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Sample records for perijaensis nuevo culicoides

  1. Three new Scandinavian species of Culicoides (Culicoides): Culicoides boyi sp. nov., Culicoides selandicus sp. nov. and Culicoides kalix sp. nov. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Michael; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background In the context of a major monitoring program of Culicoides in Denmark and Sweden due to the appearance of bluetongue disease in 2007–2008, a large number of specimens were collected by light traps and sorted morphologically, with COI barcodes generated for selected specimens. New information Three species are described as new to science based on both morphological and molecular data: Culicoides (Culicoides) boyi sp. nov. (Denmark: Jutland), C. (C.) selandicus sp. nov. (Denmark: Zealand) and C. (C.) kalix sp. nov. (Sweden: Norrbotten). All are diagnosed morphologically as well as by molecular barcoding. A key to slide-mounted females of all Scandinavian species of Culicoides (Culicoides) is presented. PMID:26696760

  2. Morphological description of the fourth instar larva: Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.

  3. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides in South Carolina zoos.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Swanson, Dustin A; Adler, Peter H; Grogan, William L

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals.

  4. Description of the Pupa of Culicoides crucifer Clastrier (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Ronderos, M M; Spinelli, G R; Keppler, R L F

    2013-10-01

    The pupa of Culicoides crucifer Clastrier is described, illustrated and photomicrographed by using binocular microscope and phase-contrast microscopy from material collected in an artificial container in Manaus, Brazil. The pupa shows features typical of pupae occurring in calm and clean waters, and it is compared with its similar congeners of the subgenus Haematomyiidium, Culicoides annuliductus Wirth and Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz.

  5. New Neotropical Culicoides and redescription of Culicoides reticulatus Lutz (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Santarém, Maria Clara Alves; Da Trindade, Rosimeire Lopes; Da Silva, Tiago Do Nascimento; Castellón, Eloy Guillermo; Patiu, Cátia Antunes De Mello; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza

    2014-01-01

    Seven new species of the Culicoides reticulatus species group are described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia, Panama and Brazilian states of northern (Amazonas, Pará and Roraima) and southeast region (Rio de Janeiro). The new species are compared with their similar congener, Culicoides reticulatus Lutz, and a systematic key, table with numerical characters to the females of the species are provided. Redescription of Culicoides reticulatus Lutz is given based on type series deposited in the Ceratopogonidae Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil. The distribution of these species is presented in figure 9.

  6. First detection of endosymbiotic bacteria in biting midges Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides punctatus, important Palaearctic vectors of bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S E; Rice, A; Hurst, G D D; Baylis, M

    2014-12-01

    Heritable bacteria have been highlighted as important components of vector biology, acting as required symbionts with an anabolic role, altering competence for disease transmission, and affecting patterns of gene flow by altering cross compatibility. In this paper, we tested eight U.K. species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midge for the presence of five genera of endosymbiotic bacteria: Cardinium (Bacteroidales: Bacteroidaceae); Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae); Spiroplasma (Entomoplasmatales: Spiroplasmataceae); Arsenophonus (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae). Cardinium spp. were detected in both sexes of Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides punctatus, two known vectors of bluetongue virus. Cardinium spp. were not detected in any other species, including the Culicoides obsoletus group, the main vector of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern Europe. The other endosymbionts were not detected in any Culicoides species. The Cardinium strain detected in U.K. Culicoides species is very closely related to the Candidatus Cardinium hertigii group C, previously identified in Culicoides species in Asia. Further, we infer that the symbiont is not a sex ratio distorter and shows geographic variation in prevalence within a species. Despite its detection in several species of Culicoides that vector arboviruses worldwide, the absence of Cardinium in the C. obsoletus group suggests that infections of these symbionts may not be necessary to the arboviral vector competence of biting midges.

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences in France.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Camille; Augot, Denis; Delecolle, Jean-Claude; Dufour, Barbara; Depaquit, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge on host-feeding pattern of blood-sucking insects helps to understand the epidemiology of a vector-born disease. We determined blood meal origin from blood-fed Culicoides thanks to molecular techniques. A set of primers was used to selectively amplify segment of vertebrates' prepronociceptin gene from abdomen of engorged Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Vertebrate DNA was successfully amplified in 91% of blood-fed Culicoides assayed. Direct sequencing and comparison of resultant sequences with sequences in GenBank, using BLAST, lead to the specific identification of the host in 100% of the cases. A total of 157 blood-fed females belonging to 13 different Culicoides' species were captured thanks to light traps in different areas of France between 2008 and 2009. Blood meal origin was determined for 143 blood-fed midges: 59 Culicoides obsoletus, 18 Culicoides dewulfi, 16 Culicoides scoticus, 11 Culicoides chiopterus, 10 Culicoides lupicaris, 1 Culicoides pulicaris, 8 Culicoides punctatus, 10 Culicoides pallidicornis, 3 Culicoides achrayi, 2 Culicoides furcillatus, 3 Culicoides brunnicans, 1 Culicoides picturatus and 1 Culicoides poperinghensis. The predominant species in our study belong to the C. obsoletus complex; they are considered as putative vectors of Bluetongue virus in the north of Europe. C. chiopterus sampled fed only on cattle, while blood meal origin of C. dewulfi, C. obsoletus and C. scoticus was diversified. In our sampling, we found that midges were fed mainly on cattle (54%), rabbits (20%), horses (17%), sheep (4%), pigs or wild boars (4%) and human (1%). Cattle DNA was found in at least 11 different species of Culicoides assayed.

  8. The salivary secretome of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. Many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and Schmallenberg viruses. Detailed s...

  9. Differential emergence of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from on-farm breeding substrates in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geoffrey M; Jess, Stephen; Murchie, Archie K

    2013-05-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of viral diseases worldwide. Following the unforeseen outbreak of bluetongue in northern Europe (2006–2009) there was a need to clarify on-farm breeding substrates utilized by temperate Culicoides spp. Six substrates (cow dung, cow slurry, horse dung, sheep dung, maize silage and soil) were investigated for Culicoides spp. emergence over a 31-week period. Overall, most Obsoletus group Culicoides emerged from the cow dung and the most Pulicaris group Culicoides emerged from the sheep dung. Furthermore, Culicoides of the Obsoletus group were found to be abundant in cow slurry and sheep dung. Temperature played a significant role in the emergence times of adult Culicoides. The Obsoletus group appear to have undergone 3 generations during the experimental period. The sex ratio of emergent Obsoletus group Culicoides was affected by substrate type, with a greater proportion of males emerging from cow dung and slurry compared with the other substrates.

  10. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  11. Culicoides midge trap enhancement with animal odour baits in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Mands, V; Kline, D L; Blackwell, A

    2004-12-01

    Examples of the commercial trap Mosquito Magnet Pro (MMP emitting attractant 1-octen-3-ol in carbon dioxide 500 mL/min generated from propane fuel), were run 24 h/day on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, during June-August 2001 and evaluated for catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). From 30 days trapping, the catch averaged 2626 +/- 1358 Culicoides females/trap/day (mean +/- SE, range 558 +/- 139 to 6088 +/- 3597, for five sets of six consecutive nights), predominantly the pest Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer (68% overall), plus C. vexans (Staeger) > C. delta Edwards > C. pulicaris (L.) > C. lupicaris Downs & Kettle > C. albicans (Winnertz) > other Culicoides spp. Attempts were made to enhance the odour baiting system by adding hexane-extracts (2.1 mg/day) of hair samples from large host animals, resulting in the following effects on Culicoides collections: sheep - 53 %, red deer - 26 %, calf + 20%, pony + 40%, water buffalo + 262%, with greatest increases for C. impunctatus and C. pulicaris. Serial concentrations of these animal extracts (10(-1) - 10(-3) x 2.2 g/mL) were assayed on parous female C. impunctatus response in a Y-tube olfactometer (air-flow 150 mL/min), and by electroantennogram (EAG) on Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen laboratory-reared parous females. Positive behavioural responses to host odours were dose-dependent: the water buffalo extract being most active (threshold 0.22 g/mL), similar to deer, whereas other host extracts were > or = 10-fold less active. Correspondingly, the EAG threshold was lowest for water buffalo, 10-fold greater for deer, calf and pony, but not detected for sheep. If the active component(s) of these host extracts can be identified and synthesized, they might be employed to improve the capture of Culicoides midges for local control by removal trapping.

  12. Two new species and new records of biting midges of the genus Culicoides from northwestern Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Gustavo Ricardo; Aybar, Cecilia Veggiani; Juri, María Julia Dantur; de Grosso, Mercedes Lizarralde; Marino, Pablo Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The following two new species of Culicoides from the Argentinean Yungas are described, illustrated and placed to subgenus or species group and compared with related congeners: Culicoides calchaqui Spinelli & Veggiani Aybar and Culicoides willinki Spinelli & Veggiani Aybar. Culicoides daedaloides Wirth & Blanton is recorded for the first time for Argentina and Culicoides pseudoheliconiae Felippe-Bauer is firstly mentioned from the northwestern region of the country. PMID:23903973

  13. Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) taxonomy: Current challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Harrup, L.E.; Bellis, G.A.; Balenghien, T.; Garros, C.

    2015-01-01

    Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to humans, livestock and equines, and are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important pathogens of both veterinary and medical importance. Despite their economic significance, the delimitation and identification of species and evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains at best problematic. To date no phylogenetic study has attempted to validate the subgeneric classification of the genus and the monophyly of many of the subgenera remains doubtful. Many informal species groupings are also known to exist but few are adequately described, further complicating accurate identification. Recent contributions to Culicoides taxonomy at the species level have revealed a high correlation between morphological and molecular analyses although molecular analyses are revealing the existence of cryptic species. This review considers the methods for studying the systematics of Culicoides using both morphological and genetic techniques, with a view to understanding the factors limiting our current understanding of Culicoides biology and hence arbovirus epidemiology. In addition, we examine the global status of Culicoides identification, highlighting areas that are poorly addressed, including the potential implementation of emerging technologies. PMID:25535946

  14. Nuevo Observatorio Virtual Argentino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissera, P. B.

    We summarized the main events in the creation of the Nuevo Observatorio Virtual Argentino (NOVA) and its objectives. We also discuss the present advances and the goals for the near future. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. Culicoides and the Tartar Steppe: Il Deserto dei Tartari Culicoides and the spread of blue tongue virus.

    PubMed

    Houin, R

    2008-12-01

    Culicoides were described for the first time in England in 1713, but named by Latreille in 1809 only. Even so, they were better known as Ceratopogon until Kieffer reintroduced the name Culicoides. The family name became Ceratopogonidae, the description by Meigen (1803) being better adapted to that systematic level. Culicoides were considered simply as biting insects until it was found that they can carry filaria and viruses. In 1944, du Toit in Transvaal described their role in the transmission of blue-tongue virus. Blue-tongue disease has since extended progressively northward from South Africa, disseminated by Culicoides imicola. At the end of the 20th century, it reached the southern shores of the Mediterranean sea, and has since threatened the southern Europe. Surveillance and prevention procedures were put in place, but fortress Europe was taken breached when a different strain of the virus entered through Belgium in 2006. Transmitted by local Culicoides species that were aggressive and abundant, the disease spread quickly, in a disastrous epizootic southward through more than half of France. Westward, infected insects have been carried by wind over the Channel, introducing the disease to England. PMID:20055234

  16. Culicoides biting midges, arboviruses and public health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Simon; Groschup, Martin H; Garros, Claire; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Purse, Bethan V

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of multiple strains of bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recent discovery of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe have highlighted the fact that exotic Culicoides-borne arboviruses from remote geographic areas can enter and spread rapidly in this region. This review considers the potential for this phenomenon to impact on human health in Europe, by examining evidence of the role of Culicoides biting midges in the zoonotic transmission and person-to-person spread of arboviruses worldwide. To date, the only arbovirus identified as being primarily transmitted by Culicoides to and between humans is Oropouche virus (OROV). This member of the genus Orthobunyavirus causes major epidemics of febrile illness in human populations of South and Central America and the Caribbean. We examine factors promoting sustained outbreaks of OROV in Brazil from an entomological perspective and assess aspects of the epidemiology of this arbovirus that are currently poorly understood, but may influence the risk of incursion into Europe. We then review the secondary and rarely reported role of Culicoides in the transmission of high-profile zoonotic infections, while critically reviewing evidence of this phenomenon in endemic transmission and place this in context with the presence of other potential vector groups in Europe. Scenarios for the incursions of Culicoides-borne human-to-human transmitted and zoonotic arboviruses are then discussed, along with control measures that could be employed to reduce their impact. These measures are placed in the context of legislative measures used during current and ongoing outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in Europe, involving both veterinary and public health sectors.

  17. The occurrence of Culicoides species, the vectors of arboviruses, at selected trap sites in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stuart J G; Bolwell, Charlotte; Rogers, Chris; Musuka, Godfrey; Kelly, Patrick; Labuschagne, Karien; Guthrie, Alan J; Denison, Eric; Mellor, Philip S; Hamblin, Chris

    2015-05-29

    A study of the distribution of Culicoides species was conducted by establishing 12 light trap sites over five rainy seasons between 1998 and 2003 covering all the geo-climatic natural regions of Zimbabwe. In total, 279 919 specimens of Culicoides were trapped over a total of 163 trapping nights. The highest median counts of Culicoides per trapping night were recorded in natural region III, which has climatic conditions conducive to the successful development of the larvae. Culicoides imicola, the major vector of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses in Africa, was found to be the most abundant species (80.4%), followed by Culicoides enderleini (5.9%) and Culicoides milnei (5.2%). This study identified 10 species of Culicoides that had not been previously described in Zimbabwe, including Culicoides loxodontis and Culicoides miombo, which are members of the C. imicola complex. A total of 23 994 Culicoides midges were collected from five trap sites in Harare, Zimbabwe, with the dominant species, C. imicola, representing 91.6% of the total collection. Seventeen arboviruses were isolated from these midges, 15 of which were bluetongue virus. The predominant bluetongue virus serotype was serotype 11, followed by serotypes 1, 8, 12 and 15. Bluetongue virus serotypes 1, 2, 8, 10, 12, 15, 16 and 18, detected in this study, had not been previously reported in Zimbabwe.

  18. Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease, Bluetongue, and likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burden worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the diff...

  19. Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

  20. A New Species of Culicoides (Selfia) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Southeastern Utah.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    A new species of biting midge, Culicoides (Selfia) moabensis, is described and illustrated from southeastern Utah. Its relationship to Culicoides (Selfia) multipunctatus Malloch and Culicoides (Selfia) brookmani Wirth is discussed, and modifications to existing keys to adult males and females of C. (Selfia) species are provided. Its abundance, seasonal distribution, and aspects of its reproductive and feeding biology and potential as an arbovirus vector are discussed. PMID:26336237

  1. Comparison of emergence traps of different shape and translucency in the trapping of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Kroischke, F; Timmermann, E; Kiel, E

    2016-06-15

    Various types of emergence traps are available for investigations of the breeding habitats of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In order to assess the potential impact of the trap design on the trapping success, we compared the efficiency of opaque and white (more translucent) emergence traps and two trap shapes (cone-shaped and quadratic), to sample Culicoides emerging from cowpats. Significantly higher numbers of Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi were trapped with opaque traps, while there was no obvious effect of the trap shape. There were no distinct differences in the microclimate among different trap types. PMID:27198792

  2. Environmental drivers of Culicoides phenology: how important is species-specific variation when determining disease policy?

    PubMed

    Searle, Kate R; Barber, James; Stubbins, Francesca; Labuschagne, Karien; Carpenter, Simon; Butler, Adam; Denison, Eric; Sanders, Christopher; Mellor, Philip S; Wilson, Anthony; Nelson, Noel; Gubbins, Simon; Purse, Bethan V

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, arboviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have caused significant disruption to ruminant production in northern Europe. The most serious incursions involved strains of bluetongue virus (BTV), which cause bluetongue (BT) disease. To control spread of BTV, movement of susceptible livestock is restricted with economic and animal welfare impacts. The timing of BTV transmission in temperate regions is partly determined by the seasonal presence of adult Culicoides females. Legislative measures therefore allow for the relaxation of ruminant movement restrictions during winter, when nightly light-suction trap catches of Culicoides fall below a threshold (the 'seasonally vector free period': SVFP). We analysed five years of time-series surveillance data from light-suction trapping in the UK to investigate whether significant inter-specific and yearly variation in adult phenology exists, and whether the SVFP is predictable from environmental factors. Because female vector Culicoides are not easily morphologically separated, inter-specific comparisons in phenology were drawn from male populations. We demonstrate significant inter-specific differences in Culicoides adult phenology with the season of Culicoides scoticus approximately eight weeks shorter than Culicoides obsoletus. Species-specific differences in the length of the SVFP were related to host density and local variation in landscape habitat. When the Avaritia Culicoides females were modelled as a group (as utilised in the SFVP), we were unable to detect links between environmental drivers and phenological metrics. We conclude that the current treatment of Avaritia Culicoides as a single group inhibits understanding of environmentally-driven spatial variation in species phenology and hinders the development of models for predicting the SVFP from environmental factors. Culicoides surveillance methods should be adapted to focus on concentrated assessments of species

  3. Environmental Drivers of Culicoides Phenology: How Important Is Species-Specific Variation When Determining Disease Policy?

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Kate R.; Barber, James; Stubbins, Francesca; Labuschagne, Karien; Carpenter, Simon; Butler, Adam; Denison, Eric; Sanders, Christopher; Mellor, Philip S.; Wilson, Anthony; Nelson, Noel; Gubbins, Simon; Purse, Bethan V.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, arboviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have caused significant disruption to ruminant production in northern Europe. The most serious incursions involved strains of bluetongue virus (BTV), which cause bluetongue (BT) disease. To control spread of BTV, movement of susceptible livestock is restricted with economic and animal welfare impacts. The timing of BTV transmission in temperate regions is partly determined by the seasonal presence of adult Culicoides females. Legislative measures therefore allow for the relaxation of ruminant movement restrictions during winter, when nightly light-suction trap catches of Culicoides fall below a threshold (the ‘seasonally vector free period’: SVFP). We analysed five years of time-series surveillance data from light-suction trapping in the UK to investigate whether significant inter-specific and yearly variation in adult phenology exists, and whether the SVFP is predictable from environmental factors. Because female vector Culicoides are not easily morphologically separated, inter-specific comparisons in phenology were drawn from male populations. We demonstrate significant inter-specific differences in Culicoides adult phenology with the season of Culicoides scoticus approximately eight weeks shorter than Culicoides obsoletus. Species-specific differences in the length of the SVFP were related to host density and local variation in landscape habitat. When the Avaritia Culicoides females were modelled as a group (as utilised in the SFVP), we were unable to detect links between environmental drivers and phenological metrics. We conclude that the current treatment of Avaritia Culicoides as a single group inhibits understanding of environmentally-driven spatial variation in species phenology and hinders the development of models for predicting the SVFP from environmental factors. Culicoides surveillance methods should be adapted to focus on concentrated assessments of species

  4. Collection and analysis of salivary proteins from the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary proteins of hematophagous Culicoides spp. are thought to play an important role in pathogen transmission and skin hypersensitivity. Analysis of these proteins, however, has been problematic due to the difficulty in obtaining adequate amounts of secreted Culicoides saliva. In the current stu...

  5. Seasonal abundance of livestock-associated Culicoides species in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L P C; Silva, F S

    2014-06-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are of great medical and veterinary importance because the haematophagous females of some species can transmit diseases to humans and animals. In order to determine the presence and seasonal abundance of the bluetongue virus (BTV) vector Culicoides insignis Lutz at domestic animal sheds in northeastern Brazil, insects were collected once a month between January and December 2010. Light traps were set from 18.00 to 06.00 hours at a pigsty, chicken coop and bovine corral. Culicoides insignis accounted for 81% of the 22,316 specimens collected. Other well-represented species were: Culicoides paucienfuscatus Barbosa (3246 individuals), Culicoides diabolicus Hoffman (308), Culicoides leopoldoi Ortiz (224) and Culicoides duartei Tavares and Luna Dias (221). The remainder accounted for 4% of the total sample. Culicoides insignis occurred mostly at the cattle corral, 98.2% in the rainy season. This study confirms the presence and close association of C. insignis with cattle in Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil and emphasizes the risk of bluetongue infections spreading in the area. PMID:24382216

  6. Culicoides monitoring in Belgium in 2011: analysis of spatiotemporal abundance, species diversity and Schmallenberg virus detection.

    PubMed

    DE Regge, N; DE Deken, R; Fassotte, C; Losson, B; Deblauwe, I; Madder, M; Vantieghem, P; Tomme, M; Smeets, F; Cay, A B

    2015-09-01

    In 2011, Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 locations covering four regions of Belgium with Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) traps and at two locations with Rothamsted suction traps (RSTs). Quantification of the collections and morphological identification showed important variations in abundance and species diversity between individual collection sites, even for sites located in the same region. However, consistently higher numbers of Culicoides midges were collected at some sites compared with others. When species abundance and diversity were analysed at regional level, between-site variation disappeared. Overall, species belonging to the subgenus Avaritia together with Culicoides pulicaris (subgenus Culicoides) were the most abundant, accounting for 80% and 96% of all midges collected with RSTs and OVI traps, respectively. Culicoides were present during most of the year, with Culicoides obsoletus complex midges found from 9 February until 27 December. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction screening for Schmallenberg virus in the heads of collected midges resulted in the first detection of the virus in August 2011 and identified C. obsoletus complex, Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi midges as putative vector species. At Libramont in the south of Belgium, no positive pools were identified. PMID:25761054

  7. Sympatry in the Culicoides variipennis complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): a taxonomic reassessment.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J; Schmidtmann, E T; McKinnon, C N; Bobian, R J; Grogan, W L

    2000-01-01

    We report sympatry among larval populations of the Culicoides variipennis complex in widespread and diverse aquatic habitats throughout the United States. Six sites in California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas were co-inhabited by C. v. occidentalis and C. v. sonorensis, whereas 8 sites in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, and Texas were co-occupied by C. v. sonorensis and C. v. variipennis. No intermediate forms were identified either electrophoretically or morphologically in adults reared from field-collected larvae and pupae. The absence of intergrades in zones of sympatry represents sufficient evidence to confirm species status for Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) and Culicoides occidentalis Wirth & Jones, and to elevate Culicoides sonorensis to species rank (NEW STATUS). Culicoides v. albertensis Wirth & Jones is a synonym of C. sonorensis (NEW SYNONYMY); C. v. australis Wirth & Jones also is confirmed as a synonym of C. sonorensis. We also demonstrated a correlation between population taxonomic status as determined by electrophoresis and adult morphology.

  8. Evaluation of in vitro methods for assessment of infection of Australian Culicoides spp. with bluetongue viruses.

    PubMed

    Van der Saag, Matthew; Nicholas, Adrian; Ward, Michael; Kirkland, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biting midges from the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the vectors of several globally important arboviruses that affect livestock. These include orbiviruses from the bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) groups and members of the Simbu serogroup of orthobunyaviruses, such as the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus. In this article, the authors evaluate several methods for feeding wild‑caught Australian Culicoides on BTV infected preparations of blood and sucrose. Feeding Culicoides on the membrane of embryonated chicken eggs was identified as the preferred feeding method. Although, cotton wool pads soaked in either virus‑infected blood or virus‑sucrose mixtures were also successful. A non‑destructive nucleic acid extraction technique for the detection of viral RNA in Culicoides was also evaluated as it allows for readily differentiating infected from non‑infected Culicoides. PMID:26741248

  9. Does covering of farm-associated Culicoides larval habitat reduce adult populations in the United Kingdom?☆

    PubMed Central

    Harrup, L.E.; Gubbins, S.; Barber, J.; Denison, E.; Mellor, P.S.; Purse, B.V.; Carpenter, S.

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important arboviruses of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerging Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Culicoides species in the subgenus Avaritia (in the UK: Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer and Culicoides chiopterus Meigen) have been implicated in BTV transmission in northern Europe and to a varying degree utilise cattle dung as a larval development substrate. The collection of cattle dung into heaps on farms provides a localised source of Culicoides emergence in close proximity to livestock. This study assesses the impact of covering dung heaps prior to the onset of adult Culicoides activity with the aim of reducing recruitment to the local adult populations at four livestock farms in England. Light suction trap catches of adult Culicoides from these farms were compared with those from four untreated control farms from a wide geographic range across the UK. It was demonstrated that implementing control of emergence from dung heaps did not have a significant impact upon the local adult subgenus Avaritia abundance at the treated farm holdings and that the onset of Culicoides activity was similarly unaffected. Use of this method in isolation is unlikely to have an effect in reducing the risk of BTV and SBV transmission. The implications of these results for control of farm-associated Culicoides in Europe are discussed. PMID:24472769

  10. Chemical composition of silage residues sustaining the larval development of the Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Beckers, Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-16

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV). Bluetongue is a viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent emergence in northern Europe, this disease has caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industry. The biotopes, and more particularly the chemical characteristics which are suitable for larval development of the main vector species, are still relatively unknown. This study shows that the larvae of biting midges belonging to the species Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus are able to breed in different types of silage residue (maize, grass, sugar beet pulp and their combinations). The chemical composition of substrates strongly influences the presence of the immature stages of these biting midges. Higher lignin and insoluble fibre contents seem to favour their presence and could play the role of a physical support for semi-aquatic larvae. In contrast, higher concentrations of magnesium and calcium are negatively correlated with the presence of these two species. These data will help to locate and monitor the breeding sites of these species and could contribute to the control of these insects on farms.

  11. Chemical composition of silage residues sustaining the larval development of the Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Beckers, Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-16

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV). Bluetongue is a viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent emergence in northern Europe, this disease has caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industry. The biotopes, and more particularly the chemical characteristics which are suitable for larval development of the main vector species, are still relatively unknown. This study shows that the larvae of biting midges belonging to the species Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus are able to breed in different types of silage residue (maize, grass, sugar beet pulp and their combinations). The chemical composition of substrates strongly influences the presence of the immature stages of these biting midges. Higher lignin and insoluble fibre contents seem to favour their presence and could play the role of a physical support for semi-aquatic larvae. In contrast, higher concentrations of magnesium and calcium are negatively correlated with the presence of these two species. These data will help to locate and monitor the breeding sites of these species and could contribute to the control of these insects on farms. PMID:22963713

  12. Culicoides species composition and environmental factors influencing African horse sickness distribution at three sites in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; Labuschagne, Karien; Venter, Gert; Greyling, Telane; Mienie, Charlotte; de Waal, Tania; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is one of the most lethal infectious, non-contagious, vector-borne disease of equids. The causative agent, African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is transmitted via Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). AHS is endemic to Namibia but detailed studies of Culicoides communities and influencing environmental parameters are limited. This study aims to determine the Culicoides species composition at three different sites and to assess environmental parameters influencing the geographical distribution of AHS in Namibia. Weekly collections of Culicoides were made during the AHS peak season from January to May for 2013 and 2014 using the Onderstepoort 220V UV-light trap. Out of 397 collections made, 124 collections (3287 Culicoides) were analysed for AHSV presence with RT-qPCR. A total of 295 collections were analysed for total Culicoides (all collected Culicoides individuals) and in 75% of these collections the Culicoides were identified to species level. C. imicola was the dominant species with proportional representation of 29.9%. C. subschultzei, C. exspectator and C. ravus each contribute more than 10% to the species composition. The lowest number of Culicoides was collected at Aus 9980, a total of 21819 at Windhoek and the highest number at Okahandja 47343. AHSV was present at all three sites during 2013 but only in Windhoek and Okahandja during 2014. Multivariate analyses of data from the two year survey indicate the environmental parameters in order of importance for the distribution of AHS in Namibia as precipitation>temperature>clay>relative humidity>NDVI. The implication of these findings is that any precipitation event increases Culicoides numbers significantly. Together with these results the high number of species found of which little is known regarding their vector competence, add to the complexity of the distribution of AHS in Namibia. PMID:27491343

  13. First overview of the Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) livestock associated species of Reunion Island, Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Desvars, A; Grimaud, Y; Guis, H; Esnault, O; Allène, X; Gardès, L; Balenghien, T; Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Garros, C

    2015-02-01

    This study establishes the first faunistic inventory of livestock associated Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), where bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease are regularly recorded. Single night-catches were performed at 41 sites using light suction traps at altitudes ranging from 0 to 1525 m, from March to April 2005. Five species were recorded: Culicoides imicola, Culicoides bolitinos, Culicoides enderleini, Culicoides grahamii, and Culicoides kibatiensis, among which at least the first three species are known to be involved in virus transmission to ruminants and equids. This is the first record of C. bolitinos, C. kibatiensis, and C. enderleini on the island. C. imicola was the most abundant species along the sea coast. C. bolitinos was more abundant inland and on two sites on the east coast. C. kibatiensis and C. grahamii were less abundant than the other three species and limited to two foci. Spatial distribution analysis of the different species showed that C. bolitinos, C. enderleini and C. imicola were collected at low altitudes, while the other two species were found at higher altitude. A morphological identification key for adult females and males is given, as well as cytochrome oxydase subunit I sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed a clear divergence between C. bolitinos from Reunion Island and mainland Africa. This monograph will help to identify the Culicoides species in the poorly known entomological fauna of the south-western Indian Ocean region.

  14. Impact of flooding on the immature stages of dung-breeding Culicoides in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lühken, Renke; Steinke, Sonja; Wittmann, Anna; Kiel, Ellen

    2014-09-15

    In Northern Europe, dung-breeding Culicoides (e.g., Culicoides chiopterus (Meigen 1830) and Culicoides dewulfi (Goetghebuer 1936)) are considered to be important vectors of the Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. The interpretation of their distribution is difficult due to the lack of knowledge about their ecology. Previously, soil moisture and especially flooding were identified as important factors that influence the development of several biting-midge species. Therefore, this experimental study addressed the question whether flooding has a negative impact on the development of immature stages of Obsoletus group species. Ten cowpats were collected, and each was divided into four quarters and kept at different moisture regimes in a greenhouse: (1) "dry" (no water added), (2) "control" (regularly moistened), (3) "alternately flooded" and (4) "permanently flooded", to compare Culicoides emergence. Flooding had a significant negative impact on the emergence of Culicoides. No individuals emerged from the "permanently flooded" treatment and only two individuals were sampled from the "alternately flooded" treatment. In contrast, the total emergence from the non-flooded samples in the "dry" (96 individuals, 38.6% of all Culicoides) and "control" (151 individuals, 60.6% of all biting midges) treatments was considerably higher. Biting midges were predominantly identified as C. dewulfi (161 individuals, 64.7% of all Culicoides) and C. chiopterus (63 individuals, 25.3% of all Culicoides). There were no significant differences in emergence between the "dry" and "control" treatments. Our results highlight the importance of soil moisture on the distribution of C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi. Regarding physiological and behavioural adaptations of other Culicoides species, we argue that pupae of C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi are in danger of drowning when breeding sites are flooded as they cannot float. On the contrary, our results indicate that desiccation might not be

  15. RNA interference targets arbovirus replication in Culicoides cells.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Esther; Ratinier, Maxime; Watson, Mick; Shaw, Andrew E; McFarlane, Melanie; Varela, Mariana; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study, we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses, including those with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes, such as BTV. Using reporter gene-based assays, we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses.

  16. RNA Interference Targets Arbovirus Replication in Culicoides Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schnettler, Esther; Ratinier, Maxime; Watson, Mick; Shaw, Andrew E.; McFarlane, Melanie; Varela, Mariana; Elliott, Richard M.; Palmarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study, we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses, including those with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes, such as BTV. Using reporter gene-based assays, we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses. PMID:23269795

  17. Protection of horses against Culicoides biting midges in different housing systems in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, V J; Page, P C; Kopp, C; Mathis, A; von Niederhäusern, R; Burger, D; Herholz, C

    2015-06-15

    Species belonging to the Culicoides complexes (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), obsoletus and pulicaris, in Switzerland, are potential vectors of both bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The epidemic of BTV in 2006 and 2007 in Europe has highlighted the risk of introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases in previously non-endemic areas. As a measure of prevention, as part of an integrated control programme in the event of an outbreak of African horse sickness (AHS), it is of utmost importance to prevent, or substantially reduce, contact between horses and Culicoides. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of three protection systems, net, fan, repellent, or combinations thereof, with regard to their potential to reduce contact between horses and Culicoides. Three different equine housing systems, including individual boxes (BX), group housing systems (GR), and individual boxes with permanently accessible paddock (BP) were used. The efficacy of the protection systems were evaluated by comparing the total number counts of collected female Culicoides, of non-blood-fed and blood-fed Culicoides, respectively, with UV black light traps. The study was conducted over 3 summer months during 2012 and 2013 each and focused on the efficacy and practicality of the protection systems. The repellent was tested in 2012 only and not further investigated in 2013, as it showed no significant effect in reducing Culicoides collected in the light traps. Net protection system provided the best overall protection for the total number of female Culicoides, non-blood-fed and blood-fed Culicoides in all tested housing systems. The net, with a pore size of 0.1825 mm(2), reduced the total number of Culicoides collected in the housing systems BP, GR and BX by 98%, 85% and 67%, respectively. However, in the GR housing system, no significant difference between the effectiveness of the fan and the net were determined for any of the three Culicoides

  18. The Spatio-Temporal Distribution Patterns of Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in Salta Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Aybar, Cecilia A. Veggiani; Juri, María J. Dantur; Santana, Mirta; de Grosso, Mercedes S. Lizarralde; Spinelli, Gustavo R.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this survey was to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of Culicoides Latreille species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and their relationship with environmental variables in Salta, northwestern Argentina. Culicoides were collected monthly from January 2003 through December 2005. The influence of the climatic variables on population abundance was analyzed with a multilevel Poisson regression. A total of 918 specimens belonging to five species were collected. The most abundant species was Culicoides paraensis Goeldi (65.5%), followed by Culicoides lahillei Iches (14.6%) and Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (7.6%). The highest seasonal abundance for C. paraensis, C. debilipalpis and C. lahillei occurred during the spring and summer. A Poisson regression analysis showed that the mean maximum and minimum temperature and the mean maximum and minimum humidity were the variables with the greatest influence on the population abundance of Culicoides species. PMID:23461794

  19. Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis.

