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Sample records for perianal bowenoid papulosis

  1. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for perianal bowenoid papulosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlen, Johannes; Stern, Josef; Graschew, Georgi; Kaus, Michael R.; Tilgen, W.

    1995-03-01

    HPV associated bowenoid papulosis of the anogenital region are classified as carcinoma in situ. The treatment can be difficult and recurrence rates are high. Extended surgical resections may have complications such as anal sphincter insufficiency. PDT does have some advantages and less side effects in the treatment of these tumors. We treated one female patient with an extended perianal bowenoid papulosis. Previous surgical resection led to local recurrence and partial sphincter insufficiency. Twenty-four hours before local laser light radiation (Ar-Dye laser, 630 nm wavelength), a systemic photosensitizer was applied (Photofrin II, 1.5 mg/kg BW). Four courses of PDT were performed within one year. We observed a total tumor necrosis in every radiation area. The previous sphincter insufficiency improved during the sessions. Side effects were rare. Pain in the radiation was stopped within 2 - 3 days under pain medication. PDT can induce a total local tumor necrosis in perianal bowenoid papulosis. Concerning local expansion, PDT can be a curable treatment.

  2. Dermoscopic findings in bowenoid papulosis: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Carolina; Sabban, Emilia Cohen; Friedman, Paula; Peralta, Rosario; Calb, Ignacio; Cabo, Horacio

    2014-10-01

    Bowenoid papulosis (BP) corresponds to an in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) located in the anogenital region. It is related to HPV, and presents with gray-brown elevated papules or plaques. A biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis; however, dermoscopy may be useful to differentiate this disease from other conditions, such as genital warts, seborrheic keratosis and lichen planus. In this paper we describe the dermoscopic findings in two patients with this disease.

  3. Detection of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 DNA and Papillomavirus Genus‐specific Antigens in Vulva and Cervix from Patients with Bowenoid Papulosis

    PubMed Central

    Sugase, Motoyasu; Moriyama, Shin‐ichi; Hata, Satoru; Matsukura, Toshihiko

    1989-01-01

    The warty disordered lesions of the vulva in three female patients were diagnosed as Bowenoid papulosis on the basis of clinical and histopathological findings. In all three vulvar lesions, human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) DNA was identified hy Southern blot hybridization and Papillomavirus genus‐specific (PGS) antigen was detected in one case immunohistochemically. Furthermore, colposcopic examination revealed the presence of abnormal uterine cervical lesions in two cases. They were found to be intraepithelial neoplasia which harbored HPV 16 DNA and were positive for PGS antigen. PMID:2540130

  4. [Oral involvement in lymphomatoid papulosis].

    PubMed

    Serra-Guillén, C; Requena, C; Alfaro, A; Hueso, L; Sanmartín, O; Llombart, B; Nagore, E; Botella-Estrada, R; Martorell-Calatayud, A; Guillén, C

    2007-05-01

    Lymphomatoid papulosis is a cutaneous lymphoma with an indolent clinical behaviour characterized by chronic development of recurrent, self-limited lesions appearing as necrotic papules and with a pathology compatible with T cell lymphoma. Mucosal involvement by lymphomatoid papulosis is very rare but has been reported in the literature. It usually appears as ulcers in patients previously diagnosed of lymphomatoid papulosis. From a histological perspective it is characterized by an infiltrate of CD 30 positive atypical lymphocytes together with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, neutrophils, histiocytes and plasma cells. We report the case of a man previously diagnosed of lymphomatoid papulosis that developed two ulcerated lesions in the tongue whose biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of oral involvement by lymphomatoid papulosis.

  5. Perianal Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Agulló-Pérez, Alfredo-Daniel; Hervella-Garcés, Marcos; Oscoz-Jaime, Saioa; Azcona-Rodríguez, Maialen; Larrea-García, Mónica; Yanguas-Bayona, Juan-Ignacio

    Perianal complaints are often consulted in dermatology clinics, and in many cases, a conclusive diagnosis is not easily made. The aim of this study was to study and identify the epidemiological, clinical, and contact allergy features of patients with perianal dermatitis who attended at a contact dermatitis unit in a tertiary hospital in Spain. Adult patients with long-lasting (>4 weeks) perianal dermatitis were recruited during the past 10 years for investigation and follow-up. Every patient underwent a diagnostic workup consisting of dermatological exploration and patch tests with the standard and specific series, as well as the patients' own products. General surgical exploration was also performed in some patients. One hundred twenty-four patients were included. The MOAHLFA index was as follows: 43.5, 0, 4.8, 11.3, 1.6, 8.1, and 75. The main final diagnoses were allergic contact dermatitis (32.3%), psoriasis (24.2%), irritant contact dermatitis (17.7%), and lichen simplex (neurodermatitis) (10%). Eighty-one patients (66.1%) showed 1 or more positive reactions, and in 52 patients (43%), positive reactions relevant to the present disease were found. Contact allergy in patients with long-lasting perianal complaints is frequent. It is mandatory for these patients to be referred to a dermatologist for an adequate evaluation and patch testing. Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone seems as the most common allergen implicated in perianal contact dermatitis.

  6. [Perianal pyoderma].

    PubMed

    Slauf, P; Antos, F; Novák, J; Benes, J; Kálal, J

    1993-10-01

    Perianal pyoderma (hidradenitis suppurativa-acne conglobata) is a chronic disease which in its progressive form cannot be treated by conservative methods. Extensive suppurative foci must be radically excised incl. all systems of fistulas right down to the fascia and the defects which develop are allowed to heal per secundam or after several weeks they can at a different period of time be covered by a skin transplant. The authors present their 30-year experience with surgical treatment of 39 patients. Treatment was in all instances successful after radical surgical excision. All these patients have fully recovered as regards work capacity as well as social aspects.

  7. Bowenoid epidermotropic metastatic squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ihm, C W; Park, S L; Sung, S Y; Lee, I S

    1996-10-01

    Epidermotropic metastatic squamous cell carcinoma produced full-thickness cellular atypia of bowenoid carcinoma in situ or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 3 (VIN 3), in a 73-year-old woman who had past history of uterine cervical carcinoma. The presence of intravascular tumor cell nests and areas showing smooth continuity of the malignant squamous cell nodules with the adjoining benign epidermis supported the possibility of the epidermotropic metastasis. To our knowledge, metastatic epidermotropic squamous carcinoma clinicopathologically simulating primary Bowen's disease has not been reported.

  8. Skin lesion resembling malignant atrophic papulosis in lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Doutre, M S; Beylot, C; Bioulac, P; Busquet, M; Conte, M

    1987-01-01

    This case demonstrates, as do the 3 others reported in literature, that a diagnosis of malignant atrophic papulosis can only be made once the possibility of a lupus erythematosus has been totally excluded.

  9. Perianal nodular hidradenocarcinoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Sierra Montenegro, Ernesto; Sierra Luzuriaga, Gastón; Leone Stay, Gaetano; Salazar Menéndez, Vilma; Quiñonez Auria, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Eccrine glands (sweat glands) appear in all sites of the skin and are more abundant in hands and feet. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma (NH) is a rare malignant and aggressive tumor of the eccrine glands. The objective of this study is to report a case of perianal hidradenocarcinoma. We present the case of a 75-year-old female with diabetes, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. Physical examination revealed a small perianal tumor that was palpated near the anal canal. Biopsy was done. Pathology report revealed perianal hidradenoma. Rectosigmoidoscopy was normal. Computed tomography showed 1-cm adenopathies in inguinal and right iliac regions. Extensive resection of the tumor was done. Definitive pathology report was malignant eccrine acrospiroma. The patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy in the Oncology Service and died 1 month later. In patients with a first symptom of metastases in the inguinal region, suspicion must be directed to the anal canal.

  10. Perianal rhabdomyosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Kadosawa, T; Isomura, H; Okada, Y; Ochiai, K; Umemura, T; Okumura, M; Fujinaga, T

    2002-05-01

    A perianal rhabdomyosarcoma was diagnosed in an 11-year-old neutered male Labrador retriever. Following two incomplete surgical excisions of the tumour, the dog was treated by means of surgery combined with local radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy using one cycle of vincristine sulphate, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (VAC protocol). The dog died 252 days after the first combined therapy. Radiography at this time demonstrated enlargement of the iliac lymph nodes, suggesting metastasis of the tumour. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of treatment of canine perianal rhabdomyosarcoma.

  11. [Perianal Bowen's disease treated with imiquimod].

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Rubio, Alberto; Nagore, Eduardo; Serra, Carlos; Botella, Rafael; Sanmartín, Onofre; Requena, Celia; Llombart, Beatriz; Hueso, Luis; Guillén, Carlos

    2005-09-01

    Bowen's disease is a special form of squamous cell carcinoma in situ that usually develops in photoexposed areas of skin. The treatment of choice is surgery. Less frequently, it may appear in other locations such as the nails, glans penis, intertriginous areas and the perianal region, where conventional treatment may be complicated. We contribute a new case of perianal Bowen's disease, which responded to treatment with imiquimod with no evidence of clinical recurrence after 3 years of follow up. Imiquimod appears to be a therapeutic alternative for perianal Bowen's disease, which seems to have a particular tendency to recur in this location where surgery may also be complicated.

  12. Perianal atypical leiomyoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pingliang; Ou, Hailing; Huang, Shen; Wei, Longxiang; Zhang, Sen; Liu, Jiali; Geng, Shuguang; Yang, Kun

    2017-12-01

    Reports on perianal atypical leiomyoma, a perianal tumor, are rare. We confirmed a perianal atypical leiomyoma by its clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and immunohistochemistry. A 28-year-old female with a perianal mass found more than 4 years ago. The 5cm_4cm_4cm sized mass was located on the left side of the anus and vagina; The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed: A 4.1cm × 5.2cm × 4.9cm sized round mass was observed on the left side of the circumference. Perianal atypical leiomyoma. anal peripheral mass resection was performed under lumbar anesthesia. The postoperative course was uneventful, healing, the patient was discharged. Perianal atypical leiomyomas are benign tumors, but with the clinically atypical leiomyoma, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between potential malignant smooth muscle tumors,and there may be malignant changes. Surgery should ensure complete resection, and to avoid postoperative recurrence, there should be a regular follow-up.

  13. Treatment of bowenoid and basaloid vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 with imiquimod 5% cream.

    PubMed

    Marchitelli, Claudia; Secco, Graciela; Perrotta, Myriam; Lugones, Leonor; Pesce, Romina; Testa, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of imiquimod 5% for the treatment of bowenoid and basaloid vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and to evaluate recurrences following treatment. Eight patients <55 years old (range, 32-51; mean, 39.7), with bowenoid or basaloid VIN 2/3 diagnosed by biopsy were treated with imiquimod 5%. Women with other types of intraepithelial neoplasia of the lower genital tract, immunosuppressed women, pregnant women and women with other types of vulvar pathology were excluded. Two patients previously treated for VIN 3 (surgical resection, resection by loop electrosurgical excision procedure) had recurrences. Patients applied imiquimod cream 3 times a week until total clearance of the lesions or up to a maximum of 16 weeks. Responses were categorized as total when there was no colposcopic evidence of a lesion, partial when the lesion area diminished >50% and progressive when there was an increase in the lesion area. A biopsy was performed at the end of treatment. Follow-up was carried out monthly (10-30 months). Total clearance of lesions was observed in 6 patients after 10-16 weeks. Two patients had a partial response (1 with 75% and the other with 50% reduction of the lesions). Posttreatment histopathology showed the absence of precancerous lesions in 7 patients (87.5%). Biopsy was positive for VIN 3 (12.5%) only in the patient showing a clinical response of 50%. Of the 7 patients with biopsies negative for VIN, 2 (25%) were positive for viral infection; 1 gave a negative reading after 2 months after treatment, and the other 1 remained positive for human papillomavirus. The patient with persistent VIN received surgical treatment. The side effects were as follows: erythema in 8 patients (100%), erosions in 1 patient (12.5%) and edema in 1 patient (12.5%). No relapses occurred after treatment during 10-30 months of follow-up. In this initial series, imiquimod proved to be effective for the treatment of bowenoid and basaloid VIN 2/3 in a

  14. Perianal sinuses in neonates and infants.

    PubMed

    Al-Wattar, Kais M

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the etiology of perianal abscess or discharges in neonates and infants and some of them are perianal sinuses with blind inner end without connection to the anal canal, and some of these cases have a different histological pattern. Complete surgical excision and primary closure of their wounds can cure these patients. Between January 1988 and December 2000, (81) neonates and infants (aged 2 weeks to 2 years) with perianal sinuses, fistula-in-ano abscess dealt in the Al-Zahrawi and Al-Khansa Teaching Hospitals, Mosul, Iraq, were studied. Fifty-one patients displayed an onset of symptoms during their first year of age, all cases had a gentle probing and proctoscopy under general anesthesia, and the discharge from abscess from the patients were sent for culture. Thirty patients with proper sinuses had excision of the sinus and primary closure; children with fistulae underwent fistulectomy; perianal abscesses drained. All the excised specimens were examined histopathologically. All children, except 3, were boys. Out of the 81 cases studied, 30 patients (37%) proved to have proper sinuses with blind inner end. Eight of these showed a different histological pattern, and in 2 cases, the histopathology was that of rectal duplication, the microbiology of the discharge from the proper sinuses was showing a predominance of non-gut derived organisms. All patients cured by excision of the sinuses and primary closure. Fistulae are the most common perianal discharging lesions in neonates and infants, blind sinuses are another cause in a considerable number. We propose a diagnostic strategy and treatment for those children presenting with discharging perianal lesions; for anticipation of these sinuses 3 points need to be considered before attempting surgery. 1) Blind sinus tract on gentle probing. 2) Normal anal and rectal mucosa on proctoscopy. 3) High bacterial yield of non-gut derived organisms on culture of the pus or discharge. Their

  15. Alveolar soft part sarcoma causing perianal abscess.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Niall; McCulloch, Tom; Leverton, David

    2011-07-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with a perianal abscess that communicated with the vagina. There was a background of a one-year history of a conservatively treated, traumatic, paravaginal haematoma. Histology of the fistula tract showed alveolar soft part sarcoma and subsequent imaging identified a large soft tissue mass in the pelvis with lung metastases. Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of unknown cellular origin affecting predominantly young women, often in deep soft tissues and lower extremities.

  16. Frequency and Risk Factors for Associated Lymphomas in Patients With Lymphomatoid Papulosis

    PubMed Central

    Tressières, Benoît; D’Incan, Michel; Machet, Laurent; Grange, Florent; Estève, Éric; Dalac, Sophie; Ingen-Housz-Oro, Saskia; Bagot, Martine; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Joly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is classified as an indolent cutaneous lymphoma, but outcome dramatically worsens if LyP is associated with lymphoma. The frequency of this association remains unclear in the literature. Here, we assess the frequency and risk factors of association between LyP and another lymphoma in an 11-year retrospective study conducted in 8 dermatology departments belonging to the French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphoma (FSGCL). Patients and Methods. Patients with LyP were identified and data extracted from the FSGCL registry between 1991 and 2006. Patients were followed up to January 2014. Age, sex, number of skin lesions, histologic subtype, and genotype were recorded at baseline. Risk factors were determined using univariate and multivariate analysis. Cumulative probability of association was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results. We observed 52 cases of lymphomas (cutaneous, n = 38; systemic, n = 14) in 44 of 106 patients (41%). Lymphoma diagnosis was concomitant with or prior to LyP diagnosis in 31 cases and occurred during the course of LyP in 21 cases (cutaneous, n = 14; systemic, n = 7; median delay: 5 years; interquartile range: 1.5–7 years). In multivariate analysis, main prognostic factors for association between LyP and another lymphoma were older age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05 per year; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.08; p = .011) and presence of a T-cell clone in LyP lesions (OR: 7.55; 95% CI: 2.18–26.18; p = .001). Conclusion. Older age and presence of a T-cell clone in LyP lesions are risk factors for associated lymphomas in patients with LyP. These findings should help to identify patients who require close management in clinical practice. Implications for Practice: The management of lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is that of an indolent cutaneous lymphoma, based on its excellent prognosis. However, this good prognosis is altered if LyP is associated with lymphoma. Furthermore, risk factors for and

  17. Lymphomatoid papulosis with pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia in a 7-year-old girl: a case report.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jingshu; Ma, Yiping; Chen, Hao; Xu, Xiulian; Sun, Jianfang

    2016-05-01

    Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) belongs to the group of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia has rarely been reported in patients with LyP. In this report, we describe a case of LyP presenting as pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. The patient was a 7-year-old girl who presented with a recurrent papulonodular eruption on her face and trunk for 2 months. Histopathologic examination revealed an irregular growth of hyperkeratotic epidermis into the whole dermal layer with marked nests of squamous cells in the background of diffuse atypical lymphoid cells, eosinophils and neutrophils. The large atypical cells were positive for CD30 and CD3, but negative for CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20 and CD56. A TCR-γ clone was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The correct diagnosis in cases of LyP with overlying pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia can be very difficult both clinically and histopathologically. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics should be integrated to avoid an erroneous diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lymphomatoid papulosis - making sense of the alphabet soup: a proposal to simplify terminology.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Mitteldorf, Christina; Karai, Laszlo J; Robson, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Clinically, lymphomatoid papulosis (LYP) is characterized by recurrent papulonodular lesions. Unlike this stereotypical clinical presentation, the histological spectrum of LYP is very wide, comprising distinct growth patterns, variably sized neoplastic cells, and different immunophenotypes. The revised 2016 WHO classification includes the histological LYP types A to E as well as another type characterized by a specific chromosomal alteration. In addition, new LYP types are going to be proposed, based not only on histological but also on clinical and genetic features. The ensuing expansion of the alphabetical list of histological types will add to the complexity of the terminology of LYP, thereby potentially increasing the risk of complicating rather than facilitating the diagnostic approach to the disease. Moreover, there may be overlap between individual disease types. This development raises the question as to how to simplify the terminology of LYP while still respecting its histological complexity. Herein, we advocate a practical approach to the terminology of LYP based on descriptive terms rather than the designation of LYP types by alphabetical characters. Our proposal aims to contribute to a pragmatic and user-friendly approach, thus not only facilitating the diagnostic process but also the communication between clinicians and pathologists. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Perianal and periumbilical dermatitis: Report of a woman with group G streptococcal infection and review of perianal and periumbilical dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Kallini, Joseph R; Cohen, Philip R

    2013-04-15

    We describe a woman with perianal and periumbilical dermatitis secondary to group G Streptococcus, summarize the salient features of this condition, and review other cutaneous conditions that clinically mimic streptococcal dermatitis of the umbilicus. Periumbilical and perianal streptococcal dermatitis are conditions that commonly occur in children and usually result from beta-hemolytic group A Streptococcus. Rarely, non-group A streptococcal and staphylococcal infections have been reported in adults. A 31-year-old woman developed perianal and periumbilical group G streptococcal dermatitis. Symptoms were present for six months and were refractory to clotrimazole 1 percent and betamethasone dipropionate 0.05 percent cream. The etiology of perianal and periumbilical dermatitis is unclear, but is perhaps explained by virulence of previously asymptomatic colonized bacteria. Perianal streptococcal dermatitis is more common in children. A number of adult infections have been reported, most of which were secondary to group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus. Men are more often affected than women. Group G Streptococcus is rarely the infective etiology of perianal streptococcal dermatitis. This condition presents as a superficial well demarcated erythematous patch on clinical examination. Diagnosis is ascertained by diagnostic swabs and serological tests: antistreptolysin O (ASO) or anti-DNase titer. Treatments include oral amoxicillin, penicillin, erythromycin, and mupirocin ointment. Our patient expands on the clinical presentation typical of streptococcal dermatitis. We describe a rare occurrence of an adult woman infected with non-group A Streptococcus. Several conditions can mimic the presentation of perianal streptococcal dermatitis. Although rare, group G Streptococcus should be considered in the setting of virulent infections usually attributed to group A species. Streptococcal dermatitis can be added to the list of conditions affecting the umbilicus.

  20. Chronic lingual papulosis: new, independent entity or "mature" form of transient lingual papillitis?

    PubMed

    Bouquot, Jerry E; Adibi, Shawn S; Sanchez, Maga

    2012-01-01

    Several acute, usually pediatric variants of edematous, symptomatic fungiform lingual papillitis have been reported since the 1990s, most notably transient lingual papillitis (TLP); but no chronic forms have been mentioned. Is there a chronic counterpart, akin to the older palatal examples of inflammatory papillary hyperplasia? The objective of this study was to clinicopathologically characterize a previously unreported entity with clustered, chronic fibrous papules (nonsyndromic) of the tongue. Cases were collected from clinics in 2 dental schools. Five women and 4 men were identified with multiple, moderately firm, slightly pedunculated, normally colored masses clustered at the tip of the tongue (n = 4), covering the dorsal surface (n = 4) or on the lateral border (n = 1); 2 showed several erythematous or edematous papules (similar to TLP) admixed with fibrous papules. Patient ages ranged from 31 to 62 years (average 49) and all lesions had been present for many years. All lesions were asymptomatic except for the lateral border lesion, which presented with a burning sensation and mild tenderness (disappeared with antifungal medication). Five cases were associated with mouth breathing or a tongue-thrust habit; 4 were associated with geographic tongue or fissured tongue. Four papules were biopsied. All were composed of dense, avascular fibrous tissue with no or very few inflammatory cells; one showed focal mild neovascularity and edema. The lesion appeared to represent altered filiform papillae, more so than fungiform papillae. Chronic lingual papulosis (CLP) is an innocuous entity represented by focal or diffuse enlargement of numerous lingual papillae, primarily the filiform papillae. It appears to usually have an adult onset and most likely represents papillary reaction to very low-grade, chronic irritation or desiccation. Some cases with childhood onset, however, seem to be variations of normal anatomy. No treatment or biopsy is required, but a number of

  1. Medical and surgical management of perianal Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Adegbola, Samuel O.; Pisani, Anthea; Sahnan, Kapil; Tozer, Phil; Ellul, Pierre; Warusavitarne, Janindra

    2018-01-01

    Crohn’s disease is increasingly thought to encompass multiple possible phenotypes. Perianal manifestations account for one such phenotype and represent an independent disease modifier. In its more severe form, perianal Crohn’s disease confers a higher risk of a severe and disabling disease course, relapses, hospital admissions and operations. This, in turn, imposes a considerable burden and disability on patients. Identification of the precise manifestation is important, as management is nuanced, with both medical and surgical components, and is best undertaken in a multidisciplinary setting for both diagnosis and ongoing treatment. The introduction of biologic medication has heralded a significant addition to the management of fistulizing perianal Crohn’s disease in particular, albeit with modest results. It remains a very challenging condition to treat and further work is required to optimize management in this group of patients. PMID:29507460

  2. A link between perianal strep and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Toufexis, Megan; Deoleo, Caroline; Elia, Josephine; Murphy, Tanya K

    2014-04-01

    Perianal streptococcal dermatitis is an infection caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Children with a pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) phenotype may have tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms secondary to a systemic immune activation by GAS infecting perianal areas. In this retrospective case series, the authors describe three children with symptoms consistent with PANDAS and a confirmed perianal streptococcal dermatitis as the likely infectious trigger. Concomitant perianal dermatitis and new-onset obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or tics are strong indications for perianal culture and rapid antigen detection test in young children.

  3. Laparoscopy shows superiority over endoscopy for early detection of malignant atrophic papulosis gastrointestinal complications: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Toledo, A E; Shapiro, L S; Farrell, J F; Magro, C M; Polito, J

    2015-11-02

    The malignant form of atrophic papulosis (Köhlmeier-Degos disease) is a rare thrombo-occlusive vasculopathy that can affect multiple organ systems. Patients typically present with distinctive skin lesions reflective of vascular drop out. The small bowel is the most common internal organ involved, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality attributable to ischemic microperforations. Determination of the presence of gastrointestinal lesions is critical in distinguishing systemic from the benign, cutaneous only disease and in identifying candidates for treatment. We describe an 18 year old male who first presented with cutaneous atrophic papulosis but became critically ill from small bowel microperforations. He had an almost immediate and dramatic response to treatment. Prior to his presentation with acute abdomen he had upper and lower endoscopy showing areas of nonspecific patchy erythema. At laparotomy, innumerable characteristic lesions with central pearly hue and erythematous border were seen. PubMed was used for a literature search using the keywords malignant atrophic papulosis, Degos disease, endoscopy, laparoscopy and laparotomy. This search yielded 200 articles which were further analyzed for diagnostic procedures and findings. Among the 200 articles we identified only 11 cases in which endoscopy was performed. Results of endoscopy and laparotomy in our patient with malignant atrophic papulosis were compared to those in the literature. Endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract has shown gastritis and non-specific inflammation whereas laparoscopy shows white plaques with red borders on the serosal surface of the small bowel and the peritoneum. From personal communications with other physicians worldwide, we identified three additional unpublished cases in which endoscopy revealed only minimal changes while laparoscopy showed dramatic lesions. From our experience the endoscopic findings are often subtle and nonspecific, whereas laparascopy or laparotomy

  4. Colostomy for Perianal Sepsis With Ecthyma Gangrenosum in Immunocompromised Children.

    PubMed

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Berger, Christoph; Meuli, Martin; Grotzer, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Perianal sepsis with ecthyma gangrenosum is a severe and potentially mutilating complication in immunocompromised children. Therapies include antimicrobial treatment, incision and drainage, generous tissue debridement, and skin transplantation. We describe 3 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia having sepsis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in febrile neutropenia and severe perianal infections treated relatively early with a protective colostomy. Indications for colostomy were nonhealing wounds, and ceaseless pain. All patients showed a rapid reduction of pain. Complete wound healing was seen in 2 patients, and considerable pain reduction and increased quality of life were seen in a third patient during palliative care. These results suggest that a protective colostomy should be considered early in the management of immunocompromised children with ecthyma gangrenosum.

  5. Treatment of peri-anal fistula in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Giuseppe S; Di Carlo, Sara; Tema, Giorgia; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Maggi, Giulia; Biancone, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Anal fistulas are a common manifestation of Crohn’s disease (CD). The first manifestation of the disease is often in the peri-anal region, which can occur years before a diagnosis, particularly in CD affecting the colon and rectum. The treatment of peri-anal fistulas is difficult and always multidisciplinary. The European guidelines recommend combined surgical and medical treatment with biologic drugs to achieve best results. Several different surgical techniques are currently employed. However, at the moment, none of these techniques appear superior to the others in terms of healing rate. Surgery is always indicated to treat symptomatic, simple, low intersphincteric fistulas refractory to medical therapy and those causing disabling symptoms. Utmost attention should be paid to correcting the balance between eradication of the fistula and the preservation of fecal continence. PMID:25309057

  6. Transperineal ultrasonography in perianal Crohn disease: A valuable imaging modality.

    PubMed

    Wright, Emily K; Novak, Kerri L; Lu, Cathy; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Wilson, Stephanie R

    2015-01-01

    Aims of treatment for Crohn disease have moved beyond the resolution of clinical symptoms to objective end points including endoscopic and radiological normality. Regular re-evaluation of disease status to safely, readily and reliably detect the presence of inflammation and complications is paramount. Improvements in sonographic technology over recent years have facilitated a growing enthusiasm among radiologists and gastroenterologists in the use of ultrasound for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. Transabdominal intestinal ultrasound is accurate, affordable and safe for the assessment of luminal inflammation and complications in Crohn disease, and can be performed with or without the use of intravenous contrast enhancement. Perianal fistulizing disease is a common, complex and often treatment-refractory complication of Crohn disease, which requires regular radiological monitoring. Endoanal ultrasound is invasive, uncomfortable and yields limited assessment of the perineal region. Although magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis is established, timely access may be a problem. Transperineal ultrasound has been described in small studies, and is an accurate, painless and cost-effective method for documenting perianal fluid collections, fistulas and sinus tracts. In the present article, the authors review the literature regarding perineal ultrasound for the assessment of perianal Crohn disease and use case examples to illustrate its clinical utility.

  7. Hidradenitis suppurativa and perianal Crohn disease: differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bassas-Vila, J; González Lama, Y

    2016-09-01

    The first description of perianal fistulas and complications in Crohn disease was made 75 years ago by Penner and Crohn. Published studies have subsequently confirmed that perianal fistulas are the most common manifestations of fistulising Crohn disease. Hidradenitis suppurativa was described in 1854 by a French surgeon, Aristide Verneuil. It is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent and debilitating disease of the pilosebaceous follicle, that usually manifests after puberty with deep, painful and inflamed lesions in the areas of the body with apocrine glands, usually the axillary, inguinal and anogenital regions. The differential diagnosis between hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease can be challenging, especially when the disease is primarily perianal. When they occur simultaneously, hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease show severe phenotypes and patients can respond to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, although adalimumab is currently the only treatment with demonstrated efficacy in hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease. In addition, there is sometimes a need for different complementary surgical procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent developments in the surgical management of perianal fistula for Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Geltzeiler, Cristina B.; Wieghard, Nicole; Tsikitis, Vassiliki L.

    2014-01-01

    Perianal manifestations of Crohn’s disease (CD) are common and, of them, fistulas are the most common. Perianal fistulas can be extremely debilitating for patients and are often very challenging for clinicians to treat. CD perianal fistulas usually require multidisciplinary and multimodality treatment, including both medical and surgical approaches. The majority of patients require multiple surgical interventions. CD patients with perianal fistulas have a high rate of primary non-healing, surgical morbidity, and high recurrence rates. This has led to constant efforts to improve surgical management of this disease process. PMID:25331917

  9. The impact of mode of delivery on outcomes in patients with perianal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Alice G; Oxford, Emily C; Sauk, Jenny; Nguyen, Deanna D; Yajnik, Vijay; Friedman, Sonia; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease (CD) often affects women during the reproductive years. While several studies have examined the impact of pregnancy on luminal disease, limited literature exists in those with perianal CD. Decision regarding mode of delivery is a unique challenge in such patients due to concerns regarding the effect of pelvic floor trauma during delivery on pre-existing perianal involvement. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of CD patients with established perianal disease undergoing either vaginal delivery or Caesarean section (C-section) at our institutions. We examined the occurrence of symptomatic perianal disease flares within 5 years after delivery in such women compared to non-pregnant CD controls. We also compared the occurrence of such flares between the two modes of delivery in women with established perianal CD. Results We identified 61 pregnant CD patients with established perianal disease (11 vaginal delivery, 50 via C-section) and 61 non-pregnant CD controls with perianal disease. One-third of the C-sections were primarily for obstetric indications. Six of the vaginal deliveries were complicated. Approximately 36% of cases had a symptomatic perianal flare within 1 year after delivery. This was similar across both modes of delivery (p=0.53), and similar to non-pregnant CD patients. There was no difference in the rates of perianal surgical intervention or luminal disease flares in our population based on mode of delivery, or between pregnant CD patients and non-pregnant CD controls. Conclusion We observed no difference in risk of symptomatic perianal flares in patients with established perianal CD delivering vaginally or via C-section. PMID:24918322

  10. Results of a Phase II Trial of Brentuximab Vedotin for CD30+ Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma and Lymphomatoid Papulosis.

    PubMed

    Duvic, Madeleine; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Gangar, Pamela; Clos, Audra L; Sui, Dawen; Talpur, Rakhshandra

    2015-11-10

    Brentuximab vedotin, a monoclonal antibody (cAC10) conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E, targets CD30(+) receptors. This phase II open-label trial was conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy in CD30(+) cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Forty-eight patients with CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders or mycosis fungoides (MF) received an infusion of 1.8 mg/kg every 21 days. Forty-eight evaluable patients (22 women and 26 men; median age, 59.5 years) had an overall response rate of 73% (95% CI, 60% to 86%; 35 of 48 patients) and complete response rate of 35% (95% CI, 22% to 49%; 17 of 48 patients). Fifteen (54%; 95% CI, 31% to 59%) of 28 patients with MF responded, independent of CD30 expression. In patients with MF/Sézary syndrome, the overall response rate was 50% (five of 10 patients) in patients with low CD30 expression (< 10%), 58% (seven of 12 patients) in patients with medium expression (10% to 50%), and 50% (three of six patients) in patients with high expression (≥ 50%). Time to response was 12 weeks (range, 3 to 39 weeks), and duration of response was 32 weeks (range, 3 to 93 weeks). All patients with lymphomatoid papulosis (n = 9) and primary cutaneous anaplastic T-cell lymphomas (n = 2) responded; time to response was 3 weeks (range, 3 to 9 weeks), and median duration of response was 26 weeks (range, 6 to 44 weeks). Soluble baseline CD30 levels were lowest in complete responders (P = .036). Grade 1 to 2 peripheral neuropathy was observed in 65% of patients (95% CI, 52% to 79%; 31 of 48 patients), is still ongoing in 55% of patients (95% CI, 41% to 69%; 17 of 31 patients), and resolved in 45% of patients (95% CI, 31% to 59%; 14 of 31 patients), with a median time to resolution of 41.5 weeks. Grade 3 to 4 events were neutropenia (n = 5), nausea (n = 2), chest pain (n = 2), deep vein thrombosis (n = 1), transaminitis (n = 1), and dehydration (n = 1). Dose reductions to 1.2 mg/kg were instituted as a result of grade 2 neuropathy (n = 6), transaminitis (n = 1

  11. Results of a Phase II Trial of Brentuximab Vedotin for CD30+ Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma and Lymphomatoid Papulosis

    PubMed Central

    Duvic, Madeleine; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Gangar, Pamela; Clos, Audra L.; Sui, Dawen; Talpur, Rakhshandra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Brentuximab vedotin, a monoclonal antibody (cAC10) conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E, targets CD30+ receptors. This phase II open-label trial was conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy in CD30+ cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Patients and Methods Forty-eight patients with CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders or mycosis fungoides (MF) received an infusion of 1.8 mg/kg every 21 days. Results Forty-eight evaluable patients (22 women and 26 men; median age, 59.5 years) had an overall response rate of 73% (95% CI, 60% to 86%; 35 of 48 patients) and complete response rate of 35% (95% CI, 22% to 49%; 17 of 48 patients). Fifteen (54%; 95% CI, 31% to 59%) of 28 patients with MF responded, independent of CD30 expression. In patients with MF/Sézary syndrome, the overall response rate was 50% (five of 10 patients) in patients with low CD30 expression (< 10%), 58% (seven of 12 patients) in patients with medium expression (10% to 50%), and 50% (three of six patients) in patients with high expression (≥ 50%). Time to response was 12 weeks (range, 3 to 39 weeks), and duration of response was 32 weeks (range, 3 to 93 weeks). All patients with lymphomatoid papulosis (n = 9) and primary cutaneous anaplastic T-cell lymphomas (n = 2) responded; time to response was 3 weeks (range, 3 to 9 weeks), and median duration of response was 26 weeks (range, 6 to 44 weeks). Soluble baseline CD30 levels were lowest in complete responders (P = .036). Grade 1 to 2 peripheral neuropathy was observed in 65% of patients (95% CI, 52% to 79%; 31 of 48 patients), is still ongoing in 55% of patients (95% CI, 41% to 69%; 17 of 31 patients), and resolved in 45% of patients (95% CI, 31% to 59%; 14 of 31 patients), with a median time to resolution of 41.5 weeks. Grade 3 to 4 events were neutropenia (n = 5), nausea (n = 2), chest pain (n = 2), deep vein thrombosis (n = 1), transaminitis (n = 1), and dehydration (n = 1). Dose reductions to 1.2 mg/kg were instituted as a result of grade 2 neuropathy

  12. Cyclosporine treatment of perianal gland adenoma concurrent with benign prostatic hyperplasia in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul; Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Ha-Jung; Lim, Chae-Young; Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Jang, Jae-Im; Park, Hee-Myung

    2010-01-01

    A 13-year-old, intact male, mixed-breed dog was evaluated for multiple intradermal nodules around the anus. The nodules were diagnosed as perianal gland adenoma based on histopathologic examination. After therapy with cyclosporin A for 5 wk, the perianal masses were moderately shrunken. The dog’s condition has remained stable over 6 mo. PMID:21286331

  13. Clonal T-Cell Receptor γ-Chain Gene Rearrangements in Differential Diagnosis of Lymphomatoid Papulosis From Skin Metastasis of Nodal Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Akilov, Oleg E.; Pillai, Raju K.; Grandinetti, Lisa M.; Kant, Jeffrey A.; Geskin, Larisa

    2012-01-01

    Background In patients with a history of nodal anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), differentiation of type C lymphomatoid papulosis from cutaneous involvement of systemic ALCL may be challenging because the 2 entities may exhibit identical histologic features. Although metastatic ALCL generally carries the same clone as the primary lymphoma, expression of a distinct clone likely represents a distinct process. Observations A 54-year-old white man had a history of anaplastic lymphoma kinase 1–negative ALCL in the right inguinal lymph node 6 years ago. A complete response was achieved after 6 cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine [Oncovin], and prednisone administered in 21-day cycles) and radiation therapy. After 3½ years, the patient observed waxing and waning papules and nodules. Examination of the biopsy specimen revealed a dense CD30+ lymphocytic infiltrate; no evidence of systemic malignancy was evident on positron emission tomography. Although clinically the presentation was consistent with lymphomatoid papulosis, metastatic ALCL had to be excluded. Polymerase chain reaction analysis with T-cell receptor γ-chain gene rearrangement (TCR-γR) was performed on the original lymph node and new skin lesions. Results of the TCR-γR analysis were positive for clonality in both lesions. However, separate clonal processes were identified. The identification of distinct clones supported the clinical impression of lymphomatoid papulosis. Conclusion Polymerase chain reaction analysis of TCR-γR is a useful method for distinguishing different clonal processes and is recommended when differentiation of primary and secondary lymphoproliferative disorders is required. PMID:21844453

  14. Perianal Crohn's disease - association with significant inflammatory activity in proximal small bowel segments.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Sofia; Cúrdia Gonçalves, Tiago; Dias de Castro, Francisca; Magalhães, Joana; Rosa, Bruno; Moreira, Maria João; Cotter, José

    2018-04-01

    Perianal Crohn's disease (CD) prevalence varies according to the disease location, being particularly frequent in patients with colonic involvement. We aimed to evaluate small bowel involvement and compare small bowel capsule endoscopy findings and inflammatory activity between patients with and without perianal disease. Retrospective single-center study including 71 patients - all patients with perianal CD (17 patients) who performed a small bowel capsule endoscopy were included, and non-perianal CD patients were randomly selected (54 patients). Clinical and analytical variables at diagnosis were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v21.0 and a two-tailed p value <.05 was defined as indicating statistical significance. Patients had a median age of 30 ± 16 years with 52.1% females. Perianal disease was present in 23.9%. Patients with perianal disease had significantly more relevant findings (94.1% vs 66.6%, p = .03) and erosions (70.6% vs 42.6%, p = .04), however, no differences were found between the two groups regarding ulcer, villous edema and stenosis detection. Overall, patients with perianal disease had more frequently significant small bowel inflammatory activity, defined as a Lewis Score ≥135 (94.1% vs 64.8%, p = .03), and higher Lewis scores in the first and second tertiles (450 ± 1129 vs 0 ± 169, p = .02 and 675 ± 1941 vs 0 ± 478, p = .04, respectively). No differences were found between the two groups regarding third tertile inflammatory activity assessed with the Lewis Score. Patients with perianal CD have significantly higher inflammatory activity in the small bowel, particularly in proximal small bowel segments, when compared with patients without perianal disease.

  15. The impact of perianal disease in young patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zwintscher, Nathan P; Shah, Puja M; Argawal, Amit; Chesley, Patrick M; Johnson, Eric K; Newton, Christopher R; Maykel, Justin A; Steele, Scott R

    2015-09-01

    Perianal disease is a potentially significant source of morbidity for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We sought to identify the impact of perianal disease on IBD outcomes in children, adolescents, and young adults. We studied 12,465 inpatient admissions for patients ≤20 years old with IBD in 2009 using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Patients were stratified by their principal diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). Perianal disease (perianal abscess, anal fissure, or anal fistula), complex fistulas (rectourethral, rectovaginal, or enterovesical), and growth failure were defined by ICD-9 codes. Logistic regression was performed adjusting for CD or UC, gender, age, need for surgical intervention, fistulas, or growth failure. Of the 511 (4.1%) patients with perianal disease, 480 had CD (94%, p < 0.001). Girls were less likely to suffer perianal disease (OR = 0.63, CI 0.52-0.76, p < 0.001). Those with perianal disease were more likely to suffer complex fistulas (OR = 3.5, CI 1.98-6.20, p < 0.001) but less likely to suffer enteroenteral fistulas (OR = 0.30, CI 0.15-0.63, p = 0.001) than those without perianal disease. Perianal disease did not increase the incidence of growth failure (p = 0.997) but doubled the likelihood of an operation of any type during admission (p < 0.001). Additionally, patients with perianal disease spent on average 1.29 more days in the hospital (7.45 vs. 6.16 days, p < 0.001) and accrued $5838 extra in hospital charges (p = 0.005). Perianal disease in younger patients is associated with a longer length of stay, higher hospital charges, and increased rates of both perineal and abdominal operative procedures. These data support the notion that, similar to adults, the presence of perianal disease in pediatric Crohn's patients is associated with a more severe course.

  16. Cyclosporine and ketoconazole for the treatment of perianal fistulas in dogs.

    PubMed

    Patricelli, Alison J; Hardie, Robert J; McAnulty, Jonathan E

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate efficacy and cost of using cyclosporine and ketoconazole for the treatment of perianal fistulas in dogs. Clinical trial. 12 dogs with perianal fistulas. Dogs received cyclosporine and ketoconazole orally (target whole blood trough cyclosporine concentrations of 400 to 600 ng/ml). Study endpoints were resolution of clinical signs, remission, and recurrence of disease. Adverse effects and cost of medications were reported. Results were compared with those from previous studies in humans and in dogs in which single agent cyclosporine treatment for perianal fistulas was used. All dogs had resolution of clinical signs. Eight dogs went into remission; however, 5 of those 8 had recurrence of fistulas. Adverse effects of treatment were minimal and well tolerated. Cost of treatment was comparable to traditional surgical options and less than single agent cyclosporine treatment. Administration of cyclosporine with ketoconazole is an effective and cost-comparable treatment for perianal fistulas in dogs.

  17. Sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to diagnose pinworm (Syphacia spp.) infections in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred M; Mandrell, Timothy D

    2009-07-01

    We determined the sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to detect Syphacia spp. in rats and mice. We evaluated 300 rat and 200 mouse perianal impressions over 9 wk. Pinworm-positive perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens at necropsy were considered as true positives. Conversely, pinworm-negative perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens were considered false negatives. The sensitivity of perianal tape impressions for detecting Syphacia muris infections in rats was 100%, and for detecting Syphacia obvelata in mice was 85.5%. Intermittent shedding of Syphacia obvelata ova is the most probable explanation for the decreased sensitivity rate we observed in mice. We urge caution in use of perianal tape impressions alone for Syphacia spp. screening in sentinel mice and rats.

  18. Successful treatment of multifocal pedal Prototheca wickerhamii infection in a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat with multiple Bowenoid in situ carcinomas containing papillomaviral DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kessell, Allan E; McNair, Derek; Munday, John S; Savory, Richard; Halliday, Catriona; Malik, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Case summary A 16-year-old, castrated male, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-positive, domestic shorthair cat developed multiple skin lesions. Most of these were Bowenoid carcinoma in situ and contained DNA sequences consistent with Felis catus papillomavirus type 2. Two additional lesions that developed in the skin and subcutaneous tissues between the digital and carpal pads on the left forelimb and right hindlimb were shown by cytology, histology and culture to be caused by Prototheca wickerhamii. These lesions failed to improve in response to systemic therapy treatment with itraconazole, but excision by sharp en bloc resection with follow-up oral itraconazole therapy proved curative for one lesion, although the other lesion recurred, necessitating a second surgery. Relevance and novel information This is only the second reported case of feline protothecosis from Australia and the first case that has been cultured and identified to the species level. Also of great interest was the presence of multiple papillomavirus-associated neoplastic lesions, which may have afforded a portal of entry for the algal pathogen and the cat’s positive FIV status; the latter might have impacted on both viral and algal pathogenesis by effects on immunocompetence. PMID:28491447

  19. The operative management of children with complex perianal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Natashia M; King, Sebastian K; Elkadri, Abdul; Walters, Thomas; Fish, Joel; Langer, Jacob C

    2016-12-01

    Perianal Crohn's disease (PCD) can affect both quality of life and psychological wellbeing. A subset of pediatric patients with complex PCD require surgical intervention, although appropriate timing and treatment regimens remain unclear. This study aimed to describe a large pediatric cohort in a tertiary center to determine the range of surgical management in children with complex PCD. A retrospective review of children requiring operative intervention for PCD over 13 years (2002-2014) was performed. PCD was divided into simple and complex based on the type of surgical procedure, and the two groups were compared. The 57 children were divided into two groups: the simple group (N=43) underwent abscess drainage ± seton insertion alone, and the complex group (N=14) underwent loop ileostomy ± more extensive surgery. In the complex group, females were more predominant (57% of complex vs 30% of simple), and the average age at diagnosis was lower. Anti-TNF therapy was utilized in 79.1% of simple and 100% of complex PCD. All 14 complex patients underwent a defunctioning ileostomy, with 7 requiring further operations (subtotal colectomy=4, proctocolectomy ± anal sparing=5, plastic surgery reconstruction with perineal flap/graft=4). Complex PCD represents a small but challenging subset of patients in which major surgical intervention may be necessary to alleviate the symptoms of this debilitating condition. retrospective case study with no control group - level IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Retroperitoneal Necrotizing Fasciitis Masquerading as Perianal Abscess - Rare and Perilous.

    PubMed

    Amaranathan, Anandhi; Sahoo, Ashok Kumar; Barathi, Deepak; Shankar, Gomathi; Sistla, Sarath Chandra

    2017-01-17

    Necrotizing fasciitis is one of the uncommon presentations of a rapidly spreading subcutaneous tissue infection. Although the actual cause is unclear in many cases, most of them are due to the rapid proliferation of microorganisms. Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis is extremely rare. It is a potentially lethal infection that requires immediate and aggressive surgical care. Early diagnosis is the key to a better prognosis. The possibility of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis should be suspected in patients with symptoms of sepsis that are disproportionate to clinical findings. The rapid deterioration of the patient also gives a clue towards the diagnosis. We report a 35-year-old male with perianal abscess who had been progressed to retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis. The patient was managed successfully with aggressive debridement and drainage after laparotomy. Appropriate antibiotics were used to combat the sepsis. The patient recovered well at follow up, three months after discharge. Another patient, a 45-year-old male with a retroperitoneal abscess, progressed to retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis, and extra peritoneal drainage and debridement was done. Antibiotics depending upon the culture and sensitivity were used to control sepsis. But the patient succumbed to death 45 days after surgery due to uncontrolled sepsis. Necrotizing fasciitis of any anatomical site needs aggressive surgical care with early intervention. But retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis needs an extra effort for diagnosis. After diagnosis, it needs timely surgical intervention and appropriate antibiotic therapy for the recovery of the patients.

  1. Negative pressure wound therapy combined with skin grafting improves surgical wound healing in the perianal area.

    PubMed

    Jia-Zi, Shi; Xiao, Zhai; Jun-Hui, Li; Chun-Yu, Xue; Hong-da, Bi

    2016-08-01

    Management of large tissue defects resulting from local wide resection of perianal is a clinical challenge for surgeons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) following skin grafting on perianal surgical wound healing.Included in this study were 12 patients with perianal tumors who received skin grafting after perianal tumor resection between December 2012 and December 2014. A self-designed negative pressure drainage device was then applied to maintain a standard negative pressure at -150 mm Hg and removed on day 8 postoperation. The outcome was recorded immediately after NPWT and at 6-month follow-up.All skin grafts survived without infection, hematoma, and necrosis in all 12 patients. No tumor recurrence was detected during 6-month follow-up. Natural folds were observed around the anus. All patients showed normal bowel movements.NPWT following skin grafting was effective for perianal surgical wound healing and infection prevention, thus benefiting anatomical and functional recovery of the anus.

  2. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the management of perianal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Jose C; Echarri, Ana

    2018-02-01

    Perianal fistulas are a major problem in many patients with Crohn's disease. These are usually complex fistulas that adversely affect patients' quality of life, and their clinical management is difficult. Medical treatment sometimes achieves cessation of discharge and closure of the external opening; however, it is difficult to assess the status of the rest of the fistula tract. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice with which to evaluate the condition of perianal fistulas and allows for assessment of the status of inaccessible areas. Magnetic resonance imaging also allows the clinician to evaluate other perianal manifestations of Crohn's disease that differ from the fistulas. This imaging technique is therefore a fundamental means of patient monitoring. When used in conjunction with assessment of the patient's morphological findings, it provides information that allows for both quantification of disease severity and evaluation of the response to treatment. New types of magnetic resonance sequences are emerging, such as diffusion, perfusion, and magnetisation transfer. These sequences may serve as biomarkers because they provide information reflecting the changes taking place at the molecular level. This will help to shape a new scenario in the early assessment of the response to treatments such as anti-tumour necrosis factor drugs. • MRI is the method of choice with which to evaluate perianal fistulas. • In perianal Crohn's disease, MRI is a fundamental means of patient monitoring. • The usefulness of the Van Assche score for patient monitoring remains unclear. • New MRI sequences' diffusion, perfusion, and magnetisation transfer may serve as biomarkers.

  3. Cow's Milk Allergy Is a Major Contributor in Recurrent Perianal Dermatitis of Infants.

    PubMed

    El-Hodhod, Mostafa Abdel-Aziz; Hamdy, Ahmad Mohamed; El-Deeb, Marwa Talaat; Elmaraghy, Mohamed O

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recurrent perianal inflammation has great etiologic diversity. A possible cause is cow's milk allergy (CMA). The aim was to assess the magnitude of this cause. Subjects and Methods. This follow up clinical study was carried out on 63 infants with perianal dermatitis of more than 3 weeks with history of recurrence. Definitive diagnosis was made for each infant through medical history taking, clinical examination and investigations including stool analysis and culture, stool pH and reducing substances, perianal swab for different cultures and staining for Candida albicans. Complete blood count and quantitative determination of cow's milk-specific serum IgE concentration were done for all patients. CMA was confirmed through an open withdrawal-rechallenge procedure. Serum immunoglobulins and CD markers as well as gastrointestinal endoscopies were done for some patients. Results. Causes of perianal dermatitis included CMA (47.6%), bacterial dermatitis (17.46%), moniliasis (15.87%), enterobiasis (9.52%) and lactose intolerance (9.5%). Predictors of CMA included presence of bloody and/or mucoid stool, other atopic manifestations, anal fissures, or recurrent vomiting. Conclusion. We can conclude that cow's milk allergy is a common cause of recurrent perianal dermatitis. Mucoid or bloody stool, anal fissures or ulcers, vomiting and atopic manifestations can predict this etiology.

  4. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in an infant with perianal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Higashigawa, Masamune; Maegawa, Kayoka; Honma, Hitoshi; Yoshino, Ayako; Onozato, Kaori; Nashida, Yuji; Fujiwara, Takashi; Inoue, Masakazu

    2010-10-01

    We describe a case of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in a 7-month-old infant with perianal abscesses. The infant had suffered from perianal abscesses from 3 weeks after birth. The abscesses repeatedly developed and spontaneously drained through the orifice. Twenty-seven days before admission, a live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was given to the infant for the first time for routine immunization. His body temperature rose to 38°C 19 days after receiving the OPV and fell 4 days later. Flaccid paralysis of the right leg appeared 26 days after receipt of the OPV. A Sabin type 3 poliovirus was isolated from a stool obtained at admission. The DNA sequences of the VP1 region of the isolated virus were more than 99% identical with those of the vaccine strain. Mild muscle atrophy with moderate motor impairment in the right leg persisted at 18 months of age. One VAPP case provoked by a perianal abscess has been reported from the United Kingdom. Database search revealed that one of nine VAPP cases reported during 2003-2008 in Japan had a perianal abscess. Taken together, these reports and our case imply that we should give OPV with caution to infants with a perianal abscess.

  5. Non perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease and short bowel syndrome: what we can do?

    PubMed

    Zildzic, Muharem; Alibegovic, Ervin

    2009-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a lifelong disease arising from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors, but seen predominantly in the developed countries of the world. The precise etiology is unknown and therefore a causal treatment is not yet available. Fistulating Crohn's disease includes fistulas arising in the perianal area, together with those communicating between the intestine and other organs or the abdominal wall. Non perianal fistulas include fistulas communicating with other viscera (urinary bladder, vagina), loops of intestine (enteroenteral fistulas) or the abdominal wall (enterocutaneus fistulas). The diagnostic approach is a crucial aspect in the management of fistulating CD as the findings influence the therapeutic strategy. Short bowel syndrome caused by extensive bowel resection should be initially treated with nutritional support and can caused serious treatment and reevaluating problems. We review this uncommon manifestation in a high risk patient after multiple operations and severely shortened bowel and also with non perianal fistulating CD.

  6. Perianal pain as a presentation of lumbosacral neurofibroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moghaddasi, Mehdi; Aghaii, Mahboubeh; Mamarabadi, Mansoureh

    2014-12-01

    Rectal and perianal pain is a common problem. Most people have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. It usually manifests as mild discomfort, but sometimes the pain can be so severe that it is incapacitating. A 59-year-old woman admitted with a 2-year history of paroxysmal perianal pain underwent a full work-up including proctoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, full colonoscopy, and barium enema that were unremarkable. Lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging with and without gadolinium showed an intradural-extramedullary lesion at the level of L5. The pathologic diagnosis was a neurofibroma. She underwent surgery, and after a few weeks she felt well and medication was no longer needed for her paroxysmal pain. Although one should consider the usual causes of colorectal pain such as hemorrhoids, anal fissure, proctalgia fugax, and chronic perianal pain syndrome, we should keep in mind that some referral pain may mimic local pathologies and should be evaluated properly.

  7. Perianal Pain as a Presentation of Lumbosacral Neurofibroma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddasi, Mehdi; Aghaii, Mahboubeh; Mamarabadi, Mansoureh

    2014-01-01

    Rectal and perianal pain is a common problem. Most people have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. It usually manifests as mild discomfort, but sometimes the pain can be so severe that it is incapacitating. A 59-year-old woman admitted with a 2-year history of paroxysmal perianal pain underwent a full work-up including proctoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, full colonoscopy, and barium enema that were unremarkable. Lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging with and without gadolinium showed an intradural-extramedullary lesion at the level of L5. The pathologic diagnosis was a neurofibroma. She underwent surgery, and after a few weeks she felt well and medication was no longer needed for her paroxysmal pain. Although one should consider the usual causes of colorectal pain such as hemorrhoids, anal fissure, proctalgia fugax, and chronic perianal pain syndrome, we should keep in mind that some referral pain may mimic local pathologies and should be evaluated properly. PMID:25485211

  8. [Perianal and rectal ulcers due to abuse of paracetamol-codeine suppositories].

    PubMed

    Wagner, G; Sand, C; Sachse, M M

    2015-03-01

    A 61-year-old woman presented with a progressive perianal ulcer which had developed 4 months ago. Upon further examination, another ulcer of the rectum was detected. Anorectal malignancies, viral infections or primary inflammatory bowel disease were not found. It could be demonstrated that the ulcers were induced by paracetamol and codeine suppositories. After discontinuation of these suppositories, the perianal ulcers healed almost completely within 3 weeks. The pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced ulcers is unknown. However, dose-dependent vasoconstriction is a possible explanation.

  9. A case of lymphogranuloma venereum of 20 years' duration. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from perianal lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Dan, M; Rotmensch, H H; Eylan, E; Rubinstein, A; Ginsberg, R; Liron, M

    1980-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from perianal lesions in a patient in whom lymphogranuloma venereum had been diagnosed 20 years previously. Treatment with tetracycline resulted in a pronounced improvement. Although C trachomatis is known to persist for a long time in the host, isolation of the micro-organism from infected tissues after such a prolonged period has not previously been reported. Images PMID:7427708

  10. Perianal lesions after return from Togo: An isolated cutaneous manifestation of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Note, Stéphanie; Vanbrabant, Peter; Soentjens, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Isolated perianal lesions in a returned traveller from Togo were observed. Eosinophilia was the lead to schistosomiasis, although no systemic symptoms were reported. This case report of cutaneous schistosomiasis demonstrates the importance of a travel history, especially geographic and exposure features, and treats the differential diagnosis of eosinophilia in a returned traveller with skin lesions.

  11. Primary peri-anal adenocarcinoma of intestinal type - a new proposed entity.

    PubMed

    Gill, Pelvender S; Wong, Newton A C S

    2018-02-21

    The currently recognised subtypes of anal canal/peri-anal adenocarcinoma are those arising from low rectal mucosa or columnar cuff, fistula-related tumours and anal gland carcinoma. This report presents two examples of a hitherto undescribed subtype of peri-anal adenocarcinoma with an intestinal phenotype. A 74-year-old man had a peri-anal tumour locally excised, whereas a 73-year-old female underwent an abdominoperineal resection for peri-anal Paget's disease with an underlying carcinoma. Neither patient had a history of perineal fistulae, Crohn's disease or previous gastrointestinal neoplasia, and neither showed clinical, radiological or endoscopic evidence of another abdominal or pelvic tumour. Both resection specimens contained adenocarcinoma, which were similar in demonstrating an intestinal morphology and CDX2 immunopositivity. The man has shown a disease-free outcome thus far, but the woman has suffered with nodal and pelvic recurrence within a few months of surgery. The name 'primary peri-anal adenocarcinoma of intestinal type' is proposed for this previously unrecognised subtype of perineal neoplasia. Awareness of its distinct existence - by recognising its intestinal morphology and immunophenotype while excluding metastasis from the intestinal tract - should help to collate data to determine its specific prognosis and to formulate its best management. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cyclosporin and ketoconazole interaction for treatment of perianal fistulas in the dog.

    PubMed

    Mouatt, J G

    2002-04-01

    To assess the use of concurrent ketoconazole and low dose cyclosporin administration in a group of dogs with clinical evidence of perianal fistulas, and to determine if this combination could be used to manage perianal fistulas effectively. Prospective clinical trial Sixteen dogs with clinical evidence of perianal fistulas were given ketoconazole (10 mg/kg once daily) and cyclosporin (1 mg/kg twice daily initially) for 16 weeks. Blood cyclosporin assays were performed regularly and cyclosporin doses were altered to achieve a stable blood level above 200 ng/mL. Regular examinations assessed the dogs' general health, changes in clinical behaviour, fistula size and number. A complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis was performed in all dogs before and after the treatment period, and after 8 weeks of treatment in 12 dogs. Dogs were assessed for recurrence of lesions at 1, 3 and 12 months after the trial. All dogs showed marked improvement in lesions and behaviour within 14 days of the medication. Fourteen dogs completed the trial. Two dogs were excluded due to concurrent disease. Thirteen dogs (93%) showed complete resolution of fistulas during the treatment period. Seven dogs (50%) had no recurrence after 12 months. Recurrence was seen in three dogs (21%) at 8, 10 and 12 months after treatment, and in three dogs (21%) within 1 month of treatment. The medication was well tolerated. Side effects included transient anorexia, vomiting and lethargy in some dogs, increased shedding of hair and gingival hyperplasia. Ketoconazole administration allowed a dramatic reduction in cyclosporin dose (over 90% in 12 dogs and 80% in the other two) compared to previously reported cases treated with cyclosporin alone. The use of combined ketoconazole and cyclosporin provided an effective treatment for perianal fistulas. Outcomes were similar to those seen with cyclosporin alone, but allowed a significant reduction in cyclosporin dose and, therefore, cost. The use of

  13. Innovation in the imaging perianal fistula: a step towards personalised medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sahnan, Kapil; Adegbola, Samuel O.; Tozer, Philip J.; Patel, Uday; Ilangovan, Rajpandian; Warusavitarne, Janindra; Faiz, Omar D.; Hart, Ailsa L.; Phillips, Robin K. S.; Lung, Phillip F. C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Perianal fistula is a topic both hard to understand and to teach. The key to understanding the treatment options and the likely success is deciphering the exact morphology of the tract(s) and the amount of sphincter involved. Our aim was to explore alternative platforms better to understand complex perianal fistulas through three-dimensional (3D) imaging and reconstruction. Methods: Digital imaging and communications in medicine images of spectral attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were imported onto validated open-source segmentation software. A specialist consultant gastrointestinal radiologist performed segmentation of the fistula, internal and external sphincter. Segmented files were exported as stereolithography files. Cura (Ultimaker Cura 3.0.4) was used to prepare the files for printing on an Ultimaker 3 Extended 3D printer. Animations were created in collaboration with Touch Surgery™. Results: Three examples of 3D printed models demonstrating complex perianal fistula were created. The anatomical components are displayed in different colours: red: fistula tract; green: external anal sphincter and levator plate; blue: internal anal sphincter and rectum. One of the models was created to be split in half, to display the internal opening and allow complexity in the intersphincteric space to better evaluated. An animation of MRI fistulography of a trans-sphincteric fistula tract with a cephalad extension in the intersphincteric space was also created. Conclusion: MRI is the reference standard for assessment of perianal fistula, defining anatomy and guiding surgery. However, communication of findings between radiologist and surgeon remains challenging. Feasibility of 3D reconstructions of complex perianal fistula is realized, with the potential to improve surgical planning, communication with patients, and augment training. PMID:29854001

  14. EORTC, ISCL, and USCLC consensus recommendations for the treatment of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders: lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pfaltz, Katrin; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Cozzio, Antonio; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Bagot, Martine; Olsen, Elise; Kim, Youn H.; Dummer, Reinhard; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Whittaker, Sean; Hodak, Emmilia; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Berti, Emilio; Horwitz, Steve; Prince, H. Miles; Guitart, Joan; Estrach, Teresa; Sanches, José A.; Duvic, Madeleine; Ranki, Annamari; Dreno, Brigitte; Ostheeren-Michaelis, Sonja; Knobler, Robert; Wood, Gary; Willemze, Rein

    2011-01-01

    Primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30+ LPDs) are the second most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and include lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Despite the anaplastic cytomorphology of tumor cells that suggest an aggressive course, CD30+ LPDs are characterized by an excellent prognosis. Although a broad spectrum of therapeutic strategies has been reported, these have been limited mostly to small retrospective cohort series or case reports, and only very few prospective controlled or multicenter studies have been performed, which results in a low level of evidence for most therapies. The response rates to treatment, recurrence rates, and outcome have not been analyzed in a systematic review. Moreover, international guidelines for staging and treatment of CD30+ LPDs have not yet been presented. Based on a literature analysis and discussions, recommendations were elaborated by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas, and the United States Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium. The recommendations represent the state-of-the-art management of CD30+ LPDs and include definitions for clinical endpoints as well as response criteria for future clinical trials in CD30+ LPDs. PMID:21841159

  15. Prospective Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Transrectal and Transperineal Sonography, and Surgical Findings in Complicated Perianal Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Bor, Renáta; Farkas, Klaudia; Bálint, Anita; Szűcs, Mónika; Ábrahám, Szabolcs; Milassin, Ágnes; Rutka, Mariann; Nagy, Ferenc; Milassin, Péter; Szepes, Zoltán; Molnár, Tamás

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transrectal sonography are the two accepted imaging modalities for evaluation of perianal fistulas and abscesses. Transperineal sonography is a new technique that is easy to learn and can be performed at any time. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRI, transrectal sonography, and transperineal sonography with surgical findings in patients with perianal Crohn disease. All patients with perianal Crohn disease underwent MRI, transrectal sonography, and transperineal sonography within a few days before surgery. Fistulas were classified as simple (43.8%) or complex (52.2%) based on surgical findings. Twenty-three patients with active perianal Crohn disease (12 women and 11 men; mean age, 29.9 years; current therapy: antibiotics, 69.6%; azathioprine, 56.5%; and biologics, 73.9%; previous surgery, 26.1%; and proportion of smokers, 39.1%) were included. Sensitivity values for MRI, transrectal sonography, and transperineal sonography for diagnosis of fistulas were 84.6%, 84.6%, and 100%, respectively. Transperineal sonography was more sensitive for diagnosis of perianal abscesses than MRI and transrectal sonography (100%, 58.8%, and 92.8%). Transperineal sonography is a very accurate diagnostic method with outstanding sensitivity compared with MRI and transrectal sonography for evaluation of complicated perianal Crohn disease. Due to its simplicity and low cost, it is recommended that transperineal sonography be the first diagnostic modality in these cases. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. MRI predictors of treatment response for perianal fistulizing Crohn disease in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Shenoy-Bhangle, Anuradha; Nimkin, Katherine; Goldner, Dana; Bradley, William F; Israel, Esther J; Gee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the imaging standard for diagnosis and characterization of perianal complications associated with Crohn disease in children and adults. To define MRI criteria that could act as potential predictors of treatment response in fistulizing Crohn disease in children, in order to guide more informed study interpretation. We performed a retrospective database query to identify all children and young adults with Crohn disease who underwent serial MRI studies for assessment of perianal symptoms between 2003 and 2010. We examined imaging features of perianal disease including fistula number, type and length, presence and size of associated abscess, and disease response/progression on follow-up MRI. We reviewed imaging studies and electronic medical records. Statistical analysis, including logistic regression, was performed to associate MR imaging features with treatment response and disease progression. We included 36 patients (22 male, 14 female; age range 8-21 years). Of these, 32 had a second MRI exam and 4 had clinical evidence of complete response, obviating the need for repeat imaging. Of the parameters analyzed, presence of abscess, type of fistula according to the Parks classification, and multiplicity were not predictors of treatment outcome. Maximum length of the dominant fistula and aggregate fistula length in the case of multiple fistulae were the best predictors of treatment outcome. Maximum fistula length <2.5 cm was a predictor of treatment response, while aggregate fistula length ≥2.5 cm was a predictor of disease progression. Perianal fistula length is an important imaging feature to assess on MRI of fistulizing Crohn disease.

  17. Management of acute perianal sepsis in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Baker, B; Al-Salman, M; Daoud, F

    2014-04-01

    In neutropenic patients with acute perianal sepsis in the setting of hematological malignancy, the classical clinical features of abscess formation are lacking. Additionally, the role of surgical intervention is not well established. In this review, we discuss the challenges and controversy regarding diagnosis and optimal management when clear surgical guidelines are absent. In the literature, there is great diversity in the surgical approach to these patients, which leads to a high percentage of diagnostic errors, risks of complications, and unnecessary interventions. We review the literature and assess whether surgical intervention produces better outcomes than a non-surgical approach. Studies published on perianal sepsis in neutropenic cancer patients were identified by searching PubMed using the following key words: "perianal sepsis/abscesses, anorectal sepsis/abscess, neutropenia, hematological malignancy, cancer". No randomized or prospective studies on the management of acute perianal sepsis in hematological malignancies were found. The largest retrospective study and most comprehensive clinical data demonstrated that 42% of patients were treated successfully without surgical intervention and without morbidity or mortality related to treatment chosen. Small retrospective studies advocated surgical intervention, while the majority of successes were in a non-operative treatment. It is difficult to formulate a conclusion given the small retrospective series on management of neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. While there is no evidence mandating a routine surgical approach in this category of patients, non-surgical management including careful follow-up to determine whether the patient's condition is deteriorating or treatment has failed is an acceptable approach in selected patients without pathognomonic features of abscess. Comprehensive and well-designed prospective studies are needed to firmly establish the guidelines of treatment

  18. Development of perianal ulcer as a result of acute fulminant amoebic colitis.

    PubMed

    Torigoe, Takayuki; Nakayama, Yoshifumi; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2012-09-14

    We report a case of acute fulminant amoebic colitis that resulted in the development of a perianal ulcer in a 29-year-old Japanese homosexual man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The patient was admitted to our hospital with a persistent perianal abscess that was refractory to antibiotic therapy administered at another hospital. On admission, we observed a giant ulcer in the perianal region. At first, cytomegalovirus colitis was suspected by blood investigations. Ganciclovir therapy was initiated; however, the patient developed necrosis of the skin around the anus during therapy. We only performed end-sigmoidostomy and necrotomy to avoid excessive surgical invasion. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed the presence of trophozoite amoebae, indicating a final diagnosis of acute fulminant amoebic colitis. The patient's postoperative course was favorable, and proctectomy of the residual rectum was performed 11 mo later. Amoebic colitis is one of the most severe complications affecting patients with AIDS. Particularly, acute fulminant amoebic colitis may result in a poor prognosis; therefore, staged surgical therapy as a less invasive procedure should be considered as one of the treatment options for these patients.

  19. Polyphenon E 10% ointment: in immunocompetent adults with external genital and perianal warts.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M

    2012-08-01

    Polyphenon E 10% ointment, which contains a mixture of green tea catechins, is indicated for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (Condylomata acuminata) in immunocompetent patients aged ≥18 years. In two double-blind, multinational studies in adults with external genital and perianal warts, polyphenon E 10% ointment for up to 16 weeks was significantly more effective than vehicle with regard to the complete clearance of all warts (i.e. those at baseline and newly appearing during treatment) [primary endpoint]. In gender subgroup analyses, polyphenon E 10% ointment was more effective than vehicle in both men and women in one of two individual studies, and in pooled data from both studies. Polyphenon E 10% ointment was also significantly more effective than vehicle with regard to several secondary endpoints, including the complete clearance of baseline warts and partial clearance of at least 50% of all warts in both studies. Rates of recurrence of any warts or development of new warts were low (<9%) in both treatment arms during a 12-week follow-up period in both studies. Polyphenon E 10% ointment was generally well tolerated in adults with external genital and perianal warts. According to pooled data from the two clinical studies, the majority of adverse events associated with polyphenon E 10% ointment involved application site and local skin reactions at the treatment site.

  20. Modified perianal/pericapsular anesthesia for transrectal biopsy of prostate in patients with anal rectal problems.

    PubMed

    Kravchick, Sergey; Yoffe, Boris; Cytron, Shmuel

    2007-01-01

    To modify our technique of perianal anesthesia and use it in patients with painful conditions of the rectum and/or anus. A total of 31 consecutive patients with anal-rectal problems underwent prostate needle biopsy. Of these, 17 were referred to our hospital after vain attempts to insert a transrectal ultrasound probe. Patients received a perianal-pericapsular injection of 1% lidocaine. Pain perception was separately assessed for probe insertion and biopsies using a visual pain analog score. Only in 1 patient were we unable to insert the transrectal ultrasound probe. The mean patient age was 65.28 +/- 5.35 years. We performed a mean of 12.25 biopsies per case. At probe insertion, the mean pain score was 2.2 +/- 0.83. During the biopsy punctures, the mean pain level was 2.53 +/- 1.054. We did not find any increase in the complication rate related to the anesthesia method. Modified perianal anesthesia can be used for transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate in patients with anal-rectal problems, because it provides significant pain relief.

  1. High Risk of Anal and Rectal Cancer in Patients With Anal and/or Perianal Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Beaugerie, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice; Nahon, Stéphane; Zeitoun, Jean-David; Sabaté, Jean-Marc; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Allez, Matthieu; Fléjou, Jean-François; Kirchgesner, Julien; Svrcek, Magali

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the magnitude of the risk of anal and rectal cancer in patients with anal and/or perineal Crohn's disease. We aimed to assess the risk of anal and rectal cancer in patients with Crohn's perianal disease followed up in the Cancers Et Surrisque Associé aux Maladies Inflammatoires Intestinales En France (CESAME) cohort. We collected data from 19,486 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) enrolled in the observational CESAME study in France, from May 2004 through June 2005; 14.9% of participants had past or current anal and/or perianal Crohn's disease. Subjects were followed up for a median time of 35 months (interquartile range, 29-40 mo). To identify risk factors for anal cancer in the total CESAME population, we performed a case-control study in which participants were matched for age and sex. Among the total IBD population, 8 patients developed anal cancer and 14 patients developed rectal cancer. In the subgroup of 2911 patients with past or current anal and/or perianal Crohn's lesions at cohort entry, 2 developed anal squamous-cell carcinoma, 3 developed perianal fistula-related adenocarcinoma, and 6 developed rectal cancer. The corresponding incidence rates were 0.26 per 1000 patient-years for anal squamous-cell carcinoma, 0.38 per 1000 patient-years for perianal fistula-related adenocarcinoma, and 0.77 per 1000 patient-years for rectal cancer. Among the 16,575 patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease without anal or perianal lesions, the incidence rate of anal cancer was 0.08 per 1000 patient-years and of rectal cancer was 0.21 per 1000 patient-years. Among factors tested by univariate conditional regression (IBD subtype, disease duration, exposure to immune-suppressive therapy, presence of past or current anal and/or perianal lesions), the presence of past or current anal and/or perianal lesions at cohort entry was the only factor significantly associated with development of anal cancer (odds ratio, 11.2; 95% CI, 1

  2. Assessing the activity of perianal Crohn's disease: comparison of clinical indices and computer-assisted anal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Losco, Alessandra; Viganò, Chiara; Conte, Dario; Cesana, Bruno Mario; Basilisco, Guido

    2009-05-01

    Assessing perianal disease activity is important for the treatment and prognosis of Crohn's disease (CD) patients, but the diagnostic accuracy of the activity indices has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and agreement of the Fistula Drainage Assessment (FDA), Perianal Disease Activity Index (PDAI), and computer-assisted anal ultrasound imaging (AUS). Sixty-two consecutive patients with CD and perianal fistulae underwent clinical, FDA, PDAI, and AUS evaluation. Perianal disease was considered active in the presence of visible fistula drainage and/or signs of local inflammation (induration and pain at digital compression) upon clinical examination. The AUS images were analyzed by calculating the mean gray-scale tone of the lesion. The PDAI and gray-scale tone values discriminating active and inactive perianal disease were defined using receiver operating characteristics statistics. Perianal disease was active in 46 patients. The accuracy of the FDA was 87% (confidence interval [CI]: 76%-94%). A PDAI of >4 and a mean gray-scale tone value of 117 maximized sensitivity and specificity; their diagnostic accuracy was, respectively, 87% (CI: 76%-94%) and 81% (CI: 69%-90%). The agreement of the 3 evaluations was fair to moderate. The addition of AUS to the PDAI or FDA increased their diagnostic accuracy to respectively 95% and 98%. The diagnostic accuracy of the FDA, PDAI, and computer-assisted AUS imaging was good in assessing perianal disease activity in patients with CD. The agreement between the techniques was fair to moderate. Overall accuracy can be increased by combining the FDA or PDAI with AUS.

