliomas compared to those reported in human tumour counterparts. The findings may inform more defined assessment of specific signalling pathways for targeted therapy of canine gliomas.

  6. Common hepatic artery aneurysm: Pseudopseudocyst of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, S.; Druy, E.M.; Friedman, A.C.

    1985-06-01

    The preoperative diagnosis of hepatic artery aneurysm is uncommon, and its presentation as a pancreatic mass is rare. Because of its great potential for rupture early diagnosis and treatment is essential. The authors report two cases of aneurysms of the common hepatic artery, which on CT presented as a cystic mass in the head of the pancreas. These cases illustrate the importance of using 10-mm serial sections through the pancreas after a bolus injection of intravenous contrast material in order to allow distinction between hepatic artery aneurysm and other, more common, cystic masses of the pancreas.

  7. Control of cell identity in pancreas development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Ben Z; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The endocrine and exocrine cells in the adult pancreas are not static, but can change their differentiation state in response to injury or stress. This concept of cells in flux means that there may be ways to generate certain types of cells (such as insulin-producing β-cells) and prevent formation of others (such as transformed neoplastic cells). We review different aspects of cell identity in the pancreas, discussing how cells achieve their identity during embryonic development and maturation, and how this identity remains plastic, even in the adult pancreas.

  8. The National Pancreas Foundation fellows symposium program 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Gelrud, Andres; Whitcomb, David C

    2010-04-01

    Clinical and translational research is critical for the development of improvement in care of pancreatic diseases. Major concerns are the lack of dedicated trainees in pancreatic research and the difficulty for the remaining trainees to develop independent research careers to be included into the pancreas research community. This article describes the efforts of Solvay Pharmaceuticals and American academic leaders working through the National Pancreas Foundation to facilitate the development and expansion of a new generation of pancreas-related clinical and translational researchers through a 3-year fellows symposium.

  9. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rajesh; Manrai, Manish; Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Alfadda, Abdulrahman A

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important component in the diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma pancreas. With the advent of advanced imaging techniques and tissue acquisition methods the role of EUS is becoming increasingly important. Small pancreatic tumors can be reliably diagnosed with EUS. EUS guided fine needle aspiration establishes diagnosis in some cases. EUS plays an important role in staging of carcinoma pancreas and in some important therapeutic methods that include celiac plexus neurolysis, EUS guided biliary drainage and drug delivery. In this review we attempt to review the role of EUS in diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas. PMID:26839647

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas.

    PubMed

    Puri, Rajesh; Manrai, Manish; Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Alfadda, Abdulrahman A

    2016-01-25

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important component in the diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma pancreas. With the advent of advanced imaging techniques and tissue acquisition methods the role of EUS is becoming increasingly important. Small pancreatic tumors can be reliably diagnosed with EUS. EUS guided fine needle aspiration establishes diagnosis in some cases. EUS plays an important role in staging of carcinoma pancreas and in some important therapeutic methods that include celiac plexus neurolysis, EUS guided biliary drainage and drug delivery. In this review we attempt to review the role of EUS in diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas.

  11. Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic porcine pancreas and preliminary case study on the human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wex, C; Fröhlich, M; Brandstädter, K; Bruns, C; Stoll, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the mechanical properties of the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanical properties of the pancreas are not sufficiently characterized. The possibility of intraoperative mechanical testing of pathological pancreata will allow the classification of pancreatic diseases in the future. The application of mechanical parameters instead of the intraoperative frozen section analysis shortens waiting times in the operating room. This study proves the general applicability of shear rheology for the determination of the mechanical properties of pancreas and the assessment of graft quality for transplantation. Porcine and human pancreas samples were examined ex vivo and a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was observed. Pancreas was found to be more viscous than liver but both abdominal organs showed a similar flow behavior. The shear deformation dependence of healthy human pancreas was similar to porcine pancreas. An increase in the post-mortem time led to an increase in the complex modulus for a post-mortem time up to 8.5 days. Histological investigations showed that an increased amount of collagen coincides with the stiffening of the pancreatic tissue.

  12. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  13. A review of canine pseudocyesis.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C; de la Sota, R L; Goya, R G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches at the end of metaoestrus. PSC is a frequent finding in domestic dogs. Although it is generally admitted that prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in the appearance of PSC, its precise aetiophysiology is not completely understood yet. A number of clinical studies suggest that at some point of metaoestrus circulating PRL levels rise in overtly pseudopregnant bitches. Individual differences in sensitivity to PRL as well as the existence of molecular variants of canine PRL with different bioactivity versus immunoreactivity ratios may help clarify the aetiopathology of PSC. Diagnosis of PSC is based on the presence of typical clinical signs in metaoestrous non-pregnant bitches. Considering that PSC is a self limiting physiological state, mild cases usually need no treatment. Discouraging maternal behaviour and sometimes fitting Elizabethan collars to prevent licking of the mammary glands may suffice in these cases. Sex steroids (oestrogens, progestins and androgens) have been traditionally used to treat PSC but the side-effects usually outweigh the benefits of these medications. Inhibition of PRL release by ergot derivatives [bromocriptine (10-100 microg/kg per day for 10-14 days], cabergoline (5 microg/kg per day during 5-10 days), metergoline (0.2 mg/kg per day during 8-10 days) has proved to be effective for the treatment of canine PSC. Although some of these ergot derivatives present some untoward side-effects, they are transient and can usually be managed. Predisposed bitches not intended for breeding should be spayed as ovariectomy is the only permanent preventive measure.

  14. Detection and definition of canine intestinal carbohydrases, using a standardized method.

    PubMed

    Noon, K F; Rogul, M; Brendle, J J; Keefe, T J

    1977-07-01

    Intestinal mucosa and pancreas from purebred Beagle dogs were assayed for carbohydrase activity, using several methods of tissue treatment. The enzymes found and studied were alpha-amylase, sucrase, lactase, amyloglucosidase, cellobiase, maltase, and isomaltase. Experiments using polyacrylamide gel columns and heat inactivation showed the presence of an isozyme of maltase which degrades isomaltose. This activity had not been previously demonstrated in dogs. An optimal standard procedure is presented for the preparation and assay of canine digestive enzymes. A statistical analysis of variance of the results showed that the variance was primarily associated with differences among dogs and not by variance within the procedure. When the different extraction procedures were used, results indicated that the level of enzymes detected differed with the method of treatment.

  15. Influence of different methods of collection from the canine epididymides on post-thaw caudal epididymal sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    HORI, Tatsuya; ATAGO, Tetsuya; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Canine epididymal sperm was collected from the cauda epididymis using 2 different methods (flushing and mincing) to compare the qualities (the percentage of progressively motile, viable, morphologically abnormal, immature and intact acrosomes) before and after freezing and thawing. No significant difference was noted in the quality of the cauda epididymal sperm immediately after collection and after freezing-thawing between the collection methods, although the mean levels of sperm quality with the flushing method were slightly better than that of the mincing method. The flushing method is simple and free of blood contamination, although the vas deferens was too small to be perfused in only 1 dog, and our results suggest that the flushing method is preferable to the mincing method for collecting sperm from the canine cauda epididymis. PMID:25649723

  16. Enhancement of canine coronary collateral flow by nafazatrom.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, V B; Mardin, M

    1986-11-04

    The ability of oral nafazatrom treatment (10 mg/kg) 2 h preceding occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 h to limit expansion of myocardial injury was studied in anaesthetized canine hearts. Collateral blood flow was obtained with a load line analysis, employing aortic pressure, post-stenotic coronary pressure, and retrograde coronary flow from the occluded vessel. Contractile changes in the subendocardial ischemic perfused muscles were measured with ultrasonic techniques. Infarct size was determined post-mortem by a biochemical staining method and excision of necrosis. Post-stenotic coronary pressure was slightly below aortic pressure in both groups before coronary occlusion, and fell to 29 and 27% of aortic pressure in vehicle- and drug-treated hearts, respectively, after the insult. Retrograde flow was 2.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.7 ml/min in tylose- or nafazatrom-treated hearts. Collateral flow amounted to 1.5 +/- 0.06 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.04 ml/min in controls and drug-protected hearts. Contractility (dP/dtmax) and the %-segment shortening were greater in the ischaemic myocardium after nafazatrom treatment. Infarct size was 38 +/- 5.2 vs. 17 +/- 3.4 g/100 g left ventricle in the vehicle controls and nafazatrom group, respectively. Nafazatrom reduced infarct size by 46%. Besides other mechanisms, this was due to improved %-segment shortening and increased periinfarction collateral blood supply to jeopardized but viable myocardium. The drug may be of value in ischaemic heart disease as shown by the enhanced regional myocardial perfusion and improved contractility.

  17. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-02-08

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis.

  18. Papillary carcinoma of the pancreas: findings of US and CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.Y.; Lim, J.H.; Lee, J.D.

    1985-02-01

    Two cases of papillary carcinoma of the pancreas were evaluated by ultrasound and CT. The sonographic and CT findings were those of a well-defined oval mass with partial cystic change. There was radiologic-pathologic correlation.

  19. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas--evaluation with multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Horton, Karen H; Lillemoe, Keith D; Fishman, Elliot K

    2005-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas is a rare cystic pancreatic tumor. In this case report we provide the imaging perspective of the lesion including the role of multidetector CT (MDCT) and CT angiography and 3D imaging.

  20. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with quantitative perfusion analysis for objective characterization of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Mirko; Canestrini, Stefano; Crosara, Stefano; De Robertis, Riccardo; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-03-28

    The aim of this study was to determine whether contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) quantitative perfusion analysis allows an objective characterization of ductal adenocarcinoma (ADK) of the pancreas. Patients with pancreatic ADK underwent CEUS. All examinations were performed on an Acuson S2000 system (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) after the iv administration of 2.4 mL contrast agent (SonoVue(®), Bracco, Milan, Italy). All lesions were pathologically proved. An operator manually drew different regions of interest within the tumor and the adjacent parenchyma to allow the quantitative perfusion analysis. The mean values of peak of enhancement, time to peak and ascending curve were calculated and compared using the Student's t test. The quantitative perfusion analysis was possible in all lesions. The mean values of the peak of enhancement, time to peak and ascending curve were 17.19%, 7.97 s and 159.52% s within the tumor and 33.57%, 8.89 s and 355.29% s within the adjacent parenchyma. The peak of enhancement and the ascending curve values were significantly different within the tumor and the adjacent parenchyma. Thus, CEUS allows the quantitative perfusion analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  1. Endovascular Management of Acute Enteric Bleeding from Pancreas Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2007-04-15

    Arterioenteric fistula is a rare but serious complication of enteric drained pancreas transplant, which may lead to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. We present 3 patients with failed enteric drained pancreas transplants and massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to arterioenteric fistula. One patient was treated by embolization and the 2 others by stent graft placement. Bleeding was successfully controlled in all cases, at follow up of 5 days, 8 months, and 12 months, respectively. One patient died 24 days after embolization, of unknown causes.

  2. Automatic segmentation of abdominal vessels for improved pancreas localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Amal; Liu, Jiamin; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate automatic detection and segmentation of abdominal organs from CT images is important for quantitative and qualitative organ tissue analysis as well as computer-aided diagnosis. The large variability of organ locations, the spatial interaction between organs that appear similar in medical scans and orientation and size variations are among the major challenges making the task very difficult. The pancreas poses these challenges in addition to its flexibility which allows for the shape of the tissue to vastly change. Due to the close proximity of the pancreas to numerous surrounding organs within the abdominal cavity the organ shifts according to the conditions of the organs within the abdomen, as such the pancreas is constantly changing. Combining these challenges with typically found patient-to-patient variations and scanning conditions the pancreas becomes harder to localize. In this paper we focus on three abdominal vessels that almost always abut the pancreas tissue and as such useful landmarks to identify the relative location of the pancreas. The splenic and portal veins extend from the hila of the spleen and liver, respectively, travel through the abdominal cavity and join at a position close to the head of the pancreas known as the portal confluence. A third vein, the superior mesenteric vein, anastomoses with the other two veins at the portal confluence. An automatic segmentation framework for obtaining the splenic vein, portal confluence and superior mesenteric vein is proposed using 17 contrast enhanced computed-tomography datasets. The proposed method uses outputs from the multi-organ multi-atlas label fusion and Frangi vesselness filter to obtain automatic seed points for vessel tracking and generation of statistical models of the desired vessels. The approach shows ability to identify the vessels and improve localization of the pancreas within the abdomen.

  3. Anaplastic Carcinoma Possibly Arising from a Heterotopic Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yasushi; Mita, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hideaki; Akino, Kimishige; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Endo, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic carcinoma is a rare pancreatic cancer, and the malignant transformation of a heterotopic pancreas is also rare. We herein report a case of an elderly woman with a mass of unknown origin in the abdominal cavity. Computed tomography identified the extent of the tumor but not the organ of origin. The abdominal tumor eventually metastasized to the liver and lung. An autopsy and immunohistochemical examination revealed an anaplastic carcinoma possibly originating in an ectopic pancreas.

  4. Technetium myocardial perfusion agents: an introduction

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.J.; Kozlowski, J.; Tumeh, S.S.; Holman, B.L.

    1987-09-01

    This is the third in a series of four Continuing Education articles on developing radiopharmaceuticals. After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1) understand the basic concepts of myocardial perfusion imaging; and 2) discuss the advantages of the technetium myocardial perfusion complexes over thallium-201.

  5. Luxury perfusion following anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Friedland, S; Winterkorn, J M; Burde, R M

    1996-09-01

    We present five patients who developed luxury perfusion following anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in whom fluorescein angiography was misinterpreted as "capillary hemangioma" or neovascularization of the disc. In each case, the segment of disc hyperemia corresponded to a spared region of visual field. Luxury perfusion represents a reparative autoregulatory reaction to ischemia.

  6. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  7. Myocardial perfusion with rubidium-82. III. Theory relating severity of coronary stenosis to perfusion deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Mullani, N.A.

    1984-11-01

    The relation between the quantitative perfusion deficit, as measured by emission computerized tomography, and the severity of coronary artery stenosis is important for the noninvasive clinical evaluation of coronary artery disease in man. Positron emission tomography allows direct noninvasive measurement of myocardial perfusion and quantification of the size of the perfusion defect. Given this important imformation, a mathematical model has been derived to gauge the severity of a coronary stenosis from quantitative perfusion measurements in the normal and poststenotic regions of the heart. The theoretical basis is presented for relating regional myocardial perfusion and regional perfusion resistance to total, coronary blood flow and resistance at normal resting flow and during maximal coronary vasodilation. The concept of perfusion reserve is presented as a clinical measure of the severity of a stenosis.

  8. Noise characteristics of CT perfusion imaging: how does noise propagate from source images to final perfusion maps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral CT perfusion (CTP) imaging is playing an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic strokes. Meanwhile, the reliability of CTP-based ischemic lesion detection has been challenged due to the noisy appearance and low signal-to-noise ratio of CTP maps. To reduce noise and improve image quality, a rigorous study on the noise transfer properties of CTP systems is highly desirable to provide the needed scientific guidance. This paper concerns how noise in the CTP source images propagates to the final CTP maps. Both theoretical deviations and subsequent validation experiments demonstrated that, the noise level of background frames plays a dominant role in the noise of the cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps. This is in direct contradiction with the general belief that noise of non-background image frames is of greater importance in CTP imaging. The study found that when radiation doses delivered to the background frames and to all non-background frames are equal, lowest noise variance is achieved in the final CBV maps. This novel equality condition provides a practical means to optimize radiation dose delivery in CTP data acquisition: radiation exposures should be modulated between background frames and non-background frames so that the above equality condition is satisïnAed. For several typical CTP acquisition protocols, numerical simulations and in vivo canine experiment demonstrated that noise of CBV can be effectively reduced using the proposed exposure modulation method.

  9. Has the gap between pancreas and islet transplantation closed?

    PubMed

    Niclauss, Nadja; Morel, Philippe; Berney, Thierry

    2014-09-27

    Both pancreas and islet transplantations are therapeutic options for complicated type 1 diabetes. Until recent years, outcomes of islet transplantation have been significantly inferior to those of whole pancreas. Islet transplantation is primarily performed alone in patients with severe hypoglycemia, and recent registry reports have suggested that results of islet transplantation alone in this indication may be about to match those of pancreas transplant alone in insulin independence. Figures of 50% insulin independence at 5 years for either procedure have been cited. In this article, we address the question whether islet transplantation has indeed bridged the gap with whole pancreas. Looking at the evidence to answer this question, we propose that although pancreas may still be more efficient in taking recipients off insulin than islets, there are in fact numerous "gaps" separating both procedures that must be taken into the equation. These "gaps" relate to organ utilization, organ allocation, indication for transplantation, and morbidity. In-depth analysis reveals that islet transplantation, in fact, has an edge on whole pancreas in some of these aspects. Accordingly, attempts should be made to bridge these gaps from both sides to achieve the same level of success with either procedure. More realistically, it is likely that some of these gaps will remain and that both procedures will coexist and complement each other, to ensure that β cell replacement can be successfully implemented in the greatest possible number of patients with type 1 diabetes.

  10. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: preoperative diagnosis and molecular alterations.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yujiro; Kanehiro, Tetsuya; Uemura, Kenichiro; Sasaki, Masaru; Morifuji, Masahiko; Sueda, Taijiro

    2003-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor which has a less favorable prognosis than common ductal cell carcinoma of the pancreas, and a definite preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is quite difficult. We herein report two cases of this rare variant. The patients were a 41-year-old man (patient 1) and a 67-year-old woman (patient 2). Patient 1 had a hypoechoic mass measuring 3 cm in the uncus of the pancreas, while patient 2 had a huge mass, measuring 8 cm, in the tail of the pancreas. Patient 2 was successfully diagnosed preoperatively as having an adenosquamous carcinoma, by cytological examination of the pure pancreatic juice obtained by endoscopic retrograde pancreatic juice aspiration. A pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed for patient 1, and a distal pancreatectomy with resection of the spleen and the left kidney was performed for patient 2. Subsequent pathological findings of these two tumors revealed adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas. K- ras point mutation, p53 overexpression, and telomerase activity in both tumor specimens were detected by the mutant allele specific amplification method, immunohistochemical staining, and telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, respectively. The two patients died of recurrent disease 5 and 4 months, respectively, after surgery. Cytological examination of pure pancreatic juice is a useful modality for the preoperative diagnosis of this tumor, and frequent molecular alterations may be associated with the poor prognosis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas.

  11. [Compromized myocardial perfusion in arrhythmias (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simon, H; Neumann, G; Felix, R; Hedde, H; Schaede, A; Thurn, P; Winkler, C

    1977-09-15

    In 7 patients with arrhythmias of various origin the myocardial scintigram displayed either a diffuse or circumscript defect of the perfusion. The coronary arteriogram was normal in all patients. The localized defect of the perfusion in 2 patients was in the region of the upper part of the interventricular septum. Both had a left bundle brunch block. A correlation between the perfusion defect and the electrophysiological abnormality seems probable. The perfusion defect in one of the patients is most probably caused by a previous myocarditis followed by fibrous changes. In the other 6 patients the cause for the perfusion defect is not obvious. A history of myocarditis is missing. The presence of "small vessel disease" in those patients has however to be considered. Our results point to the relation between an abnormality of the microcirculation and arrhythmias in younger patients.

  12. Canine size, shape, and bending strength in primates and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ruff, Christopher B

    2008-05-01

    Anthropoid primates are well known for their highly sexually dimorphic canine teeth, with males possessing canines that are up to 400% taller than those of females. Primate canine dimorphism has been extensively documented, with a consensus that large male primate canines serve as weapons for intrasexual competition, and some evidence that large female canines in some species may likewise function as weapons. However, apart from speculation that very tall male canines may be relatively weak and that seed predators have strong canines, the functional significance of primate canine shape has not been explored. Because carnivore canine shape and size are associated with killing style, this group provides a useful comparative baseline for primates. We evaluate primate maxillary canine tooth size, shape and relative bending strength against body size, skull size, and behavioral and demographic measures of male competition and sexual selection, and compare them to those of carnivores. We demonstrate that, relative to skull length and body mass, primate male canines are on average as large as or larger than those of similar sized carnivores. The range of primate female canine sizes embraces that of carnivores. Male and female primate canines are generally as strong as or stronger than those of carnivores. Although we find that seed-eating primates have relatively strong canines, we find no clear relationship between male primate canine strength and demographic or behavioral estimates of male competition or sexual selection, in spite of a strong relationship between these measures and canine crown height. This suggests either that most primate canines are selected to be very strong regardless of variation in behavior, or that primate canine shape is inherently strong enough to accommodate changes in crown height without compromising canine function.

  13. Evidence for canine rehabilitation and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Millis, Darryl L; Ciuperca, Ionut Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews some important studies regarding canine physical rehabilitation. Bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, and tendons undergo atrophy if loading is decreased. Knowledge of the changes that occur with immobilization and the time course of events helps in the development of a rehabilitation program to improve tissue integrity. Outcome assessment instruments are clinically useful indicators of patient progress and the success of rehabilitation programs. A number of physical modalities are used in canine rehabilitation, although there are relatively few canine-specific studies. Rehabilitation has specific benefits in the treatment of various orthopedic and neurologic conditions.

  14. Magnetic resonance image-guided photodynamic therapy of xenograft pancreas tumors with verteporfin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Rizvi, Imran; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer generally has very poor prognosis, with less than 4% survival at 5 years after diagnosis. This dismal survival rate is in part due to the aggressive nature of the adenocarcinoma, leading to a late-stage at diagnosis and exhibits resistance to most therapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a model cellular and vascular therapy agent, which uses light activation of the delivered drug to photosensitize the local cellular millieu. We suggest that interstitial verteporfin (benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A) PDT has the potential to be an adjuvant therapy to the commonly used Gemcitabine chemotherapy. In the current study, an orthotopic pancreatic cancer model (Panc-1) has undergone interstitial verteporfin PDT (40 J/cm with verteporfin and 40 J/cm without verteporfin). Prior to PDT, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to determine the location and size of the tumor within the pancreas, allowing accurate placement of the diffusing fiber. The success of therapy was monitored in vivo by assessing the total tumor and vascular perfusion volumes 24 hours pre- and 48 hours post-PDT. Total tumor and vascular perfusion volumes were determined using T2 weighted (T2W) and Gd-DTPA difference T1 weighted (T1W) turbo spin echo (TSE) MR imaging sequences, respectively. The validity of the in vivo imaging for therapeutic response was confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence and histological staining of frozen tissue sections. The ex vivo DiOC7(3) fluorescence analysis correlates well with the information provided from the MR images, indicating that MR imaging will be a successful surrogate marker for interstitial PDT.

  15. [Pancreas and biliary tract: recent developments].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease that is associated with significant morbidity and considerable mortality. In this article, developments relating to this disease that were presented in DDW 2014 are reviewed. Pancreatic steatosis could be a cause of recurrent AP. Patients with DM have an increased incidence of AP and pancreatic cancer. The use of anti-TNF drugs in inflammatory bowel disease may protect against the occurrence of AP. The presence of pancreas divisum protects against acute biliary pancreatitis. The PANCODE system for describing local complications of AP has good interobserver agreement, when the new definitions of the revised Atlanta classification are applied. The use of prophylactic antibiotics in early-stage AP predisposes the development of intra-abdominal fungal infections. Fluid sequestration in AP is linked with young age, alcoholism and indicators of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The most common cause of mortality in AP is early onset of multiple organ failure, not pancreatic necrosis infection. Patients with AP and vitamin D deficiency could benefit from taking vitamin D supplements. Moderate fluid administration in emergencies (500-1000 mL) could be associated with better AP development.

  16. High precision innovative micropump for artificial pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappel, E.; Mefti, S.; Lettieri, G.-L.; Proennecke, S.; Conan, C.

    2014-03-01

    The concept of artificial pancreas, which comprises an insulin pump, a continuous glucose meter and a control algorithm, is a major step forward in managing patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The stability of the control algorithm is based on short-term precision micropump to deliver rapid-acting insulin and to specific integrated sensors able to monitor any failure leading to a loss of accuracy. Debiotech's MEMS micropump, based on the membrane pump principle, is made of a stack of 3 silicon wafers. The pumping chamber comprises a pillar check-valve at the inlet, a pumping membrane which is actuated against stop limiters by a piezo cantilever, an anti-free-flow outlet valve and a pressure sensor. The micropump inlet is tightly connected to the insulin reservoir while the outlet is in direct communication with the patient skin via a cannula. To meet the requirement of a pump dedicated to closed-loop application for diabetes care, in addition to the well-controlled displacement of the pumping membrane, the high precision of the micropump is based on specific actuation profiles that balance effect of pump elasticity in low-consumption push-pull mode.

  17. Epidemiology of pancreas cancer in Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, T.M.; Paganini-Hill, A.

    1981-03-15

    The characteristics of the 3614 Los Angeles County residents in whom cancer of the exocrine pancreas was diagnosed during the period 1972-1977 were compared with those of all county residents and patients in whom any cancer was diagnosed during the same period. Seventy-nine percent of the diagnoses had been pathologically verified. This disease still preferentially afflicts the old, the black, and men, although the differences in risk with factors other than age are modest. The disease is not evenly distributed by social class, or over time, although it is not clear that the observed differences reflect etiology. The distributions with respect to important categories of occupation and industry, religion, marital status, geography of residence, and birthplace were rather uniform. Although there is no obvious explanation for any of several unexpected minor inequities in the pattern of incidence, there is no compelling evidence to support any specific environmental cause. There is substantial evidence which is inconsistent with those environmental hypotheses that have been proposed previously.

  18. Regeneration of the Pancreas in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer B.; Koustubhan, Punita; Greenman, Melanie; Parsons, Michael J.; Walter, Ingrid; Moss, Larry G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Regenerating organs in diverse biological systems have provided clues to processes that can be harnessed to repair damaged tissue. Adult mammalian β-cells have a limited capacity to regenerate, resulting in diabetes and lifelong reliance on insulin. Zebrafish have been used as a model for the regeneration of many organs. We demonstrate the regeneration of adult zebrafish pancreatic β-cells. This nonmammalian model can be used to define pathways for islet-cell regeneration in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adult transgenic zebrafish were injected with a single high dose of streptozotocin or metronidazole and anesthetized at 3, 7, or 14 days or pancreatectomized. Blood glucose measurements were determined and gut sections were analyzed using specific endocrine, exocrine, and duct cell markers as well as markers for dividing cells. RESULTS Zebrafish recovered rapidly without the need for insulin injections, and normoglycemia was attained within 2 weeks. Although few proliferating cells were present in vehicles, ablation caused islet destruction and a striking increase of proliferating cells, some of which were Pdx1 positive. Dividing cells were primarily associated with affected islets and ducts but, with the exception of surgical partial pancreatectomy, were not extensively β-cells. CONCLUSIONS The ability of the zebrafish to regenerate a functional pancreas using chemical, genetic, and surgical approaches enabled us to identify patterns of cell proliferation in islets and ducts. Further study of the origin and contribution of proliferating cells in reestablishing islet function could provide strategies for treating human diseases. PMID:19491207

  19. Successful Combined Pancreas Fourth-Kidney Third and Pancreas Third-Kidney Second Transplantation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bösmüller, Claudia; Maglione, Manuel; Margreiter, Christian; Dziodzio, Tomasz; Biebl, Matthias; Pratschke, Johann; Öllinger, Robert; Öfner, Dietmar; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely few reports have been published on experience with multiple combined pancreas-kidney re-transplantation including long-term results. We here analyze our experience with two patients following successful combined pancreas fourth-kidney third and pancreas third-kidney second transplantation. Methods Patient and graft survival as well as graft function and major complications were recorded. Patient 1 (women, 47 years) underwent combined pancreas fourth-kidney third transplantation after previous removal of the first and second renal and the second pancreatic grafts. Patient 2 (men, 51 years) underwent combined pancreas third-kidney second transplantation after nephrectomy of the first renal graft. Immunosuppression consisted of induction with alemtuzumab and maintenance with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid and steroids. Results After a follow-up of 44 and 49 months, respectively, both patients are doing well with stable graft function. Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, bacterial sepsis, and chronic hepatitis C as major complications were controllable. Conclusions Multiple pancreas-retransplantations combined with simultaneous renal transplantation are feasible. Meticulous immunosuppression, careful monitoring, and excellent patient adherence are of crucial importance. PMID:27500224

  20. Estimating canine tooth crown height in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V; Paulus, Faydre L

    2009-07-01

    Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism in this species may have been greater than in other hominins. We evaluate canine root and crown dimensions in a series of extant hominoids, and estimate canine crown height in Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate estimates of canine crown height from basal canine crown and root dimensions with a moderate degree of accuracy. Estimates of maxillary canine crown size for A. anamensis are slightly larger than those of A. afarensis, and are approximately the same size as canines of modern female chimpanzees. Estimated mandibular canine crown height is very similar in the two species. Variation within the A. anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis.