    PubMed

    Mills, M K; Nayduch, D; Michel, K

    2015-02-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bluetongue and most likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burdens worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the difficulty of consistent culturing of certain species and the absence of molecular techniques such as RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we report the establishment of RNAi as a research tool for the adult midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Based on previous research and transcriptome analysis, which revealed putative small interfering RNA pathway member orthologues, we hypothesized that adult C. sonorensis midges have the molecular machinery needed to perform RNA silencing. Injection of control double-stranded RNA targeting green fluorescent protein (dsGFP), into the haemocoel of 2-3-day-old adult female midges resulted in survival curves that support virus transmission. dsRNA injection targeting the newly identified C. sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (CsIAP1) orthologue resulted in a 40% decrease of transcript levels and 73% shorter median survivals as compared with dsGFP-injected controls. These results reveal the conserved function of IAP1. Importantly, they also demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi by dsRNA injection in adult midges, which will greatly facilitate studies of the underlying mechanisms of vector competence in C. sonorensis.

  20. Estimating Culicoides sonorensis biting midge abundance using digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Osborne, C J; Mayo, C E; Mullens, B A; Maclachlan, N J

    2014-12-01

    ImageJ is an open-source software tool used for a variety of scientific objectives including cell counting, shape analysis and image correction. This technology has previously been used to estimate mosquito abundance in surveillance efforts. However, the utility of this application for estimating abundance or parity in the surveillance of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) has not yet been tested. Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth and Jones), a biting midge often measuring 2.0-2.5 mm in length, is an economically important vector of ruminant arboviruses in California. Current surveillance methods use visual sorting for the characteristics of midges and are very time-intensive for large studies. This project tested the utility of ImageJ as a tool to assist in gross trap enumeration as well as in parity analysis of C. sonorensis in comparison with traditional visual methods of enumeration using a dissecting microscope. Results confirmed that automated counting of midges is a reliable means of approximating midge numbers under certain conditions. Further evaluation confirmed accurate and time-efficient parity analysis in comparison with hand sorting. The ImageJ software shows promise as a tool that can assist and expedite C. sonorensis surveillance. Further, these methods may be useful in other insect surveillance activities.

  1. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  2. Blood Meal Analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females’ midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia. PMID:25793285

  3. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  4. Ten species of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) newly recorded from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thepparat, Arunrat; Bellis, Glenn; Ketavan, Chitapa; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2015-01-01

    A survey of biting midges in animal sheds, mangroves and beaches along the Andaman coastal region in southern Thailand between April 2012 and May 2013 collected 10 species of Culicoides which were not previously known from Thailand. These new records are C. arenicola, C. flavipunctatus, C. hui, C. kinari, C. kusaiensis, C. parabubalus, C. quatei, C. spiculae, C. pseudocordiger and C. tamada. An updated checklist of species of Culicoides reported from Thailand is provided.

  5. Ten species of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) newly recorded from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thepparat, Arunrat; Bellis, Glenn; Ketavan, Chitapa; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2015-01-01

    A survey of biting midges in animal sheds, mangroves and beaches along the Andaman coastal region in southern Thailand between April 2012 and May 2013 collected 10 species of Culicoides which were not previously known from Thailand. These new records are C. arenicola, C. flavipunctatus, C. hui, C. kinari, C. kusaiensis, C. parabubalus, C. quatei, C. spiculae, C. pseudocordiger and C. tamada. An updated checklist of species of Culicoides reported from Thailand is provided. PMID:26624391

  6. Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as vectors of bluetongue virus in South Africa - a review.

    PubMed

    Venter, Gert Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consolidate vector competence studies on Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) done over a period 25 years at the ARC‑Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa. In 1944, it was demonstrated for the first time in South Africa that Culicoides midges transmit BTV. In 1991, field‑collected Culicoides imicola were fed on blood containing BTV‑3 or ‑6 and the infection rates were established as being 31% and 24%, respectively. In 1998, Culicoides bolitinos was shown to have a higher infection prevalence and virus titre/midge than C. imicola. This species was then shown to have a higher transmission potential for BTV‑1 over a range of incubation temperatures wider than the one showed by C. imicola. Attenuation of BTV also does not reduce its ability to infect competent Culicoides species. Oral susceptibility studies, involving 29 BTV isolates of various serotypes, indicated differences between various geographic virus isolates and Culicoides populations evaluated. While low recovery rates of European BTV strains from South African Culicoides species suggest co‑adaptation between orbiviruses and vectors in a given locality, co‑adaption was shown not to be essential for virus transmission. Cumulative results since 1991 provide evidence that at least 13 livestock‑associated Culicoides species are susceptible to BTV. Susceptibility results are supported by field isolations from 5 of these species. This implies that multi‑vector potential for the transmission of BTV will complicate the epidemiology of BT. It must be emphasised that neither oral susceptibility nor virus isolation/detection from field‑collected specimens is proof that a species is a confirmed field vector. PMID:26741247

  7. Vector species of Culicoides midges implicated in the 2012‑2014 Bluetongue epidemics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Maria; Catalani, Monica; Federici, Valentina; Portanti, Ottavio; Marini, Valeria; Mancini, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Michela; Santilli, Adriana; Teodori, Liana; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, serotypes 1 and 4 of bluetongue virus (BTV) entered and co‑circulated in Sardinia. The following year, BTV‑1 spread all over Sardinia and invaded Sicily and the Italian Tyrrenian coast. In 2014, this strain spread extensively in mainland Italy, causing severe outbreaks. In late 2014, BTV‑4 was detected in Southern Italy (Apulia region). This study reports the detection of BTV in species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in Italy during the epidemics between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2,925 pools (83,102 midges), sorted from 651 collections made on 339 affected farms of 12 Italian regions, were tested for the presence of BTV by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR). The study clearly shows that Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus complex have played a crucial role in the bluetongue (BT) epidemics in Italy in 2012‑2014. Nevertheless, it also shows that other species may have played a role in transmitting BTV during these outbreaks. Culicoides dewulfi and at least 3 species of the Pulicaris complex, namely Culicoides pulicaris, Culicoides newsteadi and Culicoides punctatus, were found positive to BTV. Serotype 1 was detected in all species tested, whereas the BTV‑4 was detected in the Obsoletus complex, C. imicola, and C. newsteadi.

  8. The effect of high frequency sound on Culicoides numbers collected with suction light traps.

    PubMed

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2012-11-07

    Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are involved in the transmission of various pathogens that cause important diseases of livestock worldwide. The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of these insects on livestock could play an important role as part of an integrated control programme against diseases transmitted by these midges. The objective of this study was to determine whether high frequency sound has any repellent effect on Culicoides midges. The number of midges collected with 220 V Onderstepoort white light traps fitted with electronic mosquito repellents (EMRs), emitting 5-20 KHz multi-frequency sound waves, was compared with that of two untreated traps. Treatments were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although fewer midges were collected in the two traps fitted with EMRs, the average number collected over eight consecutive nights was not significantly different. The EMRs also had no influence on any of the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer or the species composition of the Culicoides population as determined with light traps. The results indicate that high frequency sound has no repellent effect on Culicoides midges. There is therefore no evidence to support their promotion or use in the protection of animals against pathogens transmitted by Culicoides midges.

  9. Emergence of Culicoides obsoletus group species from farm-associated habitats in Germany.

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Balczun, C; Kiel, E

    2016-06-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) may transmit several arboviruses to ruminant livestock. The species of the Obsoletus group are considered to be among the most important vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in northern Europe. As agricultural environments offer suitable habitats for the development of their immature stages, the emergence of adult Culicoides from potential breeding sites was investigated at 20 cattle farms throughout Germany in 2012 and 2013. In analyses of species-specific habitat preferences and relationships between Culicoides abundance in breeding substrates and their physicochemical characteristics, dungheaps emerged as the most important substrate for the development of Culicoides obsoletus sensu stricto (s.s.) (Meigen), whereas Culicoides chiopterus (Meigen) and Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer were generally restricted to cowpats. A decreasing pH value was associated with a higher abundance or a higher probability of observing these three species. Furthermore, the abundance of C. obsoletus s.s. was positively related to increasing moisture. Dungheaps were very productive breeding sites for this species and are therefore suggested as a target for potential control measures. PMID:26744290

  10. Repellent effect of topical deltamethrin on blood feeding by Culicoides on horses.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Archer, D; McGowan, C; Garros, C; Gardès, L; Baylis, M

    2015-05-30

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vectorborne disease spread by Culicoides biting midges. The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs currently suggests using topical deltamethrin for AHS control; however, no data are available regarding its efficacy in the horse. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of topical deltamethrin on blood feeding by Culicoides on horses and to investigate which Culicoides species blood fed on horses. Three pairs of horses were placed in partially enclosed cages that allowed samples representing the Culicoides interacting with individual horses to be sampled. Four data collection sessions were completed before one horse from each pair was topically treated with 10 ml of 1 per cent deltamethrin solution and another four sessions were then carried out. Collected Culicoides were identified and each biting midge examined to see if it had blood fed. The most abundant species collected were C. chiopterus, C. dewulfi, C. obsoletus and C. scoticus (44.3 per cent) and either C. pulicaris or C. punctatus (34.7 per cent). These species were also more likely to have blood fed than other species, supporting their potential role as AHS vectors if the virus were to reach the UK. There was no significant effect of treatment on blood feeding by Culicoides. The results do not support the use of topical deltamethrin to prevent blood feeding by Culicoides on individual horses; however, the study does not investigate the effect that the widespread use of topical deltamethrin might have on vector numbers or disease transmission from viraemic individuals during an outbreak of AHS. PMID:25948630

  11. Endophily in Culicoides associated with BTV-infected cattle in the province of Limburg, south-eastern Netherlands, 2006.

    PubMed

    Meiswinkel, R; Goffredo, M; Dijkstra, E G M; van der Ven, I J K; Baldet, T; Elbers, A

    2008-10-15

    Culicoides were captured at a BTV-infected dairy near Gulpen in the province of Limburg (south-east Netherlands) between 14 September and 4 October 2006. Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps were used to sample Culicoides both inside and outside a partially open shed housing 11 cattle. A total of 28 light trap collections were made at the shed and yielded: 9371 Culicoides representing 11 species; >90% comprised five potential vectors of BTV and in order of abundance were Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (of the Obsoletus Complex), Culicoides dewulfi, Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides chiopterus; Culicoides imicola, the principal Mediterranean (and African) vector of BTV, was absent. 2339 Culicoides representing seven species were captured inside (endophily) the cattle shed; >95% comprised the Obsoletus Complex and C. dewulfi. Conversely, the Pulicaris Complex, represented by five species and including C. pulicaris, showed strong exophily with >97% captured outside the shed. 7032 Culicoides were captured outside the shed, approximately threefold more than inside. This trend was reversed on an overcast day, when eightfold more Culicoides were captured inside; this indicates that when the light intensity outdoors is low Culicoides will attack (i) earlier in the day while cattle are still at pasture, and (ii) might follow cattle into the sheds in the late afternoon leading to elevated numbers of biting midges being trapped inside the shed during the subsequent hours of darkness. Culicoides were captured inside the shed on all 14 sampling nights. On occasion up to 33% were freshly blood fed indicating they had avidly attacked the cattle inside (endophagy); because half the cattle had seroconverted to BTV, and because no cattle were left outdoors at night, the data indicate that (i) the housing of animals in partially open buildings does not interrupt the transmission of BTV, and/or (ii) BTV is being transmitted while cattle are grazing outdoors during the

  12. Comparison of different light sources for trapping Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans.

    PubMed

    González, Mikel; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Valle-Mora, Javier; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2016-08-15

    The response of Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans to different wavelengths was evaluated in a farm meadow in northern Spain. A total of 9449 specimens of 23 species of Culicoides, 5495 other ceratopogonids (non-biting midges), 602 culicids and 12428 other mixed dipterans were captured. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suction light traps fitted with five light emitting diodes (LEDs) (white, green, red, blue, ultraviolet) were run for 15 consecutive nights. Significantly more Culicoides were collected in those traps fitted with green, blue or ultraviolet (UV) lights than in red and white-baited LED traps for the most abundant species captured: C. punctatus (37.5%), C. cataneii (26.5%) and C. obsoletus/C. scoticus (20.4%). Similar results were obtained for non-Culicoides ceratopogonids, mosquitoes and other mixed dipterans. Wavelengths in green (570nm) resulted effective for targeting some Culicoides species, culicids and other midges. In a second trial, the effectiveness of 4-W white and UV tubes was compared to traps fitted with UV LED and a standard incandescent light bulb. More specimens of all taxa were collected with fluorescent black light (UV) traps than with the other light sources, except culicids, which were recovered in high numbers from fluorescent white light traps. PMID:27514882

  13. Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and no production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeanette V; Mejia, J Santiago; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J; Titus, Richard G

    2006-09-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate. PMID:16968936

  14. Abundance of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicoides spp.) on cattle farms in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kwon, Mee-Soon; Kim, Toh-Kyung; Lee, Tae-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges were collected on three cattle farms weekly using light traps overnight from May to October between 2010 and 2011 in the southern part of Korea. The seasonal and geographical abundance of Culicodes spp. were measured. A total of 16,538 biting midges were collected from 2010 to 2011, including seven species of Culicoides, four of which represented 98.42% of the collected specimens. These four species were Culicodes (C.) punctatus (n = 14,413), C. arakawae (n = 1,120), C. oxystoma (n = 427), and C. maculatus (n = 318). C. punctatus was the predominant species (87.15%). PMID:23388441

  15. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Host preference studies in haematophagous insects e.g. Culicoides biting midges are pivotal to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and critical for the development of veterinary contingency plans to identify which species should be included due to their risk potential. Species of Culicoides have been found in almost all parts of the world and known to live in a variety of habitats. Several parasites and viruses are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges including Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. The aim of the present study was to determine the identity and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. Methods Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode) was applied to identify the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374). The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. Results Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA sequencing from 242 (76%) out of 320 Culicoides specimens. Eight species of mammals and seven species of birds were identified as blood meal hosts. The most common host species was

  16. Effects of permethrin (Flypor) and fenvalerate (Acadrex60, Arkofly) on Culicoides species-the vector of Bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, Günter; Klimpel, Sven; Walldorf, Volker; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antja; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Bluetongue disease struggles ruminants in Europe since summer 2006, introducing high levels of morbidity and mortality. Besides vaccination, the application of insecticides is another means to protect cattle and sheep from infections with the Bluetongue virus, which is transmitted in Europe by female specimens of Culicoides species (Culicoides obsoletus and in a few cases of Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides dewulfi). The present study deals with the effects of permethrin (Flypor) and fenvalerate (Arkofly, Acadrex 60) on freshly caught Culicoides specimens when brought into contact for 15, 30, 60 or 120 s with hair of cattle or sheep treated topically 7,14, 21, 28 or 35 days before. The experiments clearly showed that the lege arte application of these compounds (products) onto the hair of the experimental animals succeeds in killing Culicoides specimens when brought into contact with hair from feet of animals being treated even 35 days before. This test was needed to make sure that the products do reach the feet and belly of the animals in sufficient amounts, since this region is the predominant biting site of the Culicoides midges. PMID:19015876

  17. Effects of permethrin (Flypor) and fenvalerate (Acadrex60, Arkofly) on Culicoides species-the vector of Bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, Günter; Klimpel, Sven; Walldorf, Volker; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antja; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Bluetongue disease struggles ruminants in Europe since summer 2006, introducing high levels of morbidity and mortality. Besides vaccination, the application of insecticides is another means to protect cattle and sheep from infections with the Bluetongue virus, which is transmitted in Europe by female specimens of Culicoides species (Culicoides obsoletus and in a few cases of Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides dewulfi). The present study deals with the effects of permethrin (Flypor) and fenvalerate (Arkofly, Acadrex 60) on freshly caught Culicoides specimens when brought into contact for 15, 30, 60 or 120 s with hair of cattle or sheep treated topically 7,14, 21, 28 or 35 days before. The experiments clearly showed that the lege arte application of these compounds (products) onto the hair of the experimental animals succeeds in killing Culicoides specimens when brought into contact with hair from feet of animals being treated even 35 days before. This test was needed to make sure that the products do reach the feet and belly of the animals in sufficient amounts, since this region is the predominant biting site of the Culicoides midges.

  18. Influence of carbon dioxide on numbers of Culicoides midges collected with suction light traps in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Boikanyo, S N B; Majatladi, D M; Morey, L

    2016-03-01

    To implement risk management against diseases transmitted by species of Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), it is essential to identify all potential vectors. Light traps are the most commonly used tool for the collection of Culicoides midges. Given the indiscriminate artificial attraction of light, traps will collect all night-flying insects rather than only livestock-associated Culicoides midges. Factors that may increase the efficacy of traps, especially for livestock-associated Culicoides midges, require investigation. In the present study, results obtained with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Onderstepoort light traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) were compared with those of unbaited controls. Comparisons were made using two replicates of a 4 × 4 randomized Latin square design. With both trap types, the mean numbers of Culicoides midges collected in 16 baited traps were higher than those caught in 16 unbaited traps. Although exceptionally low numbers were collected with the CDC traps, the increases in the numbers and frequency of collection of Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913 were more pronounced in the CDC traps compared with the Onderstepoort traps. These results indicate that the addition of CO2 may increase the efficiency of these traps for the collection of C. imicola and other livestock-associated Culicoides species. PMID:26522279

  19. The dying of the light: crepuscular activity in Culicoides and impact on light trap efficacy at temperate latitudes.

    PubMed

    Meiswinkel, R; Elbers, A R W

    2016-03-01

    The light trap is the tool of choice for conducting large-scale Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vector surveillance programmes. Its efficacy is in doubt, however. To assess this, hourly changes in Culicoides activity over the 24-h diel were determined comparatively by way of light trapping and aerial sweeping, and correlated against light intensity. In the Netherlands, sweeping around cattle at pasture revealed that, in early summer, Culicoides are active throughout the diel, and that their abundance peaks during the crepuscular period and falls to a low during the brightest hours of the day. By contrast, the light trap was able to accumulate Culicoides only at night (i.e. after illuminance levels had dropped to 0 lux and midge activity had begun to decline). Although Culicoides chiopterus and species of the Culicoides obsoletus complex were similarly abundant around livestock, they differed critically in their hours of peak activity, being largely diurnal and nocturnal, respectively. This polarity helps to explain why, routinely, the C. obsoletus complex dominates light trap collections and C. chiopterus does not. Inability to accumulate Culicoides at light intensity levels above 0 lux means that, at ever-higher latitudes, particularly beyond 45° N, the progressive northward lengthening of the twilight period will have an increasingly adverse impact upon the efficacy of the light trap as a vector surveillance tool. PMID:26555116

  20. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species.

    PubMed

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2014-01-01

    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  1. Papular Dermatitis Induced in Guinea Pig by Biting Midge Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidaie)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and h...

  2. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species.

    PubMed

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2014-01-01

    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions. PMID:25686204

  3. Habitats of Culicoides spp. in an intertidal zone of southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hagan, C E; Kettle, D S

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of immature Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the intertidal zone was investigated at Redland Bay near Brisbane, southeast Queensland. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of Culicoides immatures and to identify environmental factors influencing these distributions. Light trapping of adult midges indicated that C.subimmaculatus Lee & Reye, C.marmoratus (Skuse), C.longior Hagan & Reye, C.henryi Lee & Reye, C.cordiger Macfie, may have been breeding in the study site. Soil sampling on six transects traversing mangrove and salt-marsh revealed the breeding habitats from which immature stages of the first four species were obtained. The elevation, vegetation and soils of positive sites were recorded and analysed for each species of Culicoides. The distribution of intertidal vegetation (mangroves and salt-marsh plants) was compared to MacNae's (1966) system of mangrove zonation for eastern Australia. The distribution of immature Culicoides did not correspond with mangrove zones, but was related to the presence or absence of intertidal vegetation. C.subimmaculatus was closely associated with a particular substrate and the presence of burrowing crabs.

  4. Management of North American Culicoides biting midges: Current knowledge and research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of two important viruses infecting North American ruminants: bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHDV). While these viruses have been identified for over 60 years, we still lack an adequate understanding of t...

  5. Effects of Melezitose and Stachyose on Adult Longevity and Virus Persistence in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide variety of blood feeding Diptera feed on extrafloral sugar sources such as homopteran honeydew. he significance of these sugar sources to insect survival and disease transmission are poorly known. Culicoides sonorensis can survive on plant sugars but might feed on homopteran honeydew. The su...

  6. Infection of Guinea Pigs with Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interpretive Biting midges,Culicoides sonorensis were shown to be capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) to guinea pigs. Despite seroconversion for VSNJV, none of the guinea pigs developed clinical signs when infected in the abdomen by either infected insects or by nee...

  7. Potential for Transovarial Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an insect transmitted rhabdovirus which causes economically devastating disease in cattle and horses in the western U.S. Important insect vectors identified thus far include Lutzomyia shannoni sand flies, Simulium vittatum black flies, and Culicoides sonorensis bi...

  8. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the development of overwintering immature Culicoides chiopterus and C. dewulfi.

    PubMed

    Lühken, Renke; Steinke, Sonja; Hoppe, Nikolai; Kiel, Ellen

    2015-11-30

    In areas with harsh winters, several studies have recorded low numbers - or even zero - adult Culicoides during the winter period followed by a population peak in the subsequent spring. This experimental study determined whether temperature, photoperiod, or the combination thereof affect the development of overwintering immature dung breeding Culicoides, resulting in this peak. Temperature had a significant impact on the development period of Culicoides chiopterus (Meigen), 1830 and C. dewulfi Goetghebuer, 1936. In treatments with constant high temperature, emergence occurred shortly after the beginning of the experiment (mean=day 9). In contrast, no individuals emerged from the other two treatments, as long as the temperatures were below 10°C. In these treatments, the emergence of Culicoides started when the temperature exceeded 20°C for some days (mean=day 33). There was no significant difference between the two photoperiods (February or April day length; 9 h:15 h [light:dark] vs. 13 h:11 h). Our results highlight the importance of temperature on the spring emergence of C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi, but the response to the four temperature-photoperiod treatments did not differ between the two species.

  9. Culture-independent analysis of midgut microbiota in the arbovirus vector Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Corey L; Mummey, Daniel L; Schmidtmann, Edward T; Wilson, William C

    2004-05-01

    Differences in midgut microbial communities inhabiting Culicoides spp., insect vectors of virus pathogens, may affect the variation observed in the ability of these biting midges to propagate arthropod-borne viruses. As a first step toward addressing this hypothesis, midgut bacterial communities were compared between Culicoides species expected to be efficient and inefficient vectors of virus pathogens. We used 16S rDNA sequence and restriction fragment information to provisionally identify 36 bacterial genera from guts of wild adult female biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones and Culicoides variipennis (Coquillet), from two geographical locations. Bacterial identification was made by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA fragments and by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from adult guts. Of 36 bacterial genera identified, 12 had been previously identified in other insects: Comomonas, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Staphylococcus, Chryseobacterium, Moraxella, Acholeplasma, Flavobacterium, and Rickettsia, Significant differences in bacterial community composition were found between all three groups of wild adult females analyzed: live-trapped C. sonorensis, laboratory-emerged C. sonorensis, and laboratory-emerged C. variipennis.

  10. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  11. Transcriptome analyses of blood and sugar digestive processes in female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) midges vector numerous diseases impacting livestock and humans. The molecular physiology of this midge has been under-studied, so our approach was to gain an understanding of basic processes of blood and sucrose digestion using tra...

  12. Understanding and exploiting olfaction for the surveillance and control of Culicoides biting midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are found worldwide with the exception of only a few countries including New Zealand, Patagonia, the Hawaiian Isles and Antarctica. They are a nuisance pest to human beings, but transmit a number of diseases that mainly affect livestock. Like many haema...

  13. Long-distance aerial dispersal modelling of Culicoides biting midges: case studies of incursions into Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigating long-distance, wind-borne dispersal of Culicoides have utilised outbreaks of clinical disease (passive surveillance) to assess the relationship between incursion and dispersal event. In this study, species of exotic Culicoides and isolates of novel bluetongue viruses, collected as part of an active arbovirus surveillance program, were used for the first time to assess dispersal into an endemic region. Results A plausible dispersal event was determined for five of the six cases examined. These include exotic Culicoides specimens for which a possible dispersal event was identified within the range of two days – three weeks prior to their collection and novel bluetongue viruses for which a dispersal event was identified between one week and two months prior to their detection in cattle. The source location varied, but ranged from Lombok, in eastern Indonesia, to Timor-Leste and southern Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Where bluetongue virus is endemic, the concurrent use of an atmospheric dispersal model alongside existing arbovirus and Culicoides surveillance may help guide the strategic use of limited surveillance resources as well as contribute to continued model validation and refinement. Further, the value of active surveillance systems in evaluating models for long-distance dispersal is highlighted, particularly in endemic regions where knowledge of background virus and vector status is beneficial. PMID:24943652

  14. Distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Dergousoff, S J

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones was examined in Alberta, Canada. Sampling was conducted weekly using blacklight traps at eight locations in 2009, and 10 locations during 2010-2012. Nine supplemental sites were sampled twice annually during both 2011 and 2012. Abundance of C. sonorensis was consistently greatest at a site near the U.S. border, and declined in a northerly direction. Mean annual abundance at this site ranged from 6.4- to > 1,000-fold greater across positive sites. Data from a less extensive survey conducted during 2002-2006 were included in the remaining analyses. C. sonorensis was distributed below a diagonal spanning 49 degrees 30' N, 113 degrees 0' W to 51 degrees 21' N, 110 degrees 40' W. The relationship between the proportion of weekly samples positive and mean annual abundance at a site was determined and indicated that the proportion of positive samples could be used as a surrogate measure of abundance to overcome issues associated with the extreme variation in abundance. A series of logistic regression models were developed and evaluated to determine the effects of spatial (latitude and longitude), climatic (historic temperature and precipitation during the warmest quarter), and weather (temperature during the sample interval and spring precipitation) on abundance as measured by the proportion of positive samples. Spatial and climatic variables set the overall level of abundance, while weather variables added seasonal fluctuations within years, and also fluctuations between years. These data will be useful for long-term monitoring of C. sonorensis and as a baseline for detecting shifts in abundance that might occur because of climate change. PMID:24897848

  15. Gene discovery and differential expression analysis of humoral immune response elements in female Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their molecular functioning, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved ...

  16. Culicoides vector species on three South American camelid farms seropositive for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Germany 2008/2009.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Ziller, Mario; Kampen, Helge; Gauly, Matthias; Beer, Martin; Grevelding, Christoph G; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bauer, Christian; Werner, Doreen

    2015-12-15

    Palearctic species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), in particular of the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, were identified as putative vectors of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) on ruminant farms during the epizootic in Germany from 2006 to 2009. BTV may cause severe morbidity and mortality in ruminants and sporadically in South American camelids (SAC). However, the fauna of Culicoides spp. on SAC farms has not been investigated. Therefore, the ceratopogonid fauna was monitored on three farms with BTV-seropositive SAC in Germany. Black-light traps were set up on pastures and in stables from summer 2008 to autumn 2009. Additionally, ceratopogonids were caught in emergence traps mounted on llama dung and dung-free pasture from spring to autumn 2009. After morphological identification, selected Culicoides samples were analysed for BTV-RNA by real-time RT-PCR. The effects of the variables 'location', 'temperature' and 'humidity' on the number of Culicoides caught in black-light traps were modelled using multivariable Poisson regression. In total, 26 species of Culicoides and six other genera of biting midges were identified. The most abundant Culicoides spp. collected both outdoors and indoors with black-light traps belonged to the Obsoletus (77.4%) and Pulicaris (16.0%) complexes. The number of Culicoides peaked in summer, while no biting midges were caught during the winter months. Daily collections of Culicoides were mainly influenced by the location and depended on the interaction of temperature and humidity. In the emergence traps, species of the Obsoletus complex predominated the collections. In summary, the absence of BTV-RNA in any of the analysed Culicoides midges and in the BTV-seropositive SAC on the three farms together with the differences in the pathogenesis of BTV-8 in SAC compared to ruminants suggests a negligible role of SAC in the spread of the virus. Although SAC farms may provide similar suitable habitats for putative Culicoides

  17. Culicoides vector species on three South American camelid farms seropositive for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Germany 2008/2009.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Ziller, Mario; Kampen, Helge; Gauly, Matthias; Beer, Martin; Grevelding, Christoph G; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bauer, Christian; Werner, Doreen

    2015-12-15

    Palearctic species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), in particular of the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, were identified as putative vectors of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) on ruminant farms during the epizootic in Germany from 2006 to 2009. BTV may cause severe morbidity and mortality in ruminants and sporadically in South American camelids (SAC). However, the fauna of Culicoides spp. on SAC farms has not been investigated. Therefore, the ceratopogonid fauna was monitored on three farms with BTV-seropositive SAC in Germany. Black-light traps were set up on pastures and in stables from summer 2008 to autumn 2009. Additionally, ceratopogonids were caught in emergence traps mounted on llama dung and dung-free pasture from spring to autumn 2009. After morphological identification, selected Culicoides samples were analysed for BTV-RNA by real-time RT-PCR. The effects of the variables 'location', 'temperature' and 'humidity' on the number of Culicoides caught in black-light traps were modelled using multivariable Poisson regression. In total, 26 species of Culicoides and six other genera of biting midges were identified. The most abundant Culicoides spp. collected both outdoors and indoors with black-light traps belonged to the Obsoletus (77.4%) and Pulicaris (16.0%) complexes. The number of Culicoides peaked in summer, while no biting midges were caught during the winter months. Daily collections of Culicoides were mainly influenced by the location and depended on the interaction of temperature and humidity. In the emergence traps, species of the Obsoletus complex predominated the collections. In summary, the absence of BTV-RNA in any of the analysed Culicoides midges and in the BTV-seropositive SAC on the three farms together with the differences in the pathogenesis of BTV-8 in SAC compared to ruminants suggests a negligible role of SAC in the spread of the virus. Although SAC farms may provide similar suitable habitats for putative Culicoides

  18. Host preferences and circadian rhythm of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vectors of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fall, Moussa; Fall, Assane G; Seck, Momar T; Bouyer, Jérémy; Diarra, Maryam; Lancelot, Renaud; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Garros, Claire; Bakhoum, Mame T; Faye, Ousmane; Baldet, Thierry; Balenghien, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    African horse sickness- and bluetongue virus are orbiviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to horses and to ruminants, respectively. Since the last epizootic outbreak of African horse sickness in 2007 in Senegal, extensive investigations have been undertaken to improve our knowledge on Culicoides species involved locally in the transmission of the virus. The purpose of this study was to compare and quantify the host preferences of potential vectors of these orbiviruses on horse and sheep and to study their circadian rhythm. We found that Culicoides oxystoma and species of the sub-genus Avaritia (Culicoides imicola, Culicoides bolitinos and Culicoides pseudopallidipennis) had a preference for horse when compared to sheep (the predicted ratio between horse and sheep was 80 for C. oxystoma and 26 for C. imicola), and were mostly crepuscular: C. oxystoma had continuous activity throughout the diel with peaks in numbers collected after sunrise and sunset, while C. imicola was mostly nocturnal with peak after sunset. Unexpectedly, species of the subgenus Lasiohelea was also collected during this study. This diurnal biting species was a nuisance pest for both animal species used as bait.

  19. Explorando nuevos horizontes en NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, G. L.

    A pesar de la incesante expansión del Universo iniciada con el Big Bang 14 mil millones de años atrás, nuestro Universo se siente cada día más cercano. La inquebrantable vocación de la humanidad por descubrir nuevos horizontes ha permitido el acercamiento de civilizaciones en nuestro planeta y nos ha permitido conocer nuestro lugar en el Universo como nunca antes. En este artículo presento una breve sinopsis de nuestro trabajo que se relaciona con diversas investigaciones con implicaciones astrobiológicas, desde el origen de los ingredientes de la "sopa de la vida", hasta la evolución y composición de la atmósfera de Marte.

  20. Is the morphology of Culicoides intersexes parasitized by mermithid nematodes a parasite adaptation? A morphometric approach to Culicoides circumscriptus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Ramoneda, Josep; Pagès, Nonito; Pujol, Nuria; Talavera, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Mermithidae is a family of endoparasitic nematodes known to cause intersexuality in arthropods. Intersexes of the genus Culicoides parasitized by mermithids have been the object of several studies aiming to describe their particular morphology. Culicoides intersexes are specimens with male genitalia and feminized sexually dimorphic structures, i.e. antennae, mouthparts and wings. To date, these specimens have only been described qualitatively and a quantitative approach supported by statistical analysis is lacking. Here we conduct morphometric analyses of sexually dimorphic structures in a sample of Culicoides circumscriptus that includes 34 intersexes with the aim of describing precisely the intersexual morphology. The morphology of antennae and the mouthparts was studied by multivariate statistical analysis of linear measures, and wing form by implementing geometric morphometrics techniques. While intersex wings proved to have a similar size to male wings, their shape was intermediate between males and females. However, when allometric shape variation was removed, the wing shape of intersexes was almost identical to that of females. The intersex antennae were morphometrically of the female type, especially when size variation was considered. In contrast, the measured mouthparts (the labrum and the third palpal segment) were halfway between males and females, even when body size was considered. Overall, the antennae and the wings showed a higher degree of feminization than the mouthparts. These findings indicate that the degree of feminization depends both on the morphological structure and on body size. Moreover, we propose that the feminization of the wings and antennae has an adaptive meaning for the parasite, which would favor female-like traits in order to access more easily its breeding sites, where the parasite has plenty of new hosts to infect. Female-like antennae would be beneficial to detect these sites, while having female-like wings would favor the

  1. Foraging range of arthropods with veterinary interest: New insights for Afrotropical Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) using the ring method.