  3. Perianal Pediatric Crohn Disease Is Associated With a Distinct Phenotype and Greater Inflammatory Burden.

    PubMed

    Assa, Amit; Amitai, Michal; Greer, Mary-Louise; Castro, Denise A; Kuint, Ruth C; Martínez-León, Maria; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Coppenrath, Eva; Anupindi, Sudha; Towbin, Alexander; Moote, Douglas; Konen, Osnat; Pratt, Li-Tal; Griffiths, Anne; Turner, Dan

    2017-09-01

    Data on the outcomes of children with perianal Crohn disease (pCD) are limited, although its presence is often used for justifying early use of biologics. We aimed to assess whether pCD in children is associated with more severe outcomes as found in adults. Data were extracted from the ImageKids database, a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal cohort study. The study enrolled 246 children at disease onset or thereafter. All patients underwent comprehensive clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic evaluation at enrollment; 98 children had repeat evaluation at 18 months. Of the 234 included patients (mean age 14.2 ± 2.4 years; 131 [56%] boys), 57 (24%) had perianal findings, whereas only 21 (9%) had fistulizing perianal disease. Children with pCD had reduced weight and height z scores compared with non-pCD patients (-0.9 vs -0.35, P = 0.03 and -0.68 vs -0.23, respectively; P = 0.04), higher weighted pediatric CD activity index (32 [interquartile range 16-50] vs 20 [8-37]; P = 0.004), lower serum albumin (3.6 ± 0.7 vs 4.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.016), and higher magnetic resonance enterography global inflammatory score (P = 0.04). Children with pCD had more rectal (57% vs 38%, P = 0.04), and jejunal involvement (31% vs 11% P = 0.003) and a higher prevalence of granulomas (64% vs 23%, P = 0.0001). Magnetic resonance enterography-based damage scores did not differ between groups. Patients with skin tags/fissures only, had similar clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic characteristics as patients with no perianal findings. Pediatric patients with pCD with fistulizing disease have distinct phenotypic features and a predisposition to a greater inflammatory burden.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal and perianal area in a bull.

    PubMed

    Musser, J M; Russell, K E; Veatch, J K; St-Jean, G

    1993-01-01

    A squamous cell carcinoma located adjacent to the anus was diagnosed in a 15-year-old light colored Longhorn bull. The tumor restricted the anal orifice to a diameter of 3 cm. Upon histological evaluation, islands of squamous cells were present deep in the dermis and the submucosal connective tissue. It was not possible to determine whether the tumor originated from the perianal region or the anus. This is the first diagnosed and reported occurrence in North America of squamous cell carcinoma in the anal region of a bull.

  5. A Rare Case of Anal and Perianal Chemical Burn in a Child due to Potassium Permanganate Crystals.

    PubMed

    Dash, Suvashis; Bhojani, Jatin; Sharma, Sharadendu

    2018-02-09

    Many chemicals used as medical treatments can cause chemical burns as an untoward side effect. One of such chemicals is potassium permanganate. It is a caustic chemical used as a disinfectant. The most common sites of burn by potassium permanganate are exposed sites like the face and hands. Chemical burns in the perianal and anal region are rare in clinical practice and even sparser in the pediatric age group. In this article, we report a case of perianal and anal chemical burn in an 18-month-old, male child, caused by potassium permanganate crystal applied wrongly for the treatment of pinworm infestation. As a chemical burn in this region can have serious complications, it is necessary to be vigilant when using such chemicals in these cases. Early and timely management in such cases leads to good outcomes. This is the first of such cases of chemical burn caused by potassium permanganate in the anal and perianal region.

  6. Lancefield group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis: an unusual aetiology of perianal streptococcal dermatitis acquired from heterosexual oral-anal intercourse.

    PubMed

    Abdolrasouli, A; Hemmati, Y; Amin, A; Roushan, A; Butler, I

    2012-12-01

    Perianal streptococcal dermatitis (PSD) is an uncommon superficial cutaneous infection of the perianal area, almost exclusively described in children and mainly caused by group A streptococci. We report here a case of PSD caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Lancefield group G, in an adult man due to heterosexual oral-anal sexual contact.

  7. Enhancement of Wound Healing by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Mixture Sophora flavescens in a Rat Model of Perianal Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    XU, XIAOPING; LI, XIAOHUA; ZHANG, LEI; LIU, ZHAOHUI; PAN, YUAN; CHEN, DONG; BIN, DONGHUA; DENG, QUN; SUN, YU; HOFFMAN, M. ROBERT; YANG, ZHIJIAN; YUAN, HONG

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: Hemorrhoidectomy is often associated with significant postoperative complications that may result in slow wound healing. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound Sophora flavescens (CSF) has shown efficacy on many inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of CSF on wound healing in a rat model of perianal ulceration. Materials and Methods: A rat model of perianal ulceration was induced by subcutaneous injection of 75% glacial acetic acid. The animals with induced perianal ulcer received topical treatment of low, medium, and high doses of CFS twice daily. Potassium permanganate (PP); 0.02%) was given to the animals for comparison. Macroscopic and histological assessments of the ulcerated area were performed after treatment. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. Results: Topical administration of medium- and high-dose CSF significantly enhanced perianal ulcer healing as compared to the untreated control (p<0.05). The macroscopic ulceration score was significantly reduced only in the high-dose CSF-treated group as compared to the control (p<0.01). All doses of CSF and PP ameliorated histological damages in the rats with induced perianal ulceration. High-dose CSF or PP significantly reduced the expression of PGE2 and IL-8 as compared to the control (p<0.01). No treatment-related toxicity was found in either the CSF- or the PP-treated mice. Conclusion: CSF enhances wound healing in a rat model of perianal ulceration. The inhibitory effect of CSF on pro-inflammatory cytokines PGE2 and IL-8 may be involved in the mechanism of enhanced wound-healing. PMID:28652418

  8. Enhancement of Wound Healing by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Mixture Sophora flavescens in a Rat Model of Perianal Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Zhaohui; Pan, Yuan; Chen, Dong; Bin, Donghua; Deng, Qun; Sun, Y U; Hoffman, Robert M; Yang, Zhijian; Yuan, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Hemorrhoidectomy is often associated with significant postoperative complications that may result in slow wound healing. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound Sophora flavescens (CSF) has shown efficacy on many inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of CSF on wound healing in a rat model of perianal ulceration. A rat model of perianal ulceration was induced by subcutaneous injection of 75% glacial acetic acid. The animals with induced perianal ulcer received topical treatment of low, medium, and high doses of CFS twice daily. Potassium permanganate (PP); 0.02%) was given to the animals for comparison. Macroscopic and histological assessments of the ulcerated area were performed after treatment. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. Topical administration of medium- and high-dose CSF significantly enhanced perianal ulcer healing as compared to the untreated control (p<0.05). The macroscopic ulceration score was significantly reduced only in the high-dose CSF-treated group as compared to the control (p<0.01). All doses of CSF and PP ameliorated histological damages in the rats with induced perianal ulceration. High-dose CSF or PP significantly reduced the expression of PGE 2 and IL-8 as compared to the control (p<0.01). No treatment-related toxicity was found in either the CSF- or the PP-treated mice. CSF enhances wound healing in a rat model of perianal ulceration. The inhibitory effect of CSF on pro-inflammatory cytokines PGE 2 and IL-8 may be involved in the mechanism of enhanced wound-healing. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Transperineal ultrasonography: First level exam in IBD patients with perianal disease.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Fulvia; Scalisi, Giuseppe; Bossa, Fabrizio; Scimeca, Daniela; Biscaglia, Giuseppe; Mangiacotti, Michele; Valvano, Maria Rosa; Perri, Francesco; Simeone, Anna; Andriulli, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the front-line method for evaluating perianal disease in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recently, transperineal ultrasonography (TPUS) has been proposed as a simple, safe, time-sparing and useful diagnostic technique to assess different pathological conditions of the pelvic floor. The aim of this prospective single centre study was to evaluate the accuracy of TPUS versus MRI for the detection and classification of perineal disease in IBD patients. From November 2013 to November 2014, 28 IBD patients underwent either TPUS or MRI. Fistulae and abscesses were classified according to Parks' and AGA's classification methods. A concordance was assessed by k statistics. Overall, 33 fistulae and 8 abscesses were recognized by TPUS (30 and 7 by MRI, respectively). The agreement between TPUS and MRI was 75% according to Parks' classification (k=0.67) and 86% according to AGA classification (k=0.83), while it was 36% (k=0.34) for classifying abscesses. TPUS proved to be as accurate as MRI for detecting superficial and small abscesses and for classifying perianal disease. Both examinations may be performed at the initial presentation of the patient, but TPUS is a cheaper, time-sparing procedure. The optimal use of TPUS might be in follow-up patients. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical approach to extensive hidradenitis suppurativa in the perineal/perianal and gluteal regions.

    PubMed

    Balik, Emre; Eren, Tunc; Bulut, Türker; Büyükuncu, Yilmaz; Bugra, Dursun; Yamaner, Sümer

    2009-03-01

    Verneuil's disease, or hidradenitis suppurativa, is a chronic suppurative disease with a tendency to sinus formation, fibrosis, and sclerosis. It is a disease of the apocrine sweat glands and may arise from each of the localizations where apocrine glands are prominent: axilla, nipples, umbilicus, perineum, groin, and buttocks. Extensive hidradenitis suppurativa of the perineal/perianal and the gluteal regions constitute a serious social problem. In this study, we present our experience with stage III extensive hidradenitis suppurativa cases, including our treatment methods and patient outcomes. A retrospective review of the medical records from January 1990 to July 2003 of 15 patients was performed. Fifteen patients underwent treatment for extensive hidradenitis suppurativa in the gluteal, perineal/perianal, and inguinal areas with total surgical excision. All patients were men (100%) and their mean age was 42.5 (range, 23-66) years. The patients underwent a total number of 21 operations. In 11 patients wounds were left open for secondary healing, and the mean time for complete wound healing in this group was 12.2 (range, 9.5-22) weeks. Two patients underwent primary wound closure by the application of rotation flaps, and their complete healing times were observed to be approximately 2 weeks. Delayed skin grafting was used for the remaining two patients in whom the wounds had been left open after the initial operation. In this group, complete wound healing took a total of 8 weeks. Only one diverting colostomy was needed in a patient in the delayed skin-grafting group. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in the specimens of one patient treated with total excision followed by the application of a rotation flap. This patient had had complaints of gluteal discharge for approximately 30 years. The cancer recurred after 6 months in the perianal region and immediate abdominoperineal resection was performed. He died during the second postoperative month due to systemic

  11. Detection of Human Papillomavirus Types 6 and 11 in Pubic and Perianal Hair from Patients with Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Boxman, Ingeborg L. A.; Hogewoning, Arjan; Mulder, Linda H. C.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; ter Schegget, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 are of clinical importance due to their role in the development of anogenital warts. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether DNAs from HPV types 6 and 11 are present in hairs plucked from the pubic and perianal regions and eyebrows of patients with genital warts at present and patients with a recent history of genital warts. Genital HPV DNA was detected in 9 of 25 (36%) pubic hair samples and in 11 of 22 (50%) perianal hair samples by the CPI/CPIIg PCR. After sequencing of 17 of 20 samples, HPV type 6 or 11 was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) hair samples from the pubis and 8 of 22 (36%) hair samples from the perianal region. These types were not detected in plucked eyebrow hairs. In contrast, the HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis were detected in similar proportions (62%) in both samples of pubic and eyebrow hairs. Moreover, HPV type 6 and 11 DNAs were detected in pubic hairs plucked from two patients who had been successfully treated and who did not show any lesion at the time of hair collection; this finding is an argument that HPV DNA may persist in this region. The presence of genital HPV types in plucked pubic and perianal hair suggests that there is an endogenous reservoir for HPV which may play a role in the recurrences of genital warts. PMID:10364596

  12. Detection of human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 in pubic and perianal hair from patients with genital warts.

    PubMed

    Boxman, I L; Hogewoning, A; Mulder, L H; Bouwes Bavinck, J N; ter Schegget, J

    1999-07-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 are of clinical importance due to their role in the development of anogenital warts. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether DNAs from HPV types 6 and 11 are present in hairs plucked from the pubic and perianal regions and eyebrows of patients with genital warts at present and patients with a recent history of genital warts. Genital HPV DNA was detected in 9 of 25 (36%) pubic hair samples and in 11 of 22 (50%) perianal hair samples by the CPI/CPIIg PCR. After sequencing of 17 of 20 samples, HPV type 6 or 11 was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) hair samples from the pubis and 8 of 22 (36%) hair samples from the perianal region. These types were not detected in plucked eyebrow hairs. In contrast, the HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis were detected in similar proportions (62%) in both samples of pubic and eyebrow hairs. Moreover, HPV type 6 and 11 DNAs were detected in pubic hairs plucked from two patients who had been successfully treated and who did not show any lesion at the time of hair collection; this finding is an argument that HPV DNA may persist in this region. The presence of genital HPV types in plucked pubic and perianal hair suggests that there is an endogenous reservoir for HPV which may play a role in the recurrences of genital warts.

  13. Sinecatechins and imiquimod as proactive sequential therapy of external genital and perianal warts in adults.

    PubMed

    Schöfer, Helmut; Tatti, Silvio; Lynde, Charles W; Skerlev, Mihael; Hercogová, Jana; Rotaru, Maria; Ballesteros, Juan; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo

    2017-12-01

    This review about the proactive sequential therapy (PST) of external genital and perianal warts (EGW) is based on the most current available clinical literature and on the broad clinical experience of a group of international experts, physicians who are well versed in the treatment of human papillomavirus-associated diseases. It provides a practical guide for the treatment of EGW, including epidemiology, etiology, clinical appearance, and diagnostic procedures for these viral infections. Furthermore, the treatment goals and current treatment options, elucidating provider- and patient-applied therapies, and the parameters driving treatment decisions are summarized. Specifically, the mode of action of the topical treatments sinecatechins and imiquimod, as well as the PST for EGW to achieve rapid and sustained clearance is discussed. The group of experts has developed a treatment algorithm giving healthcare providers a practical tool for the treatment of EGW which is very valuable in the presence of many different treatment options.

  14. Perianal implantation of bioengineered human internal anal sphincter constructs intrinsically innervated with human neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Shreya; Miyasaka, Eiichi A; Gilmont, Robert R; Somara, Sita; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N

    2014-04-01

    The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is a major contributing factor to pressure within the anal canal and is required for maintenance of rectoanal continence. IAS damage or weakening results in fecal incontinence. We have demonstrated that bioengineered, intrinsically innervated, human IAS tissue replacements possess key aspects of IAS physiology, such as the generation of spontaneous basal tone and contraction/relaxation in response to neurotransmitters. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of implantation of bioengineered IAS constructs in the perianal region of athymic rats. Human IAS tissue constructs were bioengineered from isolated human IAS circular smooth muscle cells and human enteric neuronal progenitor cells. After maturation of the bioengineered constructs in culture, they were implanted operatively into the perianal region of athymic rats. Platelet-derived growth factor was delivered to the implanted constructs through a microosmotic pump. Implanted constructs were retrieved from the animals 4 weeks postimplantation. Animals tolerated the implantation well, and there were no early postoperative complications. Normal stooling was observed during the implantation period. At harvest, implanted constructs were adherent to the perirectal rat tissue and appeared healthy and pink. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed neovascularization. Implanted smooth muscle cells maintained contractile phenotype. Bioengineered constructs responded in vitro in a tissue chamber to neuronally evoked relaxation in response to electrical field stimulation and vasoactive intestinal peptide, indicating the preservation of neuronal networks. Our results indicate that bioengineered innervated IAS constructs can be used to augment IAS function in an animal model. This is a regenerative medicine based therapy for fecal incontinence that would directly address the dysfunction of the IAS muscle. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Condylomata acuminata, giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Loewenstein tumour) and verrucous squamous carcinoma of the perianal and anorectal region: a continuous precancerous spectrum?

    PubMed

    Bogomoletz, W V; Potet, F; Molas, G

    1985-11-01

    Seven patients with perianal and anorectal giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Loewenstein tumour) are presented. In five of these patients histopathological examination of the lesions disclosed varying degrees of dysplasia and/or squamous carcinoma. The clinicopathological features and aetiology of perianal and anorectal condylomata acuminata, giant condyloma acuminatum and verrucous carcinoma are discussed. The viral induction and malignant transformation of these papillomatous squamous lesions are emphasized.

  16. Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Applied in a Bioabsorbable Matrix, for Treatment of Perianal Fistulas in Patients With Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Allan B; Dozois, Eric J; Fletcher, Joel G; Butler, Greg W; Radel, Darcie; Lightner, Amy L; Dave, Maneesh; Friton, Jessica; Nair, Asha; Camilleri, Emily T; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Faubion, William A

    2017-07-01

    In patients with Crohn's disease, perianal fistulas recur frequently, causing substantial morbidity. We performed a 12-patient, 6-month, phase 1 trial to determine whether autologous mesenchymal stem cells, applied in a bioabsorbable matrix, can heal the fistula. Fistula repair was not associated with any serious adverse events related to mesenchymal stem cells or plug placement. At 6 months, 10 of 12 patients (83%) had complete clinical healing and radiographic markers of response. We found placement of mesenchymal stem cell-coated matrix fistula plugs in 12 patients with chronic perianal fistulas to be safe and lead to clinical healing and radiographic response in 10 patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01915927. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Characterization of Perianal Fistulous Disease in a Rural Based Tertiary Hospital of North India.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Sood, Dinesh; Shukla, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    To diagnose and characterize the perianal fistulous disease using Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a hilly and rural area of North India. This prospective hospital based study was conducted for a period of one year from April 2014 to April 2015 in the departments of Radiodiagnosis and Surgery of our institute. A total of 50 consecutive patients presenting with perianal fistulous disease fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study and taken up for MRI. The perianal fistulae were classified according to St James University hospital classification and tracks were assessed with regard to anatomical plane, length, ramifications, abscess formation, enteric communication, external cutaneous opening, enhancement and suprasphincteric extension. Surgical correlation was done in 31 patients who opted for surgical treatment. Rest of the 19 patients preferred alternative medicine for treatment or chose to postpone their surgery. The disease was much more prevalent in males in comparison to females with male to female ratio of 24:1. Grade 4 was the most common type of fistula (34%) while Grade 5 was the least common type (4%).MRI showed a high sensitivity of 93.7% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 96.7% when correlated with surgical findings. A substantial number of patients (38%) preferred alternative medicine or non surgical form of treatment. MRI is a very sensitive modality for the evaluation of perianal fistula. In our study group, the disease predominantly affected middle aged men. Ramifications and abscesses were commonly seen, affecting nearly half of the patients and majority of the patients had active fistulous tracks with posteriorly located enteric opening. Overall, transsphincteric fistulae were most common. Significant number of patients avoided surgery or showed preference for non surgical treatment.

  18. 3D high-resolution anorectal manometry in patients with perianal fistulas: comparison with 3D-anal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F; Vlietstra, Maarten S; Vollebregt, Paul F; Han-Geurts, Ingrid J M; Rempe-Sorm, Vera; Vander Mijnsbrugge, Grietje J H; Molenaar, Charlotte B H

    2018-04-04

    Perianal fistula surgery can damage the anal sphincters which may cause faecal incontinence. By measuring regional pressures, 3D-HRAM potentially provides better guidance for surgical strategy in patients with perianal fistulas. The aim was to measure regional anal pressures with 3D-HRAM and to compare these with 3D-EUS findings in patients with perianal fistulas. Consecutive patients with active perianal fistulas who underwent both 3D-EUS and 3D-HRAM at a clinic specialised in proctology were included. A group of 30 patients without fistulas served as controls. Data regarding demographics, complaints, previous perianal surgical procedures and obstetric history were collected. The mean and regional anal pressures were measured with 3D-HRAM. Fistula tract areas detected with 3D-EUS were analysed with 3D-HRAM by visual coding and the regional pressures of the corresponding and surrounding area of the fistula tract areas were measured. The study was granted by the VUmc Medical Ethical Committee. Forty patients (21 males, mean age 47) were included. Four patients had a primary fistula, 19 were previously treated with a seton/abscess drainage and 17 had a recurrence after previously performed fistula surgery. On 3D-HRAM, 24 (60%) fistula tract areas were good and 8 (20%) moderately visible. All but 7 (18%) patients had normal mean resting pressures. The mean resting pressure of the fistula tract area was significantly lower compared to the surrounding area (47 vs. 76 mmHg; p < 0.0001). Only 2 (5%) patients had a regional mean resting pressure < 10 mmHg of the fistula tract area. Using a Δ mean resting pressure ≥ 30 mmHg difference between fistula tract area and non-fistula tract area as alternative cut-off, 21 (53%) patients were identified. In 6 patients 3D-HRAM was repeated after surgery: a local pressure drop was detected in one patient after fistulotomy with increased complaints of faecal incontinence. Profound local anal pressure drops are found

  19. Multicentre observational study of outcomes after drainage of acute perianal abscess.

    PubMed

    Pearce, L; Newton, K; Smith, S R; Barrow, P; Smith, J; Hancock, L; Kirwan, C C; Hill, J

    2016-07-01

    Management of perianal abscesses has remained largely unchanged for over 50 years. The evidence for postoperative wound packing is limited and may expose patients to painful procedures with no clinical benefit and at considerable increased cost. Patients were recruited in 15 UK centres between December 2013 and October 2014. Outcome measures included number of dressing (pack) changes, healing, recurrence, return to work/normal function, postoperative fistula in ano and health utility scores (EQ-5D™). Pain was measured before, during and after dressing change on a visual analogue scale. Some 141 patients were recruited (median age 39 (range 18-86) years). The mean number of dressing changes in the first 3 weeks was 13 (range 0-21), equating to an annual cost to the National Health Service of €6 453 360 in England alone per annum. Some 43·8 per cent of wounds were healed by 8 weeks after surgery and 86 per cent of patients had returned to normal function. Some 7·6 per cent of abscesses had recurred and 26·7 per cent of patients developed a fistula in ano by 6 months following surgery. Patients reported a twofold to threefold increase in pain scores during and after dressing changes. Recurrent abscess is rare and fistula occurs in one-quarter of the patients. Packing is painful and costly. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Extramammary Paget's disease of the perianal region: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Saissan; Koh, Cherry E; Solomon, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the results obtained from cases of perianal Paget's disease (PPD) and to provide a current perspective in the diagnostic evaluation and surgical management of this condition. A retrospective review of a single quaternary referral centre's experience with PPD from January 1994 to December 2013 was performed. Medical records were reviewed to collect data on demographics, preoperative investigations, complications, pathology and recurrence. A review of existing literature was also performed. Five patients (four females, one male) with histologically confirmed PPD were identified. The median age of presentation was 72 (range 61 to 78). Three patients were recurrences following previous excisions and first presentations in two patients. Only one patient had an underlying diagnosis of cancer. The median time to diagnosis was 24 months. Four patients underwent wide local excision with skin graft and/or local flap reconstruction and one patient required an abdominoperineal excision for recurrence. Four patients had involved lateral margins despite wide local excision but follow-up to date has only revealed one local recurrence. A review of available literature suggests that synchronous cancers can occur in up to 33% of patients and that a further 10% may be associated with metachronous cancers. Surveillance recommendations seem anecdotal and do not appear to be supported by available literature. PPD is a management challenge. Association with synchronous and metachronous carcinomas may not be as strong as initially thought. Surgery is the mainstay treatment with the need to balance between minimizing disease recurrence and functional sequelae from excessive tissue loss. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. Combined Medical and Surgical Approach Improves Healing of Septic Perianal Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Christine S; Berg, Arthur S; Sangster, William; Schieffer, Kathleen M; Harris, Leonard R; Deiling, Sue M; Koltun, Walter A

    2016-09-01

    Septic perianal Crohn's disease (SPCD) is a treatment challenge in spite of tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF). Our aim was to define the success of SPCD management with a combined medical and surgical approach and to identify clinical and genetic factors predictive of healing. A retrospective chart review of patients with SPCD treated at the Penn State Milton S Hershey Medical Center was done. Primary end point was complete healing (ie normal clinical exam and no pain for at least 6 months). Genetic analysis of 185 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Crohn's disease was performed in 78 patients. One hundred and thirty-five episodes of SPCD were identified in 114 patients with a mean follow-up of 77 ± 7.4 months. Overall, 80 of 135 episodes healed (59.3%) and did not differ between those receiving anti-TNF and not (60.4% vs 56.8%). There appeared to be a consistent improved heal rate in each subcategory of surgically managed patients that received anti-TNF. Female sex was significantly predictive of healing in only those receiving anti-TNF agents (63.6% vs 25.0%; p = 0.0005). Twenty-two (19.3%) patients ultimately received a permanent diversion with either a total proctocolectomy or completion proctectomy. Multivariate analysis suggested several single nucleotide polymorphisms in Crohn's disease-associated genes to be possibly associated with healing, but lost significance after Bonferroni correction. Overall, there is an approximate 60% rate of healing SPCD using a combined medical and surgical approach. About 20% of SPCD patients will require a permanent stoma. There were no clear genetic predictors of healing SPCD. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of Failure for Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Perineal and Perianal Region

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Dana L.; Wexler, Leonard H.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors and patterns of failure for rhabdomyosarcoma of the perineal and perianal region (PRMS), with an emphasis on radiation therapy for locoregional control. Methods and Materials: Detailed records of all 14 patients treated for PRMS at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1998 and 2012 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS), and a competing-risks analysis was used to assess the cumulative incidence of local, regional, and distant failures. Results: Median age was 15.8 years (range, 1.1-31.9 years). High-risk features were identified: 9 of 14 patients (64%) had groupmore » 3 disease and 3 of 14 (21%) had group 4; 11 of 14 tumors (78%) were alveolar; 12 of 14 tumors (86%) were ≥5 cm; and 9 of 14 patients (64%) had involved lymph nodes (N1). Of those aged ≥10 years at diagnosis, 9 of 10 (90%) had alveolar histology, all had tumors ≥5 cm, and 8 of 10 (80%) presented with N1 disease. The rates of local, regional, and distant failure at 5 years were 17%, 31%, and 52%, respectively. Although 3 of the 4 patients with regional failure received nodal irradiation, only one of the nodal failures occurred in the radiation therapy field. The 5-year EFS was 33%, and OS was 39%. Age ≥10 years was associated with poor outcomes: EFS was 13% in patients aged ≥10 years, compared with 75% in those aged <10 years (P=.04); the OS was 13% in patients aged ≥10 years, compared with 100% in those aged <10 years (P=.04). Conclusions: Patients with PRMS, especially those aged ≥10 years, present with poor prognostic features and continue to have poor outcomes. Given the high incidence of regional node recurrence, we recommend prophylactic ilioinguinal lymph node irradiation for all patients aged ≥10 years. For children aged <10 years, nodal evaluation is essential to determine the role for lymph node irradiation.« less

  3. Intrathecal dexmedetomidine as adjuvant for spinal anaesthesia for perianal ambulatory surgeries: A randomised double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Nethra, S S; Sathesha, M; Dixit, Aanchal; Dongare, Pradeep A; Harsoor, S S; Devikarani, D

    2015-03-01

    The newer trend in regional anaesthesia for ambulatory anorectal surgeries advocate use of lower dose of local anaesthetic, providing segmental block with adjuvants such as opioids and α2 agonists to prolong analgesia. The current study investigated effects of addition of 5 μg of dexmedetomidine to 6 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine on duration of analgesia, sensory and motor block characteristics for perianal ambulatory surgeries. This study is a prospective randomised controlled double blind study. Forty adult patients between 18 and 55 years of age were divided into 2 groups. Group D received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 6 mg (1.2 ml) with injection dexmedetomidine 5 μg in 0.5 ml of normal saline and Group N received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 6 mg (1.2 ml) with 0.5 ml of normal saline. The parameters assessed were time to regression of sensory blockade, motor blockade, ambulation, time to void, first administration of analgesic. Statistical analysis was done using appropriate tests. Time for regression of sensory level and time for first administration of analgesic were prolonged in Group D (430.05 ± 89.13 min, 459.8 ± 100.9 min, respectively) in comparison to Group N (301.10 ± 94.86 min, 321.85 ± 95.08 min, respectively). However, the duration of motor blockade, time to ambulation, and time to void were also significantly prolonged in Group D (323.05 ± 54.58 min, 329.55 ± 54.06 min, 422.30 ± 87.59 min) than in Group N (220.10 ± 63.61 min, 221.60 ± 63.84 min, 328.45 ± 113.38 min). Intrathecal dexmedetomidine 5 μg added to intrathecal bupivacaine 6 mg as adjuvant may not be suitable for ambulatory perianal surgeries due to prolongation of motor blockade.

  4. Traumatic neuroma of the penis after circumcision--Case report.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Thaís Abrão; dos Santos, Karen Regina; Franzotti, Aline Martinez; Avelar, Juliana Centofanti Dentello; Tebcherani, Antonio José; Pegas, José Roberto Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic neuromas are tumors resulting from hyperplasia of axons and nerve sheath cells after section or injury to the nervous tissue. We present a case of this tumor, confirmed by anatomopathological examination, in a male patient with history of circumcision. Knowledge of this entity is very important in achieving the differential diagnosis with other lesions that affect the genital area such as condyloma acuminata, bowenoid papulosis, lichen nitidus, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, achrochordon and pearly penile papules.

  5. Progression From Perianal High-Grade Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia to Anal Cancer in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Tinmouth, Jill; Peeva, Valentina; Amare, Henok; Blitz, Sandra; Raboud, Janet; Sano, Marie; Steele, Leah; Salit, Irving E

    2016-09-01

    High-grade intraepithelial neoplasia is known to progress to invasive squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus. There are limited reports on the rate of progression from high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia to anal cancer in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The purpose of this study was to describe in HIV-positive men who have sex with men with perianal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia the rate of progression to anal cancer and the factors associated with that progression. This was a prospective cohort study. The study was conducted at an outpatient clinic at a tertiary care center in Toronto. Thirty-eight patients with perianal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia were identified among 550 HIV-positive men who have sex with men. All of the patients had high-resolution anoscopy for symptoms, screening, or surveillance with follow-up monitoring/treatment. We measured the incidence of anal cancer per 100 person-years of follow-up. Seven (of 38) patients (18.4%) with perianal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia developed anal cancer. The rate of progression was 6.9 (95% CI, 2.8-14.2) cases of anal cancer per 100 person-years of follow-up. A diagnosis of AIDS, previously treated anal cancer, and loss of integrity of the lesion were associated with progression. Anal bleeding was more than twice as common in patients who progressed to anal cancer. There was the potential for selection bias and patients were offered treatment, which may have affected incidence estimates. HIV-positive men who have sex with men should be monitored for perianal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Those with high-risk features for the development of anal cancer may need more aggressive therapy.

  6. Evaluation and management of perianal abscess and anal fistula: a consensus statement developed by the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR).

    PubMed

    Amato, A; Bottini, C; De Nardi, P; Giamundo, P; Lauretta, A; Realis Luc, A; Tegon, G; Nicholls, R J

    2015-10-01

    Perianal sepsis is a common condition ranging from acute abscess to chronic fistula formation. In most cases, the source is considered to be a non-specific cryptoglandular infection starting from the intersphincteric space. The key to successful treatment is the eradication of the primary track. As surgery may lead to a disturbance of continence, several sphincter-preserving techniques have been developed. This consensus statement examines the pertinent literature and provides evidence-based recommendations to improve individualized management of patients.

  7. Prospective Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Quality of Life After IMRT and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Anal Canal and Perianal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Kathy; Cummings, Bernard J.; Lindsay, Patricia

    Purpose: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate toxicity, quality of life (QOL), and clinical outcomes in patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for anal and perianal cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2008 to November 2010, patients with anal or perianal cancer treated with IMRT were eligible. Radiation dose was 27 Gy in 15 fractions to 36 Gy in 20 fractions for elective targets and 45 Gy in 25 fractions to 63 Gy in 35 fractions for gross targets using standardized, institutional guidelines, with no planned treatment breaks. The chemotherapy regimen was 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. Toxicitymore » was graded with the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. QOL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and CR29 questionnaires. Correlations between dosimetric parameters and both physician-graded toxicities and patient-reported outcomes were evaluated by polyserial correlation. Results: Fifty-eight patients were enrolled. The median follow-up time was 34 months; the median age was 56 years; 52% of patients were female; and 19% were human immunodeficiency virus—positive. Stage I, II, III, and IV disease was found in 9%, 57%, 26%, and 9% of patients, respectively. Twenty-six patients (45%) required a treatment break because of acute toxicity, mainly dermatitis (23/26). Acute grade 3 + toxicities included skin 46%, hematologic 38%, gastrointestinal 9%, and genitourinary 0. The 2-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), colostomy-free survival (CFS), and cumulative locoregional failure (LRF) rates were 90%, 77%, 84%, and 16%, respectively. The global QOL/health status, skin, defecation, and pain scores were significantly worse at the end of treatment than at baseline, but they returned to baseline 3 months after treatment. Social functioning and appetite scores were

  8. Perianal Dermatitis, Its Incidence, and Patterns of Topical Therapies in a Level IV Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Malik, Anuj; Witsberger, Emily; Cottrell, Lesley; Kiefer, Autumn; Yossuck, Panitan

    2018-04-01

     To define the incidence of perianal dermatitis (PD) and determine the usage pattern and cost efficacy of diaper products among neonates admitted to a level IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) including those with a diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS).  A retrospective cohort study to evaluate neonates with PD based on number of orders for Aquaphor, Bagbalm, Desitin, Flanders, or Nystatin. Various demographic and clinical parameters were recorded. Usage patterns of these five products were analyzed, and their costs estimated. Subgroup analysis was performed among infants with NAS.  Of 1,241 admissions, 56.2% had at least one diaper product ordered during their NICU stay, while 52.6% had multiple products ordered. Only 23.0% of all neonates had appropriate documentation of PD. The most common product ordered first was Aquaphor (64.3%), followed by Desitin (19.2%). Note that 86% term NAS infants had PD compared with 28% term non-NAS infants. The estimated product cost was $14,139 over 2 years, averaging $20 per patient.  Over half of NICU neonates were exposed to one or more diaper products, usually without documented PD diagnosis. Term NAS infants had three times higher incidence of PD than term non-NAS infants. The cost of diaper product use was significant, and possibly underestimated due to lack of documentation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Comparing topical hydrocortisone cream with Hai's Perianal Support in managing symptomatic hemorrhoids in pregnancy: a preliminary trial.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo Soo; Yu, Chye Wah; Aw, Lin Da

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of hemorrhoids among pregnant women is high in late pregnancy. This study was to evaluate the efficacy between drug treatment with Procort (topical hydrocortisone cream 1%) and mechanical treatment with a Hai's Perianal Support (HPS) toilet seat device in managing symptomatic hemorrhoids during the third trimester of pregnancy. A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted on 23 pregnant women with gestation above the 28th week and presented with symptomatic hemorrhoids. Pre- and post-interventional assessment was carried out to obtain data on symptoms of pain, itching, swelling, discomfort and bleeding associated with hemorrhoids. The control group was treated with topical hydrocortisone cream 1% and the test group was provided and taught to use a HPS, a posterior perineal support toilet seat device (Colorec). The results showed improvement in symptoms of pain, swelling, bleeding, itching and discomfort in both the test and control groups. However, statistically significant differences were found on symptoms of pain, swelling and discomfort between the test and control groups. There was also a statistically significant difference in well-being and overall improvement between the test and control groups. HPS has to a certain extent significantly reduced the symptoms of hemorrhoids in pregnancy and improved the well-being of pregnant women in comparison with topical treatment with hydrocortisone cream. However, more clinical trials need to be carried out to recomfirm the role of HPS in hemorrhoids in pregnancy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland consensus exercise on surgical management of fistulating perianal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J; Heywood, N; Sagar, P M; Brown, S R; Fearnhead, N S

    2017-05-01

    Management of fistulating perianal Crohn's disease (fpCD) is a significant challenge for a colorectal surgeon. A recent survey of surgical practice in this condition showed variation in management approaches. As a result we set out to devise recommendations for practice for UK colorectal surgeons. Results from a national survey were used to devise a set of potential consensus statements. Consultant colorectal surgeons were invited to participate in the exercise via the previous survey and the mailing list of the professional society. Iterative voting was performed on each statement using a five-point Likert scale and electronic voting, with opportunity for discussion and refinement between each vote. Consensus was defined as > 80% agreement. Seventeen surgeons and two patient representatives voted upon 51 statements. Consensus was achieved on 39 items. Participants advocated a patient-centred approach by a colorectal specialist, within strong multidisciplinary teamworking. The use of anti-TNFα therapy is advocated. Where definitive surgical techniques are considered they should be carefully selected to avoid adverse impact on function. Ano/rectovaginal fistulas should be managed by specialists in fistulating disease. Stoma or proctectomy could be discussed earlier in a patient's treatment pathway to improve choice, as they may improve quality of life. This consensus provides principles and guidance for best practice in managing patients with fpCD. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Assessing internet-based information used to aid patient decision-making about surgery for perianal Crohn's fistula.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J H; Baker, D M; Lee, M J; Jones, G L; Lobo, A J; Brown, S R

    2017-06-01

    Decision-making in perianal Crohn's fistula (pCD) is preference sensitive. Patients use the internet to access healthcare information. The aim of this study was to assess the online information and patient decision aids relating to surgery for pCD. A search of Google™ and the Decision Aids Library Inventory (DALI) was performed using a predefined search strategy. Patient-focussed sources providing information about pCD surgery were included in the analysis. Written health information was assessed using the International Patient Decision Aids Standards (IPDAS) and DISCERN criteria. The readability of the source content was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid score. Of the 201 sources found, 187 were excluded, leaving 14 sources for analysis. Three sources were dedicated to pCD, and six sources mentioned pCD-specific outcomes. The most common surgical intervention reported was seton insertion (n = 13). The least common surgical intervention reported was proctectomy (n = 1). The mean IPDAS and DISCERN scores were 4.43 ± 1.65 out of 12 (range = 2-8) and 2.93 ± 0.73 out of 5 (range = 1-5), respectively. The mean reading ease was US college standard. We found no patient decision aids relating to surgery for pCD. The online sources relating to surgery for pCD are few, and their quality is poor, as seen in the low IPDAS and DISCERN scores. Less than half of the sources mentioned pCD-specific outcomes, and three sources were solely dedicated to providing information on pCD. Healthcare professionals should look to create a patient tool to assist decision-making in pCD.

  12. Predicting factors of fistula healing and clinical remission after infliximab-based combined therapy for perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Tougeron, David; Savoye, Guillaume; Savoye-Collet, Céline; Koning, Edith; Michot, Francis; Lerebours, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease (PFCD) treatment is based on fistula drainage, antibiotics, immunosuppressant (IS) drugs, and infliximab. Our aim was to study the effectiveness of combination therapy on PFCD and to search for clinical or imaging features associated with the initial complete clinical response and its stability overtime. All patients with PFCD treated in our tertiary center between 2000 and 2005 by infliximab in combination with seton placement and/or IS and evaluated by MRI before treatment were included in the study. Basal clinical and MRI characteristics were recorded. Response to treatment was evaluated after the infliximab induction regiment and at the end of the follow-up. Twenty-six patients were included and followed-up for an average 4.9 years. A complex fistula was present in 69% (18/26 patients) of cases and eight (8/26 patients) had an ano-vaginal fistula. After infliximab induction therapy, 13 patients (50%) achieved a complete clinical response. The initial clinical response was significantly associated with the absence of both, active intestinal disease (54% vs. 8%, P = 0.03) and active proctitis (77% vs. 23%, P = 0.01). No initial MRI characteristics were linked to the initial response. In multivariate analysis, only the presence of active proctitis was associated with the lack of response (P = 0.047). At the end of the follow-up, 42% of the patients remained in clinical remission. No clinical characteristics were associated to sustained response when among long-standing responders two exhibited a normal post-treatment MRI. An initial complete response of PFCD was observed in half of the patients after combined therapy including infliximab that decreased to 42% later on. Complete healing of fistulas on MRI was possible but unusual. The initial response seemed related to the absence of active intestinal disease, especially in the rectum, when the long-term response could not be predicted by the basal characteristics of patients.

  13. Evaluation of the perianal muscular complex in the prenatal diagnosis of anorectal atresia in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, J H; Chiesa, M; Vildoza, R P; Wong, A E; Sepulveda, W

    2012-05-01

    To investigate whether sonographic identification of the fetal perianal muscular complex (PAMC) is of value in the prenatal detection of anorectal atresia in a high-risk population. During an 8-year study period, a total of 189 pregnancies at high risk for fetal anorectal atresia were prospectively examined for the presence/absence of the PAMC on axial ultrasound views of the fetal perineum. The prenatal findings were confirmed postnatally or at the time of postmortem examination. The median gestational age at examination was 27 (range, 15-37) weeks. The PAMC was identified in 175 fetuses, all of which had a normal anorectal canal at the time of delivery or at postmortem examination. The PAMC was not identified prenatally in the 14 remaining cases, and the anus was absent in 11 fetuses with anorectal atresia and in two with urorectal septum malformation sequence. There was one false-positive case, in which the anus was anatomically and functionally normal but ectopically located, opening into the vaginal vestibule. Among these 14 cases of anorectal malformation, prenatal dilatation of the distal bowel was seen in nine (64.3%) and intraluminal calcified meconium or enterolithiasis in five (35.7%). Overall, absent PAMC on prenatal sonography in this high-risk population had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 99%, true-positive rate of 93% and false-positive rate of 7% for the diagnosis of anorectal atresia. In a high-risk population, the absence of PAMC seems to be a highly sensitive and specific sonographic marker for anorectal atresia. The role of routine sonographic identification of the PAMC at the second-trimester scan to screen for cases of isolated anal atresia remains to be determined. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid or early azathioprine/biological therapy are predictors of disease behavior change in patients with Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Czegledi, Zsofia; Szamosi, Tamas; Banai, Janos; David, Gyula; Zsigmond, Ferenc; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Gemela, Orsolya; Papp, Janos; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the combined effect of disease phenotype, smoking and medical therapy [steroid, azathioprine (AZA), AZA/biological therapy] on the probability of disease behavior change in a Caucasian cohort of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: Three hundred and forty well-characterized, unrelated, consecutive CD patients were analyzed (M/F: 155/185, duration: 9.4 ± 7.5 years) with a complete clinical follow-up. Medical records including disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification, extraintestinal manifestations, use of medications and surgical events were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were interviewed on their smoking habits at the time of diagnosis and during the regular follow-up visits. RESULTS: A change in disease behavior was observed in 30.8% of patients with an initially non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behavior after a mean disease duration of 9.0 ± 7.2 years. In a logistic regression analysis corrected for disease duration, perianal disease, smoking, steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy use were independent predictors of disease behavior change. In a subsequent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a proportional Cox regression analysis, disease location (P = 0.001), presence of perianal disease (P < 0.001), prior steroid use (P = 0.006), early AZA (P = 0.005) or AZA/biological therapy (P = 0.002), or smoking (P = 0.032) were independent predictors of disease behavior change. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy are all predictors of disease behavior change in CD patients. PMID:19630105

  15. Perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid or early azathioprine/biological therapy are predictors of disease behavior change in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Czegledi, Zsofia; Szamosi, Tamas; Banai, Janos; David, Gyula; Zsigmond, Ferenc; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Gemela, Orsolya; Papp, Janos; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2009-07-28

    To assess the combined effect of disease phenotype, smoking and medical therapy [steroid, azathioprine (AZA), AZA/biological therapy] on the probability of disease behavior change in a Caucasian cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Three hundred and forty well-characterized, unrelated, consecutive CD patients were analyzed (M/F: 155/185, duration: 9.4 +/- 7.5 years) with a complete clinical follow-up. Medical records including disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification, extraintestinal manifestations, use of medications and surgical events were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were interviewed on their smoking habits at the time of diagnosis and during the regular follow-up visits. A change in disease behavior was observed in 30.8% of patients with an initially non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behavior after a mean disease duration of 9.0 +/- 7.2 years. In a logistic regression analysis corrected for disease duration, perianal disease, smoking, steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy use were independent predictors of disease behavior change. In a subsequent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a proportional Cox regression analysis, disease location (P = 0.001), presence of perianal disease (P < 0.001), prior steroid use (P = 0.006), early AZA (P = 0.005) or AZA/biological therapy (P = 0.002), or smoking (P = 0.032) were independent predictors of disease behavior change. Our data suggest that perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy are all predictors of disease behavior change in CD patients.

  16. MRI-based score helps in assessing the severity and in follow-up of pediatric patients with perianal Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sakil; Gomara, Roberto; Reeves-Garcia, Jesse; Hernandez, Erick; Restrepo, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The radiologic healing of perianal fistulizing Crohn disease (PfCD) lags behind the clinical healing. Contrast-enhanced pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the radiologic study of choice used to diagnose PfCD in children. The aim was to study whether the various MRI-based radiologic parameters and score can help in staging and follow-up of patients with PfCD. We performed a retrospective chart review of children with PfCD who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI of the pelvis. The demographic profile, clinical status, and laboratory data of the patients at the time of each MRI examination were noted. Based on the clinical status of the patient at the time of MRI examinations, the MRIs were classified into 3 groups: severe disease, mild-to-moderate disease, and asymptomatic. Each MRI examination was reviewed by a radiologist, who was blinded to the clinical status of the patient. Of the radiologic parameters, the number of fistulas, the complexity of fistulas, and the number of abscesses were significantly lower in the asymptomatic group compared with the mild-to-moderate and severe disease groups. The Van Assche MRI-based score was significantly lower in the asymptomatic group compared with the mild-to-moderate disease (P = 0.01) and the severe disease group (P = 0.002). The percentage increase in fistula activity after gadolinium administration was significantly lower in the asymptomatic group compared with the mild-to-moderate disease (P = 0.026) and severe disease (P = 0.019) groups. The MRI-based scores were significantly higher in the MRI examinations performed at diagnosis compared with those that were performed while the patients were receiving the treatment (P = 0.017). The Van Assche MRI score and the percentage increase in fistula activity after gadolinium administration help in assessing the severity perianal Crohn disease. The Van Assche MRI score may be helpful in documenting healing during therapy of perianal Crohn disease.

  17. The Clinical Features and Predictive Risk Factors for Reoperation in Patients With Perianal Crohn Diseases; A Multi-Center Study of a Korean Inflammatory Bowel Disease Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Bum; Yoon, Seo-Gue; Park, Kyu Joo; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Dae Dong; Yoon, Sang Nam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Perianal lesions are common in Crohn disease, but their clinical course is unpredictable. Nevertheless, predicting the clinical course after surgery for perianal Crohn disease (PCD) is important because repeated operations may decrease patient's quality of life. The aim of this study was to predict the risk of reoperation in patients with PCD. Methods From September 1994 to February 2010, 377 patients with PCD were recruited in twelve major tertiary university-affiliated hospitals and two specialized colorectal hospitals in Korea. Data on the patient's demographics, clinical features, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results Among 377 patients, 227 patients were ultimately included in the study. Among the 227 patients, 64 patients underwent at least one reoperation. The median period of reoperation following the first perianal surgery was 94 months. Overall 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year cumulative rates of reoperation-free individuals were 68.8%, 61.2%, and 50.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis (Cox-regression hazard model), reoperation was significantly correlated with an age of onset less than 20 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-3.48; P = 0.03), history of abdominal surgery (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.08-3.64; P = 0.03), and the type of surgery. Among types of surgery, fistulotomy or fistulectomy was associated with a decreased incidence of reoperation in comparison with incision and drainage (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.42; P < 0.001). Conclusion Young age of onset and a history of abdominal surgery were associated with a high risk of reoperation for PCD, and the risk of reoperation were relatively low in fistulotomy or fistulectomy procedures. PMID:26576395

  18. Ciliated median raphe cyst of perineum presenting as perianal polyp: a case report with immunohistochemical study, review of literature, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Jayesh; Sagar, Bethani; Patel, Adam F; Shak, D K

    2006-03-05

    Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  19. Perianal streptococcal cellulitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually occurs in children, often during or after strep throat , nasopharyngitis, or streptococcal skin infection ( impetigo ). Children ... fistula , or abscess Bleeding, discharge Bloodstream or other streptococcal infections (including heart, joint, and bone) Kidney disease (acute ...

  20. Perianal Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Asma, Sioud Dhrif; Soumaya, Youssef; Kahena, Jaber; Raouf, Dhaoui Mohamed; Nejib, Doss

    2006-12-10

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by sharply demarcated segments of gastrointestinal involvement from mouth to anus. Its perineal manifestations are among the most devastating and mutilating complications. They occur at any time and may precede the intestinal manifestations. Their most common presentations are perineal ulceration, fistula, and abscess. Proliferative and polypoid morphology of the cutaneous lesions mimicking warts and condyloma are rarely described. We report a 25-year-old woman with a 4-month history of confluent plaques of the perineal region with vegetant surfaces, suspected to be genital warts. The lesions progressed to fistulas, inducing deep ulcerations surrounded by pseudocondylomatous tumors. About 2 months prior to presentation she began to suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms and noted weight loss. Physical examination, endoscopic examination, and pathological interpretation led to the diagnosis of Crohn disease with perineal involvement being the initial presenting sign. Significant improvement was induced with prednisone (45 mg daily) and azathioprine. Our observation is notable for the pseudocondylomatous appearance and the dramatic response to medical treatment despite severe involvement.

  1. The NOD2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs72796353 (IVS4+10 A>C) Is a Predictor for Perianal Fistulas in Patients with Crohn's Disease in the Absence of Other NOD2 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Fabian; Friedrich, Matthias; Wolf, Christiane; Stallhofer, Johannes; Angelberger, Marianne; Diegelmann, Julia; Olszak, Torsten; Tillack, Cornelia; Beigel, Florian; Göke, Burkhard; Glas, Jürgen; Lohse, Peter; Brand, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    A previous study suggested an association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs72796353 (IVS4+10 A>C) in the NOD2 gene with susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). However, this finding has not been confirmed. Given that NOD2 variants still represent the most important predictors for CD susceptibility and phenotype, we evaluated the association of rs72796353 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility and the IBD phenotype. Genomic DNA from 2256 Caucasians, including 1073 CD patients, 464 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 719 healthy controls, was genotyped for the NOD2 SNP rs72796353 and the three main CD-associated NOD2 mutations rs2066844, rs2066845, and rs2066847. Subsequently, IBD association and genotype-phenotype analyses were conducted. In contrast to the strong associations of the NOD2 SNPs rs2066844 (p=3.51 x 10(-3)), rs2066845 (p=1.54 x 10(-2)), and rs2066847 (p=1.61 x 10(-20)) with CD susceptibility, no significant association of rs72796353 with CD or UC susceptibility was found. However, in CD patients without the three main CD-associated NOD2 mutations, rs72796353 was significantly associated with the development of perianal fistulas (p=2.78 x 10(-7), OR 5.27, [95% CI 2.75-10.12] vs. NOD2 wild-type carriers). Currently, this study represents the largest genotype-phenotype analysis of the impact of the NOD2 variant rs72796353 on the disease phenotype in IBD. Our data demonstrate that in CD patients the IVS4+10 A>C variant is strongly associated with the development of perianal fistulas. This association is particularly pronounced in patients who are not carriers of the three main CD-associated NOD2 mutations, suggesting rs72796353 as additional genetic marker for the CD disease behaviour.

  2. Bowenoid transformation in seborrheic keratosis: A retrospective analysis of 429 patients

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Parvin; Adibi, Neda; Nematollahi, Pardis; Heidarpour, Mitra; Eftekhari, Mehdi; Siadat, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Background: Seborrheic keratosis is a common, benign skin tumor. Numerous reports have shown its possibility of malignant transformation. This study was designed to demonstrate the occurrence of concomitant seborrheic keratosis and skin cancers. Materials and Methods: Data was retrospectively reviewed from all patients with a diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis in pathology department of Alzahra Hospital and a private pathology laboratory in Isfahan, Iran over a 4-year period. We classified all demographic data and associated dysplasia or Bowen's disease and analyzed them by student-t or chi-square tests. Results: From all 429 specimens, 5 (1.2%) were found to be associated with Bowen's disease and one (0.2%) with mild dysplasia in squamous epithelium. All cases arose within the clinically, atypical seborrheic keratosis. More men were affected with lesions alone and with malignancy (230/423 (54.4%) and 5/6 (83.3%), respectively) compared to women. The average age of patients suffering from lesions with and without associated malignancy was 57 and 54 years, respectively. The common site of lesion alone was head and neck but lesions with malignancy involved lower extremities. The two lesions were significantly different in site of occurrence (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Generally, although the association between seborrheic keratosis and skin malignancy appears to be accidental, it must always be in mind. Therefore, histopathologic examination of all seborrheic keratosis should be considered, especially when seborrheic keratosis has atypical clinical manifestations. PMID:23267371

  3. Combination of photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy - evolving role in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Hong-Wei; Huang, Zheng

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality. It offers alternative options in the treatment of cancer and vascular diseases. In cancer treatment, PDT has been used primarily for localized superficial or endoluminal malignant and premalignant conditions. More recently, its application has also been expanded to solid tumors. However, its antitumor efficacy remains debatable and its acceptance still variable. Pre-clinical studies demonstrate that, in addition to the primary local cytotoxicity, PDT might induce secondary host immune responses, which may further enhance PDT's therapeutic effects on primary tumor as well as metastasis. Therefore, PDT-induced local and systemic antitumor immune response might play an important role in successful control of malignant diseases. Furthermore, PDT's antitumor efficacy might also be enhanced through an effective immunoadjuvant or immunomodulator. Our recent clinical data also indicate that improved clinical outcomes can be obtained by a combination of PDT and immunomodulation therapy for the treatment of pre-malignant skin diseases. For instance, the combination of topical ALA-PDT and Imiquimod is effective for the treatment of genital bowenoid papulosis. This presentation will also report our preliminary data in developing combination approaches of PDT and immunotherapy for actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and Bowen's disease.

  4. [Actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin].

    PubMed

    Majores, M; Bierhoff, E

    2015-02-01

    Actinic (solar) keratosis is an intraepidermal squamous neoplasm of sun-damaged skin and by far the most frequent neoplastic skin lesion. A subdivison into three grades has been proposed with increasing acceptance not least because of the therapeutic consequences. The transition to invasive squamous cell carcinoma is reported in 5-10 % and with immunosuppression in 30 % of patients.Bowen's disease is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the skin and the mucocutaneous junction. The differentiation from bowenoid papulosis as a lesion associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), actinic (solar) keratosis grade III, intraepidermal poroid lesions and in cases of clonal type from clonal seborrhoic keratosis and Paget's disease is very important.Keratoacanthoma is currently uniformly interpreted as a variant of highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the skin with clinical and histomorphological characteristics. Clinically keratoacanthoma erupts rapidly and is capable of resolving spontaneously. Histologically, there is a characteristic growth pattern and various stages of regression. The final histomorphological diagnosis needs the entire specimen.Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is the second most common type of skin cancer following basal cell carcinoma. With respect to reccurrencies and risk of metastases the subtyping of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is very important. The classification system of the Union Internationale Contra le Cancer (UICC) is based solely on the anatomical spread and the classification system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) also considers so-called high-risk features in the staging between stages I and II.

  5. Nomenclature for very superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and of the cervix: a critique in historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Galen M; Ackerman, A Bernard

    2006-12-01

    Squamous-cell carcinoma is the most common of all cancers and it develops in diverse organs of the body, among those being the skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, the latter including the cervix. Unfortunately, no unanimity exists for naming very superficial squamous-cell carcinoma; it has not been designated in consistent fashion in a single organ, let alone in all of them, thereby resulting in confusion, not only in regard to terminology per se, but concerning matters conceptual, not the least of those being what appellation to apply to that condition when it is encountered histopathologically. This vexing situation is illustrated graphically in the skin by diagnoses for very superficial squamous-cell carcinoma as disparate as solar keratosis (actinic keratosis, senile keratosis), arsenical keratosis, radiation keratosis, Bowen disease, bowenoid papulosis, squamous-cell carcinoma in situ, as well as variations on the theme of "keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasia" and "dysplasia," and in the cervix by squamous-cell carcinoma in situ, leukoplakia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I-III, as well as variations on the theme of "squamous dysplasia ()." What follows now is a recounting of the history of the subject under consideration here, a critique of dizzying, opaque terms and phrases given to that subject, and a proposal for rectifying what currently is a thoroughly untenable situation because the language, and the ideas expressed by it, are impenetrable to physicians and, thereby, are decidedly disadvantageous to patients. There is a need urgently for a single term for very superficial squamous-cell carcinoma in every organ of the body in which it develops, to wit, one that conveys diagnosis in such logical, lucid, comprehensible fashion that it is understandable, readily and immediately, to clinicians. In that way, physicians charged with management of patients can plan therapy rationally.

  6. Overlapping reactivations of herpes simplex virus type 2 in the genital and perianal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tata, Sunitha; Johnston, Christine; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2010-02-15

    Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 occurs frequently. Anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 reactivation have not been intensively studied. Four HSV-2-seropositive women with symptomatic genital herpes attended a clinic daily during a 30-day period. Daily samples were collected from 7 separate genital sites. Swab samples were assayed for HSV DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Anatomic sites of clinical HSV-2 recurrences were recorded. HSV was detected on 44 (37%) of 120 days and from 136 (16%) of 840 swab samples. Lesions were documented on 35 (29%) of 120 days. HSV was detected at >1 anatomic site on 25 (57%) of 44 days with HSV shedding (median, 2 sites; range, 1-7), with HSV detected bilaterally on 20 (80%) of the 25 days. The presence of a lesion was significantly associated with detectable HSV from any genital site (incident rate ratio [IRR], 5.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-23.50; P= .02) and with the number of positive sites (IRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1. 01-1.40; P=.03). The maximum HSV copy number detected was associated with the number of positive sites (IRR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.44-1.82; P<.001). HSV-2 reactivation occurs frequently at widely spaced regions throughout the genital tract. To prevent HSV-2 reactivation, suppressive HSV-2 therapy must control simultaneous viral reactivations from multiple sacral ganglia.

  7. A Case of Peri-Anal Varicella and Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sabrina; Burgess, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Grouped vesicle on an erythematous base suggests a herpes virus infection and located within the anogenital region raises the possibility of sexual assault. The following case and review highlight the need to consider infection by varicella zoster virus in such cases and emphasises the importance of a prompt and accurate diagnosis.

  8. Staged marginal contoured and central excision technique in the surgical management of perianal Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Möller, Mecker G; Lugo-Baruqui, Jose Alejandro; Milikowski, Clara; Salgado, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands with unknown exact prevalence and obscure etiology. It has been divided into primary EMPD and secondary EMPD, in which an internal malignancy is usually associated. Treatment for primary EMPD usually consists of wide lesion excision with negative margins. Multiple methods have been proposed to obtain free-margin status of the disease. These include visible border lesion excision, punch biopsies, and micrographic and frozen-section surgery, with different results but still high recurrence rates. The investigators propose a method consisting of a staged contoured marginal excision using "en face" permanent pathologic analysis preceding the steps of central excision of the lesion and the final reconstruction of the surgical defect. Advantages of this method include adequate margin control allowing final reconstruction and tissue preservation, while minimizing patient discomfort. The staged contoured marginal and central excision technique offers a new alternative to the armamentarium for surgical oncologists for the management of EMPD in which margin control is imperative for control of recurrence rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Malignant transformation in perianal fistulas of Crohn's disease: a systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mathew; Bienkowski, Robert; Vandermeer, Thomas J; Trostle, Douglas; Cagir, Burt

    2010-01-01

    Malignant transformation of perineal fistula in Crohn's disease has rarely been reported. The aim of this study is to define the patient's characteristics and clinical presentation of this rare disease. A systematic review of case series and reports published in English language between 1950 and 2008 was conducted. All cases with malignancy in low pelvic/perineal fistula in patients with Crohn's disease were included. All selected cases were then analyzed with respect to age, gender, duration of Crohn's disease and fistula, location of fistula, presenting symptoms, method of diagnosis, delay in diagnosis, histopathology, treatment, and outcome. Data analyses were done using chi-squared or Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. Literature review revealed 61 cases of carcinomas arising in perineal fistulas in Crohn's disease. Sixty-one percent (37) of the patients were females. Females were significantly younger than males at the time of diagnosis of cancer (47 vs. 53 years, P < 0.032). Males were also noted to have significantly longer duration of Crohn's disease compared to females (24 vs. 18 years, P = 0.005). However, females were noted to have the fistula for significantly shorter duration prior to cancer transformation when compared to males (8.3 vs. 16 years, P = 0.0035). On initial examination, malignancy was suspected and proven only in 20% of patients (n = 12). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histology (59%, n = 36), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31%, n = 19). In most patients (59%, n = 36), the fistula was rectal in origin. A high suspicion for malignancy in chronic perineal fistulas associated with Crohn's disease should be maintained in spite of negative biopsies. Especially in women, the shorter duration of Crohn's fistulas prior to malignant degeneration necessitates an aggressive approach to rule out cancer.

  10. Management of peri-anal giant condyloma acuminatum--a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Safi, Farouk; Bekdache, Omar; Al-Salam, Suhail; Alashari, Mouied; Mazen, Taha; El-Salhat, Haytham

    2013-01-01

    Giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA), originally described by Buschke and Loewenstein in 1925 as a lesion of the penis, is more rarely seen in the anorectum and is characterized by clinical malignancy in the face of histologic benignity; however, malignant transformation to frankly invasive squamous-cell carcinoma has been described in about one-third of patients. In addition, malignant transformation has been reported in patients with "ordinary" condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus, known to cause condylomata acuminata, is also known to induce these tumors and was found in 96% of 63 cases reviewed in the last 10 years. These lesions have a propensity for recurrence and a likelihood of malignant transformation, and lead to significant mortality. Therefore, early and radical R0 excision, along with vigilant follow-up, provides the hope for cure. Conservative and/or multimodal therapy has been reported in a few cases, but its effect is not yet proved. The authors report one case of GCA; in addition, they reviewed the literature over the last 10 years and compared with previous reviews. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Association of sexually transmitted infections, Candida species, gram-positive flora and perianal flora with bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Vahidnia, Ali; Tuin, Hellen; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by depletion of the normal Lactobacillus spp. and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. We investigated the composition of vaginal microbiota and their association with BV in women of reproductive age. Vaginal samples from 1197 women were analysed, whereby n=451 patients had normal flora and n=614 were diagnosed with BV, the remaining patients were diagnosed with having either intermediate flora (n=42) or dysbacteriosis (n=90). The reported results show that pathogens are associated with BV. This knowledge will further expand our understanding of events leading to BV, which may lead to more effective prevention and treatment strategies.

  12. Genital and reproductive organ complications of Crohn disease: technical considerations as it relates to perianal disease, imaging features, and implications on management.

    PubMed

    Kammann, Steven; Menias, Christine; Hara, Amy; Moshiri, Mariam; Siegel, Cary; Safar, Bashar; Brandes, Steven; Shaaban, Akram; Sandrasegaran, Kumar

    2017-06-01

    A relatively large proportion of patients with Crohn disease (CD) develop complications including abscess formation, stricture, and penetrating disease. A subset of patients will have genital and reproductive organ involvement of CD, resulting in significant morbidity. These special circumstances create unique management challenges that must be tailored to the activity, location, and extent of disease. Familiarity with the epidemiology, pathogenesis, imaging features, and treatment strategies for patients with genital CD can aid imaging diagnoses and guide appropriate patient management. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the spectrum of CD in the genital tract and reproductive organs and discuss the complex management strategies in these patients as it relates to imaging. Given the impact on patient outcome and treatment planning, familiarity with the epidemiology, pathogenesis, imaging features, and treatment of patients with genital Crohn disease can aid radiologic diagnoses and guide appropriate patient management.

  13. Canine perineal tumours.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, A; Vos, J H; van den Ingh, T S; Molenbeek, R F; van Sluijs, F J

    1989-12-01

    One hundred and thirty nine canine perineal tumours were histologically evaluated. The vast majority (134 tumours = 96.4%) appeared to originate from the characteristic glandular structures of this region. They were classified as well differentiated perianal gland tumours (58.3%), as moderately or poorly differentiated perianal gland tumours (21.6%) and as carcinomas without perianal gland differentiation (16.5%). Only 5 tumours (3.6%) appeared to originate from non-characteristic perineal structures. A prominent male predominance was found with respect to the perianal gland tumours, whereas the carcinomas showed a distinct female predisposition. Tumours showing perianal gland differentiation almost invariably will have a benign behaviour. The carcinomas lacking any perianal gland differentiation often show a distinct malignant behaviour with metastases to regional lymph nodes and internal organs. These malignant neoplasms showed morphological and clinical features comparable to canine anal sac gland adenocarcinomas and carcinoids in man and animals.

  14. Sebaceous carcinoma in association with actinic keratosis: A report of two cases with an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Misago, Noriyuki; Kuwashiro, Maki; Tsuruta, Noriko; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2015-06-01

    We report two cases of sebaceous carcinoma associated with actinic keratosis (AK) with an immunohistochemical study, which suggests the possibility that sebaceous carcinoma really does develop within AK. Case 1 had sebaceous carcinoma arising within the atrophic type AK and case 2 had sebaceous carcinoma associated with bowenoid AK in the periphery and some parts of the overlying epidermis of the lesion. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Brentuximab Vedotin and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVB Relapsed or Refractory T-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-19

    Lymphomatoid Papulosis; Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  16. [Complications of hemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Slauf, P; Antoš, F; Marx, J

    2014-04-01

    The most common and serious complications of haemorrhoids include perianal thrombosis and incarcerated prolapsed internal haemorrhoids with subsequent thrombosis. They are characterised by severe pain in the perianal region possibly with bleeding. In a short history of the perianal thrombosis, acute surgical incision or excision is indicated, which can result in rapid relief of the painful symptoms. In incarcerated prolapsed internal haemorrhoids, emergency haemorrhoidectomy may also be indicated. Segmental haemorrhoidectomy in the most affected quadrants followed by further elective surgery for haemorrhoids in the next stage is preferred.

  17. Diagnosing and Managing IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your abdomen. Newer scanners have an open design to minimize claustrophobia. A CT of the abdomen ... CE) Upper tract Crohn’s disease EGD-Upper GI Series (UGIS) Perianal Crohn’s disease MRI-EUS PSC (primary ...

  18. Anorectal abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Anal abscess; Rectal abscess; Perirectal abscess; Perianal abscess; Gland abscess; Abscess - anorectal ... of anorectal abscess include: Blocked glands in the anal area Infection of an anal fissure Sexually transmitted ...

  19. Clinical forms of actinic keratosis and levels of dysplasia of the epidermis.

    PubMed

    Oshyvalova, Olena O; Kaliuzhna, Lydia D; Kropelnytskyi, Vladislav O

    Introduction: Actinic keratosis (AK) is precancerous skin lesion that occurs in the sun-exposedskin areas characterized by local intraepidermal dysplasia of different severity (KIN I, KIN II and KIN III). The aim of this research was to study distribution patterns and morphological features of AK histological types. Materials and Methods: The study included skin biopsy material from 68 patients with different clinical forms of AK. The diagnosis of AK was histologically confirmed in 100% of cases. Results: There were 63.21% of men and 36.8% of women among all patients with AK. The average age of patients was 73.3 ± 8.3.The most common clinico-histological forms of actinic keratosis were typical (41.2%), hypertrophic (16.2%), atrophic (14.7%) and pigmentary (11.7%), bowenoid (8.8%), acantholytic (7.4%). Among the rate of epidermal dysplasia there diagnosed cases of KIN І (50%), KIN ІІ (36.8%) and KIN III (13.2%). Conclusions: It was found a direct correlation between KIN I and typical and pigment forms of AK, KIN II and hypertrophic and bowenoid forms of AK.

  20. Survival data for 299 patients with primary cutaneous lymphomas: a monocentre study.

    PubMed

    Hallermann, Christian; Niermann, Christoph; Fischer, Rudolf-Josef; Schulze, Hans-Joachim

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was retrospectively to assess the validity of the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification for primary cutaneous lymphomas (PCL) in a large cohort of patients of a single German skin cancer unit. All patients with PCLs consecutively visiting our hospital between January 1980 and December 2005 were included in a retrospective monocentre study, analysing their histological and clinical data. A total of 312 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for PCL. In 299 patients clinical information and paraffin material were sufficient for detailed classification. Of the 299 patients, 63% expressed a T-cell and 37% a B-cell phenotype. Mycosis fungoides was the entity with the highest frequency (30.9%), followed by primary cutaneous follicle centre lymphomas (16.9%) and lymphomatoid papulosis (15.9%). The mean follow-up period was 38.4 months. Five-year disease-specific survival was 80.5% for mycosis fungoides, 92.5% in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 100% in lymphomatoid papulosis, 98.1% in primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma, 100% in primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma and 63.2% in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type. Our data are in line with the data collected by the WHO-EORTC. This is further evidence for the reliability of the WHO-EORTC classification and staging system.

  1. Split-shot sinker facilitates seton treatment of anal fistulae.

    PubMed

    Awad, M L; Sell, H W; Stahlfeld, K R

    2009-06-01

    The cutting seton is an inexpensive and effective method of treating high complex perianal fistulae. Following placement of the seton, advancement through the external sphincter muscles requires progressive tightening of the seton. The requirement for maintaining the appropriate tension and onset of perianal pressure necrosis are problems frequently encountered using this technique. Using a 3-0 polypropylene suture, a red-rubber catheter, and a nontoxic tin split-shot sinker, we minimized or eliminated these problems. We initially used this technique in one patient with satisfactory results. This technique is technically easy, safe, inexpensive, and efficient, and we are using it in all patients with high perianal fistulae who require a seton.

  2. Combined Papillated Bowen Disease and Clear Cell Atypical Fibroxanthoma

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Vilela, Dimas; Izquierdo-García, Francisco; Domínguez-Iglesias, Francisco; Méndez-Álvarez, Jose Ramón

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of papillated Bowen disease (PBD), associated with a clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma (CCAFXA). The epidermal lesion showed a bowenoid papillomatous growth pattern with histologic features suggestive of infection by human papilloma virus (HPV). In the dermis a neoplasm made up by spindled or polygonal cells with wide clear cytoplasm and moderate nuclear pleomorphism was found. Immunohistochemical characteristics of these two lesions were clearly different. The atypical cells of the intraepidermal proliferation were positive for AE1-AE3 anticytokeratin antibody, EMA, p16, p53 and p63. The dermal tumor was positive for vimentin, CD10, CD68, CD99, alpha-1-antitrypsin and c-kit. Histological features and immunohistochemical profile of the dermal tumor corresponded to a CCAFXA, a very uncommon neoplasm of which only 10 cases have been reported. In situ hybridization for numerous types of HPVs was negative in both lesions. PMID:21103191

  3. Papillomavirus, p53 alteration, and primary carcinoma of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; D'Amato, L; Della Torre, G; Donghi, R; Longoni, A; Giarola, M; Sampietro, G; De Palo, G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1995-12-01

    Twenty-nine samples from 28 cases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, of which 13 fulfilled the criteria of the bowenoid subtype (mean age 45 years, range 31-68) and 16 of the usual subtype of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC) (mean age 67.5 years, range 34-83) were investigated for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, TP53 alterations, and mdm2 and bcl-2 gene product deregulation. Microscopically all the bowenoid subtype cases (group I) showed a high-grade intraepithelial (VIN 3, carcinoma in situ) lesion associated with early invasive carcinoma in six cases and overt invasive carcinoma in one. By contrast, no evidence of early carcinoma was present in the ISCCs (group II). By in situ hybridization and/or Southern blot hybridization or polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HPV DNA was detected in all cases of group I and in four of 16 cases (25%) of group II, two only by Southern blot after PCR. By single-strand conformation polymorphism and immunocytochemistry only wild-type TP53 and absence of detectable p53 product, respectively, were found in all cases of group I, i.e., in high-risk HPV-positive carcinomas, whereas mutations and/or p53 overexpression accounted for 75% in group II, i.e., in mainly HPV-negative carcinomas. The TP53 gene mutations observed in invasive carcinomas were significantly related to node-positive cases (p = 0.04). Taken together and in agreement with in vitro data, these results support the view that an alteration of TP53, gained either by interaction with viral oncoproteins or by somatic mutations, is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of vulvar carcinomas, but that TP53 mutations are mainly associated with disease progression. Finally, a preliminary immunocytochemical analysis seems to speak against the possible involvement of both MDM2 and BCL-2 gene products in the development of vulvar carcinoma.

  4. [Acute anal pain].

    PubMed

    Pittet, Olivier; Demartines, Nicolas; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    Acute anal pain is a common proctological problem. A detailed history together with the clinical examination are crucial for the diagnosis. An acute perianal vein thrombosis can be successfully excised within the first 72 hours. Acute anal fissures are best treated conservatively using stool regulation and topical medications reducing the sphincter spasm. A chronic anal fissure needs surgery. Perianal abscesses can very often be incised and drained in local anesthesia. Proctalgia fugax and the levator ani syndrome are exclusion diagnoses and are treated symptomatically.