  1. Effect of Dirofilaria immitis on canine cardiopulmonary physiology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of canine heartworm disease (CHD) were studied using in vitro and in vivo preparation to gain insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the characteristics lesions. The in vitro studies examined the contractile responses of pulmonary artery strips, bronchial spirals and lung parenchymal strips from normal and CHD dogs. Carbamylcholine failed to contract arteries and bronchial and parenchymal responses were the same for both groups. Decreased arterial responsiveness to histamine in both magnitude and number of strips responding was seen in the CHD group, suggesting tachyphylaxis of the histamine receptors. Enhanced responses were seen i the CHD pulmonary artery strips with norepinephrine and in the lung parenchymal strips with histamine. Hypoxia caused increased pulmonary perfusion pressures in the anesthetized dogs. Only heart rate changes and percent change in cardiac index differed. Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors of the lung parenchyma were studied by radioligand binding using (H{sup 3}) prazosin. Low amount of specific binding necessitated the use of a single high concentration of ligand to determine receptor density. No differences in binding were seen.

  2. Fiber optical measurements of electrical activity in canine ventricular preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Amgad; Luther, Gisa E.; Enyeart, Michael; Gilmour, Robert F.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Luther, Stefan

    2006-03-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a cardiac arrhythmia that kills over 300,000 people every year in the US alone, yet efforts at finding a cure have been stymied by our incomplete information about patterns of electrical activity in the whole heart. As an excitable medium, the heart is a pattern forming system; but only a very limited subset of patterns is compatible with life. In particular, spiral waves have been associated with both tachycardia and VF, but their origin and spatial and temporal dynamics is not fully understood. We propose a novel measurement technique that combines optical mapping of the epicardial surface with data from intramural fiber optical probe arrays. The data obtained from the fiber optical probes is sparse in space but dense in time. The data processing is based on sequential data assimilation using an ensemble Kalman filter. The ensemble Kalman filter provides a numerically efficient (sub-) optimum state space estimate based on the available spatial and temporal observations. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated with numerical data and arterially perfused canine heart preparations.

  3. Canine distemper virus infection of canine footpad epidermis.

    PubMed

    Gröne, Andrea; Doherr, Marcus G; Zurbriggen, Andreas

    2004-06-01

    Infection of the footpad epidermis can occur in natural canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of dogs. Footpads from 19 dogs experimentally inoculated with virulent distemper strain A75/17 and from two nonexposed dogs were examined histopathologically and assessed for the presence of viral antigen and nucleoprotein mRNA, as well as number of inflammatory and apoptotic cells. Dogs were divided into four groups based on inoculation status and postmortem examination: inoculated dogs with severe distemper (group 1, n = 7); inoculated dogs with mild distemper (group 2, n = 4); inoculated dogs without distemper (group 3, n = 8); and noninoculated dogs (group 4, n = 2). Footpads from dogs of all groups had a comparably thick epidermis. Eosinophilic viral inclusions and syncytial cells were present in footpad epidermis of one dog of group 1. Footpads of group 1 dogs contained viral antigen and mRNA in the epidermis with strongest staining in a subcorneal location. Additionally, in these dogs footpad dermal structures including eccrine glands and vascular walls were positive for virus particles. No CDV antigen or mRNA was present in the footpad epidermis and dermis of any other dog. Group 1 dogs had more CD3-positive cells and apoptotic cells within the basal layer of the epidermis when compared to the other groups. These findings demonstrate that in experimental infection CDV antigen and mRNA were colocalized in all layers of the infected canine footpad epidermis. The scarcity of overt pathological reactions with absence of keratinocyte degeneration indicates a noncytocidal persisting infection of footpad keratinocytes by CDV.

  4. The Mouse Isolated Perfused Kidney Technique.

    PubMed

    Czogalla, Jan; Schweda, Frank; Loffing, Johannes

    2016-11-17

    The mouse isolated perfused kidney (MIPK) is a technique for keeping a mouse kidney under ex vivo conditions perfused and functional for 1 hr. This is a prerequisite for studying the physiology of the isolated organ and for many innovative applications that may be possible in the future, including perfusion decellularization for kidney bioengineering or the administration of anti-rejection or genome-editing drugs in high doses to prime the kidney for transplantation. During the time of the perfusion, the kidney can be manipulated, renal function can be assessed, and various pharmaceuticals administered. After the procedure, the kidney can be transplanted or processed for molecular biology, biochemical analysis, or microscopy. This paper describes the perfusate and the surgical technique needed for the ex vivo perfusion of mouse kidneys. Details of the perfusion apparatus are given and data are presented showing the viability of the kidney's preparation: renal blood flow, vascular resistance, and urine data as functional, transmission electron micrographs of different nephron segments as morphological readouts, and western blots of transport proteins of different nephron segments as molecular readout.

  5. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to <10 °C after 30 min. Using an intravascular flush (Method B) improved cooling during the entire duration of procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and

  6. Pancreas Transplantation—Registry Report and a Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, David E. R.; Kendall, David M.

    1985-01-01

    From December 1966 through December 1984, there were 561 pancreas transplants reported to the American College of Surgeons/National Institutes of Health Organ Transplant Registry, including 60 from 1966 through June 1977, 206 from July 1977 through December 1982 and 295 from January 1983 through December 1984. One-year graft function-survival rates (insulin-independent) in each of the three periods were 3%, 20% and 40%, and the corresponding patient survival rates were 40%, 72% and 77%. Currently 140 patients have functioning grafts, 76 for more than one year. Of the transplants since July 1977, one-year graft survival rates according to technique are 41% for enteric drainage (N = 155), 30% for polymer injection (N = 260) and 29% for urinary drainage (N = 47). Pancreas graft survival rates at one year according to whether or not the recipients have had a kidney transplant were 35% for recipients of simultaneous grafts (N = 281), 28% in recipients of a pancreas after a kidney (N = 112) and 26% in recipients of a pancreas only who did not have uremia (N = 106); corresponding patient survival rates were 69%, 83% and 83%. Overall, one-year pancreas graft survival rates according to whether the patients did or did not have end-stage diabetic nephropathy were 33% versus 25% and the corresponding patient survival rates were 73% versus 84% (P < .01). Patient survival rates were significantly higher in those without than in those with end-stage diabetic nephropathy. An analysis of technically successful grafts according to principal immunosuppressant showed one-year function rates of 46% in 258 cyclosporine-treated recipients and 26% in 143 azathioprine-treated recipients. Pancreas graft survival rates have progressively improved and the procedure has become safer with advances in surgical technique and immunosuppression. Pancreas transplantation is currently applicable to patients with diabetes mellitus whose complications are, or predictably will be, more serious than the

  7. Intrapancreatic Splenule in a Pancreas Allograft: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yadav, K; Serrano, O K; Kandaswamy, R

    2016-11-01

    A 16-year-old white man was involved in a motor vehicle collision and suffered head, chest, and abdominal trauma. Despite initial resuscitative efforts, he progressed to brain death and was designated to be an organ donor by his family. He had no earlier medical or surgical history and no high-risk behaviors. Blood work revealed normal creatinine, liver function tests, lipase, and amylase. Viral serologies were negative except for cytomegalovirus IgG and Epstein-Barr virus nucleic acid. Imaging revealed a right kidney contusion, a manubrial fracture, and fractures of right first rib and bilateral scapulae. No other abdominal trauma was identified, specifically to the pancreas, duodenum, or spleen. Our transplant center accepted the pancreas from this donor. During back-table inspection of the pancreas, a 1.5 × 1.5 cm dark purple rubbery mass was identified within the parenchyma of the pancreas in the tail. An incisional biopsy of the lesion was sent for frozen section, which yielded a mixed inflammatory infiltrate consisting of neutrophils and lymphocytes and an overlying fibrous capsule. The diagnosis of lymphoma or another neoplasm could not be definitely ruled out. Owing to uncertainty in diagnosis, the entire lesion was excised along with the distal pancreas with the use of a linear stapler. The staple line was oversewn with running 4-0 polypropylene suture, and the pancreas was transplanted. After surgery, the pancreas allograft functioned well with a small pancreatic leak, which had resolved by the first postoperative outpatient visit.

  8. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-01-01

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported

  9. [Fractures of the canines require attention].

    PubMed

    van Foreest, Andries

    2005-01-15

    Hardly any attention was paid to a barely visible fracture of a canine tooth (104) in an 18-month-old dog. When the dog was 6-years old, a fistulous opening was seen on the bridge of the nose. A year later, radiography revealed a periapical process. The investigations performed and treatment given are described, as is the correct way to handle fractures of the canines.

  10. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  11. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing.

  12. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  13. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-02-13

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings.

  14. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  15. Canine viral enteritis. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L

    1979-05-01

    Two apparently novel viral gastroenteritides of dogs were recognized in 1978: one caused by a parvo-like virus (CPV) and one by a corona-like virus (CCV). A rotavirus has also been tentatively associated with neonatal pup enteritis. Canine viral enteritis is characterized by a sudden onset of vomiting and diarrhea, rapid spread and high morbidity. Treatment is only supportive but must be initiated promptly. Infected animals should be isolated immediately; the extremely contagious nature of these diseases makes them difficult to contain. Feces from infected dogs appear to be the primary means of transmission. Sodium hypochlorite solutions (eg, Clorox) are recommended for disinfection. The development of effective vaccines is an immediate and pressing problem.

  16. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  17. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  18. Genetic and Biochemical Biomarkers in Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Graham, K L; McCowan, C; White, A

    2017-03-01

    In many health-related fields, there is great interest in the identification of biomarkers that distinguish diseased from healthy individuals. In addition to identifying the diseased state, biomarkers have potential use in predicting disease risk, monitoring disease progression, evaluating treatment efficacy, and informing pathogenesis. This review details the genetic and biochemical markers associated with canine primary glaucoma. While there are numerous molecular markers (biochemical and genetic) associated with glaucoma in dogs, there is no ideal biomarker that allows early diagnosis and/or identification of disease progression. Genetic mutations associated with canine glaucoma include those affecting ADAMTS10, ADAMTS17, Myocilin, Nebulin, COL1A2, RAB22A, and SRBD1. With the exception of Myocilin, there is very limited crossover in genetic biomarkers identified between human and canine glaucomas. Mutations associated with canine glaucoma vary between and within canine breeds, and gene discoveries therefore have limited overall effects as a screening tool in the general canine population. Biochemical markers of glaucoma include indicators of inflammation, oxidative stress, serum autoantibodies, matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β. These markers include those that indicate an adaptive or protective response, as well as those that reflect the damage arising from oxidative stress.

  19. Prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationship.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, Faraj; Roy, Rino; Al-Jame, Badreia

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of occlusal asymmetries in the molar and canine regions in a large population-based sample of adolescent Kuwaitis. Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 1299 Kuwaiti adolescents (674 boys mean age 13.3 years and 625 girls mean age 13.2 years), representing approximately 6.7 per cent of that age stratum in the population, were examined clinically for sagittal molar and canine relationships, with a view to recording half and full-step asymmetries. In this sample, 1244 subjects were examined clinically, while for the remaining 55, pre-treatment study models were assessed. All subjects were in the early permanent dentition stage. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to determine the proportion of different molar and canine asymmetries. Antero-posterior asymmetries were found to be a distinctive and common feature of the dental arches, with half-step outweighing full-step asymmetries both in the anterior and posterior regions. The total prevalence of an asymmetric molar or canine relationship was 29.7 and 41.4 per cent, respectively, with more than 95 per cent falling in the mild category. Patient gender did not influence the prevalence or magnitude of asymmetry. The results showed a clinically significant prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationships, which were mainly in the category of half-step asymmetry. Class II half and full-step asymmetries were more prevalent than Class III asymmetries in the molar and canine regions.

  20. Ventilation-perfusion imaging in pulmonary papillomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Espinola, D.; Rupani, H.; Camargo, E.E.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Three children with laryngeal papillomas involving the lungs had serial ventilation-perfusion scintigrams to assess results of therapy designed to reduce the bronchial involvement. Different imaging patterns were observed depending on size, number, and location of lesions. In early parenchymal involvement a ventilation-perfusion mismatch was seen. The initial and follow-up studies correlated well with clinical and radiographic findings. This noninvasive procedure is helpful in evaluating ventilatory and perfusion impairment in these patients as well as their response to treatment.

  1. Cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2016-07-01

    The flow of viscous fluid in the cochlea induces shear forces, which could provide benefit in clinical practice, for example to guide cochlear implant insertion or produce static pressure to the cochlear partition or wall. From a research standpoint, studying the effects of a viscous fluid in the cochlea provides data for better understanding cochlear fluid mechanics. However, cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid may damage the cochlea. In this work we studied the physiological and anatomical effects of perfusing the cochlea with a viscous fluid. Gerbil cochleae were perfused at a rate of 2.4 μL/min with artificial perilymph (AP) and sodium hyaluronate (Healon, HA) in four different concentrations (0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%). The different HA concentrations were applied either sequentially in the same cochlea or individually in different cochleae. The perfusion fluid entered from the round window and was withdrawn from basal scala vestibuli, in order to perfuse the entire perilymphatic space. Compound action potentials (CAP) were measured after each perfusion. After perfusion with increasing concentrations of HA in the order of increasing viscosity, the CAP thresholds generally increased. The threshold elevation after AP and 0.0625% HA perfusion was small or almost zero, and the 0.125% HA was a borderline case, while the higher concentrations significantly elevated CAP thresholds. Histology of the cochleae perfused with the 0.0625% HA showed an intact Reissner's membrane (RM), while in cochleae perfused with 0.125% and 0.25% HA RM was torn. Thus, the CAP threshold elevation was likely due to the broken RM, likely caused by the shear stress produced by the flow of the viscous fluid. Our results and analysis indicate that the cochlea can sustain, without a significant CAP threshold shift, up to a 1.5 Pa shear stress. Beside these finding, in the 0.125% and 0.25% HA perfusion cases, a temporary CAP threshold shift was observed, perhaps due to the presence and

  2. Pancreatic Ductal Perfusion at Organ Procurement Enhances Islet Yield in Human Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanak, Mazhar A.; Shahbazov, Rauf; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Lawrence, Michael C.; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pancreas preservation is a major factor influencing the results of islet cell transplantation. This study evaluated the effects of two different solutions for pancreatic ductal perfusion (PDP) at organ procurement. Methods Eighteen human pancreases were assigned to three groups: non-PDP (control), PDP with ET-Kyoto solution, and PDP with cold storage/purification stock solution. Pancreatic islets were isolated according to the modified Ricordi method. Results No significant differences in donor characteristics, including cold ischemia time, were observed between the three groups. All islet isolations in the PDP groups had >400,000 IEQ in total islet yield post-purification, a significant increase when compared with the control (P = 0.04 and <0.01). The islet quality assessments—including an in vivo diabetic nude mice assay and the response of high-mobility group box protein 1 to cytokine stimulation—also showed no significant differences. The proportion of TUNEL-positive cells showing apoptosis in islets in the PDP groups was significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Both ET-Kyoto solution and cold storage/purification stock solution are suitable for PDP and consistently resulted in isolation success. Further studies with a larger number of pancreas donors should be done to compare the effects of the PDP solutions. PMID:25058879

  3. Correlated response, competition, and female canine size in primates.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J M

    1998-12-01

    Recently, comparative analyses of female canine tooth size in primates have yielded two hypotheses to explain interspecific variation in female relative canine size. Greenfield ([1992] Int. J. Primatol. 13:631-657; [1992] Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 35:153-184; [1996] J. Hum. Evol. 31:1-19) suggested that covariation in male and female canine size across species indicates that female canine size reflects correlated response (in which the expression of a trait in one sex causes the expression of the same trait in the other sex). Plavcan et al. ([1995] J. Hum. Evol. 28:245-276) noted that female canine size in primates is associated with variation in categorical estimates of the intensity of female-female agonistic competition, suggesting that selection favors large female canine size in many species. While it may seem that the two models are in conflict, they are not. To simultaneously evaluate these two models, this analysis examines the joint relations between male canine size, female canine size, and estimates of female-female competition in a sample of 108 primate species. Overall, female canine size is correlated with variation in male canine size. Controlling for variation in male canine size, female canine size is also correlated with estimates of the intensity of female-female agonistic competition. The relation between these variables differs strongly between anthropoid and strepsirhine primates. In anthropoids, the data suggest that selection for the development of large canines in females is not constrained by any affect of correlated response. In strepsirhines, the evidence suggests that sexual selection may affect male canine size but that correlated response affects female canine size, resulting in monomorphism for most species. These observations help reconcile the observations of Greenfield ([1992] Int. J. Primatol. 13:631-657; [1996] J. Hum. Evol. 31:1-19) and Plavcan et al. ([1995] J. Hum. Evol. 28:245-276) and provide a more precise model for

  4. Factors affecting self-eruption of displaced permanent maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    Smailienė, Dalia; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Lopatienė, Kristina; Guzevičienė, Vesta; Juodžbalys, Gintaras

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of the spontaneous eruption of displaced unerupted maxillary canines after the extraction of the deciduous canine and dental arch expansion and to determine the impact of initial canine position on treatment success rate. Materials and METHODS. The study sample included 50 patients (mean age, 13.5 years [SD, 2.2]) with unilaterally displaced unerupted maxillary canines. Deciduous canines were extracted, and the space for displaced canine was created at the beginning of the study. The follow-up period for the spontaneous eruption was 12 months. The initial vertical, horizontal, labio-palatal position and angle of inclination to the midline of the displaced canine were assessed on panoramic radiographs. RESULTS. Only 42% of displaced canines erupted spontaneously within one-year period (52.9% of labially displaced canines and 36.4% of palatally displaced canines). A significant difference of inclination was determined between spontaneously erupted and unerupted teeth in the labially displaced canine group (P<0.01), with no difference in the palatally displaced canine group. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the critical angle of inclination for the spontaneous eruption of the retained canine was 20º (sensitivity 0.759; specificity 0.571; P<0.05). The majority of unerupted canines (75.9%) were inclined more than 20º. The initial height of canine was crucial for spontaneous eruption (sensitivity 0.966; specificity 0.81; P<0.001). This was true for both palatal and labial cases. CONCLUSIONS. The initial vertical position of the labially and palatally displaced canines and the inclination of the labially displaced canines were the most important predictors for spontaneous eruption of the cuspid.

  5. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-02-27

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection.

  6. Portal annular pancreas: a systematic review of a clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Harnoss, Jonathan M; Harnoss, Julian C; Diener, Markus K; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B; Büchler, Markus W; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H

    2014-10-01

    Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF).On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered.In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery).Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option.

  7. Elastography for the pancreas: Current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Natsuko; Tanaka, Sachiko

    2016-04-14

    Elastography for the pancreas can be performed by either ultrasound or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). There are two types of pancreatic elastographies based on different principles, which are strain elastography and shear wave elastography. The stiffness of tissue is estimated by measuring the grade of strain generated by external pressure in the former, whereas it is estimated by measuring propagation speed of shear wave, the transverse wave, generated by acoustic radiation impulse (ARFI) in the latter. Strain elastography is difficult to perform when the probe, the pancreas and the aorta are not located in line. Accordingly, a fine elastogram can be easily obtained in the pancreatic body but not in the pancreatic head and tail. In contrast, shear wave elastography can be easily performed in the entire pancreas because ARFI can be emitted to wherever desired. However, shear wave elastography cannot be performed by EUS to date. Recently, clinical guidelines for elastography specialized in the pancreas were published from Japanese Society of Medical Ultrasonics. The guidelines show us technical knacks of performing elastography for the pancreas.

  8. Ectopic Pancreas Imitating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) In The Stomach.

    PubMed

    Zińczuk, Justyna; Bandurski, Roman; Pryczynicz, Anna; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia; Kemona, Andrzej; Kędra, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital disorder defined as pancreatic tissue lacking vascular or anatomic communication with the normal body of the pancreas. Most cases of ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic, but it may become clinically evident depending on the size, location and the pathological changes similar to those observed in case of the normal pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be located at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common locations are: the stomach, duodenum or the proximal part of small intestine. The risk of malignancy, bleeding and occlusion are the most serious complications. Despite the development in diagnostics, it still remains a challenge for the clinician to differentiate it from neoplasm. In this report, we described a case of 28-years old woman who presented recurrent epigastric pain. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastrointestinal stromal tumor on the border of the body and antrum of the back wall of great curvature of the stomach. The histopathological examination after surgery showed heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Ectopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric mass lesions.

  9. MRI-based quantification of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a canine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiahui; Fan, Zheng; Kornegay, Joe N.; Styner, Martin A.

    2011-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive and fatal X-linked disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown potential to provide non-invasive and objective biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic effect in DMD. In this paper, we propose a semi-automated scheme to quantify MRI features of golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD), a canine model of DMD. Our method was applied to a natural history data set and a hydrodynamic limb perfusion data set. The scheme is composed of three modules: pre-processing, muscle segmentation, and feature analysis. The pre-processing module includes: calculation of T2 maps, spatial registration of T2 weighted (T2WI) images, T2 weighted fat suppressed (T2FS) images, and T2 maps, and intensity calibration of T2WI and T2FS images. We then manually segment six pelvic limb muscles. For each of the segmented muscles, we finally automatically measure volume and intensity statistics of the T2FS images and T2 maps. For the natural history study, our results showed that four of six muscles in affected dogs had smaller volumes and all had higher mean intensities in T2 maps as compared to normal dogs. For the perfusion study, the muscle volumes and mean intensities in T2FS were increased in the post-perfusion MRI scans as compared to pre-perfusion MRI scans, as predicted. We conclude that our scheme successfully performs quantitative analysis of muscle MRI features of GRMD.

  10. Canine treatment with SnET2 for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Donita L.; Milligan, Andrew J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Morgan, Alan R.; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1990-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a treatment technique that utilizes the photoactived species of a drug to destroy tumor tissue. To be successful, the drug must localize in tumor tissue preferentially over normal tissue and must be activated by light of a specific wavelength. Currently the only drug to be approved for clinical use is Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) although a series of new drugs are being developed for use in the near future. One of the drugs belongs to a class called purpurins which display absorp-' tions between 630-711 nm. Along with several other investigators, we are currently exploring the characteristics of a specific purpurin (SnET2) in normal and tumorous canine tissue. The use of this compound has demonstrated increased tumor control rates in spontaneous dog tumors. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have been performed on 6 normal beagle dogs. SnET2 (2 mg/kg) was injected intravenously over 10 minutes and blood was collected at 5, 15, 30, 45 minutes and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours following administration for determination of drug concentration and calculation of pharinacokinetic parameters. Skin biopsies were collected at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours. Dogs were euthanized at 24 hours and tissues (liver, kidney muscle, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileura, colon, adrenal gland, thyroid, heart, lung, urinary bladder, prostate, pancreas, eye, brain) were collected for drug raeasurement. Drug was shown to persist in liver and kidney for a prolonged period of time coiapared to other tissues. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug will greatly add to the ability to treat patients with effective protocols.

  11. Evolution of pulmonary perfusion defects demonstrated with contrast-enhanced dynamic MR perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Howarth, N R; Beziat, C; Berthezène, Y

    1999-01-01

    Pulmonary perfusion defects can be demonstrated with contrast-enhanced dynamic MR perfusion imaging. We present the case of a patient with a pulmonary artery sarcoma who presented with a post-operative pulmonary embolus and was followed in the post-operative period with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion imaging. This technique allows rapid imaging of the first passage of contrast material through the lung after bolus injection in a peripheral vein. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe the use of this MR technique in showing the evolution of peripheral pulmonary perfusion defects associated with pulmonary emboli.

  12. Improved exercise myocardial perfusion during lidoflazine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, W.; Narahara, K.A.; Park, J.

    1983-11-01

    Lidoflazine is a synthetic drug with calcium-channel blocking effects. In a study of 6 patients with severe classic angina pectoris, single-blind administration of lidoflazine was associated with improved myocardial perfusion during exercise as determined by thallium-201 stress scintigraphy. These studies demonstrate that lidoflazine therapy is associated with relief of angina, an increased physical work capacity, and improved regional myocardial perfusion during exercise.

  13. Tissue-specific deletion of c-Jun in the pancreas has limited effects on pancreas formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ayako; Toyoda, Shuichi; Kato, Ken; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Fujitani, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Hori, Masatsugu; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2007-11-30

    It is well known that activating protein-1 (AP-1) is involved in a variety of cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. AP-1 is a dimer complex consisting of different subunits, and c-Jun is known to be one of its major components. In addition, it has been shown that mice lacking c-Jun are embryonic lethal and that c-Jun is essential for liver and heart development. However, the role of c-Jun in the pancreas is not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of c-Jun in the pancreas. First, c-Jun was strongly expressed in pancreatic duct-like structures at an embryonic stage, while a lower level of expression was observed in some part of the adult pancreas, implying that c-Jun might play a role during pancreas development. Second, to address this point, we generated pancreas-specific c-Jun knock-out mice (Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} mice) by crossing Ptf1a-Cre knock-in mice with c-Jun floxed mice. Ptf1a is a pancreatic transcription factor and its expression is confined to pancreatic stem/progenitor cells, which give rise to all three types of pancreatic tissue: endocrine, exocrine, and duct. Contrary to our expectation, however, there was no morphological difference in the pancreas between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} and control mice. In addition, there was no difference in body weight, pancreas weight, and the expression of various pancreas-related factors (insulin, glucagon, cytokeratin, and amylase) between the two groups. Furthermore, there was no difference in glucose tolerance between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} and control mice. Taken together, although we cannot exclude the possibility that c-Jun ablation is compensated by some unknown factors, c-Jun appears to be dispensable for pancreas development at least after ptf1a gene promoter is activated.

  14. Portal Annular Pancreas: A Rare and Overlooked Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Puneet; Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Amit; Ahmed, Arshad

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic developmental anomaly which is often overlooked at imaging, and often diagnosed retrospectively when it is detected incidentally at the time of surgery. Although the anomaly itself is asymptomatic, it becomes important in cases where pancreatic resection/anastomosis is planned, because of varying ductal anatomy, risk of ductal injury and increased risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula formation. Case Report We present imaging findings in a case of portal annular pancreas in a 45-year-old male patient. Conclusions Portal annular pancreas is a rare and often neglected pancreatic anomaly due to a lack of awareness of this entity. With the advent of MDCT and MRI, accurate preoperative diagnosis of this condition is possible. PMID:28203311

  15. Molecular pathogenesis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Thosani, Nirav; Dasari, Chandra S; Bhutani, Manoop S; Raimondo, Massimo; Guha, Sushovan

    2010-11-01

    Over the last 3 decades, there have been substantial improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques to evaluate pancreatic diseases. The modern technology has helped us to recognize premalignant conditions of pancreas including mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Differentiation between benign and malignant lesions and early detection of any malignant transformation in premalignant lesion are extremely important for further management decisions. Diagnostic cytology has limited sensitivity to further differentiate between benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions of the pancreas. There is limited information about the epidemiological risk factors and molecular mechanisms leading to development and further progression to malignancy of IPMNs. Several studies have shown that pancreatic juice and pancreatic tissue from the lesion can be tested for molecular markers including K-ras, p53, and p16 to differentiate between cancer and chronic inflammatory process. We review cellular signaling pathways that contribute to pathogenesis of IPMNs of the pancreas to further identify potential biomarkers and molecular targets.

  16. Multiple metastatic renal cell carcinoma isolated to pancreas.

    PubMed

    Comunoğlu, Cem; Altaca, Gülüm; Demiralay, Ebru; Moray, Gökhan

    2012-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastases to the pancreas are reported to be rare. Isolated multiple pancreatic metastases are even rarer. We report a 68-year-old asymptomatic male patient who presented with multiple metastatic nodular lesions in the pancreas demonstrated by computerized tomography 3.5 years after radical nephrectomy performed for clear cell RCC. Spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy was performed. Gross examination revealed five well-demarcated tumoral nodules in the head, body and tail of the pancreas. Histopathological examination revealed clusters of epithelial clear cells, immunohistochemically positive for CD10 and vimentin, and negative for CK19 and chromogranin, supporting a diagnosis of metastatic RCC. The patient has remained well at 29 months post-resection, in agreement with recent experience that radical resection for multiple isolated metastatic nodular lesions can achieve improved survival and better quality of life.

  17. [Endosonography for differential diagnosis of malignant findings of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Prinz, C

    2009-02-01

    Due to recent technical innovations endosonography has attained a special importance for the examination of malignant pancreatic tumors. Modern high-resolution radial instruments with 360 degrees imaging give a very good overall view with fine resolution and contrast and allow excellent detection of solid space-occupying lesions in the region of the pancreas. In meta-analyses a very good sensitivity for tumor detection of over 90% could be demonstrated, comparable to the results of the modern CT pancreas spiral technique. Endosonography has an advantage over CT examination especially for the diagnostics of very small neuroendocrine tumors (<1 cm), for example for the detection of insulinomas. For cystic pancreas processes only endosonography allows further specific differential diagnostics by the determination of important prognostic tumor markers, such as CEA or CA-19-9 by simultaneous puncture of the lesion.