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, M T; Fall, M; Seck, M T; Gardès, L; Fall, A G; Diop, M; Mall, I; Balenghien, T; Baldet, T; Gimonneau, G; Garros, C; Bouyer, J

    2016-05-01

    The identification of blood meal source of arthropod vector species contributes to the understanding of host-vector-pathogen interactions. The aim of the current work was to identify blood meal source in Culicoides biting midge species, biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses of livestock and equids, using a new ecological approach. We examined the correlation between blood meal source identified in engorged Culicoides females collected in a suction light trap and the available vertebrate hosts along four rings (200, 500, 1000 and 2000 m) centered at the trap site and described the foraging range of the three main vector species of veterinary interest present in the study area, Culicoides imicola, Culicoides kingi and Culicoides oxystoma. The study was performed in four sites localized in the Niayes region of Senegal (West Africa) where recent outbreaks of African horse sickness occurred. Blood meal source identification was carried out by species-specific multiplex PCRs with genomic DNA extracted from the abdomen of engorged females collected during nine night collections for twenty-six collections. The four most abundant hosts present in the studied area (horse, cattle, goat and sheep) were surveyed in each ring zone. The blood meal source varied according to Culicoides species and host availability in each site. C. oxystoma and C. imicola females mainly fed on horses readily available at 200 m maximum from the trap location whereas females of C. kingi fed mainly on cattle, at variable distances from the traps (200 to 2000 m). C. oxystoma may also feed on other vertebrates. We discuss the results in relation with the transmission of Culicoides-borne arboviruses and the species dispersion capacities. PMID:26826391

  2. [Two filariae of the genus Eufilaria in Turdus merula; development in Culicoides nubeculosus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bain, O

    1980-01-01

    Turdus merula from Nevers (France) is infected by two species of microfilariae which both evolve in eight days (26 degrees C) in Culicoides nubeculosus. We determine as Eufilaria delicata Supperer, 1958, the females with the longest microfilariae, the male with slightly unequal spicules and the largest infective larvae. We consider the species with the shorter microfilariae, males with more markedly unequal spicules and a relatively short infective larva as E. bartlettae n. sp. The female of this species is unknown. The identification of the infective larvae is provisional since it is based on the relative frequency of the two species. The infective larvae of Onchocercidae in birds which have been described as developing in Culicoides and simuliids (genera Splendidofilaria, Chandlerella and Eufilaria) and morphological similar but the caudal extremities of the first and third stages differ between the genera.

  3. Development and evaluation of real-time PCR assays for bloodmeal identification in Culicoides midges.

    PubMed

    VAN DER Saag, M R; Gu, X; Ward, M P; Kirkland, P D

    2016-06-01

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midges are the biological vectors of a number of arboviruses of veterinary importance. However, knowledge relating to the basic biology of some species, including their host-feeding preferences, is limited. Identification of host-feeding preferences in haematophagous insects can help to elucidate the transmission dynamics of the arboviruses they may transmit. In this study, a series of semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to identify the vertebrate host sources of bloodmeals of Culicoides midges was developed. Two pan-reactive species group and seven species-specific qPCR assays were developed and evaluated. The assays are quick to perform and less expensive than nucleic acid sequencing of bloodmeals. Using these assays, it was possible to rapidly test nearly 700 blood-fed midges of various species from several geographic locations in Australia. PMID:26854008

  4. Modelling spatio-temporal patterns of long-distance Culicoides dispersal into northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Eagles, D; Walker, P J; Zalucki, M P; Durr, P A

    2013-07-01

    Novel arboviruses, including new serotypes of bluetongue virus, are isolated intermittently from cattle and insects in northern Australia. These viruses are thought to be introduced via windborne dispersal of Culicoides from neighbouring land masses to the north. We used the HYSPLIT particle dispersal model to simulate the spatio-temporal patterns of Culicoides dispersal into northern Australia from nine putative source sites across Indonesia, Timor-Leste and Papua New Guinea. Simulated dispersal was found to be possible from each site, with the islands of Timor and Sumba highlighted as the likely principal sources and February the predominant month of dispersal. The results of this study define the likely spatial extent of the source and arrival regions, the relative frequency of dispersal from the putative sources and the temporal nature of seasonal winds from source sites into arrival regions. Importantly, the methodology and results may be applicable to other insect and pathogen incursions into northern Australia.

  5. Sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of European Culicoides biting midges.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, C; Mathis, A; Vorburger, C

    2015-03-01

    Most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. Scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. The longevity of laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28 °C) and with access to water or water and blood was on average 6.4 days and 8.9 days, respectively, which was around one third of the lifespan of siblings with access to sugar or sugar and blood (22.2 days and 27.1 days, respectively). Access to honeydew significantly increased the midge's longevity, whereas the provision of extrafloral nectaries had no impact. Females with access to sugar produced a significantly higher number of eggs (65.5 ± 5.2) than their starved sisters (45.4 ± 8.4). More than 80% of field-caught female Culicoides from the two most abundant European groups, Obsoletus (n = 2243) and Pulicaris (n = 805), were fructose-positive. Fructose-positivity was high in all physiological stages and no seasonal variability was noted. The high rate of natural sugar feeding of Culicoides offers opportunities for the development of novel control strategies using toxic sugar baits and for the monitoring of vector-borne diseases using sugar-treated FTA (nucleic acid preservation) cards in the field.

  6. Evaluation of a eucalyptus-based repellent against Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Trigg, J K

    1996-06-01

    A eucalyptus-based insect repellent (PMD) was evaluated against Culicoides impunctatus in Scotland in comparison with deet. In human landing catches, both repellents still afforded 98% protection from biting 8 h after application of 0.5 ml to the forearm. A second trial looking at protection between 8 and 10 h after repellent application showed 99.5% protection for PMD and 97% for deet as compared with controls. PMID:8827615

  7. Field trials assessing deltamethrin (Butox®) treatments of sheep against Culicoides species.

    PubMed

    Weiher, Wiebke; Bauer, Burkhard; Mehlitz, Dieter; Nijhof, Ard M; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2014-07-01

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges may transmit various diseases of economic importance, including bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg (SV) virus, which affect ruminants. During the outbreak of BTV in central and northern Europe in 2006, and in the absence of BTV vaccines, many national veterinary services recommended the treatment of susceptible livestock with pyrethroids as a first-line defense against biting midges, although these insecticides were officially not registered and authorized for use against Culicoides midges. The efficacy of Butox® pour on (7.5 mg deltamethrin/mL) against biting midges was therefore evaluated in a double-blinded GCP field trial performed in Brandenburg, Germany. Forty female Merino sheep with an average body weight of 38 kg (±7 kg) were used for the study. Twenty randomly selected sheep were treated with 10 mL Butox® pour on. The remaining 20 sheep were left untreated and served as a control group. Midge collections took place in two separate drop traps covering two crush pens with three confined treated/untreated sheep standing inside, on weekdays at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days post treatment. A total of 19,057 midges were collected during this period. Midges were identified as belonging to the subgenus Avaritia, Fox (84.6%) and subgenus Culicoides, Latreille (15.4%). A total of 12,031 midges were collected inside the drop trap containing untreated sheep, in comparison to 7,026 midges collected from the vicinity of the treated sheep. Significantly, more midges had fed on control compared to treated sheep with 757 and 103 engorged midges, respectively. The results indicate that treatment of sheep with Butox® pour on provided a significant decrease in Culicoides feeding rates under field conditions for at least 35 days.

  8. A Spatial Simulation Model for the Dispersal of the Bluetongue Vector Culicoides brevitarsis in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Joel K.; Milne, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of Bluetongue virus (BTV) among ruminants is caused by movement of infected host animals or by movement of infected Culicoides midges, the vector of BTV. Biologically plausible models of Culicoides dispersal are necessary for predicting the spread of BTV and are important for planning control and eradication strategies. Methods A spatially-explicit simulation model which captures the two underlying population mechanisms, population dynamics and movement, was developed using extensive data from a trapping program for C. brevitarsis on the east coast of Australia. A realistic midge flight sub-model was developed and the annual incursion and population establishment of C. brevitarsis was simulated. Data from the literature was used to parameterise the model. Results The model was shown to reproduce the spread of C. brevitarsis southwards along the east Australian coastline in spring, from an endemic population to the north. Such incursions were shown to be reliant on wind-dispersal; Culicoides midge active flight on its own was not capable of achieving known rates of southern spread, nor was re-emergence of southern populations due to overwintering larvae. Data from midge trapping programmes were used to qualitatively validate the resulting simulation model. Conclusions The model described in this paper is intended to form the vector component of an extended model that will also include BTV transmission. A model of midge movement and population dynamics has been developed in sufficient detail such that the extended model may be used to evaluate the timing and extent of BTV outbreaks. This extended model could then be used as a platform for addressing the effectiveness of spatially targeted vaccination strategies or animal movement bans as BTV spread mitigation measures, or the impact of climate change on the risk and extent of outbreaks. These questions involving incursive Culicoides spread cannot be simply addressed with non-spatial models. PMID

  9. Farms, pastures and woodlands: the fine-scale distribution of Palearctic Culicoides spp. biting midges along an agro-ecological gradient.

    PubMed

    Rigot, T; Drubbel, M Vercauteren; Delécolle, J-C; Gilbert, M

    2013-03-01

    The spatial epidemiology of Bluetongue virus (BTV) at the landscape level relates to the fine-scale distribution and dispersal capacities of its vectors, midges belonging to the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Although many previous researches have carried out Culicoides sampling on farms, little is known of the fine-scale distribution of Culicoides in the landscape immediately surrounding farms. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of Culicoides populations at increasing distances from typical dairy farms in north-west Europe, through the use of eight Onderstepoort-type black-light traps positioned along linear transects departing from farms, going through pastures and entering woodlands. A total of 16 902 Culicoides were collected in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. The majority were females, of which more than 97% were recognized as potential vectors. In pastures, we found decreasing numbers of female Culicoides as a function of the distance to the farm. This pattern was modelled by leptokurtic models, with parameters depending on season and species. By contrast, the low number of male Culicoides caught were homogeneously distributed along the transects. When transects entered woodlands, we found a higher abundance of Culicoides than expected considering the distance of the sampling sites to the farm, although this varied according to species.

  10. The reference transcriptome of the adult female biting midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and differential gene expression profiling during teneral, blood, and sucrose feeding conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoid...

  11. Farms, pastures and woodlands: the fine-scale distribution of Palearctic Culicoides spp. biting midges along an agro-ecological gradient.

    PubMed

    Rigot, T; Drubbel, M Vercauteren; Delécolle, J-C; Gilbert, M

    2013-03-01

    The spatial epidemiology of Bluetongue virus (BTV) at the landscape level relates to the fine-scale distribution and dispersal capacities of its vectors, midges belonging to the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Although many previous researches have carried out Culicoides sampling on farms, little is known of the fine-scale distribution of Culicoides in the landscape immediately surrounding farms. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of Culicoides populations at increasing distances from typical dairy farms in north-west Europe, through the use of eight Onderstepoort-type black-light traps positioned along linear transects departing from farms, going through pastures and entering woodlands. A total of 16 902 Culicoides were collected in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. The majority were females, of which more than 97% were recognized as potential vectors. In pastures, we found decreasing numbers of female Culicoides as a function of the distance to the farm. This pattern was modelled by leptokurtic models, with parameters depending on season and species. By contrast, the low number of male Culicoides caught were homogeneously distributed along the transects. When transects entered woodlands, we found a higher abundance of Culicoides than expected considering the distance of the sampling sites to the farm, although this varied according to species. PMID:22897885

  12. Culicoides Midge Bites Modulate the Host Response and Impact on Bluetongue Virus Infection in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pages, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Viarouge, Cyril; Lorca-Oro, Cristina; Jouneau, Luc; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes, David; Pujols, Joan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV) induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses. PMID:24421899

  13. The barriers to bluetongue virus infection, dissemination and transmission in the vector, Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Leake, C J; Mertens, P P; Mellor, P S

    1999-01-01

    Transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) by a vector species of Culicoides was studied using immunohistochemistry, virus titration and in vitro transmission tests. Adult female C. variipennis were used from two colonies that are either "transmission competent" or "transmission refractory" after oral infection with BTV. Intrathoracic (i.t.) injection of BTV into the haemocoel always resulted in a fully disseminated infection and transmission of virus in saliva. However, after ingestion of an infectious blood meal, only 30% (approximately) of midges from either colony became persistently infected. Although none of the orally infected insects from the "refractory" colony were able to transmit virus, 12% of those from the "competent" colony (containing > or = 10(3.0)TCID50 of virus/midge) did transmit BTV in their saliva. The most important barriers to BTV transmission in Culicoides vector species appeared to be a mesenteron infection barrier (MIB), which controls initial establishment of persistent infection, a mesenteron escape barrier (MEB) which can restrict virus to gut cells and a dissemination barrier (DB) which can prevent virus which enters the haemocoel from infecting secondary target organs. Culicoides variipennis do not appear to present either a salivary gland infection barrier (SGIB), or a salivary gland escape barrier (SGEB) to BTV.

  14. Isolation of Tibet orbivirus, TIBOV, from Culicoides Collected in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jingdong; Li, Yang; Ma, Xuejun; Liang, Guodong; Zhou, Hongning

    2015-01-01

    We isolated a novel virus strain (YN12246) from Culicoides spp. specimens collected at the China-Laos-Myanmar border in southern Yunnan Province. This virus had a cytopathic effect (CPE) on both insect cells (C6/36) and mammalian cells (BHK-21). Electron microscopy revealed the structure of the virions to be spherical with a diameter of 75 nm. Polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrated that the viral genome consisted of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), with a distribution pattern of 3-3-3-1. The coding sequences of 9 genome segments of YN12246 (Seg1, Seg3-Seg10) were obtained by high-throughput sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Comparisons of conserved genome segments 1 and 3 (Seg1 and Seg3), encoding the polymerase-VP1 and sub-core T2 protein, respectively, showed that YN12246 groups with the Culicoides-borne orbiviruses. The highest levels of sequence identity were detected between YN12246 and Tibet orbivirus (TIBOV), indicating that they belong to the same virus species (with amino acid identity of 98.8% and 96.4% for the polymerase and T2 protein, respectively). The data presented here confirm that YN12246 is a member of the TIBOV species, which was first isolated from mosquitoes in 2009. This is the first report of the isolation of TIBOV from Culicoides. PMID:26295700

  15. Culicoides midge bites modulate the host response and impact on bluetongue virus infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pages, Nonito; Bréard, Emmanuel; Urien, Céline; Talavera, Sandra; Viarouge, Cyril; Lorca-Oro, Cristina; Jouneau, Luc; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes, David; Pujols, Joan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV) induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses.

  16. Investigating incursions of bluetongue virus using a model of long-distance Culicoides biting midge dispersal.

    PubMed

    Burgin, L E; Gloster, J; Sanders, C; Mellor, P S; Gubbins, S; Carpenter, S

    2013-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important pathogen of ruminants that is the aetiological agent of the haemorrhagic disease bluetongue. Bluetongue virus is biologically transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and long-range dispersal of infected vector species contributes substantially to the rapid spread of the virus. The range of semi-passive flights of infected Culicoides on prevailing winds has been inferred to reach several hundred kilometres in a single night over water bodies. In this study, an atmospheric dispersion model was parameterized to simulate Culicoides flight activity based on dedicated entomological data sets collected in the UK. Five outbreaks of BTV in Europe were used to evaluate the model for use as an early warning tool and for retrospective analyses of BTV incursions. In each case, the generated predictions were consistent with epidemiological observations confirming its reliability for use in disease outbreak management. Furthermore, the model aided policy makers to predict, contain and eradicate BTV outbreaks in the UK during 2007 and 2008.

  17. Spatial and temporal distribution of Culicoides species in mainland Portugal (2005-2010). Results of the Portuguese Entomological Surveillance Programme.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rita; Wilson, Anthony J; Nunes, Telmo; Ramilo, David W; Amador, Rita; Madeira, Sara; Baptista, Filipa M; Harrup, Lara E; Lucientes, Javier; Boinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and causes an infectious, non-contagious disease of ruminants. It has been rapidly emerging in southern Europe since 1998. In mainland Portugal, strains of BTV belonging to three serotypes have been detected: BTV-10 (1956-1960), BTV-4 (2004-2006 and 2013) and BTV-1 (2007-2012). This paper describes the design, implementation and results of the Entomological Surveillance Programme covering mainland Portugal, between 2005 and 2010, including 5,650 caches. Culicoides imicola Kieffer was mostly found in central and southern regions of Portugal, although it was sporadically detected in northern latitudes. Its peak activity occurred in the autumn and it was active during the winter months in limited areas of the country. Obsoletus group was present at the highest densities in the north although they were found throughout the country in substantial numbers. Culicoides activity occurred all year round but peaked in the spring. A generalized linear mixed model was developed for the analysis of the environmental factors associated with activity of the species of Culicoides suspected vectors of BTV in the country. For C. imicola Kieffer, the most important variables were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), the number of frost days (FRS) and median monthly temperature (TMP). For the Obsoletus group, the most important factors were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), and linear and quadratic terms for median monthly temperature (TMP). The results reported can improve our understanding of climatic factors in Culicoides activity influencing their distribution and seasonal pattern.

  18. Vector competence of Culicoides for arboviruses: three major periods of research, their influence on current studies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, S; Veronesi, E; Mullens, B; Venter, G

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular and unprecedented outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) that have occurred in Europe since 1998 have led to increased interest in those factors that determine competence of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for arboviruses. In this review the authors critically examine three major periods of research into the biological transmission by Culicoides of two economically important arboviruses ofthefamily Reoviridae: African horse sicknessvirus (AHSV) and BTV. First they examine early studies, largely conducted in southern Africa, that played a key role in initially implicating Culicoides as agents of AHSV and BTV transmission. Then they examine advances in understanding made following the establishment of colonies of the BTV vector species Culicoides sonorensis, which have largely shaped our current understanding of BTV and AHSV transmission. They then consider attempts in recent years to implicate vectors of BTV in the European Union during what has become the most economically damaging series of outbreaks in recorded history. In some cases the origin of these outbreaks was uncertain and unexpected, particularly in northern Europe, where BTV had not previously occurred. Limitations imposed on studies of vector competence by the biology of Culicoides are then discussed, along with advances in the technologies now available and the logistics of working upon agents requiring biosecure containment outside their endemic range. Finally, the authors suggest areas that have either been poorly addressed to date or entirely ignored and ways in which studies could be conducted to provide standardised data for comparison worldwide.

  19. Modelling the Abundances of Two Major Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Species in the Niayes Area of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Maryam; Fall, Moussa; Lancelot, Renaud; Diop, Aliou; Fall, Assane G.; Dicko, Ahmadou; Seck, Momar Talla; Garros, Claire; Allène, Xavier; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Bakhoum, Mame Thierno; Bouyer, Jérémy; Guis, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    In Senegal, considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses were caused by the African horse sickness (AHS) epizootic in 2007. Culicoides oxystoma and Culicoides imicola, known or suspected of being vectors of bluetongue and AHS viruses are two predominant species in the vicinity of horses and are present all year-round in Niayes area, Senegal. The aim of this study was to better understand the environmental and climatic drivers of the dynamics of these two species. Culicoides collections were obtained using OVI (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute) light traps at each of the 5 sites for three nights of consecutive collection per month over one year. Cross Correlation Map analysis was performed to determine the time-lags for which environmental variables and abundance data were the most correlated. C. oxystoma and C. imicola count data were highly variable and overdispersed. Despite modelling large Culicoides counts (over 220,000 Culicoides captured in 354 night-traps), using on-site climate measures, overdispersion persisted in Poisson, negative binomial, Poisson regression mixed-effect with random effect at the site of capture models. The only model able to take into account overdispersion was the Poisson regression mixed-effect model with nested random effects at the site and date of capture levels. According to this model, meteorological variables that contribute to explaining the dynamics of C. oxystoma and C. imicola abundances were: mean temperature and relative humidity of the capture day, mean humidity between 21 and 19 days prior a capture event, density of ruminants, percentage cover of water bodies within a 2 km radius and interaction between temperature and humidity for C. oxystoma; mean rainfall and NDVI of the capture day and percentage cover of water bodies for C. imicola. Other variables such as soil moisture, wind speed, degree days, land cover or landscape metrics could be tested to improve the models. Further work

  20. Comparison of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Biology Techniques for Identification of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Biting Midges in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Fenollar, Florence; Fall, Becaye; Bassene, Hubert; Almeras, Lionel; Sambe-Ba, Bissoume; Perrot, Nadine; Chatellier, Sonia; Faye, Ngor; Parola, Philippe; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are implicated as vectors for a wide variety of pathogens. The morphological identification of these arthropods may be difficult because of a lack of detailed investigation of taxonomy for this species in Africa. However, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling is efficient for arthropod identification at the species level. This study established a spectrum database of Culicoides spp. from Senegal using MALDI-TOF. Identification of Culicoides insects to the species level before mass spectrometry was performed on the basis of morphological characters. MALDI-TOF MS reference spectra were determined for 437 field-caught Culicoides of 10 species. The protein profiles of all tested Culicoides revealed several peaks with mass ranges of 2 to 20 kDa. In a validation study, 72 Culicoides specimens in the target species were correctly identified at the species level with a similarity of 95 to 99.9%. Four Culicoides protein profiles were misidentified. Nevertheless, six SuperSpectra (C. imicola, C. enderleini, C. oxystoma, C. kingi, C. magnus, and C. fulvithorax) were created. Abdomens of midges were used to amplify and sequence a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). The results obtained using the MALDI-TOF MS method were consistent with the morphological identification and similar to the genetic identification. Protein profiling using MALDI-TOF is an efficient approach for the identification of Culicoides spp., and it is economically advantageous for approaches that require detailed and quantitative information of vector species that are collected in field. The database of African Culicoides MS spectra created is the first database in Africa. The COI sequences of five Culicoides species that were previously noncharacterized using molecular methods were deposited in GenBank. PMID:25411169

  1. Species Diversity and Seasonal Distribution of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Jeju-do, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A.; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A.; Gopurenko, David; Cai, Du-Cheng; Seo, Hyun-Ji; Cho, In-Soo; Park, Jee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® and black light traps at 5 sites on Jeju-do, Republic of Korea (Korea), from May-November 2013 to determine species diversity and seasonal distribution. A total of 4,267 specimens were collected, of which 99.9% were female. The most common species was Culicoides tainanus (91.8%), followed by C. lungchiensis (7.2%) and C. punctatus (0.6%), while the remaining 4 species accounted for <0.5% of all Culicoides spp. that were collected. High numbers of C. tainanus were collected in May, followed by decreasing numbers through August, and then increasing numbers through November when surveillance was terminated. Peak numbers of C. lungchiensis were collected during September, with low numbers collected from May-August and October-November. The presence of C. lungchiensis in Korea was confirmed by morphological and molecular analyses. PMID:26323852

  2. In situ immune infrared fluorescent staining for detection and quantitation of bluetongue virus in Culicoides insect cell culture.

    PubMed

    Mecham, James O; Brown, Philip L; McHolland, Linda E

    2009-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted to sheep, cattle and other ruminants by Culicoides spp. of biting midges. Cell lines have been developed from Culicoides sonorensis; however, techniques to detect and quantitate viable virus directly in these insect cells are lacking. In situ immune infrared fluorescent staining techniques were developed to visualize and quantitate BTV infection in Culicoides cell culture by both an endpoint titration and an agarose overlay fluorescent focus assay. Insect cell cultures infected with BTV were fixed, permeabilized and reacted with virus-specific monoclonal antibody and fluorescent-labeled secondary antibody. Virus replication in the infected cells was visualized and quantitated by measuring fluorescence with an infrared imager. The sensitivity of virus detection in insect cell culture using these techniques was comparable to or better than detection by standard techniques in vertebrate cell culture.

  3. Species Diversity and Seasonal Distribution of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Jeju-do, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A; Gopurenko, David; Cai, Du-Cheng; Seo, Hyun-Ji; Cho, In-Soo; Park, Jee-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet(®) and black light traps at 5 sites on Jeju-do, Republic of Korea (Korea), from May-November 2013 to determine species diversity and seasonal distribution. A total of 4,267 specimens were collected, of which 99.9% were female. The most common species was Culicoides tainanus (91.8%), followed by C. lungchiensis (7.2%) and C. punctatus (0.6%), while the remaining 4 species accounted for <0.5% of all Culicoides spp. that were collected. High numbers of C. tainanus were collected in May, followed by decreasing numbers through August, and then increasing numbers through November when surveillance was terminated. Peak numbers of C. lungchiensis were collected during September, with low numbers collected from May-August and October-November. The presence of C. lungchiensis in Korea was confirmed by morphological and molecular analyses.

  4. Are bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time.

  5. Are Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

  6. Comparison of Vertebrate Cytochrome b and Prepronociceptin for Blood Meal Analyses in Culicoides

    PubMed Central

    Hadj-Henni, Leila; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Depaquit, Jérôme; Noël, Philippe; Germain, Adeline; Helder, Remi; Augot, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I or cytochrome b (Cyt b). The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC) was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical. The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus) was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens). Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted. PMID:26664944

  7. Comparison of Vertebrate Cytochrome b and Prepronociceptin for Blood Meal Analyses in Culicoides.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Henni, Leila; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Depaquit, Jérôme; Noël, Philippe; Germain, Adeline; Helder, Remi; Augot, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I or cytochrome b (Cyt b). The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC) was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical. The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus) was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens). Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted. PMID:26664944

  8. Culicoides, the vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer in Kentucky in 1971.

    PubMed

    Jones, R H; Roughton, R D; Foster, N M; Bando, B M

    1977-01-01

    The biting gnat, Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett), was shown to be a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Kentucky because of virus isolations from parous females. Epidemiological evidence showed a close relationship of this vector to the animal host during an outbreak of EHD in penned deer. Larval breeding sites of C. variipennis were found and C. variipennis was the most abundant biting fly present during the outbreak. Females of C. variipennis were commonly observed biting deer, swine, cattle and, occasionally, man.

  9. Evaluation of naled applied as a thermal fog against Culicoides furens (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Linley, J R; Parsons, R E; Winner, R A

    1987-09-01

    Naled/diesel oil (1:99), applied as a thermal fog, was tested against the biting midge Culicoides furens. The insects were confined in small cages suspended at 4 heights on poles at progressively greater distances from the fog release point. In terms of population survival 24 hr after treatment, a parabolic equation accurately described the regression of percent survival on distance from the release point. If 10% survival is considered as the maximum acceptable, then the equation predicts adequate control up to 19.6 m (64.3 ft) from the fog release point. PMID:3504923

  10. Curiosity --El nuevo robot explorador de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte llamado Curiosity tiene grandes preguntas que responder una vez que llegue a Marte. Infórmese sobre la misión con el analista de trayectoria de la NASA Fern...

  11. Seasonal Abundance of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Collected by Mosquito Magnet® in Northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A.; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A.; Chong, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® traps at the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) camp and Daeseongdong village inside the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and near the military demarcation line (MDL) separating North and South Korea and at Warrior Base (US Army training site) and Tongilchon 3 km south of the DMZ in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK), from May-October 2010-2012, to determine their seasonal distributions. A total of 18,647 Culicoides females (18,399; 98.7%) and males (248; 1.3%) comprising 16 species were collected. Overall, the most commonly collected species was Culicoides nipponensis (42.9%), followed by C. erairai (29.2%), C. punctatus (20.3%), C. arakawae (3.3%), C. pallidulus (1.8%), and C. circumscriptus (1.4%), while the remaining 10 species accounted for only 1.1% of all Culicoides spp. collected. The seasonal distribution of C. nipponensis was bimodal, with high numbers collected during May-June and again during September. C. erairai was more frequently collected during June-July, followed by sharply decreased populations from August-October. C. punctatus was collected in low numbers from May-September with high numbers collected during October. C. erairai was predominantly collected from the NNSC camp (85.1% of all C. erairai collected) located adjacent to the MDL at Panmunjeom in the northernmost part of Gyeonggi-do (Province), while other sites yielded low numbers of specimens. PMID:24623883

  12. Seasonal abundance of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected by mosquito Magnet® in Northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A; Chong, Sung-Tae; Park, Jee-Yong

    2014-02-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® traps at the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) camp and Daeseongdong village inside the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and near the military demarcation line (MDL) separating North and South Korea and at Warrior Base (US Army training site) and Tongilchon 3 km south of the DMZ in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK), from May-October 2010-2012, to determine their seasonal distributions. A total of 18,647 Culicoides females (18,399; 98.7%) and males (248; 1.3%) comprising 16 species were collected. Overall, the most commonly collected species was Culicoides nipponensis (42.9%), followed by C. erairai (29.2%), C. punctatus (20.3%), C. arakawae (3.3%), C. pallidulus (1.8%), and C. circumscriptus (1.4%), while the remaining 10 species accounted for only 1.1% of all Culicoides spp. collected. The seasonal distribution of C. nipponensis was bimodal, with high numbers collected during May-June and again during September. C. erairai was more frequently collected during June-July, followed by sharply decreased populations from August-October. C. punctatus was collected in low numbers from May-September with high numbers collected during October. C. erairai was predominantly collected from the NNSC camp (85.1% of all C. erairai collected) located adjacent to the MDL at Panmunjeom in the northernmost part of Gyeonggi-do (Province), while other sites yielded low numbers of specimens.

  13. Non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is required for propagation of bluetongue virus in Culicoides sonorensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes non-contagious haemorrhagic disease in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV encodes four non-structural proteins of which NS3/NS3a is functional in virus release. NS3/NS3a is not essential for in vitro virus replication. However...

  14. Studying Culicoides vectors of BTV in the post-genomic era: resources, bottlenecks to progress and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are a major vector group responsible for the biological transmission of a wide variety of globally significant arboviruses, including bluetongue virus (BTV). In this review we examine current biological resources for the study of this genus, with a...

  15. Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is not a competent vector of Cache Valley virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the susceptibility of Culicoides sonorensis to Cache Valley virus (CVV) (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) infection and the potential that it could be a vector or site of virus reassortment. CVV is native to the New World and causes disease in livestock. Infected blood mea...

  16. Impact of the blood meal on humoral immunity and microbiota in the gut of female Culicoides sonorensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Culicoides sonorensis is an important vector of orbiviruses that cause significant disease in domestic and wild ruminants in the USA, little is known about factors contributing to midge vector competence. In other vectors such as mosquitoes, interactions between the humoral immune response,...

  17. A redescription of Culicoides griseidorsum Kieffer, 1918, with comments on subgeneric position of some European taxa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Szadziewski, Ryszard; Filatov, Serhii; Dominiak, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    Culicoides griseidorsum Kieffer, 1918 is formally redescribed, and the male described and illustrated for the first time. The species is placed within Sensiculicoides Shevchenko, 1977 the subgenus restored from the synonymy with Oecacta Poey, 1853. A checklist of European species placed in subgenera Sensiculicoides and Oecacta is provided. PMID:27394830

  18. Effect of Culicoides sonorensis salivary proteins on clinical disease outcome in experimental bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection of Dorset sheep.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Lehiy, Christopher J; Van Rijn, Piet A; Bowen, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    The severity of bluetongue clinical disease in ruminants varies greatly depending on the outbreak serotype/strain, animal species/breed, and immune status of the herd. To predict disease risk from any of the 26 bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes identified to date, experimental animal susceptibility studies are often conducted. Although sheep are the most susceptible livestock species in the US, infection of domestic breeds by injection of field isolates rarely produces the level of clinical disease observed in natural Culicoides midge‑transmitted outbreaks. Thus, outbreak risk assessments based on experimental animal infections can underestimate the severity posed by a potential outbreak with a given virus serotype or strain. The aim of this study was to determine whether secreted Culicoides salivary proteins injected simultaneously with virus, to more closely mimic midge‑delivered virus, would affect clinical disease outcome in a BTV‑8 sheep susceptibility study. Eight sheep were intradermally inoculated with BTV‑8; 4 received virus mixed with secreted Culicoides salivary proteins (BTV‑8 + Cu SP), 4 received virus alone. Clinical signs were monitored daily for type, severity and duration. In sheep receiving the BTV‑8 + Cu SP inoculum, clinical signs were more varied, more severe, and duration was three times longer compared to sheep receiving virus alone. These results suggest that Culicoides salivary proteins may play a contributing role in BTV pathology and that use of these proteins in experimental animal infections may allow development of a more robust target‑host animal model. PMID:26741250

  19. Prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India.

    PubMed

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Renuka Prasad, C; Byregowda, S M

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to observe the prevalence of Culicoides a biting midge, important pest and prime vector for various viruses, protozoa and filarid worms. In the vicinity of 11 different farms of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in Bangalore rural and urban districts the flies were collected by using UV traps (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. ARC. LNR) connected with suction fan for the period of 1 year (2012-2013). Around 83,629 Culicoides were collected of which 77,906 (93.16 %) were female and 5,723 (6.84 %) were males and 40,120 (47.97 %) of C. imicola, 39,366 (47.07 %) C. oxystoma, 2,504 (2.99 %) C. actoni, 1,145 (1.37 %) C. peregrinus, 145 (0.17 %) C. huffi, 120 (0.16 %) C. innoxius, 90 (0.11 %) C. palpifer, 67 (0.08 %) C. anopheles, 37 (0.04 %) C. circumscriptus and 25 (0.03 %) were C. arakawae. It was observed that C. imicola and C. oxystoma were the most predominant species prevalent in Bangalore rural and urban districts of Karnataka.