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization, behavioral risk factors, and skin and soft-tissue infection at an ambulatory clinic serving a large population of HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Szumowski, John D; Wener, Kenneth M; Gold, Howard S; Wong, Michael; Venkataraman, Lata; Runde, Carrie A; Cohen, Daniel E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Wright, Sharon B

    2009-07-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study of 795 outpatients, many of whom were human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men, to characterize risk of skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nares and perianal colonization. Multivariate analysis revealed that perianal colonization, drug use, and prior SSTIs were strongly associated with development of an SSTI. Of the patients who were colonized with MRSA at study entry, 36.7% developed an SSTI during the ensuing 12 months, compared with 8.1% of persons who were not colonized with MRSA.

  6. Rare occurrence of metastasis from lung cancer to the anus: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Al-Tarakji, Mohannad; Feilchenfeldt, Jonas; Haidar, Abdulrazzaq; Szabados, Lajos; Abdelaziem, Sherif; Sayed, Ali; Toro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Isidoro

    2016-06-08

    Anal metastases from lung cancer are infrequent, and there are only 10 published cases. Life expectancy is no longer than 1 year after diagnosis because of the typically advanced stage of disease. Treatment, which is typically inefficient, is administered with the intent to cure or avoid local complications. We report a case of a patient with non-small cell lung cancer presenting with perianal metastasis mimicking an abscess. Because perianal masses may be misdiagnosed, patients with lung and other cancers should be evaluated for metastatic disease.

  7. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia in anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a mimicker of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Price, Alexandra; Miller, Jason H; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M

    2015-11-01

    Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia can occasionally be observed in biopsies of CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. It is important to be cognizant of this association, because epithelial hyperproliferation can overshadow large atypical lymphoid cells, leading to an erroneous diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or keratoacanthoma. Herein, we present a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia simulating a poorly differentiated carcinoma and review the literature on this subject. Immunohistochemical staining with p63 helped delineate the infiltrating tongues of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia from the malignant infiltrate. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential for pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia to occur in the setting of CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders. Clinicians and dermatopathologists should consider the possibility of ALCL or lymphomatoid papulosis when examining lesions with features of inflamed SCC, especially if the tumor presents on a site or in a patient that is not typical of SCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Multicentric primary extramammary Paget disease: a Toker cell disorder?

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Pantea; Kao, Grace F; Konia, Thomas; Kauffman, Lisa C; Tam, Christine C; Sina, Bahram

    2014-07-01

    Toker cells are epithelial clear cells found in the areolar and nipple areas of the breast, vulvar region, and other apocrine gland-bearing areas of the skin. Toker cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of clear cell papulosis, cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells, and rare cases of primary extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) but not in secondary EMPD with underlying adenocarcinoma. The pathogenesis of primary EMPD is not well defined. We report a case of multicentric primary EMPD with evidence of Toker cell proliferation and nonaggressive biologic behavior in a 63-year-old white man. A detailed description of the morphologic and biologic features of Toker cells and their possible carcinogenetic links also are discussed. Based on the observation and follow-up of our patient, we hypothesize that multicentric primary EMPD starts with Toker cell hyperplasia and can potentially evolve to carcinoma in the genital region.

  9. 21 CFR 346.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... receptors. (d) Astringent drug. A drug that is applied topically (externally) to the skin or mucous... anorectal drug product to the skin of the perianal area and/or the skin of the anal canal. (f) Intrarectal..., forming a protective coating over skin or mucous membranes. (j) Vasoconstrictor. A drug that causes...

  10. 21 CFR 346.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... receptors. (d) Astringent drug. A drug that is applied topically (externally) to the skin or mucous... anorectal drug product to the skin of the perianal area and/or the skin of the anal canal. (f) Intrarectal..., forming a protective coating over skin or mucous membranes. (j) Vasoconstrictor. A drug that causes...

  11. 21 CFR 346.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... receptors. (d) Astringent drug. A drug that is applied topically (externally) to the skin or mucous... anorectal drug product to the skin of the perianal area and/or the skin of the anal canal. (f) Intrarectal..., forming a protective coating over skin or mucous membranes. (j) Vasoconstrictor. A drug that causes...

  12. Epidemiology and genotypic characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains of porcine origin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA in pigs and pork. Genotypic relatedness of isolates on-farm, at slaughter and retail was assessed. Paired nasal and peri-anal swab samples we...

  13. Syndrome in question.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinhua; Qiao, Jianjun; Fang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome is characterized by erosions and desquamation of the vulva, vagina, and gingiva. We reported a case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with an 8-year history of damage to the vulval and perianal anatomy and limitation of mouth opening. The patient's symptoms were relieved after treatment with topical tacrolimus cream.

  14. Syndrome in question*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yinhua; Qiao, Jianjun; Fang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome is characterized by erosions and desquamation of the vulva, vagina, and gingiva. We reported a case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with an 8-year history of damage to the vulval and perianal anatomy and limitation of mouth opening. The patient's symptoms were relieved after treatment with topical tacrolimus cream. PMID:25184936

  15. A prospective evaluation of the ligation of the intersphincteric tract procedure for complex anal fistula in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Gingold, Daniel S; Murrell, Zuri A; Fleshner, Phillip R

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate 2- and 12-month outcomes after ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) in Crohn's disease (CD). Surgical approaches to perianal fistulas in CD are frequently ineffective and hampered by concerns over adequate wound healing and sphincter injury. The efficacy of LIFT in CD patients is unknown. Consecutive cases of CD patients with transsphincteric fistulas were prospectively analyzed. Fistula healing and 2 validated quality-of-life indices were assessed. Fifteen CD patients (9 women; mean age = 34.8 years) were identified. Location of the fistula was lateral (n = 10; 67%) or midline (n = 5; 33%). LIFT site healing was seen in 9 patients (60%) at 2-month follow-up. No patient developed fecal incontinence. LIFT site healing was seen in 8 of the 12 patients (67%) with complete 12-month follow-up. Significant factors for long-term LIFT site healing were lateral versus midline location (P = 0.02) and longer mean fistula length (P = 0.02). Patients who had successful operations significantly improved both their mean Wexner Perianal Crohn's Disease Activity Index and McMaster Perianal Crohn's Disease Activity Index quality-of-life scores at 2-month follow-up (14.0-3.8, P = 0.001, and 10.4-1.8, P = 0.0001, respectively). CD-associated anal fistulas may be treated with LIFT. This surgical procedure is a safe, outpatient procedure that minimizes both perianal wound creation and sphincter injury.

  16. Correlation of Propionibacterium acnes Populations with the Presence of Triglycerides on Nonhuman Skin

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Guy F.; Ruggieri, Michael R.; McGinley, Kenneth J.

    1981-01-01

    The skins of mice, rats, rabbits, sheep, guinea pigs, and dogs were cultured for Propionibacterium acnes. Only the sebaceous regions (perianal gland) of guinea pigs harbored a significant P. acnes population. Analysis of the lipid from this region revealed a significant percentage of triglycerides, compounds lacking in the sebum of the other animals. PMID:7259157

  17. Beta-papillomaviruses in anogenital hairs plucked from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Potocnik, Marko; Kocjan, Bostjan J; Seme, Katja; Luzar, Bostjan; Babic, Dunja Z; Poljak, Mario

    2006-12-01

    A total of 150 specimens of anogenital hairs plucked from the scrotal, pubic, and perianal region of 51 immunocompetent healthy male individuals were tested for the presence of beta-papillomaviruses (beta-HPV) using the nested M(a)/H(a) polymerase chain reaction. Beta-HPV were found in a total of 38 (25.3%) of 150 hair samples. According to the sampling sites, beta-HPV were detected in 18/51 (35.3%), 13/50 (26.0%), and 7/49 (14.3%) plucked hair samples obtained from the pubic, scrotal, and perianal region, respectively. The prevalence of beta-HPV in the plucked pubic hairs was significantly higher than in the perianal hairs (P = 0.013). In contrast, the difference in the prevalence of beta-HPV in the pubic and scrotal hairs as well as in scrotal and perianal hairs did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.302 and P = 0.227, respectively). The difference in the lifetime-cumulative sun exposure is the most likely explanation for the differences obtained on beta-HPV prevalence. Beta-HPV genotype HPV-38 was detected most frequently, followed by HPV-36, HPV-15, and HPV-14D. In addition to the beta-HPV recognized officially five partial DNA sequences suggesting putative new HPV genotypes were identified. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Comparison of two sampling techniques to assess quantity and distribution of Malassezia yeasts on the skin of Basset Hounds.

    PubMed

    Bensignor, E; Jankowski, F; Seewald, W; Touati, F; Deville, M; Guillot, J

    2002-10-01

    Cytological examination using the tape-strip technique and fungal culture using contact plates with modified Dixon's medium were compared to evaluate the carriage of Malassezia yeasts on four cutaneous sites (left pinna, umbilical region, axilla and perianal area) in adult Basset Hounds. Twenty animals were included in the study. High numbers of Malassezia were isolated from at least one area in 100% of the animals. The frequencies of isolation and population sizes differed significantly according to anatomical location. They were greater on the pinna, followed by the umbilical area, axilla and perianal area. Fungal culture was more sensitive than cytology for the isolation of Malassezia yeasts. Frequencies of isolation were greater using this method, but population sizes were constantly smaller than with cytology.

  19. Preservation of anal function after total excision of the anal mucosa for Bowen's disease.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, V H; Madden, J J; Franklin, J D; Burnett, L S; Jones, H W; Lynch, J B

    1984-05-01

    Six women with Bowen's disease of the anogenital area were treated by total excision of the anal mucosa, perianal skin and, in some cases, partial vulvectomy. Two patients had foci of microinvasive squamous carcinoma. Adequate tumor margins were determined by frozen sections. The resulting mucosal and cutaneous defects were grafted with medium split-thickness skin grafts applied to the anal canal and sutured circumferentially to the rectal mucosa. Grafts were held in place by a finger cot inserted in the anal canal and stuffed with cotton balls. Patients were constipated five or six days with codeine. The skin grafts healed per primam. One additional patient was similarly treated for a chronic herpetic ulceration of the anus and healed. Contrary to dire predictions, all patients were able to distinguish between gaseous and solid rectal contents and sphincter function was preserved. In one patient, Bowen's disease has recurred in the grafted perianal skin.

  20. Fistulizing Crohn’s disease: Diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Gecse, Krisztina; Khanna, Reena; Stoker, Jaap; Jenkins, John T; Gabe, Simon; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Fistulizing Crohn’s disease represents an evolving, yet unresolved, issue for multidisciplinary management. Perianal fistulas are the most frequent findings in fistulizing Crohn’s disease. While enterocutaneous fistulas are rare, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Detailed evaluation of the fistula tract by advanced imaging techniques is required to determine the most suitable management options. The fundamentals of perianal fistula management are to evaluate the complexity of the fistula tract, and exclude proctitis and associated abscess. The main goals of the treatment are abscess drainage, which is mandatory, before initiating immunosuppressive medical therapy, resolution of fistula discharge, preservation of continence and, in the long term, avoidance of proctectomy with permanent stoma. The management of enterocutaneous fistulas comprises of sepsis control, skin care, nutritional optimization and, if needed, delayed surgery. PMID:24917961

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Esplin, D G; Wilson, S R; Hullinger, G A

    2003-05-01

    Tumors of the perianal area of dogs are common and include multiple tumor types. Whereas perianal adenomas occur often, adenocarcinomas of the apocrine glands of the anal sac occur less frequently. A review of the literature revealed no reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising from the epithelial lining of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinomas originating from the lining of the anal sac were diagnosed in five dogs. Microscopically, the tumors consisted of variably sized invasive nests and cords of epithelial cells displaying squamous differentiation. Four of the five dogs were euthanatized because of problems associated with local infiltration by the tumors. In the fifth dog, there was no evidence of tumor 7 months after surgical removal, but further follow up was not available.

  2. Fistulizing Crohn's disease: Diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Gecse, Krisztina; Khanna, Reena; Stoker, Jaap; Jenkins, John T; Gabe, Simon; Hahnloser, Dieter; D'Haens, Geert

    2013-06-01

    Fistulizing Crohn's disease represents an evolving, yet unresolved, issue for multidisciplinary management. Perianal fistulas are the most frequent findings in fistulizing Crohn's disease. While enterocutaneous fistulas are rare, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Detailed evaluation of the fistula tract by advanced imaging techniques is required to determine the most suitable management options. The fundamentals of perianal fistula management are to evaluate the complexity of the fistula tract, and exclude proctitis and associated abscess. The main goals of the treatment are abscess drainage, which is mandatory, before initiating immunosuppressive medical therapy, resolution of fistula discharge, preservation of continence and, in the long term, avoidance of proctectomy with permanent stoma. The management of enterocutaneous fistulas comprises of sepsis control, skin care, nutritional optimization and, if needed, delayed surgery.

  3. [A severe epicutaneous test reaction to the bufexamac in a hemorrhoidal therapeutic preparation].

    PubMed

    Bauer, A; Greif, C; Gebhardt, M; Elsner, P

    1999-10-08

    A 49-year-old woman presented with acute perianal vesicular/bullous contact dermatitis. Other areas were over the trunk, face, neck and wrists. She reported occasional application of an ointment (Mastu S) to treat her hemorrhoids. Patch tests (basic series, anal block, own ointment, local anesthetic, cosmetics) provoked strong vesicular and bullous reactions of persisting crescendo type, spreading far beyond the site of application, to Bufexamac, to a derivative of hydroxxamine acid, and to local applied ointment with mild or moderate antiinflammatory action. A week after the patch tests there was a flare-up of the previous foci of dermatitis. These reactions subsided two days later after intravenous injection of prednisolone. The skin lesions healed after rapid reduction of the systemic treatment and local application of corticosteroids, bathing with tanning substances and basic preparations. While Bufexamac is not absorbed when applied rectally, perianal contamination may not be avoidable on intra-anal application and can produce sensitization.

  4. Chronic arthritis of the hip joint: an unusual complication of an inadequately treated fistula-in-ano

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Rajat; Varghese, Gigi; Simon, Betty

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of chronic arthritis of the right hip joint in an otherwise healthy young male athlete as a complication of inadequately treated anal fistula. A young male athlete presented with symptoms of right hip pain and difficulty in walking and intermittent fever for 2 months. He had a history of perianal abscess drainage. On examination he was found to have a tender right hip joint with severe restriction of movements. He was also found to have a partially drained right ischiorectal abscess. X-ray and MRI of the hip joint revealed chronic arthritis of the right hip joint, which was communicating with a complex fistula-in-ano. He underwent a diversion sigmoid colostomy and right ischiorectal abscess drainage along with appropriate antibiotics with a plan for definitive hip joint procedure later. He was lost to follow-up and succumbed to severe perianal sepsis within a few months. PMID:25414226

  5. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in a patient with infantile systemic hyalinosis syndrome: a rare cause of protein-losing enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Alreheili, Khalid; AlMehaidib, Ali; Alsaleem, Khalid; Banemi, Mohammad; Aldekhail, Wajeeh; Al-Mayouf, Sulaiman M

    2012-01-01

    Infantile systemic hyalinosis (ISH) is a rare autosomal recessive disease. Typically, ISH patients present with progressive painful joint contractures, intractable diarrhea, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and peri-anal fleshy nodules. We report a case of a 19-month-old male child with atypical ISH presentation. His main clinical finding was protein-losing enteropathy due to intestinal lymphangectasia. This report is intended to enhance awareness about the gastrointestinal tract presentation of ISH.

  6. Evolution of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Genes and Neutralizing Antibody Response in an Individual with Broadly Cross Neutralizing Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-31

    genital fluids HIV -1 infected cells are present in more substantial numbers than free virus, and the former may account for the majority of...Severe acquired immunodeficiency in male homosexuals, manifested by chronic perianal ulcerative herpes simplex lesions. N Engl J Med 1981 , 305:1439...1994,179:463-472. 59. Miller CJ: Localization of Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in the genital tract of male and female Rhesus macaques. J

  7. [Efficacy of infliximab in the treatment of korean patients with crohns disease].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sai Hui; Yang, Suk; Kim, Kyung Jo; Kim, Eun Hee; Yoon, Soon Man; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong Sik; Myung, Seung Jae; Kim, Jin Ho

    2009-08-01

    Infliximab has been proven to be effective for refractory luminal and fistulizing Crohns disease (CD). We performed this study to demonstrate the efficacy of infliximab in Korean CD patients. Medical records of 40 CD patients who had been treated with infliximab were reviewed retrospectively. Among 40 patients, 11 (27.5%) patients were treated for refractory luminal disease, 14 (35%) for fistulizing disease, and 15 (37.5%) for both types. Clinical response rate was higher in 26 patients with refractory luminal disease (Complete response (CR), 73.1%; Partial response (PR), 23.1%) than in 29 patients with fistulizing disease (CR, 41.4%; PR, 31%) (p=0.024). The clinical response rate tended to be higher in 28 patients with external fistulas (CR, 46.4%; PR, 32.2%) than 4 patients with internal fistulas (PR, 25%; NR, 75%) (p=0.064). Among patients with external fistulas, the response rate of 8 patients with enterocutaneous fistulas (CR, 50%; PR, 12.5%) was not different from 20 patients with perianal fistulas (CR, 45%; PR, 40%). Among 20 patients with perianal fistulas, the response rate of 6 patients with perianal fistulas without a history of operation (CR, 83.3%; PR, 0%) was higher than 14 patients with perianal fistulas resistant to previous surgical treatment (CR, 28.6%; PR, 57.1%) (p=0.044). As for adverse reaction, 7 patients experienced mild infusion reaction, and 2 patients developed serious infection. Infliximab is more effective for refractory luminal disease than for fistulizing disease. In addition, clinical responses to infliximab are different according to subtypes of fistulas. These findings should be considered for the proper use of infliximab.

  8. Anal sac adenocarcinoma in a Siamese cat.

    PubMed

    Mellanby, R J; Foale, R; Friend, E; Woodger, N; Herrtage, M E; Dobson, J D

    2002-12-01

    A 12-year-old male neutered Siamese cat presented with a history of inappetance and lethargy and an enlarged left anal sac. The anal sac was surgically excised and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of anal sac adenocarcinoma. Perianal tumours are rare in the cat and anal sac adenocarcinoma has not been previously reported. This is in contrast to the dog where anal sac adenocarcinoma is a well recognised albeit uncommon tumour.

  9. Silicone rubber band treatment of rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Jackaman, F R; Francis, J N; Hopkinson, B R

    1980-09-01

    Fifty-two patients with rectal prolapse have been treated by the silicone rubber band perianal suture technique and satisfactory results have been obtained in 46 (89%). Eleven patients required reoperation to achieve this result. The procedure is a minor one, with little morbidity and no mortality. Provided that faecal impaction can be avoided in patients having this operation a successful outcome, can be expected. It is recommended especially for the frail and elderly with rectal prolapse.

  10. Relationship between red vent syndrome and anisakid larvae burden in wild atlantic salmon (salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Larrat, Sylvain; Bouchard, Francis; Séguin, Guylaine; Lair, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    The pathogenesis of the recently recognized "red vent syndrome" in wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is not fully understood. Pathologic observations indicate that this syndrome is associated with the presence of nonencapsulated larvae of the nematode Anisakis simplex in the body wall, the lower intestinal wall, and the visceral cavity surrounding the vent region. We evaluated the relationship between the occurrence of red vent syndrome and intensity of infection with Anisakis sp. larvae in naturally infected fish. Salmon caught by sport anglers were opportunistically evaluated to detect red vent syndrome. We included 106 salmon with red vent syndrome and 98 without red vent syndrome in this study. Intensity of infection was established by counting the total number of perivisceral larvae and by determining the number of larvae per gram in 10 g of pepsin-digested perianal tissue. The severity of inflammatory changes was also evaluated in standard histologic sections of the perianal area using a semiquantitative scale. Salmon with red vent syndrome had significantly higher intensity of inflammation than salmon without red vent syndrome (P=0.008). The odds of having red vent syndrome increased with the number of perianal larvae per gram of perianal tissue (P=0.002; odds ratio [OR]=1.12; 95% confidence interval: [1.05; 1.22]) but not with the number of perivisceral larvae, fish length, or gender. Although these results support the association between this syndrome and intensity of infection by A. simplex, the relationship is not strong (OR near 1), suggesting that the clinical expression of red vent syndrome at an individual level, and the emergence of this disease on a global scale, must be determined by other factors, such as timing of infection.

  11. People’s Republic of China Scientific Abstracts, Number 159

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-14

    Sciences TITLE: "Early Mesozoic Ostracods From Some Localities in Southwest China" SOURCE: Peking KU-SHENG-WU HSUEH-PAO [ACTA PAIAEONTOLOGICA SINICA] in...analysis of 202 cases treated between 1971-1974 was made. The operative procedure was described in detail. Low sacral or local perianal anesthesia...made. During operation, anal skin bridges were preserved between the dissections. After operation long acting anesthetic compound was injected on the

  12. Disagreement in high-grade/low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and high-risk/low-risk HPV infection: clinical implications for anal cancer precursor lesions in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.

    PubMed

    Pimenoff, V N; Félez-Sánchez, M; Tous, S; Clavero, O; Godínez, J M; Klaustermeier, J; Saunier, M; Molijn, A; Alemany, L; Quint, W; Bosch, F X; de Sanjosé, S; McCloskey, J; Bravo, I G

    2015-06-01

    Anal condylomata are common in HIV-positive individuals and among men who have sex with men (MSM). Generally attributable to infection by low-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), condylomata are considered benign low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). However, anal condylomata have occasionally been linked to high-grade SIL and to oncogenic, high-risk HPVs. Here we describe the range of intraepithelial lesions and of the associated HPVs in heterosexual men and women and MSM. Perianal and anal condylomata were collected from 243 patients (56 heterosexual women, 61 heterosexual men and 126 MSM, including 41 HIV-positive MSM). We assessed lesion histology and HPV genotype. Prevalence estimates and Poisson models were used. Irrespective of HIV infection status, MSM showed a higher proportion of condylomata as high-grade SILs compared to heterosexual men/women. High-grade SILs were also more prevalent in anal than in perianal lesions in all patient groups. HIV-positive MSM exhibited increased prevalence ratio (4.6; 95% confidence interval 2.1-10.0) of perianal low-grade SILs containing only high-risk HPVs compared to HIV-negative MSM. In addition, more than 64% of anal SILs with a high-grade component, regardless of HIV infection, were exclusively associated with low-risk HPVs. In anal condylomata, both high-grade and low-grade SILs can be associated with high-risk and/or low-risk HPVs. Particularly, low-grade perianal SILs associated with high-risk HPVs were common in HIV-positive MSM, while presence of only low-risk HPVs in high-grade SILs were common in both MSM groups. Our findings sound a note of caution for the common clinical practice for the treatment of anal condylomata as benign lesions in MSM and HIV-positive patients. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the early use of immunomodulators or TNF antagonists on bowel damage and surgery in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Safroneeva, E; Vavricka, S R; Fournier, N; Pittet, V; Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Straumann, A; Rogler, G; Schoepfer, A M

    2015-10-01

    The impact of early treatment with immunomodulators (IM) and/or TNF antagonists on bowel damage in Crohn's disease (CD) patients is unknown. To assess whether 'early treatment' with IM and/or TNF antagonists, defined as treatment within a 2-year period from the date of CD diagnosis, was associated with development of lesser number of disease complications when compared to 'late treatment', which was defined as treatment initiation after >2 years from the time of CD diagnosis. Data from the Swiss IBD Cohort Study were analysed. The following outcomes were assessed using Cox proportional hazard modelling: bowel strictures, perianal fistulas, internal fistulas, intestinal surgery, perianal surgery and any of the aforementioned complications. The 'early treatment' group of 292 CD patients was compared to the 'late treatment' group of 248 CD patients. We found that 'early treatment' with IM or TNF antagonists alone was associated with reduced risk of bowel strictures [hazard ratio (HR) 0.496, P = 0.004 for IM; HR 0.276, P = 0.018 for TNF antagonists]. Furthermore, 'early treatment' with IM was associated with reduced risk of undergoing intestinal surgery (HR 0.322, P = 0.005), and perianal surgery (HR 0.361, P = 0.042), as well as developing any complication (HR 0.567, P = 0.006). Treatment with immunomodulators or TNF antagonists within the first 2 years of CD diagnosis was associated with reduced risk of developing bowel strictures, when compared to initiating these drugs >2 years after diagnosis. Furthermore, early immunomodulators treatment was associated with reduced risk of intestinal surgery, perianal surgery and any complication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ulcerative colitis presenting as leukocytoclastic vasculitis of skin.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sabiye; Ozaslan, Ersan; Topal, Firdevs; Albayrak, Levent; Kayhan, Burcak; Efe, Cumali

    2008-04-21

    A number of cutaneous changes are known to occur in the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum, perianal disease, erythematous eruptions, urticaria, and purpura. However, occurrence of skin manifestations prior to the development of ulcerative colitis is a rare occasion. Here, we report a case of ulcerative colitis associated with leukocytoclastic vasculitis in which the intestinal symptoms became overt 8 mo after the development of skin lesions.

  15. Silicone rubber band treatment of rectal prolapse.

    PubMed Central

    Jackaman, F. R.; Francis, J. N.; Hopkinson, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with rectal prolapse have been treated by the silicone rubber band perianal suture technique and satisfactory results have been obtained in 46 (89%). Eleven patients required reoperation to achieve this result. The procedure is a minor one, with little morbidity and no mortality. Provided that faecal impaction can be avoided in patients having this operation a successful outcome, can be expected. It is recommended especially for the frail and elderly with rectal prolapse. PMID:7002011

  16. Comparison of different local anesthesia techniques during TRUS-guided biopsies: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kravchick, Sergey; Peled, Ronit; Ben-Dor, David; Dorfman, Dov; Kesari, David; Cytron, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    To introduce two forms of anesthesia and compare them with standard local anesthesia techniques. A total of 114 consecutive patients underwent prostate needle biopsy. The patients were sequentially randomized to receive different kinds of anesthesia: 2% rectal lidocaine gel, 40% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with lidocaine, perianal injection of 1% lidocaine, or periprostatic nerve block. Pain perception was separately assessed for probe insertion and biopsies using a visual pain analog score. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the data scale among the four groups. A linear regression model was used to define the independent variables that predicted the level of pain. The groups were similar in terms of age, prostate-specific antigen levels, digital rectal examination findings, prostate volume, pain tolerance, biopsy time, and number of cores taken. The lowest pain scores for probe insertion were for the perianal injection and DMSO/lidocaine groups (0.89 and 1.38, respectively). The difference between these scores and those for the other two groups was statistically significant (P <0.001). Pain perception during biopsy did not differ significantly among the DMSO/lidocaine, perianal, or periprostatic groups and was greatest in the lidocaine gel group (4.147; P <0.001). We did not observe any statistically significant correlation between the pain level during probe insertion and biopsy and pain tolerance (P = 0.514 and P = 0.788, respectively). The anesthesia type was the strongest single predictor of the pain level during biopsy (P <0.001). The use of 40% DMSO with lidocaine instilled into the rectal vault for 10 minutes avoids any need for injection and is capable of decreasing the discomfort or pain experienced during probe insertion and prostate biopsy comparable to the perianal and periprostatic protocols.

  17. An unusual encounter of an epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sritharan, Kaji; Ghani, Yaser; Thompson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are extremely common and can occur in any hair-containing area. We present the case of a 20-year-old man with an epidermoid cyst in the perianal region. Epidermal cysts have been described in this area previously after haemorrhoidectomy, but cysts of the size seen in this case are rare in the absence of previous anal trauma. The diagnosis was confirmed by excision biopsy. PMID:24825558

  18. Intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy for anorectal Crohn's disease results in early and severe proximal colonic recurrence.

    PubMed

    de Buck van Overstraeten, Anthony; Wolthuis, Albert M; Vermeire, Séverine; Van Assche, Gert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Penninckx, Freddy; D'Hoore, André

    2013-07-01

    Perianal Crohn's disease (CD) represents a more aggressive phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease and often coincides with proctocolitis. This study aims to assess the outcome of patients undergoing proctectomy with end-colostomy. A retrospective outcome analysis of 10 consecutive patients who underwent intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy between February 2007 and May 2011 was performed. All patients suffered from refractory distal and perianal CD. The proximal colon was normal at endoscopy. All data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. The main outcome parameter was disease recurrence and need for completion colectomy. Severe and early endoscopic recurrence in the proximal colon occurred in 9/10 patients at a median time interval of 9.5 months (range: 1.9-23.6 months). Despite protracted medical treatment, completion colectomy was necessary in 5 patients. One patient, who underwent a second segmental colectomy with a new end-colostomy, showed again endoscopic recurrence and is currently treated with anti-TNF agents. Intersphincteric proctectomy with colostomy seems to be an ineffective surgery for perianal CD with coexisting proctitis and results in a high risk of recurrence of the disease in the remaining colon. Therefore, despite a normal appearance of the proximal colon, a proctocolectomy with end-ileostomy seems to be the surgical approach of choice in these patients. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Combining Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) in the pre- and per-operating management of severe Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS).

    PubMed

    Derruau, Stéphane; Renard, Yohann; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Abdi, Ellie; Polidori, Guillaume; Lorimier, Sandrine

    2018-05-12

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory, and recurrent skin disease. Surgical excision of wounds appears to be the only curative treatment for the prevention of recurrence of moderate to severe stages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a standard reference examination for the detection of HS peri-anal inflammatory fistula. In this case study, the use of real-time medical infrared thermography, in combination with MRI as appropriate imaging, is proposed. The aim is to assist surgeons in the pre- and peri-surgical management of severe perianal hidradenitis suppurativa with the intent to ensure that all diseased lesions were removed during surgery and therefore to limit recurrence. The results show that medical infrared thermography (MIT), coupled with MRI, could be highly effective strategy to address thermally distinguished health tissues and inflammatory sites during excision, as characterised by differential increases in temperature. Medical infrared thermography could be used to check the total excision of inflammatory lesions as a noninvasive method that is not painful, not radiant, and is easily transportable during surgery. Ultimately, this method could be complementary with MRI in providing clinicians with objective data on the status of tissues below the perianal skin surface in the pre- and per-operating management of severe hidradenitis suppurativa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of infrared thermography to detect the stages of estrus cycle and ovulation time in anatolian shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Olğaç, Kemal Tuna; Akçay, Ergun; Çil, Beste; Uçar, Burak Mehmet; Daşkın, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of thermographic monitoring, using the temperature changes of perianal and perivulvar areas for the determination of estrus in Anatolian Shepherd bitches. Fifteen bitches were used in the study. Blood and vaginal smear samples were collected and thermographic monitoring of perianal and perivulvar areas were carried out starting from proestrus to early diestrus. Also, external signs of estrus were investigated. Smear samples were evaluated by light microscopy after Diff-Quik staining method and superficial and keratinized superficial cells were determined as percentage (S + KS%). Progesterone and luteinizing hormone measurements were done by radioimmunoassay. The difference in temperature between perianal and perivulvar areas was evaluated through thermographic images by FLIR ResearchIR Software. According to the results obtained from the study, differences between progesterone and S + KS% were statistically significant ( P  < 0,05). Although temperature showed increase and decrease with progesterone and S + KS%, the differences were not important statistically ( P  > 0,05). Serum luteinizing hormone levels did not sign any difference ( P  > 0,05). As a result, thermographic monitoring alone is not enough for estrus detection in Anatolian Shepherd bitches. However, it can be used to assist the actual estrus detection technique in terms of providing some foreknowledge by evaluating the differences in temperature.

  1. Effect of phenotype on health care costs in Crohn's disease: A European study using the Montreal classification.

    PubMed

    Odes, Selwyn; Vardi, Hillel; Friger, Michael; Wolters, Frank; Hoie, Ole; Moum, Bjørn; Bernklev, Tomm; Yona, Hagit; Russel, Maurice; Munkholm, Pia; Langholz, Ebbe; Riis, Lene; Politi, Patrizia; Bondini, Paolo; Tsianos, Epameinondas; Katsanos, Kostas; Clofent, Juan; Vermeire, Severine; Freitas, João; Mouzas, Iannis; Limonard, Charles; O'Morain, Colm; Monteiro, Estela; Fornaciari, Giovanni; Vatn, Morten; Stockbrugger, Reinhold

    2007-12-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract associated with life-long high health care costs. We aimed to determine the effect of disease phenotype on cost. Clinical and economic data of a community-based CD cohort with 10-year follow-up were analyzed retrospectively in relation to Montreal classification phenotypes. In 418 patients, mean total costs of health care for the behavior phenotypes were: nonstricturing-nonpenetrating 1690, stricturing 2081, penetrating 3133 and penetrating-with-perianal-fistula 3356 €/patient-phenotype-year (P<0.001), and mean costs of surgical hospitalization 215, 751, 1293 and 1275 €/patient-phenotype-year respectively (P<0.001). Penetrating-with-perianal-fistula patients incurred significantly greater expenses than penetrating patients for total care, diagnosis and drugs, but not surgical hospitalization. Total costs were similar in the location phenotypes: ileum 1893, colon 1748, ileo-colonic 2010 and upper gastrointestinal tract 1758 €/patient-phenotype-year, but surgical hospitalization costs differed significantly, 558, 209, 492 and 542 €/patient-phenotype-year respectively (P<0.001). By multivariate analysis, the behavior phenotype significantly impacted total, medical and surgical hospitalization costs, whereas the location phenotype affected only surgical costs. Younger age at diagnosis predicted greater surgical expenses. Behavior is the dominant phenotype driving health care cost. Use of the Montreal classification permits detection of cost differences caused by perianal fistula.

  2. Prevalence of adverse food reactions in 130 dogs in Italy with dermatological signs: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, D; Perego, R; Spada, E; Ferro, E

    2010-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of adverse food reactions (AFRs) in dogs with dermatological signs presented to the referral dermatological clinic of the University of Milan. The medical records of dogs with dermatological signs were reviewed. Prevalence of AFRs was calculated. Owner and clinician pruritus scores were compared. Breed, sex and age predisposition were statistically tested, as was the association between AFR and selected clinical features. The prevalence of AFRs in dogs with dermatological signs was 12% (16 of 130). AFR was diagnosed in 26% of dogs with allergic disease and 48% of those subjected to a dietary trial. There was a significant association between AFRs and early onset of clinical signs (< 1 year) (OR=3.8; P=0.0221, 95% CI=1.27 to 11.16). There was a significant association between AFRs and both otitis externa (OR=5.9; P=0.0015, 95% CI=2 to 17.9) and perianal fistula (OR=26.1; P=0.0058, 95% CI=2.52 to 269.4), although all dogs with perianal fistulas were German shepherd dogs. The prevalence of AFRs in the study population was higher than most reported values. Further studies are warranted to investigate the true prevalence of AFR and its possible association with perianal fistula and other potential markers.

  3. Possible etiologic heterogeneity of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. A correlation of pathologic characteristics with human papillomavirus detection by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Park, J S; Jones, R W; McLean, M R; Currie, J L; Woodruff, J D; Shah, K V; Kurman, R J

    1991-03-15

    A correlated histopathologic and molecular virologic study of 30 cases of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 3 (VIN 3) and six associated invasive vulvar carcinomas was performed. Paraffin sections were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 by in situ hybridization for viral transcripts and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of HPV and of the beta-globin gene. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 3 was histologically subclassified into warty (bowenoid) (20 cases) and basaloid (undifferentiated) (ten cases) types. Warty VIN characteristically was composed of squamous cells displaying abnormal proliferation and maturation and an undulating or spiked surface creating a "condylomatous" appearance whereas basaloid VIN had a smooth surface and was composed of undifferentiated basaloid cells resembling carcinoma in situ of the cervix. Human papillomavirus-16 was the only type detected in 16 of 30 VIN 3 and in five of six invasive carcinomas. The HPV-positive women were younger than HPV-negative women (mean age at diagnosis, 49 versus 60 years), their lesions more frequently demonstrated koilocytotic atypia (94% versus 43%), and they were more likely to have warty compared with basaloid VIN lesions (65% versus 30%). These findings suggest that there are at least two different types of VIN which have differing clinical, pathologic, and viral profiles.

  4. Human papillomavirus is associated with the frequent detection of warty and basaloid high-grade neoplasia of the vulva and cervical neoplasia among immunocompromised women.

    PubMed

    Petry, K U; Köchel, H; Bode, U; Schedel, I; Niesert, S; Glaubitz, M; Maschek, H; Kühnle, H

    1996-01-01

    A total of 158 women who either HIV-infected or under iatrogenic immunosuppression were examined regularly during a 4-year period to evaluate if certain vulvar neoplasms and cervical neoplasia have similar associated risk factors. Patients with CIN were matched prospectively with immunocompetent controls with CIN. Forty-eight cervical lesions were detected among patients, including 2 invasive carcinoma and 15 CIN-3 lesions, compared to 11 vulvar lesions, including 2 invasive carcinoma and 7 VIN-3 lesions. Women who have more than five life-time partners were more likely to have HPV-DNA positive cervical swabs and vulvar scrapes as well as cervical and/or vulvar neoplasia. Compared to 2.7% of controls 15.2% of patients with CIN had coexisting high-grade lesions of the vulva. With 1 exception all patients with vulvar neoplasia either suffered from symptomatic immunodeficiency or received immunosuppressive drugs for more than 10 years. Except for 1 VIN-3 lesions, all vulvar neoplasms were associated with HPV-DNA types 16, 31, and/or 33. Six of nine patients as well as the 2 controls with coexisting vulvar and cervical neoplasia had the same HPV-type associated with both lesions. All vulvar lesions were classified as either "warty" or "basaloid". In conclusion cervical and bowenoid/basaloid vulvar neoplasia seem to have a similar HPV-related genesis. Malfunction of the cellular immune response appears to be a cofactor in the genesis of HPV-associated neoplasia at both sites.

  5. Occupational risk and the development of premalignant skin lesions among paraquat manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Wang, J D; Li, W E; Hu, F C; Hu, K H

    1987-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate and possible aetiological factors of premalignant skin lesions observed among paraquat manufacturers. A total of 228 workers in 28 factories were interviewed and independently examined by a dermatologist during site inspection in 1985. Information concerning past working experience, current toxic exposures, other risk factors of hyperpigmented macules and keratosis, and the past and present manufacturing processes of each factory was collected. Sixty nine cases of hyperpigmented macules and 17 of hyperkeratosis were found. Typical macules were irregular in shape, pin head size, hyperpigmented, with or without hyperkeratosis, and usually distributed symmetrically over the forearms, hands, neck, and upper chest, where exposure to sunlight was maximal. Six patients with hyperkeratotic lesions subsequently had biopsies performed and two showed Bowenoid changes. Eighty per cent (28 cases) and 67% (38 cases) of workers developed hyperpigmented macules if they had ever been engaged in bipyridine centrifugation and crystallisation, respectively; there were three workers 3% with such lesions among those who performed packaging or administrative jobs, or both. There was a significant trend (p less than 0.0001) for workers to develop hyperpigmented macules and hyperkeratosis the longer they had been exposed to centrifugation or crystallisation, or both, independent of age and the duration of exposure to sunlight. Evidence is presented to suggest that sunlight is a necessary cofactor and that the aetiological agent was produced during high temperature sodium process of bipyridine synthesis, and possibly bipyridine isomer(s).

  6. Comparative study of pagetoid dyskeratosis between acrochordons and soft fibromas.

    PubMed

    Piqué-Duran, Enric; Palacios-Llopis, Santiago; Moreno-Ramis, Pedro; Pérez-Cejudo, Juan A; Martínez-Martín, Ma Sol

    2006-12-01

    Pagetoid dyskeratosis (PD) is considered a casual finding. We can find it in some conditions, including acrochordons and soft fibromas. (1) to compare the presence of PD in soft fibromas and acrochordons and (2) to compare PD positive fibromas and PD negative fibromas. We reviewed all acrochordons and soft fibromas diagnosed in the General Hospital of Lanzarote, Spain, between January 2001 and December 2002. We assessed the presence of PD, size, acanthosis, basal pigmentation, and the presence of pseudohorn cysts. Three hundred sixty one acrochordons and 164 soft fibromas were included in this study. There were striking differences in the presence of PD, size, acanthosis, and basal pigmentation between both entities. PD positive fibromas predominated in axillas. There were no other differences between PD positive fibromas and PD negative fibromas. Although soft fibromas and acrochordons are actually fibroepithelial polyps, including the presence of PD, there are striking differences between them. Thus, both conditions have to be considered as different entities. PD could be related to friction and moisture. PD has to be distinguished from other conditions such as Paget's disease, pagetoid melanoma, koilocytes, clear cell papulosis, among others.

  7. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Kaya Akis, Havva

    2014-01-01

    Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.” PMID:25243162

  8. Primary cutaneous CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma involving the epidermis and subcutis in a young child.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

    2015-04-01

    CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma involving the skin represents a heterogeneous group of diseases that include subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, primary cutaneous aggressive epidermotropic CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma, and 'type D' lymphomatoid papulosis. In this report, we describe a case of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma involving both the epidermis and subcutis. The patient was a 6-year-old girl who presented with a 3-year history of multiple plaques on her trunk and legs. The lesions had relapsed twice but responded well to prednisone. Histopathologic examination showed the proliferation of atypical lymphocytes in the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. On immunohistochemical analysis, the atypical lymphocytes were positive for βF1, CD3, CD8, perforin, granzyme B and TIA-1, but negative for T-cell receptor (TCR) γ, CD4, CD30 and CD56. It was difficult to classify this tumor in terms of the known types of cutaneous lymphoma, and this case should be differentiated with subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma and primary cutaneous aggressive epidermotropic CD8+ T-cell lymphoma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Methotrexate for topical application in an extemporaneous preparation.

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Michael, Julia; Naumann, Sandy

    2015-09-01

    The antifolate agent methotrexate is routinely used for systemic therapy of cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases. Successful topical use has been described for individual therapeutic attempts, in case series, and small studies, especially for mycosis fungoides (premycotic stage) and lymphomatoid papulosis. With respect to its clinical use in selected treatment scenarios, there have been no approved preparations or regulated instructions for pharmaceutical compounding. Two high performance liquid chromatography methods were established for the determination of the active substance within a galenic formulation as well as within extracts of biological material. Suitable vehicles for epicutaneous application were developed and preclinically tested for stability, release, and pharmacokinetics of the active substance as well as their safety. The tests show that methotrexate may be readily incorporated into "Basiscreme DAC". It remains stable up to a concentration of 0.5%. This preparation releases enough active substance to achieve relevant local bioavailability in the respective target compartments of the skin. There is no evidence of safety risks due to relevant systemic bioavailability after topical application on a limited area of the skin. In summary, this approved prescription for extemporaneous preparation complies with the requirements of the German Ordinance on the Operation of Pharmacies (Article 7 ApBetrO), and the available data proves its stability and pharmaceutical quality. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Haemorrhoids and anal fissures during pregnancy and after childbirth: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Poskus, T; Buzinskienė, D; Drasutiene, G; Samalavicius, N E; Barkus, A; Barisauskiene, A; Tutkuviene, J; Sakalauskaite, I; Drasutis, J; Jasulaitis, A; Jakaitiene, A

    2014-12-01

    To identify the incidence and risk factors of haemorrhoids and fissures during pregnancy and after childbirth. Prospective observational cohort study. University hospital and outpatient clinics in Lithuania. A total of 280 pregnant women followed up until 1 month after delivery. Women were examined four times through pregnancy and after delivery; those that developed peri-anal diseases were compared with those that did not. Incidence, time and risk factors of haemorrhoids and fissures. In all, 123 (43.9%) women developed peri-anal disease: 1.6% in the first trimester, 61% during the third trimester, 34.1% after delivery and 3.3% 1 month after delivery; 114 (40.7%) women were diagnosed with haemorrhoids, seven (2.5%) with haemorrhoids and anal fissure and two (0.71%) with anal fissure. Ninety-nine (80.5%) women had vaginal delivery and 24 (19.5%) women had undergone caesarean section. Multivariate analysis identified personal history of peri-anal diseases (odds ratio [OR] 11.93; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.18-65.30), constipation (OR 18.98; 95% CI 7.13-50.54), straining during delivery for more than 20 minutes (OR 29.75; 95% CI 4.00-221.23) and birthweight of newborn>3800 g (OR 17.99; 95% CI 3.29-98.49) as significant predictors of haemorrhoids and anal fissures during pregnancy and perinatal period. Haemorrhoids and fissures are common during the last trimester of pregnancy and 1 month after delivery, with constipation, personal history of haemorrhoids or fissures, birthweight of newborn>3800 g, straining during delivery for more than 20 minutes being independently associated risk factors. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. [Effectiveness of contemporary injection of botulinum toxin and topical application of glyceryl trinitrate against postoperative pain after Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy].

    PubMed

    Patti, Rosalia; Angileri, Mariangela; Migliore, Giovanni; Sammartano, Sergio; Termine, Stefania; Crivello, Floriana; Gioè, Franco Paolo; Di Vita, Gaetano

    2006-01-01

    After haemorrhoidectomy the maximum resting pressure (MRP) of the anal canal is significantly increased. This increase play an important role in the making of postoperative pain. Recently, both the topical application of glyceryl trinitrate (GT) and the intrasphincter injection of botulinum toxin (Tox), resulted effective, in reducing temporary the MRP although with different mechanism of action. In this study the effectiveness and safe of contemporary injection of Tox and topical application of 300 mg/die of GT after Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy, were evaluated. Ten patients, undergoing Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy for 3rd and 4th degree haemorrhoids are included in this study. In all subjects, preoperatively and after 5 and 40 day following surgery, an ano-rectal manometry was performed. At the end of surgery, in all patients, 0.4 ml of solution containing 20UI of Tox was injected and 100 mg of 0.2% of GT was applied in the anal canal and in the perianal wounds. Afterwards the patients has been instructed to apply 100 mg of GT three times daily, for seven days. Time of perianal wounds healing, of first defecation, to return to work, of duration of surgery, of hospital stay, the complications, postoperative pain either on resting or during defecation, the analgesic consumption and side effects were recordered. On the 5th and 40th postoperative day, the MRP resulted significantly reduced as compared to preoperative values. Postoperative pain either on resting or during defecation was higher on the 1st assessment, afterwards it progressively decreased. Anal incontinence was observed only in two patients, whereas headache only in one case. The contemporary intrasphincter injection of Tox and perianal application of 300 mg/die of GT is safe and effective, with an incidence of complications similar to those detected when this drugs are given alone.

  12. Randomized single-blind clinical trial of intradermal methylene blue on pain reduction after open diathermy haemorrhoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Sim, H-L; Tan, K-Y

    2014-08-01

    Open haemorrhoidectomy has been associated with considerable postoperative pain and discomfort. Perianal intradermal injection of methylene blue has been shown to ablate perianal nerve endings and may bring about temporary pain relief after haemorrhoidectomy. We hypothesized that the administration of intradermal methylene blue would reduce postoperative pain during the initial period after surgery. A randomized, prospective, single-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Patients were randomized to intradermal injection at haemorrhoidectomy of either 4 ml 1% methylene blue and 16 ml 0.5% marcaine or of 16 ml 0.5% marcaine and 4 ml saline prior to surgical dissection. Patients were asked to fill in a pain diary with a visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measure was pain score and analgesic use. Secondary outcomes were complications. There were 37 patients in the methylene blue arm and 30 patients in the placebo arm. There were no statistically significant differences in the sex, type of haemorrhoid, number of haemorrhoids excised, duration of surgery or hospital stay. The mean pain scores were significantly lower and the use of paracetamol was also significantly less in the methylene blue group during the first three postoperative days. The risk ratio of acute urinary retention occurring when methylene blue was not used was 2.320 (95% CI 1.754-3.067). Other complication rates were not significantly different. Perianal intradermal injection of methylene blue was useful in reducing the initial postoperative pain of open haemorrhoidectomy. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Short communication: risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization among HIV patients at hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda K; Win, Mar Kyaw; Veeraraghavan, Meyyur A; Wong, Chia Siong; Chow, Angela L; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2013-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial pathogen that has become increasingly prominent in hospitals and the community. HIV-positive patients may be one of the most MRSA-susceptible populations because of their immunocompromised status. At the Communicable Disease Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, we implemented a universal MRSA screening program and performed a case-control study to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization among 294 HIV patients at admission from January 2009 to January 2010. Among 54 HIV-positive patients who were MRSA positive at hospital admission, 16 (29.6%) were positive at the nares/axilla/groin (NAG; one combined swab), 14 (25.9%) were NAG and perianal positive, 3 (5.6%) were NAG and throat positive, 10 (18.5%) were NAG, perianal, and throat positive, 6 (11.1%) were throat positive, and 5 (9.3%) were perianal positive. Upon multivariate analysis, we found that age [odds ratio (OR)=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.07, p=0.006] and CD4 count <200/μl within the past 6 months (OR=4.29, 95% CI: 1.83-10.06, p=0.001) were significant risk factors for MRSA colonization. We generated a receiver operating characteristic curve using these two variables and found that the area under the curve was 0.69, indicating that age and CD4 count <200/μl performed moderately well in discriminating between those with MRSA colonization and those without. The results of our study indicate that HIV patients of older age and reduced CD4 count may have increased risk of MRSA colonization. These risk factors may serve as indicators for cohorting or isolating HIV patients at hospital admission.

  14. Anorectal Complications During Neutropenic Period in Patients with Hematologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Solmaz, Soner; Korur, Aslı; Gereklioğlu, Çiğdem; Asma, Süheyl; Büyükkurt, Nurhilal; Kasar, Mutlu; Yeral, Mahmut; Kozanoğlu, İlknur; Boğa, Can; Ozdoğu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background Neutropenic patients are susceptible to any anorectal disease, and symptomatic anorectal disease afflicts 2–32% of oncology patients. Perianal infections are the most feared complication, considering the lack of natural defense against infectious microorganisms. When septic complications develop, the anorectal disease is potentially fatal, especially in neutropenic patients in whom mortality rates range between 11–57%. Although anorectal diseases are a frequent complication with potentially fatal outcomes among patients with hematologic diseases, sufficient data are not available in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anorectal complications developing during the neutropenic period in patients with hematologic diseases. Methods A total of 79 patients whose neutropenic period (absolute neutrophil count <500/mcL) continued for 7 days, or longer were included in the study. Results A total of 34 patients out of 79 (43%) were detected to develop anorectal complications, of them 6 (7.6%) developed an anorectal infection. The patients were characterized according to the hematological disease and its status (active or not), the type of treatment and the presence of a history of an anorectal pathology before the onset of the hematologic disease. Nineteen (24.1%) patients had the history of anorectal disturbances before diagnosis of the hematologic disease, and recurrence of an anorectal pathology was found in 14 out of 19 patients(73.7%). In addition, the overall mortality rate was higher among the patients who developed anorectal complications compared to another group (41.2% vs. 22.2%, p=0.059). Conclusion Anorectal pathology is a common complication with high recurrence rate in neutropenic patients. Perianal infections are important as they can cause life-threatening outcomes although they are relatively rare among all anorectal complications. Therefore perianal signs and symptoms should be meticulously evaluated concerning early

  15. Risk Factors for Hidradenitis Suppurativa in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Lukach, Alexis J; Saul, Melissa I; Ferris, Laura K; Swoger, Jason M

    2018-03-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by recurrent nodules, abscesses, and sinus tracts that can be debilitating and significantly impair quality of life. Small studies and case reports have suggested a possible association between HS and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed a case-control study to further characterize IBD patients with HS in terms of smoking status, BMI, sites affected by HS, IBD type and features, and IBD medication history. A total of 38 patients with HS and IBD were identified and matched on age, gender, and IBD type to 136 controls with IBD but not HS. Clinical characteristics of interest were obtained through extensive review of the electronic health record. Among patients with HS and IBD, the most common sites affected by HS were the inguinal, perianal, and axillary regions. Relative to patients with IBD alone, patients with HS and IBD were nearly six times more likely to be current smokers (p < 0.01) and nearly 11 times more likely to be obese (p < 0.01). Patients with HS and Crohn's were significantly more likely to have ileocolonic and perianal disease than patients with CD only (OR 8.31, 95% CI 2.90-23.80 and OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.19-6.81, respectively; p < 0.01 for both). Relative to patients with IBD who do not develop HS, patients with IBD and HS are more likely to be overweight or obese, to be former or current smokers, and to have ileocolonic and/or perianal disease.

  16. Clinical Features and Extraintestinal Manifestations of Crohn Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ah; Chun, Peter; Hwang, Eun Ha; Mun, Sang Wook; Lee, Yeoun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) of Crohn disease (CD) in Korean pediatric patients. Methods The medical records of 73 children diagnosed with CD were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, including CD phenotype at diagnosis based on the Montreal classification, and clinical features and course of EIMs were investigated. Results Fifty-two (71.2%) of the patients were males. The mean age of the patients was 12.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. The disease location was ileal in 3 (4.1%) of the patients, colonic in 13 (17.8%), ileocolonic in 56 (76.7%). The clinical behavior was inflammatory in 62 (84.9%) of the patients, stricturing in 8 (11.0%), and penetrating in 3 (4.1%). Perianal abscesses or fistulas were found in 37 (50.7%) of the patients. EIMs observed during the study period were anal skin tag in 25 patients (34.2%), hypertransaminasemia in 20 (27.4%), peripheral arthritis in 2 (2.7%), erythema nodosum in 2 (2.7%), vulvitis in 1 (1.4%), uveitis in 1 (1.4%), and pulmonary thromboembolism in 1 (1.4%). Conclusion Perianal diseases and manifestations were present in more than half of Korean pediatric CD patients at diagnosis. Inspection of the anus should be mandatory in Korean children with suspicious CD, as perianal fistulas, abscesses, and anal skin tags may be the first clue to the diagnosis of CD. PMID:28090468

  17. Emergence of rifampin-resistant staphylococci after rifaximin administration in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ji Young; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Tae Hun; Woo, So-Youn; Ryu, Min Sun; Joo, Yang-Hee; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Kang Hoon; Moon, Chang Mo; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae

    2017-01-01

    Rifaximin, a poorly absorbed antibiotics, has gut-specific therapeutic effects. Although frequently prescribed to manipulate intestinal luminal bacterial population in various diseases, the possible induction of antibacterial cross-resistance to a target pathogen is a major concern in long-term rifaximin administration. We aimed to evaluate whether rifampin-resistant staphylococci could evolve after rifaximin treatment in cirrhotic patients. A total of 25 cirrhotic patients who were administered rifaximin for the prevention of hepatic encephalopathy were enrolled. Swabs from both hands and the perianal skin were acquired on day 0 (before rifaximin treatment), period 1 (1-7 weeks after treatment), and period 2 (8-16 weeks after treatment) the staphylococcal strain identification and rifampin-resistance testing. A total of 198 staphylococcal isolates from 15 species were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated most frequently, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus was the most common resistant species both from hands and perianal skin. Eleven patients (44.0%) developed rifampin-resistant staphylococcal isolates in period 1. Among these patients, only six (54.5%) were found to have rifampin-resistant isolates in period 2, with no significant infectious events. Rifampin-resistant staphylococcal isolates were more frequently found in perianal skin than from the hands. No patients acquired a newly resistant strain in period 2. About one-half of cirrhotic patients in this study developed rifampin-resistant staphylococcal isolates after rifaximin treatment. Although the resistant strains were no longer detected in about half of the patients in the short-term, the long-term influence of this drug treatment should be determined.

  18. Emergence of rifampin-resistant staphylococci after rifaximin administration in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ji Young; Woo, So-Youn; Ryu, Min Sun; Joo, Yang-Hee; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Kang Hoon; Moon, Chang Mo; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Rifaximin, a poorly absorbed antibiotics, has gut-specific therapeutic effects. Although frequently prescribed to manipulate intestinal luminal bacterial population in various diseases, the possible induction of antibacterial cross-resistance to a target pathogen is a major concern in long-term rifaximin administration. We aimed to evaluate whether rifampin-resistant staphylococci could evolve after rifaximin treatment in cirrhotic patients. Method A total of 25 cirrhotic patients who were administered rifaximin for the prevention of hepatic encephalopathy were enrolled. Swabs from both hands and the perianal skin were acquired on day 0 (before rifaximin treatment), period 1 (1–7 weeks after treatment), and period 2 (8–16 weeks after treatment) the staphylococcal strain identification and rifampin-resistance testing. Results A total of 198 staphylococcal isolates from 15 species were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated most frequently, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus was the most common resistant species both from hands and perianal skin. Eleven patients (44.0%) developed rifampin-resistant staphylococcal isolates in period 1. Among these patients, only six (54.5%) were found to have rifampin-resistant isolates in period 2, with no significant infectious events. Rifampin-resistant staphylococcal isolates were more frequently found in perianal skin than from the hands. No patients acquired a newly resistant strain in period 2. Conclusions About one-half of cirrhotic patients in this study developed rifampin-resistant staphylococcal isolates after rifaximin treatment. Although the resistant strains were no longer detected in about half of the patients in the short-term, the long-term influence of this drug treatment should be determined. PMID:28982166

  19. 3rd European Evidence-based Consensus on the Diagnosis and Management of Crohn's Disease 2016: Part 1: Diagnosis and Medical Management.

    PubMed

    Gomollón, Fernando; Dignass, Axel; Annese, Vito; Tilg, Herbert; Van Assche, Gert; Lindsay, James O; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Cullen, Garret J; Daperno, Marco; Kucharzik, Torsten; Rieder, Florian; Almer, Sven; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Harbord, Marcus; Langhorst, Jost; Sans, Miquel; Chowers, Yehuda; Fiorino, Gionata; Juillerat, Pascal; Mantzaris, Gerassimos J; Rizzello, Fernando; Vavricka, Stephan; Gionchetti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of two publications relating to the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation [ECCO] evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease and concerns the methodology of the consensus process, and the classification, diagnosis and medical management of active and quiescent Crohn's disease. Surgical management as well as special situations including management of perianal Crohn's disease of this ECCO Consensus are covered in a subsequent second paper [Gionchetti et al JCC 2016]. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Anal canal duplication and triplication: a rare entity with different presentations.

    PubMed

    Palazon, P; Julia, V; Saura, L; de Haro, I; Bejarano, M; Rovira, C; Tarrado, X

    2017-05-01

    Anal canal duplication (ACD) is the rarest of gastrointestinal duplications. Few cases have been reported. Most cases present as an opening in the midline, posterior to the normal anus. The aim of our revision is to contribute with eight new cases, some of them with unusual presentations: five presented as the typical form, one with a perianal nodule, and two presented as two separate orifices (anal canal triplication). Complete excision was performed in all patients with no complications. ACD is the most distal and the least frequent digestive duplication. Its treatment should be surgical excision, to avoid complications such as abscess, fistulization, or malignization. Anal canal triplication has never been described before.

  1. Management of a young female patient with Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aslanidis, Theodoros; Myrou, Athena; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an acute, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal, infective necrotizing fasciitis affecting the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions. Lemierre's syndrome is a condition characterized by thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and bacteremia caused by primarily anaerobic organisms, following a recent oropharyngeal infection. Although the literature about either of them is rich, there is no report about co-appearance of the two syndromes. We present the case of a young healthy female patient who suffered concomitantly from Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome after minor surgery.

  2. Eruptive Condyloma Accuminata after Initiation of Infliximab Treatment for Folliculitis Decalvans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Douglas C.; Salopek, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    We report a patient with recalcitrant folliculitis decalvans who was placed on infliximab due to failure to respond to numerous immunosuppressive drugs and antibiotics. After the second infusion of infliximab the patient reported a cutaneous eruption to the bilateral groin, penis, scrotum, perineum, and perianal region consistent with genital warts. The case highlights the need to inquire about a past or current history of genital or anal warts prior to the initiation of anti-TNF therapy, particularly with infliximab. If present, consideration should be given to concurrent antiwart therapy. PMID:24368947

  3. 3rd European Evidence-based Consensus on the Diagnosis and Management of Crohn's Disease 2016: Part 2: Surgical Management and Special Situations.

    PubMed

    Gionchetti, Paolo; Dignass, Axel; Danese, Silvio; Magro Dias, Fernando José; Rogler, Gerhard; Lakatos, Péter Laszlo; Adamina, Michel; Ardizzone, Sandro; Buskens, Christianne J; Sebastian, Shaji; Laureti, Silvio; Sampietro, Gianluca M; Vucelic, Boris; van der Woude, C Janneke; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Maaser, Christian; Portela, Francisco; Vavricka, Stephan R; Gomollón, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two publications relating to the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation [ECCO] evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease [CD] and concerns the surgical management of CD as well as special situations including management of perianal CD and extraintestinal manifestations. Diagnostic approaches and medical management of CD of this ECCO Consensus are covered in the first paper [Gomollon et al JCC 2016]. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina after Le Fort partial colpocleisis for stage IV pelvic organ prolapse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Moon Kyoung; Kim, Chul Hong; Kim, Yoon Ha

    2011-11-01

    We present here the case report of a postmenopausal woman who complained of recurrent pus-like vaginal discharge and perianal pain 1 year after Le Fort colpocleisis, which was subsequently identified as a primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Biopsy confirmed a squamous cell carcinoma in the vagina, and the disease was classified as stage III according to FIGO staging. The patient received pelvic radiotherapy. This case emphasizes that differential diagnosis of recurrent vaginal discharge that presents remote from obliterative procedure for pelvic organ prolapse should consider not only pyometra, but also other causes.

  5. Transient symptomatic zinc deficiency in a preterm exclusively breast-fed infant.

    PubMed

    Laureano, André; Brás, Susana; Carvalho, Rodrigo; Amaro, Cristina; Cardoso, Jorge

    2014-02-18

    A 5-month-old female infant, preterm, exclusively breast-fed, presented with a 2-month history of erythematous, erosive, and crusted patches and plaques in a peri-oral, scalp, genital, and peri-anal distribution. A clinical diagnosis of zinc deficiency was confirmed by a low serum zinc level in the infant and decreased maternal breast milk zinc. Complete resolution occurred within two weeks of oral zinc supplementation. Acquired zinc deficiency is a rare nutritional disorder of infants. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment will prevent associated morbidity and complications.

  6. Destructive bone disease in early syphilis.

    PubMed

    Dismukes, W E; Delgado, D G; Mallernee, S V; Myers, T C

    1976-12-06

    Although destructive bone disease is a well-known complication of tertiary syphilis, osteitis or osteomyelitis are not commonly recognized as complications of early (primary or secondary) syphillis. A patient with secondary syphilis characterized by generalized lymphadenopathy, perianal condyloma lata, and positive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) tests also complained of headache, right should pain, and right anterior chest pain and swelling. Roentgenograms showed mottled osteolytic lesions consistent with previously described luetic bone disease. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of syphilitic osteomyelitis, and treatment with penicillin resulted in prompt resolution of symptoms.

  7. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Guedes, Erilane L; Botan, Valeria; Barbosa, Alessandra; Freitas, Ernani J

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disease with autosomal recessive inheritance that occurs mainly in childhood and is characterized by the deposition of amorphous hyaline material in the skin and other organs. There are approximately 70 cases reported in the literature. Herein we describe the case of a 14-month-old boy with multiple cutaneous nodules around small and large joints, papulous skin lesions, hyperpigmented plaques and nodules in the perianal region, flexion contractures and stiffness of joints and diffuse osteoporosis. Symptoms were present since the second month of life. Histopathologic studies of joint nodulations demonstrated the presence of hyaline material, confirming the diagnosis of juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

  8. Epidemiology and control of enterobiasis in a developmental center

    PubMed Central

    Lohiya, Ghan-Shyam; Tan-Figueroa, Lilia; Crinella, Francis M; Lohiya, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine if enterobiasis could be controlled in a developmental center. Design Population-based study. Annual screening of all residents by perianal swabs for enterobiasis and on admission or discharge. Treatment of infected residents and their contacts with mebendazole, 100 mg orally, with two doses given 14 days apart. Main outcome measures The number of residents with enterobiasis and the cost of the program. Results The prevalence of enterobiasis fell rapidly and progressively, from 21% before mass medication to 1% after 3 years. Conclusion Mass medication of residents with enterobiasis and their contacts was beneficial, harmless, and cost effective. PMID:10832422

  9. Enterobius Vermicularis as a Cause of Intestinal Occlusion: How To Avoid Unnecessary Surgery.

    PubMed

    Adorisio, Ottavio; De Peppo, Francesco; Rivosecchi, Massimo; Silveri, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Enterobius vermicularis may cause infections of the gastrointestinal tract and occurs approximately in 4% to 28% of children worldwide. It is most common in children aged 5 to 14 years.The most commonly reported symptoms are pruritus in the perianal region, abdominal pain, urinary tract infection, insomnia, irritability, salpingitis, and appendicitis, whereas intestinal obstruction is a very rare but would be considered to perform the right instrumental examination avoiding unnecessary surgical exploration.We report a case of an 8-year-old boy with an intestinal occlusion due to a colonic intussusception by Enterobius vermicularis managed conservatively.

  10. Chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain: pin the pinworm.

    PubMed

    Rajamanickam, Anitha; Usmani, Ali; Suri, Sanjeev; Dimov, Vesselin

    2009-02-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is the most common helminthic infection in the US. It is usually considered an innocuous parasite that at the most causes perianal itching. We report a case of an 84-year-old female patient from an assisted living facility who presented with symptoms of colitis for 2 months. On detailed history and exam, she was found to have E. vermicularis infection. All her symptoms resolved dramatically within 2 days after a single dose of albendazole. We want to emphasize the importance of including parasitic infections such as E. vermicularis in the differential diagnoses of patients presenting with symptoms of colitis.

  11. Monitored anesthesia care (MAC) sedation: clinical utility of fospropofol

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Eric A; Lubarsky, David A; Candiotti, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    Fospropofol, a phosphorylated prodrug version of the popular induction agent propofol, is hydrolyzed in vivo to release active propofol, formaldehyde, and phosphate. Pharmacodynamic studies show fospropofol provides clinically useful sedation and EEG/bispectral index suppression while causing significantly less respiratory depression than propofol. Pain at the injection site, a common complaint with propofol, was not reported with fospropofol; the major patient complaint was transitory perianal itching during the drug’s administration. Although many clinicians believe fospropofol can safely be given by a registered nurse, the FDA mandated that fospropofol, like propofol, must be used only in the presence of a trained anesthesia provider. PMID:20057894

  12. Novel application of internal obturator and semitendinosus muscle flaps for rectal wall repair or reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Riggs, J; Ladlow, J F; Owen, L J; Hall, J L

    2018-01-29

    Internal obturator and/or semitendinosus muscle flaps were used to reinforce primary appositional rectal wall repair in three dogs and one cat in this case series. All three dogs incurred rectal wall compromise during surgical excision of anal sac tumours. The cat sustained bite wounds to the perianal region resulting in abscessation and a rectal tear. Our results indicate that application of an internal obturator and/or semitendinosus muscle flap can reduce the risk of rectal wall dehiscence after primary repair, and consequently the risk of pararectal abscess or rectocutaneous fistula formation. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. [Conservative anal fistula treatment with collagenic plug and human fibrin sealant. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Gubitosi, A; Moccia, G; Malinconico, F A; Docimo, G; Ruggiero, R; Iside, G; Avenia, N; Docimo, L; Foroni, F; Gilio, F; Sparavigna, L; Agresti, M

    2009-01-01

    The authors, on the basis of a long clinical experience with human fibrin glue in general surgery, compared two different extracellular matrix (collagen), Surgisis and TissueDura, with human fibrin glue, applied during the operation, and sometimes in postoperative, to obtain the healing of perianal fistulas. The collagenic extracellular matrix provides, according to the rationale suggested, an optimal three-dimensional structure for the fibroblastic implant and neoangiogenesis, hence for the fistula "fibrotizzation" and closure. The encouraging results for transphincteric fistulas and a simple and easy technique push to researchers on samples statistically significant.

  14. Pregnancy and the Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Fertility, Treatment, Delivery, and Complications.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Ryan A; Mahadevan, Uma

    2016-06-01

    For many women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the illness coincides with their childbearing years. IBD increases the risk of pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The multidisciplinary care team should emphasize the importance of medication adherence to achieve preconception disease control and maintain corticosteroid-free remission throughout pregnancy. Medication adjustments to reduce fetal exposure may be considered on an individualized basis in quiescent disease; however, any benefits of such adjustments remain theoretic and there is risk of worsening disease activity. Mode of delivery is determined by obstetric indications, except for women with active perianal disease who should consider cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory medication that is efficacious and approved for atopic dermatitis in dogs and allergic dermatitis in cats; it has also been used to successfully manage a variety of immune-mediated dermatoses in dogs and cats. This article reviews the use of cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology including its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, side effects, and relevant clinical updates. Dermatologic indications including atopic/allergic dermatitis, perianal fistulas, sebaceous adenitis, and other immune-mediated skin diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dipylidium caninum mimicking recurrent enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection.

    PubMed

    Samkari, Ayman; Kiska, Deanna L; Riddell, Scott W; Wilson, Kathy; Weiner, Leonard B; Domachowske, Joseph B

    2008-05-01

    Pinworm infection is a very common diagnosis in young children that is not always confirmed through laboratory evaluation before empiric therapy is prescribed. This article describes a toddler who was treated several times for pinworms because small white worms were seen in her perianal area. Laboratory analysis of parasite material found in her diaper later confirmed a diagnosis of dipylidiasis. Because the signs of dipylidiasis and pinworm infection overlap and the treatments for these parasitic infections are different, the laboratory should clinically confirm suspected persistent or recurrent pinworms.

  17. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal hemorrhagic colitis complicated with pharyngitis and impetigo.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Atsushi; Matsubara, Keiko; Yui, Takako; Kobayashi, Kenji; Kawano, Yutaka

    2007-12-01

    A 6-year-old boy with bloody diarrhea was diagnosed with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal hemorrhagic colitis. Complications included pharyngitis and impetigo, both caused by the same organisms. In addition to being isolated from stools, Streptococcus pyogenes was also isolated from skin lesions. Furthermore, a rapid group A streptococcal antigen test by throat swab was also positive. Hemorrhagic colitis caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus is extremely rare, and much rarer are its complications with pharyngitis and impetigo. Compared with findings in reports of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal proctitis and perianal and perineal diseases, this case suggests a distinct pathogenesis for hemorrhagic colitis.

  18. Infection prevention for patients with acute leukemia using laminar air flow rooms.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, T

    1986-01-01

    Infection prevention using laminar air flow (LAF) rooms was studied. For the effective and economical usage of LAF rooms, our trials with ozone decontamination were deemed very convenient and effective. In maintaining LAF clean, insects were found to be a critical factor regarding fungus contamination of LAF. As to its efficacy of infection prevention, LAF decreased infection during remission induction from 113/100 to 28/100. The infections reduced by LAF were pneumonia, upper respiratory infection and skin abscess, while sepsis and perianal infection were not affected. Treatment in LAF rooms also seemed to have comparable influence on interstitial pneumonitis after bone marrow transplantation.

  19. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the urethra/Cowper's gland with concurrent high-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma: a detailed clinicopathologic case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Pettaway, Curtis; Vikram, Raghu; Tamboli, Pheroze

    2016-12-01

    Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the urethra is uncommon with only 9 cases reported in the medical literature; all tumors arose from Cowper's glands. Herein, we report the histological features and immunohistochemical characteristics of 1 patient with primary adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the entire posterior urethra, prostate gland, corpus spongiosum, corpora cavernosa, urogenital diaphragm, perianal soft tissue, and muscularis propria layer of rectum. We also review other published cases to evaluate the prognosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondary gastrointestinal amyloid A amyloidosis possibly caused by hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Kochi, Shuji; Esaki, Motohiro; Kurahara, Koichi

    2018-06-22

    A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of 2 years' duration of extended multiple nodules with abscess and fistula with pus discharge in the gluteal and perianal regions (Fig. 1a). Laboratory data identified inflammatory reaction (WBC, 11430 /μl, and C-reactive protein, 4.5 mg/dl) and anemia (hemoglobin levels, 8.6 g/dl). Serum amyloid A protein was elevated (50.2 μg/ml). Ileocolonoscopy showed diffuse coarse mucosa with numerous diminutive nodules throughout the colorectum (Fig. 1b). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. [Enterobiasis among schoolchildren in a rural population from Estado Falcón, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Acosta, María; Cazorla, Dalmiro; Garvett, María

    2002-09-01

    Between may and july 2001, a survey was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis infection and its relationship with the socio-economic status and household crowding of 154 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years from a rural village in Falcon State, Venezuela. The Graham technique (perianal swabs with an adhesive cellulose tape) was used to perform the parasitological diagnosis. The overall prevalence was high (57.79%). There was no difference in the prevalence between sexes (X2 = 0.005; d.f. = 1) or ages (X2 = 3.63; d.f. = 6) (p > 0.05), suggesting similar risk conditions for all individuals. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (53.9%). Other less frequent manifestations were the following: perianal lesions (34.8%) and vulvovaginitis (32.6%). Graffar analysis revealed that the majority of schoolchildren belong to the poorer socioeconomic strata: IV (55.9%) and V (29.87%), with overcrowded living conditions. The correlation between E. vermicularis infection and crowding rates was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.98; p < 0.001). In the light on these results, it can be concluded that poverty, overcrowding, anal pruritus, scarcity of water, inadequate personal and community hygiene play a relevant role on the transmission dynamics and endemic maintenance of enterobiasis among schoolchildren from Sabaneta.