  18. Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Protocol of the Normal Canine Brain

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Krystina L.; Pease, Anthony P.; Ballegeer, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically dynamic susceptibility MRI (DSC-MRI) is routinely performed as a supplement to conventional MRI in human medicine for patients with intracranial neoplasia and cerebrovascular events. There is minimal data on the use of DSC-MRI in veterinary patients and a DSC-MRI protocol in the veterinary patient has not been described. Sixteen normal dogs, 6 years or older were recruited for this study. The sample population included 11 large dogs (>11 kg) and 5 small dogs (<11 kg). DSC-MRI was performed on a 1.5-T MRI using an adjusted protocol inherent to the MRI. Contrast media was injected using an automatic power injector. Injections were made after five MR measurements were obtained. Following image acquisition, an arterial input function (AIF) graph mapping the transit time of contrast within the cerebral arteries was generated. The manually selected time points along this graph were used to compute perfusion maps. A dose and rate of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast media at 3 ml/s followed by 10 ml saline flush at 3 ml/s was used in all dogs greater than 11 kg. In all dogs >11 kg, a useable AIF and perfusion map was generated. One dog less than 11 kg received the same contrast dose and rate. In this patient, the protocol did not generate a useable AIF. The remainder of the dogs less than 11 kg followed a protocol of 0.2 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast media at 1.5 ml/s with a 10 ml saline flush at 1.5 ml/s. A useable AIF and perfusion map was generated in the remaining dogs <11 kg using the higher contrast dose and slower rate protocol. This study establishes a contrast dose and administration rate for canine DSC-MRI imaging that is different in dogs greater than 11 kg compared to dogs less than 11 kg. These protocols may be used for future applications to evaluate hemodynamic disturbances in canine intracranial pathology. PMID:28377923

  19. Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Protocol of the Normal Canine Brain.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Krystina L; Pease, Anthony P; Ballegeer, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically dynamic susceptibility MRI (DSC-MRI) is routinely performed as a supplement to conventional MRI in human medicine for patients with intracranial neoplasia and cerebrovascular events. There is minimal data on the use of DSC-MRI in veterinary patients and a DSC-MRI protocol in the veterinary patient has not been described. Sixteen normal dogs, 6 years or older were recruited for this study. The sample population included 11 large dogs (>11 kg) and 5 small dogs (<11 kg). DSC-MRI was performed on a 1.5-T MRI using an adjusted protocol inherent to the MRI. Contrast media was injected using an automatic power injector. Injections were made after five MR measurements were obtained. Following image acquisition, an arterial input function (AIF) graph mapping the transit time of contrast within the cerebral arteries was generated. The manually selected time points along this graph were used to compute perfusion maps. A dose and rate of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast media at 3 ml/s followed by 10 ml saline flush at 3 ml/s was used in all dogs greater than 11 kg. In all dogs >11 kg, a useable AIF and perfusion map was generated. One dog less than 11 kg received the same contrast dose and rate. In this patient, the protocol did not generate a useable AIF. The remainder of the dogs less than 11 kg followed a protocol of 0.2 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast media at 1.5 ml/s with a 10 ml saline flush at 1.5 ml/s. A useable AIF and perfusion map was generated in the remaining dogs <11 kg using the higher contrast dose and slower rate protocol. This study establishes a contrast dose and administration rate for canine DSC-MRI imaging that is different in dogs greater than 11 kg compared to dogs less than 11 kg. These protocols may be used for future applications to evaluate hemodynamic disturbances in canine intracranial pathology.

  20. Perfusion visualization and analysis for pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Michael S.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

    2005-04-01

    Given the nature of pulmonary embolism (PE), timely and accurate diagnosis is critical. Contrast enhanced high-resolution CT images allow physicians to accurately identify segmental and sub-segmental emboli. However, it is also important to assess the effect of such emboli on the blood flow in the lungs. Expanding upon previous research, we propose a method for 3D visualization of lung perfusion. The proposed method allows users to examine perfusion throughout the entire lung volume at a single glance, with areas of diminished perfusion highlighted so that they are visible independent of the viewing location. This may be particularly valuable for better accuracy in assessing the extent of hemodynamic alterations resulting from pulmonary emboli. The method also facilitates user interaction and may help identify small peripheral sub-segmental emboli otherwise overlooked. 19 patients referred for possible PE were evaluated by CT following the administration of IV contrast media. An experienced thoracic radiologist assessed the 19 datasets with 17 diagnosed as being positive for PE with multiple emboli. Since anomalies in lung perfusion due to PE can alter the distribution of parenchymal densities, we analyzed features collected from histograms of the computed perfusion maps and demonstrate their potential usefulness as a preliminary test to suggest the presence of PE. These histogram features also offer the possibility of distinguishing distinct patterns associated with chronic PE and may even be useful for further characterization of changes in perfusion or overall density resulting from associated conditions such as pneumonia or diffuse lung disease.

  1. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  2. Under Utilization of Pancreas Transplants in Cystic Fibrosis Recipients in the United Network Organ Sharing (UNOS) Data 1987-2014.

    PubMed

    Usatin, D J; Perito, E R; Posselt, A M; Rosenthal, P

    2016-05-01

    Despite a high prevalence of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine insufficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF), pancreas transplantation is rarely reported. United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data were used to examine utilization of pancreas transplant and posttransplant outcomes in CF patients. Between 1987-2014, CF patients (N = 4600) underwent 17 liver-pancreas, three lung-pancreas, one liver-lung pancreas, four kidney-pancreas, and three pancreas-only transplants. Of the 303 CF patients who received liver transplantation, 20% had CF-related diabetes (CFRD) before transplantation, and nine of those received a liver-pancreas transplant. Of 4241 CF patients who underwent lung transplantation, 33% had CFRD before transplantation, and three of those received a pancreas transplant. Of 49 CF patients who received a liver-lung transplant, 57% had CFRD before transplantation and one received a pancreas transplant. Posttransplantation diabetes developed in 7% of CF pancreas transplant recipients versus 24% of CF liver and 29% of CF lung recipients. UNOS has no data on pancreas exocrine insufficiency. Two-year posttransplantation survival was 88% after liver-pancreas transplant, 33% after lung-pancreas transplant, and 100% after pancreas-kidney and pancreas-only transplants. Diabetes is common pretransplantation and posttransplantation in CF solid organ transplant recipients, but pancreas transplantation remains rare. Further consideration of pancreas transplant in CF patients undergoing other solid organ transplant may be warranted.

  3. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil; al Qadhi, Hani; al Wahibi, Khalifa

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN) and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN). The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of size ≥10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as “worrisome features.” Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The understanding of

  4. Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adsay, N V; Adair, C F; Heffess, C S; Klimstra, D S

    1996-08-01

    We describe the clinical and pathologic features of 11 intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas, a hitherto unrecognized tumor. The patients were six men and five women, and most of the tumors were in the head (head: body/tail = 8:3). The mean patient age was 62 (range, 39-78), and the average tumor size was 6 cm. Grossly the tumors exhibited mucin-filled cysts containing nodular papillary projections. Dilated ducts communicating with the main tumor were sometimes noted. Microscopically the cystic structures appeared to represent dilated ducts containing intraductal tumor. The tumors were characterized by variably complex, arborizing papillary structures. The papillae had thin, delicate fibrovascular cores with focal myxoid changes and were lined by stratified oncocytic cells. Goblet cells and intra-epithelial mucin-containing lumina were present, the latter resulting in a characteristic cribriform pattern. The exuberance of the epithelial proliferation varied from case to case and between different regions within individual tumors; solid sheets of cells were often identified. Although the degree of cytologic atypia was not generally severe, the complexity of the architecture justified a designation of intraductal oncocytic papillary carcinoma in 10 of the 11 cases. In nine cases the tumor was entirely intraductal; one case exhibited focal microinvasion and another showed widespread invasive carcinoma, the invasive elements appearing cytologically similar to the intraductal papillary components. The oncocytic cells stained positively with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin and Novelli stains. Immunohistochemically, all cases stained positively for B72.3, and five cases showed focal, weak luminal membrane staining for carcinoembryonic antigen. Ultrastructurally many of the cells were packed with mitochondria, and mucin was also identified. Seven patients were alive and free of tumor from 1 month to 3 years (average, 1 year) after resection. Two

  5. The artificial pancreas: how sweet engineering will solve bitter problems.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C

    2007-01-01

    An artificial pancreas is a closed-loop system containing only synthetic materials which substitutes for an endocrine pancreas. No artificial pancreas system is currently approved; however, devices that could become components of such a system are now becoming commercially available. An artificial pancreas will consist of functionally integrated components that will continuously sense glucose levels, determine appropriate insulin dosages, and deliver the insulin. Any proposed closed loop system will be closely scrutinized for its safety, efficacy, and economic impact. Closed loop control utilizes models of glucose homeostasis which account for the influences of feeding, stress, insulin, exercise, and other factors on blood glucose levels. Models are necessary for understanding the relationship between blood glucose levels and insulin dosing; developing algorithms to control insulin dosing; and customizing each user's system based on individual responses to factors that influence glycemia. Components of an artificial pancreas are now being developed, including continuous glucose sensors; insulin pumps for parenteral delivery; and control software, all linked through wireless communication systems. Although a closed-loop system providing glucagon has not been reported in 40 years, the use of glucagon to prevent hypoglycemia is physiologically attractive and future devices might utilize this hormone. No demonstration of long-term closed loop control of glucose in a free-living human with diabetes has been reported to date, but many centers around the world are working on closed loop control systems. It is expected that many types of artificial pancreas systems will eventually be available, and they will greatly benefit patients with diabetes.

  6. Canine distemper virus infection: proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Gröne, A; Engelhardt, P; Zurbriggen, A

    2003-09-01

    The proliferation of footpad keratinocytes of canine distemper virus (CDV)-infected dogs was investigated. Footpads of 19 dogs inoculated experimentally with a virulent distemper strain (A75/17) and of two noninoculated control dogs were collected at necropsy. Dogs were divided into four groups according to results of the postmortem examination: dogs with severe distemper (group 1), dogs with mild distemper (group 2), inoculated dogs without distemper (group 3) and noninoculated dogs (group 4). There was no distinct difference of epidermal thickness among the four groups. Infection of the footpad epidermis with CDV was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry for viral nucleoprotein and in situ hybridization for nucleoprotein messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Only group 1 dogs had viral antigen and mRNA in the footpad epidermis with the same distribution. Footpad epidermis of group 1 dogs had more mitotic figures in the basal layer, and significantly more basal keratinocytes were positive for the proliferation markers Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Double-staining for Ki-67 and viral nucleoprotein identified rare double-labeled basal keratinocytes. These findings suggest that the presence of CDV particles in the footpad epidermis is associated with keratinocyte proliferation.

  7. Multivariable adaptive identification and control for artificial pancreas systems.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Laurie; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-03-01

    A constrained weighted recursive least squares method is proposed to provide recursive models with guaranteed stability and better performance than models based on regular identification methods in predicting the variations of blood glucose concentration in patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Use of physiological information from a sports armband improves glucose concentration prediction and enables earlier recognition of the effects of physical activity on glucose concentration. Generalized predictive controllers (GPC) based on these recursive models are developed. The performance of GPC for artificial pancreas systems is illustrated by simulations with UVa-Padova simulator and clinical studies. The controllers developed are good candidates for artificial pancreas systems with no announcements from patients.

  8. Malakoplakia of the pancreas with diffuse lymph-node involvement.

    PubMed

    Nuciforo, Paolo Giovanni; Moneghini, Laura; Braidotti, Paola; Castoldi, Laura; De Rai, Paolo; Bosari, Silvano

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of malakoplakia involving the pancreas in a 74-year-old man with associated regional lymphoadenopathy. Histological examination of both pancreas and lymph nodes revealed a diffuse histiocytic infiltrate containing numerous Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Electron microscopy supported the diagnosis of malakoplakia and showed bacterial-like structures. Differential diagnosis includes myofibroblastic inflammatory tumor and histiocytic neoplasms. Lymph-node involvement during malakoplakia is extremely rare and it has never been documented microscopically. Lymphohematogenous spread of bacteria may be the cause of the nodal involvement, which, however, does not appear to influence the clinical course of the disease.

  9. [Rare forms of the ductal carcinoma of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Setdikova, G R; Filippova, E M; Paklina, O V; Kriger, A G; Chekmareva, I A; Gorin, D S; Berelavichus, S V; Bedin, V V; Tavobilov, M M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical cases of patients with rare forms of ductal pancreatic carcinoma are described. Difficulties of preoperative radiologic verification of ostheoclast-like giantcell tumor and cricoids-cell carcinoma of the pancreas are described. Morphologigic and immunohistochemical features of these tumors are highlighted. One of the clinical cases demonstrate the aggressive tumor behavior, led to liver metastases 4 months after the radical operation. Literature review highlights historical aspects and the state-of-art of diagnostics and treatment of rare forms of the ductal carcinoma of the pancreas.

  10. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316... Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared... immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be...

  11. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316... Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared... immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be...

  12. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316... Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared... immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be...

  13. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  14. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  15. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  16. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  17. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  18. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316... Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared... immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be...

  19. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  20. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  1. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  2. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  3. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  4. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316... Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared... immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be...

  5. Persufflation (or Gaseous Oxygen Perfusion) as a Method of Organ Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Suszynski, Thomas M.; Rizzari, Michael D.; Scott, William E.; Tempelman, Linda A.; Taylor, Michael J.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2012-01-01

    Improved preservation techniques have the potential to improve transplant outcomes by better maintaining donor organ quality and by making more organs available for allotransplantation. Persufflation, (PSF, gaseous oxygen perfusion) is potentially one such technique that has been studied for over a century in a variety of tissues, but has yet to gain wide acceptance for a number of reasons. A principal barrier is the perception that ex vivo PSF will cause in vivo embolization post-transplant. This review summarizes the extensive published work on heart, liver, kidney, small intestine and pancreas PSF, discusses the differences between anterograde and retrograde PSF and between PSF and other conventional methods of organ preservation (static cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion). Prospective implications of PSF within the broader field of organ transplantation, and in the specific application with pancreatic islet isolation and transplant are also discussed. Finally, key issues that need to be addressed before PSF becomes a more widely utilized preservation strategy are summarized and discussed. PMID:22301419

  6. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  7. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-01-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age. PMID:22379198

  8. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  9. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Bianchi, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever on the Segmented Arch Technique (SAT) concept. A 14.7-year-old female patient appeared at clinic complaining about the absence of the upper right permanent canine. The proposed treatment prioritized the traction of the upper right canine without changing the occlusion and aesthetics. For this, it only installed the upper fixed appliance (Roth with slot 0.018), opting for SAT in order to minimize unwanted side effects. The use of cantilever to the traction of the upper right canine has enabled an efficient and predictable outcome, because it is of statically determined mechanics. PMID:27800192

  10. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage.

  11. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value <70 mg/dL and a bio-hormonal pump system consisting of insulin and glucagon pumps. Perioperative tight glycemic control using a bedside artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations.

  12. [Heterotopic pancreas is a rare cause of bleeding and intestinal intussusception].

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mette Winther; Østergaard, John R; Tøtterup, Anders; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Grønbæk, Henning

    2015-01-12

    A young female had neurofibromatosis, annular pancreas and heterotopic pancreas, a combination not previously described. The tumour caused bleeding and intussusception of the distal part of the small intestine. An extensive range of examinations was initiated; however, the diagnosis was not clarified until explorative laparoscopy was performed. Heterotopic pancreas is worth considering as an infrequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding and invagination.

  13. Imaging findings in a case of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Chung, Won Jung; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2010-01-01

    Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma (MAEC) of the pancreas is extremely uncommon. We report here a rare case of MAEC of the pancreas presenting as watery diarrhea. This is the first report in the English-language literature that describes the imaging findings of MAEC of the pancreas, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR cholangiopancreatography features.

  14. Ampullary carcinoma in a patient with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Jitendra H; Yadav, Amitabh; Nundy, Samiran

    2015-04-01

    The most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas is pancreatic divisum (Tadokoro et al. in Anat Res Int 2011:1-7, 2011). Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is extremely rare (Schnedl et al. in World J Gastroenterol 15(3):376-377, 2009). We are reporting a case of agenesis of dorsal pancreas presented with ampullary carcinoma.

  15. Heterogeneity in stabilization phenomena in FLT PET images of canines

    PubMed Central

    Simoncic, Urban; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-01-01

    3′-(18F)fluoro-3′-deoxy-L-thymidine (FLT) is a PET marker of cellular proliferation. Its tissue uptake rate is often quantified with a Standardized Uptake Value (SUV), although kinetic analysis provides a more accurate quantification. The purpose of this study is to investigate the heterogeneity in FLT stabilization phenomena. The study was done on 15 canines with spontaneously occurring sinonasal tumours. They were imaged dynamically for 90 min with FLT PET/CT twice; before and during the radiotherapy. Images were analyzed for kinetics on a voxel basis through compartmental analysis. Stabilization curves were calculated as a time-dependant correlation between the time-dependant SUV and the kinetic parameters (voxel values within the tumour were correlated). Stabilization curves were analyzed for stabilization speed, maximal correlation and correlation decrease following the maximal correlation. These stabilization parameters were correlated with the region-averaged kinetic parameters. The FLT SUV was highly correlated with vasculature fraction immediately post-injection, followed by maximum in correlation with the perfusion/permeability. At later times post-injection the FLT SUV was highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient above 0.95) with the FLT influx parameter for cases with tumour-averaged SUV30–50min above 2, while others were indeterminate (correlation coefficients from 0.1 to 0.97). All cases with highly correlated SUV and FLT influx parameter had correlation coefficient within 0.5% of its maximum in the period of 30–50 min post-injection. Stabilization time was inversely proportional to the FLT influx rate. Correlation between the FLT SUV and FLT influx parameter dropped at later times post-injection with drop being proportional to the dephosphorylation rate. The FLT was found to be metabolically stable in canines. FLT PET imaging protocol should define minimal and maximal FLT uptake period, which would be 30–50 min for our patients

  16. Response of cyt a,a3 in the situ canine heart to transient ischemic episodes.

    PubMed

    Snow, T R; Kleinmann, L H; LaManna, J C; Wechsler, A S; Jöbsis, F F

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the response of cyt a,a3 to transient ischemic and hypoxic episodes in the empty, fibrillating canine heart in situ. Using a dual wavelength, differential spectrophotometer, reaction spectra show an absorption peak at approximately 605 nm consistent with that obtained from purified cyt a,a3. The characteristics of the averaged reaction spectrum in the interval 590 nm to 610 nm indicate that hemoglobin/myoglobin contribute no more than 23% to the signal measured at 605 nm. A regimen of one 30 sec global ischemia (GI) repeated once every 3 minutes over a 90 min period showed no appreciable signal deterioration. Therefore, five such interventions were subsequently used as the test perturbation. Studies of the effects of ischemic episodes of 30 and 60 min show that the response of cyt a,a3 to this test intervention was smaller (90 +/- 6% and 89 +/- 7%) than that observed prior to the ischemic episode. Changes in coronary perfusion pressure (+/- 10 Torr) produced an immediate oxidation/reduction of cyt a,a3. In the working heart, just prior to fibrillation, 6 sec to interrupted ventilation resulted in a continuous reduction of cyt a,a3. The data from these studies show: 1) The redox state of cyt a,a3 may be continuously monitored in the canine heart in situ. 2) Following ischemias of 30 and 60 min duration, respiratory chain function may be impaired; and 3) The well-perfused epicardium is extremely sensitive to small changes in oxygen delivery.

  17. Canine and feline abortion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, D H

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the causes of canine or feline pregnancy loss is limited and the success rate for making a definitive diagnosis is disappointingly low. Although these facts are discouraging, there are some things that can be done to improve success rates. This paper will address limitations and explore ways for improvement. For abortions caused by microbial infections, there are many reasons why it may not possible to identify the agents. "Non-infectious" causes are much more difficult to diagnose, and their relative importance is unknown. These include endocrine failure, underlying endometrial disease, genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, and toxicosis from drugs or environmental sources. Genetic abnormalities are a major cause of human pregnancy loss, yet we have little specific information about genetic diseases leading to abortion in animals. This paper addresses ways clinicians and diagnosticians can work together to improve diagnostic success. Necropsy techniques for fetal and placental examination and sampling are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that this series of papers will stimulate discussion on the causes and pathogenesis of pregnancy failure, and focus attention on areas where abortion diagnostics can be improved.

  18. Conditions associated with canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Panciera, D L

    2001-09-01

    Careful review of the literature regarding clinical signs caused by hypothyroidism in dogs has shown that some assumptions regarding the relation of hypothyroidism to other conditions are based on anecdotal evidence. Cutaneous manifestations are present in most hypothyroid dogs, but the specific abnormalities and breed variations remain to be clearly defined. Decreased metabolic rate manifested by obesity and lethargy is also common. Neurologic manifestations, although uncommon, clearly occur in hypothyroid dogs. Cardiac abnormalities seem to be common, but their clinical significance is questionable. The only consistent hematologic abnormality that occurs in hypothyroid dogs is anemia; evidence for acquired von Willebrand's disease or other bleeding disorders is negligible. Reproductive dysfunction secondary to hypothyroidism is unlikely to occur in male dogs, and there is no evidence to support abnormalities in female dogs. The relation of megaesophagus, laryngeal paralysis, ocular abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders with hypothyroidism remains to be established. Future research into canine hypothyroidism may serve to convert dogma into a more clear understanding of the manifestations and pathophysiologic findings of this common endocrinopathy.

  19. Canine pyometra: What is new?

    PubMed

    Hagman, R

    2016-11-03

    Pyometra is a common disease in countries where elective spaying is not routinely performed. Hormonal and bacterial factors are fundamental in the pathogenesis of the disease, which manifests itself as a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus. Surgical ovariohysterectomy is the safest and most effective treatment for pyometra, and it has recently been shown that laparoscopically assisted methods for surgical treatment are feasible to use in selected cases. New protocols for improved medical treatment alternatives have also been tested with promising results. To be able to predict outcome and presence of complications early would be valuable in clinical practice for optimizing therapy and increasing survival. Results of commonly investigated clinical and laboratory investigations have been shown to be useful as predictive markers, with leucopenia being associated with increased risk of peritonitis as well as prolonged post-operative hospitalization after surgical treatment. A cage-side rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test would be highly valuable in clinical practice, and detection of pyometra-specific upregulated genes in the uterus and the corresponding products is a potential start in identifying novel markers suitable for such as test. The focus of the present review is to highlight recent findings on pathogenesis, prediction of outcome, diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, central research questions and suggestions for future investigations about several aspects of canine pyometra will be addressed.

  20. GPU-accelerated voxelwise hepatic perfusion quantification.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Cao, Y

    2012-09-07

    Voxelwise quantification of hepatic perfusion parameters from dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging greatly contributes to assessment of liver function in response to radiation therapy. However, the efficiency of the estimation of hepatic perfusion parameters voxel-by-voxel in the whole liver using a dual-input single-compartment model requires substantial improvement for routine clinical applications. In this paper, we utilize the parallel computation power of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to accelerate the computation, while maintaining the same accuracy as the conventional method. Using compute unified device architecture-GPU, the hepatic perfusion computations over multiple voxels are run across the GPU blocks concurrently but independently. At each voxel, nonlinear least-squares fitting the time series of the liver DCE data to the compartmental model is distributed to multiple threads in a block, and the computations of different time points are performed simultaneously and synchronically. An efficient fast Fourier transform in a block is also developed for the convolution computation in the model. The GPU computations of the voxel-by-voxel hepatic perfusion images are compared with ones by the CPU using the simulated DCE data and the experimental DCE MR images from patients. The computation speed is improved by 30 times using a NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU compared to a 2.67 GHz Intel Xeon CPU processor. To obtain liver perfusion maps with 626 400 voxels in a patient's liver, it takes 0.9 min with the GPU-accelerated voxelwise computation, compared to 110 min with the CPU, while both methods result in perfusion parameters differences less than 10(-6). The method will be useful for generating liver perfusion images in clinical settings.

  1. Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio >1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in >1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  2. Usefulness of artificial endocrine pancreas during resection of insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Kayo; Kawahito, Shinji; Mita, Naoji; Takaishi, Kazumi; Kawahara, Tomiya; Soga, Tomohiro; Katayama, Toshiko; Imura, Satoru; Morine, Yuji; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Shimada, Mitsuo; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman had an episode of syncope due to hypoglycemia of 27 mg/dl. She was diagnosed with insulinoma and scheduled for laparoscopic enucleation along with the use of an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Her blood glucose level was controlled using the artificial endocrine pancreas, which enabled continuous blood glucose monitoring and computer-operated glucose and insulin infusion to maintain the blood glucose level at a steady state. The target concentration of blood glucose was set at 80-120 mg/dl during surgery. Until removal of the tumor, the blood glucose level was kept at around 80-100 mg/dl. After removal of the tumor, the blood glucose level gradually increased, but it was kept in the normal range by the artificial endocrine pancreas. The artificial endocrine pancreas was useful to monitor and maintain blood glucose levels during and after the removal of insulinoma, without any hyper- or hypoglycemia.

  3. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as “fatty infiltration” or “nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease” (NAFPD). The term “fatty replacement” describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of “ectopic fat deposition”, which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula. PMID:27678349

  4. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-09-14

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as "fatty infiltration" or "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease" (NAFPD). The term "fatty replacement" describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of "ectopic fat deposition", which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula.

  5. Stimulus-secretion coupling in the developing exocrine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.Y.S.

    1986-01-01

    Acinar cells of the embryonic pancreas are filled with zymogen granules containing, among others, the secretory protein, cholecystokinin (CCK) ..cap alpha..-amylase, the rate of amylase secretion from pancreatic lobules incubated in vitro was not increased in response to CCK. In contrast, the rate of CCK-stimulated amylase discharge from the neonatal pancreas was increased 4- to 8-fold above that seen in the embryonic gland. The postnatal amplification of secretory responsiveness was not associated with an increase in the level of /sup 125/I-CCK octapeptide specifically bound/cell equivalent or a change in the affinity of binding. Light microscopic autoradiography revealed a similar /sup 125/I-CCK-33 labeling pattern in pancreatic lobules from both ages with autoradiographic grains specifically localized at the periphery of acinar cells. In order to determine whether CCK binding is coupled to a rise in the cytosolic Ca/sup + +/concentration, (Ca/sup + +/)c, in the embryonic pancreas, /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ efflux from tracer-loaded lobules was measured. Efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ from both embryonic and neonatal pancreas was comparably increased in the presence of CCK.

  6. Oncolytic virotherapy of canine and feline cancer.

    PubMed

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-05-16

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

  7. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  8. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. PMID:24841386

  9. A stubborn anemia caused by ectopic pancreas bleeding in the jejunum revealed by capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qun-Ying; Yang, Xiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is extremely rare in clinical setting. Meanwhile, a stubborn anemia without obvious dark bloody stool due to ectopic pancreas diagnosed by capsule endoscopy has not been reported. We reported a case of an ectopic pancreas inducing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in a 70-year-old woman presenting as stubborn anemia, which was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy. The patient recovered well after resection the lesion. Diagnosis of ectopic pancreas is extremely difficult with conventional techniques. Endoscopists should pay more attention to the ectopic pancreas as a rare differential consideration for occult intestinal bleeding. PMID:26682148

  10. An analysis of the lack of donor pancreas utilization from younger adult organ donors.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Alexander C; Wainright, Jennifer L; Sleeman, Elizabeth; McBride, Maureen A; Baker, Tim; Samana, Ciara; Stock, Peter

    2010-09-15

    Donor pancreas utilization rates for whole organ transplant have remained low and have decreased over time. To identify the reasons for nonuse of pancreas from donors who meet common baseline acceptance criteria, we examined Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data from 2005 to 2007 and identified a subgroup of 1763 "potential pancreas donors" defined by age (19-40 years), body mass index (<30 kg/m), successful liver donation, and negative viral serology testing, which were not used. We characterize this cohort of potential donors including reasons for refusal, factors that may contribute to pancreas acceptance and function, and potential explanations for the lack of growth in pancreas organ utilization.

  11. Deep convolutional networks for pancreas segmentation in CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Holger R.; Farag, Amal; Lu, Le; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Automatic organ segmentation is an important prerequisite for many computer-aided diagnosis systems. The high anatomical variability of organs in the abdomen, such as the pancreas, prevents many segmentation methods from achieving high accuracies when compared to state-of-the-art segmentation of organs like the liver, heart or kidneys. Recently, the availability of large annotated training sets and the accessibility of affordable parallel computing resources via GPUs have made it feasible for "deep learning" methods such as convolutional networks (ConvNets) to succeed in image classification tasks. These methods have the advantage that used classification features are trained directly from the imaging data. We present a fully-automated bottom-up method for pancreas segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images of the abdomen. The method is based on hierarchical coarse-to-fine classification of local image regions (superpixels). Superpixels are extracted from the abdominal region using Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC). An initial probability response map is generated, using patch-level confidences and a two-level cascade of random forest classifiers, from which superpixel regions with probabilities larger 0.5 are retained. These retained superpixels serve as a highly sensitive initial input of the pancreas and its surroundings to a ConvNet that samples a bounding box around each superpixel at different scales (and random non-rigid deformations at training time) in order to assign a more distinct probability of each superpixel region being pancreas or not. We evaluate our method on CT images of 82 patients (60 for training, 2 for validation, and 20 for testing). Using ConvNets we achieve maximum Dice scores of an average 68% +/- 10% (range, 43-80%) in testing. This shows promise for accurate pancreas segmentation, using a deep learning approach and compares favorably to state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Pancreatic autoantibodies after pancreas-kidney transplantation - do they matter?