  20. Prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India.

    PubMed

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Renuka Prasad, C; Byregowda, S M

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to observe the prevalence of Culicoides a biting midge, important pest and prime vector for various viruses, protozoa and filarid worms. In the vicinity of 11 different farms of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in Bangalore rural and urban districts the flies were collected by using UV traps (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. ARC. LNR) connected with suction fan for the period of 1 year (2012-2013). Around 83,629 Culicoides were collected of which 77,906 (93.16 %) were female and 5,723 (6.84 %) were males and 40,120 (47.97 %) of C. imicola, 39,366 (47.07 %) C. oxystoma, 2,504 (2.99 %) C. actoni, 1,145 (1.37 %) C. peregrinus, 145 (0.17 %) C. huffi, 120 (0.16 %) C. innoxius, 90 (0.11 %) C. palpifer, 67 (0.08 %) C. anopheles, 37 (0.04 %) C. circumscriptus and 25 (0.03 %) were C. arakawae. It was observed that C. imicola and C. oxystoma were the most predominant species prevalent in Bangalore rural and urban districts of Karnataka. PMID:27605753

  1. Impact of experimental flooding on larvae and pupae of dung-breeding Culicoides.

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Kiel, E

    2016-10-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) spend the greatest part of their life in the larval stage. However, knowledge on the immature stages and the impact of abiotic factors on their development is still poor. Therefore, we investigated the effect of flooding on the larvae and pupae of Culicoides chiopterus (Meigen, 1830) and C. dewulfi Goetghebuer, 1936. In water, the larvae of both species showed head-to-tail flexions and sinuous flexions, at slow rates, but were not able to swim. Flooding of larvae for 24 h did not affect the number of emerging adults; flooding of pupae significantly reduced the emergence rate of C. chiopterus, compared to the control group, while C. dewulfi was not affected. Pupae were not able to float and no pupae survived flooding for 10 days. After flooding of larvae for 10 days, 50 % of C. chiopterus and 4 % of C. dewulfi completed the pre-adult development. During this treatment, 84 % of C. chiopterus and 48 % of C. dewulfi larvae pupated in water.

  2. Detection of African horse sickness virus in Culicoides imicola pools using RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Tania; Liebenberg, Danica; Venter, Gert J; Mienie, Charlotte Ms; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-06-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an infectious, non-contagious arthropod-borne disease of equids, caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), an orbivirus of the Reoviridae family. It is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and thought to be the most lethal viral disease of horses. This study focused on detection of AHSV in Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) pools by the application of a RT-qPCR. Midges were fed on AHSV-infected blood. A single blood-engorged female was allocated to pools of unfed nulliparous female midges. Pool sizes varied from 1 to 200. RNA was extracted and prepared for RT-qPCR. The virus was successfully detected and the optimal pool size for the limit of detection of the virus was determined at a range between 1 to 25. Results from this investigation highlight the need for a standardized protocol for AHSV investigation in Culicoides midges especially for comparison among different studies and for the determination of infection rate. PMID:27232141

  3. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Culicoides Species in Mainland Portugal (2005–2010). Results of the Portuguese Entomological Surveillance Programme

    PubMed Central

    Ramilo, David W.; Amador, Rita; Madeira, Sara; Baptista, Filipa M.; Harrup, Lara E.; Lucientes, Javier; Boinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and causes an infectious, non-contagious disease of ruminants. It has been rapidly emerging in southern Europe since 1998. In mainland Portugal, strains of BTV belonging to three serotypes have been detected: BTV-10 (1956-1960), BTV-4 (2004-2006 and 2013) and BTV-1 (2007-2012). This paper describes the design, implementation and results of the Entomological Surveillance Programme covering mainland Portugal, between 2005 and 2010, including 5,650 caches. Culicoides imicola Kieffer was mostly found in central and southern regions of Portugal, although it was sporadically detected in northern latitudes. Its peak activity occurred in the autumn and it was active during the winter months in limited areas of the country. Obsoletus group was present at the highest densities in the north although they were found throughout the country in substantial numbers. Culicoides activity occurred all year round but peaked in the spring. A generalized linear mixed model was developed for the analysis of the environmental factors associated with activity of the species of Culicoides suspected vectors of BTV in the country. For C. imicola Kieffer, the most important variables were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), the number of frost days (FRS) and median monthly temperature (TMP). For the Obsoletus group, the most important factors were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), and linear and quadratic terms for median monthly temperature (TMP). The results reported can improve our understanding of climatic factors in Culicoides activity influencing their distribution and seasonal pattern. PMID:25906151

  4. Protection of livestock against bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola using insecticide-treated netting in open areas.

    PubMed

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Miranda, M A; Del Rio, R; Borrás, D; Beldron, F J; Martínez, A; Calvo, A J; Lucientes, J

    2010-06-01

    The protection of livestock against Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) using physical barriers or chemically treated barriers is difficult owing to the small size of these biting midges and animal welfare concerns associated with the reduction of air flow. Culicoides imicola Kieffer is the main bluetongue virus vector in the Mediterranean basin, including the southern Iberian peninsula, where livestock is mainly housed in open pens or sheds which offer no physical protection against C. imicola. In this study we assessed the efficacy of surrounding yearling ewe pens with a canvas barrier or a cypermethrin-treated canvas barrier in reducing the entry of Culicoides spp. and C. imicola. Analyses were based on comparisons of Culicoides catches in traps in pens with and without barriers, and in traps located outside pens. Although there was no clear reduction in the abundance of Culicoides other than C. imicola in pens with either barrier, the C. imicola presence was markedly reduced by the insecticide-treated barrier compared with the untreated barrier; the latter did not reduce the abundance of this species in pens. Estimates of the protection conferred against C. imicola by the treated barrier differed depending on whether catch comparisons were based on outside traps or on traps located inside no-barrier pens. The results suggest that the use of insecticide-treated barriers may reduce contact between livestock and C. imicola in open areas or sheds. More research is necessary to assess the degree of protection as a function of barrier height, C. imicola abundance, and the size of the area to be protected.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges, potential vectors of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses in the Niayes area of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African horse sickness epizootic in Senegal in 2007 caused considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses. The vectors involved in the transmission of this arbovirus have never been studied specifically in Senegal. This first study of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species, potential vectors of African horse sickness in Senegal, was conducted at five sites (Mbao, Parc Hann, Niague, Pout and Thies) in the Niayes area, which was affected by the outbreak. Methods Two Onderstepoort light traps were used at each site for three nights of consecutive collection per month over one year to measure the apparent abundance of the Culicoides midges. Results In total, 224,665 specimens belonging to at least 24 different species (distributed among 11 groups of species) of the Culicoides genus were captured in 354 individual collections. Culicoides oxystoma, Culicoides kingi, Culicoides imicola, Culicoides enderleini and Culicoides nivosus were the most abundant and most frequent species at the collection sites. Peaks of abundance coincide with the rainy season in September and October. Conclusions In addition to C. imicola, considered a major vector for the African horse sickness virus, C. oxystoma may also be involved in the transmission of this virus in Senegal given its abundance in the vicinity of horses and its suspected competence for other arboviruses including bluetongue virus. This study depicted a site-dependent spatial variability in the dynamics of the populations of the five major species in relation to the eco-climatic conditions at each site. PMID:24690198

  6. Efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene mesh applied to jet stalls housing horses against Culicoides biting midges in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Page, P C; Labuschagne, K; Venter, G J; Schoeman, J P; Guthrie, A J

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene (HDPE) mesh applied to jet stalls against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) was determined by mechanical aspiration of midges from horses and using Onderstepoort 220 V downdraught black light traps in four blocks of a 3 × 2 randomised design under South African field conditions. The alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh applied to the stall significantly (P = 0.008) reduced the number of Culicoides midges, predominantly Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer, mechanically aspirated from horses housed in the stall. The mesh reduced the Culicoides midge attack rate in the treated stall compared to the untreated stall and a sentinel horse by 6 times and 14 times, respectively. The number of Culicoides midges and C. imicola collected in light traps from the untreated and alphacypermethrin HDPE mesh-treated stalls did not differ significantly (P = 0.82). Alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh could be used to reduce exposure of horses in jet stalls to Culicoides midges, specifically C. imicola, and the risk of midge-borne Orbivirus transmission. PMID:25794942

  7. Seasonal Dynamics, Parity Rate, and Composition of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Occurring in the Vicinity of Wild and Domestic Ruminants in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rádrová, Jana; Mračková, Marie; Galková, Zdenka; Lamka, Jírí; Račka, Karol; Barták, Pavel; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the emergence of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern and central Europe, an extensive entomological survey within the framework of a bluetongue control program was undertaken from 2008 to 2013 in the Czech Republic to investigate Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in close proximity of domestic livestock and semiwild ruminants. Insects were sampled using CDC black-light suction traps placed overnight near ruminants in farms or in forest game preserves to provide data on Culicoides fauna collected near these two groups of hosts inhabiting different environments. From almost a half million biting midge specimens collected at 41 sampling sites, 34 species were identified including three species newly recorded for the Czech Republic: Culicoides (Oecacta) clastrieri Callot, Kremer & Deduit, Culicoides (Oecacta) odiatus Austen, and Culicoides (Pontoculicoides) saevus Kieffer. The Culicoides obsoletus species group, incriminated as a bluetongue virus vector, was predominant in both domestic livestock (91%) and semiwild game (52%). A relatively high proportion (around 30%) of C. obsoletus Meigen females with pigmented abdomen (= more likely parous) was observed from spring till autumn. In contrast, adult biting midges were found to be largely absent during at least three winter months, approximately December till March, which could be considered as the biting midge vector-free period.

  8. Efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene mesh applied to jet stalls housing horses against Culicoides biting midges in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Page, P C; Labuschagne, K; Venter, G J; Schoeman, J P; Guthrie, A J

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene (HDPE) mesh applied to jet stalls against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) was determined by mechanical aspiration of midges from horses and using Onderstepoort 220 V downdraught black light traps in four blocks of a 3 × 2 randomised design under South African field conditions. The alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh applied to the stall significantly (P = 0.008) reduced the number of Culicoides midges, predominantly Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer, mechanically aspirated from horses housed in the stall. The mesh reduced the Culicoides midge attack rate in the treated stall compared to the untreated stall and a sentinel horse by 6 times and 14 times, respectively. The number of Culicoides midges and C. imicola collected in light traps from the untreated and alphacypermethrin HDPE mesh-treated stalls did not differ significantly (P = 0.82). Alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh could be used to reduce exposure of horses in jet stalls to Culicoides midges, specifically C. imicola, and the risk of midge-borne Orbivirus transmission.

  9. Integrative taxonomy to investigate species boundaries within Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): a case study using subgenus Avaritia from Australasia and Eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Gopurenko, David; Bellis, Glenn Adam; Yanase, Tohru; Wardhana, April Hari; Thepparat, Arunrat; Wang, Jinglin; Cai, Ducheng; Mitchell, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this study, species boundaries were examined for 15 described and 2 undescribed species within the economically important Culicoides subg. Avaritia Fox from Australasia and Eastern Asia. We used an integrative taxonomic approach incorporating DNA barcoding, nuclear gene sequencing, and retrospective morphological analyses. Some arbovirus vector species such as Culicoides fulvus Sen and Das Gupta and Culicoides wadai Kitaoka were genetically and morphologically uniform across sampled distributions, but others including Culicoides actoni Smith and Culicoides brevipalpis Delfinado contained 2 or more genetically independent populations of 'cryptic species' that in some cases were sympatric. Some of these 'cryptic species' exhibited consistent morphological differences, while differences are yet to be found for others species. Additionally, an undescribed species, C. Avaritia sp. No. 3, was found to be synonymous with C. fulvus. These results refine our understanding of the distribution of individual species of C. subg. Avaritia and demonstrate that species descriptions and distribution records need revision for part of the Culicoides fauna. Furthermore, because vector competence studies for most of these species are based entirely on Australian populations, the competence of the putative cryptic species identified elsewhere will require independent assessment. Finally, integrative taxonomic assessment requires genetic and morphological assessment of material from the type localities in order to clarify the status and distribution of species, especially for clades containing cryptic species. International collaboration is needed to facilitate this research. PMID:26741249

  10. Seasonal Dynamics, Parity Rate, and Composition of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Occurring in the Vicinity of Wild and Domestic Ruminants in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rádrová, Jana; Mračková, Marie; Galková, Zdenka; Lamka, Jírí; Račka, Karol; Barták, Pavel; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the emergence of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern and central Europe, an extensive entomological survey within the framework of a bluetongue control program was undertaken from 2008 to 2013 in the Czech Republic to investigate Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in close proximity of domestic livestock and semiwild ruminants. Insects were sampled using CDC black-light suction traps placed overnight near ruminants in farms or in forest game preserves to provide data on Culicoides fauna collected near these two groups of hosts inhabiting different environments. From almost a half million biting midge specimens collected at 41 sampling sites, 34 species were identified including three species newly recorded for the Czech Republic: Culicoides (Oecacta) clastrieri Callot, Kremer & Deduit, Culicoides (Oecacta) odiatus Austen, and Culicoides (Pontoculicoides) saevus Kieffer. The Culicoides obsoletus species group, incriminated as a bluetongue virus vector, was predominant in both domestic livestock (91%) and semiwild game (52%). A relatively high proportion (around 30%) of C. obsoletus Meigen females with pigmented abdomen (= more likely parous) was observed from spring till autumn. In contrast, adult biting midges were found to be largely absent during at least three winter months, approximately December till March, which could be considered as the biting midge vector-free period. PMID:26701798

  11. Estimation of survival and gonotrophic cycle length of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Mullens, B A; Jessup, D A

    1991-06-01

    The use of a time series analysis to estimate the survival rate and gonotrophic cycle length of Culicoides variipennis at 2 California sites is described. Collections were made daily for 28 days in Yolo County (northern California) and for 25 days in Riverside County (southern California) in July and August of 1989, respectively, using CO2-baited suction traps. The time series analysis of these collections yielded a gonotrophic cycle length estimate of 3 days. Stage-specific and daily survivorship estimates 0.242 and 0.623, respectively, were determined for the northern California site. The time series method was found unsuitable for estimating the gonotrophic cycle length or daily survivorship at the southern California site. PMID:1895081

  12. Mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges: vector range and the influence of climate change.

    PubMed

    Elbers, A R W; Koenraadt, C J M; Meiswinkel, R

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne animal diseases pose a continuous and substantial threat to livestock economies around the globe. Increasing international travel, the globalisation of trade, and climate change are likely to play a progressively more important role in the introduction, establishment and spread of arthropod-borne pathogens worldwide. A review of the literature reveals that many climatic variables, functioning singly or in combination, exert varying effects on the distribution and range of Culicoides vector midges and mosquitoes. For example, higher temperatures may be associated with increased insect abundance--thereby amplifying the risk of disease transmission--but there are no indications yet of dramatic shifts occurring in the geographic range of Culicoides midges. However, the same cannot be said for mosquitoes: over the last few decades, multiple Asian species have established themselves in Europe, spread and are unlikely to ever be eradicated. Research on how insects respond to changes in climate is still in its infancy. The authors argue that we need to grasp how other annectant changes, such as extremes in precipitation (drought and flooding), may affect the dispersal capability of mosquitoes. Models are useful for assessing the interplay between mosquito vectors expanding their range and the native flora and fauna; however, ecological studies employing classical mark-release-recapture techniques remain essential for addressing fundamental questions about the survival and dispersal of mosquito species, with the resulting parameters fed directly into new-generation disease transmission models. Studies on the eventual impact of mosquitoes on animal and human health should be tackled through large-scale integrated research programmes. Such an approach calls for more collaborative efforts, along the lines of the One Health Initiative. PMID:26470453

  13. Haemoproteus tartakovskyi (Haemoproteidae): Complete sporogony in Culicoides nubeculosus (Ceratopogonidae), with implications for avian haemoproteid experimental research.

    PubMed

    Žiegytė, Rita; Bernotienė, Rasa; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Numerous recent studies have addressed the molecular characterization, distribution and genetic diversity of Haemoproteus spp. (Haemoproteidae). Some species of these blood parasites cause severe disease in birds, and heavy infections are often lethal in biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) and other blood-sucking insects. However, information about the vectors of haemoproteids is scarce. This presents an obstacle for better understanding the mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and the epidemiology of haemoproteosis. Here we investigated the sporogonic development of Haemoproteus tartakovskyi, a widespread bird parasite, in experimentally infected biting midges, Culicoides nubeculosus. These biting midges are widespread in the Europe. The insects were cultivated under laboratory conditions. Unfed females were allowed to take blood meals on wild caught siskins Carduelis spinus naturally infected with H. tartakovskyi (lineage hSISKIN1). Engorged females were maintained at 22-23 °C, dissected at intervals, and examined for sporogonic stages. Mature ookinetes of H. tartakovskyi were seen in the midgut content between 6 and 48 h post infection, oocysts were observed in the midgut wall 3-4 days post infection (dpi). Sporozoites were first reported in the salivary gland preparations 7 dpi. In accordance with microscopy data, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed presence of the corresponding parasite lineage in experimentally infected biting midges. This study indicates that C. nubeculosus willingly takes blood meals on birds and is a vector of H. tartakovskyi. These biting midges are readily amenable to cultivation under laboratory conditions. Culicoides nubeculosus transmits Haemoproteus parasites infecting parrots, owls and siskins, birds belonging to different families and orders. Thus, this vector provides a convenient model for experimental research with avian haemoproteids. PMID:26616347

  14. Mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges: vector range and the influence of climate change.

    PubMed

    Elbers, A R W; Koenraadt, C J M; Meiswinkel, R

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne animal diseases pose a continuous and substantial threat to livestock economies around the globe. Increasing international travel, the globalisation of trade, and climate change are likely to play a progressively more important role in the introduction, establishment and spread of arthropod-borne pathogens worldwide. A review of the literature reveals that many climatic variables, functioning singly or in combination, exert varying effects on the distribution and range of Culicoides vector midges and mosquitoes. For example, higher temperatures may be associated with increased insect abundance--thereby amplifying the risk of disease transmission--but there are no indications yet of dramatic shifts occurring in the geographic range of Culicoides midges. However, the same cannot be said for mosquitoes: over the last few decades, multiple Asian species have established themselves in Europe, spread and are unlikely to ever be eradicated. Research on how insects respond to changes in climate is still in its infancy. The authors argue that we need to grasp how other annectant changes, such as extremes in precipitation (drought and flooding), may affect the dispersal capability of mosquitoes. Models are useful for assessing the interplay between mosquito vectors expanding their range and the native flora and fauna; however, ecological studies employing classical mark-release-recapture techniques remain essential for addressing fundamental questions about the survival and dispersal of mosquito species, with the resulting parameters fed directly into new-generation disease transmission models. Studies on the eventual impact of mosquitoes on animal and human health should be tackled through large-scale integrated research programmes. Such an approach calls for more collaborative efforts, along the lines of the One Health Initiative.

  15. Assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and UV-light/suction trap for collecting Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vectors of Orbiviruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence and massive spread of bluetongue in Western Europe during 2006-2008 had disastrous consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to transmit the virus. Some aspects of Culicoides ecology, especially host-seeking and feeding behaviors, remain insufficiently described due to the difficulty of collecting them directly on a bait animal, the most reliable method to evaluate biting rates. Our aim was to compare typical animal-baited traps (drop trap and direct aspiration) to both a new sticky cover trap and a UV-light/suction trap (the most commonly used method to collect Culicoides). Methods/results Collections were made from 1.45 hours before sunset to 1.45 hours after sunset in June/July 2009 at an experimental sheep farm (INRA, Nouzilly, Western France), with 3 replicates of a 4 sites × 4 traps randomized Latin square using one sheep per site. Collected Culicoides individuals were sorted morphologically to species, sex and physiological stages for females. Sibling species were identified using a molecular assay. A total of 534 Culicoides belonging to 17 species was collected. Abundance was maximal in the drop trap (232 females and 4 males from 10 species) whereas the diversity was the highest in the UV-light/suction trap (136 females and 5 males from 15 species). Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates were observed. Conclusions Only the direct aspiration collected exclusively host-seeking females, despite a concern that human manipulation may influence estimation of the biting rate. The sticky cover trap assessed accurately the biting rate of abundant species even if it might act as an interception trap. The drop trap collected the highest abundance of Culicoides and may have caught individuals not attracted by sheep but by its structure. Finally, abundances obtained using the UV-light/suction trap did not estimate accurately Culicoides

  16. Bivens arm virus: a new rhabdovirus isolated from Culicoides insignis in Florida and related to Tibrogargan virus of Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, E P; Calisher, C H; Tesh, R B; Lazuick, J S; Bowen, R; Greiner, E C

    1989-02-01

    During field studies in 1981 on the transmission of bluetongue viruses in ruminants in Florida, a virus was isolated from Culicoides insignis collected near water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) recently imported from Trinidad. Electron microscopy showed that this isolate, for which the name Bivens Arm virus is proposed, has rhabdovirus morphology. Serologic comparisons were made with recognized rhabdoviruses from terrestrial vertebrates and hematophagous arthropods. Indirect fluorescent antibody, complement fixation and neutralization tests indicated antigenic reactivity between Bivens Arm virus and two rhabdoviruses found only in Australia, Tibrogargan and Coastal Plains viruses. The Australian isolates cause subclinical infections in cattle and water buffalo and are believed to be transmitted by Culicoides. Initially, it was thought that Bivens Arm virus may have been introduced to Florida with the water buffalo from Trinidad, but a serologic survey of cattle serum, collected before the importation of the buffalo revealed antibody to the virus in cattle on farms located in diverse areas of Florida.

  17. Range expansion of the Bluetongue vector, Culicoides imicola, in continental France likely due to rare wind-transport events.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Stéphanie; Huber, Karine; Pagès, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Burgin, Laura E; Carpenter, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Dicko, Ahmadou H; Djerbal, Mouloud; Goffredo, Maria; Lhor, Youssef; Lucientes, Javier; Miranda-Chueca, Miguel A; Pereira Da Fonseca, Isabel; Ramilo, David W; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Bouyer, Jérémy; Chevillon, Christine; Balenghien, Thomas; Guis, Hélène; Garros, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The role of the northward expansion of Culicoides imicola Kieffer in recent and unprecedented outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in southern Europe has been a significant point of contention. We combined entomological surveys, movement simulations of air-borne particles, and population genetics to reconstruct the chain of events that led to a newly colonized French area nestled at the northern foot of the Pyrenees. Simulating the movement of air-borne particles evidenced frequent wind-transport events allowing, within at most 36 hours, the immigration of midges from north-eastern Spain and Balearic Islands, and, as rare events, their immigration from Corsica. Completing the puzzle, population genetic analyses discriminated Corsica as the origin of the new population and identified two successive colonization events within west-Mediterranean basin. Our findings are of considerable importance when trying to understand the invasion of new territories by expanding species. PMID:27263862

  18. Range expansion of the Bluetongue vector, Culicoides imicola, in continental France likely due to rare wind-transport events

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Stéphanie; Huber, Karine; Pagès, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Burgin, Laura E.; Carpenter, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Dicko, Ahmadou H.; Djerbal, Mouloud; Goffredo, Maria; Lhor, Youssef; Lucientes, Javier; Miranda-Chueca, Miguel A.; Pereira Da Fonseca, Isabel; Ramilo, David W.; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Bouyer, Jérémy; Chevillon, Christine; Balenghien, Thomas; Guis, Hélène; Garros, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The role of the northward expansion of Culicoides imicola Kieffer in recent and unprecedented outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in southern Europe has been a significant point of contention. We combined entomological surveys, movement simulations of air-borne particles, and population genetics to reconstruct the chain of events that led to a newly colonized French area nestled at the northern foot of the Pyrenees. Simulating the movement of air-borne particles evidenced frequent wind-transport events allowing, within at most 36 hours, the immigration of midges from north-eastern Spain and Balearic Islands, and, as rare events, their immigration from Corsica. Completing the puzzle, population genetic analyses discriminated Corsica as the origin of the new population and identified two successive colonization events within west-Mediterranean basin. Our findings are of considerable importance when trying to understand the invasion of new territories by expanding species. PMID:27263862

  19. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Majatladi, Daphney; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Lourens, Carina; Ebersohn, Karen; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV) is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June-August). Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March) to < 100 (July and August), no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level. PMID:25686125

  20. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3(rd) palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  1. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3rd palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  2. Laboratory and field evaluations of chemical and plant-derived potential repellents against Culicoides biting midges in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    González, M; Venter, G J; López, S; Iturrondobeitia, J C; Goldarazena, A

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of 23 compounds in repelling Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), particularly Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) females, was determined by means of a Y-tube olfactometer. The 10 most effective compounds were further evaluated in landing bioassays. The six most promising compounds (including chemical and plant-derived repellents) were evaluated at 10% and 25% concentrations in field assays using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps. At least three compounds showed promising results against Culicoides biting midges with the methodologies used. Whereas olfactometer assays indicated DEET at 1 µg/µL to be the most effective repellent, filter paper landing bioassays showed plant-derived oils to be better. Light traps fitted with polyester mesh impregnated with a mixture of octanoic, decanoic and nonanoic fatty acids at 10% and 25% concentrations collected 2.2 and 3.6 times fewer midges than control traps and were as effective as DEET, which is presently considered the reference standard insect repellent. The best plant-derived product was lemon eucalyptus oil. Although these have been reported as safe potential repellents, the present results indicate DEET and the mixture of organic fatty acids to be superior and longer lasting. PMID:25079042

  3. Identification of Cattle-Derived Volatiles that Modulate the Behavioral Response of the Biting Midge Culicoides nubeculosus.

    PubMed

    Isberg, Elin; Bray, Daniel Peter; Birgersson, Göran; Hillbur, Ylva; Ignell, Rickard

    2016-01-01

    Identification of host-derived volatiles is an important step towards the development of novel surveillance and control tools for Culicoides biting midges. In this study, we identified compounds from headspace collections of cattle hair and urine that modulate the behavioral response of Culicoides nubeculosus, a research model species with a similar host-range as the vectors of Bluetongue disease and Schmallenberg disease in Europe. Combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis revealed 23 bioactive compounds, of which 17, together with octanal, were evaluated in a two-choice behavioral assay in the presence of CO2. Decanal, 2-phenylethanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-ethylhexanol, 3-methylindole, phenol, and 3-ethylphenol elicited attraction of host seeking C. nubeculosus, whereas heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-propylphenol, and 4-propylphenol inhibited the insects' attraction to CO2, when compared to CO2 alone. 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 3-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, and 4-ethylphenol elicited both attraction and inhibition. The behavioral responses were dependent on the concentration tested. Our results show that cattle-derived odors have the potential to be used for the manipulation of the behavior of Culicoides biting midges. PMID:26687092

  4. First Report of 13 Species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Mainland Portugal and Azores by Morphological and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Wilson, Anthony; Meireles, José; Lucientes, Javier; Ribeiro, Rita; Boinas, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) contains important vectors of animal and human diseases, including bluetongue, African horse sickness and filariosis. A major outbreak of bluetongue occurred in mainland Portugal in 2004, forty eight years after the last recorded case. A national Entomological Surveillance Plan was initiated in mainland Portugal, Azores and the Madeira archipelagos in 2005 in order to better understand the disease and facilitate policy decisions. During the survey, the most prevalent Culicoides species in mainland Portugal was C. imicola (75.3%) and species belonging to the Obsoletus group (6.5%). The latter were the most prevalent in Azores archipelago, accounting for 96.7% of the total species identified. The Obsoletus group was further characterized by multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction to species level showing that only two species of this group were present: C. obsoletus sensu strictu (69.6%) and C. scoticus (30.4%). Nine species of Culicoides were detected for the first time in mainland Portugal: C. alazanicus, C. bahrainensis, C. deltus, C. lupicaris, C. picturatus, C. santonicus, C. semimaculatus, C. simulator and C. subfagineus. In the Azores, C. newsteadi and C. circumscriptus were identified for the first time from some islands, and bluetongue vectors belonging to the Obsoletus group (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus) were found to be widespread. PMID:22536340

  5. DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide)/PMD (para-menthane-3,8-diol) repellent-treated mesh increases Culicoides catches in light traps.

    PubMed

    Murchie, A K; Clawson, S; Rea, I; Forsythe, I W N; Gordon, A W; Jess, S

    2016-09-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides spp.) are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. Treatment of mesh barriers is a common method for preventing insect-vectored diseases and has been proposed as a means of limiting Culicoides ingression into buildings or livestock transporters. Assessments using animals are costly, logistically difficult and subject to ethical approval. Therefore, initial screening of test repellents/insecticides was made by applying treatments to mesh (2 mm) cages surrounding Onderstepoort light traps. Five commercial treatments were applied to cages as per manufacturers' application rates: control (water), bendiocarb, DEET/p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) repellent, Flygo (a terpenoid based repellent) and lambda-cyhalothrin. The experimental design was a 5 × 5 Latin square, replicated in time and repeated twice. Incongruously, the traps surrounded by DEET/PMD repellent-treated mesh caught three to four times more Obsoletus group Culicoides (the commonest midge group) than the other treatments. A proposed hypothesis is that Obsoletus group Culicoides are showing a dose response to DEET/PMD, being attracted at low concentrations and repelled at higher concentrations but that the strong light attraction from the Onderstepoort trap was sufficient to overcome close-range repellence. This study does not imply that DEET/PMD is an ineffective repellent for Culicoides midges in the presence of an animal but rather that caution should be applied to the interpretation of light trap bioassays. PMID:27179956

  6. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Vojtkova, Barbora; Votypka, Jan; Carpenter, Simon; Bates, Paul Andrew; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004) and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii). In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80%) feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some

  7. Modelling the Northward Expansion of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) under Future Climate Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Anna; Massolo, Alessandro; Lysyk, Timothy; Johnson, Gregory; Marshall, Shawn; Berger, Kathryn; Cork, Susan Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is affecting the distribution of pathogens and their arthropod vectors worldwide, particularly at northern latitudes. The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) plays a key role in affecting the emergence and spread of significant vector borne diseases such as Bluetongue (BT) and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) at the border between USA and Canada. We used 50 presence points for C. sonorensis collected in Montana (USA) and south-central Alberta (Canada) between 2002 and 2012, together with monthly climatic and environmental predictors to develop a series of alternative maximum entropy distribution models. The best distribution model under current climatic conditions was selected through the Akaike Information Criterion, and included four predictors: Vapour Pressure Deficit of July, standard deviation of Elevation, Land Cover and mean Precipitation of May. This model was then projected into three climate change scenarios adopted by the IPCC in its 5th assessment report and defined as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Climate change data for each predictor and each RCP were calculated for two time points pooling decadal data around each one of them: 2030 (2021-2040) and 2050 (2041-2060). Our projections showed that the areas predicted to be at moderate-high probability of C. sonorensis occurrence would increase from the baseline scenario to 2030 and from 2030 to 2050 for each RCP. The projection also indicated that the current northern limit of C. sonorensis distribution is expected to move northwards to above 53°N. This may indicate an increased risk of Culicoides-borne diseases occurrence over the next decades, particularly at the USA-Canada border, as a result of changes which favor C. sonorensis presence when associated to other factors (i.e. host and pathogen factors). Recent observations of EHD outbreaks in northern Montana and southern Alberta supported our projections and considerations

  8. Modelling the Northward Expansion of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) under Future Climate Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lysyk, Timothy; Johnson, Gregory; Marshall, Shawn; Berger, Kathryn; Cork, Susan Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is affecting the distribution of pathogens and their arthropod vectors worldwide, particularly at northern latitudes. The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) plays a key role in affecting the emergence and spread of significant vector borne diseases such as Bluetongue (BT) and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) at the border between USA and Canada. We used 50 presence points for C. sonorensis collected in Montana (USA) and south-central Alberta (Canada) between 2002 and 2012, together with monthly climatic and environmental predictors to develop a series of alternative maximum entropy distribution models. The best distribution model under current climatic conditions was selected through the Akaike Information Criterion, and included four predictors: Vapour Pressure Deficit of July, standard deviation of Elevation, Land Cover and mean Precipitation of May. This model was then projected into three climate change scenarios adopted by the IPCC in its 5th assessment report and defined as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Climate change data for each predictor and each RCP were calculated for two time points pooling decadal data around each one of them: 2030 (2021–2040) and 2050 (2041–2060). Our projections showed that the areas predicted to be at moderate-high probability of C. sonorensis occurrence would increase from the baseline scenario to 2030 and from 2030 to 2050 for each RCP. The projection also indicated that the current northern limit of C. sonorensis distribution is expected to move northwards to above 53°N. This may indicate an increased risk of Culicoides-borne diseases occurrence over the next decades, particularly at the USA-Canada border, as a result of changes which favor C. sonorensis presence when associated to other factors (i.e. host and pathogen factors). Recent observations of EHD outbreaks in northern Montana and southern Alberta supported our projections and

  9. Butox 7.5 pour on: a deltamethrin treatment of sheep and cattle: pilot study of killing effects on Culicoides species (Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schmahl, Günter; D'Haese, Jochen; Schumacher, Bärbel

    2008-02-01

    Topical treatment (at the neck and along the vertebral column) with deltamethrin (Butox 7.5 pour on) of cattle (30 ml/400-kg body weight) and sheep (10 ml/60-kg body weight) was done to find out, whether the insecticide may reach in a sufficient dosage the legs, which are known to be the main biting site of Culicoides specimens that are the vectors of the recently introduced Bluetongue virus in central Europe. At days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment, some hair was cut off from the legs--close to the claws. Freshly (the night before) caught Culicoides obsoletus specimens were then exposed for 15, 30, 60, or 120 s to such hair and afterwards transferred to a filter paper within plastic Petri dishes to observe their fate. It turned out that even a short contact of 15 s of the Culicoides specimens with deltamethrin-treated hair of cattle or sheep was sufficient to paralyze and kill Culicoides specimens within a reasonable short time even when the hair were cut off at day 28 after treatment. While the results obtained in cattle and sheep were rather similar for days 7 and 14 after treatment, the speed of the killing effect of treated hair of cattle on Culicoides considerably slowed down beginning from day 21 after treatment. However, all the experiments clearly showed that the insecticide deltamethrin may reach the feet of cattle and may kill Culicoides specimens when the product is poured along the vertebral column. Such a treatment may considerably reduce the risk of transmission of the agents of disease. However, in the case of the thick fleece of sheep, the insecticide must be poured directly into the skin to reach full activity.