  2. Biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise therapy for obstructive defecation: An effective alternative

    PubMed Central

    ba-bai-ke-re, Ma-Mu-Ti-Jiang A; Wen, Ni-Re; Hu, Yun-Long; Zhao, Liang; Tuxun, Tuerhongjiang; Husaiyin, Aierhati; Sailai, Yalikun; Abulimiti, Alimujiang; Wang, Yun-Hai; Yang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise therapy (BFT) with the use of oral polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the treatment of obstructive defecation. METHODS: A total of 88 subjects were assigned to treatment with either BFT (n = 44) or oral PEG (n = 44). Constipation symptoms (including difficult evacuation, hard stool, digitation necessity, incomplete emptying sensation, laxative dependence, perianal pain at defecation, and constipation satisfaction), Wexner Scores, and quality of life scores were assessed after 1, 3, and 6 mo. RESULTS: At the 6 mo follow-up, the symptoms of the BFT group patients showed significantly greater improvements compared with the PEG group regarding difficult evacuation, hard stools, digitation necessity, laxative dependence, perianal pain at defecation, constipation satisfaction, Wexner Constipation Score, and quality of life score (P < 0.05). The quality of life score of the BFT group at the final follow-up time (6 mo) was 80 ± 2.2. After a complete course of training, improvements in the clinical symptoms of the BFT group were markedly improved (P < 0.05), and the Wexner Constipation Scores were greatly decreased compared with the oral PEG group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded that manometric biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise training is superior to oral polyethylene glycol therapy for obstructive defecation. PMID:25083090

  3. Preservation of anal function after total excision of the anal mucosa for Bowen's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, V H; Madden, J J; Franklin, J D; Burnett, L S; Jones, H W; Lynch, J B

    1984-01-01

    Six women with Bowen's disease of the anogenital area were treated by total excision of the anal mucosa, perianal skin and, in some cases, partial vulvectomy. Two patients had foci of microinvasive squamous carcinoma. Adequate tumor margins were determined by frozen sections. The resulting mucosal and cutaneous defects were grafted with medium split-thickness skin grafts applied to the anal canal and sutured circumferentially to the rectal mucosa. Grafts were held in place by a finger cot inserted in the anal canal and stuffed with cotton balls. Patients were constipated five or six days with codeine. The skin grafts healed per primam. One additional patient was similarly treated for a chronic herpetic ulceration of the anus and healed. Contrary to dire predictions, all patients were able to distinguish between gaseous and solid rectal contents and sphincter function was preserved. In one patient, Bowen's disease has recurred in the grafted perianal skin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6372711

  4. [Meningoradiculitis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2].

    PubMed

    Bollen, A E; Venema, A W; Veldkamp, K E

    2007-10-27

    A 24-year-old immune-competent woman was admitted to hospital with a three-day history of fever and headache. On examination bilateral facial nerve palsy, lumbosacral radicular pain, reduced sacral sensibility and urinary retention were found. Open perianal lesions were suspect for genital herpes. The symptoms were compatible with a meningoradiculitis including a sacral polyradiculitis. On testing, cerebrospinal fluid was found to be abnormal with a lymphocytic cell reaction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid and of the perianal lesions was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). An MRI scan showed colouration of part of the cauda equina. The patient was treated by intravenous injections of acyclovir 10 mg/kg t.i.d. for 21 days, after which she completely recovered. HSV-2 infection of the nervous system can cause lymphocytic, and sometimes recurrent meningitis as well as sacral polyradiculitis. It may also occur without any symptomatic genital herpes infection. A positive result from a PCR test of the cerebrospinal fluid confirms this diagnosis. Treatment with acyclovir should be started as soon as possible.

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS INFECTION AND PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES IN CHILDREN AT SOHAG GOVERNORATE, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Hussien, Salah M M; Taha, Mohammad A A; Omran, Eman Kh

    2015-12-01

    A cohort of children presented with pelvic inflammatory diseases (gastrointestinal and/or genitourinary surgical conditions) and had concomitant infection with E. vermicularis. To find out this relationship, a total of 135 patients suffering from different gastrointestinal and genitourinary surgical conditions were selected from Departments of Surgery and Gynecology. They were subjected to stool analysis, peri-anal swabs and blood examination mainly for eosinophilia. The results showed that 26 patients out of 135 (19.2%) had. E. vermicularis with high eosinophilia in 30 cases (22.2%). Identification of E. vermicularis by peri-anal swab test in the cohort was successful (16.30%). Males were more affected than females with ratio 2.2:1 and age mean 7.13 +/- 1.92. As to residence and housing, rural children with bad housing (73.08% & 88.46% respectively) were more affected than those living in urban areas with healthy housing (26.92% and 11.54% respectively).

  6. Comparing the effect of An's Shaobei Injection ([symbols; see text]) with Xiaozhiling Injection ([symbols; see text]) in patients with internal hemorrhoids of grade I-III: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    An, A-yue; Feng, Da-yong; Wang, Chun-hui; Shi, Yu-ying; Xiang, Jing-jing; Bai, Zhi-yong; Li, Kun-cheng; Liu, Jin-yang

    2014-07-01

    To compare the effect of An's Shaobei Injection ([symbols; see text]) with Xiaozhiling Injection ([symbols; see text]) in patients with internal hemorrhoids of grade I-III. This cohort study included 1,520 internal hemorrhoids patients with grade I-III who were scheduled for liquid injection treatment from July 2003 to July 2009. The cohort included patients who underwent either An's Shaobei Injection treatment (the treatment group, 760 cases) or Xiaozhiling Injection treatment (the control group, 760 cases). All patients were followed up regularly for 3 years; the observing indices included anal function recovery and clinical response after operation. Among the 1,520 patients, 1,508 (99.2%) completed the 3-year follow-up. The efficacy rate was 97.5% in the treatment group, significantly higher than the control group (91.8%, P<0.01). The recurrence rate in the treatment group was 0.5%, significantly lower than that of the control group (1.3%, P<0.01). In addition, perianal callosity occurred in 8 cases (1.1%) and anorectal stricture in 26 cases (3.5%) after operation in the control group. There was no perianal callosity and anorectal stricture in the treatment group. The treatment with An's Shaobei Injection demonstrated superior clinical effect to Xiaozhiling Injection with fewer adverse effects.

  7. ALTA injection sclerosing therapy:non-excisional treatment of internal hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hidenori; Asanoma, Michihito; Miyamoto, Hideyuki; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) is a new sclerosing therapy for internal hemorrhoids. This injection therapy is a four-step direct injection sclerosing procedure intended to shrink and harden internal hemorrhoids to eliminate hemorrhoidal prolapse and bleeding. The aim of this study was to assess the short term efficacy of this treatment. The procedure was conducted using a four-step injection process under perianal local anesthesia. The entry point for the four-step injection of ALTA is the submucosa of the superior pole, the submucosa in the central part, the mucous lamina propria in the central part and the submucosa at the inferior pole of hemorrhoid. From January 2009 to March 2010, we performed the ALTA sclerosing therapy on 28 patients (14 men and 14 women; mean age, 64.6 years), including 5 second-degree, 16 third-degree and 7 fourth-degree hemorrhoids. There were 6 postoperative complications (2 cases of low grade fever, 2 anal pains, 1 necrosis at injection site and 1 perianal dermatitis). All symptoms of prolapse or bleeding disappeared after 29 postoperative days. There were 3 recurrent cases (10.7%). ALTA sclerosing therapy is a useful and less invasive treatment for internal hemorrhoids.

  8. Omentalization of cystic sublumbar lymph node metastases for long-term palliation of tenesmus and dysuria in a dog with anal sac adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoelzler, M G; Bellah, J R; Donofro, M C

    2001-12-15

    A 13-year-old castrated male Bassett Hound was examined because of a 2-week history of severe constipation and tenesmus. Radiography revealed a large cystic mass in the caudal portion of the abdomen that was compressing the urethra and obstructing the pelvic canal. A small perianal mass was also noticed in the region of the left anal sac. Exploratory surgery was performed, but the mass was deemed unresectable. Instead, the mass was incised, drained, and omentalized in an attempt to establish continuous drainage after surgery. Cytologic evaluation of the perianal mass was consistent with a diagnosis of anal sac adenocarcinoma. Histologic evaluation of the abdominal mass revealed it was a lymph node effaced by adenocarcinoma. Despite the poor prognosis for anal sac adenocarcinoma with metastatic spread to the sublumbar lymph nodes, tenesmus and dysuria in this dog remained palliated until the dog's death 18 months after surgery. Omentalization was successful in providing a continuous method of fluid drainage for this cystopapillary abdominal tumor.

  9. High-resolution anoscopy: Unchartered territory for gastroenterologists?

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2015-09-25

    High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) is a procedure where patients with an increased risk of anal cancer, like men who have sex with men, human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals, transplant patients and women with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia, with abnormal anal cytology results, are submitted to anal and perianal visualization under magnification. This will allow for a better detection of anal high-grade lesions that can be treated, in an effort to prevent anal cancer. Anal cancer screening follows the same principles that cervical cancer screening. During this procedure, an anoscope is inserted and a colposcope is used to examine systematically the squamocolumnar junction, the transformation zone and the perianal skin. Initially the observation is done with no staining and then with the application of acetic acid and Lugol's iodine solution, allowing for better lesion identification and characterization. Any suspicious lesion seen should be carefully evaluated and biopsied. Without HRA only a small percentage of suspicious lesions are identified. High-grade lesions that are detected can be ablated under HRA. This is a challenging exam to perform, with a long learning curve and the number of clinicians performing it is limited, although the growing number of patients that need to been screened. Specific equipment is required, with these patients ideally been followed by a multidisciplinary team, in a reference centre. HRA remains unfamiliar for many gastroenterologists.

  10. A family report of Crohn's disease in three children immigrating from Albania to Greece and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Karetsos, Vasileios; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

    2010-11-01

    Cases of immigrant families affected by IBD have rarely been reported and seem to be of exceptional interest towards a better understanding of disease aetiopathogenesis. The first case of Crohn's disease in a family of immigrants from Albania to Greece with three offspring is described herein. A family with three children, one 22 year-old male and two 18-year-old twin females immigrated from southern Albania to northwest Greece ten years ago. The whole family lived in the same house and had no previous history of bowel or other chronic diseases. Two years ago the boy complained of diarrhoea, perianal pain and loss of weight. Subsequent investigation revealed ileal and perianal Crohn's disease. One year after Crohn's disease was diagnosed in the boy, one of the twins was diagnosed with ileal Crohn's disease. Six months afterwards, the second twin underwent emergency appendectomy due to acute appendicitis; four months later she was diagnosed with ileal Crohn's disease. Genetically predisposed individuals seem to be vulnerable to a continuous pressure of a still unknown environmental factor(s). In addition, lifestyle modification seems to represent a predisposing factor toward inflammatory bowel disease in immigrants. Copyright © 2010 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical use of a 15-W diode laser in small animal surgery: results in 30 varied procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Dennis T.; Swalander, David; Hittenmiller, Donald; Newton, Jenifer

    1999-06-01

    The use of a 15-watt diode laser (CeramOptec)in 30 surgical procedures in dogs and cats was reviewed. Ease of use, operator safety, hemostasis control, wound healing, surgical time, complication rate, and pain control were observed and recorded. Procedures performed were partial pancreatectomy, nasal carcinoma ablation, medial meniscus channeling, perianal and anorectal mass removal (5), hemangioma and hemangiopericytoma removal from two legs, benign skin mass removal (7), liver lobectomy, partial prostatectomy, soft palate resection, partial arytenoidectomy, partial ablation of a thyroid carcinoma, photo-vaporization of the tumor bed following malignant tumor resection (4), neurosheath tumor removal from the tongue, tail sebaceous cyst resection, malignant mammary tumor and mast cell tumor removal. The laser was found to be very simple and safe to use. Hemostasis was excellent in all but the liver and prostate surgeries. The laser was particularly effective in preventing hemorrhage during perianal, anal, and tongue mass removal. It is estimated that a time and blood loss savings of 50% over that of conventional surgery occurred with the use of the laser. All external wounds made by laser appeared to heal faster and with less inflammation than those made with a conventional or electrosurgical scalpel.

  12. Successful use of a bulk laxative to control the diarrhea of tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Frank, H A; Green, L C

    1979-01-01

    The greatly increased nutritional demands of the severely burned patient frequently require the use of tube feeding for enternal hyperalimentation. At a time when general patient morale is low and motivation needs to be maximally maintained, there is nothing so dispiriting as the distress of a painful perianal region and uncontrollable liquid stools. Attempts to control the diarrhea which frequently accompanies tube feeding by changing the formula or the method of administration or a wide variety of constipating drugs have all met with very limited success. Based on the clinical observation of a noted gastroenterologist (Bockus), we have administered a mucilagenous hydrophilic colloid bulk laxative (Metamucil) to patients on tube feeding formulae. The dosage and frequency are adjusted to individual patient needs, but average 7 g per liter of liquid formula. The results have been dramatic; namely, the virtual elimination of the diarrhea problem in our burn patients on enteral hyperalimentation by gastric tube feeding. Colonic transit time increases. The stools become formed but soft, cohesive but not adhesive. Perianal irritation does not occur. Neither does soilage of wound, dressings, or bed. No rebound constipation or obstructive symptoms have been encountered. We attribute this response to the same water binding mechanism that allows these colloids to prevent chronic constipation. Our patients may be given as much as 5,000 to 6,000 calories of tube feeding per day. Our patients are not distressed by diarrhea. Our nursing staff is relieved of the burden that entails.

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases of the anus and rectum: Causal agents, coinfections, HIV infection and high-risk sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Morgado-Carrasco, Daniel; Alsina Gibert, Mercè; Bosch Mestres, Jordi; Álvarez Martínez, Miriam; Blanco Arévalo, José Luís; Fuertes de Vega, Irene

    2018-04-18

    Sexually transmitted infections of the rectum and anus (STI-RA) mainly affect men who have sex with men (MSM). The incidence of STI-RA among them has increased in recent years. Retrospective study in patients with diagnoses of STI-RA in an STI unit during the years 2014 and 2015. Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data were collected. We included 95 patients, all of whom were MSM; 88.42% were HIV+; 67.17% did not use a condom during their most recent sexual intercourse; 17.91% had had sex with sex workers and 72.22% had used drugs during sexual intercourse during the previous year. A percentage of 32.92 reported symptoms that had lasted longer than 30 days. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) was diagnosed in 54.73% of the patients. All patients who presented with proctitis and perianal ulcers were diagnosed with LGV infection. All those who presented perianal ulcers without proctitis were diagnosed with syphilis. All the patients affected by STI-RA were MSM, most of them HIV+, had engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour and had suffered prolonged symptomatology. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of STI-AR could help adjust the empiric therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Pyoderma gangrenosum in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Graham, J A; Hansen, K K; Rabinowitz, L G; Esterly, N B

    1994-03-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon ulcerative skin disorder that occurs in all age groups. Approximately 4% of patients are infants and children. There are several notable differences between the childhood and adult manifestations of the disease, including the distribution of lesions and associated disorders. We reviewed the childhood cases (< or = 18 yrs of age) of unequivocal pyoderma gangrenosum in the English literature and tabulated the trends in clinical features, associated disorders, and therapy. We report our 3-week-old patient, the youngest documented case. Of the 46 patients, only 4 were less than 1 year of age. A systemic illness was present in 74% of the older children, most commonly, ulcerative colitis. Only one infant had an associated problem (HIV+) at the time of onset. Infants appear to have an unusual distribution of perianal and genital lesions not often described in other age groups. Our review suggests that pyoderma gangrenosum in children has a similar clinical appearance to that in adults. It is associated with some of the same underlying disorders, but with different frequencies. The distribution of lesions in children is similar, often involving the lower extremities, but pyoderma gangrenosum of the head and face appears to be more common in children. Infants may have ulcers in genital and perianal areas. The most frequently prescribed treatment for children is systemic corticosteroids, which generally are very effective.

  15. Mucosal healing with thalidomide in refractory Crohn's disease patients intolerant of anti-TNF-α drugs: report of 3 cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Scribano, Maria Lia; Cantoro, Laura; Marrollo, Marzia; Cosintino, Rocco; Kohn, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Thalidomide is an oral immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory drug with antitumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activity. Several case reports and some clinical trials have demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of refractory Crohn's disease (CD). We report the effect and tolerability of thalidomide in 3 patients with moderate-to-severe CD who were not responsive to anti-TNF-α therapies, and review the relevant literature. The first case is of a 28-year-old female affected by Crohn's colitis complicated by a severe fistulizing perianal disease; she was treated with infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol, which were stopped because of intolerance. The second case is of a 39-year-old female with fistulizing ileocolitis complicated by severe arthralgias and perianal disease with loss of response to infliximab and intolerance of certolizumab pegol. The third case is of a 39-year-old male with gastric and ileocolonic CD refractory to immunosuppressors and intolerant of infliximab. All the 3 cases achieved complete clinical remission and endoscopic healing of mucosal lesions at a low dose of thalidomide (50 to 150 mg/d). In our CD patients who experienced loss of response or were unable to tolerate anti-TNF-α drugs, thalidomide was an effective and well-tolerated therapy for inducing and maintaining long-term remission.

  16. Diagnostic Yield of Next-Generation Sequencing in Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Charbit-Henrion, Fabienne; Parlato, Marianna; Hanein, Sylvain; Duclaux-Loras, Rémi; Nowak, Jan; Begue, Bernadette; Rakotobe, Sabine; Bruneau, Julie; Fourrage, Cécile; Alibeu, Olivier; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Lévy, Eva; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Mazerolles, Fabienne; Latour, Sylvain; Lenoir, Christelle; Fischer, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Aloi, Marina; Amil Dias, Jorge; Ben Hariz, Mongi; Bourrier, Anne; Breuer, Christian; Breton, Anne; Bronski, Jiri; Buderus, Stephan; Cananzi, Mara; Coopman, Stéphanie; Crémilleux, Clara; Dabadie, Alain; Dumant-Forest, Clémentine; Egritas Gurkan, Odul; Fabre, Alexandre; Fischer, Aude; German Diaz, Marta; Gonzalez-Lama, Yago; Goulet, Olivier; Guariso, Graziella; Gurcan, Neslihan; Homan, Matjaz; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Jeziorski, Eric; Karanika, Evi; Lachaux, Alain; Lewindon, Peter; Lima, Rosa; Magro, Fernando; Major, Janos; Malamut, Georgia; Mas, Emmanuel; Mattyus, Istvan; Mearin, Luisa M; Melek, Jan; Navas-Lopez, Victor Manuel; Paerregaard, Anders; Pelatan, Cecile; Pigneur, Bénédicte; Pinto Pais, Isabel; Rebeuh, Julie; Romano, Claudio; Siala, Nadia; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Tempia-Caliera, Michela; Tounian, Patrick; Turner, Dan; Urbonas, Vaidotas; Willot, Stéphanie; Ruemmele, Frank M; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine

    2018-05-18

    An expanding number of monogenic defects have been identified as causative of severe forms of very early-onset inflammatory bowel diseases (VEO-IBD). The present study aimed at defining how next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods can be used to improve identification of known molecular diagnosis and adapt treatment. 207 children were recruited in 45 Paediatric centres through an international collaborative network (ESPGHAN GENIUS working group) with a clinical presentation of severe VEO-IBD (n=185) or an anamnesis suggestive of a monogenic disorder (n=22). Patients were divided at inclusion into three phenotypic subsets: predominantly small bowel inflammation, colitis with perianal lesions, and colitis only. Methods to obtain molecular diagnosis included functional tests followed by specific Sanger sequencing, custom-made targeted NGS, and in selected cases whole exome sequencing (WES) of parents-child trios. Genetic findings were validated clinically and/or functionally. Molecular diagnosis was achieved in 66/207 children (32%): 61% with small bowel inflammation, 39% with colitis and perianal lesions and 18% with colitis only. Targeted NGS pinpointed gene mutations causative of atypical presentations and identified large exonic copy number variations previously missed by WES. Our results lead us to propose an optimised diagnostic strategy to identify known monogenic causes of severe IBD.

  17. Lynxacarus radovskyi mites in feral cats: a study of diagnostic methods, preferential body locations, co-infestations and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Ketzis, Jennifer K; Dundas, James; Shell, Linda G

    2016-10-01

    Lynxacarus radovskyi (fur mites) are ectoparasites found on the hair shafts of cats living in tropical environments. Diagnosis is via microscopic examination of hairs. Various anatomical areas have been reported to harbour these mites. To assess adhesive tape impressions and trichograms for detecting L. radovskyi and co-infestations; to determine host body predilection sites and affected gender; to determine prevalence of L. radovskyi in a feral cat population. 121 feral cats in a trap, neuter and release programme. After cats were premedicated for surgical sterilization, hairs from seven to nine body sites were removed from each cat using adhesive tape impression and trichogram techniques. Samples were examined at 10-100× magnification using compound or stereo microscopes. The prevalence of L. radovskyi was 71% (86 of 121) within the feral cat population. Tape impressions identified 75 cats; trichograms identified 56 cats. There were fewer false negative results with tape impressions. Caudal body sites were more likely to be positive, with the perianal area being the most commonly affected. Males and females were infested equally. Tape impressions identified more Cheyletiella blakei infestations and both methods identified some Felicola felis infestations. Tape impressions were easier to perform and identified more L. radovskyi positive cats and more co-infestations. Hairs from the perianal area and other caudal body sites are most likely to harbour L. radovskyi. Within this feral cat population, L. radovskyi was a common infestation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. [Lymphogranuloma venereum: the first Hungarian cases].

    PubMed

    Bánvölgyi, András; Balla, Eszter; Bognár, Péter; Tóth, Béla; Ostorházi, Eszter; Bánhegyi, Dénes; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Marschalkó, Márta

    2015-01-04

    Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1-3. It has been found to be endemic in tropical countries. In the last decades several cases have been reported in Western Europe, particularly in men who have sex with men population infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The authors present three cases of lymphogranuloma venereum infections, observed at their department in 2013 and 2014. The three human immunodeficiency virus infected patients who belonged to men who have sex with men population had casual sexual contacts in Western Europe. The symptoms included urethral discharge, discomfort and inguinal lymphadenomegaly in two patients, and rectal pain, discharge and perianal ulceration in one patient. The diagnosis was confirmed by nucleic acid amplification test performed in samples obtained from urethral discharge and exudate of perianal ulcer; lymphogranuloma venereum 2b serovars were demonstrated in two patients and serovar 2 in one patient. Doxycyclin (daily dose of two times 100 mg for 21 days) resolved the symptoms in all cases. The authors conclude that lymphogranuloma venereum is a diagnostic challenge in Hungary, too. It is important to be aware of the altered clinical features of this disease to prevent complications and spreading.

  19. Trends in the Surgical Management of Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Geltzeiler, Cristina B; Hart, Kyle D; Lu, Kim C; Deveney, Karen E; Herzig, Daniel O; Tsikitis, Vassiliki L

    2015-10-01

    Although medical management of Crohn's disease has changed in recent years, it is unclear whether surgical management has altered. We examined rate changes of surgical interventions, stoma constructions, and subset of ileostomy and colostomy constructions. We reviewed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 1988 to 2011. We examined the number of Crohn's-related operations and stoma constructions, including ileostomies and colostomies; a multivariable logistic regression model was developed. A total of 355,239 Crohn's-related operations were analyzed. Operations increased from 13,955 in 1988 to 17,577 in 2011, p < 0.001. Stoma construction increased from 2493 to 4283, p < 0.001. The subset of ileostomies increased from 1201 to 3169, p < 0.001 while colostomies decreased from 1351 to 1201, p = 0.05. Operation percentages resulting in stoma construction increased from 18 to 24 %, p < 0.001. Weight loss (OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.88, 2.69) and presence of perianal fistulizing disease (OR 2.91, 95 % CI 2.31, 3.67) were most predictive for requiring stoma construction. Crohn's-related surgical interventions and stoma constructions have increased. The largest predictors for stoma construction are weight loss and perianal fistulizing disease. As a result, nutrition should be optimized and the early involvement of a multidisciplinary team should be considered.

  20. Biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise therapy for obstructive defecation: an effective alternative.

    PubMed

    Ba-Bai-Ke-Re, Ma-Mu-Ti-Jiang A; Wen, Ni-Re; Hu, Yun-Long; Zhao, Liang; Tuxun, Tuerhongjiang; Husaiyin, Aierhati; Sailai, Yalikun; Abulimiti, Alimujiang; Wang, Yun-Hai; Yang, Peng

    2014-07-21

    To compare biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise therapy (BFT) with the use of oral polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the treatment of obstructive defecation. A total of 88 subjects were assigned to treatment with either BFT (n = 44) or oral PEG (n = 44). Constipation symptoms (including difficult evacuation, hard stool, digitation necessity, incomplete emptying sensation, laxative dependence, perianal pain at defecation, and constipation satisfaction), Wexner Scores, and quality of life scores were assessed after 1, 3, and 6 mo. At the 6 mo follow-up, the symptoms of the BFT group patients showed significantly greater improvements compared with the PEG group regarding difficult evacuation, hard stools, digitation necessity, laxative dependence, perianal pain at defecation, constipation satisfaction, Wexner Constipation Score, and quality of life score (P < 0.05). The quality of life score of the BFT group at the final follow-up time (6 mo) was 80 ± 2.2. After a complete course of training, improvements in the clinical symptoms of the BFT group were markedly improved (P < 0.05), and the Wexner Constipation Scores were greatly decreased compared with the oral PEG group (P < 0.05). We concluded that manometric biofeedback-guided pelvic floor exercise training is superior to oral polyethylene glycol therapy for obstructive defecation.

  1. Psychometry and Pescatori projective test in coloproctological patients.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Ana Célia; Oliveira, Dinis; Gomes, Zaida; Mesquita, Edgar; Rolanda, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Psychological assessment is not commonly performed nor easily accepted by coloproctological patients. Our aim was to evaluate the psychological component of coloproctological disorders using uncommon tools. The 21-Item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Pescatori projective test were applied to coloproctological outpatients of the Gastroenterology Department of our hospital as well as to healthy volunteers. Seventy patients (median age 47 years, 22 male) divided in 4 groups (functional constipation, constipated irritable bowel syndrome, benign anorectal disease and perianal Crohn's disease) and 52 healthy volunteers (age 45 years, 18 male) completed the tests. Proctological patients showed higher scores of depression (P<0.001), anxiety (P<0.001), and stress (P<0.001) compared to healthy participants. Compared to the control group, patients with functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and perianal Crohn's disease maintained the highest scores in all subscales (P<0.05), while patients with benign anorectal disease only had higher anxiety and stress (P<0.001) scores. The patients' also showed lower scores in the Pescatori projective test (P=0.012). A weak association between the projective test and the depression subscale was found (P=0.05). Proctological patients had higher scores of depression, anxiety and stress and lower scores in the Pescatori projective test compared to healthy controls.

  2. Psychometry and Pescatori projective test in coloproctological patients

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Ana Célia; Oliveira, Dinis; Gomes, Zaida; Mesquita, Edgar; Rolanda, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological assessment is not commonly performed nor easily accepted by coloproctological patients. Our aim was to evaluate the psychological component of coloproctological disorders using uncommon tools. Methods The 21-Item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Pescatori projective test were applied to coloproctological outpatients of the Gastroenterology Department of our hospital as well as to healthy volunteers. Results Seventy patients (median age 47 years, 22 male) divided in 4 groups (functional constipation, constipated irritable bowel syndrome, benign anorectal disease and perianal Crohn’s disease) and 52 healthy volunteers (age 45 years, 18 male) completed the tests. Proctological patients showed higher scores of depression (P<0.001), anxiety (P<0.001), and stress (P<0.001) compared to healthy participants. Compared to the control group, patients with functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and perianal Crohn’s disease maintained the highest scores in all subscales (P<0.05), while patients with benign anorectal disease only had higher anxiety and stress (P<0.001) scores. The patients’ also showed lower scores in the Pescatori projective test (P=0.012). A weak association between the projective test and the depression subscale was found (P=0.05). Conclusion Proctological patients had higher scores of depression, anxiety and stress and lower scores in the Pescatori projective test compared to healthy controls. PMID:28655980

  3. Sources of sensitization, cross-reactions, and occupational sensitization to topical anaesthetics among general dermatology patients.

    PubMed

    Jussi, Liippo; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2009-03-01

    Contact sensitization to local anaesthetics is often from topical medicaments. Occupational sensitization to topical anaesthetics may occur in certain occupations. The aim of the study was to analyse the occurrence of contact sensitization to topical anaesthetics in general dermatology patients. Patch testing with topical anaesthetics was carried out in 620 patients. Possible sources of sensitization and the clinical histories of the patients are analysed. Positive patch test reactions to one or more topical anaesthetics were seen in 25/620 patients. Dibucaine reactions were most common (20/25), and lidocaine sensitization was seen in two patients. Six patients had reactions to ester-type and/or amide-type anaesthetics concurrently. Local preparations for perianal conditions were the most common sensitizers. One patient had developed occupational sensitization to procaine with multiple cross-reactions and with concurrent penicillin sensitization from procaine penicillin. Dibucaine-containing perianal medicaments are the major source of contact sensitization to topical anaesthetics. Although sensitization to multiple anaesthetics can be seen, cross-reactions are possible. Contact sensitization to lidocaine is not common, and possible cross-reactions should be determined when reactions to lidocaine are seen. Occupational procaine sensitization from veterinary medicaments is a risk among animal workers.

  4. Rectal cancer and Fournier’s gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Confirmed by Forensic Examination in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Welington Dos Santos; Barroso-Junior, Ubirajara de Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Child sexual abuse is a worldwide public health issue. The objective of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children in cases of sexual abuse confirmed by material evidence at forensic examination. Cases of children younger than 12 years examined for suspected sexual abuse at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were reviewed retrospectively. The period evaluated was between 2005 and 2010. The inclusion criterion was the coroner's confirmation of sexual abuse based on material evidence. The mean age of the children in whom sexual abuse was confirmed was 8.2 (SD, 2.9) years, and 208 cases were female (83.9%). In 94% of the cases, the reason for carrying out the forensic examination was a report of sexual abuse. Less than 1% of the aggressors were female. A ruptured hymen was the finding that confirmed sexual abuse in 172 cases, corresponding to 83% of cases in girls. There were 2 cases of pregnancy. Recent anal or perianal lesions were present in 35 (87.5%) of the confirmed cases involving boys. Laboratory confirmation based on the detection of spermatozoa or prostate-specific antigen occurred in only 4.2% of cases. In all these cases, sample collection was performed within 24 hours of the alleged abuse. Thus, in the majority of cases with material evidence of sexual abuse, the confirmation criteria consisted of a ruptured hymen and recent perianal lesions.

  6. A pilot study of the efficacy of wipes containing chlorhexidine 0.3%, climbazole 0.5% and Tris-EDTA to reduce Malassezia pachydermatis populations on canine skin.

    PubMed

    Cavana, Paola; Peano, Andrea; Petit, Jean-Yanique; Tizzani, Paolo; Perrot, Sébastien; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Wipes containing chlorhexidine and azole derivates have been recommended for veterinary use. No study has been published about their activity against Malassezia pachydermatis. To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro activity of wipes soaked in a chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA solution against Malassezia pachydermatis. Five research colony shar-pei dogs. Wipes were applied once daily onto the left axilla, left groin and perianal area (protocol A), and twice daily on the right axilla, right groin and umbilical region (protocol B) for 3 days. In vivo activity was evaluated by quantifying Malassezia colonies through contact plates on the selected body areas before and after wipe application. The activity of the solution in which the wipes were soaked was assessed in vitro by contact tests following the European Standard UNI EN 1275 guidelines. Samples collected after wipe application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia yeast CFU. No significant difference in the Malassezia reduction was found between protocols A and B. In vitro assay showed 100% activity against Malassezia yeasts after a 15 min contact time with the wipe solution. Wipes containing chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA substantially reduced the M. pachydermatis population on the skin of dogs. The results, although this was an uncontrolled study performed on a small number of dogs, suggest that these wipes may be useful for topical therapy of Malassezia dermatitis involving the lips, paws, perianal area and skin folds. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Experience in a Multidisciplinary Clinic in a Tertiary Hospital (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ribera, N; Fuertes-de Vega, I; Blanco-Arévalo, J L; Bosch-Mestres, J; González-Cordón, A; Estrach-Panella, T; García-de Olalla, P; Alsina-Gibert, M

    2016-04-01

    The number of consultations for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is increasing in Spain. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the epidemiological, behavioral, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of patients registered at the STI unit of a tertiary hospital. This was a retrospective, single-center descriptive study carried out between 2010 and 2013 in a multidisciplinary unit specialized in STIs, situated in a tertiary hospital. Epidemiological, clinical, and behavioral data were gathered using a face-to-face interview and a standardized questionnaire. Samples were collected for microbiology analysis. The study included 546 patients: 96% were men, 41% had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and 56% were men who have sex with men. The reasons for consultation were the following: urethritis; genital, anal, or perianal ulcers; proctitis; oral ulcers; sexual contact with a person with a known STI; and high-risk sexual contact. The most common microbiological diagnoses were Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethritis, Treponema pallidum in genital and anal or perianal ulcers, and Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum serovars in proctitis. The highest prevalences of the main STIs studied occurred in homosexual men with HIV infection. This study confirms the increase in the incidence of STIs in recent years and the epidemiological characteristics of the HIV/STI epidemic in Spain. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of Primary Cutaneous CD30+ Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, James B.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lund, Molly W.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (CALCL) is a relatively rare and indolent variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). This report examines the response of localized disease to radiation alone. Methods: The Yale Cancer Center records were examined, and all patients with CTCL from January 1, 2001, to September 1, 2006, evaluated in the Department of Therapeutic Radiology were identified. Only those patients with localized or single CALCL lesions, no clinical evidence or history of lymphomatoid papulosis, no history of other CTCLs, no history of other skin disorders, lack of lymph node involvement, unambiguous pathology reports, and treatment withmore » radiation alone were included. Results: Eight patients were identified. Median age was 67 years, and gender was split evenly. Patients received radiation ranging from 34 to 44 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Most patients (5 of 8) received 40 Gy, using 6 to 9 MeV electrons with 0.5 to 2 cm of bolus. All patients had a complete response. All patients were without evidence of disease at the most recent follow-up (median follow-up, 12 months). Radiation therapy was well tolerated, and the only recorded toxicity was Grade I to II dermatitis. Conclusions: Radiation therapy alone for localized CALCL is very well tolerated and clinical response is excellent. A dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions seems to be well tolerated and effective in inducing a complete response. Lower doses may be effective in achieving the same result, but data are not available. Longer follow-up is necessary before conclusions regarding durable disease-free survival can be made.« less

  9. Survival outcomes and prognostic factors in mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome: validation of the revised International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer staging proposal.

    PubMed

    Agar, Nita Sally; Wedgeworth, Emma; Crichton, Siobhan; Mitchell, Tracey J; Cox, Michael; Ferreira, Silvia; Robson, Alistair; Calonje, Eduardo; Stefanato, Catherine M; Wain, Elizabeth Mary; Wilkins, Bridget; Fields, Paul A; Dean, Alan; Webb, Katherine; Scarisbrick, Julia; Morris, Stephen; Whittaker, Sean J

    2010-11-01

    We have analyzed the outcome of mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) patients using the recent International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas (ISCL)/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) revised staging proposal. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and risk of disease progression (RDP) were calculated for a cohort of 1,502 patients using univariate and multivariate models. The mean age at diagnosis was 54 years, and 71% of patients presented with early-stage disease. Disease progression occurred in 34%, and 26% of patients died due to MF/SS. A significant difference in survival and progression was noted for patients with early-stage disease having patches alone (T1a/T2a) compared with those having patches and plaques (T1b/T2b). Univariate analysis established that (1) advanced skin and overall clinical stage, increased age, male sex, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and large-cell transformation were associated with reduced survival and increased RDP; (2) hypopigmented MF, MF with lymphomatoid papulosis, and poikilodermatous MF were associated with improved survival and reduced RDP; and (3) folliculotropic MF was associated with an increased RDP. Multivariate analysis established that (1) advanced skin (T) stage, the presence in peripheral blood of the tumor clone without Sézary cells (B0b), increased LDH, and folliculotropic MF were independent predictors of poor survival and increased RDP; (2) large-cell transformation and tumor distribution were independent predictors of increased RDP only; and (3) N, M, and B stages; age; male sex; and poikilodermatous MF were only significant for survival. This study has validated the recently proposed ISCL/EORTC staging system and identified new prognostic factors.

  10. [Clinicopathologic features of primary mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders in head and neck region].

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Li, M; Zhang, L Y; Guo, L; Hu, W W; Rao, H L

    2018-06-08

    Objective: To study clinicopathologic features, prognosis and differential diagnoses of primary mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the head and neck(mCD30(+) TLPD-head and neck). Methods: Three cases of mCD30(+) TLPD-head and neck were collected from January 2014 to April 2017 at Sun Yat-Sen University Foshan Hospital. A literature review of mCD30(+) TLPD of head and neck was provided. Results: All three cases presented with either bulging/exophytic nodule or mucosal ulcer/erosion. Morphologically, the tumor consisted of diffuse proliferation of uniform, large atypical mononuclear lymphoid cells that showed irregular or polymorphic nuclei with small nucleoli, and abundant pale or amphophilic cytoplasm. Hallmark cells with eccentric, horseshoe, kidney-like, or doughnut-shaped nuclei were present. While mitotic figures were present, no tumor necrosis was found. Eosinophilc infiltration was obvious in the background. The atypical large lymphoid cells had a immunophenotype of CD30(+) /CD3(+) /CD4(+) /CD56(-) along with positive cytotoxic molecule. While being negative for EBER/ALK/CD20/CD8, TCR rearrangement was found in 2 out of 3 cases. Three patients were cured after excision without relapse and metastasis.The two patients with TCR rearrangement didn't show aggressive clinical course. Conclusions: mCD30(+) TLPD-head and neck is a rare benign lymphoproliferative disorder with spontaneous regression. It should be differentiated from cutaneous CD30(+) anaplstic large cell lymphoma, lymphomatoid papulosis, and EBV-related mucocutaneous ulcer. Correct recognition of mCD30(+) TLPD of head and neck is important to avoid overtreatment.

  11. Traditional Chinese Medicine herbs for stopping bleeding from haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gan, Tao; Liu, Yue-Dong; Wang, Yiping; Yang, Jinlin

    2010-10-06

    Haemorrhoids is a common perianal disease, which often causes haematochezia. Besides a surgical operation or minimally invasive treatment, a variety of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs (TCMHs) have been used to treat bleeding haemorrhoids. To assess the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs for stopping bleeding from haemorrhoids and the adverse effects caused by these herbs. We searched the Cochrane Colorectal Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Contolled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CMCD (Chinese Medicine Conference Disc) and CBMD (Chinese Bio-Medicine Disc). All randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbs for bleeding haemorrhoids were included. Two authors independently extracted the data, which were analysed using RevMan 5.0 software. We estimated the relative risk for dichotomous data and calculated the weighted mean difference for continuous data. Nine trials involving 1822 patients with bleeding haemorrhoids were identified. The included trials were generally not of high quality and used one TCMH preparation compared with another TCMH preparation (Type I) (five trials) or western medicines (Type II) (four trials). We could not pool the data to perform a meta-analysis as only two of the included trials used the same intervention or comparison.In the nine trials, TCMHs showed a statistically significant difference for the improvement in the general curative effects or total grade of symptoms in six trials (P < 0.05; P < 0.01), of hematochezia in three trials (P < 0.05; P < 0.001), and of inflammation of perianal mucosa in one trial (P < 0.05). The adverse effects reported were not serious and were scarce. This review did not provide strong evidence concerning the effectiveness of TCMHs for stopping bleeding from haemorrhoids. Most of the included studies were of low quality and there was a scarcity of eligible trials and numbers of participants. Limited, weak evidence showed that

  12. The expression of keratins, vimentin, neurofilament proteins, smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, and synaptophysin in tumors of the specific glands in the canine anal region.

    PubMed

    Vos, J H; van den Ingh, T S; Ramaekers, F C; Molenbeek, R F; de Neijs, M; van Mil, F N; Ivanyi, D

    1993-07-01

    Eight canine tumors originating from specific glandular structures in the anal region, as well as metastatic tumor tissue of two of these cases (case Nos. 7, 8), were immunohistochemically analyzed using various monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) directed against human keratin types, vimentin, neurofilament proteins, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. These tumors also were stained for the broad-spectrum neuroendocrine markers neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and synaptophysin. In histologically normal canine anal structures, alpha-smooth muscle actin and NSE antibodies stained basally localized (probably myoepithelial) cells in the anal glands and the anal sac glands. NSE staining also was present in a limited number of luminal cells in both anal glands and anal sac glands. Synaptophysin labeling was not observed in any of these glandular structures. Histologically, the tumors were differentiated into well- and moderately differentiated perianal gland tumors (n = 5) and carcinomas without perianal gland differentiation (n = 3), corresponding to the so-called apocrine carcinomas of the anal region. Immunohistochemically, the perianal gland tumors could be differentiated from the carcinomas by marked differences in staining pattern with the various keratin MoAbs, particularly MoAbs directed against human keratin types 7 and 18. The keratin-staining characteristics of the carcinomas suggest a glandular luminal cell origin. Metastases of the carcinomas showed loss of some keratin-staining characteristics as compared with the primary tumor. Staining for NSE was only observed in solitary cells and small cell clusters in the carcinomas and their metastases, whereas the alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody did not react with the carcinoma cells. None of the tumors stained for neurofilament proteins or synaptophysin. An unequivocal neuroendocrine nature of the carcinomas could not be substantiated by our immunohistochemical study, although the presence of a population of neuroendocrine

  13. Temporal Change in Phenotypic Behaviour in Patients with Crohn's Disease: Do Indian Patients Behave Differently from Western and Other Asian Patients?

    PubMed

    Kalaria, Rishikesh; Desai, Devendra; Abraham, Philip; Joshi, Anand; Gupta, Tarun; Shah, Sudeep

    2016-03-01

    In Western studies, one-third of patients with Crohn's disease have stricturing or penetrating disease at presentation and one-half will progress to complicated disease in 20 years. Asian studies indicate that the Asian disease phenotype may be different. Our aim was to study the disease behaviour in Indian patients with Crohn's disease. In this hospital-based study, we analysed [Montreal classification] disease phenotype, presence of perianal disease, need for intestinal surgery, and changes in the Montreal classification over time in Crohn's disease patients from our database. In the 178 patients (median age 35, interquartile range [IQR] 21 years; 97 males) with Crohn's disease, the proportion of various features was as follows. More patients had ileo-colonic[L3: 43.8%] than ileal[L1: 27.5%] or colonic[L2: 28.7%] disease. Perianal disease was seen in 11.8% at baseline. Non-stricturing, non-fistulising disease[B1] was seen in 74.7%, 65.7%, 50%, and 44.4% at baseline, at 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively. Stricturing disease[B2] was seen in 21.4%, 21.9%, 28.9%, and 33.3%; penetrating disease[B3] in 3.9%, 11.4%, 21%, and 16.7%; and intestinal surgery was required in 10.7%, 20%, 34.2%, and 55.5%, respectively. KaplanMeier analysis showed no association between progression of disease and patient age or the location of the disease. Gender distribution and predominant ileo-colonic location of disease were similar to earlier Asian reports on Crohn's disease. Perianal disease was less frequent than reported in Western and other Asian studies. One-fourth of Indian patients had aggressive disease at diagnosis, but the tendency to progress towards aggressive disease over time was less pronounced than in Western patients. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Diagnostic Delay in Romanian Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Risk Factors and Impact on the Disease Course and Need for Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zaharie, Roxana; Zaharie, Florin; Tantau, Marcel; Gheorghe, Liana; Gheorghe, Cristian; Gologan, Serban; Cijevschi, Cristina; Trifan, Anca; Dobru, Daniela; Goldis, Adrian; Constantinescu, Gabriel; Iacob, Razvan; Diculescu, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    Background: The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in Eastern Europe is poorly understood, particularly with regard to diagnostic delay. Here we investigated the factors leading to delayed diagnosis and the effect of the delay on several disease progression and outcome measures. Methods: A total of 1196 IBD cases [682 ulcerative colitis [UC], 478 Crohn’s disease [CD], 36 indeterminate colitis] from the Romanian national registry IBDPROSPECT were reviewed. Standard clinical and demographic factors were evaluated as predictors of a long diagnostic delay in both CD and UC. Diagnostic delay was subsequently evaluated as a potential risk factor for bowel stenoses, bowel fistulas, perianal fistulas, perianal surgery, and intestinal surgery in CD patients. Results: The median diagnostic delay was significantly longer in CD [5 months] than in UC [1 month] patients [p < 0.001]. Compared with 5 months for UC patients, 75% of CD patients were diagnosed within 18 months of symptom onset. In CD patients, extra-ileal location was a protective factor (odds ratio [OR], 0.5; p = 0.03), whereas being an active smoker [OR, 2.09; p = 0.01] and symptom onset during summer [OR, 3.35; p < 0.001] were independent risk factors for a long diagnostic delay [> 18 months]. In UC patients, an age > 40 years was a protective factor [OR, 0.68; p = 0.04] for a long delay. Regarding outcomes, a long diagnostic delay in CD patients positively correlated with bowel stenoses [OR, 3.38; p < 0.01] and any IBD-related surgery [OR, 1.95; p = 0.03] and had a positive trend for intestinal fistulas [OR, 2.64; p = 0.08] and perianal fistulas [OR, 2.9; p = 0.07]. Disease duration since diagnosis positively correlated with bowel stenoses [OR, 1.04; p = 0.04], any IBD-related surgery [OR, 1.04; p = 0.02], and intestinal surgery [OR, 1.07; p < 0.01]. Conclusions: A long diagnostic delay in IBD correlates with an increased frequency of bowel stenoses and need for IBD-related surgery. PMID:26589956

  15. The acute management of haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Hardy, A; Cohen, C R G

    2014-10-01

    Although the acute thrombosis and strangulation of haemorrhoids is a common condition, there is no consensus as to its most effective treatment. A PubMed search was undertaken for papers describing the aetiology and treatment of the acute complications of haemorrhoids. The anatomy and treatments for strangulated internal haemorrhoids and thrombosed perianal varices are discussed. Studies of the effectiveness and complications of conservative and operative treatments are reviewed. Ambiguities exist in the terminology used to describe the two separate pathologies that make up the acute complications of haemorrhoids. These complications have traditionally been treated conservatively. There is evidence that early operative intervention for strangulated internal haemorrhoids is safe and effective. A suggested algorithm for treatment is given, based on the published literature.

  16. The acute management of haemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, CRG

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although the acute thrombosis and strangulation of haemorrhoids is a common condition, there is no consensus as to its most effective treatment. Methods A PubMed search was undertaken for papers describing the aetiology and treatment of the acute complications of haemorrhoids. Results The anatomy and treatments for strangulated internal haemorrhoids and thrombosed perianal varices are discussed. Studies of the effectiveness and complications of conservative and operative treatments are reviewed. Conclusions Ambiguities exist in the terminology used to describe the two separate pathologies that make up the acute complications of haemorrhoids. These complications have traditionally been treated conservatively. There is evidence that early operative intervention for strangulated internal haemorrhoids is safe and effective. A suggested algorithm for treatment is given, based on the published literature. PMID:25245728

  17. OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolate of sequence type 198 in a patient transferred from Libya to Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Seiffert, Salome N; Perreten, Vincent; Johannes, Sönke; Droz, Sara; Bodmer, Thomas; Endimiani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a case of OXA-48-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky of sequence type 198 (ST198) from perianal screening cultures of a patient transferred from Libya to Switzerland. The blaOXA-48 gene was carried by Tn1999.2 and located on an ∼60-kb IncL/M plasmid. This Salmonella strain also possessed the blaVEB-8, aac(6)-Ib, tet(A), sul1, and mphA resistance genes and substitutions in GyrA (Ser83Phe and Asp87Asn) and ParC (Ser80Ile). This finding emphasizes that prompt screening strategies are essential to prevent the dissemination of carbapenemase producers imported from countries where they are endemic.

  18. [Significance of group A streptococcal infections in human pathology].

    PubMed

    Cvjetković, Dejan; Jovanović, Jovana; Hrnjaković-Cvjetković, Ivana; Aleksić-Dordević, Mirjana; Stefan-Mikić, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Group A streptococci is the causative agent in 80 percents of human streptococcal infections. The only member of this group is Streptococcus pyogenes. CLINICALFEATURES OF GAS INFECTIONS: The various clinical entities and related complications caused by pyogenic streptococci are reviewed in the article. Pharyngitis, scarlet fever, skin and soft tissue infections (pyoderma, cellulitis, perianal dermatitis, necrotising fasciitis) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are described. The way of setting the diagnosis including epidemiological data, clinical features and the course of illness, laboratory findings and supportive diagnostic methods are represented in the article. The most important clinical entities which should be discussed in differential diagnosis of diseases caused by pyogenic streptococci are listed. The major principles of etiologic treatment through widely accepted strategies related to first choice antibiotics and alternatives are reviewed.

  19. Anal carcinoma and HIV infection: is it time for screening?

    PubMed

    Herranz-Pinto, P; Sendagorta-Cudós, E; Bernardino-de la Serna, J I; Peña-Sánchez de Rivera, J M

    2014-03-01

    A 38-year-old white man had a 10-year history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (A3), with no episodes of opportunistic diseases and in good immunologic recovery (CD4 cell count: 450 and indetectable HIV viral load) while on HAART. He presented with a two-month history of mild anal symptoms, including pruritus and episodic bleeding. He referred past episodes of anal warts, self-treated with several topical compounds, all proven unsuccessful. Perianal examination showed erythema and scratching. A 0.5cm sized tumor, with infiltration at the base was detected on digital exam, located at 15mm from the anal margin. Local biopsy driven by high-resolution anuscopy (AAR) yielded a final diagnosis of infiltrative epidermoid carcinoma. Might that neoplasia have been prevented? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. [Ecologic and epidemiologic features of the circulation of streptococcus group B at a maternity clinic].

    PubMed

    Bochkov, I A; Shevchuk, M S; Semina, N A; Fiks, L I; Elinkova, Ia

    1989-04-01

    In a maternity clinic the circulation of group B streptococci among the newborns, their mothers and the personnel was established during the period of 1982-1985. Group B streptococci were detected at different biotypes of newborns (the pharynx, the imbilical stump, external suditory meatus, nasal and oral mucosa, eyes and feces), their mothers (the vagina, the perianal area, breast milk, the pharynx, urine, the umbilical cord, amniotic fluid) and in the pharynx of the personnel. In this maternity clinic 15 combinations of type antigens were detected, two combinations (1a/c and 1 b/c) prevailing among them. These results confirmed earlier data concerning two possible ways of transferring infection to newborn infants: vertical, i.e. from the mother to the child during parturition, and nosocomial, i.e. from contaminated newborns or members of the personnel.

  1. Anal Canal Gas Gangrene in Aplastic Anaemia: Rare yet Lethal Entity - A Caveat.

    PubMed

    Sudharsanan, Sundaramurthi; Vijayakumar, Chellappa; Manish, Kumar; Elamurugan, T P; Manwar, Ali S

    2017-07-13

    Gas gangrene is one of the most serious infections of traumatic and surgical wounds. The importance lies in the fact that, if not managed at the right time, the condition is fatal. Though perianal cellulitis and gangrene are commonly reported in immunocompromised patients, we report the case of a patient with gas gangrene involving only the anal canal extending to the rectum, a rare presentation to be reported in literature.  An 18-year-old lady, a patient of aplastic anaemia - immunodeficiency, developed gas gangrene of the anal canal possibly due to faecal contamination of anal fissures. The patient was managed with surgical debridement and intravenous antibiotics.  The clinical manifestations of gas gangrene are due to the liberation of toxins by Clostridium perfringens. The infection spreads rapidly and results in necrosis and devitalisation of tissues, unless intervened surgically. The clinical manifestations are more rapid and a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis.

  2. Anal Canal Gas Gangrene in Aplastic Anaemia: Rare yet Lethal Entity - A Caveat

    PubMed Central

    Sudharsanan, Sundaramurthi; Vijayakumar, Chellappa; Manish, Kumar; Elamurugan, TP

    2017-01-01

    Gas gangrene is one of the most serious infections of traumatic and surgical wounds. The importance lies in the fact that, if not managed at the right time, the condition is fatal. Though perianal cellulitis and gangrene are commonly reported in immunocompromised patients, we report the case of a patient with gas gangrene involving only the anal canal extending to the rectum, a rare presentation to be reported in literature.  An 18-year-old lady, a patient of aplastic anaemia - immunodeficiency, developed gas gangrene of the anal canal possibly due to faecal contamination of anal fissures. The patient was managed with surgical debridement and intravenous antibiotics.  The clinical manifestations of gas gangrene are due to the liberation of toxins by Clostridium perfringens. The infection spreads rapidly and results in necrosis and devitalisation of tissues, unless intervened surgically. The clinical manifestations are more rapid and a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis. PMID:28936381

  3. Factitious Disorder Presenting with Attempted Simulation of Fournier's Gangrene.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Joseph; Poullos, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one's own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness. We present a case of a 35-year-old man with factitious disorder who attempted to simulate Fournier's gangrene by injecting his scrotum with air and fluid. We will review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of Factitious Disorder, as well as Fournier's gangrene.

  4. Factitious Disorder Presenting with Attempted Simulation of Fournier’s Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Joseph; Poullos, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one’s own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness. We present a case of a 35-year-old man with factitious disorder who attempted to simulate Fournier’s gangrene by injecting his scrotum with air and fluid. We will review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of Factitious Disorder, as well as Fournier’s gangrene. PMID:27761196

  5. Enterobiasis in primary schools in Bang Khun Thian District, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Changsap, B; Nithikathkul, C; Boontan, P; Wannapinyosheep, S; Vongvanich, N; Poister, C

    2002-01-01

    A study of enterobiasis and its correlation with various factors that could potentially influence the rate of infection was conducted among 3,621 primary school children (five to ten years old), drawn from sixteen schools in Bang Khun Thian District, Bangkok. Diagnosis was by the transparent tape swab technique, which was used to recover Enterobius vermicularis eggs from the perianal region. The transparent tape swabs were then placed on slides for examination by light microscopy. The average rate of infection for the group was 21.57%. No statistically significant differences were found between the male and female children. The younger children had a higher rate of infection. Subjects from schools located in industrial and metropolitan areas showed slightly higher rates of infection than those from agricultural areas. Data from the questionnaires in the study indicated that factors such as parental socio-economic status (occupational, income and education) and the children's personal hygiene contributed to the varying rates of infection.

  6. Surgical Interventions and the Use of Device-Aided Therapy for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence and Defecatory Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Rao, Satish S C; Shin, Andrea S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this clinical practice update expert review is to describe the key principles in the use of surgical interventions and device-aided therapy for managing fecal incontinence (FI) and defecatory disorders. The best practices outlined in this review are based on relevant publications, including systematic reviews and expert opinion (when applicable). Best Practice Advice 1: A stepwise approach should be followed for management of FI. Conservative therapies (diet, fluids, techniques to improve evacuation, a bowel training program, management of diarrhea and constipation with diet and medications if necessary) will benefit approximately 25% of patients and should be tried first. Best Practice Advice 2: Pelvic floor retraining with biofeedback therapy is recommended for patients with FI who do not respond to the conservative measures indicated above. Best Practice Advice 3: Perianal bulking agents such as intra-anal injection of dextranomer may be considered when conservative measures and biofeedback therapy fail. Best Practice Advice 4: Sacral nerve stimulation should be considered for patients with moderate or severe FI in whom symptoms have not responded after a 3-month or longer trial of conservative measures and biofeedback therapy and who do not have contraindications to these procedures. Best Practice Advice 5: Until further evidence is available, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation should not be used for managing FI in clinical practice. Best Practice Advice 6: Barrier devices should be offered to patients who have failed conservative or surgical therapy, or in those who have failed conservative therapy who do not want or are not eligible for more invasive interventions. Best Practice Advice 7: Anal sphincter repair (sphincteroplasty) should be considered in postpartum women with FI and in patients with recent sphincter injuries. In patients who present later with symptoms of FI unresponsive to conservative and biofeedback therapy and evidence of

  7. Enterobiasis in Ectopic Locations Mimicking Tumor-Like Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pampiglione, Silvio; Rivasi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Both the clinical and the histopathological diagnostic difficulties of oxyuriasis in unusual sites and their importance from a clinical point of view are pointed out. The authors report two ectoptic cases of enterobiasis observed in Northern Italy, one located in a fallopian tube of a 57-year-old woman and the other in a perianal subcutaneous tissue of a 59-year-old man, mimicking tumor-like lesions. The authors take advantage of the occasion to focus the attention of the medical world on this subject, lamenting the scarce importance given to this parasitosis in university courses of medical schools and in medical textbooks as it is incorrectly considered “out-of-fashion.” PMID:20016678

  8. Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

  9. The Roswell Park Cancer Institute experience with extramammary Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Zollo, J D; Zeitouni, N C

    2000-01-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm. Common sites of occurrence include the vulva, perianal region, perineum and scrotum. Despite frequent recurrences, surgery is the standard treatment. This study examines the recurrence rate for EMPD treated by conventional surgical management. Alternative and multimodal therapeutic approaches are reviewed. This retrospective analysis included all 30 patients treated for EMPD at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) between 1970 and 1998. Following conventional surgical treatment, 44% of our patients developed recurrence. Vulvectomy provided the lowest recurrence rate, but involved extensive tissue loss and functional debility. Multimodal treatment using Mohs' micrographic surgery and photodynamic therapy has been used at RPCI to manage EMPD with minimal tissue loss and no functional impairment. Surgical treatment offers a moderate chance of EMPD cure. Long-term multimodal approaches require close follow-up, but may conserve both tissue and function.

  10. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among Preschool Children in Gimhae-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Jin-Hee; Ju, Jung-Won; Lee, Won-Ja

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Gimhae-si, Korea. A total of 6,921 preschool children in 76 kindergartens were examined using the cellotape perianal swab method. The overall egg positive rate (EPR) was 10.5%. The EPR in boys was higher than that in girls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.5, P<0.001), and it was higher in rural than in urban children (AOR: 1.2, P=0.022). The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection is fairly high among preschool children in Gimhae-si. Therefore, systematic control and preventive measures should be adopted to reduce morbidity associated with this nematode infection. PMID:21738277

  11. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Gimhae-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Jin-Hee; Ju, Jung-Won; Lee, Won-Ja; Cho, Shin-Hyeong

    2011-06-01

    The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Gimhae-si, Korea. A total of 6,921 preschool children in 76 kindergartens were examined using the cellotape perianal swab method. The overall egg positive rate (EPR) was 10.5%. The EPR in boys was higher than that in girls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.5, P<0.001), and it was higher in rural than in urban children (AOR: 1.2, P=0.022). The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection is fairly high among preschool children in Gimhae-si. Therefore, systematic control and preventive measures should be adopted to reduce morbidity associated with this nematode infection.

  12. Enterobius vermicularis infection of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Powell, George; Sarmah, Piyush; Sethi, Bhawana; Ganesan, Raji

    2013-10-31

    Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal parasite, which may occasionally involve extraintestinal sites including the female genital tract. We report a rare case of ovarian involvement, which presented with chronic right iliac fossa pain in a 31-year-old woman. A transvaginal ultrasound scan was suggestive of a right adnexal dermoid cyst; however, histological examination of the subsequent salpingo-oophorectomy specimen showed an abscess containing viable E. vermicularis ova. E. vermicularis is the most prevalent human nematode worldwide. Its ova are ingested, larvae hatch and mature female worms journey to the perianal region where they lay eggs. Female worms may also migrate from the anus along the female genital tract. Although of low pathogenicity, complications such as infertility or peritonitis may arise.

  13. Enterobius vermicularis infection of the ovary

    PubMed Central

    Powell, George; Sarmah, Piyush; Sethi, Bhawana; Ganesan, Raji

    2013-01-01

    Summary Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal parasite, which may occasionally involve extraintestinal sites including the female genital tract. We report a rare case of ovarian involvement, which presented with chronic right iliac fossa pain in a 31-year-old woman. A transvaginal ultrasound scan was suggestive of a right adnexal dermoid cyst; however, histological examination of the subsequent salpingo-oophorectomy specimen showed an abscess containing viable E. vermicularis ova. E. vermicularis is the most prevalent human nematode worldwide. Its ova are ingested, larvae hatch and mature female worms journey to the perianal region where they lay eggs. Female worms may also migrate from the anus along the female genital tract. Although of low pathogenicity, complications such as infertility or peritonitis may arise. PMID:24177459

  14. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, VL

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633

  15. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, Vl

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  16. Ectopic Enterobius Vermicularis Infestation; An Extremely Rare Cause Of Mesenteric Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Tuberculous Lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Summaiya; Tariq, Muhammad Usman; Ahmed, Zubair

    2018-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (EV) is a pinworm which commonly resides in the lumen of the intestinal tract and lays eggs on the perianal skin. However, rarely the worm can infest various other sites in the body and cases with infestation of such ectopic sites have been reported in literature. Rare cases of mesenteric lymph node involvement have also been reported. We report a case in a young male who presented with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis. During surgery, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were identified. Histological examination revealed adult worm in the appendiceal lumen. Histological examination of mesenteric lymph node revealed degenerated worm surrounded by caseating chronic granulomatous inflammation. We conclude that EV infestation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of enlarged mesenteric lymph node with chronic granulomatous inflammation, especially in young patients and when accompanying bowel tissue also reveal the helminth.

  17. The development of Fournier's gangrene following rubber band ligation of haemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Daryl; Hureibi, Khalid; Zia, Khawaja; Uheba, Mokthar

    2013-01-01

    The development of Fournier's gangrene in an 80-year-old male patient with diabetes after a routine outpatient haemorrhoid banding procedure is described. Four days following the procedure, the patient noticed an increasing amount of pain and swelling of the perianal region. When the patient presented to the emergency department 18 days later, immediate radical debridement of ischiorectal necrotic tissue was performed. A defunctioning loop sigmoid colostomy was also formed. Subsequent operations required excision of the scrotum and abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Histology studies later confirmed the presence of necrotising fasciitis. The case acts as a reminder that clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for high-risk patients still suffering from problems following the procedure. PMID:24287481

  18. Endoscopy and cross-sectional imaging for assessing Crohn׳s disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Stidham, Ryan W.; Cross, Raymond K.

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is principally characterized by chronic and recurrent inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly found in the ileo-colonic region. The chronicity and severity of intestinal inflammation together contribute to progressive, cumulative, deep, transmural intestinal damage, including stricturing, obstruction, abscesses, and fistulae. Both intestinal inflammation and its chronic complications result in a range of symptoms subsequently leading to patient presentations with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and anemia related to intestinal blood loss. Measuring disease activity and severity are essential for decision of treatment intensity early in the disease course and longitudinal monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. This review will summarize the transition from subjective symptoms driving disease activity indices, into increasingly objective and quantitative measures of intestinal injury by direct mucosal assessment (endoscopy), cross-sectional imaging, and surrogate biomarkers. Specific commentary on intestinal stricture and perianal fistula assessment and management are presented in accompanying sections of this series. PMID:28458507

  19. Endoscopy and cross-sectional imaging for assessing Crohn׳s disease activity.

    PubMed

    Stidham, Ryan W; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-07-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is principally characterized by chronic and recurrent inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly found in the ileo-colonic region. The chronicity and severity of intestinal inflammation together contribute to progressive, cumulative, deep, transmural intestinal damage, including stricturing, obstruction, abscesses, and fistulae. Both intestinal inflammation and its chronic complications result in a range of symptoms subsequently leading to patient presentations with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and anemia related to intestinal blood loss. Measuring disease activity and severity are essential for decision of treatment intensity early in the disease course and longitudinal monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. This review will summarize the transition from subjective symptoms driving disease activity indices, into increasingly objective and quantitative measures of intestinal injury by direct mucosal assessment (endoscopy), cross-sectional imaging, and surrogate biomarkers. Specific commentary on intestinal stricture and perianal fistula assessment and management are presented in accompanying sections of this series.

  20. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Bunichiro; Taniai, Eriko; Hayashi, Hitomi; Imaoka, Masako; Machida, Noboru; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2011-07-01

    A perianal subcutaneous tumor involving the anal sac developed in an 8-year-old male mixed Labrador Retriever dog. Histologically, this tumor showed typical features of the solid-type carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac. However, neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for cytokeratin 8, chromogranin A, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuron-specific enolase, and synaptophysin, and negative for S-100 protein, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, carcinoembryonic antigen, serotonin, and parathyroid hormone-related protein. Considering the distribution of chromogranin A-positive cells within the anal sac apocrine glands, this tumor was diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma originating from the apocrine glands of the anal sac.

  1. Treatment of tumor-bearing dogs with actinomycin D.

    PubMed

    Hammer, A S; Couto, C G; Ayl, R D; Shank, K A

    1994-01-01

    Fifty dogs with advanced malignancies were treated with actinomycin D at doses ranging from 0.5 to 1.1 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. The greatest number of responses was noted in dogs with lymphoma, including dogs that had received prior chemotherapy. Other responding tumor types included anal sac adenocarcinoma, perianal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, and transitional cell carcinoma. The median time to maximum response for dogs with lymphoma was 7 days, with a median duration of 42 days. Gastrointestinal toxicity was the most frequently observed side effect. A dose of 0.6 to 0.7 mg/m2 appears to be appropriate for treating various malignancies in dogs.

  2. Guttate Psoriasis Following Streptococcal Vulvovaginitis in a Five-year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Melia; Simms-Cendan, Judith; Zendell, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Guttate psoriasis is frequently associated with a preceding pharyngeal or perianal streptococcal infection in children. Despite Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) being the most common cause of specific bacterial vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, there are no reports of streptococcal vulvovaginitis triggering guttate psoriasis. A five-year-old girl presented with guttate psoriasis following an episode of Streptococcal pyogenes vulvovaginitis. Following antibiotic treatment and bacterial eradication she developed vulvar psoriasis that resolved with high potency topical steroids. Identification of an antecedent streptoccocal infection can help predict the long term prognosis in children with guttate psoriasis. The vulvovaginal area should be considered as a source of GABHS infection in young girls with guttate psoriasis, and cultures should be considered if symptoms are present. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. [Chronic vulvar lymphedema revealing Crohn disease in a teenage girl].

    PubMed

    Aounallah, A; Ghariani Fetoui, N; Ksiaa, M; Boussofara, L; Saidi, W; Mokni, S; Sriha, B; Belajouza, C; Denguezli, M; Ghariani, N; Nouira, R

    2017-04-01

    Cutaneous Crohn disease is a rare cutaneous manifestation of Crohn disease in children. Herein is reported a case of persistent vulvar lymphedema revealing Crohn disease in a teenage girl. A 14-year-old girl presented with an 8-month history of persistent vulvar swelling associated with chronic macrocheilia. Dermatologic examination showed an inflammatory vulvar lymphedema, associated with perianal fissures and hypertrophic gingivitis. Vulvar skin biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Gastrointestinal endoscopy yielded no significant findings. The diagnosis of Crohn disease presenting as vulvar lymphedema was established. Oral metronidazole therapy resulted in partial improvement of cutaneous lesions beginning the 1st week. The originality of this case lies in the presentation of chronic macrocheilia with persistent vulvar lymphedema in a child, revealing Crohn disease without gastrointestinal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of metastatic cutaneous Crohn disease with certolizumab.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Maija; Camp, Brendan; Adhami, Katayun; Jacob, Vinita; Magro, Cynthia; Wildman, Horatio

    2015-11-18

    Metastatic Crohn disease is a rare cutaneous manifestation of Crohn disease characterized by granulomatous lesions discontinuous with the diseased areas of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman with history of Crohn disease who was admitted for treatment of cellulitis after presenting with a tender erythematous plaque of the left calf. Microbiological tests including tissue cultures were negative. A skin biopsy revealed granulomatous dermatitis consistent with metastatic cutaneous Crohn disease. Owing to concomitant perianal fistulas and abscesses and prior infusion reaction to infliximab, the patient was treated with certolizumab, a pegylated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor combined with methotrexate resulting in complete resolution of the skin lesion. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing this rare skin manifestation of Crohn disease and adds certolizumab as one of TNF inhibitors useful in the treatment of metastatic cutaneous Crohn disease.

  5. SciTech Connect

    Bronskill, M.J.

    The spatial distribution of radioactivity in the injection site, and its rate of clearance, have been measured in patients undergoing various types of interstitial radiocolloid lymphoscintigraphy using 99mTc-antimony sulfide colloid. The clearance of radioactivity from the injection site, and the expansion with time of the localized radioactivity vary considerably for different sites of injection. Maximum absorbed dose estimates of 45.6 rads to the center of the injection site (rectus sheath) and 21 rads to individual lymph nodes have been calculated for patients undergoing internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy with 450 mu Ci injected radioactivity. Absorbed dose estimates for finger web, toe web,more » and perianal injection sites are also presented.« less

  6. Self-administered topical imiquimod treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. A report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Davis, G; Wentworth, J; Richard, J

    2000-08-01

    Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) generally can be classified into viral and nonviral etiologies. The histopathologic diagnosis is often separable into basaloid and warty types. A large percentage of VIN lesions have been shown to harbor human papillomavirus (HPV), principally type 16. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of external and perianal genital warts caused by HPV. Four cases occurred of clinical and histopathologically diagnosed viral VIN 3. An imiquimod treatment protocol, previously used in a study of this drug for the treatment of external genital warts, was followed. Imiquimod 5% cream was patient applied three times per week until all lesions cleared, for a maximum of 16 weeks. Imiquimod may be an effective treatment modality for viral VIN 3 in the future.

  7. Ectopic cutaneous schistosomiasis-perigenital infiltrative granulomata in a 34-year-old French pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Pistone, Thierry; Ezzedine, Khaled; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Receveur, Marie-Catherine; Juguet, Frédéric; Malvy, Denis

    2008-05-01

    Schistosomiasis, an infection with the three anthropophilic species of Schistosoma, is endemic throughout wide areas of the tropics and subtropics with an estimated rate of over 200 million people infected worldwide. Whereas symptoms and signs of vesical and gastrointestinal forms of the infection are recognized readily, cutaneous manifestations are still a challenging diagnosis particularly in Western countries. A case is described of a 34-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman who presented to our department and was diagnosed with a cutaneous schistosomiasis involvement of the perianal region. Shistosoma haematobium was shown to be present in the lesion by histopathology and was considered to be the causative organism of the disease. Treatment with a course of oral praziquantel in a dose of 40mg/kg allowed resolution of the symptoms.

  8. Genital lichen sclerosus in a case of male-to-female gender reassignment.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, S I; Craig, P; Calonje, E; Neill, S M

    2006-09-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic cutaneous disorder of uncertain aetiology seen predominantly in females. It is characterized by white atrophic macules and plaques with a predilection for involvement of the genitalia and perianal skin. Gender-identity disorder (transsexualism) is a descriptive term for individuals having the genetic, somatic and hormonal basis of one sex but who identify sexually with the opposite sex. Surgical gender reassignment is a fundamental step in the management of these complex patients and is driven by the individual's belief of being the opposite sex 'trapped' in the wrong body. We report a case of genital lichen sclerosus in hair-bearing skin originally from the scrotum, in an individual who had undergone male-to-female gender reassignment. To our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported to date.

  9. Atypical desquamation in a 2.5-year-old boy with Kawasaki disease: A case report.

    PubMed

    Adib, Ali; Fazel, Ali; Nabavizadeh, Seyed Hesamedin; Alyasin, Sohaila; Kashef, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis that mostly affects children under 5 years of age. This article presents a 2.5-year-old boy who presented with 6 days of fever, generalized maculopapular rash, bilateral non-exudative conjunctivitis, cracked lips, right cervical lymphadenopathy, erythematous extremities, and perianal desquamation. Laboratory studies showed leukocytosis and sterile pyuria. Because diagnosis of KD was proved, oral acetylsalicylic acid with the anti-inflammatory dose and intravenous immunoglobulin were started for him. On the seventh day of admission time, he developed desquamation and erythema on the site of his right cervical lymphadenopathy as well as periungual scaling. About three weeks after starting the treatment, scaling of the cervical lymphadenopathy and periungual area stopped. Echocardiography was performed for him three times: at the time of diagnosis, four weeks, and 6 months later and revealed normal coronary arteries. We report this sign, desquamation on the site of cervical lymphadenopathy, as a new finding.