    PubMed

    Martins, La Salete; Henriques, Antonio C; Fonseca, Isabel M; Rodrigues, Anabela S; Oliverira, José C; Dores, Jorge M; Dias, Leonidio S; Cabrita, Antonio M; Silva, José D; Noronha, Irene L

    2014-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes recurrence has been documented in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants (SPKT), but this diagnosis may be underestimated. Antibody monitoring is the most simple, noninvasive, screening test for pancreas autoimmune activity. However, the impact of the positive autoimmune markers on pancreas graft function remains controversial. In our cohort of 105 SPKT, we studied the cases with positive pancreatic autoantibodies. They were immunosuppressed with antithymocyte globulin, tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and steroids. The persistence or reappearance of these autoantibodies after SPKT and factors associated with their evolution and with graft outcome were analyzed. Pancreatic autoantibodies were prospectively monitored. Serum samples were collected before transplantation and at least once per year thereafter. At the end of the follow-up (maximum 138 months), 43.8% of patients were positive (from pre-transplant or after recurrence) for at least one autoantibody - the positive group. Antiglutamic acid decarboxylase was the most prevalent (31.4%), followed by anti-insulin (8.6%) and anti-islet cell autoantibodies (3.8%). Bivariate analysis showed that the positive group had higher fasting glucose, higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lower C-peptide levels, and a higher number of HLA-matches. Analyzing the sample divided into four groups according to pre-/post-transplant autoantibodies profile, the negative/positive group tended to present the higher HbA1c values. Multivariate analysis confirmed the significant association between pancreas autoimmunity and HbA1c and C-peptide levels. Positivity for these autoantibodies pre-transplantation did not influence pancreas survival. The unfavorable glycemic profile observed in the autoantibody-positive SPKT is a matter of concern, which deserves further attention.

  13. Pancreatic stellate cells--multi-functional cells in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a pivotal role in pancreatic fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In addition, we have seen great progress in our understanding of the cell biology of PSCs and the interactions between PSCs and other cell types in the pancreas. In response to pancreatic injury or inflammation, quiescent PSCs are activated to myofibroblast-like cells. Recent studies have shown that the activation of intracellular signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinases plays a role in the activation of PSCs. microRNAs might also play a role, because the microRNA expression profiles are dramatically altered in the process of activation. In addition to producing extracellular matrix components such as type I collagen, PSCs have a wide variety of cell functions related to local immunity, inflammation, angiogenesis, and exocrine and endocrine functions in the pancreas. From this point of view, the interactions between PSCs and other cell types such as pancreatic exocrine cells, endocrine cells, and cancer cells have attracted increasing attention of researchers. PSCs might regulate exocrine functions in the pancreas through the cholecystokinin-induced release of acetylcholine. PSCs induce apoptosis and decrease insulin expression in β-cells, suggesting a novel mechanism of diabetes in diseased pancreas. PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by multiple mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that PSCs induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and enhance the stem-cell like features of pancreatic cancer cells. In conclusion, PSCs should now be recognized as not only profibrogenic cells but as multi-functional cells in the pancreas.

  14. Canine parvovirus enteritis, canine distemper, and major histocompatibility complex genetic variation in Mexican wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lee, Rhonda N; Buchanan, Colleen

    2003-10-01

    The endangered Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was recently reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico (USA). In 1999 and 2000, pups from three litters that were part of the reintroduction program died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. Overall, half (seven of 14) of the pups died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. The parents and their litters were analyzed for variation at the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene DRB1. Similar MHC genes are related to disease resistance in other species. All six of the surviving pups genotyped for the MHC gene were heterozygous while five of the pups that died were heterozygous and one was homozygous. Resistance to pathogens is an important aspect of the management and long-term survival of endangered taxa, such as the Mexican wolf.

  15. Serologic response of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) to canine and canine parvovirus vaccination distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Maia, O B; Gouveia, A M

    2001-03-01

    This study evaluated the immune response of 47 (22 males, 25 females) captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) to modified-live canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus (Onderstepoort and Rockborn strains) vaccines. Sera were collected from 33 adults and 14 pups, including five free-ranging pups captured at 1 yr of age or younger. All the adults and four captive-born pups had been vaccinated prior to this first blood collection. Virus neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed for quantitating antibodies against canine distemper and canine parvovirus, respectively. Distemper antibody titers > or = 100 were present in 57% of adults and 14% of pups. All adults and 29% of pups had parvovirus antibody titers > or = 80. After vaccination, 72% of the wolves developed antibody titers > or = 100 against distemper and 98% developed titers > or = 80 against parvovirus. Both vaccines used were safe and immunogenic to juvenile and adult maned wolves, regardless of prior vaccination history.

  16. The Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus-2 in a Selected Sample of the Canine Population in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Carman, P. S.; Povey, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Canine sera, collected from dogs presented to the Ontario Veterinary College between 1976 and 1980, were assessed for canine parvovirus-2 antibody using a microtitre hemagglutination-inhibition test. Special emphasis was made on the period from September 1979 to October 1980 (2892 samples). No antibody was detected in samples collected in 1976 or 1977. The first positive sera were obtained in January 1978. By the end of 1978 antibodies to canine parvovirus-2 were widespread in Ontario dogs and in 1980, 683 of 2191 dogs (31.2%) had antibody. This was before widespread vaccination was being practised and indicates canine parvovirus-2 infection occurred frequently. Evaluation of clinical records of these dogs suggested that most infections had been subclinical. PMID:17422418

  17. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostopoulos, C.; Cerqueira, M.; Ell, P. J.; Flint, E. J.; Harbinson, M.; Kelion, A. D.; Al-Mohammad, A.; Prvulovich, E. M.; Shaw, L. J.; Tweddel, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    This review summarises the evidence for the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. It is the product of a consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society and is endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists. It was used to inform the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence in their appraisal of MPS in patients with chest pain and myocardial infarction. MPS is a well-established, non-invasive imaging technique with a large body of evidence to support its effectiveness in the diagnosis and management of angina and myocardial infarction. It is more accurate than the exercise ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia and it is the single most powerful technique for predicting future coronary events. The high diagnostic accuracy of MPS allows reliable risk stratification and guides the selection of patients for further interventions, such as revascularisation. This in turn allows more appropriate utilisation of resources, with the potential for both improved clinical outcomes and greater cost-effectiveness. Evidence from modelling and observational studies supports the enhanced cost-effectiveness associated with MPS use. In patients presenting with stable or acute chest pain, strategies of investigation involving MPS are more cost-effective than those not using the technique. MPS also has particular advantages over alternative techniques in the management of a number of patient subgroups, including women, the elderly and those with diabetes, and its use will have a favourable impact on cost-effectiveness in these groups. MPS is already an integral part of many clinical guidelines for the investigation and management of angina and myocardial infarction. However, the technique is underutilised in the UK, as judged by the inappropriately long waiting times and by

  18. Forty years of canine vaccination.

    PubMed

    Appel, M J

    1999-01-01

    During the last 40 years vaccines have been developed that have greatly reduced the incidence of infectious diseases of dogs. In general, modified live products have been superior to inactivated vaccines for dogs. It can be expected that recombinant and/or DNA vaccines may dominate the market in the future. Although most vaccines on the market are safe and efficacious, there have been exceptions where disease was induced by vaccination or dogs were not protected. The failure of protection may in part be due to variations in individual vaccine batches. Only potency tests but not efficacy tests are required, which may not be sufficient. For example, a virus titer in a vaccine may be meaningless if the minimum protective dose is not known. Overattenuated virus (e.g., CDV-Ond or parvovirus in cat cells) may have a high titer in tissue culture but is not immunogenic. The question of frequency of vaccination of dogs should be addressed. Annual revaccinations for CDV, CPV, and CAV are probably not needed. However, it would be desirable to collect more data to support less frequent vaccinations. Annual immunization for bacterial diseases such as kennel cough, Lyme disease, and leptospirosis should continue. It also would be desirable to develop more oro/nasal vaccines, perhaps combined with newly developed vectors that are less likely to induce undesirable side effects that may be seen after parenteral vaccination. Finally a word of warning against homeopathic "nosodes" to replace tested canine vaccines. They will appear highly effective as long as the majority of dogs remain vaccinated. As soon as a nonvaccinated dog population is large enough to allow virulent agents to spread, disease outbreaks will occur and we will be back where we began 40 years ago.

  19. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    PubMed Central

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  20. Use of the Electronic Medical Record to Assess Pancreas Size in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Virostko, John; Hilmes, Melissa; Eitel, Kelsey; Moore, Daniel J.; Powers, Alvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study harnessed the electronic medical record to assess pancreas volume in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and matched controls to determine whether pancreas volume is altered in T1D and identify covariates that influence pancreas volume. Methods This study included 25 patients with T1D and 25 age-, sex-, and weight-matched controls from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center enterprise data warehouse. Measurements of pancreas volume were made from medical imaging studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Results Patients with T1D had a pancreas volume 47% smaller than matched controls (41.16 ml vs. 77.77 ml, P < 0.0001) as well as pancreas volume normalized by subject body weight, body mass index, or body surface area (all P < 0.0001). Pancreatic volume was smaller with a longer duration of T1D across the patient population (N = 25, P = 0.04). Additionally, four individual patients receiving multiple imaging scans displayed progressive declines in pancreas volume over time (~ 6% of volume/year), whereas five controls scanned a year apart did not exhibit a decline in pancreas size (P = 0.03). The pancreas was uniformly smaller on the right and left side of the abdomen. Conclusions Pancreas volume declines with disease duration in patients with T1D, suggesting a protracted pathological process that may include the exocrine pancreas. PMID:27391588

  1. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas and its association with pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Sakpal, Sujit Vijay; Sexcius, Lucretia; Babel, Nitin; Chamberlain, Ronald Scott

    2009-05-01

    Morphogenesis of the pancreas is a complex process; nevertheless, congenital anomalies are rare. At embryogenesis, the pancreas develops from the endoderm-lined dorsal and ventral buds of the duodenum. The ventral bud gives rise to the lower head and uncinate process of the pancreas; whereas, the dorsal bud gives rise to the upper head, isthmus, body, and tail of the pancreas. Rarely, developmental failure of the dorsal pancreatic bud at embryogenesis results in the agenesis of the dorsal pancreas--neck, body, and tail. Even rarer is the association of pancreatic tumors with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas. In addition to citing our case, we provide a comprehensive review on agenesis of the dorsal pancreas and its association with pancreatic tumors.

  2. Canine distemper virus associated proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, P; Wyder, M; Zurbriggen, A; Gröne, A

    2005-04-25

    Infection of canine footpads with canine distemper virus (CDV) can result in so-called hard pad disease characterized by footpad epidermal proliferation and hyperkeratosis. Cultured canine footpad keratinocytes (CFK) were inoculated with a virulent canine distemper virus strain (A75/17-CDV) to study the effects of CDV-infection on keratinocyte proliferation. Infection was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for CDV nucleoprotein (N-protein) antigen and mRNA. CDV caused a persistent, non-cytocidal infection with spread from single cells to infection of the confluent cell layer 7 days post infection (p.i.). Absolute cell numbers were significantly higher in infected cultures compared to control cultures from day 4 until day 6 p.i. Infected cultures contained significantly more total DNA on day 5 p.i. compared to controls. Immunohistochemical investigation of proliferation markers Ki67 and BrdU demonstrated a nearly two-fold increase in numbers of positive cells on day 5 p.i. compared to controls. These findings demonstrate that canine distemper virus infection of canine footpad keratinocytes in vitro was associated with proliferation.

  3. Imaging of myocardial perfusion with magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Barkhausen, Jörg; Hunold, Peter; Jochims, Markus; Debatin, Jörg F

    2004-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently the leading cause of death in developed nations. Reflecting the complexity of cardiac function and morphology, noninvasive diagnosis of CAD represents a major challenge for medical imaging. Although coronary artery stenoses can be depicted with magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) techniques, its functional or hemodynamic impact frequently remains elusive. Therefore, there is growing interest in other, target organ-specific parameters such as myocardial function at stress and first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging to assess myocardial blood flow. This review explores the pathophysiologic background, recent technical developments, and current clinical status of first-pass MR imaging (MRI) of myocardial perfusion.

  4. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  5. Immune-mediated canine and feline keratitis.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Stacy E

    2008-03-01

    Although the normal cornea is devoid of vasculature and lymphatics, there are still several immune-mediated corneal conditions that can occur in dogs and cats. An overview of corneal immunology is presented. Diseases of dogs, including chronic superficial keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, and canine adenovirus endotheliitis, as well as feline diseases, including eosinophilic keratitis and herpesvirus-related conditions, are discussed.

  6. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  7. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A.; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; Takahashi, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains. PMID:11329473

  8. Prostate histotripsy for BPH: initial canine results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Histotripsy is an extracorporeal ablative technology that utilizes microsecond pulses of intense ultrasound (< 1% duty cycle) to produce nonthermal, mechanical fractionation of targeted tissue. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of histotripsy prostate ablation. In this study we sought to assess the chronic tissue response, tolerability and safety of histotripsy in a chronic in vivo canine model. Five acute and thirteen chronic canine subjects were anesthetized and treated with histotripsy targeting the prostate. Pulses consisted of 3 cycle bursts of 750 kHz ultrasound at a repetition rate of 300 Hz delivered transabdominally from a highly focused 15 cm aperture array. Transrectal ultrasound imaging provided accurate targeting and real-time monitoring of histotripsy treatment. Prostates were harvested at 0, 7, 28, or 56 days after treatment. Consistent mechanical tissue fractionation and debulking of prostate tissue was seen acutely and at delayed time points without collateral injury. Urothelialization of the treatment cavity was apparent 28 days after treatment. Canine subjects tolerated histotripsy with minimal hematuria or discomfort. Only mild transient lab abnormalities were noted. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive therapy for prostate tissue fractionation and debulking that appears safe and well tolerated without systemic side effects in the canine model.

  9. Effects of laser acupuncture on blood perfusion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-ju; Zeng, Chang-chun; Liu, Han-ping; Liu, Song-hao; Liu, Liang-gang

    2006-09-01

    Based on Pennes equation, the influences of the intensity and the impulse frequency of laser acupuncture on the point tissues' blood flow perfusion rate are discussed. We find that the blood perfusion rate of point tissue increases with the intensity of laser acupuncture increasing. After impulse laser acupuncture the point tissue blood perfusion rate increase little, but after continuum laser acupuncture the point tissues blood perfusion rate increase much.

  10. One hundred pancreas transplants at a single institution.

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, D E; Goetz, F C; Najarian, J S

    1984-01-01

    Clinical pancreas transplantation at the University of Minnesota began in 1966. An initial series of 14 whole pancreas grafts was reported in part to the American Surgical Association in 1970. Only one patient survived for more than 1 year with a functioning graft. Twenty attempts at islet allotransplantation in the mid-1970s were unsuccessful. In 1978 we resumed performing pancreas transplants by the segmental technique, allowing the use of related donors. The current series (July 25, 1978 to December 20, 1983) includes 86 pancreas transplants (51 cadaver, 35 related) in 75 patients (41 with and 34 without previous kidney grafts). Variations in management of the pancreatic duct include three ligated, 15 duct-open, 39 duct-injected, and 29 pancreaticojejunostomies. The latter technique is currently preferred. Currently (April 1984) 61 patients are alive (81%), 24 have functioning grafts (32%), and 21 are insulin-independent (28%), three with open-duct grafts for 4.4 to 5.7 years, seven with silicone-injected grafts from 10 to 39 months, and 14 with pancreaticojejunostomies for 3 to 31 months; 15 of the grafts have functioned for greater than 1 year. Twenty-two of the grafts (25%) failed for technical reasons (thrombosis, infection, or ascites); 35 grafts functioned for 1 to 13 months before totally failing from either rejection, fibrosis, or recurrent disease; five patients died with functioning grafts. The graft survival rate has been higher for pancreases from related (15/35, 43% functioning) than from cadaver (9/51, 18% functioning) donors. The success rate has increased, e.g., 11/22 recipients of pancreas transplants in 1983 currently have functioning grafts (50%). Metabolic studies show most patients with functioning grafts to be euglycemic; however, three of 24 have chronic hyperglycemia unless supplemented with insulin, but they are no longer ketosis-prone. Glucose tolerance test results are normal or nearly normal in 12 and abnormal in 12 of the recipients

  11. Perfusion MRI: The Five Most Frequently Asked Clinical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Essig, Marco; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Shiroishi, Mark S.; Saake, Marc; Provenzale, James M.; Enterline, David S.; Anzalone, Nicoletta; Dörfler, Arnd; Rovira, Àlex; Wintermark, Max; Law, Meng

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This article addresses questions that radiologists frequently ask when planning, performing, processing, and interpreting MRI perfusion studies in CNS imaging. CONCLUSION Perfusion MRI is a promising tool in assessing stroke, brain tumors, and neurodegenerative diseases. Most of the impediments that have limited the use of perfusion MRI can be overcome to allow integration of these methods into modern neuroimaging protocols. PMID:23971482

  12. Role of hypothermic machine perfusion in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Andrea; Dutkowski, Philipp

    2015-06-01

    Machine liver perfusion has significantly evolved during the last ten years to optimize extended criteria liver grafts and to address the worldwide organ shortage. This review gives an overview on available ex vivo and in vivo data on hypothermic machine liver perfusion. We discuss also possible protective pathways and show most recent clinical applications of hypothermic machine liver perfusion in human.

  13. Intrasexual competition and canine dimorphism in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J M; van Schaik, C P

    1992-04-01

    A number of factors, including sexual selection, body weight, body-weight dimorphism, predation, diet, and phylogenetic inertia have been proposed as influences on the evolution of canine dimorphism in anthropoid primates. Although these factors are not mutually exclusive, opinions vary as to which is the most important. The role of sexual selection has been questioned because mating system, which should reflect its strength, poorly predicts variation in canine dimorphism, particularly among polygynous species. Kay et al. (1988) demonstrate that a more refined estimate of intermale competition explains a large proportion of the variation in canine dimorphism in platyrrhine primates. We expand their analysis, developing a more generalized measure of intermale competition based on the frequency and intensity of male-male agonism. We examine the relative influences of predation (inferred by substrate use), female body weight, body-weight dimorphism, diet, and sexual selection on the evolution of anthropoid canine dimorphism. Intermale competition is very strongly associated with canine dimorphism. Predation also has a marked effect on canine dimorphism, in that savanna-dwelling species consistently show greater canine dimorphism than other species, all other factors being held equal. Body-weight dimorphism is also strongly associated with canine dimorphism, though apparently through a common selective basis, rather than through allometric effects. Body weight seems to play only a minor, indirect role in the evolution of canine dimorphism. Diet plays no role. Likewise, we find little evidence that phylogenetic inertia is a constraint on the evolution of canine dimorphism.

  14. Mandibular canine dimensions as an aid in gender estimation

    PubMed Central

    Rajarathnam, Basetty Neelakantam; David, Maria Priscilla; Indira, Annamalai Ponnuswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: All humans have an identity in life; compassionate societies require this identity to be recognized even after death. Objectives: To measure the dimensions of the mandibular canine and assess the usefulness of the mandibular canine as an aid in gender estimation. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised 200 subjects inclusive of 100 males and 100 females with an age range of 18–25 years. Measurements made in mm at the contact point were of mesiodistal width of the right and left canines and intercanine distance both intraorally and on casts, and the mandibular canine index (MCI) was calculated. The obtained data were subjected to t-test/Mann-Whitney test and discriminant function analysis. Results: All parameters of mandibular canines, namely, intercanine distance, canine width, and canine index were greater in males compared to females suggesting significant sexual dimorphism of mandibular canines. On subjecting the data to discriminant function analysis, it classified sex correctly in 73% of the samples. Conclusion: The result of our study establishes the existence of significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines. We can therefore, recommend the use of mandibular canine dimensions as an applicable and additional method for gender determination in human identification. PMID:27555724

  15. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption.

    PubMed

    Davies, K R; Schneider, G B; Southard, T E; Hillis, S L; Wertz, P W; Finkelstein, M; Hogan, M M

    2001-10-01

    When a permanent maxillary canine erupts apical to the permanent lateral incisor and the deciduous canine, resorption typically takes place only on the deciduous canine root. An understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of roots of permanent lateral incisors and deciduous canines to simulated resorption, and to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine. Groups of maxillary permanent lateral incisor and deciduous canine roots were exposed to 5 combinations of Ten Cate demineralizing solution, Ten Cate demineralizing solution with EDTA, and a Type I collagenase solution. Sections of the roots were examined under a polarized light microscope. Analysis of variation of the resulting root lesions demonstrated that the lesion depths for deciduous canines were greater than those for permanent lateral incisors when averaged across 4 of the conditions (F(1,24) = 7.49, P =.0115). On average, deciduous canine roots demonstrated lesions 10% deeper than did permanent lateral incisor roots. We concluded that when deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor roots are subjected to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine, significantly deeper demineralized lesions are seen in the deciduous roots compared with the permanent roots. This finding may partially explain the differential root resorption during permanent tooth eruption.

  16. Canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate severe acute pancreatitis by regulating T cells in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Woo-Jin; Li, Qiang; Han, Sei-Myoung; Jeon, Kee-Ok; Park, Sang-Chul; Ryu, Min-Ok; Chae, Hyung-Kyu; Kyeong, Kweon

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is associated with systemic complications and high mortality rate in dogs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated for their therapeutic potential in several inflammation models. In the present study, the effects of canine adipose tissue-derived (cAT)-MSCs in a rat model of SAP induced by retrograde injection of 3% sodium taurocholate solution into the pancreatic duct were investigated. cAT-MSCs labeled with dioctadecyl-3,3,3′-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate (1 × 107 cells/kg) were systemically administered to rats and pancreatic tissue was collected three days later for histopathological, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunocytochemical analyses. Greater numbers of infused cAT-MSCs were detected in the pancreas of SAP relative to sham-operated rats. cAT-MSC infusion reduced pancreatic edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and acinar cell necrosis, and decreased pancreatic expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, -12, -17, and -23 and interferon-γ, while stimulating expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in SAP rats. Moreover, cAT-MSCs decreased the number of clusters of differentiation 3-positive T cells and increased that of forkhead box P3-positive T cells in the injured pancreas. These results indicate that cAT-MSCs can be effective as a cell-based therapeutic strategy for treatment of SAP in dogs. PMID:27297425

  17. Comparison of the effect of somatostatin on gastrointestinal function in the conscious and anaesthetized cat and on the isolated cat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Albinus, M; Blair, E L; Case, R M; Coy, D H; Gomez-Pan, A; Hirst, B H; Reed, J D; Schally, A V; Shaw, B; Smith, P A; Smy, J R

    1977-01-01

    1. Somatostatin, 10 microgram kg-1 hr-1, inhibited gastric acid and pepsin secretion stimulated by pentagastrin, 8 microgram kg-1 hr-1, in conscious and anaesthetized cats with chronically implanted gastric fistulae. In the acutely surgically prepared anaesthetized cat, Somatostatin inhibited pepsin secretion but produced little inhibition of gastric acid secretion or mucosal blood flow. 2. Secretin stimulated pancreatic juice volume was not significantly reduced in acutely prepared anaesthetized cats, but there was a limited reduction of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin stimulated pancreatic amylase secretion and gall bladder contraction. 3. Somatostatin had neither stimulatory nor inhibitory effects on electrolyte and amylase secretion in the isolated saline-perfused cat pancreas. 4. The results suggest that some of the effects of Somatostatin may depend on the interaction on the target cell of other factors, nervous or humoral which may vary in different experimental preparations. PMID:330838

  18. Lung Perfusion Scanning in Hepatic Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, N. N.; Ackrill, P.; Wood, J.

    1972-01-01

    Abnormal lung perfusion scans using radioactive particles were found in five out of six cases of hepatic cirrhosis with arterial hypoxaemia. None had clinical evidence of cardiopulmonary disease or signs of pulmonary embolism on arteriography. The scan defects are probably caused by a disorder of the pulmonary microvasculature, which may show regional variation in severity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4645896

  19. Coupling between resting cerebral perfusion and EEG.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, R L; Poil, S-S; Brandeis, D; Klaver, P; Bollmann, S; Ghisleni, C; Lüchinger, R; Martin, E; Shankaranarayanan, A; Alsop, D C; Michels, L

    2013-07-01

    While several studies have investigated interactions between the electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging BOLD signal fluctuations, less is known about the associations between EEG oscillations and baseline brain haemodynamics, and few studies have examined the link between EEG power outside the alpha band and baseline perfusion. Here we compare whole-brain arterial spin labelling perfusion MRI and EEG in a group of healthy adults (n = 16, ten females, median age: 27 years, range 21-48) during an eyes closed rest condition. Correlations emerged between perfusion and global average EEG power in low (delta: 2-4 Hz and theta: 4-7 Hz), middle (alpha: 8-13 Hz), and high (beta: 13-30 Hz and gamma: 30-45 Hz) frequency bands in both cortical and sub-cortical regions. The correlations were predominately positive in middle and high-frequency bands, and negative in delta. In addition, central alpha frequency positively correlated with perfusion in a network of brain regions associated with the modulation of attention and preparedness for external input, and central theta frequency correlated negatively with a widespread network of cortical regions. These results indicate that the coupling between average EEG power/frequency and local cerebral blood flow varies in a frequency specific manner. Our results are consistent with longstanding concepts that decreasing EEG frequencies which in general map onto decreasing levels of activation.

  20. Nuclear cardiology: Myocardial perfusion and function

    SciTech Connect

    Seldin, D.W. )

    1991-08-01

    Myocardial perfusion studies continue to be a major focus of research, with new investigations of the relationship of exercise-redistribution thallium imaging to diagnosis, prognosis, and case management. The redistribution phenomenon, which seemed to be fairly well understood a few years ago, is now recognized to be much more complex than originally thought, and various strategies have been proposed to clarify the meaning of persistent defects. Pharmacologic intervention with dipyridamole and adenosine has become available as an alternative to exercise, and comparisons with exercise imaging and catheterization results have been described. Thallium itself is no longer the sole single-photon perfusion radiopharmaceutical; two new technetium agents are now widely available. In addition to perfusion studies, advances in the study of ventricular function have been made, including reports of studies performed in conjunction with technetium perfusion studies, new insights into cardiac physiology, and the prognostic and case-management information that function studies provide. Finally, work has continued with monoclonal antibodies for the identification of areas of myocyte necrosis. 41 references.

  1. A reappraisal of retrograde cerebral perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Brain protection during aortic arch surgery by perfusing cold oxygenated blood into the superior vena cava was first reported by Lemole et al. In 1990 Ueda and associates first described the routine use of continuous retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) in thoracic aortic surgery for the purpose of cerebral protection during the interval of obligatory interruption of anterograde cerebral flow. The beneficial effects of RCP may be its ability to sustain brain hypothermia during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) and removal of embolic material from the arterial circulation of the brain. RCP can offer effective brain protection during HCA for about 40 to 60 minutes. Animal experiments revealed that RCP provided inadequate cerebral perfusion and that neurological recovery was improved with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP), however, both RCP and ACP provide comparable clinical outcomes regarding both the mortality and stroke rates by risk-adjusted and case-matched comparative study. RCP still remains a valuable adjunct for brain protection during aortic arch repair in particular pathologies and patients. PMID:23977600

  2. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A; Kamshilin, Alexei A; Närhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology.

  3. Asynchronicity of Facial Blood Perfusion in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A.; Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Närhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A.; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  4. An immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in raptors.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-12-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the endocrine pancreas of 10 raptors (golden eagles, peregrine falcons, Saker falcon, turkey vultures, red-tailed hawk and unspecified falcon) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Three islet types were identified: type A mixed islets composed mainly by glucagon (A)-secreting cells, type B mixed islets with predominantly insulin (B)-secreting cell component and type M mixed islets (type M) consisting of variable number of glucagon-, insulin- and somatostatin (D)-secreting cells. The latter were further characterized into Type I, II or III according to the cell distribution of the three cell types. A and D cells were also randomly scattered within the exocrine pancreas. The results of this study suggest that the classical concept in birds of a segregation of A and B cells in well-defined and distinct islets is not applicable in raptors, reflecting an evolutionary adaptation to different dietary habits and variation in developmental mechanisms.

  5. Non-functioning Well Differentiated Endocrine Carcinoma of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The author reports a typical but rare case of non-functioning well differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain. No hormone-related symptoms were recognized. He has no familiar history of pancreatic neoplasms. Various imaging modalities including US, CT and MRI revealed a tumor of the pancreatic body. Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. A solid well demarcated tumor was present in the pancreatic body. Peripancreatic lymph nodes showed marked swelling suggestive of metastases. Immunohistyochemically, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and CD56; they were negative for chromogranin, gastrin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The pathological diagnosis was non-functioning well differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. PMID:27990210

  6. Outcome Measures for Artificial Pancreas Clinical Trials: A Consensus Report.

    PubMed

    Maahs, David M; Buckingham, Bruce A; Castle, Jessica R; Cinar, Ali; Damiano, Edward R; Dassau, Eyal; DeVries, J Hans; Doyle, Francis J; Griffen, Steven C; Haidar, Ahmad; Heinemann, Lutz; Hovorka, Roman; Jones, Timothy W; Kollman, Craig; Kovatchev, Boris; Levy, Brian L; Nimri, Revital; O'Neal, David N; Philip, Moshe; Renard, Eric; Russell, Steven J; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Zisser, Howard; Lum, John W

    2016-07-01

    Research on and commercial development of the artificial pancreas (AP) continue to progress rapidly, and the AP promises to become a part of clinical care. In this report, members of the JDRF Artificial Pancreas Project Consortium in collaboration with the wider AP community 1) advocate for the use of continuous glucose monitoring glucose metrics as outcome measures in AP trials, in addition to HbA1c, and 2) identify a short set of basic, easily interpreted outcome measures to be reported in AP studies whenever feasible. Consensus on a broader range of measures remains challenging; therefore, reporting of additional metrics is encouraged as appropriate for individual AP studies or study groups. Greater consistency in reporting of basic outcome measures may facilitate the interpretation of study results by investigators, regulatory bodies, health care providers, payers, and patients themselves, thereby accelerating the widespread adoption of AP technology to improve the lives of people with type 1 diabetes.