  10. Effects of Bayofly on specimens of Culicoides species when incubated in hair taken from the feet of previously treated cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schmahl, Günter; Schumacher, Bärbel; D'Haese, Jochen; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven

    2008-02-01

    Sheep and cattle were treated with Bayofly pour-on containing 1 g cyfluthrin per 100 ml ready-to-use solution. Seven, 14, 21 and 28 days after treatment, hair was clipped off from the back and feet and mixed for 10-15 s, 30 s, 1 or 2 min with freshly caught Culicoides midges. It was found that the insecticide on hair from the legs--the predominant biting site of midges--had a significant killing effect on Culicoides for 3-4 weeks, even after a short-term contact.

  11. Using climate data to map the potential distribution of Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, E J; Mellor, P S; Baylis, M

    2001-12-01

    Culicoides imicola, a vector of bluetongue virus and African horse sickness virus, is principally Afro-Asian in distribution, but has recently been found in parts of Europe. A logistic regression model based on climate data (temperature, saturation deficit, rainfall and altitude) and the published distribution of C. imicola in Iberia was developed and then applied to other countries in Europe, to identify locations where C. imicola could become established. The model identified three temperature variables as significant determinants of the distribution of C. imicola in Iberia (minimum of the monthly minimum temperatures, maximum of the monthly maximum temperatures and number of months per year with a mean temperature > or = 12.5 degrees C). The model indicated that under current conditions, the distribution of C. imicola in Spain, Greece and Italy could be extended and the vector could potentially invade parts of Albania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Croatia. To simulate the effect of global warming, temperature values in the model were increased by 2 degrees C. Under these conditions, the potential spread of C. imicola in Europe would be even more extensive.

  12. Experimental infection of Culicoides lahillei (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (Orbivirus: Reoviridae).

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Stallknecht, D E; Nettles, V F

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the vector competence of Culicoides lahillei Lutz for epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses, wild-caught females were allowed to feed on 4 viremic white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, experimentally infected with EHD virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2). Colonized C. variipennis sonorensis (Coquillett) were included as a positive control. Virus was not isolated from 13 C. lahillei tested 4-15 d after feeding on deer with viremias of 3.0 or <2.1 log10 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) virus per milliliter of blood. Virus was isolated from 6 of 69 (8.7%) C. lahillei tested 4-15 d after feeding on deer with viremias of 5.3 or 6.0 TCID50 virus per milliliter of blood. The average amount of EHDV-2 ingested in the blood meal ranged from

  13. Experimental infection of Culicoides lahillei (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (Orbivirus: Reoviridae).

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Stallknecht, D E; Nettles, V F

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the vector competence of Culicoides lahillei Lutz for epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses, wild-caught females were allowed to feed on 4 viremic white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, experimentally infected with EHD virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2). Colonized C. variipennis sonorensis (Coquillett) were included as a positive control. Virus was not isolated from 13 C. lahillei tested 4-15 d after feeding on deer with viremias of 3.0 or <2.1 log10 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) virus per milliliter of blood. Virus was isolated from 6 of 69 (8.7%) C. lahillei tested 4-15 d after feeding on deer with viremias of 5.3 or 6.0 TCID50 virus per milliliter of blood. The average amount of EHDV-2 ingested in the blood meal ranged from

  14. Evaluation of ULV naled applied simultaneously against caged adult Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culicoides furens.

    PubMed

    Linley, J R; Parsons, R E; Winner, R A

    1988-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test application of ULV naled against adult Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culicoides furens exposed simultaneously in cages hung on poles at selected heights and distances from the spray source. ULV spray was released at 0.14 oz active ingredient/acre, droplet size 13.5 micron mmd. In both experiments, insecticide largely carried over the first poles. The greatest mortality occurred at the second pole position, 18.3 and 25.7 m, respectively, from the spray origin, and diminished progressively with increasing distance. Cages at the highest elevation (183 cm) showed the greatest mortality, while those near the ground (15 cm) were substantially less affected. Regression analysis showed that 70% control or better was attained up to a distance (beyond a line 10 m from the release point) of 23 m in the case of Ae. taeniorhynchus and 18 m in the case of C. furens. ULV naled, applied as described, was not particularly effective for control of Ae. taeniorhynchus and C. furens, and was poor for insects exposed in low vegetation. PMID:3199122

  15. Orientation behaviour of Culicoides obsoletus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a relevant virus vector in northern Europe, toward host-associated odorant cues.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Verheggen, François J; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2015-07-30

    Some Culicoides biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have recently been associated with outbreaks of important epizootic diseases such as bluetongue and Schmallenberg in northern Europe. These diseases, which affect domestic and wild ruminants, have caused considerable economic losses. Knowledge of host preferences of these biting midges - especially of the relevant vectors of arboviruses near farms, such as Culicoides obsoletus in northern Europe - is essential to understand pathogen transmission cycles and the epidemiology of associated diseases. This study aimed to determine host preferences of C. obsoletus using an in-field flight tunnel containing pairs of calf, sheep, chicken, and human hosts (and controls) and a laboratory two-choice bioassay containing volatile extracts of host skin (and controls). Behavioural responses of nulliparous C. obsoletus females in the in-field flight tunnel showed a preference for human (but also calf and sheep) hosts, probably due to their exhalation of greater quantities of carbon dioxide. The laboratory experiment revealed that volatile organic compounds released from the skin of chicken and sheep seemed to attract this species. Culicoides obsoletus, thus, seems to have a wide host range and to be particularly attracted by humans under field conditions. A better understanding of vector-host interaction could enable the development of control strategies against adult biting midges, by exploiting insect-repelling or -attractive semiochemicals. Volatile extracts of chicken and/or sheep skin could be used to identify volatile compounds attractive to C. obsoletus, which in turn could be used in baited traps.

  16. Comparison of single- and multi-scale models for the prediction of the Culicoides biting midge distribution in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lühken, Renke; Gethmann, Jörn Martin; Kranz, Petra; Steffenhagen, Pia; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J; Kiel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study analysed Culicoides presence-absence data from 46 sampling sites in Germany, where monitoring was carried out from April 2007 until May 2008. Culicoides presence-absence data were analysed in relation to land cover data, in order to study whether the prevalence of biting midges is correlated to land cover data with respect to the trapping sites. We differentiated eight scales, i.e. buffer zones with radii of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 and 10 km, around each site, and chose several land cover variables. For each species, we built eight single-scale models (i.e. predictor variables from one of the eight scales for each model) based on averaged, generalised linear models and two multiscale models (i.e. predictor variables from all of the eight scales) based on averaged, generalised linear models and generalised linear models with random forest variable selection. There were no significant differences between performance indicators of models built with land cover data from different buffer zones around the trapping sites. However, the overall performance of multi-scale models was higher than the alternatives. Furthermore, these models mostly achieved the best performance for the different species using the index area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. However, as also presented in this study, the relevance of the different variables could significantly differ between various scales, including the number of species affected and the positive or negative direction. This is an even more severe problem if multi-scale models are concerned, in which one model can have the same variable at different scales but with different directions, i.e. negative and positive direction of the same variable at different scales. However, multi-scale modelling is a promising approach to model the distribution of Culicoides species, accounting much more for the ecology of biting midges, which uses different resources (breeding sites, hosts, etc.) at different scales

  17. Entomopathogenic Fungus as a Biological Control for an Important Vector of Livestock Disease: The Culicoides Biting Midge

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C.; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. Methodology/Findings Exposure of midges to ‘dry’ conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT50 value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21–3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (108–1011 conidia m−2) using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter) as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to ‘dry’ conidia and ‘wet’ conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. ‘Dry’ conidia were more effective than ‘wet’ conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of ‘dry’ conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock) where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges

  18. [Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) of the Congolese Mayombe. I. Daily pattern of the biting activity of female Culicoides grahamii Austen, 1909].

    PubMed

    Vattier-Bernard, G; Itoua, A; Trouillet, J; Lallemant, M

    1986-01-01

    Owing to appropriate sampling methods, the study of the daily pattern of biting of female "Culicoides grahamii Austen, 1909" was achieved in the Congolese Mayombe. It was discovered that this pattern was rhythmical in close connection with the sunrise and sunset. Many climatic parameters were simultaneously studied (temperature, hygrometry, brightness). This starting factor of this rhythmical pattern seems to be a brightness which agrees to a total shortwave radiation on the ground, equal or inferior to 25 cal x m-2 x h-1. It seems that the temperature does not play any role.

  19. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Sandra; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Durán, Mauricio; Verdún, Marta; Soler-Membrives, Anna; Oleaga, Álvaro; Arenas, Antonio; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Pagès, Nitu

    2015-01-01

    The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV) and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn). A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding would support the

  20. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Sandra; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Durán, Mauricio; Verdún, Marta; Soler-Membrives, Anna; Oleaga, Álvaro; Arenas, Antonio; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Pagès, Nitu

    2015-01-01

    The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV) and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn). A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding would support the

  1. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Sandra; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Durán, Mauricio; Verdún, Marta; Soler-Membrives, Anna; Oleaga, Álvaro; Arenas, Antonio; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Pagès, Nitu

    2015-01-01

    The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV) and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn). A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding would support the

  2. A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

  3. Field and in vitro insecticidal efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene mesh against Culicoides biting midges in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Page, P C; Labuschagne, K; Venter, G J; Schoeman, J P; Guthrie, A J

    2014-06-16

    The efficacy of untreated and alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene (HDPE) mesh against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) was determined using Onderstepoort downdraught black light traps and a contact bioassay. Three traps were operated overnight in four replicates of a 3×3 randomised Latin square design near horses under South African field conditions. Both the untreated and alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh significantly (P<0.05) reduced the numbers of Culicoides midges, predominantly Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer, collected in the light traps by 4.2 and 7.2 times, respectively. A repellent effect of the alphacypermethrin-treated mesh was not confirmed because the number of midges collected in the light traps with untreated and alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh was not significantly different (P=0.656). Bioassay of the insecticidal contact efficacy indicated median C. imicola mortality of 100% from 30 and 10 min following exposure to the alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh for 1 or 3 min, respectively. In the bioassay, mortality was significantly higher (P=0.016) at 5 min post exposure in the midges exposed to the alphacypermethrin-treated mesh for 3 min (74.8%) compared to the 1 min exposure group (59.5%). The HDPE mesh could be used to reduce exposure of housed animals to Culicoides midges, specifically C. imicola, and viruses transmitted by these midges. Mesh treated with alphacypermethrin had the additional benefit of a rapid insecticidal effect on C. imicola. PMID:24655725

  4. Identification, expression, and characterization of a major salivary allergen (Cul s 1) of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis relevant for summer eczema in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary proteins of Culicoides biting midges are thought to play a key role in the induction of summer eczema (SE), a seasonal recurrent allergic dermatitis in horses. The present study describes the identification of a candidate allergen in artificially collected saliva of the North American speci...

  5. Allergen-Specific Cytokine Polarization Protects Shetland Ponies against Culicoides obsoletus-Induced Insect Bite Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van der Lugt, Jaco J.; van der Meide, Nathalie M. A.; Willemse, Ton; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; Zaiss, Dietmar M. W.

    2015-01-01

    The immunological mechanisms explaining development of an allergy in some individuals and not in others remain incompletely understood. Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common, seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder that affects considerable proportions of horses of different breeds, which is caused by bites of the insect Culicoides obsoletus (C. obsoletus). We investigated the allergen-specific immune status of individual horses that had either been diagnosed to be healthy or to suffer of IBH. Following intradermal allergen injection, skin biopsies were taken of IBH-affected and healthy ponies and cytokine expression was determined by RT-PCR. In addition, allergen-specific antibody titers were measured and cytokine expression of in vitro stimulated, allergen-specific CD4 T-cells was determined. 24 hrs after allergen injection, a significant increase in mRNA expression of the type-2 cytokine IL-4 was observed in the skin of IBH-affected Shetland ponies. In the skin of healthy ponies, however, an increase in IFNγ mRNA expression was found. Analysis of allergen-specific antibody titers revealed that all animals produced allergen-specific antibodies, and allergen-specific stimulation of CD4 T-cells revealed a significant higher percentage of IFNγ-expressing CD4 T-cells in healthy ponies compared to IBH-affected ponies. These data indicate that horses not affected by IBH, in contrast to the so far established dogma, are not immunologically ignorant but have a Th1-skewed allergen-specific immune response that appears to protect against IBH-associated symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a natural situation, in which an allergen-specific immune skewing is protective in an allergic disorder. PMID:25901733

  6. Colonization of the Mediterranean basin by the vector biting midge species Culicoides imicola: an old story.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, S; Garros, C; Lombaert, E; Walton, C; Restrepo, J; Allene, X; Baldet, T; Cetre-Sossah, C; Chaskopoulou, A; Delecolle, J-C; Desvars, A; Djerbal, M; Fall, M; Gardes, L; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Goffredo, M; Gottlieb, Y; Gueye Fall, A; Kasina, M; Labuschagne, K; Lhor, Y; Lucientes, J; Martin, T; Mathieu, B; Miranda, M; Pages, N; Pereira da Fonseca, I; Ramilo, D W; Segard, A; Setier-Rio, M-L; Stachurski, F; Tabbabi, A; Talla Seck, M; Venter, G; Zimba, M; Balenghien, T; Guis, H; Chevillon, C; Bouyer, J; Huber, K

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the demographic history and genetic make-up of colonizing species is critical for inferring population sources and colonization routes. This is of main interest for designing accurate control measures in areas newly colonized by vector species of economically important pathogens. The biting midge Culicoides imicola is a major vector of orbiviruses to livestock. Historically, the distribution of this species was limited to the Afrotropical region. Entomological surveys first revealed the presence of C. imicola in the south of the Mediterranean basin by the 1970s. Following recurrent reports of massive bluetongue outbreaks since the 1990s, the presence of the species was confirmed in northern areas. In this study, we addressed the chronology and processes of C. imicola colonization in the Mediterranean basin. We characterized the genetic structure of its populations across Mediterranean and African regions using both mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and combined phylogeographical analyses with population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation. We found a west/east genetic differentiation between populations, occurring both within Africa and within the Mediterranean basin. We demonstrated that three of these groups had experienced demographic expansions in the Pleistocene, probably because of climate changes during this period. Finally, we showed that C. imicola could have colonized the Mediterranean basin in the Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene through a single event of introduction; however, we cannot exclude the hypothesis involving two routes of colonization. Thus, the recent bluetongue outbreaks are not linked to C. imicola colonization event, but rather to biological changes in the vector or the virus.

  7. Culicoides bottimeri as a vector of Haemoproteus lophortyx to quail in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Mullens, B A; Cardona, C J; McClellan, L; Szijj, C E; Owen, J P

    2006-08-31

    Arthropod sampling via periodic direct bird examination and regular light trapping was conducted between June 2000 and October 2002 to survey for potential vectors of Haemoproteus lophortyx to nonnative, captive-raised bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in northern California, USA. Examination of individual bobwhite quail (from 5 weeks of age through adult, total n=76) was conducted on several dates during the transmission period (June-October). No ectoparasites, including hippoboscid flies (reported as Haemoproteus vectors to wild quail in early literature), were collected from the birds. Trapping with ultraviolet light suction traps near the quail revealed nine species of biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Of these, 94% were C. bottimeri, which was abundant near the birds, and 65% of collected C. bottimeri were engorged with blood. C. bottimeri adult activity began in late-April, slightly before the onset of disease in the quail. Activity peaked between July and late-September, coincident with maximum reported transmission, and adult activity ceased by early-November. Nonengorged C. bottimeri had a parity rate of 43.6% overall, suggesting excellent survival for biological transmission of a pathogen like H. lophortyx. A controlled study was done injecting a macerated slurry of pooled, nonengorged, wild-caught C. bottimeri into the peritoneum of 1-day-old bobwhite quail hatchlings held in insect-proof containers. Blood smears 13-19 days later confirmed H. lophortyx infection in zero controls but all insect-injected quail. Biting midges, especially C. bottimeri, transmit H. lophortyx to captive quail and probably are the dominant vector to native California quail (Callipepla californica) as well. PMID:16716520

  8. Effect of Temperature on Replication of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses in Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah L; Pfannenstiel, Robert S; Allison, Andrew B; Mead, Daniel G

    2015-09-01

    Replication of arboviruses, including orbiviruses, within the vector has been shown to be temperature dependent. Cooler ambient temperatures slow virus replication in arthropod vectors, whereas viruses replicate faster and to higher titers at warmer ambient temperatures. Previous research with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 1 demonstrated that higher temperatures were associated with shorter extrinsic incubation periods in Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones, a confirmed vector of EHDV in North America. To further our understanding of the effect of temperature on replication of EHDV within the vector, C. sonorensis were experimentally infected with one of three EHDV strains representing three serotypes (1, 2, and 7). Midges were fed defibrinated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) blood spiked with EHDV (≥10(6.5) TCID(50)/ml) through a parafilm membrane using an artificial feeding device and were then held at 20, 25, or 30°C. In addition to this in vitro method, a white-tailed deer experimentally infected with EHDV-7 was used to provide an infectious bloodmeal to determine if the results were comparable with those from the in vitro feeding method. Whole midges were processed for virus isolation and titration at regular intervals following feeding; midges with ≥10(2.7) TCID(50) were considered potentially competent to transmit virus. The virus recovery rates were high throughout the study and all three viruses replicated within C. sonorensis to high titer (≥ 10(2.7) TCID(50)/midge). Across all virus strains, the time to detection of potentially competent midges decreased with increasing temperature: 12-16 d postfeeding (dpf) at 20°C, 4-6 dpf at 25°C, and 2-4 dpf at 30°C. Significant differences in replication of the three viruses in C. sonorensis were observed, with EHDV-2 replicating to a high titer in a smaller proportion of midges and with lower peak titers. The findings are consistent with previous studies of related

  9. Effect of Temperature on Replication of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses in Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah L; Pfannenstiel, Robert S; Allison, Andrew B; Mead, Daniel G

    2015-09-01

    Replication of arboviruses, including orbiviruses, within the vector has been shown to be temperature dependent. Cooler ambient temperatures slow virus replication in arthropod vectors, whereas viruses replicate faster and to higher titers at warmer ambient temperatures. Previous research with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 1 demonstrated that higher temperatures were associated with shorter extrinsic incubation periods in Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones, a confirmed vector of EHDV in North America. To further our understanding of the effect of temperature on replication of EHDV within the vector, C. sonorensis were experimentally infected with one of three EHDV strains representing three serotypes (1, 2, and 7). Midges were fed defibrinated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) blood spiked with EHDV (≥10(6.5) TCID(50)/ml) through a parafilm membrane using an artificial feeding device and were then held at 20, 25, or 30°C. In addition to this in vitro method, a white-tailed deer experimentally infected with EHDV-7 was used to provide an infectious bloodmeal to determine if the results were comparable with those from the in vitro feeding method. Whole midges were processed for virus isolation and titration at regular intervals following feeding; midges with ≥10(2.7) TCID(50) were considered potentially competent to transmit virus. The virus recovery rates were high throughout the study and all three viruses replicated within C. sonorensis to high titer (≥ 10(2.7) TCID(50)/midge). Across all virus strains, the time to detection of potentially competent midges decreased with increasing temperature: 12-16 d postfeeding (dpf) at 20°C, 4-6 dpf at 25°C, and 2-4 dpf at 30°C. Significant differences in replication of the three viruses in C. sonorensis were observed, with EHDV-2 replicating to a high titer in a smaller proportion of midges and with lower peak titers. The findings are consistent with previous studies of related

  10. Factors associated with Culicoides Obsoletus complex spp.-specific IgE reactivity in Icelandic horses and Shetland ponies.

    PubMed

    Schurink, Anouk; van der Meide, Nathalie M A; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Ducro, Bart J; Tijhaar, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common allergic skin disease in horses, caused by biting insects of the Culicoides spp. In The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. of the Obsoletus complex are the most important midges involved in IBH. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify associations between several endogenous (host) and exogenous (environmental) factors and immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity against Obsoletus complex-derived whole body extract or seven recombinant allergens, measured by ELISA. Data from 143 Icelandic horses and 177 Shetland ponies were analysed using multivariable models. In addition, the relationship between IgE reactivity and severity of clinical signs in IBH-affected horses was examined. Positive correlations were found between Obsoletus complex-specific IgE and severity of clinical signs. Disease status (IBH affected or control), breed and the interaction between IBH status and breed were significantly associated with IgE reactivity against several Obsoletus complex allergens. Significantly greater IgE reactivity was seen in IBH-affected horses compared to controls. The differences in IgE values between cases and controls were most pronounced in Icelandic horses. Shetland pony controls had significantly greater IgE reactivity compared to Icelandic horse controls, while differences in IgE values comparing Shetland pony cases and Icelandic horse cases were not significant. Severity of clinical signs and IgE reactivity in IBH-affected horses against several Obsoletus complex allergens appeared to be related. Consideration of the factors associated with Obsoletus complex-specific IgE in horses might further improve interpretation and accuracy of IgE ELISA test results within these breeds, although further research is required.

  11. Mycobacterium lepromatosis Infections in Nuevo León, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Escalante-Fuentes, Wendy; Ocampo-Garza, Sonia S.; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Molina-Torres, Carmen A.; Avanzi, Charlotte; Benjak, Andrej; Busso, Philippe; Singh, Pushpendra; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of infection caused by the recently described pathogen Mycobacterium lepromatosis is unknown. Here, we describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic outcomes of five lepromatous leprosy patients suffering from M. lepromatosis infection in Nuevo Léon, Mexico. Diagnosis was facilitated by a new highly specific PCR procedure. PMID:25809978

  12. The Mexican Meteorite Nuevo Mercurio (H5): Characteristics of Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-de La Cruz, K. E.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.

    2006-03-01

    A study of the chondrules of Nuevo Mercurio (H5). There are some primary characteristics that can be observed, such as the relationship between chondrule size and their texture, and presence of opaque minerals (troilite and/or Fe-Ni alloys).

  13. Detection and titration of bluetongue virus in Culicoides insect cell culture by an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Mecham, James O

    2006-08-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) infects sheep, cattle and other ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. of biting midges. Virus is typically isolated and characterized by infection of susceptible vertebrate cells that undergo detectable and measurable cytopathic effects. Cell lines derived from C. sonorensis may be useful for virus isolation and studies to better understand BTV replication in the insect vector. However, their use is hampered because BTV infection does not produce significant cytopathic effects in these insect cell cultures. Detection of virus replication in these cells typically requires co-cultivation with susceptible vertebrate cell culture. This report describes the use of an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-Cap ELISA) for direct detection and titration of BTV in cultures of a Culicoides cell line. This assay should facilitate use of this cell line for virus isolation, titration and studies of BTV replication.

  14. Virus recovery rates for wild-type and live-attenuated vaccine strains of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 in orally infected South African Culicoides species.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Paweska, J T

    2007-12-01

    Previously reported virus recovery rates from Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer and Culicoides (Avaritia) bolitinos Meiswinkel (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) orally infected with vaccine strain of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 (AHSV-7) were compared with results obtained from concurrently conducted oral infections with five recent AHSV-7 isolates from naturally infected horses from various localities in South Africa. Culicoides were fed sheep bloods spiked with 10(7.6) TCID(50)/mL of a live-attenuated vaccine strain AHSV-7, and with five field isolates in which virus titre in the bloodmeals ranged from 10(7.1) to 10(8.2) TCID(50)/mL). After an extrinsic incubation of 10 days at 23.5 degrees C, virus recovery rates were significantly higher in C. imicola (13.3%) and C. bolitinos (4.2%) infected with the live-attenuated virus than in midges infected with any of the field isolates. The virus recovery rates for the latter groups ranged from 0% to 9.5% for C. imicola and from 0% to 1.5% for C. bolitinos. The C. imicola population at Onderstepoort was significantly more susceptible to infection with AHSV-7 isolated at Onderstepoort than to the virus strains isolated from other localities. Results of this study suggest that tissue culture attenuation of AHSV-7 does not reduce its ability to orally infect competent Culicoides species and may even lead to enhanced replication in the vector. Furthermore, oral susceptibility in a midge population appears to vary for geographically distinct isolates of AHSV-7.

  15. Principal climatic and edaphic determinants of Culicoides biting midge abundance during the 2007-2008 bluetongue epidemic in the Netherlands, based on OVI light trap data.

    PubMed

    Scolamacchia, F; VAN DEN Broek, J; Meiswinkel, R; Heesterbeek, J A P; Elbers, A R W

    2014-06-01

    Palaearctic Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) represent a vital link in the northward advance of certain arboviral pathogens of livestock such as that caused by bluetongue virus. The effects of relevant ecological factors on weekly Culicoides vector abundances during the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemics in the Netherlands in 2007 and 2008 were quantified within a hurdle modelling framework. The relative role of meteorological parameters showed a broadly consistent association across species, with larger catches linked to temperature-related variables and lower wind speed. Moreover, vector abundance was found to be influenced by edaphic factors, likely related to species-specific breeding habitat preferences that differed markedly amongst some species. This is the first study on Culicoides vector species in the Netherlands identified during an entomological surveillance programme, in which an attempt is made to pinpoint the factors that influence midge abundance levels. In addition to providing key inputs into risk-mitigating tools for midge-borne pathogens and disease transmission models, the adoption of methods that explicitly address certain features of abundance datasets (frequent zero-count observations and over-dispersion) helped enhance the robustness of the ecological analysis. PMID:24148154

  16. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and livestock in the Netherlands: comparing host preference and attack rates on a Shetland pony, a dairy cow, and a sheep.

    PubMed

    Elbers, A R W; Meiswinkel, R

    2015-12-01

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and attack rates were quantified in early summer at a dairy farm in the Netherlands using livestock tethered at pasture. Midges were aspirated hourly over seven consecutive hours (17:00-23:00) from a dairy cow, a Shetland pony, and a sheep and correspondingly yielded seventeen, thirteen, and nine species. Of the 14,181 midges obtained, approximately 95% belonged to the C. obsoletus complex, C. dewulfi, C. chiopterus, and C. punctatus that together include all proven or potential vectors for arboviral diseases in livestock in northwestern Europe. On average, 7.6 and 3.5 times more Culicoides were collected, respectively, from the cow and the Shetland pony than from the sheep. In descending order of abundance, the C. obsoletus complex, C. dewulfi, and C. chiopterus dominated attacks on all three hosts, whereas C. punctatus and C. pulicaris favored only the two larger hosts. Irrespective of the host species involved, the three body regions attracted the same component species, C. chiopterus favoring the legs, C. punctatus and C. achrayi the belly, and the C. obsoletus complex, C. dewulfi, and C. pulicaris the head, back, and flanks. That known and potential vectors for animal diseases feed indiscriminately on a broad range of mammal hosts means that all major livestock species, including equines, are rendered susceptible to one or more Culicoides-borne pathogens. PMID:26611966

  17. Larval development sites of the main Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in northern Europe and distribution of coprophilic species larvae in Belgian pastures.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Brostaux, Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2014-10-15

    Some Culicoides species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have indeed been associated with outbreaks of important epizoonoses in recent years, such as bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in northern Europe. These diseases, which affect domestic and wild ruminants, have caused considerable economic losses. Knowledge of substrates suitable for Culicoides larval development is important, particularly for the main vector temperate species. This study, realized during two years, aimed to highlight the larval development sites of these biting midge species in the immediate surroundings of ten Belgian cattle farms. Moreover, spatial distribution of the coprophilic Culicoides larvae (C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi) within pastures was studied with increasing distance from farms along linear transects (farm-pasture-woodland). A total of 4347 adult specimens belonging to 13 Culicoides species were obtained by incubation of 2131 soil samples belonging to 102 different substrates; 18 of these substrates were suitable for larval development. The Obsoletus complex (formed by two species) was observed in a wide range of substrates, including silage residues, components of a chicken coop, dung adhering to walls inside stables, leftover feed along the feed bunk, a compost pile of sugar beet residues, soil of a livestock trampling area, and decaying wood, while the following served as substrates for the other specimens: C. chiopterus, mainly cow dung; C. dewulfi, cow dung and molehill soil; C. circumscriptus, algae; C. festivipennis, algae and soil in stagnant water; C. nubeculosus, algae and silt specifically from the edge of a pond; C. punctatus, mainly wet soil between silage reserves; C. salinarius, algae; and C. stigma, algae and wet soil between silage reserves. We also recorded significantly higher densities of coprophilic larvae within pastures in cow dung located near forests, which is likely due to the localization of

  18. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  19. Lack of Evidence for Laboratory and Natural Vertical Transmission of Bluetongue Virus in Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Osborne, C J; Mayo, C E; Mullens, B A; McDermott, E G; Gerry, A C; Reisen, W K; MacLachlan, N J

    2015-03-01

    Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth & Jones) is the principal North American vector of bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal (late summer and fall) in temperate regions of the world such as California, which has led to speculation regarding vertical transmission of the virus within the midge vector as a potential mechanism for interseasonal maintenance ("overwintering") of the virus. To evaluate potential vertical transmission of BTV in its midge vector, we fed adult midges BTV-spiked blood and used a BTV-specific quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay to evaluate parent, egg, and progeny stages of laboratory-reared C. sonorensis for the presence of viral nucleic acid. Whereas BTV nucleic acid was weakly detected in egg batches of virus-fed female midges, virus was never detected in subsequent progeny stages (larvae, pupae, and F1 generation adults). Similarly, BTV was not detected in pools of larvae collected from the waste-water lagoon of a BTV-endemic dairy farm in northern California during the seasonal period of virus transmission. Collectively, these results indicate that BTV is not readily transmitted vertically in C. sonorensis, and that persistence of the virus in long-lived parous female midges is a more likely mechanism for overwintering of BTV in temperate regions. PMID:26336312

  20. Full genome characterization of the culicoides-borne marsupial orbiviruses: Wallal virus, Mudjinbarry virus and Warrego viruses.

    PubMed

    Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S; Pritchard, Ian; Kirkland, Peter D; Brownlie, Joe; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P C

    2014-01-01

    Viruses belonging to the species Wallal virus and Warrego virus of the genus Orbivirus were identified as causative agents of blindness in marsupials in Australia during 1994/5. Recent comparisons of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences have provided a basis for the grouping and classification of orbivirus isolates. However, full-genome sequence data are not available for representatives of all Orbivirus species. We report full-genome sequence data for three additional orbiviruses: Wallal virus (WALV); Mudjinabarry virus (MUDV) and Warrego virus (WARV). Comparisons of conserved polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell 'T2' and core-surface 'T13' proteins show that these viruses group with other Culicoides borne orbiviruses, clustering with Eubenangee virus (EUBV), another orbivirus infecting marsupials. WARV shares <70% aa identity in all three conserved proteins (Pol, T2 and T13) with other orbiviruses, consistent with its classification within a distinct Orbivirus species. Although WALV and MUDV share <72.86%/67.93% aa/nt identity with other orbiviruses in Pol, T2 and T13, they share >99%/90% aa/nt identities with each other (consistent with membership of the same virus species - Wallal virus). However, WALV and MUDV share <68% aa identity in their larger outer capsid protein VP2(OC1), consistent with membership of different serotypes within the species - WALV-1 and WALV-2 respectively. PMID:25299687

  1. Worldwide niche and future potential distribution of Culicoides imicola, a major vector of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Sylvain; Guis, Hélène; Tran, Annelise; Garros, Claire; Balenghien, Thomas; Kriticos, Darren J

    2014-01-01

    We modelled the ecoclimatic niche of Culicoides imicola, a major arthropod vector of midge-borne viral pathogens affecting ruminants and equids, at fine scale and on a global extent, so as to provide insight into current and future risks of disease epizootics, and increase current knowledge of the species' ecology. Based on the known distribution and ecology of C. imicola, the species' response to monthly climatic conditions was characterised using CLIMEX with 10' spatial resolution climatic datasets. The species' climatic niche was projected worldwide and under future climatic scenarios. The validated model highlights the role of irrigation in supporting the occurrence of C. imicola in arid regions. In Europe, the modelled potential distribution of C. imicola extended further West than its reported distribution, raising questions regarding ongoing process of colonization and non-climatic habitat factors. The CLIMEX model highlighted similar ecological niches for C. imicola and the Australasian C. brevitarsis raising questions on biogeography and biosecurity. Under the climate change scenarios considered, its' modelled potential distribution could expand northward in the Northern hemisphere, whereas in Africa its range may contract in the future. The biosecurity risks from bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses need to be re-evaluated in regions where the vector's niche is suitable. Under a warmer climate, the risk of vector-borne epizootic pathogens such as bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses are likely to increase as the climate suitability for C. imicola shifts poleward, especially in Western Europe.