  10. Postoperative pain after haemorrhoidectomy: role of impaired evacuation.

    PubMed

    Puigdollers, A; Cisternas, D; Azpiroz, F

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesized that obstructive defaecation is associated with more postoperative pain after haemorrhoidectomy. Fifty patients with grade IV haemorrhoids were included in a prospective study. Impaired evacuation was defined as the inability to evacuate a rectal balloon. Perianal sensitivity was evaluated by means of an algometer, and anxiety and depression were assessed by the hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale. Over the first 10 days after a Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy, the following parameters were measured on daily questionnaires: pain (associated with and unrelated to defaecation by means of visual analogue scales), number of bowel movements, faecal consistency and analgesic requirement on demand (tramadol 50 mg p.o., number of doses). Results are expressed as median and interquartile range or mean ± SE. Patients with impaired evacuation (14 women, eight men; age range 28-61 years) experienced more postoperative pain than patients with nonimpaired evacuation (eight women, 20 men; age range 24-70 years): 3.2 (2.1) vs 2.1 (1.8) defaecatory pain, respectively (P = 0.045), and 2.4 (2.3) vs 1.7 (2.3) nondefecatory pain, respectively (P = 0.048). There was no difference between the groups regarding stool consistency, number of bowel movements [12.5 (7.3) vs 15.5 (7.2), respectively; NS] and analgesic requirement [1.0 (6.1) vs 1.0 (5.2) extra doses on demand, respectively; NS] during the 10 postoperative days. No differences related to age, sex, HAD scores or perianal sensitivity were found. Impaired anal evacuation is predictive of postoperative pain after haemorrhoidectomy. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Medical and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids and anal fissure in Crohn’s disease: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The principle to avoid surgery for haemorrhoids and/or anal fissure in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients is still currently valid despite advances in medical and surgical treatments. In this study we report our prospectively recorded data on medical and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids and anal fissures in CD patients over a period of 8 years. Methods Clinical data of patients affected by perianal disease were routinely and prospectively inserted in a database between October 2003 and October 2011 at the Department of Surgery, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome. We reviewed and divided in two groups records on CD patients treated either medically or surgically according to the diagnosis of haemorrhoids or anal fissures. Moreover, we compared in each group the outcome in patients with prior diagnosis of CD and in patients diagnosed with CD only after perianal main treatment. Results Eighty-six CD patients were included in the study; 45 were treated for haemorrhoids and 41 presented with anal fissure. Conservative approach was initially adopted for all patients; in case of medical treatment failure, the presence of stable intestinal disease made them eligible for surgery. Fifteen patients underwent haemorrhoidectomy (open 11; closed 3; stapled 1), and two rubber band ligation. Fourteen patients required surgery for anal fissure (Botox ± fissurectomy 8; LIS 6). In both groups we observed high complication rate, 41.2% for haemorrhoids and 57.1% for anal fissure. Patients who underwent haemorrhoidectomy without certain diagnosis of CD had significantly higher risk of complications. Conclusions Conservative treatment of proctologic diseases in CD patients has been advocated given the high risk of complications and the evidence that spontaneous healing may also occur. From these preliminary results a role of surgery is conceivable in high selected patients, but definitve conclusions can’t be made. Further randomized trials are needed to establish the

  12. Medical and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids and anal fissure in Crohn's disease: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    D'Ugo, Stefano; Franceschilli, Luana; Cadeddu, Federica; Leccesi, Laura; Blanco, Giovanna Del Vecchio; Calabrese, Emma; Milito, Giovanni; Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Gaspari, Achille L; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2013-03-11

    The principle to avoid surgery for haemorrhoids and/or anal fissure in Crohn's disease (CD) patients is still currently valid despite advances in medical and surgical treatments. In this study we report our prospectively recorded data on medical and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids and anal fissures in CD patients over a period of 8 years. Clinical data of patients affected by perianal disease were routinely and prospectively inserted in a database between October 2003 and October 2011 at the Department of Surgery, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome. We reviewed and divided in two groups records on CD patients treated either medically or surgically according to the diagnosis of haemorrhoids or anal fissures. Moreover, we compared in each group the outcome in patients with prior diagnosis of CD and in patients diagnosed with CD only after perianal main treatment. Eighty-six CD patients were included in the study; 45 were treated for haemorrhoids and 41 presented with anal fissure. Conservative approach was initially adopted for all patients; in case of medical treatment failure, the presence of stable intestinal disease made them eligible for surgery. Fifteen patients underwent haemorrhoidectomy (open 11; closed 3; stapled 1), and two rubber band ligation. Fourteen patients required surgery for anal fissure (Botox ± fissurectomy 8; LIS 6). In both groups we observed high complication rate, 41.2% for haemorrhoids and 57.1% for anal fissure. Patients who underwent haemorrhoidectomy without certain diagnosis of CD had significantly higher risk of complications. Conservative treatment of proctologic diseases in CD patients has been advocated given the high risk of complications and the evidence that spontaneous healing may also occur. From these preliminary results a role of surgery is conceivable in high selected patients, but definitve conclusions can't be made. Further randomized trials are needed to establish the efficacy of the surgical approach, giving

  13. [Anorectal manifestations of sexually transmitted infections].

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted infections is rising in Europe and in Switzerland since the beginning of the third millenium. Many organisms may affect the perianal skin and the anorectum. While some of these infections are a result of contigous spread from genital infection, most result from receptive anal intercourse affecting males who have sex with males but is seen increasingly in females as well since there is evidence of the increasing popularity of anal sex among heterosexuals. The symptoms of specific infections are largely dependent on the route and site of inoculation. Organisms that cause typical genital symptoms - such as syphilis, chancroid, herpes simplex or HPV-infection - result in similar symptoms when the perianal skin, the anoderm or the distal anal canal are the site of infection. Patients with proctitis may have unspecific signs in various degrees including mucous discharge, rectal bleeding, anorectal pain, superficial ulcers and sometimes generalized lymphadenopathy and fever. It is of utmost importance to include STIs (e. g. lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhea, non-LGV-chlamydia and herpes simplex) in the differential diagnosis in these patients. Unfortunately rectal infection with chlamydia and gonorrhea is asymptomatic in the majority of cases of men having sex with men and in high-risk females. A careful history and physical examination is essential in establishing a correct diagnosis, usually supported by proctoscopy, culture, PCR, serology and histology. Certain organisms, more commonly thought of as food- or water-borne disease may be sexually transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact from various sexual practices.

  14. NF-kappa B activation correlates with disease phenotype in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yoo Min; Koh, Jaemoon; Lee, Changhyun; Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, ByeongGwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Unregulated activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease. In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics and disease outcome of Crohn’s disease patients with varying levels of the NF-κB activation. Methods Crohn’s disease patients who underwent surgical bowel resection were divided into two groups, based on the activation status of NF-κB. NF-κB activation was assessed by the immunoreactivity of nuclear NF-κB during immunohistochemical staining of bowel resection specimens. We compared the demographic, clinical and histologic characteristics between groups. Furthermore, the occurrence of reoperation, readmission, and medication change due to disease flare-up were investigated according to NF-κB activation status. Results Among 83 Crohn’s disease patients, 47 (56%) showed high NF-κB activity and 36 (44%) showed low NF-κB activity. Patients with high NF-κB activity had higher frequency of ileocolonic involvement (P = 0.028) and lower frequency of perianal involvement (P = 0.042) relative to those with low NF-κB activity. Total histologic scores were significantly higher in patients with high NF-κB activity than those with low NF-κB activity (P = 0.044). There was no significant difference in the frequency of reoperation, readmission, and medication change in relation to NF-κB activation status. Conclusions Crohn’s disease patients with high NF-κB activation showed specific clinical manifestations of higher frequency of ileocolonic involvement and lower frequency of perianal involvement relative to those with low NF-κB activation. High NF-κB activity was associated with higher histologic scores. However, the NF-κB activity did not affect the outcome and disease course after surgery. PMID:28753650

  15. Long-standing Crohn's disease and its implication on anal squamous cell cancer management.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Amy L; Moncrief, Sara B; Smyrk, Thomas C; Pemberton, John H; Haddock, Michael G; Larson, David W; Dozois, Eric J; Mathis, Kellie L

    2017-05-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is rare, accounting for only 1% of gastrointestinal malignancies. We sought to better understand management strategies for ASCC in the setting of Crohn's disease (CD). A retrospective chart review from 2001 to 2016 was conducted using ICD-9/10 codes for CD (555.9/K50) and ASCC (154.3/C44.520). Adult patients with a diagnosis of CD at the time of ASCC diagnosis were included. Seven patients (five female) were included with a median age of 50 years. The majority presented with perianal pain (three) and bleeding (four). Mean duration of CD was 20 years. Five patients had active perianal fistulizing disease at the time of ASCC diagnosis. Clinical stage at diagnosis of ASCC was stage 0 (n = 1), stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 1), stage III (n = 2), stage IV (n = 1), and unknown (n = 1). All patients were treated with radiation and chemotherapy. Three patients experienced complications during radiation therapy: fistulizing disease, stenotic disease, and flap necrosis. Two patients had persistent disease at 6 months; one patient underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) and the other chemotherapy and radiation. Two patients developed locally residual and metastatic disease and died within 1 year of diagnosis. Five-year disease-free survival was 56%. While the standard Nigro protocol remains standard of care in patients with ASCC, in the setting of CD, patients may be best approached as a case-by-case basis and may even require an operation first due to complications from radiation and aggressive nature of disease. Due to poor treatment outcomes, surveillance guidelines for this patient population are necessary.

  16. Six children with allergic contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone in wet wipes (baby wipes).

    PubMed

    Chang, Mary Wu; Nakrani, Radhika

    2014-02-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. MI in wet wipes ("baby wipes") has not been previously reported to cause ACD in children in the United States. Only 1 previous report of ACD in a child in Belgium has been recently reported. We report 6 children with chronic, perianal/buttock, and facial eczematous dermatitis, refractory to multiple topical and oral antibiotics and corticosteroids. All tested positive to MCI/MI on patch testing. None wore diapers. All patients had been using wet wipes containing MI (without MCI) to affected areas. Discontinuation of wipes resulted in rapid and complete resolution. This is the first report of pediatric ACD to MI in wet wipes in the United States, and the largest series to date. ACD to MI in wet wipes is frequently misdiagnosed as eczema, impetigo, or psoriasis. Wet wipes are increasingly marketed in personal care products for all ages, and MI exposure and sensitization will likely increase. Dermatitis of the perianal, buttock, facial, and hand areas with a history of wet wipe use should raise suspicion of ACD to MI and prompt appropriate patch testing. Rapid resolution occurs after the allergen exposure is eliminated. All isothiozolinones should be avoided in personal care and household products for these patients.

  17. Enterobius vermicularis infection and its risk factors among pre-school children in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuang-Yao; Yen, Chuan-Min; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Wang, Lian-Chen

    2017-06-29

    The prevalence of pinworm infection is extremely low in Taipei, Taiwan. This population study was designed to determine the current status and the associated risk factors of this infection among pre-school children. Perianal swab specimens were obtained from the parents or guardians using a two-consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swab kit. Information of family background, personal hygiene, and household sanitary conditions were collected by asking the parents or guardians to complete a questionnaire. Of 44,163 children, 0.21% was found to infect with pinworm. The positive rate was highest in Datong (0.59%) and Nangang (0.58%) Districts and lowest in Neihu District (0.02%). There was no significant difference in the rates by gender (boys 0.24% and girls 0.19%) or school (kindergartens 0.25% and nurseries 0.17%). Significantly higher positive rates were found in children having parent with lower educational level and elder brother(s)/sister(s). Children taking bath by themselves and those sleeping in bed with matting had significantly higher positive rates. Five significant independent predictors of pinworm infection were determined by multivariate analysis: having elder brother(s), having elder sister(s), infrequent washing hands after using toilet facilities, bathing without the help of family members, and sleeping on bed with matting. The prevalence of pinworm infection in the pre-school children of Taipei is extremely low and decreasing. Good hand washing habit should be an important preventive measure. Transmission of this infection in pre-school children may occur in the family through their school-age siblings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Therapeutic management of anal eczema: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Havlickova, B; Weyandt, G H

    2014-01-01

    Aim To conduct a systematic review of treatments for anal eczema (AE). Methods We conducted a Medline search for clinical trial data for the treatment of perianal diseases including AE, including papers not published in the English language. We assessed the study reports using the system recommended by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. No meta-analysis was attempted. Results The evidence base for topical treatments used to treat AE is very poor: there are very few studies and many of those that exist are of poor quality. The best evidence was found for medications that are yet to be licensed for AE. Among products with existing licences for the treatment of eczema, our assessment found some evidence to support the continued use of mild-to-moderate corticosteroids first line in most patients. Discussion Features of the perianal region, and the fact that it is almost always occluded, mean that not all medications recommended in the general treatment guidelines for eczema are appropriate for AE. However, there are no specific treatment guidelines for these patients. This may in part be because of the lack of high-quality evidence-based medicine in this therapy area. Many frequently prescribed medications were developed and licensed many years ago, in an era when clinical trial design was not expected to be as rigorous as it is today. Conclusion This review highlights the need to conduct more high-quality clinical trials in patients with AE in order that specific guidelines for the management of this difficult proctological condition can be prepared. PMID:24898365

  19. Clinical experience with infliximab therapy in 100 patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Farrell, R J; Shah, S A; Lodhavia, P J; Alsahli, M; Falchuk, K R; Michetti, P; Peppercorn, M A

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess our clinical experience with infliximab, a monoclonal antitumor necrosis factor antibody, following its approval for treatment of refractory Crohn's disease (CD). We followed 100 consecutive patients with CD (53 women and 47 men; mean age, 41 yr) who received a total of 233 infliximab (5 mg/kg) infusions. Adverse events were noted and clinical response assessed every 2 wk for 6 months after each infusion using the Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI) for active disease, the Perianal Disease Activity Index (PDAI) for fistulous disease, and steroid withdrawal rates for steroid-sparing efficacy. Indications for therapy were active disease (n = 57), perianal fistulous disease (n = 33), and steroid dependency (n = 10). Significant infusion reactions occurred in 16 patients (6.9% of infusions) including anaphylactic shock in one patient. Fourteen patients experienced infectious adverse events, 13 of whom were on concurrent steroids. Sixty percent of patients with active disease experienced > or = 50% HBI reduction at 2 wk; mean duration of response, 8.2 wk. Three of 26 first-time nonresponders with active disease (12%) responded to a second infusion. Sixty-nine percent of patients with fistulous disease experienced >50% reduction in their PDAI at 2 wk; mean duration of response, 10.9 wk. Four of 10 steroid-dependent patients (40%) discontinued steroid therapy, one of whom recommenced steroid therapy at 24 wk. Our clinical response rates mirror the efficacy reported in the controlled trials for active and fistulous disease. Steroid-sparing efficacy was seen in 40% of steroid-dependent patients. Concurrent steroids did not reduce the risk of significant infusion reactions (6.9%), but did increase the risk of infections.

  20. Sequential treatment for proctalgia fugax. Mid-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gracia Solanas, J A; Ramírez Rodríguez, J M; Elía Guedea, M; Aguilella Diago, V; Martínez Díez, M

    2005-07-01

    Proctalgia fugax (PF) is a benign, self-limiting disease characterized by episodes of intense anorectal pain at frequent intervals in the absence of organic proctological disease. Even though PF was described more than a century ago, its etiology remains unclear. Currently there is no information available. Few papers quoting many ways of management have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate patients complaining of this condition and to treat them with sequential therapy. We devised a descriptive, prospective study of patients complaining of acute perianal pain--duration less than 30 minutes--without organic disease or previous perianal surgery since 1996 to 2002 in our Department. We treated these patients using a three-step treatment (1: information, hip bath, benzodiazepines; 2: sublingual nifedipine 10 mg, or topic 0.1% nitroglycerin on demand; 3: internal anal sphincterotomy if hypertrophy of the internal anal sphincter was demonstrated by anal ultrasonography and no improvement was confirmed with the previous steps of treatment). We defined remarkable improvement as a decrease in the number of episodes by half or in pain intensity by 50%. Fifteen patients with an average follow-up of 4 years. Anal endosonography confirmed a grossly thickened internal anal sphincter (IAS) in 5 cases. After the first step of treatment 7 patients improved and 1 patient was cured; after the second step of treatment 3 patients improved and 1 was cured; the third step was applied to 3 patients with a thickened IAS; 1 patient improved and 1 patient was cured. A total resolution of PF is not always possible, but we may improve symptoms and their frequency. Almost 50% of patients in our series improved with the first step of treatment; 30% of our patients had IAS hypertrophy. Anal endosonography can help in the diagnosis of organic diseases or IAS hypertrophy, for which we can perform an internal anal sphincter myectomy.

  1. Use of antibiotics in patients with Crohn's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jie Wen; Ma, Jing Jing; Zhang, Hong Jie

    2015-02-01

    Some studies have suggested that antibiotic treatment might be efficient for patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). However, the results are conflicting. The aim of this study was to summarize the available evidence on the efficacy of antibiotics, especially ciprofloxacin, in treating patients with CD. A literature search was conducted on the PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) for manuscripts published until March 2014. Randomized controlled trials that mainly evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with CD using clinical remission or response as the key outcome of interest were included. Intention-to-treat analyses were used to evaluate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In all, 15 randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials involving 1407 participants were included in the meta-analysis. A pooled analysis revealed that compared with placebo, antibiotics benefited CD patients to a certain extent (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.17-1.51, P < 0.00001). The random-effects model showed that there was no significant difference between patients treated with ciprofloxacin and placebo (combined RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.92-1.97, P = 0.12). However, ciprofloxacin exhibited significant clinical benefits in patients with perianal fistulas (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.32, P = 0.005). The utility of antibiotics was beneficial for patients with CD. Nevertheless, subgroup analyses indicated that treatment with ciprofloxacin alone was significantly efficient for CD patients with perianal fistulas. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Diagnostic delay in Crohn's disease is associated with a complicated disease course and increased operation rate.

    PubMed

    Schoepfer, Alain M; Dehlavi, Mohamed-Ali; Fournier, Nicolas; Safroneeva, Ekaterina; Straumann, Alex; Pittet, Valérie; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Michetti, Pierre; Rogler, Gerhard; Vavricka, Stephan R

    2013-11-01

    The impact of diagnostic delay (a period from appearance of first symptoms to diagnosis) on the clinical course of Crohn's disease (CD) is unknown. We examined whether length of diagnostic delay affects disease outcomes. Data from the Swiss IBD cohort study were analyzed. Patients were recruited from university centers (68%), regional hospitals (14%), and private practices (18%). The frequencies of occurrence of bowel stenoses, internal fistulas, perianal fistulas, and CD-related surgery (intestinal and perianal) were analyzed. A total of 905 CD patients (53.4% female, median age at diagnosis 26 (20-36) years) were stratified into four groups according to the quartiles of diagnostic delay (0-3, 4-9, 10-24, and ≥25 months, respectively). Median diagnostic delay was 9 (3-24) months. The frequency of immunomodulator and/or antitumor necrosis factor drug use did not differ among the four groups. The length of diagnostic delay was positively correlated with the occurrence of bowel stenosis (odds ratio (OR) 1.76, P=0.011 for delay of ≥25 months) and intestinal surgery (OR 1.76, P=0.014 for delay of 10-24 months and OR 2.03, P=0.003 for delay of ≥25 months). Disease duration was positively associated and non-ileal disease location was negatively associated with bowel stenosis (OR 1.07, P<0.001, and OR 0.41, P=0.005, respectively) and intestinal surgery (OR 1.14, P<0.001, and OR 0.23, P<0.001, respectively). The length of diagnostic delay is correlated with an increased risk of bowel stenosis and CD-related intestinal surgery. Efforts should be undertaken to shorten the diagnostic delay.

  3. Efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol in an unselected crohn's disease population: 26-week data of the FACTS II survey.

    PubMed

    Vavricka, Stephan R; Schoepfer, Alain M; Bansky, Georg; Binek, Janek; Felley, Christian; Geyer, Martin; Manz, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard; de Saussure, Philippe; Sauter, Bernhard; Scharl, Michael; Seibold, Frank; Straumann, Alex; Michetti, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia, CZP) was approved for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) patients in 2007 in Switzerland as the first country worldwide. This prospective phase IV study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CZP over 26 weeks in a multicenter cohort of practice-based patients. Evaluation questionnaires at baseline, week 6, and week 26 were completed by gastroenterologists in hospitals and private practices. Adverse events were evaluated according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Sixty patients (38F/22M) were included; 53% had complicated disease (stricturing or penetrating), 45% had undergone prior CD-related surgery. All patients had prior exposure to systemic steroids, 96% to immunomodulators, 73% to infliximab, and 43% to adalimumab. A significant decrease of the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI) was observed under CZP therapy (12.2 ± 4.9 at week 0 versus 6.3 ± 4.7 at week 6 and 6.7 ± 5.3 at week 26, both P < 0.001). Response and remission rates were 70% and 40% (week 6) and 67% and 36%, respectively (week 26). The complete perianal fistula closure rate was 36% at week 6 and 55% at week 26. The frequency of adverse drug reactions attributed to CZP was 5%. CZP was continued in 88% of patients beyond week 6 and in 67% beyond week 26. In a population of CD patients with predominantly complicated disease behavior, CZP proved to be effective in induction and maintenance of response and remission. This series provides the first evidence of CZP's effectiveness in perianal fistulizing CD in clinical practice. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  4. Comparison of health-related quality of life and disability in ulcerative colitis patients following restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis versus anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy.

    PubMed

    van Gennep, Sara; Sahami, Saloomeh; Buskens, Christianne J; van den Brink, Gijs R; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; D'Hoore, André; de Buck van Overstraeten, Anthony; van Assche, Gert; Ferrante, Marc; Vermeire, Séverine; Bemelman, Willem A; D'Haens, Geert R A M; Löwenberg, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) and disability were compared in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy versus patients who received treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents. UC patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy or started anti-TNF treatment between January 2010 and January 2015 were included at two tertiary referral centers. A matched cohort was created using propensity score matching for the covariates disease duration, Montreal classification, age, and sex. HRQL and disability were assessed using the Colorectal Functional Outcome (COREFO), Inflammatory Bowel Disease Disability Index (IBD-DI), EuroQol-5D-3L, and Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires. In total, 297 patients were included, of whom 205 (69%) patients responded. Fifty-nine pouch patients were matched to 59 anti-TNF-treated patients. Pouch patients reported better general health scores (P=0.042) compared with the anti-TNF group (SF-36). No differences were found for the EuroQol-5D-3L and IBD-DI between the two groups. Pouch patients had significantly higher COREFO scores compared with anti-TNF-treated patients for 'stool frequency' (P<0.001), 'antidiarrheal medication use' (P<0.001), and 'stool-related aspects' (P=0.004), of which the latter was because of a higher perianal skin irritation frequency (P<0.001). UC patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy reported a higher bowel movement frequency and more perianal skin irritation compared with anti-TNF-treated patients, but this did not affect overall disease-specific disability outcomes. Patients in the surgery group reported better outcomes for generic health compared with those in the anti-TNF group.

  5. Pancreatic Autoantibodies Against CUZD1 and GP2 Are Associated with Distinct Clinical Phenotypes of Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Maike Anna; Jendrek, Sebastian Torben; Korf, Tobias; Nitzsche, Thomas; Teegen, Bianca; Komorowski, Lars; Derer, Stefanie; Schröder, Torsten; Baer, Florian; Lehnert, Henrik; Büning, Jürgen; Fellerman, Klaus; Sina, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes with different outcomes. In the last decades, several IBD-associated autoantibodies have been identified and investigated for their diagnostic relevance. Autoantibodies against the pancreatic glycoproteins (PAB) CUB and zona pellucida-like domains-containing protein 1 (CUZD1), and glycoprotein 2 (GP2) have been demonstrated to possess high specificity for the diagnosis of IBD. Although several studies have shown significant interrelations of anti-GP2 positivity with disease phenotype, associations of clinical phenotypes with anti-CUZD1 are still unknown. The aim was to identify the association of clinical phenotypes with anti-CUZD1 and anti-GP2 in a well-defined German IBD cohort. Patients with IBD (224 patients with Crohn's disease and 136 patients with ulcerative colitis), who were tested for anti-GP2 and anti-CUZD1 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A by indirect immunofluorescence on transfected cells between 2005 and 2013, were included. Serotype and specified phenotypic data were collected in retrospect and statistically analyzed. Both anti-GP2 (P < 0.001) and anti-CUZD1 (P < 0.001) were significantly more prevalent in patients with Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis. PAB positivity was associated with ileocolonic disease (P = 0.002), perianal disease (P = 0.011), immunosuppressive treatment (P = 0.036), and ASCA positivity (P = 0.036). Anti-CUZD1 positivity was associated with ileocolonic (P = 0.016) and perianal disease (P = 0.002), whereas anti-GP2 positivity was positively associated with stricturing behavior (P = 0.016). We found distinct clinical phenotypes to be associated with PAB positivity. Therefore, determination of PABs and their subgroup analysis might identify patients with complicated disease behavior. However, the clinical relevance of our findings should be further evaluated in prospective cohorts.

  6. A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study of Anal Canal Epithelium in Humans and Swine, Focusing on the Anal Transitional Zone Epithelium and the Anal Glands.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Futoshi; Nakajima, Tomoyuki; Iwaya, Mai; Ishii, Keiko; Higuchi, Kayoko; Ogiwara, Naoko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2018-05-01

    To better understand the cellular origins and differentiation of anal canal epithelial neoplasms, the immunohistochemical profiles of the anal canal epithelium in humans and swine were evaluated. Formalin-fixed tissue sections were immunostained for mucin (MUC: MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B), desmoglein 3 (DGS3), p63, CDX2, SOX2, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The anal transitional zone (ATZ) epithelium covered the anal sinus and consisted of a stratified epithelium with mucous cells interspersed within the surface lining. Anal glands opened into the anal sinus. Ducts and acini of intraepithelial or periepithelial mucous type were the main structures of human anal glands, whereas those of swine were compound tubuloacinar mixed glands. Distal to the ATZ epithelium, non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium merged with the keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of the perianal skin. MUC5AC expression predominated over MUC5B expression in the ATZ epithelium, while MUC5B expression was higher in the anal glands. SOX2 was positive in the ATZ epithelium, anal glands, and squamous epithelium except in the perianal skin. In humans, DGS3 was expressed in the ATZ epithelium, anal gland ducts, and squamous epithelium. p63 was detected in the ATZ epithelium, anal glands, and squamous epithelium. Myoepithelial cells positive for α-SMA and p63 were present in the anal glands of swine. Colorectal columnar cells were MUC5B + /MUC2 + /CDX2 + /MUC5AC - /SOX2 - . The ATZ epithelium seems to be a distinctive epithelium, with morphological and functional features allowing smooth defecation. The MUC5AC + /SOX2 + /MUC2 - /CDX2 - profile of the ATZ epithelium and anal glands is a useful feature for diagnosing adenocarcinoma arising from these regions. Anat Rec, 301:796-805, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Clinical Factors and Disease Course Related to Diagnostic Delay in Korean Crohn’s Disease Patients: Results from the CONNECT Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Chang Mo; Jung, Sung-Ae; Kim, Seong-Eun; Song, Hyun Joo; Jung, Yunho; Ye, Byong Duk; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Joo Sung; Han, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic delay frequently occurs in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients because of diagnostic limitations. However, diagnostic delay and its related factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors associated with diagnostic delay and to evaluate the impact of diagnostic delay on clinical course in a Korean CD patient cohort. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of 1,047 CD patients registered in the Crohn’s Disease Clinical Network and Cohort study in Korea. The mean interval of diagnostic delay was 16.0 ± 33.1 months. Multivariate analysis showed that older age at diagnosis (≥40 years) (p = 0.014), concomitant upper gastrointestinal (UGI) disease (p = 0.012) and penetrating disease behavior at diagnosis (p = 0.001) were positively associated with long diagnostic delay (≥18 months). During the longitudinal follow-up, long diagnostic delay was independently predictive of further development of intestinal stenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.93; p = 0.017), internal fistulas (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.12–2.33; p = 0.011), and perianal fistulas (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06–1.80; p = 0.016). However, as for the risk of abscess formation, bowel perforation, and CD-related abdominal surgery, no significant association with diagnostic delay was observed. Older age at diagnosis, UGI involvement, and penetrating behavior are associated with long diagnostic delay in Korean CD patients. Moreover, diagnostic delay is associated with an increased risk of CD-related complications such as intestinal stenosis, internal fistulas, and perianal fistulas. PMID:26647084

  8. Inter-observer agreement for Crohn's disease sub-phenotypes using the Montreal Classification: How good are we? A multi-centre Australasian study.

    PubMed

    Krishnaprasad, Krupa; Andrews, Jane M; Lawrance, Ian C; Florin, Timothy; Gearry, Richard B; Leong, Rupert W L; Mahy, Gillian; Bampton, Peter; Prosser, Ruth; Leach, Peta; Chitti, Laurie; Cock, Charles; Grafton, Rachel; Croft, Anthony R; Cooke, Sharon; Doecke, James D; Radford-Smith, Graham L

    2012-04-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) exhibits significant clinical heterogeneity. Classification systems attempt to describe this; however, their utility and reliability depends on inter-observer agreement (IOA). We therefore sought to evaluate IOA using the Montreal Classification (MC). De-identified clinical records of 35 CD patients from 6 Australian IBD centres were presented to 13 expert practitioners from 8 Australia and New Zealand Inflammatory Bowel Disease Consortium (ANZIBDC) centres. Practitioners classified the cases using MC and forwarded data for central blinded analysis. IOA on smoking and medications was also tested. Kappa statistics, with pre-specified outcomes of κ>0.8 excellent; 0.61-0.8 good; 0.41-0.6 moderate and ≤0.4 poor, were used. 97% of study cases had colonoscopy reports, however, only 31% had undergone a complete set of diagnostic investigations (colonoscopy, histology, SB imaging). At diagnosis, IOA was excellent for age, κ=0.84; good for disease location, κ=0.73; only moderate for upper GI disease (κ=0.57) and disease behaviour, κ=0.54; and good for the presence of perianal disease, κ=0.6. At last follow-up, IOA was good for location, κ=0.68; only moderate for upper GI disease (κ=0.43) and disease behaviour, κ=0.46; but excellent for the presence/absence of perianal disease, κ=0.88. IOA for immunosuppressant use ever and presence of stricture were both good (κ=0.79 and 0.64 respectively). IOA using MC is generally good; however some areas are less consistent than others. Omissions and inaccuracies reduce the value of clinical data when comparing cohorts across different centres, and may impair the ability to translate genetic discoveries into clinical practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Indications for mode of delivery in pregnant women with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Kristin E.; Haviland, Miriam J.; Hacker, Michele R.; Shainker, Scott A.; Cheifetz, Adam S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reasons for the increased incidence of cesarean delivery among women with inflammatory bowel disease remain unclear. We assessed cesarean delivery incidence and factors influencing mode of delivery in women with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective cohort study of nulliparous women who delivered a singleton infant at our institution. We compared risk for each mode of delivery in women with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis to women without inflammatory bowel disease. We assessed mode of delivery indications for patients with inflammatory bowel disease and whether cesarean deliveries were planned. Results The overall incidence of cesarean delivery among women with Crohn's disease (24/59; 40.7%) was similar to women without inflammatory bowel disease (7868/21805; 36.1%) (RR 1.1 [95% CI: 0.83,1.5]; p=0.46), but was increased in the subgroups with active and inactive perianal disease (RR 2.3; p<0.01). Women with ulcerative colitis had a 1.8-fold increased relative risk of cesarean delivery (41/65; 63.1%) (95% CI 1.5, 2.1; p<0.01), with highest incidence in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Forty-nine percent of ulcerative colitis and 66.7% of Crohn's disease cesarean deliveries were unplanned, with only one unplanned delivery performed for active inflammatory bowel disease. Most unplanned deliveries were for arrest of descent/dilation and non-reassuring fetal heart tracings. Seventy-five percent of planned cesarean deliveries were for inflammatory bowel disease-related indications. Conclusions Women with ulcerative colitis and perianal Crohn's disease have an increased incidence of cesarean delivery. At least half of cesarean deliveries are unplanned. PMID:28426453

  10. Penetrating Disease, Narcotic Use, and Loop Ostomy Are Associated with Ostomy and IBD-related Complications After Ostomy Surgery in Crohn's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ayal; Yarur, Andres J; Dezheng, Hou; Rodriquez, Dylan; Krugliak Cleveland, Noa; Ali, Tauseef; Hurst, Roger D; Umanskiy, Konstantin; Hyman, Neil; Colwell, Janice; Rubin, David T

    2015-10-01

    For medically refractory or obstructive Crohn's disease (CD), ostomy surgery remains an important therapeutic option. Outcomes and complications of this approach have not been well described in the era of biological therapies. Our study aims to characterize CD patients undergoing ostomy creation and assess outcome predictors. We performed a retrospective chart review of CD patients who underwent ostomy creation in our center from 2011 to 2014. Data collected include patient demographics, detailed disease- and surgery-related variables, and clinical outcomes after 26 weeks of follow-up. Of the 112 patients, 54 % were female, the median age was 39 years (range 19-78), the median disease duration was 13 years (range 0-50), 54 % had ileo-colonic disease, 55 % had stricturing phenotype, and 59 % had perianal disease. Sixty-two percent received end ostomies, and 38 % received loop ostomies. The leading indications for surgery were stricturing, fistulizing, and perianal disease (35 %). Forty-three (38 %) patients had 76 major complications, including dehydration (22 cases), intra-abdominal infection (16), and obstruction (14). Increased major postoperative complications correlated with penetrating disease (p = 0.02, odds ratio [OR] = 5.52, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.25-24.42), the use of narcotics before surgery (p = 0.04, OR = 2.54, 95 % CI = 1.02-6.34), and loop ostomies (p = 0.004, OR = 4.2, 95 % CI = 1.57-11.23). Penetrating phenotype, the use of narcotics before surgery, and loop ostomies are associated with major complications in CD patients undergoing ostomy creation. These findings may influence risk management of CD patients needing ostomies.

  11. Predictors of favourable outcome in inflammatory Crohn's disease. A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Zabana, Yamile; Garcia-Planella, Esther; van Domselaar, Manuel; Mañosa, Míriam; Gordillo, Jordi; López-Sanromán, Antonio; Cabré, Eduard; Domènech, Eugeni

    2013-12-01

    No studies have specifically searched for predictors of a favourable outcome that would allow a conservative therapeutic approach in adult Crohn's disease (CD). To identify predictors of a favourable disease course over time at CD diagnosis. We identified and included all patients diagnosed with CD between January 1994 and December 2003, who had CD with an inflammatory pattern and no perianal disease at diagnosis, and who were followed up for at least 5 years. Clinical and therapeutic features until December 2008 and losses to follow-up were identified. We defined a favourable outcome as the absence of stricturing and penetrating complications of the disease (including perianal disease), together with the absence of need for anti-TNF therapy or resectional surgery during follow up. One hundred and forty-five patients were included and followed up for a median of 96 months (IQR, 79-140). At diagnosis, location was ileal in 39%, colonic in 28%, and ileocolonic in 32%; 50% of the patients were active smokers, and 41% used immunomodulators. Eighty-two patients (57%) met the criteria for a favourable outcome at the end of follow-up. The only factor associated with a favourable outcome was isolated colonic involvement (P=0.022), with 73% of these patients meeting the criteria for a favourable outcome. A favourable outcome of initially uncomplicated CD is not easily predicted at disease diagnosis by means of clinical or epidemiologic factors. Nevertheless, patients with isolated colonic disease are less likely to have an aggressive course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Factors and Disease Course Related to Diagnostic Delay in Korean Crohn's Disease Patients: Results from the CONNECT Study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chang Mo; Jung, Sung-Ae; Kim, Seong-Eun; Song, Hyun Joo; Jung, Yunho; Ye, Byong Duk; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Joo Sung; Han, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic delay frequently occurs in Crohn's disease (CD) patients because of diagnostic limitations. However, diagnostic delay and its related factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors associated with diagnostic delay and to evaluate the impact of diagnostic delay on clinical course in a Korean CD patient cohort. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of 1,047 CD patients registered in the Crohn's Disease Clinical Network and Cohort study in Korea. The mean interval of diagnostic delay was 16.0 ± 33.1 months. Multivariate analysis showed that older age at diagnosis (≥40 years) (p = 0.014), concomitant upper gastrointestinal (UGI) disease (p = 0.012) and penetrating disease behavior at diagnosis (p = 0.001) were positively associated with long diagnostic delay (≥18 months). During the longitudinal follow-up, long diagnostic delay was independently predictive of further development of intestinal stenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.93; p = 0.017), internal fistulas (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.12-2.33; p = 0.011), and perianal fistulas (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.80; p = 0.016). However, as for the risk of abscess formation, bowel perforation, and CD-related abdominal surgery, no significant association with diagnostic delay was observed. Older age at diagnosis, UGI involvement, and penetrating behavior are associated with long diagnostic delay in Korean CD patients. Moreover, diagnostic delay is associated with an increased risk of CD-related complications such as intestinal stenosis, internal fistulas, and perianal fistulas.

  13. Therapeutic value of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of isolated genital warts on the external female genitalia.

    PubMed

    Taner, Zeki M; Taskiran, Cagatay; Onan, Anil M; Gursoy, Rifat; Himmetoglu, Ozdemir

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the value of 85% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated genital warts of the external genitalia and to detect the recurrence rate and side effects of this therapeutic regimen. All patients with a suspected HPV-related papillary vulvar lesion after initial examination underwent vulvoscopic evaluation with a magnification of 8-20x using acetic acid and toluidine blue. Under local anesthesia, biopsies were taken from acuminate or papillary warts for histopathologic confirmation and from suspicious areas to exclude preinvasive or invasive diseases. Following histopathologic diagnosis, patients were treated with 85% TCA. Overall, 51 patients with isolated vulvar and/or perianal genital warts were included. Of those patients, 11 (21.5%) had acuminate and 40 (78.5%) had papular genital warts. All the women had lesions of the labia minora. The other localizations were as follows: labia majora, 18 (35.3%); lateral vulva, 5 (9.8%); clitoris, 9 (17.6%); fourchette, 16 (31.3%); and perianal area, 7 (13.7%). All lesions were successfully treated by the end of the treatment period (median, 4; range 2-5). None of the patients had recurrence or new lesions during the 6-month follow-up period. In the second 6 months, 9 patients (17.6%) were diagnosed with recurrent lesions. Although all the patients experienced transient burning pain during therapy, none of them discontinued the therapy. Ulceration was observed in 8 patients (15.6%). Of those patients only 3 had permanent scarring (5.8%). We recommend the use of TCA in patients with external genital warts, especially for mild to moderate cases. It is associated with a high success rate and low morbidity if sufficient care is taken during application.

  14. Anal metastasis of rectal cancer-adenocarcinoma of squamous cells: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shun; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Nakaji, Yu; Nakanishi, Ryota; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-12-01

    Anal metastasis of colorectal cancer is very rare and is usually associated with a history of anal disease, including anal fistula, fissure, hemorrhoidectomy, and anastomotic injury. We report a case of rectal cancer with a synchronous anal metastasis consisting of adenocarcinoma of squamous cells without a history of anal disease. A 60-year-old woman had a chief complaint of melena. She had a 1.5-cm anal tumor on the perianal skin, and a Bollman type 2 rectal tumor on the Ra portion was found on colonoscopy. Biopsy of both tumors revealed a similar histology of well- to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. There was no sign of metastases in lymph nodes or other organs. For the purpose of diagnosis and treatment, transperineal local resection of the anal tumor was performed, and it was histologically identified as adenocarcinoma of squamous cells with no invasion to muscles, lymph ducts, or microvessels. The pathological margin was free. Then, to achieve radical cure, laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR) with D3 lymphadenectomy was performed. The histological diagnosis of the anal tumor was adenocarcinoma of squamous cells without invasion to muscles, lymph ducts, or vessels. The surgical margin was completely free. Immunohistochemical analysis of both tumors revealed similar staining patterns, and the final diagnosis was rectal cancer with metastasis to the anal skin. The patient received no postoperative therapy, and no recurrences have been observed 12 months after surgery. We expect that our sphincter-preserving surgical strategy provided a good prognosis for the synchronous rectal cancer and anal metastasis. This is a rare report of a case with an anal metastasis of colorectal cancer on perianal squamous cells without a history of anal disease that was resected while preserving anal function.

  15. Conventional (CH) vs. stapled hemorrhoidectomy (SH) in surgical treatment of hemorrhoids. Ten years experience.

    PubMed

    Manfredelli, Simone; Montalto, Gioacchino; Leonetti, Giovanni; Covotta, Marco; Amatucci, Chiara; Covotta, Alfredo; Forte, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Interest about hemorrhoids is related to its high incidence and elevated social costs that derive from its treatment. Several comparative studies are reported in Literature to define a standard for ideal treatment of hemorrhoidal disease. Radical surgery is the only therapeutic option in case of III and IV stage haemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids surgical techniques are classified as Open, Closed and Stapled ones. We report our decennial experience on surgical treatment focusing on early, middle and late complications, indications and contraindications, satisfaction level of each surgical procedure for hemorrhoids. Four hundred forty-eight patients have been hospitalized in our department fom 1st January to 31st December 2008. Of these 241 underwent surgery with traditional open or closed technique and 207 with the SH technique according to Longo. This retrospective study includes only patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids at III or IV stage. There were no differences between CH and SH about both pre and post surgery hospitalization and intraoperative length. Pain is the most frequently observed early complication with a statistically significant difference in favour of SH. We obtain good results in CH group using anoderma sparing and perianal anaesthetic infiltration at the end of the surgery. In all cases, pain relief was obtained only with standard analgesic drugs (NSAIDs). We also observed that pain level influences the outcome after surgical treatment. No chronic pain cases were observed in both groups. Bleeding is another relevant early complication in particular after SH: we reported 2 cases of immediate surgical reintenvention and 2 cases treated with blood transfusion. Only in SH group we report also 5 cases of thrombosis of external haemorrhoids and 7 perianal hematoma both solved with medical therapy There were no statistical significant differences between two groups about fever, incontinence to flatus, urinary retention, fecal incontinence, substenosis and anal

  16. Multi-Body-Site Microbiome and Culture Profiling of Military Trainees Suffering from Skin and Soft Tissue Infections at Fort Benning, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinder; Johnson, Ryan C.; Schlett, Carey D.; Elassal, Emad M.; Crawford, Katrina B.; Mor, Deepika; Lanier, Jeffrey B.; Law, Natasha N.; Walters, William A.; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Bennett, Jason W.; Hall, Eric R.; Millar, Eugene V.; Ellis, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common in the general population, with increased prevalence among military trainees. Previous research has revealed numerous nasal microbial signatures that correlate with SSTI development and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Thus, we hypothesized that the ecology of the inguinal, oropharynx, and perianal regions may also be altered in response to SSTI and/or S. aureus colonization. We collected body site samples from 46 military trainees with purulent abscess (SSTI group) as well as from 66 asymptomatic controls (non-SSTI group). We also collected abscess cavity samples to assess the microbial composition of these infections. Samples were analyzed by culture, and the microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing. We found that the nasal, inguinal, and perianal regions were similar in microbial composition and significantly differed from the oropharynx. We also observed differences in Anaerococcus and Streptococcus abundance between the SSTI and non-SSTI groups for the nasal and oropharyngeal regions, respectively. Furthermore, we detected community membership differences between the SSTI and non-SSTI groups for the nasal and inguinal sites. Compared to that of the other regions, the microbial compositions of the nares of S. aureus carriers and noncarriers were dramatically different; we noted an inverse correlation between the presence of Corynebacterium and the presence of Staphylococcus in the nares. This correlation was also observed for the inguinal region. Culture analysis revealed elevated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization levels for the SSTI group in the nasal and inguinal body sites. Together, these data suggest significant microbial variability in patients with SSTI as well as between S. aureus carriers and noncarriers. IMPORTANCE While it is evident that nasal colonization with S. aureus increases the likelihood of SSTI, there is a significant lack of

  17. Evolution of disease phenotype in adult and pediatric onset Crohn’s disease in a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Lakatos, Laszlo; Horvath, Agnes; Szita, Istvan; Pandur, Tunde; Mandel, Michael; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra Anna; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Kiss, Lajos Sandor; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the evolution of disease phenotype in adult and pediatric onset Crohn’s disease (CD) populations, diagnosed between 1977 and 2008. METHODS: Data of 506 incident CD patients were analyzed (age at diagnosis: 28.5 years, interquartile range: 22-38 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected prospectively with a complete clinical follow-up and comprehensively reviewed in the population-based Veszprem province database, which included incident patients diagnosed between January 1, 1977 and December 31, 2008 in adult and pediatric onset CD populations. Disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification and long-term disease course was analysed according to the age at onset in time-dependent univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among this population-based cohort, seventy-four (12.8%) pediatric-onset CD patients were identified (diagnosed ≤ 17 years of age). There was no significant difference in the distribution of disease behavior between pediatric (B1: 62%, B2: 15%, B3: 23%) and adult-onset CD patients (B1: 56%, B2: 21%, B3: 23%) at diagnosis, or during follow-up. Overall, the probability of developing complicated disease behaviour was 49.7% and 61.3% in the pediatric and 55.1% and 62.4% in the adult onset patients after 5- and 10-years of follow-up. Similarly, time to change in disease behaviour from non stricturing, non penetrating (B1) to complicated, stricturing or penetrating (B2/B3) disease was not significantly different between pediatric and adult onset CD in a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Calendar year of diagnosis (P = 0.04), ileal location (P < 0.001), perianal disease (P < 0.001), smoking (P = 0.038) and need for steroids (P < 0.001) were associated with presence of, or progression to, complicated disease behavior at diagnosis and during follow-up. A change in disease location was observed in 8.9% of patients and it was associated with smoking status (P = 0.01), but not with age at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Long

  18. Dysfunction of the lower urinary and distal gastrointestinal tracts in pediatric patients with known spinal cord problems.

    PubMed

    Churchill, B M; Abramson, R P; Wahl, E F

    2001-12-01

    Destruction of the urinary tract in children with elimination, storage, and holding dysfunction of the lower urinary and the distal GI tracts is caused primarily by high intravesical pressure. UTI accelerates this process. The LPP and the status of the urethral control mechanism and its relationship to the detrusor are the primary determinants of intravesical pressure. Intravesical pressures of more than 40 cm H2O are dangerous because they cause a pressure gradient that is transmitted proximally to the renal papillae, which results in the cessation of renal blood flow and a loss of renal function over time. Hydroureteronephrosis, VUR, UTI, urinary incontinence, and calculi formation also may occur. If these dangerously high intravesical pressures remain untreated, renal failure is likely to occur over time. These children then require dialysis or renal transplantation to survive, which is tragic and represents an enormous economic cost to society. Renal failure and upper urinary tract damage is nearly 100% preventable with early and appropriate evaluation and treatment. CIC is a crucial part of the management of these children and has been shown to be safe and effective, even in newborn boys. The use of the Credé maneuver (i.e., manual compression) to empty the bladder is obsolete and should be abandoned. The distal GI tract is inseparable from the lower urinary tract and must be treated simultaneously. Failure to treat the distal GI tract yields poor clinical results and much patient dissatisfaction and makes it difficult or impossible to treat the child's urinary tract problem successfully. Bowel-management programs must include daily high water and fiber intake, together with digital perianal stimulation or fecal extraction. Neuropathic bladder and bowel problems that are intractable to conservative medical and mechanical (i.e., CIC and digital perianal stimulation or fecal extraction, respectively) management almost always can be corrected surgically with

  19. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of a calcium channel blocker ointment on pain after hemorrhoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ralph; Bendick, Phillip J; Wasvary, Harry J

    2005-10-01

    Spasm of the internal sphincter plays a role in hemorrhoidal disease and may be a source of anal pain after hemorrhoid surgery. We have evaluated the effects of topical diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, in reducing pain after hemorrhoidectomy. After hemorrhoidectomy, 18 patients were randomly assigned to receive 2 percent diltiazem ointment (n = 9) or a placebo ointment (n = 9). Ointments were applied to the perianal region three times daily for seven days. Patients were prescribed hydrocodone bitartrate (Vicodin) to take as needed. The type and number of prescribed or nonprescribed medications taken during the postoperative period were recorded. Patients maintained a log to measure postoperative pain daily and perceived benefit of the ointment, using a Visual Analog Scale ranging from 0 to 10. Any postoperative morbidity noted during the follow-up period was recorded. Patients using the diltiazem ointment had significantly less pain and greater benefit than those in the placebo group throughout the first postoperative week. Postoperative pain scores in the placebo group averaged 8.8 +/- 1.2 early and diminished to 5.2 +/- 1.7 at the end of one week, compared to the diltiazem group of 5.2 +/- 2.4 early and 2.3 +/- 1.2 at the end of one week (P < 0.001, both time periods). Perceived benefit in the placebo group averaged 2.7 +/- 1.2 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.4 in the diltiazem group (P < 0.001). Total and daily narcotic use was higher in the placebo group, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.13). No differences in the frequency of use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen were seen between the two groups, and there were no differences in morbidity between the two groups. Perianal application of 2 percent diltiazem ointment after hemorrhoidectomy significantly reduces postoperative pain and is perceived as beneficial, with no increase in associated morbidity. Patients using a placebo ointment tend to take more prescription narcotics for pain

  20. Crohn's disease and smoking: is it ever too late to quit?

    PubMed

    Lawrance, Ian C; Murray, Kevin; Batman, Birol; Gearry, Richard B; Grafton, Rachel; Krishnaprasad, Krupa; Andrews, Jane M; Prosser, Ruth; Bampton, Peter A; Cooke, Sharon E; Mahy, Gillian; Radford-Smith, Graham; Croft, Anthony; Hanigan, Katherine

    2013-12-01

    Smoking increases CD risk. The aim was to determine if smoking cessation at, prior to, or following, CD diagnosis affects medication use, disease phenotypic progression and/or surgery. Data on CD patients with disease for ≥5 yrs were collected retrospectively including the Montreal classification, smoking history, CD-related abdominal surgeries, family history, medication use and disease behaviour at diagnosis and the time when the disease behaviour changed. 1115 patients were included across six sites (mean follow-up-16.6 yrs). More non-smokers were male (p=0.047) with A1 (p<0.0001), L4 (p=0.028) and perianal (p=0.03) disease. Non-smokers more frequently received anti-TNF agents (p=0.049). (p=0.017: OR 2.5 95%CI 1.18-5.16) and those who ceased smoking prior to diagnosis (p=0.045: OR 2.3 95%CI 1.02-5.21) progressed to complicated (B2/B3) disease as compared to those quitting at diagnosis. Patients with uncomplicated terminal ileal disease at diagnosis more frequently developed B2/B3 disease than isolated colonic CD (p<0.0001). B2/B3 disease was more frequent with perianal disease (p<0.0001) and if i.v. steroids (p=0.004) or immunosuppressants (p<0.0001) were used. 49.3% (558/1115) of patients required at least one intestinal surgery. More smokers had a 2nd surgical resection than patients who quit at, or before, the 1st resection and non-smokers (p=0.044: HR=1.39 95%CI 1.01-1.91). Patients smoking >3 cigarettes/day had an increased risk of developing B2/B3 disease (p=0.012: OR 3.8 95%CI 1.27-11.17). Progression to B2/B3 disease and surgery is reduced by smoking cessation. All CD patients regardless of when they were diagnosed, or how many surgeries, should be strongly encouraged to cease smoking. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional Outcomes Following Laparoscopic Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis in Patients with Chronic Ulcerative Colitis: Long-Term Follow-up of a Case-Matched Study.

    PubMed

    Baek, Se-Jin; Lightner, Amy L; Boostrom, Sarah Y; Mathis, Kellie L; Cima, Robert R; Pemberton, John H; Larson, David W; Dozois, Eric J

    2017-08-01

    Laparoscopic ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (L-IPAA) has been increasingly adopted over the last decade due to short-term patient-related benefits. Several studies have shown L-IPAA to be equivalent to open IPAA in terms of safety and short-term outcomes. However, few L-IPAA studies have examined long-term functional outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the long-term functional outcomes of L-IPAA as compared to open IPAA. A previous case-matched cohort study at our institution compared short-term outcomes between L-IPAA and open IPAA from 1998 to 2004. For this study, we selected all patients from this case-matched cohort study with chronic ulcerative colitis (CUC) who had follow-up functional data of greater than 1 year. Functional data was obtained through prospective surveys, which were sent annually to all IPAA patients postoperatively. One hundred and forty-nine patients (58 L-IPAA, 91 open IPAA) with a median 8-year duration of follow-up were identified. There were no differences in demographics and long-term surgical outcomes between groups. Stapled anastomosis was more common in the laparoscopic group (91.4 versus 54.9%, p < 0.001). Stool frequency during daytime (>6 stools, L-IPAA 32.8%, open 49.4%, p = 0.048) and nighttime (>2 stools, L-IPAA 13.8%, open 30.6%; p = 0.024) was significantly lower in the L-IPAA group. Ability to differentiate gas from stool was not different (p = 0.13). Rate of complete continence was similar in L-IPAA and open groups (L-IPAA 36.2%, open 21.8%, p = 0.060). There was no difference in use of medication to control stools, perianal skin irritation, voiding difficulty, sexual problems, and occupational change between groups. Subgroup analysis to evaluate for any group differences attributable to anastomotic technique demonstrated only that stapled anastomoses lead to more perianal skin irritation in the L-IPAA group (L-IPAA = 60.4% versus open IPAA = 38.8%; p = 0.031). Overall, L-IPAA has comparable functional results to

  2. Perineal herpes simplex infection in bedridden geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Nikkels, Arjen F; Piérard, Gérald E

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions are prone to reactivation and recurrence in response to various local or systemic triggering factors. To study the characteristics of five bedridden geriatric patients who presented with herpetic recurrences on the buttocks, gluteal cleft, and perianal region during hospitalization. Data were gathered regarding age, gender, reason for hospitalization, localization of lesions, clinical presentation, previous clinical diagnosis and topical treatments, immune status and immunosuppressant drug intake, as well as prior history of labial or genital herpes. A skin biopsy was taken for histologic examination and immunohistochemical viral identification. Viral culture and viral serology were performed and data regarding antiviral therapy were recorded. The five patients (three women, two men) were aged >80 years and hospitalized for either severe drug-induced renal insufficiency (one case), severe pneumonia (two cases), or stroke causing restricted mobility (two cases). Numerous well demarcated, painful ulcerations developed in the perianal region of these patients, and one patient also presented with some vesicular lesions. The lesions had been confused with mycotic and/or bacterial infections for 10-14 days. No inguinal lymphadenopathies were present and there was no fever. None of the patients had a previous history of recurrent labial or genital HSV infections or HIV infection. Histology was suggestive of HSV infection in two of five patients. Immunohistochemistry identified HSV type I (three patients) and HSV type II (two patients) infections. Viral culture with immunofluorescence viral identification revealed HSV type I in one of the four patients in whom a swab for viral culture was taken. Serology revealed past HSV infection. All lesions cured gradually after 10-14 days of intravenous acyclovir (aciclovir) treatment. Herpetic lesions of the perineal region represent a rare complication in bedridden geriatric patients in the absence

  3. Prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions among a cohort of HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Sendagorta, Elena; Herranz, Pedro; Guadalajara, Hector; Bernardino, Jose Ignacio; Viguer, Jose María; Beato, María José; García-Olmo, Damian; Peña, Jose María

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of anal cancer among HIV-infected patients is higher than that in other populations. Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions are considered precursors to invasive squamous-cell carcinomas and are strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus infection. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions through screening based on cytology and high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy in a cohort of HIV-infected men who have sex with men. This investigation is an observational cross-sectional cohort study. The study was conducted in the HIV unit of a tertiary hospital in Spain. Three hundred HIV-infected men who have sex with men participated. Physical examination led to a diagnosis of perianal squamous-cell carcinoma and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 2 patients who were then excluded. Anal liquid cytology was performed. Patients with cytological abnormalities underwent high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy. The primary outcome measured was biopsy-proven high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The median age was 41 ± 10.5 years. The mean and nadir CD4 cell counts were 651 ± 205 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range, 438-800) and 273 ± 205 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range, 131-362). High-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 80.9% of patients, and human papillomavirus 16 was detected in 35.9% of patients. The mean number of human papillomavirus genotypes was 4.6 ± 2.9 (CI, 2-6). Anal cytology was abnormal in 40.9% of patients (n = 122/298; interquartile range, 35.4%-46.6%). High-resolution anoscopy and biopsies were performed in 119 patients. The results of histological analyses were as follows: normal, 7.7% (n = 23); condyloma, 4.3% (n = 13); anal intraepithelial neoplasia 1, 5.7% (n = 17); anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2, 14% (n = 42); and anal intraepithelial neoplasia 3, 8% (n = 24). The overall prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions among

  4. In vivo magnetofection: a novel approach for targeted topical delivery of nucleic acids for rectoanal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagmohan; Mohanty, Ipsita; Rattan, Satish

    2018-01-01

    In these studies, we developed a novel approach of in vivo magnetofection for localized delivery of nucleic acids such as micro-RNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p; which is known to target Rho kinase2) to the circular smooth muscle layer of the internal anal sphincter (IAS). The IAS tone is known to play a major role in the rectoanal continence via activation of RhoA-associated kinase (RhoA/ROCK2). These studies established an optimized protocol for efficient gene delivery using an assembly of equal volumes of in vivo PolyMag and miR139-5p or anti-miR-139-5p (100 nM each) injected in the circular smooth muscle layer in the pinpointed areas of the rat perianal region and then incubated for 20 min under magnetic field. Magnetofection efficiency was confirmed and analyzed by confocal microscopy of FITC-tagged siRNA. Using physiological and biochemical approaches, we investigated the effects of miR-139-5p and anti-miR-139-5p on basal intraluminal IAS pressure (IASP), fecal pellet count, IAS tone, agonist-induced contraction, contraction-relaxation kinetics, and RhoA/ROCK2 signaling. Present studies demonstrate that magnetofection-mediated miR-139-5p delivery significantly decreased RhoA/ROCK2, p-MYPT1, and p-MLC 20 signaling, leading to decreases in the basal IASP and IAS tone and in rates of contraction and relaxation associated with increase in fecal pellet output. Interestingly, anti-miR-139-5p transfection had opposite effects on these parameters. Collectively, these data demonstrate that magnetofection is a promising novel method of in vivo gene delivery and of nucleotides to the internal anal sphincter for the site-directed and targeted therapy for rectoanal motility disorders. NEW & NOTEWORTHY These studies for the first time demonstrate the success of topical in vivo magnetofection (MF) of nucleic acids using perianal injections. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we used FITC-tagged siRNA via immunofluorescence microcopy and functional and biochemical evidence using mi

  5. Technetium-99m-HMPAO labeled leukocyte single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) for assessing Crohn's disease extent and intestinal infiltration.

    PubMed

    Biancone, L; Schillaci, O; Capoccetti, F; Bozzi, R M; Fina, D; Petruzziello, C; Geremia, A; Simonetti, G; Pallone, F

    2005-02-01

    Scintigraphy using radiolabeled leukocytes is a useful technique for assessing intestinal infiltration in Crohn's disease (CD). However, limits of planar images include overlapping activity in other organs and low specificity. To investigate the usefulness of (99m)Tc-HMPAO (hexametyl propylene amine oxime) labeled leukocyte single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) for assessing CD lesions, in comparison with planar images. Twenty-two inflammatory bowel disease patients (19 CD; 2 ulcerative colitis, UC; 1 ileal pouch) assessed by conventional endoscopy or radiology were enrolled. Leukocytes were labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO. SPECT images were acquired at 2 h and planar images at 30 min and 2 h. Bowel uptake was quantitated in nine regions (score 0-3). Both SPECT and planar images detected a negative scintigraphy (score 0) in the UC patient with no pouchitis and a positive scintigraphy (score 1-3) in the 21 patients showing active inflammation by conventional techniques. SPECT showed a higher global score than planar images (0.71 +/- 0.09 vs 0.30 +/- 0.05; p < 0.001), and in particular in the right iliac fossa (p= 0.003), right and left flank (p < 0.001; p= 0.02), hypogastrium (p= 0.002), and mesogastrium (p < 0.001). SPECT provided a better visualization and a higher uptake than planar images in patients with ileal and ileocolonic CD (6.45 +/- 0.82 vs 2.8 +/- 0.55, p < 0.001; 5.5 +/- 1.6 vs 2.6 +/- 0.7, p= 0.03), and with perianal CD (6.6 +/- 1.6 vs 3.4 +/- 1.2; p= 0.03). (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte SPECT provides a more detailed visualization of CD lesions than planar images. This technique may better discriminate between intestinal and bone marrow uptake, thus being useful for assessing CD lesions within the pelvis, including perianal disease.

  6. Micro-fragmented adipose tissue injection for the treatment of complex anal fistula: a pilot study accessing safety and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Naldini, G; Sturiale, A; Fabiani, B; Giani, I; Menconi, C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of autologous, micro-fragmented and minimally manipulated adipose tissue injection associated closure of the internal opening in promoting healing of complex anal fistula. A pilot study was conducted on patients referred to our center with anal fistula, from April 2015-December 2016. Inclusion criteria were age over 16 years old and a diagnosis of complex anal fistula according to the American Gastroenterological Association classification The patients were divided into 2 groups; the "first time group" (Group I) in which micro-fragmented adipose tissue injection with closure of the internal opening was the first sphincter-saving procedure, and the "recurrent group" (Group II) consisting of patients who had failed prior sphincter-saving procedures. The procedure was carried out 4-6 weeks after seton placement. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 7 days, and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Fistula healing was defined as the closure of the internal and external openings without any discharge. Out of 47 patients with complex transsphincteric anal fistula, 19 met the inclusion criteria and were selected to undergo the procedure. Twelve of these patients (Group I) had micro-fragmented adipose tissue injection as first-line treatment, and 7 (Group II) had failed previous sphincter-saving procedures. The mean operative time was 55 ± 6 min (range 50-70 min). The mean postoperative pain score measured with the visual analog pain scale was 2 ± 1.4 (range 0-4). No intraoperative difficulties related to the use of the kit were recorded. There were no cases of postoperative fever or abdominal sepsis related to the procedure and no post-treatment perianal bleeding or impaired anal continence. Only 3 cases of minor abdominal wall hematoma that did not require any treatment and 1 case of perianal abscess were observed. Patients were evaluated for a mean follow-up time of 9 ± 3.1 months (range 3

  7. Proposed Terminology for Anal Squamous Lesions: Its Application and Interobserver Agreement Among Pathologists in Academic and Community Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Liu, Xiuli; Patil, Deepa T; Xie, Hao; Allende, Daniela

    2017-07-01

    To analyze interobserver reproducibility and compare practice patterns between academic and community settings of Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST). In total, 132 anal biopsy slides were revised as well as p16 immunostains. LAST was used in 49% of cases (academic center, 68%; satellite hospitals [community practice setting], 32%). After pathology review and consensus interpretation, 23 (17%) case diagnoses were reclassified: eight (34.8%) cases (benign or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL]) were upgraded to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (p16 confirmed ordered during review); four (17.4%) cases originally classified as HSIL were downgraded to LSIL (p16 originally ordered in one case). There was no significant difference in discrepancies between original and consensus diagnosis in the community vs academic setting or by subspecialty (gynecological vs gastrointestinal). Overall interobserver agreement among reviewers was substantial (κ = 0.63) and improved with the use of p16 immunostain in challenging cases (κ = 0.71; P < .001). This new terminology is not yet uniformly used by pathologists in anal/perianal biopsy specimens; this two-tier system has a good interobserver agreement and is further improved with p16 use in appropriate cases. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Fiber and colorectal diseases: Separating fact from fiction

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Whilst fruits and vegetables are an essential part of our dietary intake, the role of fiber in the prevention of colorectal diseases remains controversial. The main feature of a high-fiber diet is its poor digestibility. Soluble fiber like pectins, guar and ispaghula produce viscous solutions in the gastrointestinal tract delaying small bowel absorption and transit. Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, pass largely unaltered through the gut. The more fiber is ingested, the more stools will have to be passed. Fermentation in the intestines results in build up of large amounts of gases in the colon. This article reviews the physiology of ingestion of fiber and defecation. It also looks into the impact of dietary fiber on various colorectal diseases. A strong case cannot be made for a protective effect of dietary fiber against colorectal polyp or cancer. Neither has fiber been found to be useful in chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also not useful in the treatment of perianal conditions. The fiber deficit - diverticulosis theory should also be challenged. The authors urge clinicians to keep an open mind about fiber. One must be aware of the truths and myths about fiber before recommending it. PMID:17696243

  9. [Internal and external haemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J P; Go, P M N Y H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present 3 cases of patients with different types of haemorrhoidal disease. The first patient is a 27-year-old woman who had been experiencing incidental rectal blood loss without pain during defecation for 3 months. The second patient is a 76-year-old woman who had been bothered by varying degrees of pain from a swelling nearby the anus for 1 year. The third case involves a 31-year-old man who had had continuous severe pain in the anal area for 3 consecutive days. The first patient appeared to have internal hemorrhoids, whereas different forms of external hemorrhoids affected the patients in the other 2 cases. Internal haemorrhoids develop from the intraluminal corpus cavernosum recti; external haemorrhoids from the perianal marginal veins. Patients with internal haemorrhoids present with symptoms that include blood loss and prolaps feeling during defecation. In patients with external haemorrhoids pain is the prominent symptom. Internal haemorrhoids are treated either conservatively or surgically, depending upon their severity. Considering external haemorrhoidal disease surgical treatment provides the most rapid and persistent relief of symptoms.

  10. Stapled haemorrhoidectomy in the operative treatment of grade III and IV haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, S; Pradhan, G B N; Shrestha, R; Poudel, P; Bhattachan, C L

    2014-09-01

    Stapled haemorrhoidectomy (SH) is a minimally invasive intervention that uses a stapling device which avoids the need for wounds in the sensitive anal area and reduces the pain after surgery. This study was undertaken in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of this modality of treatment among patients (32) who presented in the Surgery OPD with grade III and grade IV haemorrhoids. The results of SH were evaluated by the relief of symptoms, severity of post operative pain, and complications of SH. Twenty five (78.1%) patients had grade III and 7 (21.9%) presented with grade IV hemorrhoids. The most frequent presentation reported in our study was bleeding per rectum with perianal prolapse. Mean operating time was 40-60 minutes whereas mean hospital stay was 1.9 days. Urinary retention was the most common complication found in 12 (37.5%) patients in the immediate post operative period. SH is a safe, rapid, and convenient surgical remedy for grade III and grade IV hemorrhoids with low rate of complications, minimal postoperative pain, and shorter hospital stay.

  11. International bowel function basic spinal cord injury data set.

    PubMed

    Krogh, K; Perkash, I; Stiens, S A; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2009-03-01

    International expert working group. To develop an International Bowel Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in daily practice or in research. Working group consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). A draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, and later by ISCoS Scientific Committee and the ASIA Board. Relevant and interested scientific and professional (international) organizations and societies (approximately 40) were also invited to review the data set and it was posted on the ISCoS and ASIA websites for 3 months to allow comments and suggestions. The ISCoS Scientific Committee, Council and ASIA Board received the data set for final review and approval. The International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set includes the following 12 items: date of data collection, gastrointestinal or anal sphincter dysfunction unrelated to SCI, surgical procedures on the gastrointestinal tract, awareness of the need to defecate, defecation method and bowel care procedures, average time required for defecation, frequency of defecation, frequency of fecal incontinence, need to wear pad or plug, medication affecting bowel function/constipating agents, oral laxatives and perianal problems. An International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set has been developed.

  12. Biphasic pulses enhance bleomycin efficacy in a spontaneous canine genital tumor model of chemoresistance: Sticker sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Spugnini , Enrico P; Dotsinsky , Ivan; Mudrov , Nikolay; Citro , Gennaro; D'Avino , Alfredo; Baldi , Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Sticker's sarcoma (also known as transmissible venereal tumor) is a horizontally transmitted neoplasm of the dog, that is passed with coitus. It is a locally aggressive tumor with a low tendency to metastatic spread. The most common locations are the genitals, the nose, the perianal area. Standard treatment consists with chemotherapy with vincristine, however other therapies such as, cryotherapy, immunotherapy or, in selected cases, radiation therapy, have been reported. In this article we describe the outcome of a small cohort of canine patients, with chemotherapy resistant transmissible venereal tumor (TVT), treated with bleomycin selectively driven by trains of biphasic pulses (electrochemotherapy). Three canine patients, with refractory TVT, entered the study and received two sessions of ECT under sedation. The pets had local injection of bleomycin at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml and five minutes after the chemotherapy, trains of 8 biphasic electric pulses lasting 50 + 50 μs each, with 1 ms interpulse intervals, were delivered by means of modified caliper or, for difficult districts, through paired needle electrode. All the patients responded to the treatment and are still in remission at different times. Electrochemotherapy appears as a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of TVT and warrants further investigations. PMID:18980687

  13. Methylation of HPV and a tumor suppressor gene reveals anal cancer and precursor lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lorincz, Attila T.; Nathan, Mayura; Reuter, Caroline; Warman, Rhian; Thaha, Mohamed A.; Sheaff, Michael; Vasiljevic, Natasa; Ahmad, Amar; Cuzick, Jack; Sasieni, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We studied DNA methylation patterns of human papillomavirus (HPV) and tumor suppressor gene EPB41L3 in 148 anal and perianal biopsies to determine whether high levels of methylation would be associated with anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The most prevalent HPV type was HPV16, detected in 54% of the 30 benign biopsies, 33% of the 43 low-grade AIN (lgAIN), 82% of the 59 high grade AIN (hgAIN) and 4 of the 5 anal cancers. A methylation score was developed (0.561*HPV16me+0.439*EPB41L3) which had increasing values with severity of disease: the mean was 8.1% in benign, 13.2% in lgAIN, 22.3% in hgAIN and 49.3% in cancers (p < 0.0001). The methylation score as a triage classifier at a cut-off of 8.8 gave a sensitivity of 90.6% (95% CI: 82.8, 96.9), specificity of 50.7% (95% CI: 39.7, 61.6) and area under the curve of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75–0.89) for separating hgAIN and cancer from benign and lgAIN biopsies. We conclude that methylation of HPV16 and EPB41L3 show highly significant association with increasing severity of AIN and cancer and may be useful as biomarkers in anal disease. PMID:28881579

  14. Endocavitary Ir-192 radiation and laser treatment for palliation of obstructive rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mischinger, H J; Hauser, H; Cerwenka, H; Stücklschweiger, G; Geyer, E; Schweiger, W; Rosanelli, G; Kohek, P H; Werkgartner, G; Hackl, A

    1997-10-01

    Endoscopic laser therapy (ELT) either alone or combined with endocavitary Ir-192 radiation is performed for advanced, inoperable rectal cancer and when patients are ineligible for surgery due to severe concomitant medical illness. During the period from January 1984 to January 1997 we treated 81 patients (51 males, 30 females). Sixty-seven patients had ELT only using a ND-Yag Laser system. Twenty-five patients (average age: 80.5 years) were ineligible for surgery (Group I). Forty-two patients (74.1 years) had an advanced locally inoperable tumour (Group II). Fourteen patients (76.5 years) underwent a combined therapeutic regime with endocavitary Ir-192 afterloading following ELT (Group III). Adequate desobliteration was achieved in 100% (groups I and III) and 97% (group II) of the patients. The average interval to aftertreatment was 8.4 weeks in group I and 9.4 weeks in group II, compared to 11.5 weeks in group III. Serious complications (perianal abscess, rectovaginal fistula) occurred in 3.7%, minor complications (laser-induced bleedings, unclear fever) in 12.3%. All laser-induced bleedings could be dealt with using laser therapy. The frequency of treatment was governed by tumour mass and the patient's survival. The results suggest that additional endocavitary radiation significantly prolongs the maintenance of normal bowel function compared with laser therapy alone.

  15. The occurrence of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 in skin and mucosal lesions in patients with suspicion of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Emilia; Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Machura, Paulina; Majewska, Anna; Dzieciqtkowski, Tomasz; Mlynarzyk, Grazyna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Majewski, Slawomir

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV 1 and 2 or Human herpesvirus HHV) are one of the most common infections in human. Real time PCR is a sensitive and specific method for diagnostics of HHV infections. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of HHV 1 and HHV 2 DNA in patient with clinical symptoms suggesting HHV infection. We used real time PCR to investigate swabs from genital and perianal lesions from 74 patients of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology Medical University Warsaw and of gynecological outpatient clinics in Warsaw 40 women and 34 men. The results were positive for HHV 2 in 25 cases (34%), for HHV 1 in 19 cases (26%) and for both viruses in 20 cases (27%). 10 samples were negative for both viruses. The results confirm that the main cause of symptomatic genital herpes is HHV 2, however the percentage of HHV 1 and specially of mixed HHV 1/HHV 2 infections was unexpectedly high.

  16. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.

  17. Isolation of herpes simplex virus from the genital tract during symptomatic recurrence on the buttocks.

    PubMed

    Kerkering, Katrina; Gardella, Carolyn; Selke, Stacy; Krantz, Elizabeth; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the frequency of isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from the genital tract when recurrent herpes lesions were present on the buttocks. Data were extracted from a prospectively observed cohort attending a research clinic for genital herpes infections between 1975 and 2001. All patients with a documented herpes lesion on the buttocks, upper thigh or gluteal cleft ("buttock recurrence") and concomitant viral cultures from genital sites including the perianal region were eligible. We reviewed records of 237 subjects, 151 women and 86 men, with a total of 572 buttock recurrences. Of the 1,592 days with genital culture information during a buttock recurrence, participants had concurrent genital lesions on 311 (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14-27%) of these days. Overall, HSV was isolated from the genital region on 12% (95% CI 8-17%) of days during a buttock recurrence. In the absence of genital lesions, HSV was isolated from the genital area on 7% (95% CI 4%-11%) of days during a buttock recurrence and, among women, from the vulvar or cervical sites on 1% of days. Viral shedding of herpes simplex virus from the genital area is a relatively common occurrence during a buttock recurrence of genital herpes, even without concurrent genital lesions, reflecting perhaps reactivation from concomitant regions of the sacral neural ganglia. Patients with buttock herpes recurrences should be instructed about the risk of genital shedding during such recurrences. II-2.