  7. Implication of epigenetics in pancreas development and disease.

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Evans; Haumaitre, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    Pancreas development is controlled by a complex interaction of signaling pathways and transcription factor networks that determine pancreatic specification and differentiation of exocrine and endocrine cells. Epigenetics adds a new layer of gene regulation. DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs recently appeared as important epigenetic factors regulating pancreas development. In this review, we report recent findings obtained by analyses in model organisms as well as genome-wide approaches that demonstrate the role of these epigenetic regulators in the control of exocrine and endocrine cell differentiation, identity, function, proliferation and regeneration. We also highlight how altered epigenetic processes contribute to pancreatic disorders: diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Uncovering these epigenetic events can help to better understand these diseases, provide novel therapeutical targets for their treatment, and improve cell-based therapies for diabetes.

  8. Endoscopic Ultrasound Elastography: Current Clinical Use in Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Utpal; Henkes, Nichole; Patel, Sandeep; Rosenkranz, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Elastography is a newer technique for the assessment of tissue elasticity using ultrasound. Cancerous tissue is known to be stiffer (hence, less elastic) than corresponding healthy tissue, and as a result, could be identified in an elasticity-based imaging. Ultrasound elastography has been used in the breast, thyroid, and cervix to differentiate malignant from benign neoplasms and to guide or avoid unnecessary biopsies. In the liver, elastography has enabled a noninvasive and reliable estimate of fibrosis. Endoscopic ultrasound has become a robust diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the management of pancreatic diseases. The addition of elastography to endoscopic ultrasound enabled further characterization of pancreas lesions, and several European and Asian studies have reported encouraging results. The current clinical role of endoscopic ultrasound elastography in the management of pancreas disorders and related literature are reviewed.

  9. Diagnosis and management of solid pseudopapillary tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M M; Khan, Z R; Hossain, M S

    2010-10-01

    The finding of a solid or cystic mass in the pancreas is becoming more common secondary to the increasing use of cross-sectional imaging and the improved sensitivity of such studies for the detection of pancreatic abnormalities. Because of the aggressive natural history of pancreatic cancer, this has caused concern that all pancreatic abnormalities may be cancer as well as confusion over proper diagnostic and treatment algorithms. This review provides an overview of the natural history, diagnostic considerations, and treatment recommendations for the less common tumor of the pancreas which can be misinterpreted as pancreatic cancer: solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPT). A Medline search was conducted to identify studies investigating the clinicopath-ologic features, molecular genetics, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of SPT. It is often possible to obtain an accurate pretreatment diagnosis for this unusual pancreatic tumor and to successfully differentiate them from the more common pancreatic malignancies.

  10. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of pancreas; second case from Asia.

    PubMed

    Changal, Khalid Hamid; Mir, Mohmad Hussain; Azaz, Sheikh Aejaz; Qadri, Sumyra Khurshid; Lone, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) are malignant tumours composed of small round cells of neuroectodermal origin that affect soft tissue and bone. PNETs originating in the pancreas are extremely rare; previous to this report, only 14 cases were reported worldwide, making this case the fifteenth in the world and the second in Asia. We present the case of a painful pancreatic lump diagnosed as PNET of the pancreas after a thorough workup. The diagnosis of PNET is made according to the overall clinical picture, imaging, histopathology, cytogenetics, and immunohistochemistry, as in the case we present. It is essential to differentiate primary pancreatic PNET from a secondary involvement. A review of all of the cases diagnosed worldwide thus far is also provided.

  11. Computed tomography of cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Moss, A.A.; Ohtomo, K.

    1982-11-01

    Ten cases of cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas were examined by computed tomography (CT). All but one showed characteristic findings consisting of both cystic and solid components. Innumerable small cysts producing a honeycomb appearance were noticed in serous cystadenomas. A well-defined multilocular cystic mass containing thin, straight, and/or curvilinear septa or a unilocular cystic tumor with a papillary projection and locally thickened wall was present in mucinous cystadenomas. The CT findings in cystadenocarcinomas varied depending on the relative size of the cystic and solid portions and the grade of malignancy. CT was useful in detecting and diagnosing cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and differentiating benign serous cystadenomas from potentially malignant cystadenomas in typical cases. However, aspiration biopsy is recommended when findings are equivocal.

  12. Survivin expression in canine epidermis and in canine and human cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Laura; Colombi, Isabella; Fortunato, Carmine; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2009-10-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is ubiquitously expressed during tissue development, undetectable in most normal tissues, but re-expressed in most cancers, including skin malignancies. Expression of survivin was evaluated retrospectively in 19 canine cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; one in situ; 16 well differentiated; one invasive, one lymph node metastasis) and 19 well differentiated SCCs from human beings. Seven specimens of normal canine skin were included. Immunohistochemical expression of full-length survivin was determined using a commercially available antibody. In addition, apoptotic rate [Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labelling index (TUNEL) index] and mitotic index (MI), counting mitoses in 10 high power fields (HPF), were determined. Scattered survivin positive nuclei were identified in the epidermal basal cell layer of normal canine skin. Nuclear survivin expression was identified in 18 of 19 human and in all canine SCCs, mainly along the base of the tumour cell population. Cytoplasmic survivin expression was rarely observed in human SCCs and in 84.2% of canine SCCs. The TUNEL index ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 in human beings and from 7.5 to 69.4 in dogs, while MIs ranged from 0 to 4 in human beings and dogs. No correlation was found between survivin expression and apoptotic or mitotic rates. Canine and human tumours showed similar nuclear survivin expression, indicating similar functions of the molecule. We demonstrated survivin expression in normal adult canine epidermis. Increased nuclear survivin expression in pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions demonstrates a possible association of survivin with development of SCCs in human beings and dogs.

  13. Enterogenous reduplication cyst of the pancreas. A case report.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, A; Montesani, C; Narilli, P; Procacciante, F; Pagni, I; Ribotta, G

    1984-01-01

    A case of enterogenous cyst of the head of the pancreas is reported. The cyst was shown to be endowed with both secreting and absorbing intestinal epithelium. The surgical treatment consisted in the removal of the whole cyst. The approach to be followed in the case of this extremely rare disease is briefly discussed, underlining that the present is the third such case to date reported in the literature.

  14. Giardia lamblia infection after pancreas-kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Ann Abkjaer; Horneland, Rune; Birn, Henrik; Svensson, My

    2016-01-18

    Infection is a common complication of solid organ transplantation. It is associated with an increased risk of acute cellular rejection and loss of graft function. The most common infections are due to bacteria and viruses, including transmission of cytomegalovirus from donor to recipient. In the past years, an increasing number of parasitic infections have been documented in transplant recipients. We describe the first reported case of intestinal Giardia lamblia transmission following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation.

  15. Clinical outcome of pancreas transplantation from marginal donors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomimaru, Y; Ito, T; Kawamoto, K; Hama, N; Wada, H; Kobayashi, S; Eguchi, H; Tanemura, M; Mori, M; Doki, Y; Nagano, H

    2014-04-01

    In Japan, absolute shortage of donors still continues even after the law allowing organ transplantation from deceased donors came into force in 1997. With the passage of the waiting period after registration for pancreas transplantation (PTx), both deaths and serious cases of diabetic complications necessitating withdrawal of the registration have undoubtedly increased. Therefore, so-called "marginal donor" (MD) has been considered as a potential solution for shortage of donors in Japan. The aim of the present study is to evaluate feasibility of MD in terms of post-PTx outcomes using data from Japan Organ Transplantation Network. A total of 148 PTx were performed from deceased donors in Japan from 2000 to 2012. MD was defined as follows: (1) >45 years old; (2) hemodynamically unstable at harvest using a high-dose dopamine or more than 2 vasopressors; or (3) non-heart-beating status. Postoperative outcomes after PTx were compared between the MD group and the non-MD group. Among the 148 PTx donors, 108 donors (73.0%) satisfied the criteria of MD. Early graft loss of pancreas graft during 3 months post-transplant was observed in 15 patients (10.1%), and the marginality (MD vs non-MD) was not significantly correlated with the early loss of pancreas graft. The overall patient survival of the MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 94.7%, 94.7%, 94.7%) was not significantly different from that of the non-MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 95.0%, 95.0%, 95.0%). Pancreas graft survival in the MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 80.9%, 73.2%, 66.0%) seemed to be slightly lower than that in the non-MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 92.5%, 85.2%, 77.4%), but no statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups. These results suggest the feasibility of the use of MD for PTx.

  16. Pancreatic endometrial cyst mimics mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Mederos, Michael A; Villafañe, Nicole; Dhingra, Sadhna; Farinas, Carlos; McElhany, Amy; Fisher, William E; Van Buren II, George

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cysts include a variety of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions. Endometrial cysts in the pancreas are exceedingly rare lesions that are difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. This report describes the findings in a 43-year-old patient with a recent episode of acute pancreatitis who presented with a large cyst in the tail of the pancreas. Imaging demonstrated a loculated pancreatic cyst, and cyst fluid aspiration revealed an elevated amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen. The patient experienced an interval worsening of abdominal pain, fatigue, diarrhea, and a 15-pound weight loss 3 mo after the initial episode of pancreatitis. With concern for a possible pre-malignant lesion, the patient underwent a laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, which revealed a 16 cm × 12 cm × 4 cm lesion. Final histopathology was consistent with an intra-pancreatic endometrial cyst. Here we discuss the overlapping imaging and laboratory features of pancreatic endometrial cysts and mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. PMID:28246486

  17. Endothelial cell promotion of early liver and pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Deborah A; Kashima, Yasushige; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    Different steps of embryonic pancreas and liver development require inductive signals from endothelial cells. During liver development, interactions between newly specified hepatic endoderm cells and nascent endothelial cells are crucial for the endoderm's subsequent growth and morphogenesis into a liver bud. Reconstitution of endothelial cell stimulation of hepatic cell growth with embryonic tissue explants demonstrated that endothelial signalling occurs independent of the blood supply. During pancreas development, midgut endoderm interactions with aortic endothelial cells induce Ptf1a, a crucial pancreatic determinant. Endothelial cells also have a later effect on pancreas development, by promoting survival of the dorsal mesenchyme, which in turn produces factors supporting pancreatic endoderm. A major goal of our laboratory is to determine the endothelial-derived molecules involved in these inductive events. Our data show that cultured endothelial cells induce Ptf1a in dorsal endoderm explants lacking an endogenous vasculature. We are purifying endothelial cell line product(s) responsible for this effect. We are also identifying endothelial-responsive regulatory elements in genes such as Ptf1a by genetic mapping and chromatin-based assays. These latter approaches will allow us to track endothelial-responsive signal pathways from DNA targets within progenitor cells. The diversity of organogenic steps dependent upon endothelial cell signalling suggests that cross-regulation of tissue development with its vasculature is a general phenomenon.

  18. Mallotus roxburghianus modulates antioxidant responses in pancreas of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, V K; Chenkual, L; Gurusubramanian, G

    2016-03-01

    Mallotus roxburghianus has long been used by Mizo tribal people for the treatment of diabetes. Scientific validation at known doses may provide information about its safety and efficacy. Methanolic leaf extract of M. roxburghianus (MRME 100 and 400mg/kg) was tested in comparison with normal and alloxan diabetic rats for 28 days p.o. in terms of body and pancreatic weight, blood glucose level, antioxidant enzymes, expression of visfatin and PCNA, histopathology and histomorphometric measurements of pancreas. The results were evaluated statistically using ANOVA, correlation and regression and Principal component analysis (PCO). MRME (100 and 400mg/kg) treatment significantly (p<0.0001) decreased the body weight, blood glucose level, improved the mass and size of pancreas, elevated the levels of antioxidant enzymes and up regulate the expression of visfatin and PCNA. PCO analysis was good to fitness and prediction distinguishes the therapeutic effects of M. roxburghianus from the alloxan induced diabetic rats. MRME has significant role in protecting animals from alloxan-induced diabetic oxidative stress in pancreas and exhibited promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities along with significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status and lipid peroxidative damage. Pancreatic architecture and physiology under diabetic oxidative stress have been significantly modulated by MRME and validated as a drug candidate for antidiabetic treatment. M. roxburghianus treatment restores the antioxidant enzyme system and rejuvenates the islets mass in alloxanized rat by accelerating visfatin and PCNA expression in pancreatic tissue.

  19. Designing an artificial pancreas architecture: the AP@home experience.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, Giordano; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2015-12-01

    The latest achievements in sensor technologies for blood glucose level monitoring, pump miniaturization for insulin delivery, and the availability of portable computing devices are paving the way toward the artificial pancreas as a treatment for diabetes patients. This device encompasses a controller unit that oversees the administration of insulin micro-boluses and continuously drives the pump based on blood glucose readings acquired in real time. In order to foster the research on the artificial pancreas and prepare for its adoption as a therapy, the European Union in 2010 funded the AP@home project, following a series of efforts already ongoing in the USA. This paper, authored by members of the AP@home consortium, reports on the technical issues concerning the design and implementation of an architecture supporting the exploitation of an artificial pancreas platform. First a PC-based platform was developed by the authors to prove the effectiveness and reliability of the algorithms responsible for insulin administration. A mobile-based one was then adopted to improve the comfort for the patients. Both platforms were tested on real patients, and a description of the goals, the achievements, and the major shortcomings that emerged during those trials is also reported in the paper.

  20. The influence of socioeconomic deprivation on outcomes in pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Usman; Laftsidis, Prodromos; Chapman, Dawn; Stephens, Michael R; Asderakis, Argiris

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation is an important factor in determining poor health and is associated with a higher prevalence of many chronic diseases including diabetes and renal failure, with poorer outcomes of their treatments. The influence of deprivation on outcomes following pancreas transplantation has not previously been reported. The Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation was used to assess the influence of socioeconomic deprivation on outcomes for 119 consecutive pancreas transplant recipients from a single center in the United Kingdom, transplanted between 2004 and 2013. Outcomes measured were rate of acute rejection and graft survival. Thirty-five (29.4%) patients experienced at least one episode of acute rejection following their transplant. Rejection rates in least deprived were 37% and most deprived 24% (p = 0.29). Within the individual domains, rejection rate was higher for the "physical environment" domain (least deprived 40% vs. most deprived 17% (p = 0.053). Five-year graft survival for least and most deprived groups was 75% and 88%, respectively (log-rank test p-value 0.24). This study has not demonstrated any significant differences in outcomes following pancreas transplantation in Wales in relation to socioeconomic deprivation with the exception possibly of the "physical environment" domain. Further studies with larger patient population or concentrating on physical environment deprivation would be of interest.

  1. Monitoring Artificial Pancreas Trials Through Agent-based Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Scarpellini, Stefania; Di Palma, Federico; Toffanin, Chiara; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the availability and reliability of network connections lets envision systems supporting a continuous remote monitoring of clinical parameters useful either for overseeing chronic diseases or for following clinical trials involving outpatients. We report here the results achieved by a telemedicine infrastructure that has been linked to an artificial pancreas platform and used during a trial of the AP@home project, funded by the European Union. The telemedicine infrastructure is based on a multiagent paradigm and is able to deliver to the clinic any information concerning the patient status and the operation of the artificial pancreas. A web application has also been developed, so that the clinic staff and the researchers involved in the design of the blood glucose control algorithms are able to follow the ongoing experiments. Albeit the duration of the experiments in the trial discussed in the article was limited to only 2 days, the system proved to be successful for monitoring patients, in particular overnight when the patients are sleeping. Based on that outcome we can conclude that the infrastructure is suitable for the purpose of accomplishing an intelligent monitoring of an artificial pancreas either during longer trials or whenever that system will be used as a routine treatment. PMID:24876570

  2. Autoimmune diabetes recurrence should be routinely monitored after pancreas transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Martins, La Salete

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune type 1 diabetes recurrence in pancreas grafts was first described 30 years ago, but it is not yet completely understood. In fact, the number of transplants affected and possibly lost due to this disease may be falsely low. There may be insufficient awareness to this entity by clinicians, leading to underdiagnosis. Some authors estimate that half of the immunological losses in pancreas transplantation are due to autoimmunity. Pancreas biopsy is the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis. However, as an invasive procedure, it is not the ideal approach to screen the disease. Pancreatic autoantibodies which may be detected early before graft dysfunction, when searched for, are probably the best initial tool to establish the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to revisit the autoimmune aspects of type 1 diabetes and to analyse data about the identified autoantibodies, as serological markers of the disease. Therapeutic strategies used to control the disease, though with unsatisfactory results, are also addressed. In addition, the author’s own experience with the prospective monitoring of pancreatic autoantibodies after transplantation and its correlation with graft outcome will be discussed. PMID:25346891

  3. The Endocrine Pancreas: insights into development, differentiation and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the developing embryo, appropriate patterning of the endoderm fated to become pancreas requires the spatial and temporal coordination of soluble factors secreted by the surrounding tissues. Once pancreatic progenitor cells are specified in the developing gut tube epithelium, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, as well as a cascade of transcription factors, subsequently delineate three distinct lineages, including endocrine, exocrine and ductal cells. Simultaneous morphological changes, including branching, vascularization, and proximal organ development, also influence the process of specification and differentiation. Decades of research using mouse genetics have uncovered many of the key factors involved in pancreatic cell fate decisions. When pancreas development or islet cell functions go awry, due to mutation in genes important for proper organogenesis and development, the result can lead to a common pancreatic affliction, diabetes mellitus. Current treatments for diabetes are adequate but not curative. Therefore researchers are utilizing the current understanding of normal embryonic pancreas development in vivo, to direct embryonic stem cells toward a pancreatic fate with the goal of transplanting these in vitro generated “islets” into patients. Mimicking development in vitro has proven difficult; however, significant progress has been made and the current differentiation protocols are becoming more efficient. The continued partnership between developmental biologists and stem cell researchers will guarantee that the in vitro generation of insulin-producing beta cells is a possible therapeutic option for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22905335

  4. Von Hippel-Lindau disease involving pancreas and biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xu-Ting; Bo, Qi-Yu; Zhao, Feng; Sun, Dong; Li, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare inherited, autosomal-dominant syndrome caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the VHL gene. VHL patients are prone to develop benign and malignant tumors and cysts in multiple organ systems involving kidneys, pancreas and central nervous system (CNS). The varied and complex clinical manifestations and radiological findings of VHL are of interest. Patient concerns: We report a 38-year-old woman with a ten-year history of VHL disease involving both pancreas and biliary system. To the best of our knowledge, direct involvement of the biliary system in VHL disease has never been reported. Diagnoses: The diagnosis was established via computed tomography scan and was confirmed by genetic testing. Interventions: The patient chose to receive conservative treatment and was followed up by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance imaging examination. Outcomes: Renal angiomas and cysts were found during follow-up and there were no evidence of malignant change of the pancreas and biliary system. Lessons: We described the first case of VHL-associated choledochal cysts and may present new visceral manifestations of VHL disease. Gastroenterologists should be aware of the clinical presentations of this rare disease for early detection of its life-threatening manifestations. PMID:28072736

  5. [A case of chronic pancreatitis occurring in gastric aberrant pancreas poorly distinguishable from gastric aberrant pancreas ductal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sayaka; Miyaoka, Youichi; Fujiwara, Aya; Tsukano, Kousuke; Kotani, Satoshi; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Ito, Satoko; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Nariaki; Onuma, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    A man in his 40s was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain. A gastric submucosal tumor (SMT) was diagnosed nine years previously, but the patient was lost to follow-up. Upon our evaluation, the SMT had enlarged, as demonstrated by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and abdominal computed tomography. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic and isoechoic mosaic mass, which primarily occupied the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Aspiration cytodiagnosis was performed, the results of which led to a suspicion of adenocarcinoma arising from gastric ectopic pancreas. Next, we conducted segmental gastrectomy. Pathological examination showed adiponecrosis, a pancreatic stone, chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, and fibrosis. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis occurring in a gastric aberrant pancreas.

  6. Sexual dimorphism in canine shape among extant great apes.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J

    1995-04-01

    There have been numerous attempts to sex fossil specimens using the canine dentition. Whether focused on canine size or canine shape, most of these efforts share two deficiencies: lack of quantification of male-female differences in the adopted criteria and a failure to adequately explore among extant species the discriminatory power of these criteria. Here, canine shape indices relating to relative canine height, upper canine root/crown proportionality, and relative length of the lower canine mesial ridge were calculated for males and females of all species and subspecies of extant great apes and two species of gibbons. The accuracy of these indices for identifying the sex of the extant ape specimens was investigated through discriminant analysis and the use of bivariate plots of the two upper and two lower canine indices. The indices were found to be highly accurate in identifying the sex of great ape individuals, not only in single-species and subspecies samples but in mixed-species samples as well; assignment error rates were mostly between 0 and 4%. Accuracy was lowest in Pan (error rates as high as 15%) and highest in Pongo (one error). In most cases, error rates were lower in the upper canines. The effectiveness of these shape indices for sexing might be related to the degree of absolute canine size dimorphism; the indices did not effectively segregate males and females among minimally canine-dimorphic gibbons. The mixed-species results reveal that same-sex index values are remarkably concordant across great ape species, as are the patterns of spatial segregation of males and females in the bivariate plots. Results suggest that, while the indices can be used with some confidence to sex individual fossil specimens, their greatest utility will be for identifying the sex of groups of canines united by size and morphology.

  7. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Nagihan; Çağırankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

  8. Selective cerebral perfusion for cerebral protection: what we do know

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Gilbert H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) for aortic arch surgery has evolved considerably since it was first reported. Various pressure rates have been investigated through animal models, as has the effect of warmer perfusate temperatures and hematocrit. Clinical research into pH management, the role of unilateral and bilateral perfusion, and core temperatures have further refined the procedure. We recommend the following protocol for SACP: perfusion pressure between 40-60 mmHg, flow rates between 6-10 mL/kg/min, and perfusate temperature of 20-28 °C; core cooling to 18-30 °C contingent on duration of arrest; alpha-stat pH management; hematocrit between 25-30%; near infrared spectroscopy to monitor cerebral perfusion; and bilateral perfusion when prolonged durations of SACP is anticipated. PMID:23977601

  9. Interstitial pneumonia in neonatal canine pups with evidence of canine distemper virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Karamjeet; Podell, Brendan; Gould, Daniel H; Johnson, Bill J; Thompson, Sheri

    2006-03-01

    Four dead canine pups (5-12 days old) from 3 litters in Douglas County of north central Colorado were submitted to the Colorado State University Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. Pups were originally presented to the referring clinics for respiratory tract illness, with or without diarrhea. At necropsy, the lungs from all pups had similar lesions, including random foci of hemorrhage and failure to collapse on opening of the thoracic cavity. The lungs were histologically characterized by subacute interstitial pneumonia, with alveolar septa expanded by a histiocyte-rich infiltrate with a few lymphocytes and neutrophils. The alveolar spaces were filled with moderate amounts of proteinaceous fluid, foamy macrophages, and a few neutrophils. Lungs from 3 of the 4 pups were test positive for canine distemper virus (CDV) by use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Immunohistochemically stained lungs, including those from the pup that were CDV negative, by use of RT-PCR analysis, were test positive for CDV antigen in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells and in a few alveolar macrophages. Central nervous system lesions were not observed in any of the 4 pups. These cases represent an unusual presentation of canine distemper in neonatal pups marked by respiratory tract lesions without central nervous system involvement. Canine distemper should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal canine respiratory tract illness.

  10. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion abnormalities and ventilation perfusion imbalance in children with pulmonary atresia or extreme tetralogy of Fallot

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdle, S.C.; Human, D.G.; Mann, M.D. )

    1990-08-01

    Xenon-133 lung ventilation and perfusion scans were done preoperatively after cardiac catheterization and cineangiocardiography in 19 children; 6 had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle, 4 pulmonary atresia with associated complex univentricular heart, and 9 extreme Tetralogy of Fallot. The four patients with discrepancies in the sizes of the left and right pulmonary arteries on angiography had marked asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance on scintigraphy. Similar degrees of asymmetry and imbalance were present in 6 of the 15 children with equal-size pulmonary vessels. Asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance were associated with a poor prognosis.

  11. Successful treatment for graft-versus-host disease after pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jei wen; Sageshima, Junichiro; Ciancio, Gaetano; Mattiazzi, Adela; Chen, Linda; Tsai, Hsin-Lin; Ruiz, Phillip; Burke, George W

    2014-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after pancreas transplantation is a rare but serious complication: All previously reported cases were fatal. We herein report three cases of GVHD after pancreas transplantation with favorable outcomes. Patients with a history of kidney (and pancreas) transplantation subsequently received a pancreas (and kidney) transplantation (i.e., pancreas retransplantation or pancreas after kidney transplantation) and developed acute GVHD. All of them responded to increased immunosuppression (e.g., steroid bolus, antithymocyte globulin) and retained normal graft function. Because the clinical manifestations are non-specific, vigilance is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis. We underscored the importance of a biopsy of involved organs and the clinicopathologic correlation in the early diagnosis of GVHD. Augmented immunosuppression to prevent progression from a self-limited disease to life-threatening pancytopenia or sepsis may be most critical to improve outcome.

  12. An annular pancreas associated with carcinoma of the papilla of Vater: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Naoki; Imaizumi, Toshihide; Furukawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Masahiro; Gunji, Hisashi; Kato, Kenichiro; Tobita, Kosuke; Nakagohri, Toshio; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Ogoshi, Kyoji

    2012-05-01

    An annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital anomaly that usually presents early in childhood. Malignancy in the setting of an annular pancreas is unusual. We herein report a case of annular pancreas with carcinoma of the papilla of Vater. A 59-year-old man presented with epigastric discomfort and was referred to us after gastroduodenal endoscopy showed a tumor of the papilla of Vater. Preoperative imaging showed the pancreatic parenchyma encircling the descending duodenum and a tumor at the papilla of Vater. A pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed for the annular pancreas and the ampullary tumor. Histological examination confirmed a complete annular pancreas and carcinoma in situ of the papilla of Vater. We also provide a review of the reported cases of an annular pancreas with periampullary neoplasms and discuss the clinical characteristics of this anomaly.

  13. Developmental processes and canine dimorphism in primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary T; Miller, Ellen R; Gunnell, Gregg F

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of canine sexual dimorphism is important for interpreting the developmental biology, socioecology and phylogenetic position of primates. All current evidence for extant primates indicates that canine dimorphism is achieved through bimaturism rather than via differences in rates of crown formation time. Using incremental growth lines, we charted the ontogeny of canine formation within species of Eocene Cantius, the earliest known canine-dimorphic primate, to test whether canine dimorphism via bimaturism was developmentally canalized early in primate evolution. Our results show that canine dimorphism in Cantius is achieved primarily through different rates of crown formation in males and females, not bimaturism. This is the first demonstration of rate differences resulting in canine dimorphism in any primate and therefore suggests that canine dimorphism is not developmentally homologous across Primates. The most likely interpretation is that canine dimorphism has been selected for at least twice during the course of primate evolution. The power of this approach is its ability to identify underlying developmental processes behind patterns of morphological similarity, even in long-extinct primate species.

  14. Interceptive approach to treatment of impacted maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Marcos Rogério; Verri, Ana Caroline Gonçales; Martins, Lídia Pimenta; Fabre, Aubrey Fernando; Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido

    2012-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines can be prevented by early intervention in the mixed dentition phase after the correct diagnosis of malocclusion, reducing the complexity of the treatment. This article reports the case of a 10-year-old patient who possessed impacted maxillary canines and, after early extraction of primary canines, had reestablished favorable permanent successors' eruption axis. This 5-year radiographic follow-up study with panoramic radiography shows that this can be used in practice and that an effective control strategy ensures the accuracy in the inclination of the impacted canines. Treatment success is related to early diagnosis and strategic interceptive treatment choice.