  2. Full genome characterization of the culicoides-borne marsupial orbiviruses: Wallal virus, Mudjinbarry virus and Warrego viruses.

    PubMed

    Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S; Pritchard, Ian; Kirkland, Peter D; Brownlie, Joe; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P C

    2014-01-01

    Viruses belonging to the species Wallal virus and Warrego virus of the genus Orbivirus were identified as causative agents of blindness in marsupials in Australia during 1994/5. Recent comparisons of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences have provided a basis for the grouping and classification of orbivirus isolates. However, full-genome sequence data are not available for representatives of all Orbivirus species. We report full-genome sequence data for three additional orbiviruses: Wallal virus (WALV); Mudjinabarry virus (MUDV) and Warrego virus (WARV). Comparisons of conserved polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell 'T2' and core-surface 'T13' proteins show that these viruses group with other Culicoides borne orbiviruses, clustering with Eubenangee virus (EUBV), another orbivirus infecting marsupials. WARV shares <70% aa identity in all three conserved proteins (Pol, T2 and T13) with other orbiviruses, consistent with its classification within a distinct Orbivirus species. Although WALV and MUDV share <72.86%/67.93% aa/nt identity with other orbiviruses in Pol, T2 and T13, they share >99%/90% aa/nt identities with each other (consistent with membership of the same virus species - Wallal virus). However, WALV and MUDV share <68% aa identity in their larger outer capsid protein VP2(OC1), consistent with membership of different serotypes within the species - WALV-1 and WALV-2 respectively.

  3. Lack of Evidence for Laboratory and Natural Vertical Transmission of Bluetongue Virus in Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, C. E.; Mullens, B. A.; McDermott, E. G.; Gerry, A. C.; Reisen, W. K.; MacLachlan, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth & Jones) is the principal North American vector of bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal (late summer and fall) in temperate regions of the world such as California, which has led to speculation regarding vertical transmission of the virus within the midge vector as a potential mechanism for interseasonal maintenance (“overwintering”) of the virus. To evaluate potential vertical transmission of BTV in its midge vector, we fed adult midges BTV-spiked blood and used a BTV-specific quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay to evaluate parent, egg, and progeny stages of laboratory-reared C. sonorensis for the presence of viral nucleic acid. Whereas BTV nucleic acid was weakly detected in egg batches of virus-fed female midges, virus was never detected in subsequent progeny stages (larvae, pupae, and F1 generation adults). Similarly, BTV was not detected in pools of larvae collected from the waste-water lagoon of a BTV-endemic dairy farm in northern California during the seasonal period of virus transmission. Collectively, these results indicate that BTV is not readily transmitted vertically in C. sonorensis, and that persistence of the virus in long-lived parous female midges is a more likely mechanism for overwintering of BTV in temperate regions. PMID:26336312

  4. Molecular differentiation of the Old World Culicoides imicola species complex (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), inferred using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, F; Meiswinkel, R; Gomulski, L M; Guglielmino, C R; Mellor, P S; Malacrida, A R; Gasperi, G

    2001-07-01

    Samples of seven of the 10 morphological species of midges of the Culicoides imicola complex were considered. The importance of this species complex is connected to its vectorial capacity for African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and bluetongue virus (BTV). Consequently, the risk of transmission may vary dramatically, depending upon the particular cryptic species present in a given area. The species complex is confined to the Old World and our samples were collected in Southern Africa, Madagascar and the Ivory Coast. Genomic DNA of 350 randomly sampled individual midges from 19 populations was amplified using four 20-mer primers by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. One hundred and ninety-six interpretable polymorphic bands were obtained. Species-specific RAPD profiles were defined and for five species diagnostic RAPD fragments were identified. A high degree of polymorphism was detected in the species complex, most of which was observed within populations (from 64 to 76%). Principal coordinate analysis (PCO) and cluster analysis provided an estimate of the degree of variation between and within populations and species. There was substantial concordance between the taxonomies derived from morphological and molecular data. The amount and the different distributions of genetic (RAPD) variation among the taxa can be associated to their life histories, i.e. the abundance and distribution of the larval breeding sites and their seasonality.

  5. Impact of the blood meal on humoral immunity and microbiota in the gut of female Culicoides sonorensis.

    PubMed

    Nayduch, Dana; Erram, Dinesh; Lee, Matthew B; Zurek, Ludek; Saski, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Although Culicoides sonorensis is an important vector of orbiviruses causing significant disease in domestic and wild ruminants in the USA, little is known about factors contributing to midge vector competence. In other vectors such as mosquitoes, interactions among the humoral immune response, microbiota, and ingested pathogens within the vector gut directly impact pathogen survival and therefore vectoring potential. We recently described components of the humoral immune response in the reference transcriptome for adult female C. sonorensis and analysed their temporal expression profiles across several dietary states (unfed, blood, or sugar fed). Blood feeding altered the transcription of several humoral immune components of the Immune deficiency (Imd), dual‑oxidase (DUOX), and Janus Kinase and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways. Genes for immune effectors, such as antimicrobial peptides, were in particular highly induced. Since blood feeding also stimulated proliferation and diversification of bacterial populations colonising the gut of female midges, we infer that changes in immune gene expression were a result of fluctuations in gut microbiota. Thus, diet can indirectly (via microbiota) impact gut immune status and therefore should be carefully considered in subsequent studies assessing vector competence in biting midges. PMID:26741251

  6. Evaluation of an IgE ELISA with Culicoides spp. extracts and recombinant salivary antigens for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Peeters, L M; Janssens, S; Goddeeris, B M; De Keyser, K; Wilson, A D; Kaufmann, C; Schaffartzik, A; Marti, E; Buys, N

    2013-10-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses represents an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to salivary antigens from biting midges (Culicoides spp.). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performances of IgE ELISAs using recombinant Culicoides spp. Obsoletus group salivary gland antigens or crude whole body extracts ('ObsWBE'), C. nubeculosus recombinant proteins (Culn1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10) and Obsoletus group recombinant proteins (Culo1 and 2). IgE levels were measured in plasma of 343 Warmblood horses classified as IBH-affected (n=167) and IBH-unaffected (n=176) according to the owners' descriptions. IBH-affected horses were subdivided based on the severity of their clinical signs at sampling and whether or not their IBH history was considered to be classical. The accuracies of the tests increased when clinical signs at sampling were more pronounced or when the IBH history could be considered as classical. A combination of IgE levels against the three best performing Culicoides spp. recombinant proteins (Culn4, Culo1 and Culo2) and ObsWBE resulted in the best performing test. When IBH-affected horses showing a classical history of the disease and severe clinical signs were compared with IBH-unaffected horses, the Youden's index at the optimal cut-off for the three tests in combination was 0.67. This optimal cut-off had a sensitivity of 70%, a specificity of 97% and a total accuracy of 92%. The performance of the IgE ELISA was affected by the severity of IBH clinical signs at sampling and was improved when IgE levels against several recombinant proteins were combined.

  7. Corethrellonema grandispiculosum n. gen., n. sp. and Aproctonema chapmani n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetradonematidae), Parasites of the Dipterous Insect Genera, Corethrella and Culicoides in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Nickle, W R

    1969-01-01

    Two new nematodes of the family Tetradonematidae, parasitic in aquatic dipterous insects in Louisiana, are presented. Corethrellonema grandispiculosum n. gen., n. sp., from the chaoborid fly, Corethrella brakeleyi Coquillett, and Aproctonema chapmani n. sp., from the sand fly, Culicoides arboricola Root and Hoffman, are described and illustrated. The biology and life histories of these nematodes show that the adults occur in the last larval instar of the insect host. The adult nematodes mate in the body cavity of the insect, and later the female nematode, replete with eggs, exits from the larval fly causing the death of the insect. Male nematodes usually remain in the insect cadaver.

  8. Field morphological variation and laboratory hybridization of Culicoides variipennis sonorensis and C. v. occidentalis (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) in southern California.

    PubMed

    Velten, R K; Mullens, B A

    1997-05-01

    Two field populations of Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) from southern California, C. v. occidentalis Wirth & Jones from the Salton Sea and C. v. sonorensis Wirth & Jones from a dairy wastewater pond in the Chino Basin, were sampled monthly from February to July (6-7 mo). Morphometric analyses of slide-mounted adults reared from field-collected larvae and pupae indicated that females of the 2 forms were indistinguishable. Two of the standard characters, wing length and mandibular teeth, were correlated with seasonal temperature changes. Males of C. v. sonorensis were distinguishable by the presence of spicules on the aedeagus, which were entirely lacking in C. v. occidentalis. Two populations of C. v. occidentalis (Salton Sea and Bolsa Chica Marsh) and a laboratory strain of C. v. sonorensis hybridized successfully in the laboratory and were maintained for 6 generations. Differential hybrid viability (F1) was observed in reciprocal crosses. Males of C. v. occidentalis mated with females of C. v. sonorensis resulted in a lower egg hatch (7.4%) than did the reciprocal cross (75.6%). Hybrid males displayed spicules on the aedeagus (a character of C. v. sonorensis), but the number of spicules was sometimes reduced compared with parental C. v. sonorensis (AA strain). Spicules in a field population of C. v. sonorensis were similar in number to the laboratory C. v. sonorensis-C. v. occidentalis hybrids. Based on successful hybridization, the 2 forms should be considered closely related. The 2 forms are separated ecologically by the nature and distribution of their larval habitats. PMID:9151490

  9. Population Genetic Structure and Potential Incursion Pathways of the Bluetongue Virus Vector Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tay, W T; Kerr, P J; Jermiin, L S

    2016-01-01

    Culicoides brevitarsis is a vector of the bluetongue virus (BTV), which infects sheep and cattle. It is an invasive species in Australia with an assumed Asian/South East Asian origin. Using one mitochondrial marker (i.e., part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene) and six nuclear markers, we inferred population genetic structure and possible incursion pathways for Australian C. brevitarsis. Nine mitochondrial haplotypes, with low nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0-0.7%) among these, were identified in a sample of 70 individuals from seven sites. Both sets of markers revealed a homogeneous population structure, albeit with evidence of isolation by distance and two genetically distinct clusters distributed along a north-to-south cline. No evidence of a cryptic species complex was found. The geographical distribution of the mitochondrial haplotypes is consistent with at least two incursion pathways into Australia since the arrival of suitable livestock hosts. By contrast, 15 mitochondrial haplotypes, with up to four times greater nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0-2.9%) among these, were identified in a sample of 16 individuals of the endemic C. marksi (sampled from a site in South Australia and another in New South Wales). A phylogenetic tree inferred using the mitochondrial marker revealed that the Australian and Japanese samples of C. brevitarsis are as evolutionarily different from one another as some of the other Australian species (e.g., C. marksi, C. henryi, C. pallidothorax) are. The phylogenetic tree placed four of the species endemic to Australia (C. pallidothorax, C. bundyensis, C. marksi, C. henryi) in a clade, with a fifth such species (C. bunrooensis) sharing a common ancestor with that clade and a clade comprising two Japanese species (C. verbosus, C. kibunensis).

  10. Population Genetic Structure and Potential Incursion Pathways of the Bluetongue Virus Vector Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Tay, W. T.; Kerr, P. J.; Jermiin, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Culicoides brevitarsis is a vector of the bluetongue virus (BTV), which infects sheep and cattle. It is an invasive species in Australia with an assumed Asian/South East Asian origin. Using one mitochondrial marker (i.e., part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene) and six nuclear markers, we inferred population genetic structure and possible incursion pathways for Australian C. brevitarsis. Nine mitochondrial haplotypes, with low nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0–0.7%) among these, were identified in a sample of 70 individuals from seven sites. Both sets of markers revealed a homogeneous population structure, albeit with evidence of isolation by distance and two genetically distinct clusters distributed along a north-to-south cline. No evidence of a cryptic species complex was found. The geographical distribution of the mitochondrial haplotypes is consistent with at least two incursion pathways into Australia since the arrival of suitable livestock hosts. By contrast, 15 mitochondrial haplotypes, with up to four times greater nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0–2.9%) among these, were identified in a sample of 16 individuals of the endemic C. marksi (sampled from a site in South Australia and another in New South Wales). A phylogenetic tree inferred using the mitochondrial marker revealed that the Australian and Japanese samples of C. brevitarsis are as evolutionarily different from one another as some of the other Australian species (e.g., C. marksi, C. henryi, C. pallidothorax) are. The phylogenetic tree placed four of the species endemic to Australia (C. pallidothorax, C. bundyensis, C. marksi, C. henryi) in a clade, with a fifth such species (C. bunrooensis) sharing a common ancestor with that clade and a clade comprising two Japanese species (C. verbosus, C. kibunensis). PMID:26771743

  11. A Broad Assessment of Factors Determining Culicoides imicola Abundance: Modelling the Present and Forecasting Its Future in Climate Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Márquez, Ana Luz; Miranda, Miguel Angel; Gortázar, Christian; Lucientes, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is still present in Europe and the introduction of new serotypes from endemic areas in the African continent is a possible threat. Culicoides imicola remains one of the most relevant BT vectors in Spain and research on the environmental determinants driving its life cycle is key to preventing and controlling BT. Our aim was to improve our understanding of the biotic and abiotic determinants of C. imicola by modelling its present abundance, studying the spatial pattern of predicted abundance in relation to BT outbreaks, and investigating how the predicted current distribution and abundance patterns might change under future (2011–2040) scenarios of climate change according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. C. imicola abundance data from the bluetongue national surveillance programme were modelled with spatial, topoclimatic, host and soil factors. The influence of these factors was further assessed by variation partitioning procedures. The predicted abundance of C. imicola was also projected to a future period. Variation partitioning demonstrated that the pure effect of host and topoclimate factors explained a high percentage (>80%) of the variation. The pure effect of soil followed in importance in explaining the abundance of C. imicola. A close link was confirmed between C. imicola abundance and BT outbreaks. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to consider wild and domestic hosts in predictive modelling for an arthropod vector. The main findings regarding the near future show that there is no evidence to suggest that there will be an important increase in the distribution range of C. imicola; this contrasts with an expected increase in abundance in the areas where it is already present in mainland Spain. What may be expected regarding the future scenario for orbiviruses in mainland Spain, is that higher predicted C. imicola abundance may significantly change the rate of transmission of orbiviruses. PMID:21151914

  12. Population Genetic Structure and Potential Incursion Pathways of the Bluetongue Virus Vector Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tay, W T; Kerr, P J; Jermiin, L S

    2016-01-01

    Culicoides brevitarsis is a vector of the bluetongue virus (BTV), which infects sheep and cattle. It is an invasive species in Australia with an assumed Asian/South East Asian origin. Using one mitochondrial marker (i.e., part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene) and six nuclear markers, we inferred population genetic structure and possible incursion pathways for Australian C. brevitarsis. Nine mitochondrial haplotypes, with low nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0-0.7%) among these, were identified in a sample of 70 individuals from seven sites. Both sets of markers revealed a homogeneous population structure, albeit with evidence of isolation by distance and two genetically distinct clusters distributed along a north-to-south cline. No evidence of a cryptic species complex was found. The geographical distribution of the mitochondrial haplotypes is consistent with at least two incursion pathways into Australia since the arrival of suitable livestock hosts. By contrast, 15 mitochondrial haplotypes, with up to four times greater nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0-2.9%) among these, were identified in a sample of 16 individuals of the endemic C. marksi (sampled from a site in South Australia and another in New South Wales). A phylogenetic tree inferred using the mitochondrial marker revealed that the Australian and Japanese samples of C. brevitarsis are as evolutionarily different from one another as some of the other Australian species (e.g., C. marksi, C. henryi, C. pallidothorax) are. The phylogenetic tree placed four of the species endemic to Australia (C. pallidothorax, C. bundyensis, C. marksi, C. henryi) in a clade, with a fifth such species (C. bunrooensis) sharing a common ancestor with that clade and a clade comprising two Japanese species (C. verbosus, C. kibunensis). PMID:26771743

  13. Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Goffredo, Maria; Conte, Annamaria; Hendrickx, Guy; Meiswinkel, Rudolf; Balenghien, Thomas; Sghaier, Soufien; Lohr, Youssef; Gilbert, Marius

    2013-05-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean Europe during the last two decades is a consequence of the recent colonization of the region by Culicoides imicola and linked to climate change. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the northward spread of BT, we tested the hypothesis of a recent colonization of Italy by C. imicola, by obtaining samples from more than 60 localities across Italy, Corsica, Southern France, and Northern Africa (the hypothesized source point for the recent invasion of C. imicola), and by genotyping them with 10 newly identified microsatellite loci. The patterns of genetic variation within and among the sampled populations were characterized and used in a rigorous approximate Bayesian computation framework to compare three competing historical hypotheses related to the arrival and establishment of C. imicola in Italy. The hypothesis of an ancient presence of the insect vector was strongly favoured by this analysis, with an associated P ≥ 99%, suggesting that causes other than the northward range expansion of C. imicola may have supported the emergence of BT in southern Europe. Overall, this study illustrates the potential of molecular genetic markers for exploring the assumed link between climate change and the spread of diseases.

  14. An improved, high-throughput method for detection of bluetongue virus RNA in Culicoides midges utilizing infrared-dye-labeled primers for reverse transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed

    Kato, Cecilia Y; Mayer, Richard T

    2007-03-01

    A new rapid (less than 6h from insect-to-results) high-throughput assay that is sensitive and specific for detecting BTV RNA in Culicoides biting midges is reported. Homogenization and extraction of nucleic acids from individual Culicoides specimens were performed in a 96-well plate format using specialized beads in a homogenization buffer compatible with cell culture and RNA extraction. A portion of homogenate (10%) from each specimen was retained for confirmatory infectious virus isolation, while the remaining 90% was used for RNA extraction. The RNA was used in a single step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) reaction with infrared (IR)-dye-labeled primers. The RT-PCR products were visualized in agarose gels with an infrared scanner. The adaptation of IR-dye-labeled primers in combination with a one step RT-PCR resulted in a detection limit of 0.5 pfu of purified BTV RNA. All 24 serotypes of BTV prototype strains and none of the 8 serotypes of the closely related epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) prototype strains were detected.

  15. Isolation of bluetongue virus serotype 1 from Culicoides vector captured in livestock farms and sequence analysis of the viral genome segment-2.

    PubMed

    Dadawala, A I; Biswas, S K; Rehman, W; Chand, K; De, A; Mathapati, B S; Kumar, P; Chauhan, H C; Chandel, B S; Mondal, B

    2012-08-01

    Bluetongue virus serotype-1 (BTV-1) was isolated from Culicoides oxystoma vectors captured on livestock farms in two places of Gujarat, India. The viruses were isolated on BHK-21 cells, which produced characteristic BTV-related cytopathic effects between 24 and 48 h post-infection. Virus antigen was demonstrated in infected cells at different passage by a BTV-specific sandwich ELISA. Further, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining of viral genomic RNA revealed ten double-stranded RNA segments characteristic of BTV. Serotype of the isolates was identified by virus neutralization and PCR coupled with sequencing. The isolates were designated as SKN-7 and SKN-8 and their genome segment-2 (VP2) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses revealed very close relationship between them although they are not identical. SKN-8 showed closer relationship with a recently isolated BTV-1 from goat. Bluetongue virus was earlier isolated from Culicoides in adjacent state more than 20 years ago, although the serotype of the virus was not determined.

  16. Trap placement and attractant choice affect capture and create sex and parity biases in collections of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis.

    PubMed

    McDermott, E G; Mayo, C E; Gerry, A C; Mullens, B A

    2016-09-01

    Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary North American vector of bluetongue virus (BTV), which can cause high morbidity and mortality in ruminant livestock or wildlife. Worldwide, most Culicoides surveillance relies on light (usually UV) traps typically placed near animals or larval development sites. However, the trapping method can cause sex, species and parity biases in collections. We collected C. sonorensis from three dairies in California using suction traps baited with CO2 , UV light or CO2  + UV placed near animals, wastewater ponds, or in fields. Higher numbers of parous females were collected using CO2  + UV traps, although this difference was only significant on one dairy. UV traps were poor at collecting nulliparous females, but the addition of UV to a trap increased the abundance of males in a collection. Traps set in open fields collected significantly higher numbers of males and females than in either of the other two locations. In some cases, there was a significant interaction between the trap type and site. We discuss the limitations of traditional trapping methodologies for C. sonorensis and make suggestions for vector surveillance. PMID:27257164

  17. A blood pressure survey in Nuevo Laredo, Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Caamano, A G; Cooper, R; Cedres, L; Barriero, L A; Dominquez, R C

    1982-01-01

    A blood pressure survey was carried out in 1976 in the city of Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, which involved 6,351 persons 30-69 years old. The study sample was recruited so as to represent an approximation of the overall distribution of occupational classes in the urban population. Members of the population sample were relatively young and of low educational attainment. To the extent that comparisons among surveys are feasible, mean blood pressure levels and hypertension rates were roughly comparable to those found in the white population of the United States. Although no firm conclusions can be drawn from the survey, a trend toward somewhat higher hypertension rates within the professional and managerial class was observed in some age groups in Laredo. PMID:7063591

  18. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV) that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD), Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i) to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii) to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV) bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife) were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST). Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST) showed that both haplotypes belong to

  19. Man-biting species of Chrysops meigen, Culicoides latreille and Simulium latreille in Ethiopia, with discussion of their vector potentialities.

    PubMed

    White, G B

    1977-01-01

    Human filariasis and its vectors are little known in Ethiopia. Wuchereia bancrofti is confined to the western lowlands and cannot be the aetiological agent of elephantiasis in the highlands. Onchocerca volvulus is widespread in the south-western highlands. Loa loa and Dipetalonema perstans are reported here for the first time and appear to be uncommon. Studies were conducted in 1973, mostly near Jimma in Kaffa Province, on potential vectors of all but the first of these parasites. Among Simuliidae, the only blackflies of apparent medical importance were S. woodi ethiopiense and a possibly new member of the S. damnosum complex. The former is less seasonal and much less numerous than the latter, but may be more widespread and important along smaller and higher streams. Onchocerca larvae were recovered from "damnosum", but not from the small number (46) of ethiopiense examined. In August, at the height of the rainy season, the biting-rate of ethiopiense at 1,710 m altitude on the Gilgil Ghibe river reached 9.5/man-hour at 10-1100 hours and about 12/man-hour at 14-1600 hours. At the same time and place, the attack of "damnosum" reached a midday climax of about 1,800/man-hour; this peak could be delayed or suppressed by rain. Another possibly anthropophilic blackfly, S. dentulosum, tended to become most common in December afer the rainy season had passed, but proved incompetent to bite man successfully. The only feasible loiasis vector found in Ethiopia was Chrysops streptobalius; however, this tabanid was not closely associated with man. Up to 34/man-day were caught in watermeadows by the Gojeb river (altitude 1,160 m) in October. Man-biting species of Ceratopogonidae in various parts of Ethiopia were Culicoides fulvithorax, C. grahamii, C. kingi and C. milnei. The first two of these were anthropophilic in lowlands, but apparently not so in highlands. C. milnei was extremely abundant biting man highlands. C. milnei was extremely abundant biting man and domestic animals

  20. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  1. Biting rates of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on sheep in northeastern Spain in relation to midge capture using UV light and carbon dioxide-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Gerry, Alec C; Sarto i Monteys, V; Moreno Vidal, J O; Francino, O; Mullens, Bradley A

    2009-05-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected near sunset by direct aspiration from sheep in northeastern Spain to determine species-specific biting rates and crepuscular activity. Midges were also collected by UV-baited light traps and CO2-baited traps over the same period to compare species diversity and abundance using these common surveillance methods to actual sheep attack rates. Culicoides aspirated from sheep included C. obsoletus, C. parroti, C. scoticus, C. punctatus, and C. imicola. Peak host-seeking activity during the time period examined for the two most commonly collected species (C. obsoletus and C. parroti) occurred just before sunset and activity ceased within 1 h after sunset. Host attack rates near sunset averaged 0.9 midges/min for both species with maximum attack rates of 3/min for C. obsoletus and 4/min for C. parroti. For both species, approximately 35% of midges collected from the sheep were engorged, giving a maximum biting rate of 1.1/min for C. obsoletus and 1.5/min for C. parroti. Traps baited with CO2 collected fewer midges of each species relative to other collection methods. Traps baited with UV light provided a good indication of species richness but significantly underestimated the host attack rate of C. obsoletus and C. parroti while overestimating the host attack rate of C. imicola. Animal-baited collecting is critical to interpret the epidemiological significance of light trap collections used for surveillance of the midge vectors of bluetongue virus and African horse sickness virus.

  2. Identification of the Genome Segments of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 26 (Isolate KUW2010/02) that Restrict Replication in a Culicoides sonorensis Cell Line (KC Cells)

    PubMed Central

    Pullinger, Gillian D.; Guimerà Busquets, Marc; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Boyce, Mark; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) can infect most ruminant species and is usually transmitted by adult, vector-competent biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Infection with BTV can cause severe clinical signs and can be fatal, particularly in naïve sheep and some deer species. Although 24 distinct BTV serotypes were recognized for several decades, additional ‘types’ have recently been identified, including BTV-25 (from Switzerland), BTV-26 (from Kuwait) and BTV-27 from France (Corsica). Although BTV-25 has failed to grow in either insect or mammalian cell cultures, BTV-26 (isolate KUW2010/02), which can be transmitted horizontally between goats in the absence of vector insects, does not replicate in a Culicoides sonorensis cell line (KC cells) but can be propagated in mammalian cells (BSR cells). The BTV genome consists of ten segments of linear dsRNA. Mono-reassortant viruses were generated by reverse-genetics, each one containing a single BTV-26 genome segment in a BTV-1 genetic-background. However, attempts to recover a mono-reassortant containing genome-segment 2 (Seg-2) of BTV-26 (encoding VP2), were unsuccessful but a triple-reassortant was successfully generated containing Seg-2, Seg-6 and Seg-7 (encoding VP5 and VP7 respectively) of BTV-26. Reassortants were recovered and most replicated well in mammalian cells (BSR cells). However, mono-reassortants containing Seg-1 or Seg-3 of BTV-26 (encoding VP1, or VP3 respectively) and the triple reassortant failed to replicate, while a mono-reassortant containing Seg-7 of BTV-26 only replicated slowly in KC cells. PMID:26890863

  3. Identification of the Genome Segments of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 26 (Isolate KUW2010/02) that Restrict Replication in a Culicoides sonorensis Cell Line (KC Cells).

    PubMed

    Pullinger, Gillian D; Guimerà Busquets, Marc; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Boyce, Mark; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) can infect most ruminant species and is usually transmitted by adult, vector-competent biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Infection with BTV can cause severe clinical signs and can be fatal, particularly in naïve sheep and some deer species. Although 24 distinct BTV serotypes were recognized for several decades, additional 'types' have recently been identified, including BTV-25 (from Switzerland), BTV-26 (from Kuwait) and BTV-27 from France (Corsica). Although BTV-25 has failed to grow in either insect or mammalian cell cultures, BTV-26 (isolate KUW2010/02), which can be transmitted horizontally between goats in the absence of vector insects, does not replicate in a Culicoides sonorensis cell line (KC cells) but can be propagated in mammalian cells (BSR cells). The BTV genome consists of ten segments of linear dsRNA. Mono-reassortant viruses were generated by reverse-genetics, each one containing a single BTV-26 genome segment in a BTV-1 genetic-background. However, attempts to recover a mono-reassortant containing genome-segment 2 (Seg-2) of BTV-26 (encoding VP2), were unsuccessful but a triple-reassortant was successfully generated containing Seg-2, Seg-6 and Seg-7 (encoding VP5 and VP7 respectively) of BTV-26. Reassortants were recovered and most replicated well in mammalian cells (BSR cells). However, mono-reassortants containing Seg-1 or Seg-3 of BTV-26 (encoding VP1, or VP3 respectively) and the triple reassortant failed to replicate, while a mono-reassortant containing Seg-7 of BTV-26 only replicated slowly in KC cells. PMID:26890863

  4. Amphibians and Reptiles of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A.; Smith, Geoffrey R.; Cruz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a check list of the herpetofauna of Nuevo León. We documented 132 species (23 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 30 families (11 amphibians, 19 reptiles) and 73 genera (17 amphibians, 56 reptiles). Only two species are endemic to Nuevo León. Nuevo León contains a relatively high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Nuevo León and states it borders is fairly extensive. Of 130 native species, 102 are considered species of Least Concern in the IUCN red list, four are listed as Vulnerable, five are listed as Near Threatened, and four are listed as Endangered. According to SEMARNAT, 78 species are not of conservation concern, 25 are subject to Special Protection, 27 are Threatened, and none are listed as in Danger of Extinction. Given current threats to the herpetofauna, additional efforts to understand the ecology and status of populations in Nuevo León are needed. PMID:27408562

  5. Amphibians and Reptiles of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Cruz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We compiled a check list of the herpetofauna of Nuevo León. We documented 132 species (23 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 30 families (11 amphibians, 19 reptiles) and 73 genera (17 amphibians, 56 reptiles). Only two species are endemic to Nuevo León. Nuevo León contains a relatively high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Nuevo León and states it borders is fairly extensive. Of 130 native species, 102 are considered species of Least Concern in the IUCN red list, four are listed as Vulnerable, five are listed as Near Threatened, and four are listed as Endangered. According to SEMARNAT, 78 species are not of conservation concern, 25 are subject to Special Protection, 27 are Threatened, and none are listed as in Danger of Extinction. Given current threats to the herpetofauna, additional efforts to understand the ecology and status of populations in Nuevo León are needed. PMID:27408562

  6. Identification, expression and characterization of a major salivary allergen (Cul s 1) of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis relevant for summer eczema in horses

    PubMed Central

    Langner, Kathrin F. A.; Jarvis, Donald L.; Nimtz, Manfred; Heselhaus, Julia E.; McHolland, Linda E.; Leibold, Wolfgang; Drolet, Barbara S.

    2009-01-01

    Salivary proteins of Culicoides biting midges are thought to play a key role in summer eczema (SE), a seasonal recurrent allergic dermatitis in horses. The present study describes the identification, expression and clinical relevance of a candidate allergen of the North American midge Culicoides sonorensis. Immunoblot analysis of midge saliva revealed a 66 kDa protein (Cul s 1) that was bound by IgE from several SE-affected (SE+) horses. Further characterization by fragmentation, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics identified Cul s 1 as maltase, an enzyme involved in sugar meal digestion. A cDNA encoding Cul s 1 was isolated and expressed as a polyhistidine-tagged fusion protein in a baculovirus/insect cell expression system. The clinical relevance of the affinity-purified recombinant Cul s 1 (rCul s 1) was investigated by immunoblotting, histamine release testing (HRT) and intradermal testing (IDT) in eight SE+ and eight control horses. Seven SE+ horses had rCul s 1-specific IgE, whereas only one control animal had IgE directed against this allergen. Furthermore, the HRT showed rCul s 1 induced basophil degranulation in samples from seven of eight SE+ horses but in none of the control animals. rCul s 1 also induced immediate (7/8), late-phase (8/8) and delayed (1/8) skin reactivity in IDT on all SE+ horses that had a positive test with the whole body extract (WBE) of C. sonorensis. None of the control horses showed immediate or delayed skin reactivity with rCul s 1, and only one control horse had a positive late-phase response, while several non-specific late-phase reactions were observed with the insect WBE. Thus, we believe rCul s 1 is the first specific salivary allergen of C. sonorensis to be described that promises to advance both in vitro and in vivo diagnosis and may contribute to the development of immunotherapy for SE in horses. PMID:18708061

  7. Record of two species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) new for Madagascar and molecular study showing the paraphylies of the subgenus Oecacta and the Schultzei group.

    PubMed

    Augot, D; Randrianambinintsoa, F J; Gasser, A; Depaquit, J

    2013-08-01

    Culicoides are vectors of diseases of Veterinary Medicine importance (bluetongue, African horse sickness, Schmallenberg virus) all over the world. In the present study, we report two species new for Madagascar: C. nevilli and C. enderleini. They belong to the Schultzei group which is sometimes classified in the subgenus Oecacta and sometimes in the subgenus Remmia, depending on authors. Consequently, we carried out a molecular cladistics of these groups based on cytochrome C oxidase subunit I mtDNA sequences. We processed the Malagasy specimens and some C. furens (the Oecacta type-species) caught in Florida and we analyzed their sequences and those available in Genbank: C. schultzei, C. oxystoma, C. festivipennis, C. brunnicans, C. kibunensis, C. truncorum and C. vexans. C. (Avaritia) imicola have been selected as an outgroup. The maximum parsimony analysis showed the paraphylies of the Schultzei group (=Remmia) and of the subgenus Oecacta if the first group is excluded from the latter. Our results underline the doubtful current classification and need to be validated by other molecular markers in the future. PMID:23893801

  8. Response of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to 1-octen-3-ol and three plant-derived repellent formulations in the field.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Wegis, M C; Mullens, B A

    2000-06-01

    The potential attractant 1-octen-3-ol and 3 potential repellents were assayed for activity for Culicoides sonorensis, the primary vector of bluetongue virus in North America. Collections using octenol were low, but numbers in suction traps were greater in the high-octenol treatment (11.5 mg/h) than in the low-octenol treatment (1.2 mg/h) or unbaited control for both sexes. Collections using high octenol, CO2 (approximately 1,000 ml/min), or both showed octenol alone to be significantly less attractive than either of the CO2 treatments and that octenol did not act synergistically with this level of CO2. A plant-derived (Meliaceae) extract with 4.5% of active ingredient (AI) (Ag1000), heptanone solvent, Lice free (2% AI from plant extracts in water), Mosi-guard with 50% Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook extract, and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) were applied to polyester-cotton coarse mesh nets and deployed in conjunction with suction light traps plus CO2. Collections in the trap with deet were 66% lower (P < 0.05) than the heptanone and 56% (P > 0.05) less than the untreated (negative) control. Relative to deet, collections in the traps with the lice repellent, Ag1000, and Mosi-guard were reduced by 15, 34, and 39%, respectively (P > 0.05). The method has promise for field screening of potential repellents before on-animal testing. PMID:10901641

  9. Christopher Columbus and Culicoides: was C. jamaicensis Edwards, 1922 introduced into the Mediterranean 500 years ago and later re-named C. paolae Boorman 1996?