  18. Prenatal regression of the trophotaenial placenta in a viviparous fish, Xenotoca eiseni

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Atsuo; Nishimaki, Toshiyuki; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    The trophotaenial placenta is a branching, ribbon-like structure that extends from the perianal region of the embryo in viviparous teleost fishes belonging to the family Goodeidae. It is a hindgut-derived pseudoplacenta, which contributes to absorbing maternal nutrients during the prenatal stage. The trophotaeniae are known to reduce at birth; however, no previous study has evaluated the removal mechanisms. We report here the analysis of the trophotaeniae using the goodeid fish species Xenotoca eiseni. The X. eiseni trophotaenia consists of an epidermal cell layer, mesenchyme, vasculature, and circulating erythrocytes. The trophotaeniae had preliminary regressed when the embryo was born. Immunohistochemistry indicated that caspase3-activated cells with fragmented nuclei are present in the regressed processes of the fry immediately after birth, but not in the vasculature and blood cells. This finding suggests that the trophotaenia is rapidly resorbed by apoptosis in the last phase of the pregnancy and that its circulatory pathway is maintained. Such prenatal regression of pseudoplacentae has not been reported in other viviparous vertebrates. On the other hand, similar apoptotic remodeling in the gut has been reported in amphibians, which is regulated by thyroid hormone. Thus, apoptotic regression of the trophotaeniae might occur in a manner similar to amphibian metamorphosis. PMID:25598151

  19. Amyloidosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review of Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tosca Cuquerella, Joan; Bosca-Watts, Marta Maia; Anton Ausejo, Rosario; Tejedor Alonso, Sandra; Mora De Miguel, Francisco; Minguez Perez, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare complication of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]; its low prevalence has hindered both descriptive and therapeutic studies. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of amyloidosis in IBD and the risk factors associated with this complication. This paper presents an observational study, followed by a systematic review of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease and a review of the diagnostic and therapeutic options. The prevalence of amyloidosis among IBD patients is 0.53% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32-0.75), although epidemiological data suggest that it may be under-diagnosed. The phenotype most frequently associated with amyloidosis is males with aggressive and extensive Crohn's disease, fistulising behaviour, perianal disease, and extra-intestinal complications, with the development of proteinuria and renal failure. Identifying risk factors of amyloidosis in IBD patients and screening for proteinuric renal dysfunction are useful to improve diagnostic accuracy. Referral of biopsies to a tertiary centre should also be considered, to improve diagnostic accuracy. Although there is no reliable evidence on the effectiveness of treatment, it seems reasonable to treat the underlying disease with potent immunosuppression to minimise inflammatory activity, thereby switching off amyloidogenesis. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An open-label pilot study of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for the treatment of severe endoscopic postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Dejaco, Clemens; Lichtenberger, Conny; Miehsler, Wolfgang; Oberhuber, Georg; Herbst, Friedrich; Vogelsang, Harald; Gangl, Alfred; Reinisch, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) promoted healing of Crohn's disease (CD)-like intestinal lesions in chronic granulomatous disease and glycogen storage disease Ib, both characterized by defective neutrophil functions. We performed a prospective, open-label pilot study with rhG-CSF for the treatment of CD. Five patients with clinically inactive CD, but with severe endoscopic ileitis within 1 year after intestinal resection and ileocolonic anastomosis, received 300 microg of rhG-CSF (Filgrastim; Neupogen) subcutaneously, three times weekly for a total of 12 weeks. Safety was evaluated by assessment of clinical and laboratory data and disease activity. The primary parameter of efficacy was complete mucosal healing, as defined by the Rutgeerts score. Anti-inflammatory mediators were repeatedly measured during treatment. All patients completed the protocol in clinical remission. In 1 subject transient headache resolved after halving the rhG-CSF dosage. Complete mucosal healing was observed in 2 patients: in 1 patient after 12 weeks of therapy and in 1 patient 9 months after treatment cessation. In a single patient, closure of an anovaginal and of a perianal fistula was noted. Neutrophil counts and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 and p75 levels were found to be increased during drug administration. rhG-CSF seems to be safe, well tolerated, and might provide efficacy in CD. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. [Surgical treatment of anal fistula].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiandong; Zhang, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Anal fistula is a common disease. It is also quite difficult to be solved without recurrence or damage to the anal sphincter. Several techniques have been described for the management of anal fistula, but there is no final conclusion of their application in the treatment. This article summarizes the history of anal fistula management, the current techniques available, and describes new technologies. Internet online searches were performed from the CNKI and Wanfang databases to identify articles about anal fistula management including seton, fistulotomy, fistulectomy, LIFT operation, biomaterial treatment and new technology application. Every fistula surgery technique has its own place, so it is reasonable to give comprehensive individualized treatment to different patients, which may lead to reduced recurrence and avoidance of damage to the anal sphincter. New technologies provide promising alternatives to traditional methods of management. Surgeons still need to focus on the invention and improvement of the minimally invasive techniques. Besides, a new therapeutic idea is worth to explore that the focus of surgical treatment should be transferred to prevention of the formation of anal fistula after perianal abscess.

  2. Fournier's Gangrene: Current Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mallikarjuna, M. N.; Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Patil, Vijayraj S.; Shivswamy, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an acute, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal, infective necrotizing fasciitis affecting the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions, which commonly affects men, but can also occur in women and children. There has been an increase in number of cases in recent times. Despite advanced management mortality is still high and averages 20–30%. Early diagnosis using Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score and stratification of patients into high risk category using Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score help in early initiation of treatment. Triple antibiotic combined with radical debridement is the mainstay of treatment. There have been many advances in management of Fournier gangrene including use of vaccum assisted closure and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. With introduction of newer devices like Flexi-Seal, fecal diversion can be done, avoiding colostomy. Reconstruction of perineal defects using skin grafts, flaps, and urethral reconstruction using gracilis flaps can reduce the morbidity associated with FG and provide acceptable functional and aesthetic outcomes. PMID:23251819

  3. Pregnancy related issues in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence base and patients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Selinger, Christian P; Leong, Rupert Wl; Lal, Simon

    2012-06-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects women of childbearing age and can influence fertility, pregnancy and decisions regarding breastfeeding. Women with IBD need to consider the possible course of disease during pregnancy, the benefits and risks associated with medications required for disease management during pregnancy and breastfeeding and the effects of mode of delivery on their disease. When indicated, aminosalicylates and thiopurines can be safely used during pregnancy. Infliximab and Adalimumab are considered probably safe during the first two trimesters. During the third trimester the placenta can be crossed and caution should be applied. Methotrexate is associated with severe teratogenicity due to its folate antagonism and is strictly contraindicated. Women with IBD tend to deliver earlier than healthy women, but can have a vaginal delivery in most cases. Caesarean sections are generally recommended for women with active perianal disease or after ileo-anal pouch surgery.While the impact of disease activity and medication has been addressed in several studies, there are minimal studies evaluating patients' perspective on these issues. Women's attitudes may influence their decision to have children and can positively or negatively influence the chance of conceiving, and their beliefs regarding therapies may impact on the course of their disease during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding. This review article outlines the impact of IBD and its treatment on pregnancy, and examines the available data on patients' views on this subject.

  4. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in racial and ethnic migrant groups.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ravi; Faiz, Omar; Munkholm, Pia; Burisch, Johan; Arebi, Naila

    2018-01-21

    To summarise the current literature and define patterns of disease in migrant and racial groups. A structured key word search in Ovid Medline and EMBASE was undertaken in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies on incidence, prevalence and disease phenotype of migrants and races compared with indigenous groups were eligible for inclusion. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Individual studies showed significant differences in incidence, prevalence and disease phenotype between migrants or race and indigenous groups. Pooled analysis could only be undertaken for incidence studies on South Asians where there was significant heterogeneity between the studies [95% for ulcerative colitis (UC), 83% for Crohn's disease (CD)]. The difference between incidence rates was not significant with a rate ratio South Asian: Caucasian of 0.78 (95%CI: 0.22-2.78) for CD and 1.39 (95%CI: 0.84-2.32) for UC. South Asians showed consistently higher incidence and more extensive UC than the indigenous population in five countries. A similar pattern was observed for Hispanics in the United States. Bangladeshis and African Americans showed an increased risk of CD with perianal disease. This review suggests that migration and race influence the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease. This may be due to different inherent responses upon exposure to an environmental trigger in the adopted country. Further prospective studies on homogenous migrant populations are needed to validate these observations, with a parallel arm for in-depth investigation of putative drivers.

  5. Herpes simplex virus proctitis in homosexual men. Clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Goodell, S E; Quinn, T C; Mkrtichian, E; Schuffler, M D; Holmes, K K; Corey, L

    1983-04-14

    Acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was detected in 23 of 102 consecutively examined, sexually active male homosexuals who presented with anorectal pain, discharge, tenesmus, or hematochezia, as compared with 3 of 75 homosexual men without gastrointestinal symptoms (P less than 0.01). Findings that were significantly more frequent in men with HSV proctitis than in men with proctitis due to other infectious causes included fever (48 per cent), difficulty in urinating (48 per cent), sacral paresthesias (26 per cent), inguinal lymphadenopathy (57 per cent), severe anorectal pain (100 per cent), tenesmus (100 per cent), constipation (78 per cent), perianal ulcerations (70 per cent), and the presence of diffuse ulcerative or discrete vesicular or pustular lesions in the distal 5 cm of the rectum (50 per cent). Serologic evidence indicated that 85 per cent of the men with symptomatic HSV proctitis were having their first episode of HSV-2 infection. The diagnosis of HSV proctitis is suggested by the presence of severe anorectal pain, difficulty in urinating, sacral paresthesias or pain, and diffuse ulceration of the distal rectal mucosa.

  6. Should anorectal ultrasonography be included as a diagnostic tool for chronic anal pain?

    PubMed

    García-Montes, M J; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; Jiménez-Contreras, S; Sánchez-Gey, S; Pellicer-Bautista, F; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, J M

    2010-01-01

    To assess the efficiency of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) in the study of chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP). This is a prospective and descriptive study in which 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women with an average of 47 years, were included. They had chronic anal pain of at least 3 months duration. A complete colonoscopy was performed in all patients, which found no abnormalities to explain clinical symptoms. Patients with anal fissure and internal hemorrhoids of any degree, perianal suppurative processes, and pelvic surgery were excluded from the study. An ALOKA ProSound SSD-4000 ultrasound console attached to a multifrequency radial transductor ASU-67 (7.5 and 10 MHz) was used. One patient could not tolerate the examination. In 8 patients (20% of cases) alterations were detected during ultrasonography: in 4 patients (10% of the cases; 1 man and 3 women) internal anal sphincter (IAS) hypertrophy, and in 5 patients (4 women and 1 man) a torn sphincter complex. A tear in the upper IAS canal and hypertrophy of the middle anal canal were observed in one patient (1 woman). ERUS is a simple, economic and useful test to study anorectal pathologies. Although in most studied cases no damage to the anal canal or rectal wall was detected, in a considerable number of patients we observed a thickening of the IAS, a probable cause of anal pain. Therefore, we understand that ERUS should be included in the study of CIAP.

  7. Colorectal perforation by self-induced hydrostatic pressure: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Choi, Pyong Wha

    2013-02-01

    Most iatrogenic colorectal perforations occur as a result of endoscopic or fluoroscopic studies. Accidents associated with hydrostatic pressure-induced perforation are rarely reported, and self-induced hydrostatic pressure is an extremely rare cause of perforation because the anal sphincter complex may provide a protective barrier against perianal hydrostatic pressure. We present two cases of rectosigmoid colon perforation secondary to self-induced hydrostatic pressure. A 61-year-old man and a 45-year-old man presented with abdominal pain after forceful entry of tap water into the rectum, during rinsing of the anus after defecation in the first case, and during self-administered enema in the second case. Emergency operations were performed with the suspicion of hydrostatic pressure-induced rectal injury, and showed rectosigmoid mesenteric perforation in both cases. Resection of the diseased segment and end colostomy (Hartmann's procedure) was performed in the first case, and primary resection and anastomosis in the second case. The pathologic results showed abrupt loss of the colonic wall in the mesenteric border, without evidence of other inflammatory disease; these findings were consistent with acute mechanical colon injury. The postoperative course in both cases was uneventful. These cases put forth an unusual type of colorectal injury, caused specifically by hydrostatic pressure, thus adding to the available literature on hydrostatic pressure-induced injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The anatomical distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of yeast species isolated from healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Brito, Erika H S; Fontenelle, Raquel O S; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the predominant yeast species present at different anatomical sites in healthy dogs and to determine their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility using a broth microdilution assay. Samples were collected from the preputial, vaginal, oral and perianal mucosae and the isolates cultured were identified according to their morphological characteristics and biochemical profile. Malassezia pachydermatis was the most commonly isolated yeast, followed by Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotorula spp. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the azole derivatives ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole against Candida spp. were 0.03-16 microg/mL, 0.06 to >16 microg/mL and 0.5-64 microg/mL, respectively and Candida isolates were sensitive to caspofungin and amphotericin B. Although all isolates of M. pachydermatis were sensitive to itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B, they were found to be resistant to caspofungin. The study has highlighted that Candida spp., M. pachydermatis, S. cerevisiae and Rhodotorula spp. are part of the normal canine surface microbiota and some of these organisms exhibit in vitro resistance to commonly used antimicrobials.

  9. MRI in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Michael S.; Harisinghani, Mukesh G.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1.4 million people in North America and, because of its typical early age of onset and episodic disease course, IBD patients often undergo numerous imaging studies over the course of their lifetimes. CT has become the standard imaging modality for assessment of IBD patients because of its widespread availability, rapid image acquisition, and ability to evaluate intraluminal and extraluminal disease. However, repetitive CT imaging has been associated with a significant ionizing radiation risk to patients, making MRI an appealing alternative IBD imaging modality. Pelvic MRI is currently the imaging gold standard for detecting perianal disease, while recent studies indicate that MRI bowel-directed techniques (enteroclysis, enterography, colonography) can accurately evaluate bowel inflammation in IBD. With recent technical innovations leading to faster and higher resolution body MRI, the role of MRI in IBD evaluation is likely to continue to expand. Future applications include surveillance imaging, detection of mural fibrosis, and early assessment of therapy response. PMID:21512607

  10. Using negative pressure therapy for improving skin graft taking on genital area defects following Fournier gangrene.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Erkan; Şenen, Dilek

    2017-09-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an infective necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital and perianal regions. Treatment includes aggressive surgical debridement that often results in extensive loss of genital skin. Skin grafts may be used for reconstruction but skin grafting of the male genitalia is diffucult because the penis and scrotum are mobile and deformable. A variety of methods are used to secure skin graft to recipient beds. We used negative pressure therapy (NPT) to secure skin grafts and improve skin graft taking. We used negative pressure therapy for graft fixation in 13 male patients who underwent debridements with the indication of Fournier gangrene, and whose defects formed were reconstructed with grafts between January 2009, and January 2014. Information about age of the patients, sessions of negative pressure therapy applied before, and after reconstruction, duration of hospital stay, and graft losses during postoperative period were recorded. Median age of the patients was 56.15 (46-72) years. NPT was applied to patients for an average of 6.64 sessions (4-12) before and 1 sessions after graft reconstruction. Patients were hospitalized for an average of 26.7 (20-39) days. Any graft loss was not seen after NPT. Because of the peculiar anatomy of the genital region, anchoring of grafts is difficult so graft losses are often encountered. Use of NPT for ensuring graft fixation on the genital region prevents skin graft shearing.

  11. Diverting Ileostomy for the Treatment of Severe, Refractory, Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Elizabeth C; Dawany, Noor; Baldassano, Robert N; Mamula, Petar; Mattei, Peter; Albenberg, Lindsey; Kelsen, Judith R

    2017-09-01

    Diverting ileostomy is used as a temporizing therapy in patients with perianal Crohn disease; however, little data exist regarding its use for colonic disease. The primary aim of the present study was to determine the role of diversion in severe refractory colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a pediatric population. Retrospective study of patients who underwent diverting ileostomy at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 2000 to 2014 for the management of severe, refractory colonic IBD. Clinical variables were compared in the 1 year before ileostomy and 1 year after diversion. Surgical and disease outcomes including changes in diagnosis were reviewed through 2015. Twenty-four patients underwent diverting ileostomy for refractory colonic disease. Initial diagnoses were Crohn disease in 10 (42%), ulcerative colitis in 1 (4%), and IBD-unclassified in 13 patients (54%). Comparing data before and after surgery, there were statistically significant improvements in height and weight velocities, height velocity z score, blood transfusion requirement, hemoglobin, and hospitalization rates. Chronic steroid use decreased from 71% to 22%. At the conclusion of the study, 10 patients had undergone subsequent colectomy, 7 had successful bowel reanastomosis, and 7 remain diverted. Seven patients (29%) had a change in diagnosis. There were 13 surgical complications in 7 subjects, including prolapse reduction, stoma revision, and resection of ischemic bowel. In pediatric patients with refractory colonic IBD, diverting ileostomy can be a successful intervention to induce clinical stability. Importantly, diversion is a steroid-sparing therapy and allows additional time to clarify the diagnosis.

  12. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  13. [Investigation on pinworm infection and relative factors on prevalence among urban and rural preschool children in Xianyang City].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Ping; An, Rong; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li; Li, Yan-Kui

    2013-08-01

    A total of Eight hundred eighty-six children from 3 to 7 years old in 8 kindergartens were sampled in urban and rural area in Xianyang City from March to May 2012. The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs. Children's hygiene habits, clinical symptoms and hygienic condition were surveyed by questionnairing. The total infection rate of pinworm was 11.2% (99/886). The rate in males and females was 10.4% (52/500) and 12.2% (47/386), respectively. The infection rate in rural kindergartens (19.1%, 70/367) was higher than that of urban kindergartens (5.6%, 29/519) (chi2 = 39.39, P < 0.01). Among the investigated children aged 3-7 years, the infection rate in 4-5 years group (12.7%) was the highest, but no statistical difference was found among age groups (P> 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the hygiene habits such as washing hands before eating (OR = 0.180), drinking unboiled water and eating non-cooked food (OR = 2.473), cleaning perianal region frequently (OR = 0.836), cutting nails frequently (OR = 0.450), drying the quilt regularly (OR = 0.224) and health education (OR = 0.639) were the influence factors on pinworm infection. The main symptoms of pinworm infection include pruritus and bruxism.

  14. Enterobius vermicularis egg positive rate of pre-school children in Chunchon, Korea (1999)

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyung-Jun; Choi, Ye-Jong; Lee, Soo-Ung; Park, Hyun-Young; Yang, Yong-Sang

    2000-01-01

    Pre-school children were examined for the presence of Enterobius vermicularis egg by perianal swab method. We visited 67 nurseries and 25 kindergartens between January, 1999 and April, 1999 in Chunchon, Korea. Of the 4,711 children examined, 434 (9.2%) were found to be positive for E. vermicularis egg. The egg positive rates of boys and girls were 10.1% and 8.1%, respectively. The rates were 7.8% in kindergartens and 9.7% in nurseries. Positive rate of 50 institutions was less than 10%. Rate in 35 institutions was from 10% to less than 20%. Rate in 7 institutions was equal to or over 20%. Out of 1,113 children examined twice, 28 (2.5%) children were positive consecutively, 53 (4.8%) were positive with negative conversion, 47 (4.2%) were negative with positive conversion, and 985 (88.5%) were consecutively negative. It means that in the low endemic area of enterobiasis with around 10% positive rate, the two consecutive examinations may increase the egg detection rate of 4.2-4.8%. The small number of consecutive egg positive children also suggests that the worm burden of the positive children might be low. Since the egg positive rate of that age group in this City increased from 1.85% (1997), and 3.0% (1998), the more intensive regular control should be executed. PMID:11138323

  15. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. © S. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  16. [Demographic and clinical features of diagnosed individuals of enterobiasis in the southern Gran Canaria: sampling assessment].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Quintero, D; Del Otero Sanz, L; Hernández-Egido, S; Martín Sánchez, A M

    2016-12-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, also known as pinworn, is the responsible agent for Human Enterobiasis. It is one of the most prevalent, but underrated, parasitic disease in children population. Diagnosis involves demonstration of either eggs or adult worms by Graham test. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, demographic and microbiological features of patients with suspected diagnosis of Enterobiasis in southern Gran Canaria. Descriptive and prospective study of perianal samples evaluated by Graham test in the Microbiology Department of `Insular de Gran Canaria´ University Hospital between November 2014 and November 2015. Descriptive analysis to evaluate the correlation between clinical and demographic variables and the results of Graham test microbiological observation. 1,128 samples were analyzed. E. vermicularis was found in 11.4% of the samples. Among the positives samples, 88.4% belonged to children under 14 years, and 53.5% were male. Abdominal pain (18.6%), anal itching (11.6%), eosinophilia (8.5%) and intestinal parasitosis suspicion (7.8%) were the reasons of parasitological investigation request in positive samples. Nevertheless, a high proportion of the requests was not founded in a suspicious diagnosis or was unrelated to Enterobiasis. Enterobiasis is a common disease in primary health care and is of great importance in Gran Canaria. Quality in sample collection as well as diagnosis suspicious information are necessary for a good microbiological analysis.

  17. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among Preschool Children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Jeong, Young-Il; Lee, Jin-Hee; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection and changes in the egg positive rate (EPR) over 1-year time, using the adhesive cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2,347 preschool children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea in 2008 and 2009. The overall EPR for E. vermicularis was 4.1% in 2008 and 4.5% in 2009. A study population of 389 children was repeatedly examined for 2 years. Within this group, the EPR in 2009 was twice higher than in 2008, and the EPR of the group of 5-7-year-old children was significantly higher than that of other age groups. Moreover, in the group of 5-7-year-old children in 2009, the rates of positive and negative conversion were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than in other age groups. Conclusively, enterobiasis was prevalent during 2008-2009 among preschool children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, and the increased EPR in 2009 was due to an increase in newly acquired infections among 5-7-year-old children. PMID:22949757

  18. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Jeong, Young-Il; Lee, Jin-Hee; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2012-09-01

    We assessed the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection and changes in the egg positive rate (EPR) over 1-year time, using the adhesive cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2,347 preschool children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea in 2008 and 2009. The overall EPR for E. vermicularis was 4.1% in 2008 and 4.5% in 2009. A study population of 389 children was repeatedly examined for 2 years. Within this group, the EPR in 2009 was twice higher than in 2008, and the EPR of the group of 5-7-year-old children was significantly higher than that of other age groups. Moreover, in the group of 5-7-year-old children in 2009, the rates of positive and negative conversion were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than in other age groups. Conclusively, enterobiasis was prevalent during 2008-2009 among preschool children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, and the increased EPR in 2009 was due to an increase in newly acquired infections among 5-7-year-old children.

  19. Enterobius vermicularis in the Endometrium of the Uterus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    PIGAC, Biserka; MAŠIĆ, Silvija; MAŠIĆ, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal nematode of humans and the most common helminth infection. Main transmission path is direct contact between infected and uninfected person meaning ingestion of the eggs. Human infections are usually asymptomatic or manifest as perianal itching. Although ectopic locations are uncommon, Enterobius can occasionally be detected in appendix, kidney, male urinary tract and female genital tract. We present a case from Varaždin General Hospital, Varaždin, Croatia in 2012, involving a 90-yr-old female patient who underwent hysterectomy leading to accidental finding of E. vermicularis in the uterus despite being asymptomatic for enterobiasis. Since there were no signs and symptoms of parasitic infection, no antiparasitic drugs were administered. Parasite was not observed during macroscopic examination, yet microscopic examination of the material demonstrated helminth within endometrium surrounded by dense inflammatory infiltrate, predominantly lymphocytes and some eosinophils. Internal structures of the parasite were collapsed, while well-developed musculature and cuticle were preserved. We present this case to educate and remind physicians on this parasitosis as possible diagnosis. Although non-gastrointestinal locations of Enterobius infestation are rare, this infection should be considered in patients with abdominal pain, genitourinary symptoms, and pelvic pain in order to apply appropriate treatment and prevent further complications. PMID:29317890

  20. Enterobius vermicularis in the Endometrium of the Uterus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pigac, Biserka; Mašić, Silvija; Mašić, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal nematode of humans and the most common helminth infection. Main transmission path is direct contact between infected and uninfected person meaning ingestion of the eggs. Human infections are usually asymptomatic or manifest as perianal itching. Although ectopic locations are uncommon, Enterobius can occasionally be detected in appendix, kidney, male urinary tract and female genital tract. We present a case from Varaždin General Hospital, Varaždin, Croatia in 2012, involving a 90-yr-old female patient who underwent hysterectomy leading to accidental finding of E. vermicularis in the uterus despite being asymptomatic for enterobiasis. Since there were no signs and symptoms of parasitic infection, no antiparasitic drugs were administered. Parasite was not observed during macroscopic examination, yet microscopic examination of the material demonstrated helminth within endometrium surrounded by dense inflammatory infiltrate, predominantly lymphocytes and some eosinophils. Internal structures of the parasite were collapsed, while well-developed musculature and cuticle were preserved. We present this case to educate and remind physicians on this parasitosis as possible diagnosis. Although non-gastrointestinal locations of Enterobius infestation are rare, this infection should be considered in patients with abdominal pain, genitourinary symptoms, and pelvic pain in order to apply appropriate treatment and prevent further complications.

  1. Use of the gluteus maximus muscle as the neosphincter for restoration of anal function after abdominoperineal resection.

    PubMed

    Puerta Díaz, J D; Castaño Llano, R; Lombana, L J; Restrepo, J I; Gómez, G

    2013-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate complications and long-term functional outcome in patients who had sphincter reconstruction using the gluteus maximus muscle as the neosphincter after abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer treatment. Seven patients underwent reconstruction from 2000 to 2010. First, the sigmoid colon was brought down to the perineum as a perineal colostomy, with the procedure protected by a loop ileostomy. Reconstruction of the sphincter mechanism using the gluteus maximus took place 3 months later, and after another 8-12 weeks, the loop ileostomy was closed. We studied the functional outcome of these interventions with follow-up interviews of patients and objectively assessed anorectal function using manometry and the Cleveland Clinic Florida (Jorge-Wexner) fecal incontinence score. The mean follow-up was 56 months (median 47; range 10-123 months). One patient had a perianal wound infection and another had fibrotic stricture in the colocutaneous anastomosis that required several digital dilatations. Anorectal manometry at 3-month follow-up showed resting pressures from 10 to 18 mm Hg and voluntary contraction pressures from 68 to 187 mm Hg. Four patients had excellent sphincter function (Jorge-Wexner scores ≤5). Our preliminary results show that sphincter reconstruction by means of gluteus maximus transposition can be effective in restoring gastrointestinal continuity and recovering fecal continence in patients who have undergone APR with permanent colostomy for rectal cancer. Furthermore, the reconstruction procedure can be performed 2-4 years after the APR.

  2. Myoxinol (Hydrolyzed Hibiscus esculentus Extract) in the Cure of Chronic Anal Fissure: Early Clinical and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Renzi, Adolfo; Di Sarno, Giandomenico; D'Aniello, Francesco; Ziccardi, Stefania; Paladino, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the early results of the topical application of Hydrolyzed Hibiscus esculentus Extract 3% ointment (Myoxinol 3%), a novel local product with Botox-like activity, in the conservative treatment of chronic anal fissure (CAF). Methods. Among all patients with CAF observed during the study period, 31 subjects met the inclusion criteria and underwent medical therapy with Myoxinol 3% ointment every 12 hours for 6 weeks. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Clinical and manometric follow-up was carried out eight weeks after treatment. Results. At follow-up the success rate was 72.4% (21/29); median VAS score and mean anal resting pressure were significantly lower if compared with respective baseline data. The only one adverse effect of the topical application of Myoxinol 3% ointment was perianal itch, which was reported by 3,4% (1/29) of the patients available for the analysis. However, in this case this symptom did not cause interruption of the treatment. Conclusions. The topical application of Myoxinol 3% ointment in the cure of CAF shows encouraging early results. Further researches with a larger series and a longer follow-up are needed to confirm these data. PMID:25861259

  3. Age-related differences in the clinical course of Crohns disease in an Asian population: a retrospective cohort review.

    PubMed

    Law, Siu-Tong; Li, Kin Kong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with young and adult onset Crohns disease. Among 79 consecutive Crohns disease patients (11 (13.92%) with onset =16 years old), young onset Crohns disease was significantly associated with fever (36.36 vs. 14.71%, P 0.041), weight loss (72.7 vs. 29.4%, P 0.003), isolated abdominal pain (45.45 vs. 16.18%, P 0.013), lower body mass index ( 17.32 vs. 21.29 kgm2, P 0.019), and extraintestinal manifestation, particularly oral (45.5% vs. 22.1%, P 0.049) and perianal lesion (63.6% vs. 36.8%, P 0.046). In both groups, ileocolonic disease and inflammatory lesion were the most prevalent site of involvement and dominant disease behavior respectively. Their complication and bowel resection rate were similar but the former took a longer period of time to develop in the young onset group (84 vs. 24 month, P 0.018). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that active smoking and delayed use of immunosuppressive therapy were the only independent risk factors associated with increased risk of complications.

  4. Comparative analysis of the frequency, distribution and population sizes of yeasts associated with canine seborrheic dermatitis and healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Yurayart, Chompoonek; Chindamporn, Ariya; Suradhat, Sanipa; Tummaruk, Padet; Kajiwara, Susumu; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2011-03-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of yeast associated with the degree of canine seborrheic dermatitis (SD) by anatomical sites. Fifty-seven samples were divided as 17 healthy skin, 20 with primary seborrheic dermatitis (PSD), and 20 with secondary seborrheic dermatitis (SSD). Yeast isolation and characterization were carried out based on microscopical features and biochemical properties. DNA analysis at the internal transcribed spacer I of 26S rDNA region was utilized for species confirmation. Four species of yeast consisting Malassezia pachydermatis, Malassezia furfur, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis recovered from examined dogs. M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis were isolated from all dogs, but C. tropicalis and M. furfur were recovered from 3 healthy dogs and one diseased dog, respectively. The number of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis in diseased dogs was higher than that of healthy specimens (P<0.01). High frequency and population size of C. parapsilosis were closely associated to PSD, while those of M. pachydermatis were associated with both PSD and SSD (P<0.01). C. parapsilosis were predominant at the perianal area. This study demonstrated the co-colonization of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis in large amounts and frequency associated with stage of disease and anatomical site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gut microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease: the role of antibiotics in disease management.

    PubMed

    Kerman, David H; Deshpande, Amar R

    2014-07-01

    Imbalances in the composition and number of bacteria in the gut microbiota have been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and modulation of the gut microbiota by probiotics and antibiotics in IBD has been an active area of research, with mixed results. This narrative review summarizes the findings of relevant publications identified using the PubMed database. Although antibiotics have been associated with an increased risk of IBD development and flares, several meta-analyses demonstrate that antibiotics are efficacious for the induction of remission and treatment of flares in patients with IBD. Data supporting their use include a large number of antibiotic studies in Crohn's disease and evidence suggests antibiotics are efficacious in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, although there are fewer studies of the latter. For Crohn's disease, antibiotics have been shown to be useful for the induction of remission and in the postoperative management of patients undergoing surgery. Additionally, patients with fistulizing disease, particularly perianal, can benefit from antibiotics administered short term. Both antimicrobials and probiotics have been shown to be useful for the treatment of pouchitis. Additional randomized controlled trials are needed to further elucidate the role of bacteria in IBD and to better inform clinicians about appropriate antibiotic therapies.

  6. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 hours renders Syphacia ova nonviable.

    PubMed

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova.

  7. [Trans-anal disarterization of internal hemorrhoids under Doppler control with mucopexy and lifting in treatment of stage III-IV hemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Zagriadskiĭ, E A

    2009-01-01

    85 patients at age of 27-68 years (44.78+/-9.02) with stage III-IV hemorrhoids were treated. Trans-anal disarterization of internal hemorrhoids under Doppler control with mucopexy and lifting was carried out using modified Moricorn proctoscope. Operation duration amounted 24-45 minutes (32+/-5.21). Postoperative pain syndrome amounted on average 33.2+/-0.52 mm (range 20-50 mm) on the first day and 16.5+/-0.10 (0-40 mm) during 5 days which didn't require usage of narcotic analgesics. Patients returned to labor activity after 2-4 days (2.79+/-0.81). They were investigated after 6 months after operation. Bleeding stopped in 96.5% of patients, prolapsed piles were not observed in 91.8% of patients. Repeated bleedings were not registered. Complications (perianal hematoma-like external node thrombosis) were revealed in 7 (8.2%) patients. Trans-anal disarterization of internal hemorrhoids under Doppler control with mucopexy and lifting is a safe and effective alternative to hemorrhoidectomy. This method is ideal for "one-day" hospital.

  8. Hemorrhoids and anal fissures in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    D'Ugo, S; Stasi, E; Gaspari, A L; Sileri, P

    2015-12-01

    Perianal disease is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It includes different conditions from more severe and potentially disabling ones, such as abscesses and fistulas, to more benign conditions such as hemorrhoids, skin tags and fissures. Most literature has been focused on anal sepsis and fistulae, as they carry the majority of disease burden and often alter the natural course of the disease. Hemorrhoids and anal fissures in patients with IBD have been overlooked, although they can represent a challenging problem. The management of hemorrhoids and fissures in IBD patients may be difficult and may significantly differ compared to the non-affected population. Historically surgery was firmly obstructed, and hemorrhoidectomy or sphincterotomy in patients with associated diagnosis of IBD was considered harmful, although literature data is scant and based on small series. Various authors reported an incidence of postoperative complications higher in IBD than in the general populations, with potential severe events. Considering that a spontaneous healing is possible, the first line management should be a medical therapy. In patients non-responding to conservative measures it is possible a judicious choice of surgical options on a highly selective basis; this can lead to acceptable results, but the risk of possible complications needs to be considered. In this review it is analyzed the current literature on the incidence, symptoms and treatment options of hemorrhoids and anal fissures in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  9. Intestinal Parasite Infections and Accuracy of Direct Thin and Thick Smear, Formol-Ether Sedimentation, Centrifugal Flotation, and Mini-FLOTAC Techniques Among Patients with Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders from the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Atef H.; Rashed, Samia M.; El-Hayawan, Ibrahim A.; Aly, Nagwa S. M.; Abou Ouf, Eman A.; Ali, Amira T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of intestinal parasitic infection among patients with gastrointestinal tract disorders from the Greater Cairo region, Egypt. In addition, a comparison was made of the accuracy of direct thin and thick smear, formol-ether sedimentation (FEC), centrifugal flotation (CF), and mini-FLOTAC techniques in the diagnosis of infection. Out of 100 patients, the overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 51%. Only 6% had dual infection. Giardia lamblia was the most common parasite (26%), followed by Hymenolepis nana (20%), Entamoeba coli (8%), and Enterobius vermicularis (3%). Except the statistically significant association between E. vermicularis infection and perianal itching and insomnia (P < 0.001), age, gender, and complaints of the examined individuals had no association with prevalence of parasitic infection. Both FEC and CF were equally the most accurate techniques (accuracy = 98.2%, confidence interval [CI] = 0.95–1.0, and κ index = 0.962), whereas the Kato-Katz method was the least accurate (accuracy = 67.5%, CI = 0.57–0.78, and κ index = 0.333). However, mini-FLOTAC-ZnSO4 was the most accurate for diagnosis of helminthic infection, and FEC was more accurate for diagnosis of protozoal infection (accuracy = 100%, CI = 1.0–1.0, and κ index = 1). PMID:28093543

  10. Identification of parathyroid hormone-related protein in canine apocrine adenocarcinoma of the anal sac.

    PubMed

    Rosol, T J; Capen, C C; Danks, J A; Suva, L J; Steinmeyer, C L; Hayman, J; Ebeling, P R; Martin, T J

    1990-03-01

    The presence of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the apocrine adenocarcinoma tumor line (CAC-8) derived from a hypercalcemic dog was demonstrated by western and northern blot analyses. Western blots of CAC-8 tumor extracts revealed a major protein with a molecular weight of approximately 18,000 daltons that cross-reacted with antiserum to human PTHrP. Northern blots demonstrated multiple-sized messenger RNA transcripts in CAC-8 that hybridized to a full-length cDNA probe to human PTHrP. Adenocarcinomas derived from apocrine glands of the anal sac also were stained immunohistochemically for antigens that cross-react with antiserum to human PTHrP. The tumor line (CAC-8) maintained in nude mice stained positively for PTHrP in 13 of 24 tumors. Three of ten apocrine adenocarcinomas from dogs with hypercalcemia stained for PTHrP, whereas zero of ten tumors were positive from normocalcemic dogs. Normal canine epidermal keratinocytes and areas of squamous metaplasia in a perianal gland carcinoma also were positive for PTHrP. These data demonstrated that canine tissues contained a homologue to human PTHrP that likely is important in the pathogenesis of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy.

  11. Malignant anal sac melanoma in dogs: eleven cases (2000 to 2015).

    PubMed

    Vinayak, A; Frank, C B; Gardiner, D W; Thieman-Mankin, K M; Worley, D R

    2017-04-01

    To report the signalment, clinical presentation, treatments pursued and outcomes of dogs with malignant anal sac melanoma. Medical records from five institutions from January 2000 through December 2015 were reviewed and dogs with cytologically- or histologically-confirmed malignant anal sac melanoma were identified. Signalment, clinical signs, staging, cytology, histopathologic analysis, surgical and non-surgical treatments were extracted from the medical records. The referring veterinarians and owners were contacted for follow-up data. Eleven dogs were included and survival data was available for all. The most common clinical signs were bloody anal sac discharge and perianal licking. Initial treatments pursued included surgery (n=8), chemotherapy (n=1), and palliative treatment with pain medications and stool softeners (n=2). In an adjuvant setting, melanoma vaccine was pursued following surgery in three dogs and chemotherapy in one dog. Regardless of treatment, progression-free survival (mean 92 · 5 days) and overall survival times (median 107 days) were short. Dogs in this case series had a guarded to poor prognosis regardless of treatment. Ten of 11 dogs were euthanased due to local or distant disease progression. Only 1 of 11 dogs was alive one year after diagnosis. An understanding of tumour behaviour in this location could lead to improved survival times with earlier diagnosis and treatment. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Vulval lichen planus-lichen sclerosus overlap.

    PubMed

    Howard, Matthew; Hall, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Vulval lichen planus-lichen sclerosus overlap is an emerging observation. Few clinical reports exist with no reviews of literature. We present a focused update of this phenomenon and discuss a clinical case. We report a 63-year-old woman with a 20-year history of ulcerative vulvo-vaginitis, initially diagnosed as benign mucous membrane (cicatricial) pemphigoid. This led to prolonged treatment with oral corticosteroids with minimal improvement in symptoms. Subsequent complications of long-term use of systemic corticosteroid ensued. A clinico-pathological diagnosis of severe erosive lichen planus was made on clinical findings and on non-specific biopsy changes of ulceration and inflammation. Treatment with topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment twice daily led to dramatic improvement of ulceration, easing of discomfort and marked improvement in quality of life. Clinical examination revealed Wickham's striae on the labia majora supporting the diagnosis. Six years after commencement of topical clobetasol, white plaques were noticed on the labia majora, perineum and peri-anal region consistent with lichen sclerosus, confirmed by repeat vulval skin biopsy and on vulvectomy. This case highlights the challenge of diagnosis of extensive vulvo-vaginal ulceration and the necessity to re-examine a previous diagnosis if there is poor response to treatment.

  13. Assessment and classification of fistula-in-ano in patients with Crohn's disease by hydrogen peroxide enhanced transanal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sloots, C E; Felt-Bersma, R J; Poen, A C; Cuesta, M A; Meuwissen, S G

    2001-09-01

    Crohn's disease is well known for its perianal complications, among which fistulas-in-ano are the most common abnormalities. Fistulas-in-ano in Crohn's disease tend to be complex and have a high recurrence rate. Therefore the role of surgery is generally more conservative. Hydrogen peroxide enhanced transanal ultrasound has proven superior to physical examination, fistulography, computed tomography, and conventional ultrasound in demonstrating the fistula tract. This study examined the fistula tracks in patients with Crohn's disease. Forty-one patients with Crohn's disease and fistula-in-ano were investigated using physical examination, sondage of the fistula, proctoscopy and transanal ultrasound. Hydrogen peroxide was infused via a small catheter into the fistula. The main track and the ramification of the fistula were classified according to the anatomical Parks' classification. Only 9 (22%) patients had a single inter- or transsphincteric fistula. In 5 (12%) patients a single supra- or extrasphincteric fistula (high fistula) was found, in 14 (34%) more than one fistula track (ramified), and in 13 (32%) an anovaginal fistula. Thus 78% of patients had a surgically difficult to treat fistula. In the ramified fistula the main track follows the Parks' classification, but ramifications can have a bizarre pattern which is not in agreement with this classification. Optimal documentation by means of hydrogen peroxide enhanced transanal ultrasound is therefore mandatory before surgery or before other therapies such as anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment.

  14. [Acute periproctal abscesses].

    PubMed

    Slauf, P; Antoš, F; Marx, J

    2014-04-01

    Periproctal inflammations related to the anus are characterized by the rapid spread of the infection to the surrounding tissue, which is determined by the anatomical characteristics and infectious agents. Inflammation, which starts as a phlegmon, quickly forms boundaries and an abscess develops in most cases. Up to 80-90% of anorectal abscesses develop according to the crypto-glandular theory on the basis of infection of the anal glands, spilling into the Morgagni crypts in the anal canal. Up to two-thirds of such abscesses are associated with the emergence of anorectal fistulas. Anorectal abscesses can be divided into marginal and subcutaneous perianal abscesses, submucosal, intersphincteric, ischiorectal and supralevator abscesses. Their diagnosis is based on thorough physical examination, sometimes also with the help of imaging methods such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and endoanal ultrasound. What is decisive for the successful treatment of anorectal abscessess is their early and adequate surgical drainage. Adjuvant antibiotic therapy is necessary only when the overall signs of sepsis are present and for patients with a comorbidity such as diabetes, valvular heart disease, or immunodeficiency.

  15. Phenotypic concordance in familial inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Results of a nationwide IBD Spanish database.

    PubMed

    Cabré, Eduard; Mañosa, Míriam; García-Sánchez, Valle; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ricart, Elena; Esteve, Maria; Guardiola, Jordi; Aguas, Mariam; Merino, Olga; Ponferrada, Angel; Gisbert, Javier P; Garcia-Planella, Esther; Ceña, Gloria; Cabriada, José L; Montoro, Miguel; Domènech, Eugeni

    2014-07-01

    Disease outcome has been found to be poorer in familial inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in sporadic forms, but assessment of phenotypic concordance in familial IBD provided controversial results. We assessed the concordance for disease type and phenotypic features in IBD families. Patients with familial IBD were identified from the IBD Spanish database ENEIDA. Families in whom at least two members were in the database were selected for concordance analysis (κ index). Concordance for type of IBD [Crohn's disease (CD) vs. ulcerative colitis (UC)], as well as for disease extent, localization and behaviour, perianal disease, extraintestinal manifestations, and indicators of severe disease (i.e., need for immunosuppressors, biological agents, and surgery) for those pairs concordant for IBD type, were analyzed. 798 out of 11,905 IBD patients (7%) in ENEIDA had familial history of IBD. Complete data of 107 families (231 patients and 144 consanguineous pairs) were available for concordance analyses. The youngest members of the pairs were diagnosed with IBD at a significantly younger age (p<0.001) than the oldest ones. Seventy-six percent of pairs matched up for the IBD type (κ=0.58; 95%CI: 0.42-0.73, moderate concordance). There was no relevant concordance for any of the phenotypic items assessed in both diseases. Familial IBD is associated with diagnostic anticipation in younger individuals. Familial history does not allow predicting any phenotypic feature other than IBD type. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of a 2% climbazole shampoo for reducing Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Cavana, P; Petit, J-Y; Perrot, S; Guechi, R; Marignac, G; Reynaud, K; Guillot, J

    2015-12-01

    Shampoo therapy is often recommended for the control of Malassezia overgrowth in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo activity of a 2% climbazole shampoo against Malassezia pachydermatis yeasts in naturally infected dogs. Eleven research colony Beagles were used. The dogs were distributed randomly into two groups: group A (n=6) and group B (n=5). Group A dogs were washed with a 2% climbazole shampoo, while group B dogs were treated with a physiological shampoo base. The shampoos were applied once weekly for two weeks. The population size of Malassezia yeasts on skin was determined by fungal culture through modified Dixon's medium contact plates pressed on left concave pinna, axillae, groins, perianal area before and after shampoo application. Samples collected were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Samples collected after 2% climbazole shampoo application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia population sizes. One hour after the first climbazole shampoo application, Malassezia reduction was already statistically significant and 15 days after the second climbazole shampoo, Malassezia population sizes were still significantly decreased. No significant reduction of Malassezia population sizes was observed in group B dogs. The application of a 2% climbazole shampoo significantly reduced Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs. Application of 2% climbazole shampoo may be useful for the control of Malassezia overgrowth and it may be also proposed as prevention when recurrences are frequent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair of Acute Occlusion of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Intra-Aneurysmal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Terai, Yasuhiko; Mitsuoka, Hiroshi; Nakai, Masanao; Goto, Shinnosuke; Miyano, Yuta; Tsuchiya, Hirokazu; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2015-11-01

    To report a rare case of acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occlusion successfully treated by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 89-year-old man complained of severe back pain and weakness in the bilateral lower extremities. Although there were neither acute ischemic signs on the brain computed tomography (CT) nor critical leg ischemia, the patient presented progressing weakness in the bilateral lower extremities and decreased sensation in the perianal and saddle area. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated an infrarenal AAA, the formation of an ulcer-like lesion in the aneurysmal wall, and the complete occlusion of distal AAA because of the caudal extension of intramural hematoma. Both common iliac arteries were patent because of the development of collateral vessels. The neurologic symptoms were considered to be caused by the occlusion of lumbar radicular arteries. EVAR seemed anatomically feasible, if the occlusion could be crossed by guidewires from both side of the common femoral artery. Wires easily traversed the occlusion, and the stent graft could be smoothly unwrapped and opened. The patient could recover decent iliac arterial flow. The neurovascular deficits recovered within 4 days after the procedure. Although our experience may not be reproduced in all case of AAA occlusion, EVAR warrants consideration to reduce the high mortality rate associated with the classical treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in young children in boarding schools in Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Değerli, Serpil; Malatyali, Erdoğan; Çeliksöz, Ali; Özçelik, Semra; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in boarding primary schools in Sivas, Turkey. Seven hundred seventy-two students (350 [45.3%] girls, 422 [54.7%] boys) were evaluated with combing for the presence of head lice, collection of fecal samples, and examination of the perianal region for intestinal parasites using the cellophane tape method. The overall infestation rate for head lice was 6% (n=46). Nine children had evidence of nits only (1.2%), whereas living lice and nits or eggs were found in 37 children (4.8%). Girls were significantly more commonly infested (12.9%) than boys (0.2%). Of the parameters evaluated, socioeconomic level, number of rooms per family, and size and weight of the children were statistically significantly different between the children with and without lice. Although the infestation rate of children with intestinal parasites was higher in the head louse-infested group (23.9%) than in the group of children without lice (17.6%), the differences were not statistically significant. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Push-back technique facilitates ultra-low anterior resection without nerve injury in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Uchida, Keiichi; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-01-01

    To describe our push-back approach to ultra-low anterior resection using the concept of the mucosal stump. We mobilize the rectum using an abdominal approach, and perform mucosal cutting circumferentially at the dentate line. The mucosal stump is closed, and the internal sphincteric muscle resected partially or totally according to tumor location. Perianal dissection is performed along the medial plane of the external sphincteric muscles, and the hiatal ligament is dissected posteriorly. To resect the entire rectum, the closed rectal stump is pushed back to the abdominal cavity using composed gauze. This prevents injury to the autonomic nerve. We performed colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis using our mucosal stump approach in 58 patients with rectal cancer located <4 cm from the anal verge. According to the Wexner score, 7% of patients were fully continent, 71% had acceptable function with minor continence problems, and 22% were incontinent. No patients required intermittent self-catheterization during follow-up. After a median follow-up of 49 months, there was only 1 case of local recurrence after surgery. Our push-back approach for internal sphincter resection produces satisfactory functional and oncological results in ultra-low anterior rectal cancer. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Individual Signatures Define Canine Skin Microbiota Composition and Variability

    PubMed Central

    Cuscó, Anna; Sánchez, Armand; Altet, Laura; Ferrer, Lluís; Francino, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Dogs present almost all their skin sites covered by hair, but canine skin disorders are more common in certain skin sites and breeds. The goal of our study is to characterize the composition and variability of the skin microbiota in healthy dogs and to evaluate the effect of the breed, the skin site, and the individual. We have analyzed eight skin sites of nine healthy dogs from three different breeds by massive sequencing of 16S rRNA gene V1–V2 hypervariable regions. The main phyla inhabiting the skin microbiota in healthy dogs are Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that skin microbiota composition pattern is individual specific, with some dogs presenting an even representation of the main phyla and other dogs with only a major phylum. The individual is the main force driving skin microbiota composition and diversity rather than the skin site or the breed. The individual is explaining 45% of the distances among samples, whereas skin site explains 19% and breed 9%. Moreover, analysis of similarities suggests a strong dissimilarity among individuals (R = 0.79, P = 0.001) that is mainly explained by low-abundant species in each dog. Skin site also plays a role: inner pinna presents the highest diversity value, whereas perianal region presents the lowest one and the most differentiated microbiota composition. PMID:28220148

  1. Individual Signatures Define Canine Skin Microbiota Composition and Variability.

    PubMed

    Cuscó, Anna; Sánchez, Armand; Altet, Laura; Ferrer, Lluís; Francino, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Dogs present almost all their skin sites covered by hair, but canine skin disorders are more common in certain skin sites and breeds. The goal of our study is to characterize the composition and variability of the skin microbiota in healthy dogs and to evaluate the effect of the breed, the skin site, and the individual. We have analyzed eight skin sites of nine healthy dogs from three different breeds by massive sequencing of 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 hypervariable regions. The main phyla inhabiting the skin microbiota in healthy dogs are Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that skin microbiota composition pattern is individual specific, with some dogs presenting an even representation of the main phyla and other dogs with only a major phylum. The individual is the main force driving skin microbiota composition and diversity rather than the skin site or the breed. The individual is explaining 45% of the distances among samples, whereas skin site explains 19% and breed 9%. Moreover, analysis of similarities suggests a strong dissimilarity among individuals ( R  = 0.79, P  = 0.001) that is mainly explained by low-abundant species in each dog. Skin site also plays a role: inner pinna presents the highest diversity value, whereas perianal region presents the lowest one and the most differentiated microbiota composition.

  2. Stem cell transplant in inflammatory bowel disease: a promising modality of treatment for a complicated disease course.

    PubMed

    Salem, George A; Selby, George B

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex, relapsing and remitting, disease characterized by an exaggerated immune response in a susceptible host. The symptoms and complications of the disease can be debilitating. Advances in medical treatment in the last decade changed the course of the disease in many patients. Despite the use of novel agents for controlling disease, a proportion of patients' disease courses continue to be either refractory, or become resistant, to available therapeutic options. Stem-cell therapy, with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), is a promising modality of treatment for severe refractory cases, mainly Crohn's disease (CD) patients. HSCs have the ability to migrate to damaged tissue, which provides them with further properties to differentiate to epithelial or immune-modulatory cells to restore normal mucosal tissue and integrity. MSCs therapy is a promising model for patients with perianal CD due to their immunosuppressive properties, ability to migrate to areas of injury, and demonstration of colonic healing, including fistulizing tracts. The results from ongoing clinical trials will provide a valuable understanding of the future of stem-cell therapy as a treatment option in refractory cases of IBD, a disease whose pathogenesis remains unknown, and is notoriously difficult to treat.

  3. Primary Swenson's pull-through in children with chronic constipation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bakare Tajudeen, I B; Badmus, T A; Lawal, A O; Katung, A I

    2010-01-01

    The discrepancy in diameters of the resected ends coupled with the heavy faecal loads in the colon of chronically constipated children with Hirschsprung's disease makes definitive primary pull-through procedure quite difficulty in this group. Four consecutive patients (aged 5 months to 11 years) who presented with chronic constipation were given warm saline enema along with Castor oil per oram twice daily for 1 week before and 2 weeks after full-thickness biopsies that confirmed Hirschsprung's disease. All patients had intravenous Cefuroxime or Ceftriaxone plus Metronidazole at induction of anaesthesia. Intra-operatively, the levels of resections were 6-8 cm proximal to the most contractile part of the colon adjacent to the transition zone observed after complete division of mesenteric vessels. There were three males and one female, aged 5 months to 11 years. The levels of aganglionosis were in the rectosigmoid region, except one in the descending colon. There was one case each of anastomotic stenoses, mild enterocolitis and deep peri-anal excoriation. The bowel motions were two to four times daily within 1 month post-operatively. It can be concluded from this preliminary study that with pre-operative saline enema and oral Castor oil for about 3 weeks in chronically constipated children with Hirschsprung's disease primary pull-through procedures can be performed successfully. However, further prospective work is required with this method.

  4. In vivo quality assurance of volumetric modulated arc therapy for ano-rectal cancer with thermoluminescent dosimetry and image-guidance.

    PubMed

    Dipasquale, Giovanna; Nouet, Philippe; Rouzaud, Michel; Dubouloz, Angèle; Miralbell, Raymond; Zilli, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    To assess in vivo dose distribution using cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCTs) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in patients with anal or rectal cancer treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Intracavitary (IC) in vivo dosimetry (IVD) was performed in 11 patients using adapted endorectal probes containing TLDs, with extra measurements at the perianal skin (PS) for anal margin tumors. Measured doses were compared to calculated ones obtained from image fusion of CBCT with CT treatments plans. A total of 55 IC and 6 PS measurements were analyzed. IC TLD median planned and measured doses were 1.81 Gy (range, 0.25-2.02 Gy) and 1.82 Gy (range, 0.19-2.12 Gy), respectively. In comparison to the planned doses all IC TLD dose measurements differed by a median dose of 0.02 Gy (range, -0.11/+0.19 Gy, p=0.102) (median difference of 1.1%, range -6.1%/+10.6%). Overall, 95% of IC measurements were within ±7.7% of the expected percentage doses and only 1 value was above +10%. For PS measurements, only one was not within ±7.7% of expected values (i.e., -8.9%). Image guidance using CBCT for IVD with TLDs is helpful to validate the delivered doses in patients treated with VMAT for ano-rectal tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Perineal Streptococcal Infection in Children: Epidemiologic Features, Low Symptomatic Recurrence Rate after Treatment, and Risk Factors for Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Herbert William; Giftos, Peter Michael; Anderson, William Edward; Kaplan, Edward Lawrence; Johnson, Dwight Richard

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of perineal streptococcal infection and recurrence rates following amoxicillin treatment. We used laboratory logs in a single pediatric practice to identify patients 0-18 years of age with perineal cultures positive for group A Streptococcus (GAS) and reviewed their medical charts. We described epidemiologic features, determined recurrence rates following antibiotic treatment, and performed a case-control study to identify possible risk factors for recurrence in patients treated with amoxicillin. We found a perineal streptococcal infection rate of 4.6 per 10,000 patient encounters and a recurrence rate in 157 patients with perineal streptococcal infection of 12.4% after amoxicillin. In male patients, the predominant site of involvement was the perianal region (86%), and for female patients, the perivaginal area (62%). Nearly 80% of patients were 2-7 years of age (range 18 days-12.5 years). Perineal streptococcal infection and GAS pharyngitis followed a similar seasonal pattern of occurrence with 65% of perineal streptococcal infection occurring October through March. In patients with perineal streptococcal infection, 95% had a concomitant pharyngeal culture positive for GAS. Best predictive factors for recurrence after amoxicillin were longer duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis and having a sibling with perineal streptococcal infection at some time before or after the initial episode. Following treatment with amoxicillin, we found a low recurrence rate of 12.4%. Amoxicillin can be expected to be reliable first-line therapy for perineal streptococcal infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Similar mechanisms of traumatic rectal injuries in patients who had anal sex with animals to those who were butt-fisted by human sexual partner.

    PubMed

    Sendler, Damian Jacob

    2017-10-01

    Sexual pleasure comes in various forms of physical play, for many it involves stimulation of the vagina, while the anus for others; some enjoy both. A recent report by Cappelletti et al. 1 shows a meta-analysis of cases describing anal trauma due to sexual fisting in human partners. This clinical article reports four cases of males diagnosed with zoophilia, and who received anal sex from animals, resulting in injuries. Surgical and psychiatric evaluations are summarized. Unusual etiology of sexual activity with animals caused peri-anal trauma in men who engaged in anal sex with dogs and farm animals. Injuries to patients who receive anal sex from animals are mechanistically similar to fisting-induced rectal damage. Among zoophiles, the mode of harm occurs through blood-engorged, interlocked penis that causes tissue lacerations upon retraction from an anus. In people experimenting with fisting, repetitive stretching within anal canal and of external sphincter causes the internal injuries. The mode of physical stimulation explains the extent of injuries in fisters vs. zoophiles: in fisting, the pressure applied by hand is controllable proximally around and within anal sphincter, while penetration by the animal penis is unpredictable and occurs within the proximal anal canal. Forensically, the findings presented in this article describe a significant mechanism of injury in fisters versus passive zoophiles. These descriptions may aid in clinically differentiating pleasurable and pathological rectal stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting Outcomes to Optimize Disease Management in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Torres, Joana; Caprioli, Flavio; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Lobatón, Triana; Micic, Dejan; Zerôncio, Marco; Van Assche, Gert; Lee, James C; Lindsay, James O; Rubin, David T; Panaccione, Remo; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    Efforts to slow or prevent the progressive course of inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD] include early and intensive monitoring and treatment of patients at higher risk for complications. It is therefore essential to identify high-risk patients - both at diagnosis and throughout disease course. As a part of an IBD Ahead initiative, we conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify predictors of long-term IBD prognosis and generate draft expert summary statements. Statements were refined at national meetings of IBD experts in 32 countries and were finalized at an international meeting in November 2014. Patients with Crohn's disease presenting at a young age or with extensive anatomical involvement, deep ulcerations, ileal/ileocolonic involvement, perianal and/or severe rectal disease or penetrating/stenosing behaviour should be regarded as high risk for complications. Patients with ulcerative colitis presenting at young age, with extensive colitis and frequent flare-ups needing steroids or hospitalization present increased risk for colectomy or future hospitalization. Smoking status, concurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis and concurrent infections may impact the course of disease. Current genetic and serological markers lack accuracy for clinical use. Simple demographic and clinical features can guide the clinician in identifying patients at higher risk for disease complications at diagnosis and throughout disease course. However, many of these risk factors have been identified retrospectively and lack validation. Appropriately powered prospective studies are required to inform algorithms that can truly predict the risk for disease progression in the individual patient. © European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation 2016.

  8. Nutritional status in parasitized and nonparasitized children from two districts of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Orden, Alicia B; Apezteguía, María C; Ciarmela, María L; Molina, Nora B; Pezzani, Betina C; Rosa, Diana; Minvielle, Marta C

    2014-01-01

    The Program for the Control of Intestinal Parasites and Nutrition was designed to intervene in small communities to prevent and control the effects of parasitic infections on children's health. To analyze the association between nutritional status and parasitic infection in suburban and rural children from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric (weight, height, BMI, skinfolds, upper arm circumference, muscle, and fat upper arm areas) and biochemical (Hb, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu) indicators. Parasitological analysis were made on both serial stool and perianal swab samples. A total of 708 children aged 3-11 were measured. The biochemical analysis included 217 blood samples and the parasitological study included 284 samples. Anthropometric status was similar in both settings with low rates of underweight and stunting (<6%), and high rates of overweight (~17%) and obesity (~12%). Ca deficiency was significantly higher in suburban children where 80% of them were hypocalcemic. Around 70% of fecal samples contained parasites. Among infected children, the most prevalent species were Blastocystis hominis and Enterobius vermicularis (~43%) followed by Giardia lamblia (~17%). Differences in parasitological status between districts were not significant. In the suburban district parasitized children were lighter, shorter, and had a lower upper arm circumference than their non-infected peers. No differences in anthropometric status were seen among infected and uninfected rural children. The results suggest an association between intestinal parasites and physical growth in suburban children. Rural children seem to be protected against the effects of parasitic infection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Narula, Neeraj; Tandon, Parul; Yaghoobi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) constitute the two most common phenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ileocolonoscopy with biopsy has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of IBD. Differential diagnosis of CD and UC is important, as their medical and surgical treatment modalities and prognoses can be different. However, approximately 15% of patients with IBD are misdiagnosed as IBD unclassified due to the lack of diagnostic certainty of CD or UC. Recently, there has been increased recognition of the role of the therapeutic endoscopist in the field of IBD. Newer imaging techniques have been developed to aid in the differentiation of UC vs CD. Furthermore, endoscopic balloon dilation and stenting have become an integral part of the therapeutic armamentarium of CD stricture management. Endoscopic ultrasound has been recognized as being more accurate than magnetic resonance imaging in detecting perianal fistulae in patients with CD. Additionally, chromoendoscopy may help to detect dysplasia earlier compared with white-light colonoscopy. Hence, interventional endoscopy has become a cornerstone in the diagnosis, treatment and management of IBD complications. The role of endoscopy in the field of IBD has significantly evolved in recent years from small-bowel imaging to endoscopic balloon dilation and use of chormoendoscopy in dysplasia surveillance. In this review article, we discuss the current evidence on interventional endoscopy in the diagnosis, treatment and management of IBD compications. PMID:29780594

  10. Computed Tomography Enterography for Evaluation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Jung

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography enterography (CTE) has become a main modality for the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It simultaneously offers visualization of the small bowel and extraintestinal status, which is helpful for diagnosing IBD. Crohn disease has long segmental enhancing wall thickening related with the eccentric longitudinal distribution. In addition, mural stratification, fibrofatty proliferation, positive comb sign by increased mesenteric vascularity and internal/perianal fistula are characteristics of Crohn disease and can be identified on CTE. Short segmental inflammatory wall thickening and the central low attenuated lymph nodes are favorable CT finding of intestinal tuberculosis. A geographic, relatively large, and deep penetrating ulcer with bowel wall thickening and mural hyperenhancement in ileocecal area are characteristics of intestinal Behcet disease. Each of CTE findings for the IBDs is helpful for differential diagnosis. The main disadvantage of this technique is the requisite radiation exposure of patients, particularly in young patients. However, recent development of advanced CT techniques is promising for radiation dose reduction without compromising diagnostic image quality. PMID:23964329

  11. Endoanal MRI of the anal sphincter complex: correlation with cross-sectional anatomy and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, S M; Stoker, J; Zwamborn, A W; Den Hollander, J C; Kuiper, J W; Entius, C A; Laméris, J S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the in vivo endoanal MRI findings of the anal sphincter with the cross-sectional anatomy and histology. Fourteen patients with rectal tumours were examined with a rigid endoanal MR coil before undergoing abdominoperineal resection. In addition, 12 cadavers were used to obtain cross-sectional anatomical sections. The images were correlated with the histology and anatomy of the resected rectal specimens as well as with the cross-sectional anatomical sections of the 12 cadavers. The findings in 8 patients, 11 rectal preparations, and 10 cadavers, could be compared. In these cases, there was an excellent correlation between endoanal MRI and the cross-sectional cadaver anatomy and histology. With endoanal MRI, all muscle layers of the anal canal wall, comprising the internal anal sphincter, longitudinal muscle, the external anal sphincter and the puborectalis muscle were clearly visible. The levator ani muscle and ligamentous attachments were also well demonstrated. The perianal anatomical spaces, containing multiple septae, were clearly visible. In conclusion, endoanal MRI is excellent for visualising the anal sphincter complex and the findings show a good correlation with the cross-sectional anatomy and histology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8982844

  12. The future of coloproctology in the UK: the trainees view.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, P B; Buchanan, G N

    2005-01-01

    Major changes are imminent in the mode of surgical training and the manner both ''general'' and ''specialist'' surgeons provide services. This is the first interactive survey of UK Coloproctology trainees. At the 2004 DUKES Club (colorectal trainees) meeting an interactive digital-media voting system enabled blinded assessment of members regarding training and organisational issues in Coloproctology. 78% of trainees intended to be colorectal specialists. 92% thought a specialist qualification necessary, 90% believed it should be administered at the time of certificate of completion of training (CCT). Overall, 40%, 40% and 20% would pay 1000 <, 1000-3000 pounds and > 5000 pounds respectively per year for adequate training. Over 80% thought low anterior resection, APER, major lower GI-bleeding, pelvic floor, IBD and rectal cancer surgery should only be performed by specialists, and many thought colonic cancer surgery (46%), diverticular surgery (52%), and perianal sepsis (38%) management was a specialist necessity. UK Colorectal trainees believe a specialist exam necessary, colorectal specialists should treat a defined group of conditions/cases and would pay for adequate training.

  13. Use of antibiotics in the treatment of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Scribano, Maria Lia; Prantera, Cosimo

    2013-02-07

    Many data coming from animal models and clinical observations support an involvement of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). It is hypothesized in fact, that the development of chronic intestinal inflammation is caused by an abnormal immune response to normal flora in genetically susceptible hosts. The involvement of bacteria in CD inflammation has provided the rationale for including antibiotics in the therapeutic armamentarium. However, randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate an efficacy of these drugs in patients with active uncomplicated CD, even if a subgroup of patients with colonic location seems to get benefit from antibiotics. Nitroimidazole compounds have been shown to be efficacious in decreasing CD recurrence rates in operated patients, and the use of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin is recommended in perianal disease. However, the appearance of systemic side effects limits antibiotic long-term employment necessary for treating a chronic relapsing disease. Rifaximin, characterized by an excellent safety profile, has provided promising results in inducing remission of CD.

  14. Review article: non-malignant oral manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, K H; Torres, J; Roda, G; Brygo, A; Delaporte, E; Colombel, J-F

    2015-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may present with lesions in their oral cavity. Lesions may be associated with the disease itself representing an extraintestinal manifestation, with nutritional deficiencies or with complications from therapy. To review and describe the spectrum of oral nonmalignant manifestations in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases [ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD)] and to critically review all relevant data. A literature search using the terms and variants of all nonmalignant oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases (UC, CD) was performed in November 2014 within Pubmed, Embase and Scopus and restricted to human studies. Oral lesions in IBD can be divided into three categories: (i) lesions highly specific for IBD, (ii) lesions highly suspicious of IBD and (iii) nonspecific lesions. Oral lesions are more common in CD compared to UC, and more prevalent in children. In adult CD patients, the prevalence rate of oral lesions is higher in CD patients with proximal gastrointestinal tract and/or perianal involvement, and estimated to range between 20% and 50%. Oral lesions can also occur in UC, with aphthous ulcers being the most frequent type. Oral manifestations in paediatric UC may be present in up to one-third of patients and are usually nonspecific. Oral manifestations in IBD can be a diagnostic challenge. Treatment generally involves managing the underlying intestinal disease. In cases presenting with local disabling symptoms and impaired quality of life, local and systemic medical therapy must be considered and/or oral surgery may be required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Penetrating or stricturing diseases are the major determinants of time to first and repeat resection surgery in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Valerie; Rogler, Gerhard; Michetti, Pierre; Fournier, Nicolas; Vader, John-Paul; Schoepfer, Alain; Mottet, Christian; Burnand, Bernard; Froehlich, Florian

    2013-01-01

    About 80% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require bowel resection and up to 65% will undergo a second resection within 10 years. This study reports clinical risk factors for resection surgery (RS) and repeat RS. Retrospective cohort study, using data from patients included in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort. Cox regression analyses were performed to estimate rates of initial and repeated RS. Out of 1,138 CD cohort patients, 417 (36.6%) had already undergone RS at the time of inclusion. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the probability of being free of RS was 65% after 10 years, 42% after 20 years, and 23% after 40 years. Perianal involvement (PA) did not modify this probability to a significant extent. The main adjusted risk factors for RS were smoking at diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.33; p = 0.006), stricturing with vs. without PA (HR = 4.91 vs. 4.11; p < 0.001) or penetrating disease with vs. without PA (HR = 3.53 vs. 4.58; p < 0.001). The risk factor for repeat RS was penetrating disease with vs. without PA (HR = 3.17 vs. 2.24; p < 0.05). The risk of RS was confirmed to be very high for CD in our cohort. Smoking status at diagnosis, but mostly penetrating and stricturing diseases increase the risk of RS. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Cutaneous involvement in chronic inflammatory bowel disease : Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Richter, L; Rappersberger, K

    2016-12-01

    Over recent decades, both the incidence and prevalence of chronic inflammatory bowel disease have continued to rise in industrialized countries; the disease is frequently associated with extracutaneous involvement and comorbidity. The purpose of this work was to investigate the frequency and specificity of mucocutaneous manifestations in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). An extensive search in peer-reviewed journals via PubMed was performed; presented is a summary and analysis of various studies and data, including data of patients treated at our department. CD and UC are frequently associated with mucocutaneous symptoms; however, primary/specific disease-associations are exclusively seen in CD patients. These include peri-anal and -stomal fistulas and ulcerations, "metastatic" Crohn's disease as well as oral granulomatous disease. Moreover, in both CD and UC, there occur several other inflammatory skin conditions such as erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum, hidradenitis suppurativa, chronic oral aphthous disease, Sweet syndrome, pyostomatitis vegetans, and bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome. Malnutrition syndromes (zinc and vitamin deficiencies) are only rarely observed. On skin and oral/genital mucous membranes various different inflammatory manifestations may be observed during the course of CD or UC. However, most data about a direct pathogenic relationship of the gastrointestinal and dermatologic disorders are quite heterogeneous or even contradictory. Nevertheless, knowledge of these conditions and their possible association with CD and UC could be crucial for early diagnosis and initiation of an appropriate therapy and thus be essential to prevent secondary tissue damage.

  17. Endoscopic management of Crohn’s strictures

    PubMed Central

    Bessissow, Talat; Reinglas, Jason; Aruljothy, Achuthan; Lakatos, Peter L; Van Assche, Gert

    2018-01-01

    Symptomatic intestinal strictures develop in more than one third of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) within 10 years of disease onset. Strictures can be inflammatory, fibrotic or mixed and result in a significant decline in quality of life, frequently requiring surgery for palliation of symptoms. Patients under the age of 40 with perianal disease are more likely to suffer from disabling ileocolonic disease thus may have a greater risk for fibrostenotic strictures. Treatment options for fibrostenotic strictures are limited to endoscopic and surgical therapy. Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) appears to be a safe, less invasive and effective alternative modality to replace or defer surgery. Serious complications are rare and occur in less than 3% of procedures. For non-complex strictures without adjacent fistulizaation or perforation that are less than 5 cm in length, EBD should be considered as first-line therapy. The aim of this review is to present the current literature on the endoscopic management of small bowel and colonic strictures in CD, which includes balloon dilatation, adjuvant techniques of intralesional injection of steroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor, and metal stent insertion. Short and long-term outcomes, complications and safety of EBD will be discussed. PMID:29740201

  18. A suspected case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) suggests underdiagnosed LGV infection among Slovenian men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Boštjan; Ramšak, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is sexually transmitted infection caused by serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis, mostly seen among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The first three reports of possible LGV in Slovenia were from April to June 2015, followed by a confirmed case of LGV in August 2015. We present the case of an HIV-positive MSM that presented with an anorectal abscess, discharge, lymphadenopathy, and unusual perianal plaque. Gonococcal proctitis was assumed and he received empirical antibiotic treatment, after which only intermittent improvement occurred. After a positive test result for chlamydial infection, but without a response to azithromycin treatment, LGV was suspected. Treatment according to the guidelines was introduced. When doxycycline therapy started, rapid improvement was observed, and it was therefore assumed that the LGV infection had been successfully treated. Two similar cases with an unusual anorectal presentation and an excellent response to antibiotic therapy for LGV were observed at the same center shortly thereafter. While pointing out possible delays and limitations in diagnostic procedures at self-pay facilities, the need for better access to high quality STI management in public and in private services is emphasized. Enhanced surveillance and testing guidelines could reveal a hidden LGV epidemic among MSM in Slovenia.