  15. Improving the Outcomes of Organs Obtained From Controlled Donation After Circulatory Death Donors Using Abdominal Normothermic Regional Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Miñambres, E; Suberviola, B; Dominguez-Gil, B; Rodrigo, E; Ruiz-San Millan, J C; Rodríguez-San Juan, J C; Ballesteros, M A

    2017-01-31

    The use of donation after circulatory death (DCD) has increased significantly during the past decade. However, warm ischemia results in a greater risk for transplantation. Indeed, controlled DCD (cDCD) was associated with inferior outcomes compared with donation after brain death. The use of abdominal normothermic regional perfusion (nRP) to restore blood flow before organ recovery in cDCD has been proposed as better than rapid recovery to reverse the effect of ischemia and improve recipients' outcome. Here, the first Spanish series using abdominal nRP as an in situ conditioning method is reported. A specific methodology to avoid restoring circulation to the brain after death determination is described. Twenty-seven cDCD donors underwent abdominal nRP during at least 60 min. Thirty-seven kidneys, 11 livers, six bilateral lungs, and one pancreas were transplanted. The 1-year death-censored kidney survival was 91%, and delayed graft function rate was 27%. The 1-year liver survival rate was 90.1% with no cases of ischemic cholangiopathy. Transplanted lungs and pancreas exhibited primary function. The use of nRP may represent an advance to increase the number and quality of grafts in cDCD. Poor results in cDCD livers could be reversed with nRP. Concerns about restoring brain circulation after death are easily solved.

  16. The Groningen hypothermic liver perfusion pump: functional evaluation of a new machine perfusion system.

    PubMed

    van der Plaats, A; Maathuis, M H J; 'T Hart, N A; Bellekom, A A; Hofker, H S; van der Houwen, E B; Verkerke, G J; Leuvenink, H G D; Verdonck, P; Ploeg, R J; Rakhorst, G

    2006-12-01

    To improve preservation of donor livers, we have developed a portable hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) system as an alternative for static cold storage. A prototype of the system was built and evaluated on functionality. Evaluation criteria included 24 h of adequate pressure controlled perfusion, sufficient oxygenation, a maintained 0-4 degrees C temperature and sterile conditions. Porcine livers were perfused with pump pressures that were set at 4 mmHg (continuous, portal vein) and 30/20 mmHg, at 60 BPM (pulsatile, hepatic artery). Control livers were preserved using the clinical golden standard: static cold storage. In the HMP group, pressure, flow and temperature were continuously monitored for 24 h. At time-points t = 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h samples of University of Wisconsin machine preservation solution were taken for measurement of partial oxygen pressure (pO(2)) and lacto-dehydrogenase. Biopsies in every lobe were taken for histology and electron microscopy; samples of ice, preservation solution, liver surface, and bile were taken and cultured to determine sterility. Results showed that temperature was maintained at 0-4 degrees C; perfusion pressure was maintained at 4 mmHg and 30/20 mmHg for portal vein and hepatic artery, respectively. Flow was approximately 350 and 80 ml/min, respectively, but decreased in the portal vein, probably due to edema formation. Arterial pO(2) was kept at 100 kPa. Histology showed complete perfusion of the liver with no major damage to hepatocytes, bile ducts, and non-parenchymal cells compared to control livers. The machine perfusion system complied to the design criteria and will have to demonstrate the superiority of machine perfusion over cold storage in transplant experiments.

  17. Annular pancreas complicated by carcinoma of the bile duct: diagnosis by MR cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Y; Sugiyama, M; Sato, Y; Mine, Y; Yamato, T; Ishida, H; Takahashi, S

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that annular pancreas should be evaluated for coexisting malignant tumors. However, no cases have been reported in which magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography clearly demonstrated an annular pancreas complicated by bile duct carcinoma. We present a case that emphasizes the importance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography in directly confirming a diagnosis of annular pancreas complicated by bile duct carcinoma.

  18. Mapping lubricin in canine musculoskeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yulong; Berger, Evelyn J; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Jay, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Lubricin, also known as superficial zone protein or PRG4, has many distinct biological functions, including lubrication, antiadhesion, and as a regulator of cell growth. This study investigated lubricin in canine musculoskeletal tissues using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. One or more variants were noted in canine flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon, Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, A2 pulley, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee lateral collateral ligament (LCL), articular cartilage, meniscus, muscle, and skin. We found 6 N-terminal lubricin splicing variants. The variants with larger sizes were identified in FDP tendon, ACL, LCL, A2 pulley, and cartilage. Lubricin was distributed both on the tissue surfaces and at the interface of fiber bundles within tissues, but this distribution varied by tissue type. We conclude that lubricin is present in many tissues; variations in splicing and physical distribution suggest that the variants of lubricin may play different roles in different locations.

  19. Reevaluating canine perspective-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Udell, Monique A R; Wynne, Clive D L

    2011-12-01

    Udell, Dorey, and Wynne (2011) demonstrated that both domesticated and nondomesticated canids-specifically, gray wolves-have the capacity to succeed on perspective-taking tasks, suggesting that dogs' ability to respond to the human attentional state is not a by-product of domestication alone. Furthermore, not all dogs were successful on the task. Instead, the occluder type used was a strong predictor of performance, indicating the important role of environment and experience for tasks of this type. Here, we address several commentaries reflecting on the methods and design of that study, as well as the interpretation of the results. We also discuss the positive shift toward more interactive approaches in the field of canine behavior and cognition. Finally, we question the functionality of describing canine social behavior in terms of theory of mind.

  20. Serologic investigations of canine parvovirus and canine distemper in relation to wolf (Canis lupus) pup mortalities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Boyd, D K; Pletscher, D H

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern Montana (USA) and southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper (CD), infectious canine hepatitis, and Lyme disease; we found prevalences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of 20 wolves for these diseases, respectively. Pups died or disappeared in three of the eight packs studied. In these three packs, adult pack members had CPV titers > or = 1,600 or CD titers > or = 1,250. In packs that successfully raised pups, CPV and CD titers were low. We propose that CPV or CD may have caused some pup mortalities.

  1. [Restoration of canine guidance using bonded prostheses].

    PubMed

    Maroto García, J; Maroto García, F

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an easy, accurate and aesthetical solution to the problem of the loss, by wastage, of anterior guides in those patients who show facets in initial stages of bruxism (central of peripheral). Using the acid-etch non-precious metals(Cr-Ni-Be) technique we make a metalic plaque covering the posterior face of the upper canines, on which we place a porcelain incisal rim. All of this is fixed with a composed material.

  2. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Expression in Canine Liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Avallone, G; Pellegrino, V; Roccabianca, P; Lepri, E; Crippa, L; Beha, G; De Tolla, L; Sarli, G

    2017-03-01

    The expression of tyrosine kinase receptors is attracting major interest in human and veterinary oncological pathology because of their role as targets for adjuvant therapies. Little is known about tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) expression in canine liposarcoma (LP), a soft tissue sarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of the TKRs fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ); their ligands, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB); and c-kit in canine LP. Immunohistochemical labeling was categorized as high or low expression and compared with the mitotic count and MIB-1-based proliferation index. Fifty canine LPs were examined, classified, and graded. Fourteen cases were classified as well differentiated, 7 as myxoid, 25 as pleomorphic, and 4 as dedifferentiated. Seventeen cases were grade 1, 26 were grade 2, and 7 were grade 3. A high expression of FGF2, FGFR1, PDGFB, and PDGFRβ was identified in 62% (31/50), 68% (34/50), 81.6% (40/49), and 70.8% (34/48) of the cases, respectively. c-kit was expressed in 12.5% (6/48) of the cases. Mitotic count negatively correlated with FGF2 ( R = -0.41; P < .01), being lower in cases with high FGF2 expression, and positively correlated with PDGFRβ ( R = 0.33; P < .01), being higher in cases with high PDGFRβ expression. No other statistically significant correlations were identified. These results suggest that the PDGFRβ-mediated pathway may have a role in the progression of canine LP and may thus represent a promising target for adjuvant cancer therapies.

  3. The treatment of canine demodecosis with amitraz.

    PubMed

    Davis, D A

    1985-03-01

    The treatment of a series of 27 clinical cases of canine demodecosis is reported. Three of 4 applications of a wash containing 0,025% amitraz, together with antimicrobial and antipruritic therapy where necessary, were sufficient to effect clinical cure in 25 out of 26 cases mildly to severely affected. In one case, very severely affected, 9 weekly applications, together with antimicrobial and antipruritic therapy, effected clinical and parasitological cure.

  4. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Madsen, Henrik; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications and markedly improve patient quality of life. An artificial pancreas consists of portable devices for glucose sensing and insulin delivery which are controlled by an algorithm residing on a computer. The technology is still under development and currently no artificial pancreas is commercially available. This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research.

  5. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  6. Imaging of drug effects in perfused liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammann, Marc; Mahlke, Christine; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2002-06-01

    Various medications affect the systemic circulation and organ oxygenation causing dilatation or constriction of blood vessels. Imminent liver failure can be generated by reduced perfusion of different origins. In this case hepatic vasodilatation would be a therapeutical approach for improving patient's condition. Our examinations have been performed in perfused rat liver using spectrometric methods. Two defined areas of the liver were measured punctually. We compared the influence of Tetramethylpyrazine and Glyceroltrinitrate on hemoglobin oxygenation (HbO2) and concentration (Hb-conc.) in rat liver after application of Norepinephrine, which caused a mid decrease in hemoglobin oxygenation of 47,9 %. Both increased the HbO2, but differed from each other in manner of time and extent. Tetramethylpyrazine indicated a longer effect than Glyceroltrinitrate. Furthermore, HbO2 and Hb-conc. showed a conversed relation. From the shape of the absorption spectra it is possible to derive the oxygenation of hemoglobin.

  7. Effect of cardiac dysrhythmia on cerebral perfusion.

    PubMed

    Sand, B J; Rose, H B; Barker, W F

    1976-07-01

    Extracranial carotid arterial obstructive disease has been the entity most commonly associated with transient cerebrovascular insufficiency. A nonobstructive, frequently overlooked cause of cerebral ischemia is cardiac dysrhythmia. We have explored this by observations of experimental animals and of man. Blood flow and pressure in the carotid arteries of dogs were shown to be decreased by mechnically induced premature ventricular contractions. The significance of the cardiogenic contribution to altered cerebrovascular perfusion was studied by ocular and brachial plethysmography in 210 patients suspected by history of having carotid arterial insufficiency. Of the 210 patients, 62 demonstrated abnormal ocular plethysmographic recordings, and of those, nine had dysrhythmias associated with significant deficits of ocular perfusion. Five patients whose recordings were technically suitable for publication are presented to demonstrate the bizarre ocular plethysmographic recordings seen during the dysrhythmic cycle.

  8. Porphysome nanoparticles for enhanced photothermal therapy in a patient-derived orthotopic pancreas xenograft cancer model: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaughlin, Christina M.; Ding, Lili; Jin, Cheng; Cao, Pingjiang; Siddiqui, Iram; Hwang, David M.; Chen, Juan; Wilson, Brian C.; Zheng, Gang; Hedley, David W.

    2016-08-01

    Local disease control is a major challenge in pancreatic cancer treatment, because surgical resection of the primary tumor is only possible in a minority of patients and radiotherapy cannot be delivered in curative doses. Despite the promise of photothermal therapy (PTT) for focal ablation of pancreatic tumors, this approach remains underinvestigated. Using photothermal sensitizers in combination with laser light irradiation for PTT can result in more efficient conversion of light energy to heat and improved spatial confinement of thermal destruction to the tumor. Porphysomes are self-assembled nanoparticles composed mainly of pyropheophorbide-conjugated phospholipids, enabling the packing of ˜80,000 porphyrin photosensitizers per particle. The high-density porphyrin loading imparts enhanced photonic properties and enables high-payload tumor delivery. A patient-derived orthotopic pancreas xenograft model was used to evaluate the feasibility of porphysome-enhanced PTT for pancreatic cancer. Biodistribution and tumor accumulation were evaluated using fluorescence intensity measurements from homogenized tissues and imaging of excised organs. Tumor surface temperature was recorded using IR optical imaging during light irradiation to monitor treatment progress. Histological analyses were conducted to determine the extent of PTT thermal damage. These studies may provide insight into the influence of heat-sink effect on thermal therapy dosimetry for well-perfused pancreatic tumors.

  9. Double-Balloon Catheter for Isolated Liver Perfusion: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergqvist, Lennart; Harnek, Jan

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: Further development of a previously described interventional method for isolated liver perfusion (ILP) with a new double-lumen balloon catheter, and evaluation of the side-effects of such isolation.Methods: In six pigs a double-balloon occlusion catheter was placed via the transjugular approach with its tip in the portal vein. One of the balloons was positioned in the inferior vena cava (IVC), cranial to the origin of the hepatic veins and the other balloon in the portal vein. By the transfemoral approach, a single-balloon occlusion catheter was placed in the IVC caudal to the origin of the hepatic veins. A third catheter was placed by the transfemoral route with the occlusion balloon in the proper hepatic artery. After inflation of all balloons {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-labelled human serum albumin was recirculated through the liver. The isolation was evaluated by repeated measurement of radioactivity levels in peripheral blood. Laboratory tests of liver and pancreas function, and hemoglobin, were taken before, at the end of, and 3 days after the procedure. Blood gases were tested at the beginning and end of the procedure.Results: One pig died during the procedure due to technical failure and was excluded from the study. In the other pigs leakage from the isolated liver to the systemic circulation increased slowly, up to 9.7% (mean) during 30 min of recirculation of the perfusate through the liver. Laboratory tests were normal in all pigs except insignificant acidosis directly after the procedure and the slight elevation of s-ALAT after 3 days.Conclusions: Only minor leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation was noted during ILP performed with a new, double-balloon catheter. There were no serious side effects.

  10. Noncontact blood perfusion mapping in clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovlev, Dmitry; Dwyer, Vincent; Hu, Sijung; Silberschmidt, Vadim

    2016-04-01

    Non-contact imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) to detect pulsatile blood microcirculation in tissue has been selected as a successor to low spatial resolution and slow scanning blood perfusion techniques currently employed by clinicians. The proposed iPPG system employs a novel illumination source constructed of multiple high power LEDs with narrow spectral emission, which are temporally modulated and synchronised with a high performance sCMOS sensor. To ensure spectrum stability and prevent thermal wavelength drift due to junction temperature variations, each LED features a custom-designed thermal management system to effectively dissipate generated heat and auto-adjust current flow. The use of a multi-wavelength approach has resulted in simultaneous microvascular perfusion monitoring at various tissue depths, which is an added benefit for specific clinical applications. A synchronous detection algorithm to extract weak photoplethysmographic pulse-waveforms demonstrated robustness and high efficiency when applied to even small regions of 5 mm2. The experimental results showed evidences that the proposed system could achieve noticeable accuracy in blood perfusion monitoring by creating complex amplitude and phase maps for the tissue under examination.

  11. Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.

  12. Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in man were studied by performing hyperventilation-breathhold single-breath measurements before, during and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase 4, were both markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60 of their preflight standing size, while the height of phase 4 was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of preflights standing. The terminal change in CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close at the end of expiration and units that remain open. This may result from the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographical inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiographic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity at a level larger than acinar.

  13. Vascular perfusion in horses with chronic laminitis.

    PubMed

    Hood, D M; Grosenbaugh, D A; Slater, M R

    1994-05-01

    Vascular perfusion casts were used to define and characterise the macroscopic perfusion defects present in the distal digit of 11 horses affected by chronic laminitis. Five clinically normal horses were used as controls. Based on clinical history and clinical status, horses with chronic laminitis were classified as being potentially treatable or clinically refractory. Eleven macroscopic vascular defects were noted in the casts from horses with laminitis. Four types of lesions were identified in the submural laminar circulation, 3 in the coronary bed and 4 were associated with the solar circulation. Multiple defects were present and a definite trend was noted for the perfusion defects to be worse in the casts of clinically refractory subjects than in those considered treatable. This information suggests that evaluation of circulatory status should add significantly to the ability to separate treatable from clinically refractory patients. Results also indicated that ventral displacement of the third phalanx (sinkers) and compression of the solar vasculature are more prevalent than is presently thought.

  14. Dynamic CT perfusion measurement in a cardiac phantom.

    PubMed

    Ziemer, Benjamin P; Hubbard, Logan; Lipinski, Jerry; Molloi, Sabee

    2015-10-01

    Widespread clinical implementation of dynamic CT myocardial perfusion has been hampered by its limited accuracy and high radiation dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of a dynamic CT myocardial perfusion technique based on first pass analysis (FPA). To test the FPA technique, a pulsatile pump was used to generate known perfusion rates in a range of 0.96-2.49 mL/min/g. All the known perfusion rates were determined using an ultrasonic flow probe and the known mass of the perfusion volume. FPA and maximum slope model (MSM) perfusion rates were measured using volume scans acquired from a 320-slice CT scanner, and then compared to the known perfusion rates. The measured perfusion using FPA (P(FPA)), with two volume scans, and the maximum slope model (P(MSM)) were related to known perfusion (P(K)) by P(FPA) = 0.91P(K) + 0.06 (r = 0.98) and P(MSM) = 0.25P(K) - 0.02 (r = 0.96), respectively. The standard error of estimate for the FPA technique, using two volume scans, and the MSM was 0.14 and 0.30 mL/min/g, respectively. The estimated radiation dose required for the FPA technique with two volume scans and the MSM was 2.6 and 11.7-17.5 mSv, respectively. Therefore, the FPA technique can yield accurate perfusion measurements using as few as two volume scans, corresponding to approximately a factor of four reductions in radiation dose as compared with the currently available MSM. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that the FPA technique can make accurate dynamic CT perfusion measurements over a range of clinically relevant perfusion rates, while substantially reducing radiation dose, as compared to currently available dynamic CT perfusion techniques.

  15. Dependency of tissue necrosis on gelatin sponge particle size after canine hepatic artery embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Ryusaku; Kishi, Kazushi; Nishida, Norifumi; Yang, Ren J.; Sato, Morio

    1997-01-15

    Purpose. To determine the optimal size of gelatin sponge particles (GSPs) to produce maximum tumor necrosis with minimum side effects after canine hepatic artery embolization (HAE). Methods. GSPs were separated into four size ranges: A, up to 200 {mu}m (mean 152) as Gelfoam powder; B, 200-500 {mu}m (mean 336) as Gelfoam powder; C, 500-1000 {mu}m (mean 649) as Spongel; and D, 1000-2000 {mu}m (mean 1382) as Spongel. Three mongrel dogs were assigned randomly to HAE with each particle size. On day 7 after HAE, the livers were removed and subjected to pathological examination. Results. The mean volume of liver necrosis was 11% after embolization, with particle size A, 36.3% with B, 0% with C, and 1% with D. Coagulation necrosis was found in all livers with particles of sizes A and B, and in 1 of 6 with sizes C and D. Bile duct injury was found in five of six dogs with sizes A and B and in none with sizes C and D. Gallbladder necrosis was found in one dog with size B and pancreas necrosis in one with size A. Conclusion. GSPs of 500 {mu}m are considered optimally effective for tissue necrosis according to this model.

  16. Perfusion phantom: An efficient and reproducible method to simulate myocardial first-pass perfusion measurements with cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Chiribiri, Amedeo; Schuster, Andreas; Ishida, Masaki; Hautvast, Gilion; Zarinabad, Niloufar; Morton, Geraint; Otton, James; Plein, Sven; Breeuwer, Marcel; Batchelor, Philip; Schaeffter, Tobias; Nagel, Eike

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a novel hardware perfusion phantom that simulates myocardial first-pass perfusion allowing comparisons between different MR techniques and validation of the results against a true gold standard. MR perfusion images were acquired at different myocardial perfusion rates and variable doses of gadolinium and cardiac output. The system proved to be sensitive to controlled variations of myocardial perfusion rate, contrast agent dose, and cardiac output. It produced distinct signal intensity curves for perfusion rates ranging from 1 to 10 mL/mL/min. Quantification of myocardial blood flow by signal deconvolution techniques provided accurate measurements of perfusion. The phantom also proved to be very reproducible between different sessions and different operators. This novel hardware perfusion phantom system allows reliable, reproducible, and efficient simulation of myocardial first-pass MR perfusion. Direct comparison between the results of image-based quantification and reference values of flow and myocardial perfusion will allow development and validation of accurate quantification methods.

  17. The human pancreas proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Angelika; Pontén, Fredrik; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Schwenk, Jochen M; Uhlén, Mathias; Korsgren, Olle; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of both exocrine glands and intermingled endocrine cells to execute its diverse functions, including enzyme production for digestion of nutrients and hormone secretion for regulation of blood glucose levels. To define the molecular constituents with elevated expression in the human pancreas, we employed a genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of the human transcriptome to identify genes with elevated expression in the human pancreas. This quantitative transcriptomics data was combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to allow mapping of the corresponding proteins to different compartments and specific cell types within the pancreas down to the single cell level. Analysis of whole pancreas identified 146 genes with elevated expression levels, of which 47 revealed a particular higher expression as compared to the other analyzed tissue types, thus termed pancreas enriched. Extended analysis of in vitro isolated endocrine islets identified an additional set of 42 genes with elevated expression in these specialized cells. Although only 0.7% of all genes showed an elevated expression level in the pancreas, this fraction of transcripts, in most cases encoding secreted proteins, constituted 68% of the total mRNA in pancreas. This demonstrates the extreme specialization of the pancreas for production of secreted proteins. Among the elevated expression profiles, several previously not described proteins were identified, both in endocrine cells (CFC1, FAM159B, RBPJL and RGS9) and exocrine glandular cells (AQP12A, DPEP1, GATM and ERP27). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the pancreas transcriptome and proteome with a comprehensive list of genes and proteins with elevated expression in pancreas. This list represents an important starting point for further studies of the molecular repertoire of pancreatic cells and their relation to disease states or treatment effects.

  18. Spectrum and Classification of Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Greer, Jonathan B; Ferrone, Cristina R

    2016-04-01

    As patients are living longer and axial imaging is more widespread, increasing numbers of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are found. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms are the most common. The revised Sendai guidelines provide a safe algorithm for expectant management of certain cystic neoplasms; however, studies are ongoing to identify further subgroups that can be treated nonoperatively. For those patients with high-risk clinical features or symptoms, surgical resection can be performed safely at high-volume pancreatic centers. Accurate diagnosis is critical for accurate decision making.

  19. Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.C.; Lichtenstein, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Oertel, J.E.; Dachman, A.H.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1985-02-01

    Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas is an uncommon low grade malignant tumor histologically distinct from the usual ductal adenocarcinoma and amenable to cure by surgical excision. It tends to occur in black women in their second or third decade of life and has often been misclassified as nonfunctional islet cell tumor or as cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Twelve cases were reviewed. Sonography and CT of solid and pipillary epithelial neoplasms depict a well-demarcated mass that can be solid, mixed cystic and solid, or largely cystic. The radiologic appearance is dependent on the maintenance of the integrity of the neoplasm versus the extent of retrogressive changes that have occurred.

  20. Plasticity and dedifferentiation within the pancreas: development, homeostasis, and disease.

    PubMed

    Puri, Sapna; Folias, Alexandra E; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-01-08

    Cellular identity is established by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that regulate organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Although some flexibility in fate potential is beneficial to overall organ health, dramatic changes in cellular identity can have disastrous consequences. Emerging data within the field of pancreas biology are revising current beliefs about how cellular identity is shaped by developmental and environmental cues under homeostasis and stress conditions. Here, we discuss the changes occurring in cellular states upon fate modulation and address how our understanding of the nature of this fluidity is shaping therapeutic approaches to pancreatic disorders such as diabetes and cancer.

  1. Santorinicele without pancreas divisum pathophysiology: initial clinical and radiographic investigations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Only one case of santorinicele without pancreas divisum pathophysiology (SWOPP) was previously reported. The purpose of the study was to determine the gross prevalence of SWOPP and santorinicele with pancreas divisum (SWPD) in community and patient populations, and investigate their clinical and radiographic features. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral centre. The Patient group comprised 2035 consecutive patients enrolled in the study who underwent magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) studies. The Community group comprised 2905 consecutive subjects who participated in our whole-body medical check-up program that routinely includes MRCP studies. SWOPP was diagnosed when a saccular dilatation of the terminal portion of the dorsal pancreatic duct was observed unaccompanied by pancreas divisum or dominant dorsal duct. The prevalence of SWOPP and SWPD, and the clinical and radiological features were assessed in each group. Results Five cases of SWOPP were found in the Patient group (age range, 67–85 years; mean age, 73.6 years) (5/2035 = 0.25%; 95% confidence interval, 0.07–0.57); there were no cases of SWOPP in the Community group (0/2905 = 0.00%; 95% confidence interval, 0.00–0.10) (P = 0.01). Previous history of pancreatitis (4/5) and chronic pancreatitis (3/5) was more common in patients with SWOPP than in other subjects in the Patient or Community groups (both P < 0.05). Two cases of SWOPP were accompanied by reverse-Z type meandering main pancreatic duct. Six cases of SWPD were found. These cases were asymptomatic in 4/6, had a larger santorinicele (6.9 mm) than SWOPP patients (4.5 mm; P = 0.02), and were not associated with pancreatitis (0/6). Conclusions The second to sixth reported cases of SWOPP were presented. SWOPP is a relatively rare condition found mostly in patients suffering pancreatitis, especially chronic pancreatitis, and may be an acquired condition

  2. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  3. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  4. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  5. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  6. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  7. Sex differences in anthropoid mandibular canine lateral enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Ferrell, Rebecca J; Spence, Jennifer; Talabere, Tiffany; Hubbard, Amelia; Schmidt, Stacey

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that great ape and macaque males achieve large canine crown sizes primarily through extended canine growth periods. Recent work has suggested, however, that platyrrhine males may achieve larger canine sizes by accelerating rather than prolonging growth. This study tested the hypothesis that the ontogenetic pathway leading to canine sexual dimorphism in catarrhines differs from that of platyrrhines. To test this hypothesis, males and females of several catarrhine genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cercopithecus, and Cercocebus) and three platyrrhine genera (Cebus, Ateles, and Callicebus) were compared in the number and spacing of perikymata (enamel growth increments) on their canine crowns. In addition, perikymata periodicities (the number of days of growth perikymata represent) were determined for five genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cebus, and Ateles) using previously published as well as original data gathered for this study. The central findings are as follows: 1) males have more perikymata than females for seven of eight genera (in five of the seven, the differences are statistically significant); 2) in general, the greater the degree of sexual dimorphism, the greater the sex difference in male and female perikymata numbers; 3) there is no evidence of a systematic sex difference in primate periodicities; and 4) there is some evidence that sex differences in enamel formation rates may make a minor contribution to canine sexual dimorphism in Papio and Cercopithecus. These findings strongly suggest that in both catarrhines and platyrrhines prolongation of male canine growth is the primary mechanism by which canine crown sexual dimorphism is achieved.

  8. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  9. Limitations of the mandibular canine index in sex assessment.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ashith B; Mainali, Sneedha

    2009-02-01

    Measuring teeth is a useful adjunct in sex assessment. Canines, in particular, have the greatest degree of sexual dimorphism, resist disease and survive postmortem trauma, rendering them highly valuable in identification. Hence, their exclusive use in odontometric sex assessment using the Mandibular Canine Index (MCI) has been advocated before. The MCI is derived as the ratio of the mesiodistal (MD) dimension of canines and the inter-canine arch width. This study has tested the use of the MCI in assessing sex on a sample from Nepal and compared its accuracy to that of absolute canine measurements. Measurements were obtained from one hundred-and-seventeen dental stone casts that belonged to 63 males and 54 females, all young adults in the age-group 19-28 years. Independent samples t-test revealed no significant sexual dimorphism in the MCI. In addition, discriminant analysis of the MCI also had poor ability to differentiate the sexes. In contrast, the absolute canine measurements revealed statistically significant male-female difference and superior ability to differentiate sex using discriminant analysis. The poor ability of the MCI in sex assessment is attributed to it being a relative value-it is obtained as the ratio of two absolute measurements (MD dimension of canines and inter-canine arch width) and does not reflect sex differences that exist in the absolute measurements per se.

  10. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Streck, André Felipe; de Souza, Carine Kunzler; Gonçalves, Karla Rathje; Zang, Luciana; Pinto, Luciane Dubina; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2009-01-01

    The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population. PMID:24031389

  11. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    PubMed

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  12. Adult treatment with removal of all four permanent canines.

    PubMed

    Freeman, R S

    1994-11-01

    The permanent canines-especially in the maxillary arch-have always been considered of prime importance, even before the "cuspid protection" hypothesis became well known to most orthodontists in the 1960s. In the adult case presented, periodontal considerations and other factors led to the unconventional (and likely controversial) extraction of all four canines.