    PubMed

    Meiswinkel, R; Labuschagne, K; Goffredo, M

    2004-01-01

    The biting midge, Culicoides paolae Boorman, described from specimens collected in the extreme south of Italy in 1996, belongs in the subgenus Drymodesmyia. This subgenus was erected by Vargas in 1960 for the so-called Copiosus species group, an assemblage of 22 species endemic to the tropical regions of the New World and, where known, breed in vegetative materials including the decaying leaves (cladodes) and fruits of Central American cacti. The Mexican peoples have utilised these cacti for over 9,000 years; one of these, Opuntia ficus-indica Linnaeus, was brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus following his voyages of discovery. As a taxon C. paolae is very similar to the Central American C. jamaicensis Edwards, 1922 raising the possibility that it (or a closely related species of Drymodesmyia) was introduced into the Mediterranean Region at the time of Columbus, but was (perplexingly) discovered only 500 years later and named C. paolae. The comparison of Sardinian specimens of C. paolae with Panamanian material of C. jamaicensis (housed in the Natural History Museum in London) confirmed the two species to be very similar but unusual differences were noted around the precise distribution of the sensilla coeloconica on the female flagellum. Until it is understood whether these differences represent either intra- or interspecific variation, the question of the possible synonymy of C. paolae must be held in abeyance.

  10. Effects of ultra-low volume and thermal fog malathion, Scourge and naled applied against caged adult Culicoides furens and Culex quinquefasciatus in open and vegetated terrain.

    PubMed

    Linley, J R; Jordan, S

    1992-03-01

    The adulticidal effect of ULV and thermal fog malathion, Scourge and naled was tested at 2x label dosage (1.42, 0.22, 0.39 oz/acre, respectively) against caged Culicoides furens and Culex quinquefasciatus in open and vegetated (orange grove) terrain. Cages were at 122 cm elevation and positioned at 15.2, 45.7, 76.2, 106.7, 137.2 and 167.6 m from the line of insecticide release. Ultra-low volume applications of all 3 insecticides were markedly more effective than thermal fog under all conditions, especially in vegetated terrain. Of the 3 insecticides, malathion performed the poorest, especially against Cx. quinquefasciatus (in which there was some resistance) and particularly when applied as thermal fog. Scourge and naled were about equally effective. The best adulticide against C. furens was naled, which was clearly superior applied as ULV. It yielded 75% mortality out to 283 m in the open, and to 38 m in the presence of dense vegetation. PMID:1583493

  11. Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

  12. Exploración del Nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, y conozca las nuevas tecnologías que el nuevo robot Curiosity del Laboratorio Científico d...

  13. James Monroe High School Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes, 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ana L.; And Others

    In its second year of Title VII funding, James Monroe High Schools's Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes (Project New Horizons) served 344 limited-English-speaking recent arrivals from Latin America and the Caribbean, in grades 9 through 12. The program has built on the strengths of the high school's extensive computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program,…

  14. James Monroe High School Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes, a 3-year Title VII-funded bilingual education program, serves 287 Spanish speaking students at James Monroe High School (Bronx, New York). This report evaluates the project's first year of operation, 1985-86. The report contains an introduction describing the school and project goals; information on student…

  15. Nuevos Horizontes, James Monroe High School, 1987-1988. Evaluation Section Report. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Lista, Carlos

    Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes (Project New Horizons) at James Monroe High School (New York City) served 328 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades 9-12 during the final year of a 3-year funding cycle. The project's purpose was to build on the strengths of the school's extensive computer-assisted instructional program in order to…

  16. Haemoproteus minutus and Haemoproteus belopolskyi (Haemoproteidae): complete sporogony in the biting midge Culicoides impunctatus (Ceratopogonidae), with implications on epidemiology of haemoproteosis.

    PubMed

    Ziegytė, Rita; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Bernotienė, Rasa; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2014-10-01

    Species of Haemoproteus (Haemoproteidae) are cosmopolitan haemosporidian parasites, some of which cause severe diseases in birds. Numerous recent studies address molecular characterization, distribution and genetic diversity of haemoproteids. However, the information about their vectors is scarce. We investigated sporogonic development of two widespread species of Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus minutus and Haemoproteus belopolskyi) in the experimentally infected biting midge Culicoides impunctatus. Wild-caught flies were allowed to take blood meals on naturally infected common blackbirds Turdus merula and icterine warblers Hippolais icterina harboring mature gametocytes of H. minutus (lineage hTURDUS2) and H. belopolskyi (hHIICT1), respectively. The engorged flies were collected, transported to the laboratory, held at 15-18°C, and dissected daily in order to obtain ookinetes, oocysts and sporozoites. Mature ookinetes of H. minutus developed blisteringly rapidly; they were numerous in the midgut content between 1 and 4 h post exposure. Ookinetes of H. belopolskyi developed slower and were reported 1 day post exposure (dpe). Oocysts of both parasites were seen in the midgut wall 3-4 dpe. Sporozoites of H. minutus and H. belopolskyi were first observed in the salivary glands preparations 7 dpe. The percentage of experimentally infected flies with sporozoites of H. minutus was 82.1% and 91.7% with H. belopolskyi. In accordance with microscopy data, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed presence of the corresponding parasite lineages in experimentally infected biting midges. Sporogonic stages of these parasites were described and illustrated. This study indicates that C. impunctatus is involved in the transmission of deadly H. minutus, which kills captive parrots in Europe. This biting midge is an important vector of avian haemoproteids and worth more attention in epidemiology research of avian haemoproteosis. PMID:25102434

  17. Ano Nuevo to Santa Cruz, California : a photographic tour of the coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chezar, Henry; Wong, Florence L.

    2000-01-01

    This interactive CD ROM contains over 500 overlapping photographic images of the California coastline from A?o Nuevo to Santa Cruz. The images were taken from the R/V David Johnston to illustrate the coastal geology adjacent to part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The introductory home page starts a series of links to a regional map, more detailed area maps, and finally the individual photographic images.

  18. On the study of the transmission networks of blood parasites from SW Spain: diversity of avian haemosporidians in the biting midge Culicoides circumscriptus and wild birds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood-sucking flying insects play a key role in the transmission of pathogens of vector-borne diseases. However, at least for the case of avian malaria parasites, the vast majority of studies focus on the interaction between parasites and vertebrate hosts, but there is a lack of information regarding the interaction between the parasites and the insect vectors. Here, we identified the presence of malaria and malaria-like parasite lineages harbored by the potential vector Culicoides circumscriptus (Kieffer). Also, we identified some nodes of the transmission network connecting parasite lineages, potential insect vectors and avian hosts by comparing Haemoproteus and Plasmodium lineages isolated from insects with those infecting wild birds in this and previous studies. Methods Using a molecular approach, we analysed the presence of blood parasites in a total of 97 biting midges trapped in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) and surrounding areas. Also, 123 blood samples from 11 bird species were analyzed for the presence of blood parasite infections. Blood parasites Haemoproteus and Plasmodium were identified by amplification of a 478 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gen. Results Thirteen biting midges harboured blood parasites including six Haemoproteus and two Plasmodium lineages, supporting the potential role of these insects on parasite transmission. Moreover, ten (8.1%) birds carried blood parasites. Seven Plasmodium and one Haemoproteus lineages were isolated from birds. Overall, six new Haemoproteus lineages were described in this study. Also, we identified the transmission networks of some blood parasites. Two Haemoproteus lineages, hCIRCUM03 and GAGLA03, were identical to those isolated from Corvus monedula in southern Spain and Garrulus glandarius in Bulgaria, respectively. Furthermore, the new Haemoproteus lineage hCIRCUM05 showed a 99% similarity with a lineage found infecting captive penguins in Japan. Conclusions The comparison

  19. Characterization of the dengue outbreak in Nuevo Leon state, Mexico, 2010.

    PubMed

    Leduc-Galindo, D; Gloria-Herrera, U; Rincón-Herrera, U; Ramos-Jiménez, J; Garcia-Luna, S; Arellanos-Soto, D; Mendoza-Tavera, N; Tavitas-Aguilar, I; Garcia-Garcia, E; Galindo-Galindo, E; Villarreal-Perez, J; Fernandez-Salas, I; Santiago, G A; Muñoz-Jordan, J; Rivas-Estilla, A M

    2015-04-01

    We studied serotypes circulating dengue virus (DENV) cases, entomological Breteau index, rain-fall index and epidemiology of groups affected during the 2010 outbreak in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. From 2,271 positive cases, 94% were dengue classic and 6% dengue hemorrhagic fever; DENV1 was mainly isolated (99%) (Central-American lineage of American-African-genotype). We found correlation between two environmental phenomena (Increment of rainfall and vector-indexes) (p ≤ 0.05) with epidemiological, clinical and risk of DENV-1 ongoing transmission.

  20. Analysis of the interaction of deuterium plasmas with tungsten in the Fuego-Nuevo II device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Gonzalo; Castillo, Fermín; Nieto, Martín; Martínez, Marco; Rangel, José; Herrera-Velázquez, Julio

    2012-10-01

    Tungsten is one of the main candidate materials for plasma-facing components in future fusion power plants. The Fuego-Nuevo II, a plasma focus device, which can produce dense magnetized helium and deuterium plasmas, has been adapted to address plasma-facing materials questions. In this paper we present results of tungsten targets exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Fuego Nuevo II device, using different experimental conditions. The plasma generated and accelerated in the coaxial gun is expected to have, before the pinch, energies of the order of hundreds eV and velocities of the order of 40,000 m s-1. At the pinch, the ions are reported to have energies of the order of 1.5 keV at most. The samples, analysed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in cross section show a damage profile to depths of the order of 580 nm, which are larger than those expected for ions with 1.5 keV, and may be evidence of ion acceleration. An analysis with the SRIM (Stopping Range of Ions in Matter) package calculations is shown.

  1. Rainfall thresholds for the initiation of shallow landslides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Castillo, L. R. M.; Kubota, T.; Cantu Silva, I.; Hasnawir, H.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of rainfall on the occurrence of landslides depends on many factors such as landslide dimensions, kinematics or material involved. It is widely recognized that shallow landslides are usually triggered by short intense storms. Nuevo Leon state located in northeast Mexico is highly prone to the occurrence of this kind of slope failures due to its geologic, geomorphologic, climatic attributes and location, being targeted by tropical cyclones during the Atlantic hurricane season. A database of rainfall events that have resulted in shallow landslides on the region was compiled; the data indicated that there is a coincidence between the occurrence of shallow landslides and extreme rainfall events. A threshold curve in the form of I= αD-β was established to describe the threshold in where I is the rainfall intensity by rainfall event in mm/day and D is the duration of rainfall event in days. Duration of the rainfall events that triggered shallow landslides ranged from 2 to 5 days, with maximum intensity of 236 mm/day and a minimum intensity of 57.7 mm/day. From the data analyzed we could obtain a regression value of I = 109.77D-1.76 and established a new minimum rainfall intensity-duration threshold for the initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides that can be used for the development of a early warning system in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

  2. Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Are nature reserves the answer?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican state of Nuevo Leon, located in the northeastern portion of the country, currently has 26 state and three federal nature reserves covering approximately 4.5% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to conservation purposes. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity proposed 12 new terrestrial reserves for Nuevo Leon. The new reserves, if established, would increase the proportion of protected lands in the state to almost 24% of the state's land area. We compiled a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and ecological features to examine how well the existing and proposed reserves incorporated the major biological and physical features of the state. The existing reserves are located primarily in regions with elevations > 1,000-1,500 m, on less productive soils, and are dominated by pine and oak forest cover types. As a result, the state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately under represented in the current reserve system. The new reserves would expand the protection of biophysical resources throughout the state. However, the inclusion of important resources in the low elevation coastal lands would still be limited.

  3. Learning Styles and Attitudes toward Online Education in Four Universities in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez de Monarrez, Patricia; Korniejczuk, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find the relation-ship between the predominant learning styles among university online students and their attitude toward online education. Data were collected from 385 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs from four universities in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Significant effects of…

  4. Thermal response to the surface heat flux in a macrotidal coastal region (Nuevo Gulf, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Andrés L.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Dellatorre, Fernando G.

    2016-07-01

    At mid-latitudes, sea water temperature shows a strong seasonal cycle forced by the incident surface heat flux. As depth decreases, the heat flux incidence is damped by the horizontal flux, which prevents the indefinite growth of the seasonal temperature range. In the present work, cross-shore transport in the west coast of Nuevo Gulf (Argentina) was analyzed. Processes tending to cool the coastal waters in summer and to warm the coastal waters in winter, were identified through temperature measurements, surface heat flux and tidal height. The simplified models proposed here provide a feedback mechanism that links changes in surface heat flux with changes in the horizontal heat flux during both seasons. On shorter time scales, tide produces significant variations in the height of the water column, therefore influencing temperature fluctuations and the direction of the horizontal flow.

  5. Ethnobotany in the Cumbres de Monterrey National Park, Nuevo León, México

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Eduardo; Villarreal, José A; Cantú, César; Cabral, Ismael; Scott, Laura; Yen, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study in the Cumbres de Monterrey National Park (CMNP), Nuevo Leon, Mexico was conducted. In spite of the large area (1,773.7 km2), heterogeneous physiography, contrasting plant communities and high species diversity of the CMNP, very little was previously known about its useful plants. Based on 95 interviews with inhabitants of the region who were 35 years or older, we recorded ethnobotanical data of 240 species (comprising 170 genera and 69 botanical families), and 146 different uses. Most of the cited uses (98) were found to be medicinal ones. Background An ethnobotanical study in the Cumbres de Monterrey National Park (CMNP), Nuevo Leon, Mexico was conducted. In spite of the large area (1,773.7 km2), heterogeneous physiography, contrasting plant communities and high species diversity of the CMNP, very little was previously known about its useful plants. Based on 95 interviews with inhabitants of the region who were 35 years old or older, we recorded ethnobotanical data of 240 species (comprising 170 genera and 69 botanical families), and 146 different uses. Most of the cited uses (98) were found to be medicinal ones. Methods Ninety five inhabitants 35 years old and oldest were interviewed to know what are the main plant uses in the Cumbres de Monterrey National Park. Results and discussion Two hundred and forty species, 170 genera, and 69 families of useful plants and 146 different uses were recorded. We found most of the uses to be medicinal (98), while the rest (48) represent various purposes. Herbaceous plants are the most used, followed by shrubs and trees. PMID:17263889

  6. The European vectors of Bluetongue virus: are there species complexes, single species or races in Culicoides obsoletus and C. pulicaris detectable by sequencing ITS-1, ITS-2 and 18S-rDNA?

    PubMed

    Kiehl, Ernst; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    When studying the vectorship of Culicoides species during the outbreak of Bluetongue disease (BTD) in Central Europe, the question arose whether the most common species and additionally proven vectors of BTV (C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris) are definitive species or do they belong to so-called complexes, since the determination based on morphological criteria is not very significant and knowledge on the life cycles is poor or even absent. Therefore, the present molecular biological study on their ITS-1, ITS-2 and 18SrDNA characteristics was initiated to investigate specimens, which had been determined by their wing morphology during an entomological monitoring in the years 2007 and 2008 at 91 farms in Germany (Mehlhorn et al. 2009). This study revealed novel types respectively different forms, which appeared very similar to Culicoides obsoletus, but showed slightly varying wing patterns. The molecular biological data were compared to those in data banks and combined to provisional dendrograms. The ITS-1 and ITS-2 analysis showed that the specimens determined in the monitoring as C. obsoletus inclusive those with different wing pattern correlate significantly with the data of C. obsoletus in the data banks and surrounded the data bank specifications of C. montanus and C. scoticus so closely that the latter might be only hardly separate species. A similar interpretation can also be drawn when looking at the 18S rDNA dendrogram. Thus, C. scoticus and C. montanus might be races of C. obsoletus rather than separate species. With respect to the ITS-1 and ITS-2 characteristics of C. pulicaris females, which morphologically and by size can be significantly differentiated from C. obsoletus, it was seen that this species is significantly situated on another rame of the dendrograms and in very close relationship to C. punctatus and C. lupicaris, so that the latter might also be only races of C. pulicaris. One of the two other most common species found in Northrhine

  7. [Effects of reforestation on tree pollen sensitization in inhabitants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Palma-Gómez, Samuel; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Amaro-Vivian, Laura Elizabeth; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el cambio climático tiene consecuencias en la salud, el medio ambiente y la sociedad. Las áreas verdes urbanas son importantes en la planeación de las ciudades para promover la interacción de los ciudadanos con el ambiente y la salud. La falta de planeación y diseño de estas áreas y la mala selección de árboles han contribuido a aumentar la incidencia de alergia al polen entre la población. Con frecuencia los programas de reforestación ambiental no toman en cuenta el potencial alergénico de algunas especies. El gobierno de Nuevo León en los últimos cuatro años ha plantado cerca de 18 mil árboles de la especie Quercus, además de un número indeterminado de árboles de la especie Fraxinus, cuyo polen es alergénico. Objetivo: identificar el cambio en la sensibilización al polen de árboles de acuerdo con los programas de reforestación ambiental. Material y método: estudio restrospectivo y descriptivo en el que se analizaron las pruebas cutáneas positivas para polen de árboles de los últimos cuatro años, correlacionando entre la especie de árbol utilizada para la reforestación y el aumento de la sensibilidad a ésta. Resultados: se encontró un incremento estadísticamente significativo en la sensibilización al polen de las especies con las que se reforestó Nuevo León, además de disminución en la sensibilización a las especies con las que no se reforesta. Conclusiones: la reforestación contribuye, en cierta medida, al cambio en el patrón de la positividad de las pruebas cutáneas y puede traer como consecuencia exacerbaciones más frecuentes de enfermedades respiratorias. Es una actividad que debe ser regulada y asesorada siempre por expertos.

  8. Ethnobotany in Rayones, Nuevo León, México

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trough collections of plants and interviews with 110 individuals, an ethnobotanical study was conducted in order to determine the knowledge and use plant species in Rayones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The aim of this study was to record all useful plants and their uses, to know whether differences exist in the knowledge about the number of species and uses between women and men, and to know if there is a correlation between the age of individuals and knowledge of species and their uses. Methods A total of 110 persons were interviewed (56 men, 56 women). Semistructured interviews were carried out. The data were analyzed by means of Student t test and the Pearson Correlation Coeficient. Results A total of 252 species, 228 genera and 91 families of vascular plants were recorded. Astraceae, Fabaceae and are the most important families with useful species and Agave and Opuntia are the genera with the highest number of useful species. One hundred and thirty six species are considered as medicinal. Agave, Acacia and Citrus are the genera with the highest number of medicinal species. Other uses includes edible, spiritual rituals, construction and ornamentals. There was a non-significant correlation between the person’s age and number of species, but a significant very low negative correlation between the person’s age and number of uses was found. Conclusions Knowing their medicinal uses is an important issue for the people of Rayones. Boiling and preparing infusions are the main ways of using plants by residents. The leaves, the branches, and the fruits are the most commonly used parts. Almost 18% of the flora is used for wood and construction purposes. Several uses such as cosmetic, shampoo, firming skin tonics and health hair products recorded in Rayones has not been reported for other areas in the state of Nuevo León. In Rayones, women have a greater knowledge about plants and their uses than men, particularly, medicinal plants, but, men have a greater

  9. Occurrence of genetic drift and founder effect during quasispecies evolution of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of bluetongue virus upon passage between sheep, cattle, and Culicoides sonorensis.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, K R; Mullens, B A; MacLachlan, N J

    2001-09-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the cause of an insect-transmitted virus infection of ruminants that occurs throughout much of the world. Individual gene segments differ between field strains of BTV; thus, we hypothesized that key viral genes undergo genetic drift during alternating passage of BTV in its ruminant and insect hosts. To test this hypothesis, variation in the consensus sequence and quasispecies heterogeneity of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of a plaque-purified strain of BTV serotype 10 was determined during alternating infection of vector Culicoides sonorensis and a sheep and calf. Consensus sequences were determined after reverse transcriptase-nested PCR amplification of viral RNA directly from ruminant blood and homogenized insects, and quasispecies heterogeneity was determined by the sequencing of clones derived from directly amplified viral RNA. Comparison of these sequences to those of the original BTV inoculum used to initiate the cycle of BTV infection demonstrated, for the first time, that individual BTV gene segments evolve independently of one another by genetic drift in a host-specific fashion, generating quasispecies populations in both ruminant and insect hosts. Furthermore, a unique viral variant was randomly ingested by C. sonorensis insects that fed on a sheep with low-titer viremia, thereby fixing a novel genotype by founder effect. Thus, we conclude that genetic drift and founder effect contribute to diversification of individual gene segments of field strains of BTV.

  10. Analysis of the dispersion of air pollutants from a factory Asphalt in Nuevo Vallarta, Nay., Mex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Gonzalez, F. M.; Gaitán-Rodríguez, M.; Cornejo-López, V. M.; Morales-Hernández, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    An asphalt factory has operated intermittently near the urban area of Nuevo Vallarta on Banderas Bay, Nayarit, Mex. This factory has emissions that can affect the health of people living in the colonies nearest are Valle Dorado and San Vicente. The dispersion of emissions depends on the wind (sea breeze-land breeze) and the roof of the inversion, these phenomena determined by the density and temperature of the lower layers of the atmosphere. Asphalts are dark colored binder materials, formed by a complex non-volatile hydrocarbon chains and high molecular weight. Asphalts are produced from petroleum, but by a process of evaporation of the volatiles, leaving the asphalt alone. Therefore, the material emitted by the fireplace are mainly low molecular weight hydrocarbons known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Emergency Response Guide 2008 developed by various agencies in Canada, U.S. and Mexico mentions that the hydrocarbon gas can have health effects. Animal studies have shown that PAHs can cause harmful effects to the skin, body fluids and some PAHs are carcinogenic. An analysis of the wind field, monthly and seasonal averages for the years 2010 and 2011, recorded in AWS administered by the CEMCO and other stations located near the study area.

  11. [Diagnosis of health needs of the elderly population of a community of Puerto Nuevo].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Cordero, B M; Figueroa Negrón, C; Pérez Vigo, M C; Anadón Vázquez, D; Oliver Vázquez, M

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the health needs of the non-institutionalized population, 65 years and over, residing in a sector of the community of Puerto Nuevo. This was the first urbanization established in Puerto Rico in the early 50's. The "snowball" technique was use to identify all the residents 65 year and over of the mentioned sector. Eighty five elderly persons were interviewed to gather data of the following variables: demographics, health conditions, preventive measures, activities of daily living (ADLs, IADLs), health services utilization, psychosocial aspects and use of programs and services available for the elderly population. Statistical analysis included descriptive measures and chi-square. Results revealed a population with a higher education and economic level than the average for this age group in Puerto Rico. People over 75 years over reported more functional limitations than the 65-74 years interviewees did. In comparison with men, women were less educated and presented a higher percent of widows, persons living alone and functional limitations. In almost all the interviewees, help was available in case of need. The majority expressed satisfaction with their family and social lives. Very few utilized programs and services available for elderly persons. It is concluded that in order to improve their quality of life, this population needs to be managed in an holistic mode to address their biopsychosocial needs and to be educated in health promotion issues to prevent further functional limitations. They also need education about the available services for elderly persons.

  12. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  13. Genetic structure of the populations migrating from San Luis Potosi and Zacatecas to Nuevo León in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Flores, R M; Kshatriya, G K; Barton, S A; Leal-Garza, C H; Garza-Chapa, R; Schull, W J; Chakraborty, R

    1991-06-01

    The Mexicans residing in the Monterrey metropolitan area in Nuevo León, Mexico, were grouped by generation and birthplace [Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA), San Luis Potosi (SLP), and Zacatecas (ZAC)] of the four grandparents to determine the extent of genetic variation within this population and the genetic differences, if any, between the natives living in the MMA and the immigrant populations from SLP and ZAC. Nine genetic marker systems were analyzed. The genetic distance analysis indicates that SLP and ZAC are similar to the MMA, irrespective of birthplace and generation. Gene diversity analysis (GST) suggests that more than 96% of the total gene diversity (HT) can be attributed to individual variation within the population. The genetic admixture analysis suggests that the Mexicans of the MMA, SLP, and ZAC, stratified by birthplace and generation, have received a predominantly Spanish contribution (78.5%), followed by a Mexican Indian contribution (21.5%). Similarly, admixture analysis, conducted on the population of Nuevo León and stratified by generation, indicates a substantial contribution from the MMA (64.6%), followed by ZAC (22.1%) and SLP (13.3%). Finally, we demonstrate that there is no nonrandom association of alleles among the genetic marker systems (i.e., no evidence of gametic disequilibrium) despite the Mestizo origin of this population.

  14. Seasonal variation and impact of waste-water lagoons as larval habitat on the population dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae) at two dairy farms in northern California.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Christie E; Osborne, Cameron J; Mullens, Bradley A; Gerry, Alec C; Gardner, Ian A; Reisen, William K; Barker, Christopher M; Maclachlan, N James

    2014-01-01

    dispersal of Culicoides midges is essential for the creation of models to predict BTV infection of livestock and to develop sound abatement strategies. PMID:24586925

  15. Seasonal Variation and Impact of Waste-Water Lagoons as Larval Habitat on the Population Dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae) at Two Dairy Farms in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Christie E.; Osborne, Cameron J.; Mullens, Bradley A.; Gerry, Alec C.; Gardner, Ian A.; Reisen, William K.; Barker, Christopher M.; MacLachlan, N. James

    2014-01-01

    dispersal of Culicoides midges is essential for the creation of models to predict BTV infection of livestock and to develop sound abatement strategies. PMID:24586925

  16. Seasonal variation and impact of waste-water lagoons as larval habitat on the population dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae) at two dairy farms in northern California.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Christie E; Osborne, Cameron J; Mullens, Bradley A; Gerry, Alec C; Gardner, Ian A; Reisen, William K; Barker, Christopher M; Maclachlan, N James

    2014-01-01

    dispersal of Culicoides midges is essential for the creation of models to predict BTV infection of livestock and to develop sound abatement strategies.

  17. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared) (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality), Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest); the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities), and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses). Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for medicinal purposes were

  18. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soil from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra Teresa; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles Catalina; Carrizalez-Yáñez, Leticia; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), and four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) in outdoor surface soils (50 samples) collected from the metropolitan area of Monterrey in Mexico. Total PBDEs levels ranged from 1.80 to 127 µg/kg, with mean total PBDEs level of 14.2 ± 21.5 µg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation). For PCBs, the mean total level in the studied soils was 23.5 ± 20.2 µg/kg (range 4.0-65.5 µg/kg). An important finding in our study was that all soil samples (100%) had detectable levels of the metabolite p,p'-DDE. Moreover, the mean total DDT level (∑p'p-DDT and p'p-DDE) was approximately 132 ± 175 µg/kg. The mean levels for arsenic, cadmium, and lead in soil were 5.30 ± 1.35 (range 1.55-7.85) mg/kg, 2.20 ± 1.20 (range 0.65-6.40) mg/kg, and 455 ± 204 (range 224-1230) mg/kg, respectively. Our study has several limitations, the most notable of which is the small sample of soils evaluated. However, this screening study provided concentration data for the occurrence of POPs and four heavy metals in soil from the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and taking into consideration that soil is an important pathway of exposure for people, a biomonitoring program for the surveillance of the general population in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon is deemed necessary. PMID:26577448

  19. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soil from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra Teresa; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles Catalina; Carrizalez-Yáñez, Leticia; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), and four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) in outdoor surface soils (50 samples) collected from the metropolitan area of Monterrey in Mexico. Total PBDEs levels ranged from 1.80 to 127 µg/kg, with mean total PBDEs level of 14.2 ± 21.5 µg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation). For PCBs, the mean total level in the studied soils was 23.5 ± 20.2 µg/kg (range 4.0-65.5 µg/kg). An important finding in our study was that all soil samples (100%) had detectable levels of the metabolite p,p'-DDE. Moreover, the mean total DDT level (∑p'p-DDT and p'p-DDE) was approximately 132 ± 175 µg/kg. The mean levels for arsenic, cadmium, and lead in soil were 5.30 ± 1.35 (range 1.55-7.85) mg/kg, 2.20 ± 1.20 (range 0.65-6.40) mg/kg, and 455 ± 204 (range 224-1230) mg/kg, respectively. Our study has several limitations, the most notable of which is the small sample of soils evaluated. However, this screening study provided concentration data for the occurrence of POPs and four heavy metals in soil from the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and taking into consideration that soil is an important pathway of exposure for people, a biomonitoring program for the surveillance of the general population in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon is deemed necessary.

  20. Estimation of nonpaternity in the Mexican population of Nuevo Leon: a validation study with blood group markers.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Flores, R M; Barton, S A; Marty-Gonzalez, L F; Rivas, F; Chakraborty, R

    1999-07-01

    A method for estimating the general rate of nonpaternity in a population was validated using phenotype data on seven blood groups (A1A2BO, MNSs, Rh, Duffy, Lutheran, Kidd, and P) on 396 mother, child, and legal father trios from Nuevo León, Mexico. In all, 32 legal fathers were excluded as the possible father based on genetic exclusions at one or more loci (combined average exclusion probability of 0.694 for specific mother-child phenotype pairs). The maximum likelihood estimate of the general nonpaternity rate in the population was 0.118 +/- 0.020. The nonpaternity rates in Nuevo León were also seen to be inversely related with the socioeconomic status of the families, i.e., the highest in the low and the lowest in the high socioeconomic class. We further argue that with the moderately low (69.4%) power of exclusion for these seven blood group systems, the traditional critical values of paternity index (PI > or = 19) were not good indicators of true paternity, since a considerable fraction (307/364) of nonexcluded legal fathers had a paternity index below 19 based on the seven markers. Implications of these results in the context of genetic-epidemiological studies as well as for detection of true fathers for child-support adjudications are discussed, implying the need to employ a battery of genetic markers (possibly DNA-based tests) that yield a higher power of exclusion. We conclude that even though DNA markers are more informative, the probabilistic approach developed here would still be needed to estimate the true rate of nonpaternity in a population or to evaluate the precision of detecting true fathers. PMID:10407460

  1. Parasitological examination for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at Año Nuevo State Reserve, California (2012).

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Kuzmina, T A; Spraker, T R; Jaggi, N; Costa, D P; Crocker, D E; Tolliver, S C; Tift, M S

    2012-10-01

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris Gill, 1866), inhabiting rookeries on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve in central California, were investigated in 2012 for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.). Material collected and examined for hookworms included: blubber (n = 15), stomach and intestines (n = 21) from dead pups; feces from the rectum of weaned pups (n = 23); sand containing apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 28) and sand without apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 54); milk from females (n =23) at 5 days and about 23 to 26 days postpartum; and placenta from one female. Evidence of hookworm presence was not detected in any of the samples examined. Possible reasons why hookworms were not found in northern elephant seals on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve are discussed.

  2. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  3. Interferon Gamma-Based Detection of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in the Border States of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Eyal; Alatorre-Izaguirre, Gabriela; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Moreno-Treviño, Maria Guadalupe; Garcialuna-Martinez, Javier; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the world’s population is infected with latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Tuberculosis (TB) rates in the border states are higher than national rates in both the US and Mexico, with the border accounting for 30% of total registered TB cases in both countries. However, LTBI rates in the general population in Mexican border states are unknown. In this region, LTBI is diagnosed using the tuberculin skin test (TST). New methods of detection more specific than TST have been developed, although there is currently no gold standard for LTBI detection. Our objective is to demonstrate utility of the Quantiferon TB gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test compared with the TST to detect LTBI among border populations. This is an observational, cross-sectional study carried out in border areas of the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico. Participants (n = 210) provided a TST and blood sample for the QFT-GIT. Kappa coefficients assessed the agreement between TST and QFT-GIT. Participant characteristics were compared using Fisher exact tests. Thirty-eight percent of participants were diagnosed with LTBI by QFT-GIT. The proportion of LTBI detected using QFT-GIT was almost double [38% (79/210)] that found by TST [19% (39/210)] (P < 0.001). Concordance between TST and QFT-GIT was low (kappa = 0.37). We recommend further studies utilizing the QFT-GIT test to detect LTBI among border populations. PMID:26484340

  4. The Ni, Fe and CO contents of metal phases in the Allende, Holbrook and Nuevo Mercurio chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Smith, D. G. W.; Launspach, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Ni, Fe and Co contents of metal phases in the Allende, Holbrook and Nuevo Mercurio chondrites have been obtained using an automated electron microprobe fitted with both wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometers. Co contents of kamacite in these chondrites are inconsistent with those reported previously, but the general tendency of Co to increase in the kamacite in chondrites from H, L to LL groups, is supported by the study. Although the variation patterns of Ni-Co observed so far for L4, H5 and CV3 chondrites are simple, six L6 chondrites, including those reported previously, show significant difference in Co contents and the concentration and abundance charcateristics of Ni-Fe-Co patterns of the metal phases. The great similarity of composition of each region of these patterns obtained from two samples of Holbrook and two samples of Allende which came from different collections, indicate that the variation patterns of Ni-Co in the metal phases provide a means of characterizing or 'fingerprinting', as do the great differences in the variation patterns of Fe-Ni-Co which occur from one chondrite to another or even within the same group and petrologic type.