  19. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in racial and ethnic migrant groups

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Ravi; Faiz, Omar; Munkholm, Pia; Burisch, Johan; Arebi, Naila

    2018-01-01

    AIM To summarise the current literature and define patterns of disease in migrant and racial groups. METHODS A structured key word search in Ovid Medline and EMBASE was undertaken in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies on incidence, prevalence and disease phenotype of migrants and races compared with indigenous groups were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Individual studies showed significant differences in incidence, prevalence and disease phenotype between migrants or race and indigenous groups. Pooled analysis could only be undertaken for incidence studies on South Asians where there was significant heterogeneity between the studies [95% for ulcerative colitis (UC), 83% for Crohn’s disease (CD)]. The difference between incidence rates was not significant with a rate ratio South Asian: Caucasian of 0.78 (95%CI: 0.22-2.78) for CD and 1.39 (95%CI: 0.84-2.32) for UC. South Asians showed consistently higher incidence and more extensive UC than the indigenous population in five countries. A similar pattern was observed for Hispanics in the United States. Bangladeshis and African Americans showed an increased risk of CD with perianal disease. CONCLUSION This review suggests that migration and race influence the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease. This may be due to different inherent responses upon exposure to an environmental trigger in the adopted country. Further prospective studies on homogenous migrant populations are needed to validate these observations, with a parallel arm for in-depth investigation of putative drivers. PMID:29391765

  20. Local transdermal delivery of phenylephrine to the anal sphincter muscle using microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Changyoon; Han, MeeRee; Min, Junghong; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jungho

    2014-01-01

    We propose pretreatment using microneedles to increase perianal skin permeability for locally targeted delivery of phenylephrine (PE), a drug that increases resting anal sphincter pressure to treat fecal incontinence. Microneedle patches were fabricated by micromolding poly-lactic-acid. Pre-treatment of human cadaver skin with microneedles increased PE delivery across the skin by up to 10-fold in vitro. In vivo delivery was assessed in rats receiving treatment with or without use of microneedles and with or without PE. Resting anal sphincter pressure was then measured over time using water-perfused anorectal manometry. For rats pretreated with microneedles, topical application of 30% PE gel rapidly increased the mean resting anal sphincter pressure from 7 ± 2 cm H2O to a peak value of 43 ± 17 cm H2O after 1 h, which was significantly greater than rats receiving PE gel without microneedle pretreatment. Additional safety studies showed that topically applied green fluorescent protein–expressing E. coli penetrated skin pierced with 23- and 26-gauge hypodermic needles, but E. coli was not detected in skin pretreated with microneedles, which suggests that microneedle-treated skin may not be especially susceptible to infection. In conclusion, this study demonstrates local transdermal delivery of PE to the anal sphincter muscle using microneedles, which may provide a novel treatment for fecal incontinence. PMID:21586307

  1. Analysis of NOD1, NOD2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6 and TLR9 genes in anal furunculosis of German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    House, A K; Binns, M M; Gregory, S P; Catchpole, B

    2009-03-01

    Anal furunculosis (AF) primarily affects German shepherd dogs (GSD) and is characterised by inflammation and ulceration of the perianal tissues with development of cutaneous sinuses or rectocutaneous fistulae. Investigation of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) function has suggested that defective responses might occur in AF-affected GSD. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether canine PRR genes are involved in determining susceptibility to AF in this breed. Chromosomal location and coding sequences for NOD1, NOD2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6 and TLR9 were determined and microsatellite markers identified for each gene. Microsatellite genotyping of 100 control GSD and 47 AF-affected GSD showed restricted allelic variation for AHT H91 (associated with TLR5) and REN216 NO5 (associated with both TLR1 and TLR6) compared with non-GSD dogs. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in canine TLR1, TLR5, TLR6 and NOD2 genes failed to show any significant associations between PRR polymorphisms and AF. The highly restricted PRR genotypes seen in GSD are likely to have resulted from selective breeding and might influence innate immune responses in this breed.

  2. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis characterized by ivory-white plaques or patches with glistening surface commonly affecting the vulva and anus. Common symptoms are irritation, soreness, dyspareunia, dysuria, and urinary or fecal incontinence. Anogenital lichen sclerosus (LS) is characterized by porcelain-white atrophic plaques, which may become confluent extending around the vulval and perianal skin in a figure of eight configuration. Thinning and shrinkage of the genital area make coitus, urination, and defecation painful. LS is not uncommon in India and present as an itchy vulvar dermatosis which a gynecologist may mistake for candidal vulvovaginitis. There is often a delay in diagnosis of VLS due to its asymptomatic nature and lack of awareness in patients as well as physicians. Embarrassment of patients due to private nature of the disease and failure to examine the genital skin properly are the other reasons for delay in diagnosis. There is no curative treatment for LS. Various medications available only relieve the symptoms. Chronic nature of the disease affects the quality of life. Proper and regular follow-up is required as there are chances of the development of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:28706405

  3. Photodynamic therapy for early malignancies in the lower female genital tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobraico, Rocco V.

    1990-09-01

    A total of 14 patients who had failed all conventional modalities for cancer of the vulva vagina and perianal area were treated with photodynamic therapy PDT. The affinity of porphyrins to neopJ. astic tissue enables treatment to be concentrated at the tumor site. An Aurora FL Argon pumped dye laser (Cooper LaserSonics Inc. USA) was used to pump dicyanomethylene dye as an activating source for a red light at a wavelength of 630 nm. The combination of a tumor localizing photosensitizer and photoactivating red light produces a photo chemical reaction that is destructive to the cancerous lesion. The treatment time varied between 10-30 minutes. Vulvar sites ranged from 9-38 cm2. Delivered light doses were from 50-125 J/cm2 and power density from 50 to 75 mW/cm2. A complete response was obtained in 80 of the sites treated as evidenced by negative biopsies taken at 3 months post treatment. Adverse reactions to PDT included a transient cutaneous photosensitivity due to retention of the photosensitizers in the skin. This reaction usually persisted from 45-60 days. 1.

  4. Electrical stimulation of anal sphincter or pudendal nerve improves anal sphincter pressure.

    PubMed

    Damaser, Margot S; Salcedo, Levilester; Wang, Guangjian; Zaszczurynski, Paul; Cruz, Michelle A; Butler, Robert S; Jiang, Hai-Hong; Zutshi, Massarat

    2012-12-01

    Stimulation of the pudendal nerve or the anal sphincter could provide therapeutic options for fecal incontinence with little involvement of other organs. The goal of this project was to assess the effects of pudendal nerve and anal sphincter stimulation on bladder and anal pressures. Ten virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated to control (n = 2), perianal stimulation (n = 4), and pudendal nerve stimulation (n = 4) groups. A monopolar electrode was hooked to the pudendal nerve or placed on the anal sphincter. Aballoon catheter was inserted into the anus to measure anal pressure, and a catheter was inserted into the bladder via the urethra to measure bladder pressure. Bladder and anal pressures were measured with different electrical stimulation parameters and different timing of electrical stimulation relative to spontaneous anal sphincter contractions. Increasing stimulation current had the most dramatic effect on both anal and bladder pressures. An immediate increase in anal pressure was observed when stimulating either the anal sphincter or the pudendal nerve at stimulation values of 1 mA or 2 mA. No increase in anal pressure was observed for lower current values. Bladder pressure increased at high current during anal sphincter stimulation, but not as much as during pudendal nerve stimulation. Increased bladder pressure during anal sphincter stimulation was due to contraction of the abdominal muscles. Electrical stimulation caused an increase in anal pressures with bladder involvement only at high current. These initial results suggest that electrical stimulation can increase anal sphincter pressure, enhancing continence control.

  5. Emborrhoid: A New Concept for the Treatment of Hemorrhoids with Arterial Embolization: The First 14 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, V., E-mail: vincent.vidal@ap-hm.fr; Sapoval, M., E-mail: marc.sapoval@gmail.com; Sielezneff, Y., E-mail: igor.sielezneff@ap-hm.fr

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThe ‘emborrhoid’ technique consists of the embolization of the hemorrhoidal arteries. The endovascular arterial occlusion is performed using coils placed in the terminal branches of the superior rectal arteries. The emborrhoid technique has been modeled after elective transanal Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation which has been shown to be effective in hemorrhoidal disease. We report the first 14 cases of our experience with emborrhoid technique.Materials and MethodsFourteen patients with disabling chronic rectal bleeding were treated using the emborrhoid technique (3 women, 11 men). The stage of the hemorrhoidal disease was II (10 patients), III (3), and IV (1). This treatment wasmore » decided by a multidisciplinary team (proctologist, visceral surgeon, and radiologist). Seven patients underwent previous proctological surgery. Ten patients had coagulation disorders (anticoagulants or cirrhosis). Superior rectal arteries were embolized with pushable microcoils (0.018).ResultsTechnical success of the embolization procedure was 100 %. Clinical success at 1 month was 72 % (10/14). Of the 4 patients who experienced rebleeding, two underwent additional embolization of the posterior rectal arteries with success. No pain or ischemic complications were observed in 13 patients. One patient experienced a temporary painful and edematous, perianal reaction.ConclusionOur case studies suggest that coil embolization of the superior rectal arteries is technically feasible, safe and well tolerated. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this new ‘emborrhoid’ technique in the management of hemorrhoidal disease.« less

  6. Clinical application of continent anal plug in bedridden patients with intractable diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Shim, M C; Choi, B Y; Ahn, S H; Jang, S H; Shin, H J

    2001-08-01

    Some patients bedridden from various causes such as stroke or spinal cord injury experience poor control of bowel movement. This causes fecal leakage and diarrhea, increases the risk of perianal excoriation and bed sores, and is a burden on caregivers. To evaluate the efficacy of fecal evacuation and the prevention and treatment of skin complications in intractable diarrhea patients using a new device. A continent anal plug (US Patent No. 5 569 216) comprises an inner balloon surrounded by an outer balloon, both of which are mounted on a silicone tube containing a pair of air passages and an enema fluid inlet. The tube is secured in place in the rectum by the inflatable outer balloon and is designed to drain fecal matter through a thin collapsible hose situated in the anal canal. Thirty-two patients (21 male; median age 61 (range, 28-76) years) were evaluated after fully informed consent. Median duration was 12 (range, 3-37) days. The continent anal plug evacuated efficiently in those patients with loose or watery stools who only required irrigation once daily or not at all. Skin excoriations improved in three to seven days. Minimal leakage was seen around the anus. There was no anorectal mucosal injury noted over 37 days. The continent anal plug is an efficient method of treating patients with loss of bowel control and incontinence because it enables controlled fecal evacuation and helps reduce skin complications without causing anorectal mucosal injury.

  7. HIV-associated hypertrophic herpes simplex genitalis with concomitant early invasive squamous cell carcinoma mimicking advanced genital cancer: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Strehl, Johanna D; Mehlhorn, Grit; Koch, Martin C; Harrer, Ellen G; Harrer, Thomas; Beckmann, Matthias W; Agaimy, Abbas

    2012-05-01

    Hypertrophic herpes simplex genitalis (HHSG) is an uncommon anogenital manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in immunocompromised patients. To date, 24 cases of HHSG have been reported; 23 of them were affected human immune deficiency virus (HIV) type 1-positive patients. We describe the case of a 44-year-old African HIV-1-positive woman who presented with painful ulcerated nodular lesions of the vulva and perianal area measuring up to 7 cm in diameter. Macroscopically, the lesions were highly suspicious of widely invasive cancer. The histologic workup of the resection specimen revealed patchy high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 3 (VIN 3) and 2 microscopic foci of superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The nodular lesions were caused by massive tumefactive plasma cell-rich inflammatory infiltrates extending into the subcutis. Multinucleated herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2-positive epithelial cells with glassy intranuclear inclusions were detected at the borders of the ulcerations, consistent with HHSG. Despite repeated surgery and medical treatment, the patient had 3 recurrences of HHSG within 18 months. The presence of intraepithelial neoplasia in HHSG lesions is relatively rare and has been described in 6 of 18 resected HHSG lesions in the literature so far. With regard to invasive malignancy, the present case is the first report of a superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma associated with HHSG. Awareness of this condition is necessary to avoid misinterpretation of HHSG as widely invasive squamous cell carcinoma with the hazard of surgical and oncological overtreatment.

  8. [Atypical mucocutaneous manifestations in neonates and infants with chikungunya fever in the municipalities of Cúcuta, Los Patios and Villa del Rosario, Norte de Santander, Colombia, 2014].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Claudia Marcela; Castillo, José Orlando; Salas, Daniela; Valderrama, Milena Alexandra; Rangel, Claudia Teresa; Vargas, Heiddy Patricia; Silva, Diana Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Atypical clinical manifestations have been observed in newborns and infants suffering from fever caused by the chikungunya virus. Objective: To describe the cases of fever caused by the chikungunya virus in newborns and infants with atypical mucocutaneous lesions. Materials and methods: We reviewed the clinical records, as well as lab tests and histopathological results, of newborns and infants diagnosed with Chikungunya virus and atypical mucocutaneous lesions in three regional hospitals. Results: Out of 18 suspected cases of chikungunya virus in newborns and infants, 11 were positive and presented atypical mucocutaneous manifestations. Six of the eleven confirmed cases corresponded to children under five months of age. The most common symptoms were fever, skin rash, irritability, and diarrhea. Three of the patients were infected with both dengue and chikungunya viruses. The ulcers occurred in the scalp, abdomen, genital and perianal region. We report mucocutaneous manifestations in newborns and infants diagnosed with fever caused by the chikungunya virus in Colombia. The rapid development of ulcers is most likely due to the immune response to the virus. Special attention should be given to pregnant women presenting symptoms of chikungunya virus infection prior to delivery, and their offspring should be followed-up in order to monitor possible complications.

  9. Lidocaine/prilocaine cream (EMLA(R)) versus infiltration anaesthesia: a comparison of the analgesic efficacy for punch biopsy and electrocoagulation of genital warts in men.

    PubMed Central

    vd Berg, G M; Lillieborg, S; Stolz, E

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare analgesic efficacy and pain caused by administration of lidocaine/prilocaine cream (EMLA(R)) versus xylocaine 1% local infiltration for punch biopsy and electrocoagulation of genital warts in men. DESIGN--Open randomised comparative parallel-group study. SETTING--Department of Dermatovenereology, University Hospital Rotterdam/Dijkzigt, the Netherlands. PATIENTS--63 males with warts on the genital mucosa and/or perianal area. METHODS--EMLA(R) cream (2.5-5 g) was applied during 13-45 minutes before surgery. Xylocaine 1% (0.1-4 ml) was infiltrated 0.5-4 minutes before surgery. Pain during administration and surgery was assessed by the patient on a verbal rating scale and on a visual analogue scale. RESULTS--EMLA(R) application was painless in all patients (n = 31) whereas xylocaine infiltration was slightly painful in 17/29 patients and moderately painful in 10/29 patients. EMLA(R) analgesia was satisfactory for 94% of biopsies and 62% of electrocoagulations. Xylocaine infiltration was satisfactory in all procedures. CONCLUSIONS--EMLA(R) application on the male genital mucosa is painless but it has a lower analgesic efficacy than xylocaine infiltration. However EMLA is a useful anaesthetic for taking biopsies in this area and may be used as premedication for local infiltration. PMID:1607191

  10. Procedures and rationale for marking sea otters captured and treated during the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, A.R.; Williams, T.D.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    Four methods were used for marking sea otters (Enhydra lutris) captured and treated during the response to the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Colored and numbered flipper tags were placed on each sea otter that was brought to the otter treatment centers. These tags allowed individual recognition and permitted the tracking of individuals through the treatment and holding processes. Recovery of tagged carcasses may provide a crude measure of the fates of rehabilitated otters. Seven sea otters were instrumented with radio transmitters attached to flipper tags as part of a pilot release program. The results of that study were inconclusive. Forty-five sea otters were implanted with radio transmitters as part of a study to assess the fate of rehabilitated sea otters. Specific objectives of the study include estimating survived rates and monitoring the reproductive success of the sample of rehabilitated sea otters and comparing the results with similar variables in a control population. Transponder chips were injected in the perianal region of all but seven of the instrumented sea otters, and all were tagged with red flipper tags. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of tag are discussed.

  11. Sinecatechins 10% ointment for genital warts: Case report of a beneficial reaction in an HIV-positive woman.

    PubMed

    Bilenchi, Roberta; Campoli, Marco; Trovato, Emanuele; Cinotti, Elisa; Rubegni, Pietro; Fimiani, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Patients with HIV infection are more likely to develop anogenital warts compared to HIV-negative people and are susceptible to treatment failures and recurrences. We report a case of extensive vulvar warts in an HIV-positive woman successfully treated with sinecatechins ointment. After the failure of a combination of cryotherapy and imiquimod 5% cream, we started therapy with sinecatechins 10% ointment. The patient developed an intense local inflammatory reaction after three weeks that induced the discontinuation of the therapy. After two weeks, we observed a complete regression of inflammation and a reduction of genital warts. The lesions completely regressed within a few weeks, with no relapse after eight months. Sinecatechins is a standardized extract of green tea leaves, effective in the treatment of external genital and perianal warts in immunocompetent patients, but their role has not been yet studied for immunocompromised people. Our case may represent a starting point for further studies, in order to evaluate the relation between treatment dosage, side effects, and drug response in immunocompromised patients.

  12. Determining oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with genital warts.

    PubMed

    Cokluk, Erdem; Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Balahoroglu, Ragip; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Huyut, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    Warts are abnormal skin growths caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infections within the skin of patients. Genital warts usually appear in the perianal and perigenital regions. Asymptomatic warts may be activated after years and may damage natural immunity. The inflammation that occurs during this process may lead to an imbalance between the prooxidant and the antioxidant systems. The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels, and oxidative stress levels in patients with genital warts. In total, 32 patients with genital warts and 35 healthy subjects were included in this study. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum catalase activity, and paraoxonase enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum MDA levels, and catalase activity were significantly higher in patients with genital warts than in controls (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.05, respectively). However, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels were not significantly different between groups (P > 0.05). Serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in patients with genital warts than in controls (P < 0.01). However, there were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all P > 0.05). Our data suggest that oxidative stress is increased in genital warts. Increased oxidative stress levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital warts, and prolonged HPV infection due to chronic inflammation could also affect oxidative stress.

  13. Fiber and colorectal diseases: separating fact from fiction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2007-08-21

    Whilst fruits and vegetables are an essential part of our dietary intake, the role of fiber in the prevention of colorectal diseases remains controversial. The main feature of a high-fiber diet is its poor digestibility. Soluble fiber like pectins, guar and ispaghula produce viscous solutions in the gastrointestinal tract delaying small bowel absorption and transit. Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, pass largely unaltered through the gut. The more fiber is ingested, the more stools will have to be passed. Fermentation in the intestines results in build up of large amounts of gases in the colon. This article reviews the physiology of ingestion of fiber and defecation. It also looks into the impact of dietary fiber on various colorectal diseases. A strong case cannot be made for a protective effect of dietary fiber against colorectal polyp or cancer. Neither has fiber been found to be useful in chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also not useful in the treatment of perianal conditions. The fiber deficit - diverticulosis theory should also be challenged. The authors urge clinicians to keep an open mind about fiber. One must be aware of the truths and myths about fiber before recommending it.

  14. Therapy with stem cells in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montiel, María del Pilar; Gómez-Gómez, Gonzalo Jesús; Flores, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects a part of the young population and has a strong impact upon quality of life. The underlying etiology is not known, and the existing treatments are not curative. Furthermore, a significant percentage of patients are refractory to therapy. In recent years there have been great advances in our knowledge of stem cells and their therapeutic applications. In this context, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used in application to severe refractory Crohn’s disease (CD), with encouraging results. Allogenic HSCT would correct the genetic defects of the immune system, but is currently not accepted for the treatment of IBD because of its considerable risks. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immune regulatory and regenerative properties, and low immunogenicity (both autologous and allogenic MSCs). Based on these properties, MSCs have been used via the systemic route in IBD with promising results, though it is still too soon to draw firm conclusions. Their local administration in perianal CD is the field where most progress has been made in recent years, with encouraging results. The next few years will be decisive for defining the role of such therapy in the management of IBD. PMID:24574796

  15. [Twenty-five years of intestinal parasite prevalence in İstanbul University, İstanbul Faculty of Medicine: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Kırkoyun Uysal, Hayriye; Akgül, Ozer; Purisa, Sevim; Oner, Yaşar Ali

    2014-06-01

    The aim of our study is to determine the general intestinal parasite prevalence in İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine Hospital, which is located in European and Asian geographical features of Turkey. Between January 1988 and December 2012, a total of 111,889 stool samples from patients who were admitted to the İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine Hospital were examined microscopically by using native lugol and formalin-ether concentration technique; in addition, the cellophane tape test technique was used to examine the perianal area. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 5% (5486/111,889) in İstanbul. Giardia intestinalis was the leading parasite (62%), and the prevalence of the rest of the intestinal parasites was as follows: Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Blastocystis hominis: 16%, 7%, and 6%, respectively. Between 2000 and 2012, a highly significant reduction in general parasite prevalence was determined, compared to the 1988 and 2000 time period (p<0.001). Socio-economic conditions might be related with the both the lower prevalence of intestinal parasites in our hospital, which is located in Marmara region, and the steady decrease of the prevalence ratio in the 2000s. The results indicate the necessity of further studies to develop effective parasitic disease control measurements.

  16. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis and risk factors in 6- to 7-yearold children in İstanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tamay, Zeynep; Akçay, Ahmet; Ergin, Ahmet; Güler, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and its relationship with various risk factors in 6-7-year-old children living in İstanbul. A total of 11,483 children aged 6-7 years in 75 primary schools from all districts of İstanbul were surveyed. Prevalence of symptoms of allergic rhinitis was assessed using a translated version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Of them, 9,875 (50.7% M, 49.3% F) questionnaires were appropriately completed by the parents. The prevalence rates of lifetime, current and physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis were 44.3%, 29.2% and 8.1%, respectively. There was nearly a two-fold variation in the prevalence rates of rhinitis between the districts of İstanbul. Frequent paracetamol and antibiotic use in the first year of life, history of frequent upper respiratory tract infections, adenotonsillectomy, breastfeeding less than six months, dog at home or perianal redness in the first year of life, and frequent trucks passing near the home were independent risk factors.

  17. Evaluation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity in serum and biochemical and hematological parameters in spontaneous canine cutaneous tumors before and after surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Fathipour, Vahid; Khaki, Zohreh; Nassiri, Seyyed Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Recently, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), in particular the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, generally considered as tumor markers for clinical applications. A longitudinal 2-years follow-up survey was performed on dogs with cutaneous tumor. Serum samples were obtained from 22 dogs with different cutaneous tumors and 22 health dogs at the time of surgery and one month, three months and one year after surgery. Gelatin zymography, hematological and biochemical assessment were performed for all serum samples. The serum alkaline phosphatase activity in dogs with malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in dogs with benign tumors and control cases. Latent forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected in all of the tumor cases. Gelatin zymography showed active form of MMP-9 in 12 cases (three benign and nine malignant tumors) and active form of MMP-2 in one fibrosarcoma case. Serum activity of active-MMP-9 and total MMP-9 was significantly higher in dogs with cutaneous tumors than those in controls. Tumor cases had higher serum activity of active-MMP-9 rather than controls. MMPs and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum were decreased significantly after surgery. Only one case with perianal gland adenoma showed recurrence of tumor four months after surgery in which active form of MMP-9 had identified one month before recurrence. According to the findings, it will be useful to measure ALP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the serum of dogs with cutaneous tumor for determination of tumor behavior before surgical treatment.

  18. Host Penetration and Emergence Patterns of the Mosquito-Parasitic Mermithids Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sanad, Manar M.; Shamseldean, Muhammad S. M.; Elgindi, Abd-Elmoneim Y.; Gaugler, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus are mermithid nematodes that parasitize mosquito larvae. We describe host penetration and emergence patterns of Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus in laboratory exposures against Culex pipiens pipiens larvae. The mermithid species differed in host penetration behavior, with R. iyengari juveniles attaching to the host integument before assuming a rigid penetration posture at the lateral thorax (66.7%) or abdominal segments V to VIII (33.3%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus attached first to a host hair in a coiled posture that provided a stable base for penetration, usually through the lateral thorax (83.3%). Superparasitism was reduced by discriminating against previously infected hosts, but R. iyengari’s ability to avoid superparasitism declined at a higher inoculum rate. Host emergence was signaled by robust nematode movements that induced aberrant host swimming. Postparasites of R. iyengari usually emerged from the lateral prothorax (93.2%), whereas S. spiculatus emergence was peri-anal. In superparasitized hosts, emergence was initiated by males in R. iyengari and females in S. spiculatus; emergence was otherwise nearly synchronous. Protandry was observed in R. iyengari. The ability of S. spiculatus to sustain an optimal sex ratio suggested superior self-regulation. Mermithid penetration and emergence behaviors and sites may be supplementary clues for identification. Species differences could be useful in developing production and release strategies. PMID:23589657

  19. Gastrointestinal bleeding risk of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants is similar to warfarin - a Japanese retrospective cohort study
.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tsuguru; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Kawasugi, Kazuo; Kuyama, Yasushi; Kita, Hiroto

    2016-11-01

    Although several non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants have been developed to prevent cardiogenic thrombosis, the status of hemorrhagic complications in the clinical setting among Asian populations, including Japan, remains unclear. We conducted this retrospective cohort study to clarify the current status of hemorrhagic events during antithrombotic therapy with non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants, with particular focus on gastrointestinal bleeding. Medical charts of 475 patients prescribed dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban between April 2011 and September 2014 were reviewed to examine whether any hemorrhagic events occurred, compared with 135 patients who received warfarin between April 2009 and March 2011. Incidences of total and actionable hemorrhage in patient taking non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants were 13.8% per year and 4.6% per year, respectively, showing no significant differences from those in warfarin users (9.3% per year and 5.0% per year, respectively). In addition, actionable gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurred at similar rates in non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants users (2.1% per year) and warfarin users (1.5% per year). Most hemorrhages were from the lower gastrointestinal tract, and considerable events involved perianal bleeding. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, concomitant dual antiplatelet therapy, and concomitant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy were significant factors related to actionable gastrointestinal bleeding. Risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients taking non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants was similar to that in patients taking warfarin. The dominant bleeding site was the lower gastrointestinal tract.
.

  20. Clinical Significance and Characterization of Streptococcus tigurinus Isolates in an Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Lori; Clarridge, J E

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a newly described member of the Streptococcus mitis group. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing viridans group streptococci (VGS) by phenotype, analysis of 16S rRNA sequences is necessary for the accurate identification of most species. Through a laboratory policy of analyzing all clinically significant isolates from the VGS group by16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 14 S. tigurinus isolates from 11 patients. The Vitek 2 system most commonly gave an excellent rating to an incorrect identification (e.g., Streptococcus mitis), as did matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (e.g., Streptococcus oralis). S. tigurinus strains were recovered from numerous body sites, including the blood, peritoneal fluid, bone, synovial fluid, a perianal abscess, and an arm wound. Retrospective chart review indicated that most isolates were clinically significant, with bacteremia (n = 5), soft tissue infections (n = 3) osteomyelitis (n = 2), infected joint prosthesis (n = 2), and peritonitis (n = 2) being the most common, thus expanding the spectrum of disease associated with S. tigurinus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. 1% hydrocortisone ointment is an effective treatment of pruritus ani: a pilot randomized controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghnaniem, R; Short, K; Pullen, A; Fuller, L C; Rennie, J A; Leather, A J M

    2007-12-01

    Pruritus ani (PA) is a common condition which is difficult to treat in the absence of obvious predisposing factors. There is paucity of evidence-based guidelines on the treatment of this condition. We examined whether 1% hydrocortisone ointment is an effective treatment for PA. A pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was carried out. Eleven patients consented to take part in the trial and ten completed the study. After a 2-week run-in period, patients with primary PA were randomly allocated to receive 1% hydrocortisone ointment or placebo for 2 weeks followed by the opposite treatment for a further 2-week period. There was a washout period of 2 weeks between treatments. The primary outcome measure was reduction in itch using a visual analogue score (VAS). The secondary outcome measures were improvement in quality of life measured using a validated questionnaire (Dermatology Life Quality Index, DLQI) and improvement in clinical appearance of the perianal skin using the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score. Treatment with 1% hydrocortisone ointment resulted in a 68% reduction in VAS compared with placebo (P=0.019), a 75% reduction in DLQI score (P=0.067), and 81% reduction in EASI score (P=0.01). A short course of mild steroid ointment is an effective treatment for PA.

  2. Mammary and extramammary Paget's disease*

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lauro Lourival; Lopes, Ione Maria Ribeiro Soares; Lopes, Lauro Rodolpho Soares; Enokihara, Milvia M. S. S.; Michalany, Alexandre Osores; Matsunaga, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Paget's disease, described by Sir James Paget in 1874, is classified as mammary and extramammary. The mammary type is rare and often associated with intraductal cancer (93-100% of cases). It is more prevalent in postmenopausal women and it appears as an eczematoid, erythematous, moist or crusted lesion, with or without fine scaling, infiltration and inversion of the nipple. It must be distinguished from erosive adenomatosis of the nipple, cutaneous extension of breast carcinoma, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, chronic eczema, lactiferous ducts ectasia, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma and intraductal papilloma. Diagnosis is histological and prognosis and treatment depend on the type of underlying breast cancer. Extramammary Paget's disease is considered an adenocarcinoma originating from the skin or skin appendages in areas with apocrine glands. The primary location is the vulvar area, followed by the perianal region, scrotum, penis and axillae. It starts as an erythematous plaque of indolent growth, with well-defined edges, fine scaling, excoriations, exulcerations and lichenification. In most cases it is not associated with cancer, although there are publications linking it to tumors of the vulva, vagina, cervix and corpus uteri, bladder, ovary, gallbladder, liver, breast, colon and rectum. Differential diagnoses are candidiasis, psoriasis and chronic lichen simplex. Histopathology confirms the diagnosis. Before treatment begins, associated malignancies should be investigated. Surgical excision and micrographic surgery are the best treatment options, although recurrences are frequent. PMID:25830993

  3. [Screening of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in risk groups: descriptive study of sexual habits and other sexual transmitted infections].

    PubMed

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Juan Bosco; Frieyro-Elicegui, Marta; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Robles, Luis; de Troya, Magdalena

    2014-02-20

    Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is considered a precursor lesion of anal squamous carcinoma. The population with increased risk of this conditions are immunocompromised individuals, especially HIV-infected, with anal sex practices. The aim of this study was to describe the sexual habits of patients who were seen in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) consult in our service in whom anal cytology was performed as well as the association of anal dysplasia to other STIs. We performed a retrospective cohort study that included those patients in whom, according to our protocol, anal cytology was performed between 2008 and 2011. Also we conducted a survey on sexual habits and screening for other STIs. Finally, we conducted a descriptive and analytical study assessing bivariate distribution of cytological alterations and grade of anal dysplasia. A total of 347 anal cytologies were performed, and 48.1% were abnormal. Statistically significant differences were found between the presence of condylomata perianal/endoanal, HIV infection, Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the presence of cytologic alterations. There was a high incidence of anal dysplasia in our group of individuals with risky sexual habits; however, it is probably underdiagnosed due to its subclinical nature and lack of a well-established screening protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of rare, low anal anterior fistula exception to Goodsall's rule with Kṣārasūtra.

    PubMed

    Shindhe, Pradeep S

    2014-01-01

    Anal fistula (bhagandara) is a chronic inflammatory condition, a tubular structure opening in the ano-rectal canal at one end and surface of perineum/peri-anal skin on the other end. Typically, fistula has two openings, one internal and other external associated with chronic on/off pus discharge on/off pain, pruritis and sometimes passing of stool from external opening. This affects predominantly male patients due to various etiologies viz., repeated peri-anal infections, Crohn's disease, HIV infection, etc., Complex and atypical variety is encountered in very few patients, which require special treatment for cure. The condition poses difficulty for a surgeon in treating due to issues like patient hesitation, trouble in preparing kṣārasūtra, natural and routine infection with urine, stool etc., and dearth of surgical experts and technique. We would like to report a complex and atypical, single case of anterior, low anal fistula with tract reaching to median raphe of scrotum, which was managed successfully by limited application of kṣārasūtra.

  5. Procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids vs traditional surgery for outlet obstructive constipation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Yang, Bo; Liu, Yang; Liu, Qing; Wen, Hao

    2015-07-14

    To compare the clinical efficacies of two surgical procedures for hemorrhoid rectal prolapse with outlet obstruction-induced constipation. One hundred eight inpatients who underwent surgery for outlet obstructive constipation caused by internal rectal prolapse and circumferential hemorrhoids at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 2012 to June 2013 were prospectively included in the study. The patients with rectal prolapse hemorrhoids with outlet obstruction-induced constipation were randomly divided into two groups to undergo either a procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) (n = 54) or conventional surgery (n = 54; control group). Short-term (operative time, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative urinary retention, postoperative perianal edema, and postoperative pain) and long-term (postoperative anal stenosis, postoperative sensory anal incontinence, postoperative recurrence, and postoperative difficulty in defecation) clinical effects were compared between the two groups. The short- and long-term efficacies of the two procedures were determined. In terms of short-term clinical effects, operative time and postoperative hospital stay were significantly shorter in the PPH group than in the control group (24.36 ± 5.16 min vs 44.27 ± 6.57 min, 2.1 ± 1.4 d vs 3.6 ± 2.3 d, both P < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative urinary retention was higher in the PPH group than in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (48.15% vs 37.04%). The incidence of perianal edema was significantly lower in the PPH group (11.11% vs 42.60%, P < 0.05). The visual analogue scale scores at 24 h after surgery, first defecation, and one week after surgery were significantly lower in the PPH group (2.9 ± 0.9 vs 8.3 ± 1.1, 2.0 ± 0.5 vs 6.5 ± 0.8, and 1.7 ± 0.5 vs 5.0 ± 0.7, respectively, all P < 0.01). With regard to long-term clinical effects, the incidence of anal stenosis was lower in the PPH group than in

  6. Procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids vs traditional surgery for outlet obstructive constipation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming; Yang, Bo; Liu, Yang; Liu, Qing; Wen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical efficacies of two surgical procedures for hemorrhoid rectal prolapse with outlet obstruction-induced constipation. METHODS: One hundred eight inpatients who underwent surgery for outlet obstructive constipation caused by internal rectal prolapse and circumferential hemorrhoids at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 2012 to June 2013 were prospectively included in the study. The patients with rectal prolapse hemorrhoids with outlet obstruction-induced constipation were randomly divided into two groups to undergo either a procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) (n = 54) or conventional surgery (n = 54; control group). Short-term (operative time, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative urinary retention, postoperative perianal edema, and postoperative pain) and long-term (postoperative anal stenosis, postoperative sensory anal incontinence, postoperative recurrence, and postoperative difficulty in defecation) clinical effects were compared between the two groups. The short- and long-term efficacies of the two procedures were determined. RESULTS: In terms of short-term clinical effects, operative time and postoperative hospital stay were significantly shorter in the PPH group than in the control group (24.36 ± 5.16 min vs 44.27 ± 6.57 min, 2.1 ± 1.4 d vs 3.6 ± 2.3 d, both P < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative urinary retention was higher in the PPH group than in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (48.15% vs 37.04%). The incidence of perianal edema was significantly lower in the PPH group (11.11% vs 42.60%, P < 0.05). The visual analogue scale scores at 24 h after surgery, first defecation, and one week after surgery were significantly lower in the PPH group (2.9 ± 0.9 vs 8.3 ± 1.1, 2.0 ± 0.5 vs 6.5 ± 0.8, and 1.7 ± 0.5 vs 5.0 ± 0.7, respectively, all P < 0.01). With regard to long-term clinical effects, the incidence of anal stenosis was lower in

  7. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Colonization Among High-Risk Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona; Gibson, Kristen E.; Horcher, Amanda; Prenovost, Katherine; McNamara, Sara E.; Foxman, Betsy; Kaye, Keith S.; Bradley, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii colonization in high-risk nursing home (NH) residents. DESIGN Nested case-control study within a multicenter prospective intervention trial. SETTING Four NHs in Southeast Michigan. PARTICIPANTS Case patients and control subjects were NH residents with an indwelling device (urinary catheter and/or feeding tube) selected from the control arm of the Targeted Infection Prevention study. Cases were residents colonized with MDR (resistant to ≥3 classes of antibiotics) A. baumannii; controls were never colonized with MDR A. baumannii. METHODS For active surveillance cultures, specimens from the nares, oropharynx, groin, perianal area, wounds, and device insertion site(s) were collected upon study enrollment, day 14, and monthly thereafter. A. baumannii strains and their susceptibilities were identified using standard microbiologic methods. RESULTS Of 168 NH residents, 25 (15%) were colonized with MDR A. baumannii. Compared with the 143 controls, cases were more functionally disabled (Physical Self-Maintenance Score >24; odds ratio, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.8–14.9]; P < .004), colonized with Proteus mirabilis (5.8 [1.9–17.9]; P < .003), and diabetic (3.4 [1.2–9.9]; P < .03). Most cases (22 [88%]) were colonized with multiple antibiotic-resistant organisms and 16 (64%) exhibited co-colonization with at least one other resistant gram-negative bacteria. CONCLUSION Functional disability, P. mirabilis colonization, and diabetes mellitus are important risk factors for colonization with MDR A. baumannii in high-risk NH residents. A. baumannii exhibits widespread antibiotic resistance and a preference to colonize with other antibiotic-resistant organisms, meriting enhanced attention and improved infection control practices in these residents. PMID:26072936

  8. New Acquisition of Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms in Skilled Nursing Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Fisch, Jay; Lansing, Bonnie; Wang, Linda; Symons, Kathleen; Cherian, Kay; McNamara, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of new acquisition of antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs) in community-based skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) is not well studied. To define the incidence, persistence of, and time to new colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and ceftazidime-resistant (CAZr) and ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIPr) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in SNFs, SNF residents were enrolled and specimens from the nares, oropharynx, groin, perianal area, and wounds were prospectively cultured monthly. Standard microbiological tests were used to identify MRSA, VRE, and CAZr and CIPr GNB. Residents with at least 3 months of follow-up were included in the analysis. Colonized residents were categorized as having either preexisting or new acquisition. The time to colonization for new acquisition of AROs was calculated. Eighty-two residents met the eligibility criteria. New acquisition of AROs was common. For example, of the 59 residents colonized with CIPr GNB, 28 (47%) were colonized with CIPr GNB at the start of the study (96% persistent and 4% intermittent), and 31 (53%) acquired CIPr GNB at the facility (61% persistent). The time to new acquisition was shortest for CIPr GNB, at a mean of 75.5 days; the time to new acquisition for MRSA was 126.6 days (P = 0.007 versus CIPr GNB), that for CAZr was 176.0 days (P = 0.0001 versus CIPr GNB), and that for VRE was 186.0 days (P = 0.0004 versus CIPr GNB). Functional status was significantly associated with new acquisition of AROs (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; P = 0.01). New acquisition of AROs, in particular CIPr GNB and MRSA, is common in SNFs. CIPr GNB are acquired rapidly. Additional longitudinal studies to investigate risk factors for ARO acquisition are required. PMID:22378900

  9. Systematic review and network meta-analysis comparing clinical outcomes and effectiveness of surgical treatments for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Simillis, C; Thoukididou, S N; Slesser, A A P; Rasheed, S; Tan, E; Tekkis, P P

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to compare the clinical outcomes and effectiveness of surgical treatments for haemorrhoids. Randomized clinical trials were identified by means of a systematic review. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method in WinBUGS. Ninety-eight trials were included with 7827 participants and 11 surgical treatments for grade III and IV haemorrhoids. Open, closed and radiofrequency haemorrhoidectomies resulted in significantly more postoperative complications than transanal haemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD), LigaSure™ and Harmonic® haemorrhoidectomies. THD had significantly less postoperative bleeding than open and stapled procedures, and resulted in significantly fewer emergency reoperations than open, closed, stapled and LigaSure™ haemorrhoidectomies. Open and closed haemorrhoidectomies resulted in more pain on postoperative day 1 than stapled, THD, LigaSure™ and Harmonic® procedures. After stapled, LigaSure™ and Harmonic® haemorrhoidectomies patients resumed normal daily activities earlier than after open and closed procedures. THD provided the earliest time to first bowel movement. The stapled and THD groups had significantly higher haemorrhoid recurrence rates than the open, closed and LigaSure™ groups. Recurrence of haemorrhoidal symptoms was more common after stapled haemorrhoidectomy than after open and LigaSure™ operations. No significant difference was identified between treatments for anal stenosis, incontinence and perianal skin tags. Open and closed haemorrhoidectomies resulted in more postoperative complications and slower recovery, but fewer haemorrhoid recurrences. THD and stapled haemorrhoidectomies were associated with decreased postoperative pain and faster recovery, but higher recurrence rates. The advantages and disadvantages of each surgical treatment should be discussed with the patient before surgery to allow an informed decision to be made. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published

  10. Ligation under vision of haemorrhoidal cushions for therapy of bleeding haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, M; Issa, N; Gutman, M; Neufeld, D

    2008-06-01

    Ligation under vision (LUV) is a simple method for the surgical treatment of haemorrhoids. In this study, we evaluated the results of our initial experience with the procedure in terms of postoperative pain, patients' final satisfaction and complications. We reviewed a group of patients who had undergone suture ligation of symptomatic haemorrhoids of grade II and III. This was performed with the haemorrhoids under direct vision and without the use of any ancillary instrumentation such as a Doppler sensor. All interventions were performed in the day-care surgical unit using general or regional anaesthesia. Surgical outcome and degree of postoperative pain were determined from outpatient clinic follow-up and individual phone interviews. A total of 32 patients (19 men and 13 women) with a mean age of 59 years had undergone LUV. There were 23 patients (72%) with grade II and 9 patients (28%) with grade III haemorrhoids. The indication for the surgery was bleeding in 19 patients (59%), prolapse in 6 (19%) and both in 7 (22%). A previous rubber band ligation had been carried out in 17 patients (53%). On average, the surgery took 22 min. All patients were discharged on the same day. Four %patients (12%) suffered only mild postoperative pain, 14 (44%) suffered from moderate pain and another 14 (44%) had severe pain. At follow-up (median 21 months, range 9-33 months), 28 %patients (87.5%) were completely asymptomatic at the time of the phone interview. The final result was assessed as excellent by 19 patients (60%), successful by 10 (31%), and unsuccessful by 3 (9%). All patients had complete functional recovery and there were no major surgical complications. Our data show that LUV of symptomatic haemorrhoids is a simple and safe procedure. It can be performed as effective isolated surgery for symptomatic haemorrhoids and as an additional procedure in the treatment of complex perianal pathology.

  11. International spinal cord injury bowel function basic data set (Version 2.0).

    PubMed

    Krogh, K; Emmanuel, A; Perrouin-Verbe, B; Korsten, M A; Mulcahey, M J; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-07-01

    International expert working group. To revise the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Bowel Function Basic Data Set as a standardized format for the collecting and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in clinical practice and research. Working group appointed by the American Spinal injury association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). The draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by the International SCI Data Set Committee and later by members of the ISCoS Executive and Scientific Committees and the ASIA board. The revised data set was posted on the ASIA and ISCoS websites for 1 month to allow further comments and suggestions. Changes resulting from a Delphi process among experts in children with SCI were included. Members of ISCoS Executive and Scientific Committees and the ASIA board made a final review and approved the data set. The International SCI Bowel Function Basic Data Set (Version 2.0) consists of the following 16 items: date of data collection, gastrointestinal and anal sphincter dysfunction unrelated to SCI, surgical procedures on the gastrointestinal tract, defecation method and bowel-care procedures, average time required for defecation, frequency of defecation, uneasiness, headache or perspiration during defecation, digital stimulation or evacuation of the anorectum, frequency of fecal incontinence, flatus incontinence, need to wear pad or plug, oral laxatives and prokinetics, anti-diarrheal agents, perianal problems, abdominal pain and discomfort and the neurogenic bowel dysfunction score. The International SCI Bowel Function Basic Data Set (Version 2.0) has been developed.

  12. Skin breakdown and blisters from senna-containing laxatives in young children.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry A; Winter, Mark L; Weber, Julie A; Krenzelok, Edward P; Anderson, Deborah L; Ryan, Mark L

    2003-05-01

    At the direction of the Food and Drug Administration, phenolphthalein was removed from all over-the-counter laxatives in 1999. Phenolphthalein was then replaced in most laxative products with the natural product senna from Cassia acutifolia Delile, which contains various anthraquinones. No data are available on the safety of senna use in children <6 years of age. To describe the clinical outcomes of exposure to unintentional ingestion of senna-containing laxatives in young children. All ingestion exposures of senna-containing laxatives in children <5 years of age from 6 poison centers over a 9-month period were evaluated. Inclusion criteria required 24-hour follow-up and the presence of diarrhea to confirm ingestion. Parents were told routinely that severe diaper rash was possible and to protect the perianal area with frequent cleansing and a barrier ointment if the child was wearing diapers. During the study period, 111 cases were reported: 19 children experienced no diarrhea, 4 were lost to follow-up, and 88 exposures were evaluated. Fifty-two children (59%) were

  13. Rubber band ligation and infrared photocoagulation for the outpatient treatment of hemorrhoidal disease.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Maurício Pichler; Matos, Délcio; Saad, Sarhan Sydney

    2008-01-01

    To compare the results of rubber band ligation and infrared photocoagulation for the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease through the analysis of the incidence of complications after each treatment and respective success rate. Forty-eight patients with first, second or third degree hemorrhoidal disease were randomized to receive treatment with either rubber band ligation (n=23) or infrared photocoagulation (n=25). Each patient was assessed at 1 week and 4 week intervals after treatment. We compared the incidence of complications and efficiency of each treatment modality and Qui-square, Fisher's Exact Test and Student's t Test were used to statistical analysis. Bleeding occured in eight (34,7%) patients treated with rubber band ligation and in four (16,0%) after infrared photocoagulation (p=0,243). Thirteen (52,0%) patients felt pain during infrared photocoagulation and 9 (39,1%) after rubber band ligation (p=0,546). After rubber band ligation, 14 (60,8%) required medication for pain relief. One patient (4,0%) required medication after infrared photocoagulation (p<0,001). Three (13,0%) patients treated with rubber band ligator and 1 (4,0%) treated with infrared photocoagulation had symptomatic mucosal ulcers. Perianal dermatitis occured in two (8,0%) patients treated with infrared photocoagulation and one patient (4,3%) was observed to have prolapsed thrombosed piles after rubber band ligation. One month after treatment, 17 of 23 patients treated with rubber band ligation (73,9%) and 18 of 25 patients treated with infrared photocoagulation were asymptomatic. Rubber band ligation treated bleeding and prolapse in 90,0% and 82,4% respectively. Infrared photocoagulation treats bleeding and prolapse in 93,7% and 87,5% respectively. Those differences are not significant. Rubber band ligation causes significantly more pain than infrared photocoagulation during the first week after the procedures and their success rate are not different after four weeks of treatment.

  14. Decreasing trends in hospitalizations during anti-TNF therapy are associated with time to anti-TNF therapy: Results from two referral centres.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Michael D; Balint, Anita; Golovics, Petra A; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Mohas, Anna; Szilagyi, Blanka; Szabo, Agnes; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Lajos S; Lovasz, Barbara D; Gecse, Krisztina B; Farkas, Klaudia; Molnar, Tamas; Lakatos, Peter L

    2014-11-01

    Hospitalization is an important outcome measure and a major driver of costs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We analysed medical and surgical hospitalization rates and predictors of hospitalization before and during anti-TNF therapy. Data from 194 consecutive patients were analysed retrospectively (males, 45.4%, median age at diagnosis, 24.0 years, infliximab/adalimumab: 144/50) in whom anti-TNF therapy was started after January 1, 2008. Total follow-up was 1874 patient-years and 474 patient-years with anti-TNF exposure. Hospitalization rates hospitalization decreased only in Crohn's disease (odds ratio: 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.51-0.70, median 2-years' anti-TNF exposure) with a same trend for surgical interventions (p=0.07), but not in ulcerative colitis. Need for hospitalization decreased in Crohn's disease with early (within 3-years from diagnosis, p=0.016 by McNemar test), but not late anti-TNF exposure. At logistic regression analysis complicated disease behaviour (p=0.03), concomitant azathioprine (p=0.02) use, but not anti-TNF type, gender, perianal disease or previous surgeries were associated with the risk of hospitalization during anti-TNF therapy. Hospitalization rate decreased significantly in patients with Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis after the introduction of anti-TNF therapy and was associated with time to therapy. Complicated disease phenotype and concomitant azathioprine use were additional factors defining the risk of hospitalization. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and predictors of hospitalization in Crohn’s disease in a prospective population-based inception cohort from 2000-2012

    PubMed Central

    Golovics, Petra A; Lakatos, Laszlo; Mandel, Michael D; Lovasz, Barbara D; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Szita, Istvan; Kiss, Lajos S; Pandur, Tunde; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the prevalence, length and predictors of hospitalization in the biological era in the population-based inception cohort from Veszprem province. METHODS: Data of 331 incident Crohn’s disease (CD) patients diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were analyzed (median age at diagnosis: 28; IQR: 21-40 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. RESULTS: Probabilities of first CD-related hospitalization and re-hospitalization were 32.3%, 45.5%, 53.7% and 13.6%, 23.9%, 29.8%, respectively after one, three and five years of follow-up in Kaplan-Meier analysis. First-year hospitalizations were related to diagnostic procedures (37%), surgery or disease activity (27% and 21%). Non-inflammatory disease behavior at diagnosis (HR = 1.32, P = 0.001) and perianal disease (HR = 1.47, P = 0.04) were associated with time to first CD-related hospitalization, while disease behavior change (HR = 2.38, P = 0.002) and need for steroids (HR = 3.14, P = 0.003) were associated with time to first re-hospitalization in multivariate analyses. Early CD-related hospitalization (within the year of diagnosis) was independently associated with need for immunosuppressives (OR = 2.08, P = 0.001) and need for surgeries (OR = 7.25, P < 0.001) during the disease course. CONCLUSION: Hospitalization and re-hospitalization rates are still high in this cohort, especially during the first-year after the diagnosis. Non-inflammatory disease behavior at diagnosis was identified as the pivotal predictive factor of both hospitalization and re-hospitalization. PMID:26109815

  16. Incidence, disease phenotype at diagnosis, and early disease course in inflammatory bowel diseases in Western Hungary, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Laszlo; Kiss, Lajos S; David, Gyula; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Szipocs, Istvan; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2011-12-01

    Recent trends indicate a change in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), with previously low incidence areas now reporting a progressive rise in the incidence. Our aim was to analyze the incidence and disease phenotype at diagnosis in IBD in the population-based Veszprem Province database, which included incident patients diagnosed between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006. Data of 393 incident patients were analyzed (ulcerative colitis [UC]: 220, age-at-diagnosis: 40.5 years; Crohn's disease [CD]: 163, age-at-diagnosis: 32.5 years; and indeterminate colitis [IC]: 10). Both hospital and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. Adjusted mean incidence rates were 8.9/10(5) person-years for CD and 11.9/10(5) person-years in UC. Peak onset age in both CD and UC patients was 21-30 years old. Location at diagnosis in UC was proctitis in 26.8%, left-sided colitis in 50.9%, and pancolitis in 22.3%. The probability of proximal extension and colectomy after 5 years was 12.7% and 2.8%. The disease location in CD was ileal in 20.2%, colonic in 35.6%, ileocolonic in 44.2%, and upper gastrointestinal in four patients. Behavior at diagnosis was stenosing/penetrating in 35.6% and perianal in 11.1%. Patients with colonic disease were older at diagnosis compared to patients with ileal or ileocolonic disease. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, probability of surgical resection was 9.8%, 18.5%, and 21.3% after 1, 3, and 5 years of disease duration, respectively. The incidence of IBD in Veszprem Province in the last decade was high, equal to that in high-incidence areas in Western European countries. Early disease course is milder compared to data reported in the literature. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of hospitalization in Crohn's disease in a prospective population-based inception cohort from 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Golovics, Petra A; Lakatos, Laszlo; Mandel, Michael D; Lovasz, Barbara D; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Szita, Istvan; Kiss, Lajos S; Pandur, Tunde; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-06-21

    To analyze the prevalence, length and predictors of hospitalization in the biological era in the population-based inception cohort from Veszprem province. Data of 331 incident Crohn's disease (CD) patients diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were analyzed (median age at diagnosis: 28; IQR: 21-40 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. Probabilities of first CD-related hospitalization and re-hospitalization were 32.3%, 45.5%, 53.7% and 13.6%, 23.9%, 29.8%, respectively after one, three and five years of follow-up in Kaplan-Meier analysis. First-year hospitalizations were related to diagnostic procedures (37%), surgery or disease activity (27% and 21%). Non-inflammatory disease behavior at diagnosis (HR = 1.32, P = 0.001) and perianal disease (HR = 1.47, P = 0.04) were associated with time to first CD-related hospitalization, while disease behavior change (HR = 2.38, P = 0.002) and need for steroids (HR = 3.14, P = 0.003) were associated with time to first re-hospitalization in multivariate analyses. Early CD-related hospitalization (within the year of diagnosis) was independently associated with need for immunosuppressives (OR = 2.08, P = 0.001) and need for surgeries (OR = 7.25, P < 0.001) during the disease course. Hospitalization and re-hospitalization rates are still high in this cohort, especially during the first-year after the diagnosis. Non-inflammatory disease behavior at diagnosis was identified as the pivotal predictive factor of both hospitalization and re-hospitalization.

  18. [The relationship between preoperative anxiety levels and vasovagal incidents during the administration of spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Mürsel; Gölboyu, Birzat Emre; Dülgeroğlu, Onur; Aksun, Murat; Baysal, Pınar Karaca; Çelik, Erkan Cem; Yeksan, Ayşe Nur

    It was aimed to investigate the relationship between preoperative anxiety and vasovagal symptoms observed during the administration of spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing surgery in the perianal and inguinal regions. The study included patients with planned surgery for inguinal hernia repair, anal fissure, hemorrhoid and pilonidal sinus excision. The study included a total of 210 patients of ASA I-II, aged 18-65 years. Patients were evaluated in respect of demographic characteristics, smoking and alcohol consumption, ASA grade and educational level. Correlations were evaluated between the number of attempts at spinal anesthesia and anesthesia history with vasovagal symptoms and educational level, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption and anesthesia history with anxiety scores. The instant (transient) state anxiety inventory part of the Transient State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (State Trait Anxiety Inventory - STAI) was used to determine the anxiety levels of the participants. Clinical findings of peripheral vasodilation, hypotension, bradycardia and asystole observed during the administration of spinal anesthesia were recorded. Vasovagal incidences during the administration of spinal anesthesia were seen to increase in cases of high anxiety score, male gender, and an absence of anesthesia history. Educational level and the number of spinal needle punctures were not found to have any effect on vasovagal incidents. The determination of causes triggering vasovagal incidents seen during the application of spinal anesthesia, better patient information of regional anesthesia implementations and anxiety relief with preoperative anxiolytic treatment will help to eliminate potential vasovagal incidents. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline; Patterson, Adam P; Diesel, Alison; Lawhon, Sara D; Ly, Hoai Jaclyn; Elkins Stephenson, Christine; Mansell, Joanne; Steiner, Jörg M; Dowd, Scot E; Olivry, Thierry; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12) and allergic dogs (n = 6) from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between healthy and allergic dogs, with allergic dogs having lower species richness when compared

  20. Semi-closed bilateral partial miotomy of the puborectalis for anismus: a pilot study: Partial miotomy of the puborectalis for anismus.

    PubMed

    Asciore, L; Pescatori, L C; Pescatori, M

    2015-12-01

    Anismus or non relaxing puborectalis muscle (PRM) may cause obstructed defecation (OD). Reported surgical treatment is partial miotomy, followed by sepsis, bleeding, and incontinence. The aim of the present study was to investigate on the feasibility and outcome of a modified mini-invasive operation. Consecutive patients with anismus and OD not responding to medical therapy, excluding multiparous females, patients with anal incontinence, recto-rectal intussusception, and disordered psychological pattern. Semi-closed bilateral partial division of PRM, pulled down through 1-cm perianal incisions, was performed. Concomitant significant rectal mucosal prolapse and rectocele, when present, were treated. OD was evaluated using a validated score and anal/vaginal ultrasound (US) was performed pre -and postoperatively. A control group of seven patients with normal bowel habit was also investigated. Eight patients (seven females), median age 48 years (range 29-71) were operated. Six also had significant mucosal prolapse and rectocele. All were followed up for a median of 12 months (range 2-40). None of them had postoperative sepsis or bleeding. One had just one occasional episode of mild anal incontinence. Symptoms improved in 6 or 75 % and, OD score decreased from 19.6 ± 1.0 to 9.2 ± 2.0 (mean ± s.e.m.), P = 0.007. No patient had anismus after surgery and PRM relaxation changed from 0 to 5.9 ± 0.8 mm being 6.6 ± 1.5 mm in controls. Semi-closed bilateral partial division of PRM achieves muscle's relaxation on straining in all patients without any significant postoperative complication. Further studies are needed prior to consider it a validated procedure.

  1. A systematic approach to systemic contact dermatitis and symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE): a closer look at these conditions and an approach to intertriginous eruptions.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Monika; Shear, Neil H

    2011-06-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis is a condition that occurs when an individual sensitized to a contact allergen is exposed to that same allergen or a cross-reacting molecule through a systemic route. Systemic exposure to allergens can include transcutaneous, transmucosal, oral, intravenous, intramuscular, and inhalational routes. Baboon syndrome is perhaps the most recognizable form of systemic contact dermatitis, presenting with diffuse, well demarcated erythema of the buttocks, upper inner thighs, and axillae. Other forms of systemic contact dermatitis include dermatitis at sites of previous exposure to the allergen such as at a previous site of dermatitis or at sites of previous positive patch tests, dyshidrotic hand eczema, flexural dermatitis, exanthematous rash, erythroderma, and vasculitis-like lesions. The most common causes of systemic contact dermatitis consist of three groups of allergens: (i) metals including mercury, nickel, and gold; (ii) medications including aminoglycoside antibacterials, corticosteroids, and aminophylline; and (iii) plants and herbal products including the Compositae and Anacardiaceae plant families and Balsam of Peru. Baboon syndrome caused by systemic medications without a known history of previous cutaneous sensitization in the patient has been termed drug-related baboon syndrome (DRBS) or symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE). Criteria for SDRIFE include exposure to systemic drug at first or repeated dose, erythema of the gluteal/perianal area and/or V-shaped erythema of the inguinal area, involvement of at least one other intertriginous localization, symmetry of affected areas, and absence of systemic toxicity. The most common causes are aminopenicillins, β-lactam antibacterials, and certain chemotherapeutic agents, though the list of etiologic agents continues to grow. Baboon syndrome and SDRIFE should be strongly considered in a patient presenting with a symmetric intertriginous eruption involving

  2. The structure, organisation and perioperative management of ambulatory surgery and anaesthesia in France: Methodology of the SFAR-OPERA study.

    PubMed

    Albaladejo, Pierre; Aubrun, Frédéric; Samama, Charles-Marc; Jouffroy, Laurent; Beaussier, Marc; Benhamou, Dan; Romegoux, Pauline; Skaare, Kristina; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Ecoffey, Claude

    2017-10-01

    The organization of health care establishments and perioperative care are essential for ensuring the quality of care and safety of patients undergoing outpatient surgery. In order to correctly inventory these organizations and practices, in 2013-2014, the French society of anaesthesia and intensive care organized an extensive practical survey in French ambulatory surgery units entitled the "OPERA" study (Organisation periopératoire de l'anesthésie en chirurgie ambulatoire). From among all of the ambulatory surgery centres listed by the Agences régionales de santé (Regional health agencies, France), 206 public and private centres were randomly selected. A structural (typology, organization) survey and a medical-practice survey (focusing on the management of postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting as well as the prevention of venous thromboembolism) were collected and managed by a prospective audit of practices occurring on two randomly selected days. The latter was further accompanied by an additional audit specifically focussing on ten representative procedures: (1) stomatology surgery (third molar removal); (2) knee arthroscopy; (3) surgery of the abdominal wall (including inguinal hernia); (4) perianal surgery; (5) varicose vein surgery; (6) digestive laparoscopy-cholecystectomy; (7) breast surgery (tumourectomy); (8) uterine surgery; (9) hallux valgus and (10) hand surgery (excluding carpal tunnel). Over the 2 days of observation, 7382 patients were included comprising 2174 patients who underwent one of the procedures from the above list. The analysis of these data will provide an overview of the organization of health establishments, the modalities thus supported and compliance with standards. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Streptococcal infections in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Frymus, Tadeusz; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus canis is most prevalent in cats, but recently S equi subsp zooepidemicus has been recognised as an emerging feline pathogen. S canis is considered part of the commensal mucosal microflora of the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, genital organs and perianal region in cats. The prevalence of infection is higher in cats housed in groups; and, for example, there may be a high rate of vaginal carriage in young queens in breeding catteries. A wide spectrum of clinical disease is seen, encompassing neonatal septicaemia, upper respiratory tract disease, abscesses, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, polyarthritis, urogenital infections, septicaemia, sinusitis and meningitis. S equi subsp zooepidemicus is found in a wide range of species including cats. It was traditionally assumed that this bacterium played no role in disease of cats, but it is now considered a cause of respiratory disease with bronchopneumonia and pneumonia, as well as meningoencephalitis, often with a fatal course. Close confinement of cats, such as in shelters, appears to be a major risk factor. As horses are common carriers of this bacterium, contact with horses is a potential source of infection. Additionally, the possibility of indirect transmission needs to be considered. Streptococci can be detected by conventional culture techniques from swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or organ samples. Also real-time PCR can be used, and is more sensitive than culture. In suspected cases, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initiated as soon as possible and, if appropriate, adapted to the results of culture and sensitivity tests. © Published by SAGE on behalf of ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  4. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of group B streptococci in pregnant women: results from a Swiss tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Fröhlicher, Simone; Reichen-Fahrni, Gabriela; Müller, Martin; Surbek, Daniel; Droz, Sara; Spellerberg, Barbara; Sendi, Parham

    2014-03-20

    To evaluate the rates of penicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin resistance and the serotype distribution among isolates of group B streptococcus (GBS) obtained from pregnant women at the University Hospital of Bern in Switzerland. We prospectively collected screening samples for GBS colonisation at the University Women's Hospital Bern, Switzerland, between March 2009 and August 2010. We included 364 GBS isolates collected from vaginal, cervical or vaginal-perianal swabs at any gestation time. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin were established using Etest with 24 hours of incubation, and inducible clindamycin resistance was tested with double disk diffusion tests. Serotyping was done with a rapid latex agglutination test or, if not conclusive, with polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) testing. We looked for significant associations between resistance patterns, age groups, serotype and ethnicity. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Resistance rates were 14.5% for erythromycin and 8.2% for clindamycin. Of 364 isolates, 5.8% were susceptible to clindamycin but not to erythromycin, although demonstrating inducible clindamycin resistance. Hence, the final reported clindamycin resistance rate was 14%. Serotype III was the most frequent serotype (29%), followed by V (25%) and Ia (19%). Serotype V was associated with erythromycin resistance (p = 0.0007). In comparison with all other ethnicities, patients from Asia showed a higher proportion of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance (p = 0.018). No significant association between resistance patterns and age groups was found. In pregnant women with GBS colonisation, penicillin is the antibiotic of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis to prevent neonatal early-onset GBS sepsis. In women with penicillin allergy and at high risk for anaphylactic reaction, clindamycin may be an alternative. The resistance rate for clindamycin at our institution was 14%; therefore

  5. Post-transplantation Infections in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arze, S; Arze, L; Abecia, C

    2016-03-01

    Over 26 years, we found 46 infectious episodes in 350 kidney transplant recipients. Fifteen were urinary tract infections, recurrent in 4 patients. There were 8 cytomegalovirus infections, three of them fatal when intravenous (IV) ganciclovir was not available. Seven patients had a reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) in the pleura, cervical spine, lumbar spine, knee, ankle, skin and peritoneum, respectively, and were all resolved satisfactorily with conventional anti-TB therapy. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of acyclovir developed an extensive herpes zoster infection in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was resolved with the use of oral acyclovir, and 1 had a disseminated herpes simplex infection resolved with the use of IV acyclovir. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with trimethoprim sulfa developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was fatal in one of them. In 2 patients, we found a Nocardia infection, confined to the lung, which was cured in one of the cases and systemic and fatal in the other. Two patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of nystatin developed esophageal candidiasis in the 1st 6 months after transplantation. One patient developed infective endocarditis in a stenotic bicuspid aortic valve and died 10 years later after another incident of infective endocarditis at the prosthetic aortic valve. Two patients developed an extensive condyloma at the penis, perianal region, and perineum owing to human papillomavirus, requiring extensive surgical resection and podophyllin applications. Another patient developed fatal post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease due to Epstein-Barr virus infection 15 years after transplantation. One patient developed a severe and fatal mucocutaneous leishmaniasis with no response to conventional antimonial therapy. It is interesting to note that despite Chagas disease being endemic

  6. Combined modality therapy for HIV-infected patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: Outcomes and toxicities

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, Scott; Johnstone, Peter

    Purpose: We report toxicity and survival data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men with anal carcinoma treated with combined modality therapy (CMT) of radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on the records of 17 HIV-positive patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma treated with CMT at our institution between 1991 and 2004. Radiotherapy consisted of 30.6 to 45 Gy to the pelvis, total dose of 50.4 to 59.4 Gy to initial gross disease, at 1.8 Gy/fraction. Chemotherapy consisted of 5-fluorouracil and either mitomycin C or cisplatin. The mean follow-up was 25.6 months (median, 15.6 months;more » range, 4.6-106 months). Results: Significant acute skin and hematologic toxicity developed in 8 of 17 and 9 of 17 patients, respectively. One patient died 12 days after treatment of progressive disease and sepsis. Significant late toxic sequelae developed in 3 patients: 1 anorectal ulcer, 2 dermatologic (perianal ulceration, hemorrhagic perineal sores and suspected fissure). Fourteen of 15 patients with Stage I-III disease had a complete response; 2 complete responders subsequently had a relapse in the anorectum. For all patients, actuarial 18-month survival was 67%. For patients with Stage I-III disease, survival at last follow-up by low CD4 count (<200) vs. high count (>200) was 4 of 7 vs. 7 of 8, respectively; significant acute toxicities developed in 4 of 8 vs. 6 of 9, respectively. Conclusion: For HIV patients with anal carcinoma, CMT yields reasonable local control with significant acute complications. Survival is lower than in the general population, attributable more to the underlying infection than to the malignancy.« less

  7. Fournier’s Gangrene: Clinical Presentation of 13 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kuzaka, Bolesław; Borkowski, Tomasz; Kawecki, Dariusz; Kuzaka, Piotr; Młynarczyk, Grażyna; Radziszewski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Background Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a fulminant form of infective, polymicrobial, necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, and perianal regions. It commonly affects men, but women and children may also develop this type of tissue necrosis. Material/Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of the management of 13 cases of Fournier’s gangrene, diagnosed from among about 45 000 patients (men, women, and children) treated in the Department of General, Oncological, and Functional Urology (Medical University of Warsaw) from 1995 to 2013. All patients with Fournier’s gangrene underwent adequate surgical debridement of the necrotic tissues. Additional procedures (suprapubic cystostomy and orchiectomy) were necessary in 10 out of 13 (77.0%) patients. Seven out of 13 (53.8%) patients required subsequent reconstructive surgery of the scrotum. Results All 13 patients were males, with a median age of 59.6 years (range: 42–68 years). The average hospital stay was 31.9 days (range: 16–46 days). None of our patients died due to Fournier’s gangrene. Bacteriological cultures of samples from the wounds showed polymicrobial flora, including the following genera of aerobes and anaerobes: Escherichia, Proteus, Klebsiella, Moraxella, Gemella, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacteroides, Pseudoflavonifractor, Parabacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Peptoniphilus, Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, Collinsella, and Lactobacillus. Conclusions Favorable outcome of FG treatment with low morbidity and no mortality can be achieved with rapid diagnosis, urgent surgical debridement of all necrotic tissues, and broad-spectrum empirical antimicrobial therapy, usually with combined antibiotics, against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Prevention of uroseptic shock by treating localized infection is compulsory. PMID:29374769

  8. Crohn Disease: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Joseph D; Cheifetz, Adam S

    2017-07-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease condition characterized by skip lesions and transmural inflammation that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. For this review article, we performed a review of articles in PubMed through February 1, 2017, by using the following Medical Subject Heading terms: crohns disease, crohn's disease, crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Presenting symptoms are often variable and may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and in certain cases fevers or chills. There are 3 main disease phenotypes: inflammatory, structuring, and penetrating. In addition to the underlying disease phenotype, up to a third of patients will develop perianal involvement of their disease. In addition, in some cases, extraintestinal manifestations may develop. The diagnosis is typically made with endoscopic and/or radiologic findings. Disease management is usually with pharmacologic therapy, which is determined on the basis of disease severity and underlying disease phenotype. Although the goal of management is to control the inflammation and induce a clinical remission with pharmacologic therapy, most patients will eventually require surgery for their disease. Unfortunately, surgery is not curative and patients still require ongoing therapy even after surgery for disease recurrence. Importantly, given the risks of complications from both Crohn disease and the medications used to treat the disease process, primary care physicians play an important role in optimizing the preventative care management to reduce the risk of complications. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease in India - Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    There is rising incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in India topping the Southeast Asian (SEA) countries. The common genes implicated in disease pathogenesis in the West are not causal in Indian patients and the role of “hygiene hypothesis” is unclear. There appears to be a North-South divide with more ulcerative colitis (UC) in north and Crohn’s disease (CD) in south India. IBD in second generation Indian migrants to the West takes the early onset and more severe form of the West whereas it retains the nature of its country of origin in migrants to SEA countries. The clinical presentation is much like other SEA countries (similar age and sex profile, low positive family history and effect of smoking, roughly similar disease location, use of aminosalicylates for CD, low use of biologics and similar surgical rates) with some differences (higher incidence of inflammatory CD, lower perianal disease, higher use of aminosalicylates and azathioprine and lower current use of corticosteroids). UC presents more with extensive disease not paralleled in severity clinically or histologically, follows benign course with easy medical control and low incidence of fulminant disease, cancer, complications, and surgery. UC related colorectal cancer develop in an unpredictable manner with respect to disease duration and site questioning the validity of strict screening protocol. About a third of CD patients get antituberculosis drugs and a significant number presents with small intestinal bleed which is predominantly afflicted by aggressive inflammation. Biomarkers have inadequate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for both. Pediatric IBD tends to be more severe than adult. Population based studies are needed to address the lacunae in epidemiology and definition of etiological factors. Newer biomarkers and advanced diagnostic techniques (in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, molecular pathology and genetics) needs to be developed for proper

  10. [GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS IN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS): A REVIEW OF ONE HUNDRED CASES AT "ARZOBISPO LOAYZA" HOSPITAL

    PubMed

    Uribe M , Rosario; Valdivia R , Mario; Carrasco E , Juan

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, one hundred health histories of HIV serum positive patients were reviewed using the Elisa and Western Blot techniques at the Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital. Such cases were defined according to Case Definition 1987 CDC/WHO. 70% of HIV serum positive patients showed gastrointestinal symptoms according to the first medical examination. 57% of the patients were younger than 30 years old, most of them were men (men/ women ratio: 2.7/1). 59% of the patients were heterosexual, 26% bisexual, and 15% homosexual. Chronic diarrhea was the main symptom, characterized by watering depositions over 10c/d. Giardia lamblia was isolated in 32% of the cases, while Isospora Belli in 16% and Criptosporidium in 12.5%. The laboratory findings of 7 patients (12.5%) were negative. Patients showed more than 10% weight loss. 10% of the patients had an anorectal disease while 7 of the patients (10%) had an hepatic-billiary disease. The odynophagia and dysphagia were explained by oropharyngeal candidiasis. 2.8% of the patients had acalculous cholecystitis; 2.8% suffered from acute pancreatic disease and 1.4% ascitis. The hepatic biochemistry was affected by the serum albumin reduction, the transaminases increase over 2-3 times compared to normal levels and the alkaline phosphatase, bilirrubina was about 5 mg. The high endoscopic diagnostic was in connection to the candida esophagitis and inflammatory pathology. In proctoscopy, condyloma acuminatum and perianal fistula were the most usual findings. The counting of CD4 leukocytes in 20 patients showed a great reduction of CD4 lymphocytes, in values lesser than 200 cel/mm3. The relation CD4/CD8 goes from 0.01 to 0.91 rates.

  11. Fournier's gangrene. A clinical review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ariana; Ahmed, Kamran; Aydin, Abdullatif; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2016-10-05

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare, necrotising fasciitis of the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions. The disease has a higher incidence in males and risk factors for development include diabetes, HIV, alcoholism and other immune-compromised states. The aggressive disease process is associated with a high mortality rate of 20-30%. In addition, the increasing age and prevalence of diabetes in the population, begs the need for increased clinical awareness of Fournier's gangrene with emphasis on early diagnosis and management. This review aims to highlight the relevant research surrounding Fournier's gangrene, in particular the various prognostic indicators and management strategies. A search was conducted on the MEDLINE database for all applicable research; clinical reviews, retrospective studies and case reports. In addition to which a search of the European Association of Urology, the British Association for Urological Surgeons and the British Medical Journal was conducted for the most recent recommendations. Immediate broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and urgent surgical debridement are the core managerial principles of Fournier's gangrene. The use of adjunctive therapies such as hyperbaric oxygen and vacuum assisted closure are supported in some aspects of the literature and disputed in others. The lack of randomized controlled studies limits the use of these potential additional therapies to patients unresponsive to conventional management. The value of unprocessed honey as a topical antimicrobial agent has been highlighted in the literature for small lesions in uncomplicated patients. Fournier's gangrene is a urological emergency with a high mortality rate despite advances in the medical and surgical fields. The aggressive nature of the infection advocates the need for early recognition allowing immediate surgical intervention. The opposing results of available research as well as the lack of high quality evidence surrounding emergent therapies prevents

  12. Mucocutaneous lupus erythematosus in dogs (21 cases).

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Rossi, Michael A; Banovic, Frane; Linder, Keith E

    2015-08-01

    The diagnosis of dogs with chronic juxtamucosal erosive lesions and histopathology typical of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is unclear. We report herein 21 dogs with mucocutaneous erosive lesions and lupus-specific histopathology that we propose to be affected with mucocutaneous lupus erythematosus (MCLE), another variant of chronic CLE. Inclusion criteria were the presence of the following: (i) a >2 month history of chronic or recurrent skin lesions; (ii) erosions or ulcers predominating at mucosae or mucocutaneous junctions; (iii) microscopic lesions of CLE (i.e. a lymphocyte-rich interface dermatitis with basal keratinocyte damage); and (iv) a lack of complete remission following antimicrobials. Clinical questionnaires and skin biopsies were reviewed. Direct immunofluorescence and antinuclear antibody serology were performed whenever possible. More than half of the 21 dogs were German shepherds or their crosses. The disease affected mostly dogs in their mid-adulthood and there was an over-representation of females. Erosions and ulcers predominated at genital/perigenital and anal/perianal areas, with a lower frequency of involvement of periocular, perioral and perinasal regions. In these dogs, there were no clinical signs suggestive of an associated systemic lupus erythematosus. Microscopic lesions were specific for CLE, but they were patchy and often infected with bacteria. The most common immunological finding was focal IgG deposition at the basement membrane zone. Lesions responded to varying interventions, but oral glucocorticoids led to a shorter time to complete remission. Relapses were common upon treatment tapering. These observations support MCLE being another variant of canine CLE. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Current status of Enterobius vermicularis infection in primary schoolchildren in Miaoli County and Taichung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Chieh; Lee, Yuan-Fang; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Nie-Sue; Chen, Po-Yen; Huang, Fang-Liang; Liou, Nuo-Wei

    2009-10-01

    No epidemiological survey of the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection in Miaoli County and Taichung County has been conducted. This epidemiological survey was performed to describe the profile of E. vermicularis infection in schoolchildren in Miaoli County and Taichung County. The first part of this study was conducted between November 2005 and February 2006 in Miaoli County. 44,071 primary schoolchildren from 18 districts were examined by 2 consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs to estimate the infection rate. The second part was performed between October 2006 and January 2007 in Taichung County. 24,382 primary schoolchildren from 14 districts were examined. In Miaoli County, the infection rate was 2.39% (1054/44,071). The infection rate was highest in the Taian (6.69%; 20/299), Shytarn (4.49%; 11/245), and Dahu townships (3.6%; 40/1111). In Taichung County, the infection rate was 2.95% (720/24,382). The infection rate was highest in the Da-an (5.46%; 26/476) and Heping townships (4.48%; 9/201). The infection rate for a family with > or =3 children was significantly higher than that for a family with < or =2 children (p = 0.007). The frequency of washing linen and cleaning bedclothes significantly affected the infection rate of enterobiasis (p < 0.01). The efficacy rate for mebendazole was 96%, with no difference between 1 and 2 doses. The number of children per family and the frequency of washing linen and cleaning bedclothes were the most important factors for transmission of pinworm infection among the groups surveyed.