  13. Non-ECG-Gated Myocardial Perfusion MRI Using Continuous Magnetization-Driven Radial Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Behzad; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Arsanjani, Reza; Thomson, Louise; Merz, C. Noel Bairey; Berman, Daniel S.; Li, Debiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Establishing a high-resolution non-ECG-gated first-pass perfusion (FPP) cardiac MRI technique may improve accessibility and diagnostic capability of FPP imaging. We propose a non-ECG-gated FPP imaging technique using continuous magnetization-driven golden-angle radial acquisition. The main purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate whether, in the simple case of single-slice 2D imaging, adequate myocardial contrast can be obtained for accurate visualization of hypoperfused territories in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Methods A T1-weighted pulse sequence with continuous golden-angle radial sampling was developed for non-ECG-gated FPP imaging. A sliding-window scheme with no temporal acceleration was used to reconstruct 8 frames/second. Canines were imaged at 3T with and without coronary stenosis using the proposed scheme and a conventional magnetization-prepared ECG-gated FPP method. Results Our studies showed that the proposed non-ECG-gated method is capable of generating high-resolution (1.7×1.7×6 mm3) artifact-free FPP images of a single slice at high heart rates (92±21 beats/minute), while matching the performance of conventional FPP imaging in terms of hypoperfused-to-normal myocardial contrast-to-noise ratio (proposed: 5.18±0.70, conventional: 4.88±0.43). Furthermore, the detected perfusion defect areas were consistent with the conventional FPP images. Conclusion Non-ECG-gated FPP imaging using optimized continuous golden-angle radial acquisition achieves desirable image quality (i.e., adequate myocardial contrast, high spatial resolution, and minimal artifacts) in the setting of ischemia. PMID:24443160

  14. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial perfusion using the paramagnetic contrast agent manganese gluconate.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, S; Lange, R A; Kulkarni, P V; Katz, J; Parkey, R W; Willerson, J T; Peshock, R M

    1989-08-01

    Previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging studies have indicated that coronary occlusion does not produce sufficient changes in standard tissue relaxation times to allow the detection of acute ischemia. To identify acute myocardial perfusion abnormalities, the use of the paramagnetic agent manganese gluconate combined with calcium gluconate (MnGlu/CaGlu) was investigated in canine models of acute coronary artery occlusion. In vitro studies showed that MnGlu/CaGlu was a more efficient relaxing agent than gadolinium-DTPA (relaxivity of 7.8 versus 5.1 s-1 mM-1) and demonstrated affinity for normal myocardium. The distribution of MnGlu/CaGlu as measured by manganese-54 tracer studies was proportional to myocardial blood flow in both normal and ischemic tissue. Hearts excised from dogs after coronary artery occlusion and administration of 0.035 mM/kg MnGlu/CaGlu were imaged ex vivo using a relatively spin-lattice relaxation time (T1)-weighted gradient reversal technique (repetition time [TR] 50 ms and echo time [TE] 9 ms). These images showed increased signal intensity in the normally perfused myocardium with a mean signal intensity ratio of hypoperfused to normal myocardium of 0.55 +/- 0.12 (mean +/- SD). In vivo images obtained in nine dogs after coronary artery occlusion and administration of the same dose of MnGlu/CaGlu demonstrated the region of hypoperfused myocardium in six dogs with a signal intensity ratio of hypoperfused to normal myocardium of 0.64 +/- 0.23 (p less than 0.05 versus control). When a higher dose of 0.1 mM/kg MnGlu/CaGlu was utilized and in vivo imaging was performed using a relatively spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted (TR gated, TE 60 ms) spin-echo sequence in six dogs, the signal intensity of normal myocardium was decreased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Morphology and immunoreactivity of canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytomas.

    PubMed

    Mikiewicz, M; Otrocka-Domagała, I; Paździor-Czapula, K; Gesek, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of morphology and immunophenotype of canine (19 cases) and feline (7 cases) extramedullary plasmacytomas. Tumours, located in skin, oral cavity and spleen were surgically excised, fixed and processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (CD79α, CD18, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein). Histologically, tumours were classified into mature, cleaved, asynchronous, polymorphous blastic, hyalin, or monomorphous blastic type. All evaluated tumours showed cytoplasmic expression of CD79α antigen. The expression of CD18 was observed in canine cutaneous and splenic tumours. In canine tumours expression of metallothionein was low to moderate, while in feline plasmacytomas - absent or low. In canine tumours, the mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index were positively correlated with the expression of metallothionein. In feline tumours no correlation between mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and metallothionein was found. This is the first study describing expression of metallothionein in canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytoma.

  16. RAS gene hot-spot mutations in canine neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Murua Escobar, H; Günther, K; Soller, J T; Winkler, S; Nolte, I; Bullerdiek, J

    2005-01-01

    Point mutations in the cellular homologues HRAS, KRAS2, and NRAS of the viral Harvey and Kirsten rat sarcoma virus oncogenes are commonly involved in the onset of malignancies in humans and other species such as dog, mouse, and rat. Most often, three particular hot-spot codons are affected, with one amino acid exchange being sufficient for the induction of tumor growth. While RAS genes have been shown to play an important role in canine tumors such as non-small lung cell carcinomas, data about RAS mutations in canine fibrosarcomas as well as KRAS2 mutations in canine melanomas is sparse. To increase the number of tumors examined, we recently screened 13 canine fibrosarcomas and 11 canine melanomas for point mutations, particularly within the mutational hot spots. The results were compared to the already existing data from other studies about these tumors in dogs.

  17. Canine brain tumours: a model for the human disease?

    PubMed

    Hicks, J; Platt, S; Kent, M; Haley, A

    2017-03-01

    Canine brain tumours are becoming established as naturally occurring models of disease to advance diagnostic and therapeutic understanding successfully. The size and structure of the dog's brain, histopathology and molecular characteristics of canine brain tumours, as well as the presence of an intact immune system, all support the potential success of this model. The limited success of current therapeutic regimens such as surgery and radiation for dogs with intracranial tumours means that there can be tremendous mutual benefit from collaboration with our human counterparts resulting in the development of new treatments. The similarities and differences between the canine and human diseases are described in this article, emphasizing both the importance and limitations of canines in brain tumour research. Recent clinical veterinary therapeutic trials are also described to demonstrate the areas of research in which canines have already been utilized and to highlight the important potential benefits of translational research to companion dogs.

  18. Reliability of mandibular canine and mandibular canine index in sex determination: A study using Uyghur population.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Raza; Zhang, Shuang; Mi, Congbo

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination is a key process that is required to establish the forensic profile of an individual. Mandibular canine index (MCI) method yields fairly positive results for sex determination. However, this method has been challenged by a few authors. This study aimed to examine the reliability of MCI in Chinese Uyghur population and to establish its normal value for this ethnic group. Dental casts of 216 students (117 males and 119 females) from the College of Stomatology of Xinjiang Medical University in China were used to determine the sexing accuracy of MCI. The mesiodistal (MD) dimension of mandibular canine crowns, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI were calculated. The accuracy of the standard MCI derived from the current data was compared with that of the standard MCIs derived from previous data. Results were statistically described using the independent-samples t-test. The MD dimension of mandibular crown, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI exhibited statistically significant sexual dimorphism. Sex determination using the MCI derived from the current data revealed fairly reliable results. Therefore, MCI is a reliable method for sex determination for Uyghur population, with 0.248 as standard MCI value.

  19. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals.

  20. Nosocomial Outbreak of Serious Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough) Caused by Canine Herpesvirus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Ken; Imai, Ayako; Ohashi, Emi; Matsunaga, Satoru; Tohya, Yukinobu; Ohshima, Takahisa; Mochizuki, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV; Canid herpesvirus 1) is principally a perinatal pathogen of pregnant bitches and newborn pups and secondarily a respiratory tract pathogen of older pups and dogs. Infectious disease of the canine respiratory tract frequently occurs among dogs in groups, in which it is called “ infectious tracheobronchitis” (ITB). Mortality from ITB is generally negligible, and the clinical importance of CHV as an ITB pathogen is considered to be low. The present report describes a novel ITB outbreak accompanied by death among aged dogs in an animal medical center. Most inpatient dogs had received medications that could induce immunosuppression. CHV was the only pathogen identified, and several CHV isolates were recovered in cell culture. No other viral pathogens or significant bacterial pathogens were found. Molecular and serological analyses revealed that the causative CHV isolates were from a single source but that none was a peculiar strain when the strains were compared with previous CHV strains. The virus had presumably spread among the dogs predisposed to infection in the center. The present results serve as a warning to canine clinics that, under the specific set of circumstances described, such serious CHV outbreaks may be expected wherever canine ITB occurs. PMID:20107103

  1. Perfusion MRI: The Five Most Frequently Asked Technical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Essig, Marco; Shiroishi, Mark S.; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Saake, Marc; Provenzale, James M.; Enterline, David; Anzalone, Nicoletta; Dörfler, Arnd; Rovira, Àlex; Wintermark, Max; Law, Meng

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This and its companion article address the 10 most frequently asked questions that radiologists face when planning, performing, processing, and interpreting different MR perfusion studies in CNS imaging. CONCLUSION Perfusion MRI is a promising tool in assessing stroke, brain tumors, and patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Most of the impediments that have limited the use of perfusion MRI can be overcome to allow integration of these methods into modern neuroimaging protocols. PMID:23255738

  2. Perfusion Scintigraphy and Patient Selection for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Divay; Lipson, David A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Hansen-Flaschen, John; Sciurba, Frank C.; DeCamp, Malcolm M.; Reilly, John J.; Washko, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: It is unclear if lung perfusion can predict response to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). Objectives: To study the role of perfusion scintigraphy in patient selection for LVRS. Methods: We performed an intention-to-treat analysis of 1,045 of 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial who were non–high risk for LVRS and had complete perfusion scintigraphy results at baseline. The median follow-up was 6.0 years. Patients were classified as having upper or non–upper lobe–predominant emphysema on visual examination of the chest computed tomography and high or low exercise capacity on cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline. Low upper zone perfusion was defined as less than 20% of total lung perfusion distributed to the upper third of both lungs as measured on perfusion scintigraphy. Measurements and Main Results: Among 284 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema and low exercise capacity at baseline, the 202 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS versus medical management (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; P = 0.008) unlike the remaining 82 with high perfusion where mortality was unchanged (RR, 0.97; P = 0.62). Similarly, among 404 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema and high exercise capacity, the 278 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS (RR, 0.70; P = 0.02) unlike the remaining 126 with high perfusion (RR, 1.05; P = 1.00). Among the 357 patients with non–upper lobe–predominant emphysema (75 with low and 282 with high exercise capacity) there was no improvement in survival with LVRS and measurement of upper zone perfusion did not contribute new prognostic information. Conclusions: Compared with optimal medical management, LVRS reduces mortality in patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema when there is low rather than high perfusion to the upper lung. PMID:20538961

  3. Microvascular Perfusion Changes following Transarterial Hepatic Tumor Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carmen Gacchina; Sharma, Karun V.; Levy, Elliot B.; Woods, David L.; Morris, Aaron H.; Bacher, John D.; Lewis, Andrew L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Dreher, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To quantify changes in tumor microvascular (< 1 mm) perfusion relative to commonly used angiographic endpoints. Materials and Methods Rabbit Vx2 liver tumors were embolized with 100–300-µm LC Bead particles to endpoints of substasis or complete stasis (controls were not embolized). Microvascular perfusion was evaluated by delivering two different fluorophore-conjugated perfusion markers (ie, lectins) through the catheter before embolization and 5 min after reaching the desired angiographic endpoint. Tumor microvasculature was labeled with an anti-CD31 antibody and analyzed with fluorescence microscopy for perfusion marker overlap/mismatch. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and post hoc test (n = 3–5 per group; 18 total). Results Mean microvascular density was 70 vessels/mm2 ± 17 (standard error of the mean), and 81% ± 1 of microvasculature (ie, CD31+ structures) was functionally perfused within viable Vx2 tumor regions. Embolization to the extent of substasis eliminated perfusion in 37% ± 9 of perfused microvessels (P > .05 vs baseline), whereas embolization to the extent of angiographic stasis eliminated perfusion in 56% ± 8 of perfused microvessels. Persistent microvascular perfusion following embolization was predominantly found in the tumor periphery, adjacent to normal tissue. Newly perfused microvasculature was evident following embolization to substasis but not when embolization was performed to complete angiographic stasis. Conclusions Nearly half of tumor microvasculature remained patent despite embolization to complete angiographic stasis. The observed preservation of tumor microvasculature perfusion with angiographic endpoints of substasis and stasis may have implications for tumor response to embolotherapy. PMID:26321051

  4. Measurement of continuous distributions of ventilation-perfusion ratios - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.; Saltzman, H. A.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The resolution of the technique considered is sufficient to describe smooth distributions containing blood flow to unventilated regions (shunt), ventilation to unperfused regions (dead space), and up to three additional modes over the range of finite ventilation-perfusion ratios. In particular, areas whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are low can be separated from unventilated regions and those whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are high can similarly be distinguished from unperfused areas.

  5. Scintigraphic perfusion patterns in patients with diffuse lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, G.E.; Sullivan, D.C.; Gottschalk, A.; Putman, C.E.

    1982-04-01

    Perfusion scintigrams of 55 patients with radiographic evidence of diffuse lung disease were reviewed. Thirty-nine had acute and/or chronic changes caused by congestive heart failure, and 16 had diffuse reticulonodular disease. A normal or near-normal perfusion pattern was seen in 40/55 (73%), and this finding was equally common in the two groups. The authors conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful in excluding pulmonary embolism in patients with radiographic evidence of diffuse, symmetrical lung disease.

  6. Osseous metaplasia within a canine insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Pieczarka, Emily M; Russell, Duncan S; Santangelo, Kelly S; Aeffner, Famke; Burkhard, Mary Jo

    2014-03-01

    An 11-year-old male castrated mixed-breed dog was presented for exercise intolerance, tetraparesis, and persistent hypoglycemia. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed 2 nodules within the right limb of the pancreas. Cytology from one nodule was consistent with a carcinoma of neuroendocrine origin, with a primary differential diagnosis of insulinoma. Histologic evaluation and immunohistochemistry for synaptophysin and insulin confirmed the diagnosis of insulinoma. Additionally, there was a solitary nodule of mineralized compact bone composing approximately 60% of the mass. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of osseous metaplasia within an insulinoma (islet cell carcinoma).

  7. Perfusion lung scanning: differentiation of primary from thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Kreisman, H.; Novales-Diaz, J.; Derbekyan, V.

    1985-01-01

    Of eight patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, final diagnosis established by autopsy or angiography, four had primary hypertension and four hypertension from thromboembolism. The perfusion lung scan was distinctly different in the two groups. The lung scan in primary pulmonary hypertension was associated with nonsegmental, patchy defects of perfusion, while in thromboembolic hypertensives it was characterized by segmental and/or lobar defects of perfusion with or without subsegmental defects. The perfusion lung scan is a valuable, noninvasive study in the evaluation of the patient with pulmonary hypertension of undetermined cause and in the exclusion of occult large-vessel pulmonary thromboembolism.

  8. New imaging technology: measurement of myocardial perfusion by contrast echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. N.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging has long been a goal for the non-invasive echocardiographic assessment of the heart. However, many factors at play in perfusion imaging have made this goal elusive. Harmonic imaging and triggered imaging with newer contrast agents have made myocardial perfusion imaging potentially practical in the very near future. The application of indicator dilution theory to the coronary circulation and bubble contrast agents is fraught with complexities and sources of error. Therefore, quantification of myocardial perfusion by non-invasive echocardiographic imaging requires further investigation in order to make this technique clinically viable.

  9. Extracorporeal Free Flap Perfusion in Case of Prolonged Ischemia Time.

    PubMed

    Taeger, C D; Präbst, K; Beier, J P; Meyer, A; Horch, R E

    2016-04-01

    In free flap surgery, a clinically established concept still has to be found for the reduction of ischemia-related cell damage in the case of prolonged ischemia. Although promising results using extracorporeal free flap perfusion in the laboratory have been published in the past, until now this concept has not yet paved its way into clinical routine. This might be due to the complexity of perfusion systems and a lack of standardized tools. Here, we want to present the results of the first extracorporeal free flap perfusion in a clinical setting using a simple approach without the application of a complex perfusion machinery.

  10. [Ultrastructural changes in the pancreas of rats with acute pancreatitis after semax administration].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iu V

    2000-01-01

    Semax favorably affects ultrastructural changes in the pancreas of rats with acute pancreatitis (AP): a single introduction of semax (0.1 mg/kg) into the pancreatic duct of rats with AP model prevents increased necrosis of the acinar tissues and inhibits purulent inflammation of the necrotised lobules by inducing their sclerosis and atrophy, thus retaining large areas of the pancreas intact.

  11. Total pancreatectomy for metachronous mixed acinar-ductal carcinoma in a remnant pancreas.

    PubMed

    Shonaka, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Mitsuhiro; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Yanagida, Naoyuki; Shomura, Hiroki; Yanagawa, Nobuyuki; Oikawa, Kensuke; Nakano, Shiro

    2014-09-07

    In October 2009, a 71-year-old female was diagnosed with a cystic tumor in the tail of the pancreas with an irregular dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in the body and tail of the pancreas. A distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, and partial resection of the duodenum, jejunum and transverse colon was performed. In March 2011, a follow-up computed tomography scan showed a low density mass at the head of the remnant pancreas. We diagnosed it as a recurrence of the tumor and performed a total pancreatectomy for the remnant pancreas. In the histological evaluation of the resected specimen of the distal pancreas, the neoplastic cells formed an acinar and papillary structure that extended into the main pancreatic duct. Mucin5AC, α1-antitrypsin (α-AT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were detected in the tumor cells by immunohistochemistry. In the resected head of the pancreas, the tumor was composed of both acinar and ductal elements with a mottled pattern. The proportions of each element were approximately 40% and 60%, respectively. Strongly positive α-AT cells were detected in the acinar element. Some tumor cells were also CEA positive. However, the staining for synaptophysin and chromogranin A was negative in the tumor cells. Ultimately, we diagnosed the tumor as a recurrence of mixed acinar-ductal carcinoma in the remnant pancreas. In conclusion, we report here a rare case of repeated pancreatic resection for multicentric lesions of mixed acinar-ductal carcinoma of the pancreas.

  12. Imaging of the pancreas using dynamic positron emission tomography with N-13 ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, N.; Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Adachi, H.; Senda, M.; Saji, H.; Torizuka, K.

    1985-05-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a new imaging technique of the pancreas. Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 3 normal volunteers, 9 patient without the evidence of pancreatic diseases, 2 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head and one patient with islet cell carcinoma. Immediately after the intravenous injection of 10-20mCi of N-13 ammonia, data were obtained every 150 seconds for 30 minutes using a multi-slice whole-body PET scanner. In two cases of adenocarcinoma, the pancreas was not imaged, probably because the nontumorous portion of the pancreas was also suffered from severe pancreatitis due to the duct obstruction at the pancreatic head. In the case with islet cell carcinoma, the radionuclide was accumulated in the tumor and pancreas similarly. Thus, both of them were visualized but not separated. The central necrosis of the tumor showed poor radioactivity. The mechanism of the radionuclide accumulation in the pancreas is not well understood. However, the authors also studied the biodistribution of N-13 ammonia in mice and confirmed that there is an early and high accumulation of the radionuclide in the murine pancreas. These preliminary results of this paper suggest that the dynamic PET study may be useful for the imaging of the pancreas as well as for the further study of the blood supply and metabolism of the pancreas.

  13. Using pancreas tissue slices for in situ studies of islet of Langerhans and acinar cell biology.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Anja; Cohrs, Christian M; Tsata, Vasiliki; Chouinard, Julie A; Selck, Claudia; Stertmann, Julia; Reichelt, Saskia; Rose, Tobias; Ehehalt, Florian; Weitz, Jürgen; Solimena, Michele; Slak Rupnik, Marjan; Speier, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Studies on the cellular function of the pancreas are typically performed in vitro on its isolated functional units, the endocrine islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acini. However, these approaches are hampered by preparation-induced changes of cell physiology and the lack of an intact surrounding. We present here a detailed protocol for the preparation of pancreas tissue slices. This procedure is less damaging to the tissue and faster than alternative approaches, and it enables the in situ study of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cell physiology in a conserved environment. Pancreas tissue slices facilitate the investigation of cellular mechanisms underlying the function, pathology and interaction of the endocrine and exocrine components of the pancreas. We provide examples for several experimental applications of pancreas tissue slices to study various aspects of pancreas cell biology. Furthermore, we describe the preparation of human and porcine pancreas tissue slices for the validation and translation of research findings obtained in the mouse model. Preparation of pancreas tissue slices according to the protocol described here takes less than 45 min from tissue preparation to receipt of the first slices.

  14. Dorothy Hodgkin Lecture 2013: Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hovorka, R.

    2015-01-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade. PMID:25819473

  15. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the pancreas in children

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hsien-Kuan; Lin, Yung-Cheng; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Chen, Yaw-Sen; Su, Yu-Tsun; Tsai, Ching-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are an uncommon neoplasm, which are very rarely located in the pancreas. Clinically and radiologically, this rare pancreatic tumor presents as an abdominal mass lesion that mimics other pancreatic tumors, and should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Clinical Findings and diagnosis: The 15-year-old boy complained of abdominal pain over the left upper quadrant with intermittent fever for 7 days. Abdominal sonography revealed one cystic lesion with a hyperechoic component in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Surgical excision was performed and postoperative findings indicated a pancreatic tail tumor. The pathology indicated inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. To our knowledge, this patient is a unique case as the tumor was located in the pancreatic tail only, sparing the body. Interventions and outcomes: The patient underwent tumor resection and segmental resection of the transverse colon with simple closure. The patient had no evidence of disease recurrence at 3 years follow-up. Conclusion: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the pancreas in children are extremely rare. Surgical excision is the standard treatment, and corticosteroids use in children need more large-scale studies. PMID:28079824

  16. The bioartificial pancreas (BAP): Biological, chemical and engineering challenges.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Veronica; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The bioartificial pancreas (BAP) represents a viable solution for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). By encapsulating pancreatic cells in a semipermeable membrane to allow nutrient, insulin and glucose exchange, the side effects produced by islets and whole organ transplantation-related immunosuppressive therapy can be circumvented. Several factors, mainly related to materials properties, capsule morphology and biological environment, play a key role in optimizing BAP systems. The BAP is an extremely complex delivery system for insulin. Despite considerable efforts, in some instances meeting with limited degree of success, a BAP capable of restoring physiological pancreas functions without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and of controlling blood glucose levels especially in large animal models and a few clinical trials, does not exist. The state of the art in terms of materials, fabrication techniques and cell sources, as well as the current status of commercial devices and clinical trials, are described in this overview from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. In addition, challenges to the creation of effective BAP systems are highlighted including future perspectives in terms of component integration from both a biological and an engineering viewpoint.

  17. Role of Connexins and Pannexins in the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cigliola, Valentina; Allagnat, Florent; Berchtold, Lukas Adrian; Lamprianou, Smaragda; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Meda, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    The pancreas produces enzymes with a digestive function and hormones with a metabolic function, which are produced by distinct cell types of acini and islets, respectively. Within these units, secretory cells coordinate their functioning by exchanging information via signals that flow in the intercellular spaces and are generated either at distance (several neural and hormonal inputs) or nearby the pancreatic cells themselves (inputs mediated by membrane ionic-specific channels and by ionic- and metabolite-permeant pannexin channels and connexin "hemichannels"). Pancreatic secretory cells further interact via the extracellular matrix of the pancreas (inputs mediated by integrins) and directly with neighboring cells, by mechanisms that do not require extracellular mediators (inputs mediated by gap and tight junction channels). Here, we review the expression and function of the connexins and pannexins that are expressed by the main secretory cells of the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells. Available data show that the patterns of expression of these proteins differ in acini and islets, supporting distinct functions in the physiological secretion of pancreatic enzymes and hormones. Circumstantial evidence further suggests that alterations in the signaling provided by these proteins are involved in pancreatic diseases.

  18. Endothelium-derived essential signals involved in pancreas organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Talavera-Adame, Dodanim; Dafoe, Donald C

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are essential for pancreas differentiation, endocrine specification, and endocrine function. They are also involved in the physiopathology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. During embryogenesis, aortic ECs provide specific factors that maintain the expression of key genes for pancreas development such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1. Other unknown factors are also important for pancreatic endocrine specification and formation of insulin-producing beta cells. Endocrine precursors proliferate interspersed with ductal cells and exocrine precursors and, at some point of development, these endocrine precursors migrate to pancreatic mesenchyme and start forming the islets of Langerhans. By the end of the gestation and close to birth, these islets contain immature beta cells with the capacity to express vascular endothelial growth factor and therefore to recruit ECs from the surrounding microenvironment. ECs in turn produce factors that are essential to maintain insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Once assembled, a cross talk between endocrine cells and ECs maintain the integrity of islets toward an adequate function during the whole life of the adult individual. This review will focus in the EC role in the differentiation and maturation of pancreatic beta cells during embryogenesis as well as the current knowledge about the involvement of endothelium to derive pancreatic beta cells in vitro from mouse or human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25992319

  19. Roles of Commensal Microbiota in Pancreas Homeostasis and Pancreatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Lopes, Camila; Velloso, Fernando J.; Campopiano, Julia C.; Sogayar, Mari C.; Correa, Ricardo G.

    2015-01-01

    The pancreas plays a central role in metabolism, allowing ingested food to be converted and used as fuel by the cells throughout the body. On the other hand, the pancreas may be affected by devastating diseases, such as pancreatitis, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC), and diabetes mellitus (DM), which generally results in a wide metabolic imbalance. The causes for the development and progression of these diseases are still controversial; therefore it is essential to better understand the underlying mechanisms which compromise the pancreatic homeostasis. The interest in the study of the commensal microbiome increased extensively in recent years, when many discoveries have illustrated its central role in both human physiology and maintenance of homeostasis. Further understanding of the involvement of the microbiome during the development of pathological conditions is critical for the improvement of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the present review, we discuss recent findings on the behavior and functions played by the microbiota in major pancreatic diseases and provide further insights into its potential roles in the maintenance of pancreatic steady-state activities. PMID:26347203

  20. Metabolic regulation of cellular plasticity in the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Ninov, Nikolay; Hesselson, Daniel; Gut, Philipp; Zhou, Amy; Fidelin, Kevin; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Obese individuals exhibit an increase in pancreatic β-cell mass; conversely, scarce nutrition during pregnancy has been linked to β-cell insufficiency in the offspring (reviewed in [1, 2]). These phenomena are thought to be mediated mainly through effects on β-cell proliferation, since a nutrient sensitive β-cell progenitor population in the pancreas has not been identified. Here, we employed the FUCCI (Fluorescent Ubiquitination-based Cell Cycle Indicator) system to investigate β-cell replication in real-time, and found that high nutrient concentrations induce rapid β-cell proliferation. Importantly, we found that high nutrient concentrations also stimulate β-cell differentiation from progenitors in the intrapancreatic duct (IPD). Using a new zebrafish line where β-cells are constitutively ablated, we further show that β-cell loss and high nutrient intake synergistically activate these progenitors. At the cellular level, this activation process causes ductal cell reorganization as it stimulates their proliferation and differentiation. Notably, we link the nutrient-dependent activation of these progenitors to a down-regulation of Notch signaling specifically within the IPD. Furthermore, we show that the nutrient sensor mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) is required for endocrine differentiation from the IPD under physiological conditions as well as in the diabetic state. This study thus reveals critical insights into how cells modulate their plasticity in response to metabolic cues and identifies nutrient sensitive progenitors in the mature pancreas. PMID:23791726

  1. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas with soft tissue metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhe; Huang, Xin-Yu; Yuan, Zhou; Tang, Juan

    2012-12-07

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the pancreas is rare. We report the case of a 34-year-old man with pancreatic NEC with soft tissue metastasis. The patient presented with right upper abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography revealed a low-density heterogeneous mass in the tail and body of the pancreas that encroached on the greater curvature of the stomach and spleen. We performed exploratory laparotomy and total pancreatectomy with splenectomy and total gastrectomy. Histopathological analysis showed spindle-shaped cells with scanty cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei, confirming a primary pancreatic NEC. One month after the surgery, the patient experienced leg swelling. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed high uptake of fludeoxyglucose in the left leg, and the leg was amputated. Histopathological analysis confirmed metastasis of pancreatic NEC. The patient was followed up and received chemotherapy (etoposide and cisplatin). One month after amputation, the level of tumor marker neuron-specific enolase was 142.70 μg/L and computed tomography scan revealed an aggravated metastatic lesion. The patient suffered from unbearable pain and we treated him with odynolysis. Four months postoperatively, the patient died of respiratory failure.

  2. Cystic and ductal tumors of the pancreas: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Scoazec, J Y; Vullierme, M P; Barthet, M; Gonzalez, J M; Sauvanet, A

    2013-04-01

    Incidentally discovered cystic tumors of the pancreas (CTP) are an increasingly frequent entity. It is essential to differentiate lesions whose malignant potential is either nil or negligible (pseudocyst, serous cystadenoma, simple cysts) from lesions with intermediate malignant potential (intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas [IPMN] involving the secondary ducts, cystic endocrine tumor) or those with high malignant potential (mucinous cystadenoma, solid pseudopapillary tumors and IPMN involving the main pancreatic duct). The approach to defining malignant potential is based on diagnostic CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), often complemented by EUS-guided cyst puncture for biochemical and cytological analysis of cyst fluid. Surgery for diagnostic purposes should be avoided because of its significant morbidity. For pseudocysts, simple cysts and serous cystadenomas, abstention is the general rule. Resection, preserving as much pancreatic parenchyma as possible, is the rule for IPMN involving the main pancreatic duct, mucinous cystadenomas, solid and pseudopapillary tumors, and cystic endocrine tumors. Resection is rarely indicated at the outset for IPMN involving secondary pancreatic ducts; morphologic observation is the general rule and preventive excision may be indicated secondarily. Good collaboration between surgeons, radiologists and endosonographists is necessary for optimal management of CTP.

  3. Pancreas transplantation. An immunohistologic and histopathologic examination of 100 grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, R. K.; Sutherland, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined tissues obtained by biopsy, pancreatectomy, and autopsy from 100 pancreas grafts to determine the cause of dysfunction or failure of the graft. Immunohistologic examination of 42 tissues to determine the mononuclear cell phenotypes and Class I and II antigen expression was performed as well. Technical factors--infections, thrombosis, obstruction--accounted for a large number of graft losses, but immunologic-mediated mechanisms resulted in graft dysfunction and failure as well. Pleomorphic inflammatory infiltrates were present in grafts with acute rejection, as well as Silastic and Prolamine duct-obstructed grafts. Criteria useful in the identification of acute rejection from pancreatitis included a more intense, predominantly mononuclear cell infiltration of transformed lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas and evidence of vascular rejection--endovasculitis or fibrinoid necrosis. Increased expression and/or induction of Class I and II antigens on pancreatic constituents occurred in grafts with evidence of acute rejection, but also with Silastic and prolamine duct-obstructed pancreatitis. An isletitis occurred in 25% of the grafts. Nine of the 25 grafts (36%) with isletitis also had selective loss of beta cells from the islets. Recurrent diabetes mellitus appeared to have developed in these cases, which accounted for loss of graft function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3037911

  4. Pdx1 regulates pancreas tubulogenesis and E-cadherin expression

    PubMed Central

    Marty-Santos, Leilani; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    Current efforts in developing treatments for diabetes focus on in vitro generation of functional β-cells for cell replacement therapies; however, these attempts have only been partly successful because factors involved in islet formation remain incompletely understood. The embryonic pancreas, which gives rise to β-cells, undergoes early epithelial rearrangements, including transient stratification of an initially monolayered epithelium, followed by microlumen formation and later resolution into branches. Within the epithelium, a multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) population is specified, giving rise to three important lineages: acinar, ductal and endocrine. Pdx1 is a transcription factor required for pancreas development and lineage specification; however, few Pdx1 targets that regulate pancreatogenesis have been identified. We find that pancreatic defects in Pdx1−/− embryos initiate at the time when the progenitor pool is specified and the epithelium should resolve into branches. Pdx1−/− microlumen diameters expand aberrantly, resulting in failure of epithelial tubulogenesis and ductal plexus formation. Pdx1−/− epithelial cell proliferation is decreased and the MPC pool is rapidly lost. We identify two conserved Pdx1 binding sites in the epithelial cadherin (E-cad, Cdh1) promoter, and show that Pdx1 directly binds and activates E-cad transcription. In addition, Pdx1 is required in vivo for maintenance of E-cad expression, actomyosin complex activity and cell shape. These findings demonstrate a novel link between regulators of epithelial architecture, specification of pancreatic cell fate and organogenesis. PMID:26657766

  5. Three-year duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination against canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Gore, Thomas C; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

    2005-01-01

    A challenge-of-immunity study was conducted to demonstrate immunity in dogs 3 years after their second vaccination with a new multivalent, modified-live vaccine containing canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). Twenty-three seronegative pups were vaccinated at 7 and 11 weeks of age. Eighteen seronegative pups, randomized into groups of six dogs, served as challenge controls. Dogs were kept in strict isolation for 3 years following the vaccination and then challenged sequentially with virulent canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), CPV, and CDV. For each viral challenge, a separate group of six control dogs was also challenged. Clinical signs of CAV-1, CPV, and CDV infections were prevented in 100% of vaccinated dogs, demonstrating that the multivalent, modified-live test vaccine provided protection against virulent CAV-1, CPV, and CDV challenge in dogs 7 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following second vaccination.

  6. Cloning and characterization of canine SHARP1 and its evaluation as a positional candidate for canine early retinal degeneration (erd).

    PubMed

    Kukekova, Anna V; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2003-07-17

    Canine early retinal degeneration (erd) is an early onset form of canine progressive retinal atrophy phenotypically similar to human retinitis pigmentosa. In a previous study, the locus responsible for erd was mapped to canine chromosome 27 in the region corresponding to HSA12p, a region where no human retinal degeneration loci have been mapped. Canine SHARP1 gene has been localized on CFA27 in the erd interval by RH mapping, and considered as a positional candidate gene for erd. SHARP1 was cloned and sequenced from normal and erd affected dogs, and no disease-causing mutations were identified. Genotyping of 117 dogs from informative pedigrees did not reveal any recombinants between SHARP1 and erd. To date SHARP1 gene is the closest gene-specific marker to erd; genotyping additional informative pedigrees, and sequencing SHARP1 upstream regions from normal and affected dogs will be necessary to establish if SHARP1 is involved in this canine retinal disease.

  7. Pancreatectomy for carcinoma of the head of the pancreas associated with multiple anomalies including the preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Matsusue, S; Kashihara, S; Koizumi, S

    1984-09-01

    Total pancreatectomy was performed for carcinoma of the head of the pancreas associated with multiple anomalies in the peripancreatic region and of the pancreas. The anomalies were preduodenal portal vein, annular pancreas with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, left-sided gallbladder, polysplenia and high mobile right colon. The surgical implications of pancreatectomy for such anatomical abnormalities, especially preduodenal portal vein, and the usefulness of ultrasonography for the preoperative evaluation are given attention.

  8. ECM Signaling Regulates Collective Cellular Dynamics to Control Pancreas Branching Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hung Ping; Panlasigui, Devin; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Sander, Maike

    2016-01-12

    During pancreas development, epithelial buds undergo branching morphogenesis to form an exocrine and endocrine gland. Proper morphogenesis is necessary for correct lineage allocation of pancreatic progenitors; however, the cellular events underlying pancreas morphogenesis are unknown. Here, we employed time-lapse microscopy and fluorescent labeling of cells to analyze cell behaviors associated with pancreas morphogenesis. We observed that outer bud cells adjacent to the basement membrane are pleomorphic and rearrange frequently; additionally, they largely remain in the outer cell compartment even after mitosis. These cell behaviors and pancreas branching depend on cell contacts with the basement membrane, which induce actomyosin cytoskeleton remodeling via integrin-mediated activation of FAK/Src signaling. We show that integrin signaling reduces E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in outer cells and provide genetic evidence that this regulation is necessary for initiation of branching. Our study suggests that regulation of cell motility and adhesion by local niche cues initiates pancreas branching morphogenesis.

  9. LGR5 and Nanog identify stem cell signature of pancreas beta cells which initiate pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Polin, Nava; Givol, David

    2013-04-05

    Pancreas cancer, is the fourth leading cause of cancer death but its cell of origin is controversial. We compared the localization of stem cells in normal and cancerous pancreas using antibodies to the stem cell markers Nanog and LGR5. Here we show, for the first time, that LGR5 is expressed in normal pancreas, exclusively in the islets of Langerhans and it is co-localized, surprisingly, with Nanog and insulin in clusters of beta cells. In cancerous pancreas Nanog and LGR5 are expressed in the remaining islets and in all ductal cancer cells. We observed insulin staining among the ductal cancer cells, but not in metastases. This indicates that the islet's beta cells, expressing LGR5 and Nanog markers are the initiating cells of pancreas cancer, which migrated from the islets to form the ductal cancerous tissue, probably after mutation and de-differentiation. This discovery may facilitate treatment of this devastating cancer.

  10. Analyses of pancreas development by generation of gfp transgenic zebrafish using an exocrine pancreas-specific elastaseA gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Haiyan; Korzh, Svitlana; Li Zhen; Mudumana, Sudha Puttur; Korzh, Vladimir; Jiang Yunjin; Lin Shuo; Gong Zhiyuan . E-mail: dbsgzy@nus.edu.sg

    2006-05-15

    In contrast to what we know on development of endocrine pancreas, the formation of exocrine pancreas remains poorly understood. To create an animal model that allows observation of exocrine cell differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis in living animals, we used the zebrafish elastaseA (elaA) regulatory sequence to develop transgenic zebrafish that display highly specific exocrine pancreas expression of GFP in both larvae and adult. By following GFP expression, we found that the pancreas in early development was a relatively compact organ and later extended posterior along the intestine. By transferring the elaA:gfp transgene into slow muscle omitted mutant that is deficient in receiving Hedgehog signals, we further showed that Hedgehog signaling is required for exocrine morphogenesis but not for cell differentiation. We also applied the morpholino knockdown and toxin-mediated cell ablation approaches to this transgenic line. We showed that the development of exocrine pancreas is Islet-1 dependent. Injection of the diphtheria toxin A (DTA) construct under the elastaseA promoter resulted in selective ablation of exocrine cells while the endocrine cells and other endodermal derivatives (liver and intestine) were not affected. Thus, our works demonstrated the new transgenic line provided a useful experimental tool in analyzing exocrine pancreas development.

  11. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism.

  12. [Myocardial perfusion imaging by digital subtraction angiography].

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, H; Ishikawa, K; Ogai, T; Katori, R

    1986-03-01

    Several methods of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were compared to determine which could better visualize regional myocardial perfusion using coronary angiography in seven patients with myocardial infarction, two with angina pectoris and five with normal coronary arteries. Satisfactory DSA was judged to be achieved if the shape of the heart on the mask film was identical to that on the live film and if both films were exactly superimposed. To obtain an identical mask film in the shape of each live film, both films were selected from the following three phases of the cardiac cycle; at the R wave of the electrocardiogram, 100 msec before the R wave, and 200 msec before the R wave. The last two were superior for obtaining mask and live films which were similar in shape, because the cardiac motion in these phases was relatively small. Using these mask and live films, DSA was performed either with the continuous image mode (CI mode) or the time interval difference mode (TID mode). The overall perfusion of contrast medium through the artery to the vein was adequately visualized using the CI mode. Passage of contrast medium through the artery, capillary and vein was visualized at each phase using TID mode. Subtracted images were displayed and photographed, and the density of the contrast medium was adequate to display contour lines as in a relief map. Using this DSA, it was found that regional perfusion of the contrast medium was not always uniform in normal subjects, depending on the typography of the coronary artery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O'Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  14. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss.

  15. Maxillary canine restoration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morris, G A; Lehman, G A

    1999-09-01

    The replacement of a single tooth with osseointegrated dental implants presents a unique challenge to both the prosthodontist and the surgeon. When anterior teeth are replaced, it is difficult to design an occlusal scheme that will direct forces down the long axis of an implant. This is especially true when the canine is involved. Wide-diameter implants offer advantages, such as increased surface area of implant to bone, stronger prosthetics, stronger implants, and less screw loosening or breakage when compared to standard-diameter implants. The single-stage technique is advantageous in terms of soft-tissue predictability, and it eliminates the need for second-stage surgery.

  16. TU-EF-204-02: Hiigh Quality and Sub-MSv Cerebral CT Perfusion Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ke; Niu, Kai; Wu, Yijing; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: CT Perfusion (CTP) imaging is of great importance in acute ischemic stroke management due to its potential to detect hypoperfused yet salvageable tissue and distinguish it from definitely unsalvageable tissue. However, current CTP imaging suffers from poor image quality and high radiation dose (up to 5 mSv). The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that technical innovations such as Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) have the potential to address these challenges and achieve high quality and sub-mSv CTP imaging. Methods: (1) A spatial-temporal 4D cascaded system model was developed to indentify the bottlenecks in the current CTP technology; (2) A task-based framework was developed to optimize the CTP system parameters; (3) Guided by (1) and (2), PICCS was customized for the reconstruction of CTP source images. Digital anthropomorphic perfusion phantoms, animal studies, and preliminary human subject studies were used to validate and evaluate the potentials of using these innovations to advance the CTP technology. Results: The 4D cascaded model was validated in both phantom and canine stroke models. Based upon this cascaded model, it has been discovered that, as long as the spatial resolution and noise properties of the 4D source CT images are given, the 3D MTF and NPS of the final CTP maps can be analytically derived for a given set of processing methods and parameters. The cascaded model analysis also identified that the most critical technical factor in CTP is how to acquire and reconstruct high quality source images; it has very little to do with the denoising techniques often used after parametric perfusion calculations. This explained why PICCS resulted in a five-fold dose reduction or substantial improvement in image quality. Conclusion: Technical innovations generated promising results towards achieving high quality and sub-mSv CTP imaging for reliable and safe assessment of acute ischemic strokes. K. Li, K. Niu, Y. Wu: Nothing to

  17. Differential regulation of trypsinogen mRNA translation: full-length mRNA sequences encoding two oppositely charged trypsinogen isoenzymes in the dog pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, S D; LaForge, K S; Scheele, G

    1985-01-01

    In the absence of changes in functional mRNA levels, stimulation of the pancreas with caerulein, a peptide analog of cholecystokinin, has been previously shown to increase the synthesis of anionic but not cationic trypsinogen. To look for structure-function correlations, a high-yield, full-length cDNA library has been constructed from canine pancreatic poly(A)+ mRNA. Full-length clones coding for the two major trypsinogen isoenzyme forms have been identified by colony hybridization and verified by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA in the presence of microsomal membranes and an optimal redox potential. Disulfide-bonded translation products were separated and identified by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. Nucleotide sequence analysis allowed us to deduce the amino acid sequences for the anionic and cationic forms of canine trypsinogen, which contain 232 and 231 residues, respectively (77% amino acid identity), and the 15-residue amino terminal signal sequences (53% amino acid identity) associated with the two presecretory forms. Measurements of relative and absolute mRNA levels, when related to relative protein synthesis values, indicated that the translational efficiency of anionic trypsinogen mRNA exceeded that of cationic trypsinogen mRNA by 1.5- to 2.9-fold under basal conditions. Analysis of the 5' noncoding regions of trypsinogen mRNAs revealed a striking conservation of sequence (10 of 12 bases) between dog and rat anionic trypsinogen forms. This contrasted markedly with the divergence of the 5' noncoding regions observed between dog anionic and cationic trypsinogen mRNAs. Images PMID:3841794

  18. SU-E-J-65: Motion Difference Between the Pancreas and Nearby Veins for Pancreas Motion Monitoring Using Ultrasound During Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Omari, E; Erickson, B; Li, X; Zhang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: As it is generally difficult to outline the pancreas on an ultrasound b-mode image, visualized structures such as the portal or the splenic veins are assumed to have the same motion as the pancreas. These structures can be used as a surrogate for monitoring pancreas motion during radiation therapy (RT) delivery using ultrasound. To verify this assumption, we studied the motion difference between the head of the pancreas, the portal vein, the tail of the pancreas, and splenic vein. Methods: 4DCT data acquired during RT simulation were analyzed for a total of 5 randomly selected patients with pancreatic cancer. The data was sorted into 10 respiratory phases from 0% to 90% (0%: end of the inspiration, 50%: end of expiration) . The head of the pancreas (HP), tail of the pancreas (TP), portal vein (PV), and splenic vein (SV) were contoured on all 10 phases. The volume change and motion were measured in the left-right (LR), anterior-superior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Results: The volume change for all patients/phases were: 1.2 ± 3% for HP, 0.78 ± 1.6% for PV, 2.5 ± 2.9% for TP, and 0.53 ± 2.1% for SV. Motion for each structure was estimated from the centroid displacements due to the uniformity of the structures and the small volume change. The measured motion between HP and PV was: LR: 0.1 ± 0.17 mm, AP: 0.04 ± 0.1 mm, SI: 0.17 ± 0.16 mm and between TP and the PV was: LR: 0.05 ± 0.3 mm, AP: 0.1 ± 0.4 mm, SI: 0.01 ± 0.022 mm. Conclusion: There are small motion differences between the portal vein and the head of the pancreas, and the splenic vein and the tail of the pancreas. This suggests the feasibility of utilizing these features for monitoring the pancreas motion during radiation therapy.

  19. The pediatric template of brain perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Avants, Brian B; Duda, Jeffrey T; Kilroy, Emily; Krasileva, Kate; Jann, Kay; Kandel, Benjamin T; Tustison, Nicholas J; Yan, Lirong; Jog, Mayank; Smith, Robert; Wang, Yi; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) captures the dynamics of brain development with multiple modalities that quantify both structure and function. These measurements may yield valuable insights into the neural patterns that mark healthy maturation or that identify early risk for psychiatric disorder. The Pediatric Template of Brain Perfusion (PTBP) is a free and public neuroimaging resource that will help accelerate the understanding of childhood brain development as seen through the lens of multiple modality neuroimaging and in relation to cognitive and environmental factors. The PTBP uses cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI to quantify cortex, white matter, resting state functional connectivity and brain perfusion, as measured by Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), in 120 children 7–18 years of age. We describe the PTBP and show, as a demonstration of validity, that global summary measurements capture the trajectories that demarcate critical turning points in brain maturation. This novel resource will allow a more detailed understanding of the network-level, structural and functional landmarks that are obtained during normal adolescent brain development. PMID:25977810

  20. The pediatric template of brain perfusion.

    PubMed

    Avants, Brian B; Duda, Jeffrey T; Kilroy, Emily; Krasileva, Kate; Jann, Kay; Kandel, Benjamin T; Tustison, Nicholas J; Yan, Lirong; Jog, Mayank; Smith, Robert; Wang, Yi; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) captures the dynamics of brain development with multiple modalities that quantify both structure and function. These measurements may yield valuable insights into the neural patterns that mark healthy maturation or that identify early risk for psychiatric disorder. The Pediatric Template of Brain Perfusion (PTBP) is a free and public neuroimaging resource that will help accelerate the understanding of childhood brain development as seen through the lens of multiple modality neuroimaging and in relation to cognitive and environmental factors. The PTBP uses cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI to quantify cortex, white matter, resting state functional connectivity and brain perfusion, as measured by Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), in 120 children 7-18 years of age. We describe the PTBP and show, as a demonstration of validity, that global summary measurements capture the trajectories that demarcate critical turning points in brain maturation. This novel resource will allow a more detailed understanding of the network-level, structural and functional landmarks that are obtained during normal adolescent brain development.

  1. Intracellular route of canine parvovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Vihinen-Ranta, M; Kalela, A; Mäkinen, P; Kakkola, L; Marjomäki, V; Vuento, M

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18 degrees C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV.

  2. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  3. Expression of Bcl-2 in canine osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Piro, F.; Leonardi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. It is responsible for 80-85% of the primary bone tumors affecting dogs and it is characterized by aggressive and invasive behavior, with a high metastatic potential. Several studies on cancer and related tumorigenesis, show an involvement of the mechanisms of programmed cell death and cell survival. Many signals seem to be involved in the related mechanism of autophagy and in particular, our interest is focused on the expression of a family of Bcl-2 that seems to be involved either in the control of biomolecular mechanisms like autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we investigated the expression of Bcl-2 in different cases of spontaneous canine osteosarcoma and the related preliminary results are described. We found Bcl-2 activity was increased in OS tissue compared to normal bone tissue. These results suggested that Bcl-2 activity may play an important role in the formation of OS and as a diagnostic for neoplastic activity. However, further research is needed to confirm the role of Bcl-2 activity in OS in canines. PMID:26623359

  4. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted. PMID:26861285

  5. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-02-04

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted.

  6. Prolonged cerebral "luxury perfusion" after removal of a convexity meningioma.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, L D; Selker, R G

    1979-04-01

    Following total removal of a convexity meningioma, serial computerized tomographic scans disclosed massive hemispheric contrast enhancement compatible with "luxury perfusion". Maximum enhancement occurred one month following the operation and resolved two months postoperatively. Luxury perfusion appeared to be associated with slowly resolving cerebral edema.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging in the Study of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of various uses of magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in the investigation of brain/language relationships. The reviewed studies illustrate how perfusion imaging can reveal areas of brain where dysfunction due to low blood flow is associated with specific language deficits, and where restoration of blood flow…

  8. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Justison, George A

    2015-12-01

    The authors comment on Steffens and Gunser's article describing the University of Wisconsin adoption of the Epic anesthesia record to include perfusion information from the cardiopulmonary bypass patient experience. We highlight the current-day lessons and the valuable quality and safety principles the Wisconsin-Epic model anesthesia-perfusion record provides.

  9. Free flap rescue using an extracorporeal perfusion device.

    PubMed

    Fichter, Andreas M; Ritschl, Lucas M; Rau, Andrea; Schwarzer, Claudia; von Bomhard, Achim; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Mücke, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The warm ischaemia time of microvascular free flaps is limited. Incalculable events, such as lack of adequate recipient vessels or intraoperative medical emergencies, can lead to prolonged ischaemia and potentially to flap loss. In this study, critically perfused ischaemic or congested flaps were temporarily perfused with an extracorporeal perfusion system until anastomosis could be commenced. Temporary extracorporeal perfusion was performed in 8 radial forearm flaps for 147 ± 52 (range 77-237) minutes. Flap perfusion was assessed using Indocyanine Green fluorescence angiography and combined laser Doppler flowmetry and remission spectroscopy. Results were compared with those of 30 patients who underwent conventional reconstruction with radial forearm flaps. Flap survival, flap microcirculation, postoperative complications, and hospital stay did not differ between groups. We report successful free flap transfer after short-term extracorporeal perfusion for up to 4 h in 8 patient cases. Temporary extracorporeal free flap perfusion reduces the warm ischaemia time in emergency situations and can help to prevent flap failure in critically perfused or congested flaps. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02449525.

  10. Canine mammary tumour cell lines established in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hellmén, E

    1993-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common tumours in the female dog. The tumours have a complex histology and exist in epithelial, mixed and mesenchymal forms. To study the biology of canine mammary tumours, five cell lines have been established and characterized. The results indicate that canine mammary tumours might be derived from mammary stem cells and that the tumour growth is independent of oestrogens. The established canine mammary tumour cell lines will be valuable tools in further studies of the histogenesis and pathogenesis of these tumours.

  11. Intranasal vaccine trial for canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough).

    PubMed

    Glickman, L T; Appel, M J

    1981-08-01

    Two field trials were conducted during periods of endemic (summer) and epizootic (winter) canine infectious tracheobronchitis activity to evaluate the efficacy of three intranasal vaccines in a closed commercial beagle breeding kennel. A trivalent vaccine containing Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine parainfluenza, and canine adenovirus-2 was administered at 3 weeks of age. The vaccine was 71.2% and 81.8% effective in decreasing the incidence of coughing during the winter and summer trials, respectively. The number of deaths was lower in each of the vaccine groups than in the placebo groups. No adverse reactions were observed with any of the intranasal vaccines.

  12. Kinetics of canine dental calculus crystallization: an in vitro study on the influence of inorganic components of canine saliva.

    PubMed

    Borah, Ballav M; Halter, Timothy J; Xie, Baoquan; Henneman, Zachary J; Siudzinski, Thomas R; Harris, Stephen; Elliott, Matthew; Nancollas, George H

    2014-07-01

    This work identifies carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) as the primary component of canine dental calculus, and corrects the long held belief that canine dental calculus is primarily CaCO3 (calcite). CAP is known to be the principal crystalline component of human dental calculus, suggesting that there are previously unknown similarities in the calcification that occurs in these two unique oral environments. In vitro kinetic experiments mimicking the inorganic components of canine saliva have examined the mechanisms of dental calculus formation. The solutions were prepared so as to mimic the inorganic components of canine saliva; phosphate, carbonate, and magnesium ion concentrations were varied individually to investigate the roll of these ions in controlling the nature of the phases that is nucleated. To date, the inorganic components of the canine oral systems have not been investigated at concentrations that mimic those in vivo. The mineral composition of the synthetic calculi grown under these conditions closely resembled samples excised from canines. This finding adds new information about calculus formation in humans and canines, and their sensitivity to chemicals used to treat these conditions.

  13. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf) in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mohebali, Mehdi; Arzamani, Kourosh; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Raeghi, Saber; Heidari, Zahra; Motavalli-Haghi, Seyed Mousa; Elikaee, Samira; Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Ahmad; Kakoei, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT). Microscopically examinations were performed in all the seropositive wild canines for the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania spp. Some Leishmania sp. which had been isolated from the spleens of wild canines, were examined analyzed by conventional PCR and sequencing techniques using α-tubulin and GAPDH genes. Results: Altogether, 84 wild canines including foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=21), Jackals (Canis aureus, n=60) and wolves (Canis lupus, n=3) were collected. Four foxes and seven jackals showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of 1:320–1:20480 in DAT. Furthermore, one fox and one jackal were parasitologically (microscopy and culture) positive and L. infantum was confirmed by sequence analysis. Conclusion: The present study showed that sylvatic cycle of L. infantum had been established in the studied endemic areas of VL in northeastern Iran. PMID:28032106

  14. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  15. [Ocular perfusion pressure and its relevance for glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Schmidl, D; Werkmeister, R; Garhöfer, G; Schmetterer, L

    2015-02-01

    Ocular perfusion pressure is defined as the difference between arterial and venous pressure in ocular vessels. In practice, mean arterial pressure is used to substitute for arterial pressure in ocular vessels while intraocular pressure gives an estimate for ocular venous pressure. This results in a value that is easy to calculate and which is of importance since several studies have shown that it is correlated to the prevalence, incidence and progression of primary open angle glaucoma. Today, ocular perfusion pressure is used to estimate individual risks. Since no target value for ocular perfusion pressure can be defined, direct therapeutic intervention is difficult. Still, it has to be kept in mind that lowering intraocular pressure automatically leads to an increase in ocular perfusion pressure. The present article also points out problems and limitations in the concept of ocular perfusion pressure and suggests possible solutions for these problems in the future.

  16. Automated quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion lung scintigrams

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G.H.; Vernon, P.; Seed, W.A.

    1984-05-01

    An automated computer analysis of ventilation (Kr-81m) and perfusion (Tc-99m) lung images has been devised that produces a graphical image of the distribution of ventilation and perfusion, and of ventilation-perfusion ratios. The analysis has overcome the following problems: the identification of the midline between two lungs and the lung boundaries, the exclusion of extrapulmonary radioactivity, the superimposition of lung images of different sizes, and the format for presentation of the data. Therefore, lung images of different sizes and shapes may be compared with each other. The analysis has been used to develop normal ranges from 55 volunteers. Comparison of younger and older age groups of men and women show small but significant differences in the distribution of ventilation and perfusion, but no differences in ventilation-perfusion ratios.

  17. Impedance plethysmography: a new method for continuous muscle perfusion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Concannon, M J; Stewart, D H; Welsh, C F; Puckett, C L

    1991-08-01

    Vigilant postoperative monitoring of the buried muscle flap is critical after free transfer because early diagnosis of vascular insufficiency is essential to allow prompt correction. We have identified a monitoring method utilizing needle electrodes and impedance plethysmography that gives a beat-to-beat representation of muscular perfusion. In 25 New Zealand White rabbits the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated on its vascular pedicle, and two intramuscular needle electrodes were placed. The instantaneous impedance changes of the muscle (corresponding to the pulsatile volume changes of perfusion) were measured and recorded. Using this representation of perfusion, an independent judge was able to correctly diagnose muscular ischemia 100 percent of the time (n = 25). Further, the judge was able to correctly distinguish the ischemia as arterial (n = 10) or venous (n = 10) in origin 100 percent of the time. Additionally, we monitored muscle perfusion transcutaneously in five free muscle flaps and demonstrated a reliable impedance signal that correlated with perfusion.

  18. Purification and partial characterization of nonspecific lipase from rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Albron, P W; Corbett, B J; Latimer, A D

    1976-03-26

    Nonspecific lipase (also referred to as micelle lipase and secondary ester hydrolase) has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity starting from acetone powder of rat pancreas. The purified enzyme is found to have a molecular weight (gel filtration) of 64 000 +/- 2000, and an equivalent weight (titration with E-600) of 65 000. Nonspecific lipase is seen to be very sensitive to inhibition by organophosphates but resistant to quinine. Evidence for the presence of sulfhydryl and imidazole groups essential for activity is presented, and some observations on substrate specificity are made. The purified enzyme appears to lack phosphate groups and lipids, and is unstable under conditions of low ionic strength and/or exposure to 2-mercaptoethanol.

  19. Xenopus as a Model for GI/Pancreas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salanga, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases affecting endodermal organs like the pancreas, lung and gastrointestinal (GI) tract have a substantial impact on human welfare. Since many of these are congenital defects that arise as a result of defects during development broad efforts are focused on understanding the development of these organs so as to better identify risk factors, disease mechanisms and therapeutic targets. Studies implementing model systems, like the amphibian Xenopus, have contributed immensely to our understanding of signaling (e.g. Wnt, FGF, BMP, RA) pathways and gene regulation (e.g. hhex, ptf1a, ngn3) that underlie normal development as well as disease progression. Recent advances in genome engineering further enhance the capabilities of the Xenopus model system for pursuing biomedical research, and will undoubtedly result in a boom of new information underlying disease mechanisms ultimately leading to advancements in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26236566

  20. Binding characteristics of the muscarinic receptor subtype in rabbit pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    van Zwam, A.J.; Willems, P.H.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J.F.; de Pont, J.J.; van Ginneken, C.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor in the rabbit pancreas was characterized with the use of the labeled ligand ({sup 3}H)-(-)-quinuclidinyl-benzylate (({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB). Specific binding of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB to pancreatic acini was found to be reversible and of high affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 68 pmol/l and a receptor density (RT) of 170 fmol/mg protein. Agonist binding behaviour was investigated by displacement of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB binding by eight agonists like arecoline, arecadine-propargylester (APE) and carbachol, yielding only low affinity binding sites. The inhibition of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB binding by the selective antagonists pirenzepine, hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD) and (11-(2-(diethyl-amino)-methyl-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyr ido (2,3-b) (1,4) benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116) confirmed the M3 nature of the rabbit pancreatic receptor.