  14. Risk factors for Enterobius vermicularis infection in children in Gaozhou, Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Chang-Hai; Li, Zhi-Shi; Deng, Zhuo-Hui; Ruan, Cai-Wen; Zhang, Qi-Ming; Zhu, Ting-Jun; Xu, Long-Qi; Chen, Ying-Dan

    2015-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis infection is a prevalent intestinal parasitic disease in children. In this study, we explored the epidemiological status and risk factors for E. vermicularis infection in children in southern China. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Gaozhou city, Guangdong province, China, in December 2011. Children aged 2-12 years from five schools participated in the study. The adhesive cellophane-tape perianal swab method was applied to detect E. vermicularis infection, while a questionnaire was sent to each child's guardian(s) to collect demographic and socioeconomic data, as well as hygiene behaviors, pertaining to each child. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to capture the potential risk factors. Out of the 802 children surveyed, 440 were infected with E. vermicularis, with an average prevalence of 54.86 %, and a range from 45.96 to 68.13 %. The age variable was found to be statistically significant, whereas the sex variable was not. It was found that a mother's education level (low) and not washing hands before dinner were major risk factors in all children (802). After stratification by age, a father's education level (primary or below) and biting pencils (or toys) were significant risk factors in the younger children (508), while not washing hands before dinner and playing on the ground were important risk factors in the older children (294). This study demonstrates the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection in children in Gaozhou and reveals underlying risk factors. Most importantly, it reveals that risk factors differ among the different age groups, which indicates that different control measures targeted at particular age groups should be implemented.

  15. Genomic comparison of multi-drug resistant invasive and colonizing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from diverse human body sites reveals genomic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Jason W; Johnson, J Kristie; Harris, Anthony D; Phillippy, Adam M; Hsiao, William W; Thom, Kerri A; Rasko, David A

    2011-06-04

    Acinetobacter baumannii has recently emerged as a significant global pathogen, with a surprisingly rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance and spread within hospitals and health care institutions. This study examines the genomic content of three A. baumannii strains isolated from distinct body sites. Isolates from blood, peri-anal, and wound sources were examined in an attempt to identify genetic features that could be correlated to each isolation source. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multi-locus sequence typing and antibiotic resistance profiles demonstrated genotypic and phenotypic variation. Each isolate was sequenced to high-quality draft status, which allowed for comparative genomic analyses with existing A. baumannii genomes. A high resolution, whole genome alignment method detailed the phylogenetic relationships of sequenced A. baumannii and found no correlation between phylogeny and body site of isolation. This method identified genomic regions unique to both those isolates found on the surface of the skin or in wounds, termed colonization isolates, and those identified from body fluids, termed invasive isolates; these regions may play a role in the pathogenesis and spread of this important pathogen. A PCR-based screen of 74 A. baumanii isolates demonstrated that these unique genes are not exclusive to either phenotype or isolation source; however, a conserved genomic region exclusive to all sequenced A. baumannii was identified and verified. The results of the comparative genome analysis and PCR assay show that A. baumannii is a diverse and genomically variable pathogen that appears to have the potential to cause a range of human disease regardless of the isolation source.

  16. Tumours of the lower alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    This classification is presented in two parts: (a) tumours of the gastrointestinal tract; and (b) tumours of the anal canal and margin. In the gastrointestinal tract the tumours are classified as adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma, with several subtypes. Most polyps prove to be non-neoplastic, hyperplastic, or regenerative rather than adenomatous. Carcinoma of the stomach occurs mainly in dogs, but is a rare tumour in all parts of the world. Moderately differentiated, tubular adenocarcinoma of the small intestine with excessive fibrosis occurs in all six species; in some geographical locations it may occur frequently in sheep and cattle. The adenoma/carcinoma sequence in the rectum of the dog is similar to that in man but is encountered less often. Carcinoid tumours are very rare in domestic animals. Among the soft tissue tumours, those of smooth muscle and adipose tissue are found fairly frequently and congenital mesothelioma in the peritoneum of calves occurs occasionally. Tumours of the haematopoietic and related tissues are the most common gastrointestinal neoplasms in all species and most belong to the lymphosarcoma group. Tumours of the anal canal and margin are common in the dog and 90% of these are tumours of the hepatoid (perianal) glands. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24 PMID:1086148

  17. An overall assessment of circumanal gland adenoma in a terrier mix breed dog

    PubMed Central

    Javanbakht, Javad; Tavassoli, Abbas; Sasani, Farhang; Sabbagh, Atefeh; Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohamad; Samakkhah, Shohreh Alian; Shafiee, Radmehr; Jani, Meysam; Alimohammadi, Samad; Samani, Reza; Barati, Fardin; Ghalee, Vahideh Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    In September 2012, a 10-year-old, intact male, terrier mix breed dog was evaluated because of multiple, 0.5 to 1.2 cm in diameter, round, intradermal nodules around the anus. It had surgery to excise a firm, painful swelling in the left ventrolateral perianal region and the excision part was observed under light microscopy. The mass spreading in to sub acute was of left hind leg out from the ventro-lateral of anus, 1.2 cm×1 cm/ 0 cm×0.5 cm in size and 125 g in weight. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Significant laboratory data demonstrated microcytic anemia (hemoglobin of 6.4 mg/dL) and normal coagulation times. No remarkable abnormalities were found in the complete blood count and an ionized calcium of 1.91 mmol/L (reference range, 1.1-1.3 mmol/L) was confirmed hypercalcemia. On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, evaluation of the aspirate revealed a prominent population of round-to-polygonal nucleated cells arranged as cohesive groups with isolated individual cells. A mild degree of anisocytosis and anisokaryosis was observed. In addition, smaller reserve type cells, with darker cytoplasm and a higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. The adenomas generally retain the lobular architecture, but some may contain focal areas of cellular pleomorphism. These changes may suggest malignant transformation and have led to discordant interpretations, the well-developed stroma surrounding the lobules and hepatoid cells was noted. Ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and secondary infection with inflammatory cell infiltrates are common. These cytology and histopathology features are consistent with hepatoid gland adenoma. PMID:23835432

  18. Is CDX2 immunostaining useful for delineating anorectal from penile/vulvar squamous cancer in the setting of squamous cell carcinoma with clinically unknown primary site presenting with histologically confirmed inguinal lymph node metastasis?

    PubMed

    Gunia, Sven; Koch, Stefan; May, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Penile, vulvar and anal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) share histomorphological overlap and are prone to lymphatic dissemination into inguinal nodes. Anal SCCs might derive from the anorectal zone (ARZ), anal transitional zone, squamous zone or from perianal skin. These anatomically distinct zones differ in terms of their embryological development. We sought to investigate the role of caudal-related homeobox 2 (CDX2), a homeobox gene implicated in the development and anterior/posterior pattern specification from duodenum to rectum including the ARZ, in terms of narrowing the possible sites of origin to be considered in the setting of SCC with unknown primary presenting with histologically confirmed inguinal lymph node metastasis. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) employing a panel of antibodies directed against CK5/6, CK7, CK20, p63, p16, CEA and CDX2, we compared 89 penile, 11 vulvar and eight anal SCCs with respect to their staining profiles. Moreover, anal SCCs were subjected to in situ hybridisation (ISH) for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes. By IHC, CDX2 expression was observed in 2/8 anal SCCs (25%) while being absent from all penile and vulvar SCCs examined. High-risk HPV subtypes were detected by ISH in all anal SCCs examined, which were uniformly p16-positive by IHC. CDX2 might be valuable in terms of narrowing the possible sites of origin to be considered in the setting of SCC with unknown primary presenting with inguinal lymph node metastasis. However, despite its favourable specificity, the diagnostic benefit achieved by this observation is limited by the low sensitivity.

  19. Smoking does influence disease behaviour and impacts the need for therapy in Crohn's disease in the biologic era.

    PubMed

    Nunes, T; Etchevers, M J; Domènech, E; García-Sánchez, V; Ber, Y; Peñalva, M; Merino, O; Nos, P; Garcia-Planella, E; Casbas, A G; Esteve, M; Taxonera Samsó, C; Montoro Huguet, M; Gisbert, J P; Martín Arranz, M D; García-Sepulcre, M F; Barreiro-de Acosta, M; Beltrán, B; Alcaide Suárez, N; Saro Gismera, C; Cabriada, J L; Cañas-Ventura, A; Gomollón, F; Panés, J

    2013-10-01

    Recently, the notion that smoking may adversely affect Crohn's disease (CD) outcomes has been challenged by the suggestion that the widespread use of immunosuppressants and anti-TNF drugs might offset the adverse effects of tobacco. To reassess the influence of tobacco smoking on disease phenotype and complications on a time-dependent analysis, taking into account the different therapeutic interventions. We designed a retrospective cohort study of 3224 patients with Crohn's disease. The data were collected from the Spanish national inflammatory bowel disease registry (ENEIDA), including information regarding demographics, clinical characteristics, disease complications, therapeutic interventions and smoking status. Patients were classified as nonsmokers, smokers and former smokers, according to their present and past smoking habits. In the univariate analysis, smokers had more strictures (22.6% vs. 19.3%, P < 0.05) and less colonic involvement (7.2% vs. 10.9%, P < 0.05), and were more frequently under treatment with steroids (91.6% vs. 85.8%, P < 0.05), immunosuppressants (73.5% vs. 63.6% P < 0.05) or anti-TNF drugs (31.4% vs. 25.1%, P < 0.05) than nonsmokers. In the time-dependent multivariate analysis, smokers were found to have a significantly decreased survival free of stricturing disease (HR: 1.5, CI 95% 1.18-1.90) or perianal complications (HR: 1.50, CI 95% 1.01-1.46), and had a higher risk for requiring thiopurine therapy (HR: 1.20, CI 95% 1.05-1.30). These results suggest that, despite the widespread use of immunosuppressants and anti-TNF drugs, smokers with Crohn's disease still have a more severe disease course, with increased therapeutic requirements when compared with nonsmokers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Disease severity in familial cases of IBD.

    PubMed

    Andreu, M; Márquez, L; Domènech, E; Gisbert, J P; García, V; Marín-Jiménez, I; Peñalva, M; Gomollón, F; Calvet, X; Merino, O; Garcia-Planella, E; Vázquez-Romero, N; Esteve, M; Nos, P; Gutiérrez, A; Vera, I; Cabriada, J L; Martín, M D; Cañas-Ventura, A; Panés, J

    2014-03-01

    Phenotypic traits of familial IBD relative to sporadic cases are controversial, probably related to limited statistical power of published evidence. To know if there are phenotype differences between familial and sporadic IBD, evaluating the prospective Spanish registry (ENEIDA) with 11,983 cases. 5783 patients (48.3%) had ulcerative colitis (UC) and 6200 (51.7%) Crohn's disease (CD). Cases with one or more 1st, 2nd or 3rd degree relatives affected by UC/CD were defined as familial case. In UC and CD, familial cases compared with sporadic cases had an earlier disease onset (UC: 33 years [IQR 25-44] vs 37 years [IQR 27-49]; p<0.0001); (CD: 27 years [IQR 21-35] vs 29 years [IQR 22-40]; p<0.0001), higher prevalence of extraintestinal immune-related manifestations (EIMs) (UC: 17.2% vs 14%; p=0.04); (CD: 30.1% vs 23.6%; p<0.0001). Familial CD had higher percentage of ileocolic location (42.7% vs 51.8%; p=0.0001), penetrating behavior (21% vs 17.6%; p=0.01) and perianal disease (32% vs 27.1%; p=0.003). Differences are not influenced by degree of consanguinity. When a sufficiently powered cohort is evaluated, familial aggregation in IBD is associated to an earlier disease onset, more EIMs and more severe phenotype in CD. This feature should be taken into account at establishing predictors of disease course. © 2013.

  1. Changes in Crohn's disease phenotype over time in the Chinese population: validation of the Montreal classification system.

    PubMed

    Chow, Dorothy K L; Leong, Rupert W L; Lai, Larry H; Wong, Grace L H; Leung, Wai-Keung; Chan, Francis K L; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2008-04-01

    Phenotypic evolution of Crohn's disease occurs in whites but has never been described in other populations. The Montreal classification may describe phenotypes more precisely. The aim of this study was to validate the Montreal classification through a longitudinal sensitivity analysis in detecting phenotypic variation compared to the Vienna classification. This was a retrospective longitudinal study of consecutive Chinese Crohn's disease patients. All cases were classified by the Montreal classification and the Vienna classification for behavior and location. The evolution of these characteristics and the need for surgery were evaluated. A total of 109 patients were recruited (median follow-up: 4 years, range: 6 months-18 years). Crohn's disease behavior changed 3 years after diagnosis (P = 0.025), with an increase in stricturing and penetrating phenotypes, as determined by the Montreal classification, but was only detected by the Vienna classification after 5 years (P = 0.015). Disease location remained stable on follow-up in both classifications. Thirty-four patients (31%) underwent major surgery during the follow-up period with the stricturing [P = 0.002; hazard ratio (HR): 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5-7.0] and penetrating (P = 0.03; HR: 5.8; 95% CI: 1.2-28.2) phenotypes according to the Montreal classification associated with the need for major surgery. In contrast, colonic disease was protective against a major operation (P = 0.02; HR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.08-0.8). This is the first study demonstrating phenotypic evolution of Crohn's disease in a nonwhite population. The Montreal classification is more sensitive to behavior phenotypic changes than is the Vienna classification after excluding perianal disease from the penetrating disease category and was useful in predicting course and the need for surgery.

  2. Conventional medical management of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Burger, Daniel; Travis, Simon

    2011-05-01

    Conventional therapies for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD) include aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. A time-structured approach is required for appropriate management. Traditional step-up therapy has been partly replaced during the last decade by potent drugs and top-down therapies, with an accelerated step-up approach being the most appropriate in the majority of patients. When patients are diagnosed with CD or ulcerative colitis, physicians should consider the probable pattern of disease progression so that effective therapy is not delayed. This can be achieved by setting arbitrary time limits for administration of biological therapies, changing therapy from mesalamine in patients with active ulcerative colitis, or using rescue therapy for acute severe colitis. In this review, we provide algorithms with a time-structured approach for guidance of therapy. Common mistakes in conventional therapy include overprescription of mesalamine for CD; inappropriate use of steroids (for perianal CD, when there is sepsis, or for maintenance); delayed introduction or underdosing with azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, or methotrexate; and failure to consider timely surgery. The paradox of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy is that although it too is used inappropriately (when patients have sepsis or fibrostenotic strictures) or too frequently (for diseases that would respond to less-potent therapy), it is also often introduced too late in disease progression. Conventional drugs are the mainstay of current therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases, but drug type, timing, and context must be optimized to manage individual patients effectively. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Candida albicans colonisation, continence status and incontinence-associated dermatitis in the acute care setting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jill L; Coyer, Fiona M; Mudge, Alison M; Robertson, Ivan M; Osborne, Sonya R

    2017-06-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent human fungal commensal organism and is reported to be the most frequent aetiological organism responsible for infection associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis. However, it remains unclear whether incontinence predisposes a patient to increased Candida colonisation or whether incontinence acts as a trigger for Candida infection in those already colonised. The purpose of this observational cross-sectional study was to estimate colonisation rates of C. albicans in continent, compared to incontinent patients, and patients with incontinence-associated dermatitis. Data were collected on 81 inpatients of a major Australian hospital and included a pelvic skin inspection and microbiological specimens to detect C. Albicans at hospital admission. The mean age of the sample was 76 years (SD = 12.22) with 53% being male. Incontinent participants (n = 53) had a non-significant trend towards greater Candida colonisation rates at the perianal site (43% versus 28%) χ 2 (1, N = 81) = 4·453, p = ·638 and the inguinal site (24% versus 14%) χ 2 (1, N = 81) = 6·868, p = ·258 compared to continent patients (n = 28). The incontinent subgroup with incontinence-associated dermatitis (n = 22) showed no difference in colonisation rates compared to those without incontinence-associated dermatitis. Understanding the epidemiology of colonisation may have implications for the prevention of Candida infection in these patients. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. IBD-related work disability in the community: Prevalence, severity and predictive factors. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Alexis; Sicilia, Beatriz; Vergara, Mercedes; Figuerola, Ariadna; Motos, Jaume; Sastre, Adoración; Villoria, Albert; Gomollón, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Data on the prevalence of work disability in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are heterogeneous. As most studies have been performed in selected, often severe, IBD patients, the true prevalence of disability in the community remains controversial. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of disability and its predictive factors in a community-based IBD population. Patients and methods Patients recorded in the community-based IBD register at the Hospital Universitario de Burgos were contacted. After informed consent they completed a set of questionnaires including demographic, clinical, disability and quality of life data. The statistical study was performed using SPSS 21. Results A total of 293 patients were included – 151 Crohn's disease (CD), 142 ulcerative colitis (UC), 137 female, mean age: 45 ± 11 years, mean time since diagnosis: 10.6 ± 11 years. Twelve patients (4.1%) had a work-disability pension. In addition, 93 (32%) of all patients had an officially recognized disability degree, which was generally moderate (n = 73, 25%) or severe (N = 16, 5%). Age, time since IBD diagnosis, CD, perianal disease, incontinence, active disease, the need for anti-TNF or psychological treatment, previous surgeries and the number of diagnostic tests and medical visits in the previous year were predictors of disability. Major predictors of qualifying for a disability pension were age, IBD activity, incontinence, need for biological drugs and ostomy. Conclusion Mild to moderate work disability is frequent in IBD. However, only a minority of patients develop severe disability qualifying them for a pension. PMID:26279841

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes as the cause of vulvovaginitis and balanitis in children.

    PubMed

    Randjelovic, Gordana; Otasevic, Suzana; Mladenovic-Antic, Snezana; Mladenovic, Vesna; Radovanovic-Velickovic, Radmila; Randjelovic, Marina; Bogdanovic, Dragan

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) is the etiological agent of perineal infection in children, consisting of perianal infection, vulvovaginitis and balanitis. If it is not properly diagnosed and treated, it can persist for many months and can cause severe complications. Furthermore, treatment with penicillin can be followed by failures and recurrences. We report here the prevalence of S. pyogenes isolates in genital tract specimens from girls (n = 1692) with symptoms of vulvovaginitis and from boys (n = 52) with balanitis in the municipality of Nis, Southeast-Serbia (the Western Balkans) in a 10 year period, and the seasonal distribution, patient age and sensitivity to bacitracin and antimicrobial drugs used in the treatment of streptococcal infection. Streptococcal vulvovaginitis was diagnosed in 2.30% of examinees. Of those cases, 64.10% were detected from April to September, and it was most common (71.79%) in girls aged 3-7 years. Streptococcal balanitis was diagnosed in two instances: in a 4-year-old boy and in a 7-year-old boy. S. pyogenes strains resistant to bacitracin were identified in five girls. Two isolates with M phenotype and five isolates with cMLS B phenotype were identified. Streptococcal vulvovaginitis was diagnosed less often in the present study, but it was still far more common than streptococcal balanitis in childhood. Bacitracin resistance of S. pyogenes strains should be taken into account in routine microbiological identification, and the detection of S. pyogenes isolates resistant to erythromycin requires surveillance in the present geographical territory. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Ulcerative colitis in Kuwait: a review of 90 cases.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamali, Mohammed A; Kalaoui, Maher; Patty, Istivan; Hasan, Fuad; Khajah, Abdulkareem; Al-Nakib, Basil

    2003-01-01

    Chronic ulcerative colitis is a disease of unknown etiology. Its incidence is on the rise in various developing countries as has been reported in studies from South-East Asia and the Middle East. There seems to be significant differences in the pattern and the clinical course of this disease in our patient population. The aim of our study is to assess the incidence and the clinical course of the disease in Kuwait. This is a retrospective study of cases identified over a period of 14 years (1985-1999). Three hundred forty-six patients were identified to have chronic ulcerative colitis. Ninety patients were interviewed for this study. Chronic ulcerative colitis is being identified with increasing frequency. Our local incidence was 2.8 per 100,000 persons per year. The disease was seen in both sexes with equal frequency. It peaks at the third decade of life, with no second peak observed in the sixth decade. The disease was of mild to moderate severity in 93% of the cases. The distribution of the disease in the colon showed pancolitis in 45%, left-sided colitis in 14%, proctosigmoiditis in 21% and proctitis in 20%. Arthritis and arthralgia were the most frequent extraintestinal manifestation seen in 31%. Perianal disease, although rare in ulcerative colitis, was seen in 8%. Of interest is the fact that over 14 years of follow-up, none of our patients developed high-grade dysplasia or colorectal cancer. Four patients required total colectomy mainly due to failure of medical therapy. Chronic ulcerative colitis is occurring with increasing frequency similar to that seen in Western countries. The disease observed in our patient population was of mild to moderate severity, with fewer complications than reported in Western countries. It peaks in the third decade with no second peak. None of our patients developed high-grade dysplasia or colorectal carcinoma. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. The Skin Microbiome in Healthy and Allergic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline; Patterson, Adam P.; Diesel, Alison; Lawhon, Sara D.; Ly, Hoai Jaclyn; Stephenson, Christine Elkins; Mansell, Joanne; Steiner, Jörg M.; Dowd, Scot E.; Olivry, Thierry; Suchodolski, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12) and allergic dogs (n = 6) from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. Conclusions/Significance The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between healthy and allergic

  8. Preservation of Eumelanin Hair Pigmentation in Proopiomelanocortin-Deficient Mice on a Nonagouti (a/a) Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej; Plonka, Przemyslaw M.; Pisarchik, Alexander; Smart, James L.; Tolle, Virginie; Wortsman, Jacobo; Low, Malcolm J.

    2005-01-01

    The original strain of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-deficient mice (Pomc−/− ) was generated by homologous recombination in 129X1/SvJ (Aw/Aw)-derived embryonic stem cells using a targeting construct that deleted exon 3, encoding all the known functional POMC-derived peptides including αMSH, from the Pomc gene. Although these Pomc−/− mice exhibited adrenal hypoplasia and obesity similar to the syndrome of POMC deficiency in children, their agouti coat color was only subtly altered. To further investigate the mechanism of hair pigmentation in the absence of POMC peptides, we studied wild-type (Pomc+/+), heterozygous (Pomc+/−), and homozygous (Pomc−/−) mice on a nonagouti (a/a) 129;B6 hybrid genetic background. All three genotypes had similar black fur pigmentation with yellow hairs behind the ears, around the nipples, and in the perianal area characteristic of inbred C57BL/6 mice. Histologic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry examination demonstrated that hair follicles in back skin of Pomc−/− mice developed with normal structure and eumelanin pigmentation; corresponding molecular analyses, however, excluded local production of αMSH and ACTH because neither Pomc nor putative Pomc pseudogene mRNAs were detected in the skin. Thus, 129;B6 Pomc null mutant mice produce abundant eumelanin hair pigmentation despite their congenital absence of melanocortin ligands. These results suggest that either the mouse melanocortin receptor 1 has sufficient basal activity to trigger and sustain eumelanogenesis in vivo or that redundant nonmelanocortin pathway(s) compensate for the melanocortin deficiency. Whereas the latter implies feedback control of melanogenesis, it is also possible that the two mechanisms operate jointly in hair follicles. PMID:15564334

  9. Increased fatigability of external anal sphincter in inflammatory bowel disease: significance in fecal urgency and incontinence.

    PubMed

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios A; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Tatsioni, Athina; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

    2010-11-01

    Fatigability of external anal sphincter (EAS) has not been studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. We evaluated EAS fatigability in IBD patients with and without fecal incontinence (FI) and urgency, and correlated fatigability with demographic and clinical factors, and EAS endosonography. Fifty-eight consecutive IBD cases and 14 healthy volunteers completed Bristol stool form and a FI severity scale. Groups I, II and III included 27 patients with urgency including 13 with concomitant FI, 31 patients without FI or urgency, and 14 controls, respectively. We performed stationary pull-through manometry with an 8-channel water-perfused catheter. Fatigue rate (FR) was calculated by linear regression during a 20-s anal squeeze, and fatigue rate index (FRI) as the ratio of squeeze pressure increment to FR. EAS thickness and deficits were evaluated with an endoanal 10-MHz probe. Patients underwent sigmoidoscopy. Group I demonstrated a higher Bristol score, more frequent defecations, and more EAS defects compared to group II. Resting, peak squeeze pressures and EAS thickness did not differ between groups. FR was increased in group I versus II, and in group II versus III; FRI was decreased in group I versus II and in group II versus III (p<0.001, adjusting for age and BMI). Gender, oral glucocorticoids, presence of proctitis, perianal disease and EAS defects did not interact with group membership on FR or FRI. IBD is associated with increased fatigue rate and decreased fatigue rate index. These differences were even more striking in patients with incontinence or urgency. Copyright © 2010 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Crohn disease lesions of the small and large bowel in pediatric patients: diagnostic value of MR enterography versus reference examinations.

    PubMed

    Maccioni, Francesca; Al Ansari, Najwa; Mazzamurro, Fabrizio; Civitelli, Fortunata; Viola, Franca; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Catalano, Carlo

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to prospectively determine the accuracy of MR enterography in detecting Crohn disease lesions from the jejunum to the anorectal region in pediatric patients, in comparison with main reference investigations. Fifty consecutive children with known Crohn disease underwent MR enterography with oral contrast agent and gadolinium-chelate intravenous injection. Two radiologists detected and localized lesions by dividing the bowel into nine segments (450 analyzed segments in 50 patients). Ileocolonoscopy, barium studies, intestinal ultrasound, and capsule endoscopy were considered as first- and second-level reference examinations and were performed within 15 days of MR enterography. MR enterography detected lesions in 164 of 450 segments, with 155 true-positive and nine false-positive findings; overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for small- and large-bowel lesions were 94.5%, 97%, 94.5%, and 97%, respectively (ĸ = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.97). Sensitivity and specificity values were 88% and 97%, respectively, for the jejunum, 100% and 97% for the proximal-to-mid ileum, 100% and 100% for the distal ileum, 93% and 100% for the cecum, 70% and 97% for the ascending colon, 80% and 100% for the transverse colon, 100% and 92% for the descending colon, 96% and 90% for the sigmoid colon, and 96% and 88% for the rectum. From jejunum to rectum, the AUC value ranged between 0.916 (jejunum) and 1.00 (distal ileum). Perianal fistulas were diagnosed in 15 patients, and other complications were found in 13 patients. MR enterography showed an accuracy comparable to that of reference investigations, for both small- and large-bowel lesions. Because MR enterography is safer and more comprehensive than the reference examinations, it should be considered the primary examination for detecting Crohn disease lesions in children.

  11. Colonization of long term care facility patients with MDR-Gram-negatives during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak.

    PubMed

    Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Zechner, Elisabeth; Ullrich, Elisabeth; Luxner, Josefa; Pux, Christian; Pichler, Gerald; Schippinger, Walter; Krause, Robert; Leitner, Eva

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of colonization by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria including ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii at two wards caring long term for patients with disorder of consciousness at the Geriatric Health Centers Graz, Austria. During our study we detected two A. baumannii outbreaks. In August 2015, we conducted a point-prevalence study. Inguinal and perianal swabs were taken from 38 patients and screened for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods using standard procedures. Six months after the initial investigation all patients were sampled again and use of antibiotics during the past 6 months and mortality was registered. Genetic relatedness of bacteria was evaluated by DiversiLab system. Fifty percent of patients were colonized by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative isolates. Five patients harboured ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae. No carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae were detected. 13/38 patients were colonized by A. baumannii isolates (resistant to ciprofloxacin but susceptible to carbapenems). There was a significant difference in the prevalence of colonization by A. baumannii between ward 2 and ward 1 (60% vs. 5.6%, p  < 0.001). Two clusters of A. baumannii isolates were identified including one isolate detected on a chair in a patient's room. We detected a high prevalence of two multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains in patients with disorder of consciousness at a LTCF in Graz, Austria. Our findings strongly suggest nosocomial cross-transmission between patients. An active surveillance strategy is warranted to avoid missing newly emerging pathogens.

  12. Administration of a Sol-Gel Formulation of Phenylephrine Using Low-Temperature Hollow Microneedle for Treatment of Intermittent Fecal Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jung Ho

    2017-12-01

    A low temperature hollow microneedle system was devised to deliver sol-gel transition formulation near the surface of the skin for extended release and local delivery of drug by a non-invasive method. This new system can improve treatment of intermittent fecal incontinence. The low-temperature system was integrated with a hollow microneedle to maintain the low temperature of the sol formulation. Various sol-gel formulations using Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) and Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose (HPMC) were prepared, and their gelation temperature, flow property, and diffusion retardation were observed. Resting anal sphincter pressure in response to a phenylephrine (PE) sol-gel formulation was measured using an air-charged catheter. The biocompatibility of the sol-gel PE formulation was evaluated by observing the immunological response. When the PF-127 25%, HPMC 1% and PE formulation (PF25-HPMC1-PE) was injected through the peri-anal skin of the rat in vivo, the highest pressure on the anal sphincter muscle occurred at 6-8 h and anal pressure increased and lasted twice as long as with the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-PE formulation. There was no significant difference in the number of mast cells after administration into the rat in vivo between the PF25-HPMC1-PE formulation and the PBS-PE formulation. The combination of a low-pain hollow microneedle system and an injectable sol-gel formulation improved the efficacy of treatment of intermittent fecal incontinence. A low-temperature hollow microneedle system using a sol-gel formulation has many applications in medical treatments that require depot effect, local targeting, and pain control.

  13. Randomized controlled trial comparing oral amoxicillin-clavulanate and ofloxacin with intravenous ceftriaxone and amikacin as outpatient therapy in pediatric low-risk febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Swaroop, Chetanya; Agarwala, Sandeep; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2009-09-01

    Outpatient oral therapy is infrequently used in pediatric low-risk febrile neutropenia (LRFN) as there is insufficient data regarding its equivalence as compared with parenteral therapy. This is a single institutional, randomized control trial in pediatric LRFN aged 2 to 15 years, in which 123 episodes in 88 patients were randomized to outpatient oral ofloxacin 7.5 mg/kg 12 hourly and amoxycillin-clavulanate 12.5 mg/kg 8 hourly or outpatient intravenous (IV) ceftriaxone 75 mg/kg and amikacin 15 mg/kg once daily after blood cultures. Out of 119 evaluable episodes, one-third were leukemia patients in maintenance and rest were solid tumors. Success was achieved in 55/61 (90.16%) and 54/58 (93.1%) in oral and IV arms, respectively, (P=0.56). There were 3 hospitalizations but no mortality. Median days to resolution of fever, absolute neutrophil count >500/mm(3) and antibiotic use were 3, 5, and 6 days in both arms. There were 5 blood culture isolates (3 gram-positive and 2 gram-negative bacteria). Failure of outpatient therapy was associated with perianal infections, bacteremia, febrile neutropenia onset before day 9 of chemotherapy in solid tumors and Vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for rhabdomyosarcoma. All gram-positive isolates were successes, whereas both gram-negative isolates were failures. Diarrhea in IV arm and Vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in the oral arm predicted failure in subgroup analysis. Outpatient therapy is efficacious and safe in pediatric LRFN. There was no difference in outcome in oral versus IV outpatient therapy. Amoxycillin-clavulanate and ofloxacin may be the oral regimen of choice.

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease in India - Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ray, Gautam

    2016-09-28

    There is rising incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in India topping the Southeast Asian (SEA) countries. The common genes implicated in disease pathogenesis in the West are not causal in Indian patients and the role of "hygiene hypothesis" is unclear. There appears to be a North-South divide with more ulcerative colitis (UC) in north and Crohn's disease (CD) in south India. IBD in second generation Indian migrants to the West takes the early onset and more severe form of the West whereas it retains the nature of its country of origin in migrants to SEA countries. The clinical presentation is much like other SEA countries (similar age and sex profile, low positive family history and effect of smoking, roughly similar disease location, use of aminosalicylates for CD, low use of biologics and similar surgical rates) with some differences (higher incidence of inflammatory CD, lower perianal disease, higher use of aminosalicylates and azathioprine and lower current use of corticosteroids). UC presents more with extensive disease not paralleled in severity clinically or histologically, follows benign course with easy medical control and low incidence of fulminant disease, cancer, complications, and surgery. UC related colorectal cancer develop in an unpredictable manner with respect to disease duration and site questioning the validity of strict screening protocol. About a third of CD patients get antituberculosis drugs and a significant number presents with small intestinal bleed which is predominantly afflicted by aggressive inflammation. Biomarkers have inadequate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for both. Pediatric IBD tends to be more severe than adult. Population based studies are needed to address the lacunae in epidemiology and definition of etiological factors. Newer biomarkers and advanced diagnostic techniques (in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, molecular pathology and genetics) needs to be developed for proper disease

  15. An experience with video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT) with new insights into the treatment of anal fistulae.

    PubMed

    Seow-En, I; Seow-Choen, F; Koh, P K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess our experience of 41 patients with anal fistulae treated with video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT). Forty-one consecutive patients with cryptoglandular anal fistulae were included. Patients with low intersphincteric anal fistulae or those with gross perineal abscess were excluded. Eleven (27 %) patients had undergone prior fistula surgery with 5 (12 %) having had three or more previous operations. All patients underwent the diagnostic phase as well as diathermy and curettage of the fistula tracts during VAAFT. Primary healing rate was 70.7 % at a median follow-up of 34 months. Twelve patients recurred or did not heal and underwent a repeat VAAFT procedure utilising various methods of dealing with the internal opening. There was a secondary healing rate of 83 % with two recurrences. Overall, stapling of the internal opening had a 22 % recurrence rate, while anorectal advancement flap had a 75 % failure rate. There was no recurrence seen in six cases after using the over-the-scope-clip (OTSC(®)) system to secure the internal opening. VAAFT is useful in the identification of fistula tracts and enables closure of the internal opening. Adequate closure is essential with the method used to close large or fibrotic internal openings being the determining factor for success or failure. The OTSC system delivered the most consistent result without leaving a substantial perianal wound. Ensuring thorough curettage and drainage of the tract during VAAFT is also important to facilitate healing. We believe that this understanding will bring about a decrease in the high recurrence rates currently seen in many series of anal fistulae.

  16. A case of Dipylidium caninum infection in a child from the southeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Szwaja, Bogusława; Romański, Leszek; Zabczyk, Michał

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum is a common intestinal tapeworm of dogs, cats and foxes. However, it occasionally infects also humans. We present a case of D. caninum infection in a 2-year-old child living in the Subcarpathian province. The infection was asymptomatic in the first months. The symptoms of abdominal pains, sleep disorders, loss of appetite, hyperactivity and occasional slimy stools appeared later. Proglottids on the underwear, in water while bathing and mobile proglottids passed with the stool were also observed. Prior to appropriate diagnosis the child was treated with pyrantelum (Pyrantelum) and albendazolum (Zentel). However, proglottids were found again in the stool after a few days. We examined stool samples and perianal smears collected from the child and his family. The stool samples were tested by coproscopic methods. Direct methods (direct preparation in 0.9% sodium chloride and in Lugol's solution, Kato thick smear) and concentration methods (decantation with distilled water and Faust's zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation) were used. In the stool samples taken from the child, we observed D. caninum proglottids demonstrating lateral genital pores and many packets of eggs containing from one to a few, mostly 3 to 4 eggs. In the direct preparations in 0.9% sodium chloride and in Lugol's solution single packets with D. caninum eggs were detected. In decantation preparations many D. caninum egg packets were observed. It has to be reported that the child's mother was infected with Giardia intestinalis. Dipylidiasis in humans is a rarely encountered infection in Poland and the diagnosis may be difficult. For these reasons we reported clinical case presentation, diagnostics, treatment and epidemiology of D. caninum infection. We have shown that concentration methods such as decantation might be very helpful in the diagnosis of dipylidiasis.

  17. Efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol induction therapy in an unselected Crohn's disease population: results of the FACTS survey.

    PubMed

    Schoepfer, Alain M; Vavricka, Stephan R; Binek, Janek; Felley, Christian; Geyer, Martin; Manz, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard; de Saussure, Philippe; Sauter, Bernhard; Seibold, Frank; Straumann, Alex; Michetti, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Switzerland was the first country to approve certolizumab pegol (Cimzia, CZP) for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD) in September 2007. This phase IV study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CZP in a Swiss multicenter cohort of practice-based patients. Baseline and Week 6 evaluation questionnaires were sent to all Swiss gastroenterologists in hospitals and private practices. Disease activity was assessed with the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI) and adverse events were evaluated according to WHO guidelines. Fifty patients (31 women, 19 men) were included; 56% had complicated disease (stricture or fistula) and 52% had undergone prior CD-related surgery. All patients had prior exposure to systemic steroids, 96% to immunomodulators, 78% to infliximab, and 50% to adalimumab. A significant decrease in HBI was observed at Week 6 (versus Week 0) following induction therapy with CZP 400 mg subcutaneously at Weeks 0, 2, and 4 (12.6 +/- 4.7 Week 0 versus 6.2 +/- 4.4 Week 6, P < 0.001). Response and remission rates at Week 6 were 54% and 40%, respectively. We identified 8/11 CD patients undergoing a 50% fistula response (P = 0.021). The frequency of adverse drug reactions attributed to CZP was 6%. CZP was continued in 80% of patients beyond Week 6. In a population of CD patients with complicated disease behavior, CZP induced a response and remission in 54% and 40% of patients, respectively. This series provides the first evidence of the effectiveness of CZP in perianal fistulizing CD.

  18. Surgical Treatment in Childhood-onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease-A Nationwide Register-based Study of 4695 Incident Patients in Sweden 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Nordenvall, Caroline; Rosvall, Oda; Bottai, Matteo; Everhov, Åsa H; Malmborg, Petter; Smedby, Karin E; Ekbom, Anders; Askling, Johan; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Myrelid, Pär; Olén, Ola

    2018-01-24

    The incidence of childhood-onset [< 18 years] inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is increasing worldwide, and some studies suggest that it represents a more severe disease phenotype. Few nationwide, population-based studies have evaluated the surgical burden in patients with childhood-onset IBD, and whether the improved medical treatment has influenced the need for gastrointestinal surgery. The aim was to examine whether the surgical treatment at any age of patients with childhood-onset IBD has changed over time. In a nationwide cohort study we identified 4695 children [< 18 years] diagnosed with incident IBD in 2002-2014 through the Swedish Patient Register [ulcerative colitis: n = 2295; Crohn's disease: n = 2174; inflammatory bowel disease-unclassified: n = 226]. Abdominal [intestinal resections and colectomies] and perianal surgeries were identified through the Swedish Patient Register. The cumulative incidences of surgeries were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. In the cohort, 44% were females and 56% males. The median age at inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis was 15 years and the maximum age at end of follow-up was 31 years. The 3-year cumulative incidence of intestinal surgery was 5% in patients with ulcerative colitis and 7% in patients with Crohn's disease, and lower in children aged < 6 years at inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis [3%] than in those aged 15-17 years at diagnosis [7%]. Calendar period of inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis was not associated with risk of surgery. Over the past 13 years, the risk of surgery in childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease has remained unchanged. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Hypertrophic lichen sclerosus sine sclerosis: clues to histopathologic diagnosis when presenting as psoriasiform lichenoid dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Weyers, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The histopathologic diagnosis of lichen sclerosus (LS) is usually facilitated by a subepidermal zone of sclerosis. In the absence of sclerosis, LS mostly presents itself as a psoriasiform lichenoid dermatitis that may be difficult to distinguish from other diseases. We sought to assess histopathologic findings that allow recognition of LS in the absence of sclerosis. We studied 28 criteria in 100 biopsy specimens of LS from genital or perianal skin, including 55 cases with marked sclerosis, 16 cases with mild sclerosis confined to foci of the papillary dermis and 29 cases without sclerosis. Fifteen cases each of the early plaque stage of mycosis fungoides, lichen planus and lichen simplex chronicus were studied for comparison. Some histopathologic hallmarks of LS were seen chiefly in sclerotic lesions and, therefore, did not contribute to the diagnosis of difficult cases, such as dissolution of elastic fibers. Others were seen rarely in non-sclerotic lesions but might be helpful in individual cases, including follicular hyperkeratosis and thickening of the basement membrane. Findings that were more common and may be utilized as clues to the histopathologic diagnosis of non-sclerotic LS include tiny foci of homogenized tissue in dermal papillae, marked fibrosis with thickening of the papillary dermis, marked thickening of individual collagen fibers, lymphocytes aligned in rows between those fibers, necrotic keratinocytes, often with preserved pyknotic nuclei, in all reaches of the epidermis, including the cornified layer, clustering of necrotic keratinocytes above elongated dermal papillae and vertical columns of parakeratosis with distinct dyskeratotic parakeratotic cells. In the absence of sclerosis, histopathologic diagnosis of LS depends on findings that are less distinctive. Nonetheless, a constellation of those findings allows a specific diagnosis to be made. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Incidence, clearance, and disease progression of genital human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Edson Duarte; Giuliano, Anna R; Palefsky, Joel; Flores, Carlos Aranda; Goldstone, Stephen; Ferris, Daron; Hillman, Richard J; Moi, Harald; Stoler, Mark H; Marshall, Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Guris, Dalya; Haupt, Richard M

    2014-07-15

    In this analysis, we examine the incidence and clearance of external genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among heterosexual males aged 16-24 years. A total of 1732 males aged 16-24 years old in the placebo arm of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine trial were included in this analysis. Participants were enrolled from 18 countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Latin America, and North America. Subjects underwent anogenital examinations and sampling of the penis, scrotum, and perineal/perianal regions. The incidence rate of any HPV DNA genotype 6, 11, 16, and/or 18 detection was 9.0 cases per 100 person-years. Rates of HPV DNA detection were highest in men from Africa. Median time to clearance of HPV genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA was 6.1, 6.1, 7.7, and 6.2 months, respectively. Median time to clearance of persistently detected HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA was 6.7, 3.2, 9.2, and 4.7 months, respectively. The study results suggest that the acquisition of HPV 6, 11, 16, and/or 18 in males is common and that many of these so-called infections are subsequently cleared, similar to findings for women. Nevertheless, given the high rate of HPV detection among young men, HPV vaccination of males may reduce infection in men and reduce the overall burden of HPV-associated disease in the community. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A prospective, randomized, controlled study of a suspension positioning system used with elderly bedridden patients with neurogenic fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Su, Mei-Yin; Lin, Shi-Quan; zhou, Ye-Wen; Zhou, Ye-Wen; Liu, Si-Ya; Lin, Ai; Lin, Xi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients with acute neurological impairment are prone to severe disability, fecal incontinence (FI), and resultant complications. A suspension positioning system (SPS), based on the orthopedic suspension traction system commonly used for conservative treatment of pediatric femoral fracture and uncomplicated adult pelvic fracture, was developed to facilitate FI management in patients immobilized secondary to an acute neurological condition. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the system, a prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted between October 2009 and July 2012. Two hundred (200) elderly, bedridden, hospitalized patients with acute, nonchronic neurological impairment were randomly assigned to receive routine FI nursing care (ie, individualized dietary modification, psychological support, health education, and social support for caregivers and family members [control group]) or routine incontinence care plus the SPS (experimental group) during the day. Rates of perianal fecal contamination, skin breakdown, incontinence associated dermatitis, pressure ulcer development, and lower urinary tract infection (LUTI) were significantly lower in the SPS than in the control group (P <0.05). Length of hospitalization and costs of care were also lower in the SPS group (P <0.05). Patient quality-of-life (QoL) and FI QoL scores were similar at baseline but significantly higher (better) at the 6-month follow-up interview in the SPS than in the control group (P <0.05). In this study, the rate of FI-associated morbidities was lower and 6-month patient QoL scores were higher in the SPS than in the control group. No adverse events were observed, and all patients completed the study. Further clinical studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of SPS use among neurologically impaired FI patients.

  2. [Case report: taeniasis, is it a cause of psychiatric and neural symptoms?].

    PubMed

    Inceboz, Tonay; Yalçin, Gülter; Aksoy, Umit

    2006-01-01

    The most frequent symptom of taeniasis is the discharge of proglottids (93.7%). Gravid proglottids which do not have uterine pores are damaged when they exit the anus by their movement. Because of this damage most of the eggs contaminate the perianal tract. The cellophane tape technique that is used for getting perineum material is also a convenient technique for diagnosis of taeniasis. A 36 year-old woman was admitted to our parasitology clinic complaining of a watering mouth for one year, of abdominal pain, and of loss of appetite for 6 months, and who had discharged proglottids from time to time. She had been eating raw meat since her childhood and had had treatment for taeniasis fifteen years ago. She has also been under treatment for obsessive and compulsive neurosis and depression for two years and complained of constipation that was the side effect of the drug clomipramine HCL. She was given treatment with niclosamide and purgative treatment. The result of the treatment was incomplete because the patient refused to use the purgative. She was called for follow up controls two weeks and six months after treatment and after six months did not have any evidence of infection in her stools. When she was asked, the patient said that she did not need to use the drugs for the treatment of obsessive and compulsive neurosis and depression any more since her symptoms had decreased. According to various authorities, taeniasis is thought to be the cause of psychiatric symptoms due to its neural and psychological effects. These claims have been confirmed in our case because of her psychiatric symptoms decreased after the taeniasis treatment. Thus, the view that there is a relationship between intestinal parasites and psychiatric disease has been strengthened.

  3. Surgical management of recto-sigmoid Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed

    Nouira, F; Ben Ahmed, Y; Sarrai, N; Ghorbel, S; Jlidi, S; Khemakhem, R; Charieg, A; Chaouachi, B

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, the surgical management of recto-sigmoid Hirschsprung's disease (HD) has evolved radically and at present a single stage transanal pull-through can be done in suitable cases, which obviates the need for multiple surgeries. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the role of transanal pull-through in the management of recto-sigmoid HD in our institution. A retrospective analysis (between January 2003 and December 2009) was carried out on all cases of Hirschsprung's reporting to unity of pediatric surgery of Tunis Children's Hospital that were managed by transanal pull-through as a definitive treatment. All selected patients including neonates had an aganglionic segment confined to the rectosigmoid area, confirmed by preoperative barium enema and postoperative histology. Twenty-six children (86%) had their operation done without construction of prior colostomy. Transanal pull-through was performed in 31 children. Mean operating time was 150 minutes (range 64 to 300 minutes). No patients required laparotomy because all patients including neonates had an aganglionic segment confined to the rectosigmoid area. Blood loss ranged between 20 to 56 ml without blood replacement. Since all children were given an epidural caudal block, the requirement of analgesia in these cases was minimal. Postoperative complications included perianal excoriation in 7 out of 31 patients lasting from 3 weeks to 6 months. Complete anorectal continence was noted in 21 of 31 (67%) children in follow up of 3-5 years. Transanal endorectal pull-through procedure for the management of rectosigmoid HD is now a well-established and preferred approach. Parental satisfaction is immense due to the lack of scars on the abdomen. As regards the continence, a long-term follow-up is necessary to appreciate better the functional results of this surgery.

  4. Transanal repair of rectocele and full rectal mucosectomy with one circular stapler: a novel surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Regadas, F S P; Regadas, S M M; Rodrigues, L V; Misici, R; Silva, F R; Regadas Filho, F S P

    2005-04-01

    We present a new surgical stapling technique for treatment of rectocele when associated with internal mucosal prolapse or haemorrhoids using only one circular mechanical stapler. Eight female patients, mean age 53 years (range, 42-70), complaining of obstructed defecation with vaginal digitation because of rectocele associated with internal mucosal prolapse underwent transanal repair of rectocele and rectal mucosectomy using one circular stapler between April and July 2004. A running horizontal mattress suture was placed through the base of the rectocele including mucosa, submucosa and the muscle layer of the whole anterior anorectal junction wall. The prolapsed mucosa and the muscular layer were then excised with an electrical scapel. A continuous pursestring rectal mucosa suture was placed 0.5 cm before the previous anterior mucosa and muscle layers resected wound, including the anorectal junction wall which was kept separate from the posterior vaginal wall by a Babcock forceps. Posteriorly, the pursestring suture included only mucosal and submucosal layers. The stapled suture was positioned between normal anterior rectal wall and the anal canal, 0.5 cm above the pectinate line. The stapler was then closed, fired and withdrawn. One patient complained of a perianal hematoma on the seventh postoperative day, requiring surgical excision. Postoperative defecography showed correction of the rectocele and outlet obstruction disappeared in all patients. This novel combined manual-stapled technique for rectocele and rectal internal mucosal prolapse seems to be a safe procedure and the preliminary results are encouraging. Further investigations have to be performed to assess long-term outcome in a larger number of patients.

  5. Individual signatures and environmental factors shape skin microbiota in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Cuscó, Anna; Belanger, Janelle M; Gershony, Liza; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Levy, Kerinne; Medrano, Juan F; Sánchez, Armand; Oberbauer, Anita M; Francino, Olga

    2017-10-13

    The individual, together with its environment, has been reported as the main force driving composition and structure of skin microbiota in healthy dogs. Therefore, one of the major concerns when analyzing canine skin microbiota is the likely influence of the environment. Despite the dense fur covering, certain skin diseases exhibit differential prevalence among skin sites, dog breeds, and individuals. We have characterized the normal variability of dog skin microbiota in a well-controlled cohort of a large number of Golden-Labrador Retriever crossed dogs (N = 35) with similar ages, related genetic background, and a shared environment. We found that the individual drives the skin microbiota composition and structure followed by the skin site. The main bacterial classes inhabiting dog skin in this cohort are Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli. We also detected bacteria associated to the environment on different dog skin sites that could be reflecting the different degrees of exposure of each skin site and each dog. Network analyses elucidated bacterial interactions within and between skin sites, especially in the chin, abdomen, axilla, and perianal region, with the highly shared interactions probably representing an anatomical, behavioral, or environmental component. When analyzing each skin site independently to assess host-specific factors, we found that temporality (season of birth and time spent in the kennel) affected all the skin sites and specially the inner pinna. The most abundant taxon driving this difference was Sphingomonas. We also found taxonomic differences among male and female dogs on the abdomen, axilla, and back. We observed a large inter-individual variability and differences among skin sites. Host-specific variables, such as temporality or sex, were also shaping skin microbiota of healthy dogs, even in an environmental homogenous cohort.

  6. Intractable diarrhoea of infancy and its management: modified cost effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Thapa, B R

    1994-06-01

    One-hundred-twenty infants under 1 year of age suffering from intractable diarrhoea were studied. They had received prior treatment in the form of antimicrobials (100 per cent), stool binding substance (50 percent), antimotility agents (50 per cent), and intravenous (IV) fluids (33 per cent). One-third of them had been hospitalised in peripheral hospitals. All of them had diarrhoea of more than 2 weeks' duration, protein energy malnutrition and were very ill. In addition vomiting, dehydration, fever, paralytic ileus, perianal excoriation and rectal prolapse were present in 44, 23, 33, 9, 47, and 3 per cent of the infants, respectively. Anaemia, multiple vitamin deficiencies, and pedal oedema were seen in 70, 10, and 3 per cent of infants, respectively. The infections documented were septicaemia (22 per cent), bronchopneumonia (6 per cent), meningitis (4 per cent), urinary tract infection (3 per cent) and acute supporative otitis media in 2 per cent of infants. Fifty-three per cent of infants had secondary lactose intolerance. Intolerance to milk protein, milk protein and soyabean and milk protein, as well as soyabean and chicken was seen in 4, 2, and 1 per cent cases, respectively. Aetiological agents isolated from stool culture were E. coli, (18 per cent), Klebsiella species (9 per cent), Shigella species (6 per cent), Salmonella typhimurium (2 per cent), Cholera mitschikom (1 per cent), Giardia lamblia (6 per cent), cryptosporidium (1 per cent), and E. histolytica (1 per cent). Candida albicans was grown in 18 per cent of infants. Pseudomembranous colitis was documented in 2 per cent cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Retrospective study of canine cutaneous tumors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Pakhrin, Bidur; Kang, Min-Soo; Bae, Il-Hong; Park, Mi-Sun; Jee, Hyang; You, Mi-Hyeon; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Byung-Il; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Over the 42 month period from January 2003 to June 2006, a total of 2,952 canine biopsy specimens were received from the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University and from veterinary practitioners across the nation. Out of these, 748 (25.34%) cases were diagnosed as canine cutaneous tumors in the Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea. Thirty-eight different types of cutaneous tumors were identified and categorized into epithelial and melanocytic tumors (56.95%), mesenchymal tumors (38.90%), and hematopoietic tumors (4.14%) located in the skin. Among these, 69.25% were benign and 30.74% were malignant. The top ten most frequently diagnosed cutaneous tumors were epidermal and follicular cysts (12.70%), lipoma (11.36%), mast cell tumors (8.82%), cutaneous histiocytoma (7.49%), basal cell tumors (6.82%), sebaceous gland adenoma (6.68%), sebaceous gland hyperplasia (5.08%), hepatoid gland adenoma (3.61%), apocrine adenocarcinoma (3.07%), and fibroma (2.81%), in order of prevalence. They comprised 68.45% of all cutaneous tumors. These top ten cutaneous tumors were distributed on the trunk (30.08%), head and neck (20.9%), extremities (19.14%), anal and perianal area (8.59%), and tail (3.91%). The age of the dogs with the ten most frequent tumors had a mean age of 8.3 years, with a range of 2 months to 19 years. When all types of tumors were considered together in the entire population, there was no difference in incidence according to sex. PMID:17679768

  8. The Toronto Consensus Statements for the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Seow, Cynthia H; Maxwell, Cynthia; Huang, Vivian; Leung, Yvette; Jones, Jennifer; Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Tse, Frances; Mahadevan, Uma; van der Woude, C Janneke

    2016-03-01

    The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses a particular challenge during pregnancy because the health of both the mother and the fetus must be considered. A systematic literature search identified studies on the management of IBD during pregnancy. The quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were rated using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Consensus was reached on 29 of the 30 recommendations considered. Preconception counseling and access to specialist care are paramount in optimizing disease management. In general, women on 5-ASA, thiopurine, or anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monotherapy for maintenance should continue therapy throughout pregnancy. Discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy or switching from combination therapy to monotherapy may be considered in very select low-risk patients. Women who have a mild to moderate disease flare while on optimized 5-ASA or thiopurine therapy should be managed with systemic corticosteroid or anti-TNF therapy, and those with a corticosteroid-resistant flare should start anti-TNF therapy. Endoscopy or urgent surgery should not be delayed during pregnancy if indicated. Decisions regarding cesarean delivery should be based on obstetric considerations and not the diagnosis of IBD alone, with the exception of women with active perianal Crohn's disease. With the exception of methotrexate, the use of medications for IBD should not influence the decision to breast-feed and vice versa. Live vaccinations are not recommended within the first 6 months of life in the offspring of women who were on anti-TNF therapy during pregnancy. Optimal management of IBD before and during pregnancy is essential to achieving favorable maternal and neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-Term Care Facilities Are Reservoirs for Antimicrobial-Resistant Sequence Type 131 Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Mary J.; Johnson, James R.; Porter, Stephen B.; Johnston, Brian; Clabots, Connie; Lahr, Brian D.; Uhl, James R.; Banerjee, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Background. Emerging data implicate long-term care facilities (LTCFs) as reservoirs of fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQ-R) Escherichia coli of sequence type 131 (ST131). We screened for ST131 among LTCF residents, characterized isolates molecularly, and identified risk factors for colonization. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a single perianal swab or stool sample per resident in 2 LTCFs in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from April to July 2013. Confirmed FQ-R E. coli isolates underwent polymerase chain reaction-based phylotyping, detection of ST131 and its H30 and H30-Rx subclones, extended virulence genotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Epidemiological data were collected from medical records. Results. Of 133 fecal samples, 33 (25%) yielded FQ-R E. coli, 32 (97%) of which were ST131. The overall proportion with ST131 intestinal colonization was 32 of 133 (24%), which differed by facility: 17 of 41 (42%) in facility 1 vs 15 of 92 (16%) in facility 2 (P = .002). All ST131 isolates represented the H30 subclone, with virulence gene and PFGE profiles resembling those of previously described ST131 clinical isolates. By PFGE, certain isolates clustered both within and across LTCFs. Multivariable predictors of ST131 colonization included inability to sign consent (odds ratio [OR], 4.16 [P = .005]), decubitus ulcer (OR, 4.87 [ P = .04]), and fecal incontinence (OR, 2.59 [P = .06]). Conclusions. Approximately one fourth of LTCF residents carried FQ-R ST131 E. coli resembling ST131 clinical isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested intra- and interfacility transmission. The identified risk factors suggest that LTCF residents who require increased nursing care are at greatest risk for ST131 colonization, possibly due to healthcare-associated transmission. PMID:26034762

  10. Gastrointestinal manifestations of cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Magazzù, Giuseppe; Scoglio, Riccardo

    2002-12-01

    To review and discuss the relationship between cow's milk allergy (CMA) and some gastrointestinal manifestations, such as gastroesophageal reflux, constipation, food protein-induced enterocolitis, and food-induced eosinophilic proctocolitis, with respect to diagnostic strategies that might eliminate the need for a double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenge (DBPCFC). A review of pertinent PubMed articles, published during the past 10 years, was performed. To obtain positive and negative predictive values known as posterior probabilities and to calculate the likelihood ratio, only those studies including both patients and control subjects were selected for analysis. With respect to gastroesophageal reflux, a typical 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring pattern might obviate the performance of a DBPCFC in patients with symptoms of reflux suspected of having CMA, provided this pH pattern is confirmed in other studies. A relationship between CMA and constipation has been reported in only one prospective controlled study; the clinical and laboratory variables of perianal lesions, histologic abnormalities, and signs of hypersensitivity had likelihood ratios of 2.2, 2.4, and 3.7, respectively, and posttest probabilities of 83, 84, and 88%, respectively. Therefore, a DBPCFC is warranted. In reference to food protein-induced enterocolitis, clinical and laboratory criteria suggested in the literature for defining a food challenge as positive have not been prospectively evaluated in the untreated state. Some simple stool tests, such as fecal tumor necrosis factor-alpha and alpha1-antitrypsin determination, might be candidates for diagnostic studies in patients with food protein-induced enterocolitis, if prospectively evaluated. In infants with food-induced eosinophilic proctocolitis, rectal biopsy invariably shows eosinophilic infiltration and thus makes performance of a DBPCFC unnecessary. Although the current diagnosis of gastrointestinal manifestations of CMA usually

  11. Similar risk of Depression and Anxiety following surgery or hospitalization for Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Gainer, Vivian S.; Cai, Tianxi; Perez, Raul Guzman; Cheng, Su-Chun; Savova, Guergana; Chen, Pei; Szolovits, Peter; Xia, Zongqi; De Jager, Philip L; Shaw, Stanley; Churchill, Susanne; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Kohane, Isaac; Perlis, Roy H; Plenge, Robert M.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Liao, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Psychiatric co-morbidity is common in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD-related surgery or hospitalizations represent major events in the natural history of disease. Whether there is a difference in risk of psychiatric co-morbidity following surgery in CD and UC has not been examined previously. Methods We used a multi-institution cohort of IBD patients without a diagnosis code for anxiety or depression preceding their IBD-related surgery or hospitalization. Demographic, disease, and treatment related variables were retrieved. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to individually identify risk factors for depression and anxiety. Results Our study included a total of 707 CD and 530 UC patients who underwent bowel resection surgery and did not have depression prior to surgery. The risk of depression 5 years after surgery was 16% and 11% in CD and UC respectively. We found no difference in the risk of depression following surgery in CD and UC patients (adjusted OR 1.11, 95%CI 0.84 – 1.47). Female gender, co-morbidity, immunosuppressant use, perianal disease, stoma surgery, and early surgery within 3 years of care predicted depression after CD-surgery; only female gender and co-morbidity predicted depression in UC. Only 12% of the CD cohort had ≥ 4 risk factors for depression, but among them nearly 44% were subsequently received a diagnosis code for depression. Conclusion IBD-related surgery or hospitalization is associated with a significant risk for depression and anxiety with a similar magnitude of risk in both diseases. PMID:23337479

  12. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia with superficially invasive carcinoma of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Herod, J J; Shafi, M I; Rollason, T P; Jordan, J A; Luesley, D M

    1996-05-01

    To investigate the long-term outcome of patients presenting with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with superficially invasive carcinoma of the vulva (SICa). A retrospective study using information obtained from patient case notes. Twenty-six women found at presentation to have VIN in association with superficially invasive carcinoma were identified during a 15-year period. Pruritus vulvae was the most frequent presenting symptom in 18 patients (69%). Sixteen women (61.5%) had multiple symptoms. Features noted at vulvar examination were variable and none were pathognomonic of either VIN or of superficial invasion. All patients had VIN 3 in association with a superficially invasive carcinoma. Histological changes associated with human papillomavirus were found in 19 (73%) women. Half had a co-existent or previous abnormality of the lower genital tract. Local excision was the most frequent initial treatment (n = 9 [35%]). Mean follow up time was 65 months (range 12-174). Disease persisted after primary treatment in five women (19%). Both histological recurrence (of either VIN or SICa) or symptomatic recurrence occurred in 10 patients (38%). All patients who experienced recurrence did so within 36 months of treatment. Overall, 12 patients (46%) relapsed (histological or symptomatic recurrence); the mean time was 18 months. Fourteen patients (54%) were managed satisfactorily by their initial treatment. One patient died of recurrent cervical cancer. Three progressed to frankly invasive disease: two (aged 31 and 39 years) with carcinoma of the vulva and one aged 34 years with carcinoma of the perianal margin. All are alive and well after treatment. One patient had recurrence of superficially invasive carcinoma treated by local excision with no further problems. No episode of metastasis via lymphatic or vascular channels has been seen. Patients with superficially invasive carcinoma of the vulva may be safely treated by local excisional methods without recourse to

  13. Priapism associated with lumbar stenosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Payan-Carreira, R; Colaço, B; Rocha, C; Albuquerque, C; Luis, M; Abreu, H; Pires, M A

    2013-08-01

    Priapism, a persistent long-lasting involuntary erection of the penis, is uncommon in dogs. In this report, the case of a 13-year-old male Pointer, referred to our services due to persistent exposition of the penis, is described. This condition was consecutive to an intermittent priapism situation lasting for several days, which has been initially attributed to the inflammation and haematoma associated with a perianal bite. The owners became unable to retract the penis into the prepuce. At presentation, the dog was anorectic for 48 h, intolerant to manipulation, and showed poor body condition and unsteady locomotion. During physical evaluation, a marked engorgement of the local vessels in the prepuce and penis was found. An abdominal X-ray was asked under the suspicion of a neurogenic origin for the clinical situation, which showed evidences of spondylosis. After discussion of the clinical condition, the owners asked for euthanasia. The necropsy confirmed the engorgement of the regional vessels deriving from the pudendal arteries and blood accumulation within all the cavernous spaces, accompanied by congestion and thrombosis within the erectile structures of the penis. No significant changes were observed in the pelvic organs that could be at the origin of priapism. The lumbar-sacral spinal regions were carefully inspected and evidenced signs of L7-S1 stenosis due to spondylosis. The case presented herein is a rare situation of priapism of neurogenic origin in a dog. Necropsy findings suggest that it was consecutive to cauda equina compression due to lumbar spinal stenosis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Clinical and Phenotypic Differences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Among Arab and Jewish Children in Israel.

    PubMed

    Rinawi, Firas; Assa, Amit; Bashir, Husam; Peleg, Sarit; Shamir, Raanan

    2017-08-01

    Data on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes among the Arab population in Israel or in the neighboring Arab countries is scarce. We aimed to assess differences in disease phenotype among Arab and Jewish children living in Israel. We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric IBD cases, which were diagnosed at the Schneider Children's Medical Center and Ha'Emek Medical Center in Israel between 2000 and 2014. Demographic, clinical, and phenotypic variables were compared between Arabs and Jews from Eastern (Sephardic) and Western (Ashkenazi) origin. Seventy-one Arab children with IBD were compared with 165 Ashkenazi and 158 Sephardic Jewish children. Age and gender did not differ between groups. Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jewish Crohn's disease (CD) patients had significantly more stenotic behavior (24 and 26 vs. 5%, p = 0.03) and less fistulzing perianal disease (15 and 11 vs. 31%, p = 0.014) compared with Arab patients. Arab children with ulcerative colitis (UC) had more severe disease at diagnosis compared to Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews reflected by higher Pediatric UC Activity Index (45 vs. 35 and 35, respectively, p = 0.03). Arab patients had significantly lower proportion of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies positivity (in CD) and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies positivity (in UC) than both Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jewish children (23 vs. 53 and 65%, p = 0.002 and 35 vs. 60 and 75%, respectively, p = 0.002). Arab and Jewish children with IBD differ in disease characteristics and severity. Whether genetic or environmental factors are the cause for these differences is yet to be determined.

  15. Transmission of Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria to Health Care Worker Gowns and Gloves during Care of Nursing Home Residents in Veterans Affairs Community Living Centers.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Natalia; Pineles, Lisa; Lydecker, Alison D; Johnson, J Kristie; Sorkin, John D; Morgan, Daniel J; Roghmann, Mary-Claire

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate the risk of transmission of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (RGNB) to gowns and gloves (G&G) worn by health care workers (HCWs) when providing care to nursing home residents and to identify the types of care and resident characteristics associated with transmission. A multicenter, prospective observational study was conducted with residents and HCWs from Veterans Affairs (VA) nursing homes. Perianal swabs to detect RGNB were collected from residents. HCWs wore G&G during usual care activities, and the G&G were swabbed at the end of the interaction in a standardized manner. Transmission of RGNB from a colonized resident to G&G by type of care was measured. Odds ratios (ORs) associated with type of care or resident characteristics were estimated. Fifty-seven (31%) of 185 enrolled residents were colonized with ≥1 RGNB. RGNB transmission to HCW gloves or gowns occurred during 9% of the interactions ( n = 905): 7% to only gloves and 2% to only gowns. Bathing the resident and providing hygiene and toilet assistance were associated with a high risk of transmission. Glucose monitoring and assistance with feeding or medication were associated with a low risk of transmission. In addition, antibiotic use by the resident was strongly associated with greater transmission (OR, 2.51; P < 0.01). RGNB were transferred to HCWs during ∼9% of visits. High-risk types of care were identified for which use of G&G may be prioritized. Antibiotic use was associated with 2.5 times greater risk of transmission, emphasizing the importance of antibiotic stewardship. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01350479.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Anal Malignancies: A Preliminary Toxicity and Disease Outcomes Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pepek, Joseph M.; Willett, Christopher G.; Wu, Q. Jackie

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicities associated with chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of anal cancer. This study reports the results of using IMRT in the treatment of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Records of patients with anal malignancies treated with IMRT at Duke University were reviewed. Acute toxicity was graded using the NCI CTCAEv3.0 scale. Overall survival (OS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), local-regional control (LRC) and colostomy-free survival (CFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Forty-seven patients with anal malignancy (89% canal, 11% perianal skin) were treated with IMRT between August 2006 and September 2008.more » Median follow-up was 14 months (19 months for SCC patients). Median radiation dose was 54 Gy. Eight patients (18%) required treatment breaks lasting a median of 5 days (range, 2-7 days). Toxicity rates were as follows: Grade 4: leukopenia (7%), thrombocytopenia (2%); Grade 3: leukopenia (18%), diarrhea (9%), and anemia (4%); Grade 2: skin (93%), diarrhea (24%), and leukopenia (24%). The 2-year actuarial overall OS, MFS, LRC, and CFS rates were 85%, 78%, 90% and 82%, respectively. For SCC patients, the 2-year OS, MFS, LRC, and CFS rates were 100%, 100%, 95%, and 91%, respectively. Conclusions: IMRT-based chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer results in significant reductions in normal tissue dose and acute toxicities versus historic controls treated without IMRT, leading to reduced rates of toxicity-related treatment interruption. Early disease-related outcomes seem encouraging. IMRT is emerging as a standard therapy for anal cancer.« less

  17. Association between previous enterobiasis and current wheezing: evaluation of 1018 children.

    PubMed

    Bahceciler, Nerin N; Ozdemir, Cevdet; Kucukosmanoglu, Ercan; Arikan, Cigdem; Over, Ufuk; Karavelioglu, Salim; Akkoc, Tunc; Yazi, Didem; Yesil, Ozlem; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa; Barlan, Isil B

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between parasitosis and allergy. We surveyed all children aged 4-12 years living in poor hygienic conditions in a shantytown of Istanbul. After obtaining data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and an additional questionnaire, performing a skin-prick test (SPT), and determining total IgE, stool and perianal tape specimens were obtained from 1018 participating children. The prevalence of past episodes of wheezing, current wheezing, asthma, and rhinitis was 31, 14.6, 10.7, and 26.2%, respectively. Parasitosis was present in 49.1%, Enterobius vermicularis (23.3%), being the most common. A history of treatment for enterobiasis was present in 37%. Comparison of children with and without current enterobiasis revealed no significant difference in allergic manifestations and SPT results, except for serum total IgE level (p = 0.018), whereas children with previous enterobiasis were more likely to have current wheezing (p = 0.012). Current wheezers were more likely to have previous enterobiasis (p = 0.01) and a higher maternal employment level (p = 0.036) when compared with those without. According to logistic regression analysis, covariables significantly positively related with current wheezing were previous enterobiasis (p = 0.003) and being < or =5 years of age (p = 0.043), whereas being the first child of the family (p = 0.043) was negatively related. A previous infection with E. vermicularis was found to potentiate current wheezing in a population living in a shantytown in Istanbul.

  18. Intestinal parasites and genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in school children from Berisso, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Molina, Nora; Pezzani, Betina; Ciarmela, Maria; Orden, Alicia; Rosa, Diana; Apezteguía, Maria; Basualdo, Juan; Minvielle, Marta

    2011-07-27

    Intestinal parasitic infections have been reported in different regions of Argentina. Giardia intestinalis is recognized as "the national parasite". The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of both intestinal parasites and G. intestinalis genotypes, as well as to analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in schoolchildren from a suburban community. Serial coproparasitological analysis and perianal swab method were performed in 244 schoolchildren. Demographic, sociocultural and environmental variables were registered. The presence of signs/symptoms and risk behaviours were also recorded. Stools with G. intestinalis were selected for genotyping. Out of 244 schoolchildren, 179/244 (73.4%) were infected with intestinal parasites. The presence of intestinal parasitosis was associated only with house flooding. Multivariate analysis identified that use of a latrine is significantly correlated with G. intestinalis and age six to 11 years with E. vermicularis. Signs and symptoms were recorded in 62% of infected children and in 57.9% of those not infected. Genomic amplification was revealed that 65.7% (46/70) of Giardia positive samples corresponded to genotype B, 31.4% (22/70) to genotype AII, and two samples (2.8%) had mixed infection (AII + B). This study shows a high percentage of infected children living in a suburban community in poor sanitary conditions, and not visiting the doctor in spite of evident signs and symptoms associated a digestive pathology. This situation supports the need for continuing the development of community programs allowing the improvement of quality of life and control of parasitosis in deprived populations.

  19. Adhesive arachnoiditis after percutaneous fibrin glue treatment of a sacral meningeal cyst.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Nagano, Junji; Hattori, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    The authors present the case of a 64-year-old woman who was referred for severe sacral pain. She reported that her pain had been longstanding, and had greatly increased after percutaneous fibrin glue placement therapy for a sacral meningeal cyst 2 months earlier at a different hospital. An MRI scan obtained immediately after fibrin glue placement at that hospital suggested that fibrin glue had migrated superiorly into the subarachnoid space from the sacral cyst to the level of L-4. On admission to the authors' institution, physical examination demonstrated no abnormal findings except for perianal hypesthesia. An MRI study obtained at admission demonstrated a cystic lesion in the peridural space from the level of S-2 to S-4. Inhomogeneous intensity was identified in this region on T2-weighted