  5. Turning scientific approaches into practical conservation actions: the case of Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, A; Bocco, G; Torres, A

    2001-05-01

    Optimum natural resource management and biodiversity conservation are desirable goals. These, however, often exclude each other, since maximum economic benefits have promoted drastic reductions in biodiversity throughout the world. This dilemma confronts local stakeholders, who usually go for maximizing economic inputs, whereas other social (e.g., academic) sectors are favor conservation practices. In this paper we describe the way two scientific approaches--landscape and participatory research--were used to develop sound and durable land use scenarios. These two approaches included expert knowledge of both social and environmental conditions in indigenous communities. Our major emphasis was given to detect spatially explicit land use scenarios and capacity building in order to construct a decision support system operated by stakeholders of the Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro in Mexico. The system for decision-making was fed with data from inventories of both abiotic and biotic biodiversity components. All research, implementation, and monitoring activities were conducted in close collaboration with members of the indigenous community. As a major result we obtained a number of forest alternative uses that favor emerging markets and make this indigenous community less dependent on a single market. Furthermore, skilled members of the community are now running the automated system for decision-making. In conclusion, our results were better expressed as products with direct benefits in local livelihoods rather than pure academic outputs.

  6. Analysis of the Nuevo Leon magnetic anomaly and its possible relation to the Cerro Prieto magmatic-hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.; Wilt, M.J.; Corrigan, D.J.

    1982-10-01

    The broad dipolar magnetic anomaly whose positive peak is centered near Ejido Nuevo Leon, some 5 km east of the Cerro Prieto I Power Plant, has long been suspected to have a genetic relationship to the thermal source of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. This suspicion was reinforced after several deep geothermal wells, drilled to depths of 3 to 3.5 km over the anomaly, intersected an apparent dike-sill complex consisting mainly of diabase but with minor rhyodacite. A detailed fit of the observed magnetic field to a computer model indicates that the source may be approximated by a tabular block 4 by 6 km in area, 3.7 km in depth, 2.3 km thick, and dipping slightly to the north. Mafic dike chips from one well, NL-1, were analyzed by means of electron microprobe analyses which showed tham to contain a titanomagnetite that is paramagnetic at in-situ temperature conditions. As the dike mineralogy does not account for the magnetic anomaly, the magnetic source is believed to be a deeper, magnetite-rich assemblage of peridotite-gabbro plutons. the suite of igneous rocks was probably passively emplaced at a shallow depth in response to crustal extension and thinning brought on by strike-slip faulting. The bottom of the magnetic source body, at an estimated depth of 6 km, is presumed to be at or near that of the Curie isotherm (575/sup 0/C) for magnetite, the principal ferromagnetic mineral in peridotitic-gabbroic rocks. The geological model derived from the magnetic study is generally supported by other geophysical data. In particular, earthquake data suggest dike injection is occurring at depths of 6 to 11 km in an area beneath the magnetic source. Thus, it is possible that heat for the geothermal field is being maintained by continuing crustal extension and magmatic activity.

  7. Analysis of the Nuevo Leon Magnetic Anomaly and its possible relation to the Cerro Prieto magmatic-hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.; Corrigan, D.J.; Wilt, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The broad dipolar magnetic anomaly whose positive peak is centered near Ejido Nuevo Leon, some 5 km east of the Cerro Prieto I power plant, has long been suspected to have a genetic relationship to the thermal source of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. This suspicion was reinforced after several deep geothermal wells, drilled to depths of 3-3.5 km over the anomaly, intersected an apparent dike-sill complex consisting mainly of diabase but with minor rhyodacite. A detailed fit of the observed magnetic field to a computer model indicates that the source may be approximated by a tabular block 4 x 6 km in area, 3.7 km in depth, 2.3 km thick, and dipping slightly to the north. Mafic dike chips from one well, NL-1, were analysed by means of electron microprobe analyses which showed them to contain a titanomagnetite that is paramagnetic at in situ temperature conditions. As the dike mineralogy does not account for the magnetic anomaly, the magnetic source is believed to be a deeper, magnetite-rich assemblage of peridotite-gabbro plutons. The suite of igneous rocks was probably emplaced at a shallow depth in response to crustal extension and thinning brought on by en echelon strike-slip faulting. The bottom of the magnetic source body, at an estimated depth of 6 km, is presumed to be at or near that of the Curie isotherm (575/sup 0/C) for magnetite, the principal ferromagnetic mineral in peridotiticgabbroic rocks. The geological model derived from the magnetic study is generally supported by other geophysical data. In particular, earthquake data suggest dike injection is occurring at depths of 6-11 km in an area beneath the magnetic source. Thus, it is possible that heat for the geothermal field is being maintained by continuing crustal extension and magmatic activity.

  8. A Participatory Modeling Application of a Distributed Hydrologic Model in Nuevo Leon, Mexico for the 2010 Hurricane Alex Flood Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baish, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.; Payan, J. G.; Robles-Morua, A.; Basile, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    A distributed hydrologic model can help bring consensus among diverse stakeholders in regional flood planning by producing quantifiable sets of alternative futures. This value is acute in areas with high uncertainties in hydrologic conditions and sparse observations. In this study, we conduct an application of the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) in the Santa Catarina basin of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, where Hurricane Alex in July 2010 led to catastrophic flooding of the capital city of Monterrey. Distributed model simulations utilize best-available information on the regional topography, land cover, and soils obtained from Mexican government agencies or analysis of remotely-sensed imagery from MODIS and ASTER. Furthermore, we developed meteorological forcing for the flood event based on multiple data sources, including three local gauge networks, satellite-based estimates from TRMM and PERSIANN, and the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Remotely-sensed data allowed us to quantify rainfall distributions in the upland, rural portions of the Santa Catarina that are sparsely populated and ungauged. Rural areas had significant contributions to the flood event and as a result were considered by stakeholders for flood control measures, including new reservoirs and upland vegetation management. Participatory modeling workshops with the stakeholders revealed a disconnect between urban and rural populations in regard to understanding the hydrologic conditions of the flood event and the effectiveness of existing and potential flood control measures. Despite these challenges, the use of the distributed flood forecasts developed within this participatory framework facilitated building consensus among diverse stakeholders and exploring alternative futures in the basin.

  9. Population data of 24 STRs in Mexican-Mestizo population from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Northeast, Mexico) based on Powerplex(®) Fusion and GlobalFiler(®) kits.

    PubMed

    Ramos-González, Benito; Aguilar-Velázquez, José Alonso; Chávez-Briones, María de Lourdes; Delgado-Chavarría, Juan Ramón; Alfaro-Lopez, Elizabeth; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor

    2016-03-01

    The STR loci included into new commercial human identification kits compels geneticists estimating forensic parameters for interpretation purposes in forensic casework. Therefore, we studied for the first time in Mexico the GlobalFiler(®) and Powerplex(®) Fusion systems in 326 and 682 unrelated individuals, respectively. These individuals are resident of the Monterrey City of the Nuevo Leon state (Northeast, Mexico). Population data from 23 autosomal STRs and the Y-STR locus DYS391 are reported and compared against available STR data from American ethnic groups and the unique Mexican population studied with Powerplex(®) Fusion.

  10. Population data of 24 STRs in Mexican-Mestizo population from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Northeast, Mexico) based on Powerplex(®) Fusion and GlobalFiler(®) kits.

    PubMed

    Ramos-González, Benito; Aguilar-Velázquez, José Alonso; Chávez-Briones, María de Lourdes; Delgado-Chavarría, Juan Ramón; Alfaro-Lopez, Elizabeth; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor

    2016-03-01

    The STR loci included into new commercial human identification kits compels geneticists estimating forensic parameters for interpretation purposes in forensic casework. Therefore, we studied for the first time in Mexico the GlobalFiler(®) and Powerplex(®) Fusion systems in 326 and 682 unrelated individuals, respectively. These individuals are resident of the Monterrey City of the Nuevo Leon state (Northeast, Mexico). Population data from 23 autosomal STRs and the Y-STR locus DYS391 are reported and compared against available STR data from American ethnic groups and the unique Mexican population studied with Powerplex(®) Fusion. PMID:26747399

  11. [Profile of sensitization to allergens in children with atopic dermatitis assisting to Allergology Service of University Hospital, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Palma-Gómez, Samuel; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: la sensibilización a alergenos observada en la dermatitis atópica aumenta el riesgo del niño a padecer rinitis alérgica y asma. Los estudios recientes indican que entre mayor actividad de proteasas haya en los alergenos a los que se está sensibilizado, hay mayor defecto en la barrera cutánea y mayor gravedad de la enfermedad. Objetivos: conocer el patrón de sensibilización a los alergenos en niños con dermatitis atópica atendidos en el Servicio de Alergología del Hospital Universitario de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León y conocer si estos niños tienen mayor sensibilización a los antígenos con actividad proteolítica. Material y método: estudio retrospectivo en el que revisamos los reportes de las pruebas cutáneas por punción realizadas en nuestro servicio a niños de 5 meses a 16 años de edad, con diagnóstico de dermatitis atópica, de enero de 2012 a enero de 2014. Evaluamos la frecuencia de sensibilización a aeroalergenos y alimentos, así como el tamaño de la roncha en la respuesta cutánea para cada alergeno en particular. Resultados: se incluyeron los reportes de pruebas cutáneas de 66 niños, 30 hombres y 36 mujeres. Cuarenta y seis pacientes estaban sensibilizados a aeroalergenos y 38 a alimentos. Los ácaros del polvo de casa (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/Dermatophagoides farinae) fueron los alergenos con mayor frecuencia de respuesta positiva en las pruebas cutáneas. De los niños con sensibilización a alimentos, sólo los niños sensibilizados a la leche de vaca, al huevo y al pescado tuvieron una roncha mayor de 6 mm de diámetro. CONCLUSIÓN: en los niños con dermatitis atópica es común la sensibilización a aeroalergenos con alta actividad de proteasas y la polisensibilización es muy común. La sensibilización a alimentos es común en estos pacientes, pero sólo un pequeño porcentaje de ellos muestra respuestas cutáneas lo suficientemente grandes para relacionarlas con gravedad de la enfermedad.

  12. Causes of death in preweaned northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866), Año Nuevo State Reserve, California, 2012.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tift, Michael S; Raverty, Stephen; Jaggi, Nicole; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    During an ongoing physiological ecology study on pups and adult female northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866) on the mainland rookery at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California), an opportunity was afforded to collect fresh dead pups for parasitology and necropsy. The investigation was undertaken to delineate the causes of death of northern elephant seals recovered from Año Nuevo State Reserve. Prior to this study, there was no evidence of increased mortality or health problems on this rookery. Necropsies, histology, and ancillary diagnostic studies were conducted on 21 fresh dead preweaned pups. Ages ranged from 1 stillbirth to pups approximately 2 weeks of age. Gross lesions included varying degrees of bruising, hemorrhage, lacerations, and fractures attributed to blunt force trauma to the head, chest, and/or abdomen in 16 pups; starvation in 6 pups; bite wounds in 2 pups; generalized icterus in 2 pups; presumptive drowning in 2 pups; and 1 stillbirth. Most pups had multiple gross lesions. Following light microscopic examination, pups could be assigned into 4 general diagnostic categories: 1) trauma, 2) nutritional status, 3) infectious conditions, and 4) congenital anomalies. This investigation of preweaned pup mortality of northern elephant seals in California further refines diagnostic categories for perinatal pup mortality.

  13. Causes of death in preweaned northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866), Año Nuevo State Reserve, California, 2012.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tift, Michael S; Raverty, Stephen; Jaggi, Nicole; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    During an ongoing physiological ecology study on pups and adult female northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866) on the mainland rookery at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California), an opportunity was afforded to collect fresh dead pups for parasitology and necropsy. The investigation was undertaken to delineate the causes of death of northern elephant seals recovered from Año Nuevo State Reserve. Prior to this study, there was no evidence of increased mortality or health problems on this rookery. Necropsies, histology, and ancillary diagnostic studies were conducted on 21 fresh dead preweaned pups. Ages ranged from 1 stillbirth to pups approximately 2 weeks of age. Gross lesions included varying degrees of bruising, hemorrhage, lacerations, and fractures attributed to blunt force trauma to the head, chest, and/or abdomen in 16 pups; starvation in 6 pups; bite wounds in 2 pups; generalized icterus in 2 pups; presumptive drowning in 2 pups; and 1 stillbirth. Most pups had multiple gross lesions. Following light microscopic examination, pups could be assigned into 4 general diagnostic categories: 1) trauma, 2) nutritional status, 3) infectious conditions, and 4) congenital anomalies. This investigation of preweaned pup mortality of northern elephant seals in California further refines diagnostic categories for perinatal pup mortality. PMID:24590664

  14. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Nuevo Amanecer: A Peer-delivered Stress Management Intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nápoles, Anna María; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Ortiz, Carmen; Gregorich, Steven; Lee, Howard E.; Duron, Ysabel; Graves, Kristi; Luce, Judith A.; McGuire, Peggy; Díaz-Méndez, Marynieves; Stewart, Anita L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Latinas with breast cancer suffer symptom and psychosocial health disparities. Effective interventions have not been developed for or tested in this population. Purpose We describe community-based participatory research methods used to develop and implement the Nuevo Amanecer program, a culturally tailored, peer-delivered cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention for low-income Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer, and unique considerations in implementing a randomized controlled trial to test the program in community settings. Methods We applied an implementation science framework to delineate the methodological phases used to develop and implement the Nuevo Amanecer program and trial, emphasizing community engagement processes. Results In phase 1, we established project infrastructure: academic and community Co-Principal Investigators, community partners, community advisory board, steering committee, and funding. In phase 2, we identified three program inputs: formative research, a community best practices model, and an evidence-based intervention tested in non-Latinas. In phase 3, we created the new program by integrating and adapting intervention components from the three sources, making adaptations to accommodate low-literacy, Spanish language, cultural factors, community context, and population needs. In phase 4, we built community capacity for the program and trial by training field staff (recruiters and interventionists embedded in community sites), compensating field staff, and creating a system for identifying potential participants. In phase 5, we implemented and monitored the program and trial. Engaging community partners in all phases has resulted in a new, culturally tailored program that is suitable for newly diagnosed Latinas with breast cancer and a trial that is acceptable and supported by community and clinical partners. Lessons Learned Engagement of community-based organizations and cancer survivors as research

  16. [Teaching-inservice integration in primary care. Experience of the Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Castillo, M A; Espinoza de Benavides, S; Rodríguez Aguilar, L; Martínez Maldonado, J M

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the reasons which justify the need to integrate teaching in-service and health care delivery in nursing, and the mechanisms to achieve efficiency in health programs. In 1976 the Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon (Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León), as an educational and training center and as a means for scientific and humanistic endeavor to foster the development of the community it serves, began a joint experimental project with the health sector, by means of the Guadalupe Health Program and the Nursing Development Program, with the participation of the Schools of Medicine, Nursing and Dentistry. Special importance is attached to the objectives and organization of these nursing programs, the teaching in-service methodology, and the functions and responsibilities of teachers, students and support staff. The achievements of eleven years of work are reported.

  17. Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa

    El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la

  18. Near Surface Structure of the Frijoles Strand of the San Gregorio Fault, Point Año Nuevo, San Mateo County, California, from Seismic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, L.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Weber, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The San Gregorio Fault Zone (SGFZ) is one of the major faults of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system in the San Francisco Bay region of California. The SGFZ is nearly 200 km long, trends subparallel to the SAF, and is located primarily offshore with two exceptions- between Point Año Nuevo and San Gregorio Beach and between Pillar Point and Moss Beach. It has a total width of 2 to 3 km and is comprised of seven known fault strands with Quaternary activity, five of which also demonstrate late Holocene activity. The fault is clearly a potential source of significant earthquakes and has been assigned a maximum likely magnitude of 7.3. To better understand the structure, geometry, and shallow-depth P-wave velocities associated with the SGFZ, we acquired a 585-m-long, high-resolution, combined seismic reflection and refraction profile across the Frijoles strand of the SGFZ at Point Año Nuevo State Park. Both P- and S-wave data were acquired, but here we present only the P-wave data. We used two 60-channel Geometrics RX60 seismographs and 120 40-Hz single-element geophones connected via cable to record Betsy Seisgun seismic sources (shots). Both shots and geophones were approximately co-located and spaced at 5-m intervals along the profile, with the shots offset laterally from the geophones by 1 m. We measured first-arrival refractions from all shots and geophones to develop a seismic refraction tomography velocity model of the upper 70 m. P-wave velocities range from about 600 m/s near the surface to more than 2400 m/s at 70 m depth. We used the refraction tomography image to infer the depth to the top of the groundwater table on the basis of the 1500 m/s velocity contour. The image suggests that the depth, along the profile, to the top of groundwater varies by about 18 m, with greater depth on the west side of the fault. At about 46 m depth, a 60- to 80-m-wide, low-velocity zone, which is consistent with faulting, is observed southwest of the Frijoles strand of the

  19. Antibody profile to Borrelia burgdorferi in veterinarians from Nuevo León, Mexico, a non-endemic area of this zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Skinner-Taylor, Cassandra M.; Salinas, José A.; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Galán-Wong, Luis J.; Maldonado, Guadalupe; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease caused by infections with Borrelia. Persons infected with Borrelia can be asymptomatic or can develop disseminated disease. Diagnosis and recognition of groups at risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is of great interest to contemporary rheumatology. There are a few reports about Borrelia infection in Mexico, including lymphocytoma cases positive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto by PCR and a patient with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Veterinarians have an occupational risk due to high rates of tick contact. The aim of this work was to investigate antibodies to Borrelia in students at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, at Nuevo León, Mexico, and determine the antibody profile to B. burgdorferi antigens. Material and methods Sera were screened using a C6 ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA using recombinant proteins from B. burgdorferi, B. garinii and B. afzelii. Sera with positive or grey-zone values were tested by IgG Western blot to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Results All volunteers reported tick exposures and 72.5% remembered tick bites. Only nine persons described mild Lyme disease related symptoms, including headaches, paresthesias, myalgias and arthralgias. None of the volunteers reported erythema migrans. Nine samples were confirmed by IgG Western blot. The profile showed 89% reactivity to OspA, 67% to p83, and 45% to BmpA. Conclusions Positive sera samples shared antibody reactivity to the markers of late immune response p83 and BmpA, even if individuals did not present symptoms of Lyme arthritis or post-Lyme disease. The best criterion to diagnose Lyme disease in our country remains to be established, because it is probable that different strains coexist in Mexico. This is the first report of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in Latin American veterinarians. Veterinarians and high-risk people should be alert to take precautionary measures to prevent tick-borne diseases. PMID:27504018

  20. Repellent pesticides for the control of Culicoides sonorensis on sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bluetongue disease is a sporadic and unpredictable disease in the northern Rocky Mountains. Epizootics can be separated by decades of little to no disease activity. Woolgrowers need access to control technologies that can be used after an outbreak is detected. We tested 6 formulations of midge repel...

  1. Manitos and Chicanos in Nuevo Mexico Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Flaviano Chris

    1974-01-01

    The article briefly reviews New Mexico's political history, surveys the present socio-political status of its Spanish speaking population, and examines the effects of the Chicano Movimiento on Manitos in New Mexico. (NQ)

  2. Spanish Summary (Nuevos meteoritos encountrados en lmilac)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-03-01

    Desde tiempos prehistoricos han sido coleccionadas piedras que caen dei cielo. Hasta hace poco eran la unica fuente para hacer estudios de laboratorio de la materia extragal, ktica, e incluso en nuestra era espacial, siguen siendo una valiosa fuente de investigacion de la temprana historia dei sistema solar. Se estima que como termine medio cada kilometro cuadrado de la superficie terrestre es golpeada cada millon de aiios por un meteorito con un pese superior a 500 gramos. La mayoria se pierden en los oceanos 0 caen en regiones con escasa poblacion. Como resultado, los museos en el munda reciben anualmente tan solo alrededor de 6 meteoritos cuya caida fuera atestiguada. Otros llegan por hallazgos casuales que en la mayoria de los casos son meteoritos que han cardo en tiempos prehistoricos.

  3. Colonization of the Mediterranean Basin by the vector biting midge species Culicoides imicola: an old story

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the demographic history and genetic make-up of colonizing species is critical for inferring population sources and colonization routes. This is of main interest for designing accurate control measures in areas newly colonized by vector species of economically important pathogens. The b...

  4. Update on the Culicoides sonorensis transcriptome project: a peek into the molecular biology of the midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next Generation Sequencing is transforming the way scientists collect and measure an organism’s genetic background and gene dynamics, while bioinformatics and super-computing are merging to facilitate parallel sample computation and interpretation at unprecedented speeds. Analyzing the complete gene...

  5. Effect of temperature on replication of epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses in Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replication of many arboviruses, including some orbiviruses, within the vector has been shown to be temperature-dependent. In general, cooler ambient temperatures slow virus replication in arthropod vectors, whereas viruses replicate faster and to higher titers at warmer ambient temperatures. Prev...

  6. Infrared absorption characteristics of Culicoides sonorensis in relation to insect age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biting midges can transmit diseases that significantly impact livestock in many parts of the world. The age structure of an insect vector population determines its likelihood of transmitting pathogens because the older insects are more likely to be infected than younger ones. Understanding the insec...

  7. Bilingual Intercultural Teacher Education: "Nuevos Maestros Para Bolivia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Educational reform efforts in Bolivia have created possibilities for teacher-training institutions to focus on bilingual intercultural education. How teacher trainers and future teachers embark upon this endeavor differs somewhat depending on the sociolinguistic, historical, and institutional contexts of each community. This article reports…

  8. Nuevos fenómenos en erupciones cometarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A.

    Se discuten aquí tres procesos físicos novedosos encontrados en la actividad de cometas: 1) El rol de una distribución de granos de hielo como fuente extendida de H2O en la coma, 2) El efecto de una discontinuidad en el plasma cometario, llamada Cometopausa, sobre la excitación del radical OH , y 3) La actividad por erupciones a grandes distancias heliocéntricas (r > 5 AU). Con respecto a 1) y 2), se presentan modelos que ajustan bien con las observaciones. En cuanto a 3), se presentan explicaciones posibles al fenómeno, y se trata el interesante caso de Chirón 2060, basándose en observaciones propias tomadas desde el CASLEO y datos anteriores.

  9. Las Tierras de Nuevo Mexico. [The Lands of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swadesh, Frances Leon; And Others

    New Mexico was inhabited thousands of years ago. Each group of settlers saw the land in distinct ways. For some, its beauty consisted of its quality, the abundance of water, and the hope of a good harvest. For others, its beautiful sites were of more importance. Thus, each group established its own manner of living on the land and of using it.…

  10. Effect of Culicoides Sonorensis Salivary Proteins on Clinical Disease Outcome in Experimental Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Infection of Dorset Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bluetongue is an insect-transmitted disease of domestic and wild ruminants. In the U.S., sheep are the most susceptible livestock species. Severity and form of clinical disease varies greatly depending on the outbreak serotype or specific strain within a serotype. To predict disease risk from any of...

  11. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from Monterrey, Nuevo León].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Mathiew-Quirós, Álvaro; Díaz-Sánchez, Oscar; Reyes-Treviño, Norma Orelia; Álvarez-Álvarez, Criselda; Villanueva-Montemayor, Daniel; de la Garza-Salinas, Laura Hermila; González-Guajardo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad infantil es un problema de salud pública mundial y se ha incrementado en forma alarmante en las últimas décadas hasta en 30 % en el 2010. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños de cero a 14 años de tres unidades de medicina familiar (UMF). MÉTODOS: estudio prospectivo, de prevalencia, que incluyó a niños de ambos sexos que acudieron a tres UMF y una escuela primaria. Se evaluó la somatometría y se comparó de acuerdo con estándares y referencias de crecimiento de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) 2006-2007.

  12. Nuevos aspectos en el estudio de la particula D en el experimento FOCUS de Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones Gonzalez, Jose A.; /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to improve the reconstruction techniques of the decays of the particles that contain charm in the quark composition using the information of the Target Silicon Detector of the experiment E831 (FOCUS). That experiment runs during 1997 to 1998 in Fermilab National Laboratory. The objective of the experiment was improving the understanding of the particles that contain charm. Adding the Target Silicon Detector information in the reconstruction process of the primary vertex the position error. This reduction produces an improvement in the mass signal and the knowledge of the charm particles properties. This ad to the possibility's that in other analysis will use the techniques developed in this work.

  13. Nuevos patrones en el gobierno de los colegios (New Patterns of School Governance). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    This digest in Spanish explains why public-school governance is receiving increasing scrutiny. It identifies who is held accountable for results in the current governance system and describes recent proposals for transforming governance structures. Since many reforms of the past decade bypassed the school board and district office, reformers are…

  14. Pequeno glosario del nuevo lenguaje politico-social (A Concise Dictionary of New Sociopolitical Terms).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, D.

    1980-01-01

    Lists terms from current sociopolitical language, continuing from an earlier issue of "Yelmo" and covering the second half of the alphabet, "J" to "X". Provides definitions and context quotations for all items, and in some cases, notes on their historical origin. Includes borrowings from English and from some regional languages of Spain. (MES)

  15. Glosario adicional del nuevo lenguaje politico-social (Supplementary Glossary of Socio-Political Neologisms).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, D.

    1981-01-01

    Presents the first part of a glossary of new social and political terms. Each entry is followed by a paragraph defining its meaning and origin, and by one or more quotations, where the word appears in unusually extensive contexts. Quotations are taken mostly from the news media. (MES)

  16. El nuevo panorama de la Dinámica Galáctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivovaroff, Michael James

    En general, la tendencia imperante en Dinámica Galáctica ha sido considerar que los movimientos estelares son básicamente regulares y que el caos no tiene mayor relevancia en los sistemas estelares. Sin embargo, en el último lustro se vienen acumulando pruebas de la importancia del movimiento caótico en ciertos sistemas estelares que existen en la naturaleza. Por una parte, sobre todo el grupo de David Merritt, lo ha mostrado en los casos de galaxias elípticas con concentraciones centrales de materia; por otra parte, en nuestro propio grupo, lo hemos mostrado para el caso de los satélites galácticos. Las consecuencias de estos hallazgos son tanto de tipo técnico, por la necesidad de construir modelos que contengan órbitas caóticas, como astrofísico, por los efectos del caos sobre la estacionariedad y evolución de los sistemas estelares en los que se presenta.

  17. Binarias en cúmulos abiertos: ?`Qué hay de nuevo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.

    Las herramientas modernas para detectar duplicidad han jugado un papel fundamental en el resurgimiento del estudio de la binaridad en cúmulos abiertos. El fracaso de las teorías de bifurcación para explicar la formación de estrellas dobles ha puesto en consideración los encuentros de estrellas en cúmulos para formar binarias. Existen muchas pruebas empíricas que pueden realizarse para verificar las creencias actuales. En esta revisión del tema se hace un breve resumen de la historia del problema y se analiza el conocimiento actual. Se proponen las investigaciones y programas que darían lugar a la comprobación de las predicciones que surgen de considerar que las binarias en cúmulos se forman por encuentros.

  18. Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos para Generacion de Electricidad: Una guia para consumidores en Nuevo Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-09-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A New Mexico Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  19. Onchocerca sweetae (Nematoda: Filarioidea): notes on the intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Spratt, D M; Dyce, A L; Standfast, H A

    1978-03-01

    Microfilariae of Onchocerca sweetae are broadly distributed in the superficial layers of the dermis of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). A total of 2855 insects representing 20 species were collected from O. sweetae-infected bait buffaloes. Only one species, Culicoides sp. "M", ingested microfilariae from buffalo skin. Larval development of O. sweetae was observed in the thorax of this species. Atotal of 829 insects, representing 7 species and including 749 parous Culicoides spp. were collected from light and Manitoba traps. Developing filarioid larvae were observed only in Culicoides sp. "M". It is concluded that Culicoides sp. "M" is a natural intermediate host of O. sweetae in the Northern Territory of Australia.

  20. An Improved, high-throughput method for detection of bluetongue virus RNA in Culicodes midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new rapid (less than 6 h from insect-to-results) high-throughput assay is reported that is sensitive and specific for detecting BTV RNA in Culicoides biting midges. Homogenization and extraction of nucleic acids from individual Culicoides specimens were performed in a 96-well plate format using sp...

  1. Una Crisis para la Educacion Bilingue en Nuevo Mexico. (A Crisis for Bilingual Education in New Mexico)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Ezequiel

    1976-01-01

    Written in Spanish and English, this article briefly reviews the bilingual picture in New Mexico. If New Mexico is to succeed in attracting Federal monies for bilingual education, it must strive for unity in its efforts and objectives. (NQ)

  2. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  3. Entre el Renacimiento y el Nuevo Mundo: Vida y obras de Hernan Perez de Oliva (1494?-1531)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellus Perez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Hernan Perez de Oliva (1494?-1531) was a learned Spanish humanist who wrote his major works in the decades following the discovery of America. By articulating events of his career and literary life, my goal is to comprehend his contributions to the early literary production regarding the newly-found Americas. The thesis consists of three parts.…

  4. PLANETALP338: Un nuevo código para la síntesis poblacional de sistemas planetarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, M. P.; Guilera, O. M.; de Elía, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    In the last years, the observational progress allowed us to study and characterize exoplanets in different planetary systems. From a theoretical point of view, the population synthesis models allow us to link the diversity of planetary systems to the protoplanetary disks where they are formed. In this work, we present the main characteristics of a new code, named PlanetaLP338, able to calculate the formation of a planetary system and to describe the evolution of the embryos and planetesimals while the gas is still present in the protoplanetary disk. Our model incorporates the main physical phenomena for planetary formation such as type I and II migrations, gaseous accretion, water delivery in embryos and planetesimals, and mergers between embryos taking into account their respective atmospheres. A particular application of PlanetaLP338 is its automatization to generate population synthesis and to analize the different types of resulting planetary systems. The aim of this work is to explore the ranges of physical parameters that generate planetary systems analog to the Solar System in order to improve our knowledge about its formation.

  5. Detection of bluetongue virus RNA in field-collected Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) following the discovery of bluetongue virus serotype 1 in white-tailed deer and cattle in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In November 2004, bluetongue virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, BTV) serotype 1 (BTV-1) was detected for the first time in the United States from a hunter-killed deer in St. Mary Parish, LA. In 2005, sera surveys were conducted on three cattle farms near the area where the deer was found, an...

  6. Border Environmental Education Resource Guide: Southern New Mexico, South Texas, Northern Chihuahua, Northern Coahuila, Northern Nuevo Leon, Northern Tamaulipas = Guia de Recursos de Educacion Ambiental en la Frontera: Sur de Nuevo Mexico, Sur de Texas, Norte de Chihuahua, Norte de Coahuila, Norte de Nuevo Leon, Norte de Tamaulipas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meissner, David, Comp.

    This guide provides educators and residents of the border with useful information about environmental education program offerings along the eastern half of the United States-Mexico border. The programs listed in the guide represent a broad range of educational efforts focused on understanding the environment and solving environmental problems in…

  7. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Arkendu; Joardar, Siddhartha N.; Isore, Devi Prasad; Samanta, Indranil; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti; Lodh, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT) in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005) samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum), rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent. PMID:27051176

  8. Pequeno glosario del nuevo lenguaje politico-social (Segunda Parte) [A Small Glossary of the New Socio-Political Language (Part Two)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, D.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a list of 46 new socio-political terms in Spanish that are being used more frequently in literature today. Definitions of the terms are included as well as the sources where the terms were used. (NCR)

  9. Un nuevo fármaco puede ser una opción de tratamiento para algunos cánceres de mama

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de un estudio clínico internacional permiten suponer que, en poco tiempo, habrá otra opción de tratamiento para las mujeres con cáncer de mama metastásico HER2 positivo que deja de responder a los tratamientos dirigidos con trastuzumab.

  10. Nuevo enfoque de la ensenanza de las matematicas en el nivel de primaria (A New Approach to the Teaching of Mathematics at the Primary School Level).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Lozano, Blanca; And Others

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) of a new approach to the teaching of mathematics in Mexican elementary schools. Three aspects of mathematical reform are discussed: (1) syllabus content; (2) teaching methods; and (3) the question of introducing the pupil to modern mathematics at the earliest possible stage…

  11. New Sounds of the English Consonants for Spanish Speakers Learning English (Sonidos Nuevos de las Consonantes Inglesas Para los de Habla Espanola Aprendiendo Ingles).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagore, Mary Louise

    This book "represents an effort to present in simply and readily understood terms some of the sounds in English that create problems for the Spanish speaker learning English." Each of the 18 chapters teaches a specific consonant through a comparison of the Spanish and English pronunciations, facial diagrams, explanations of articulation, minimal…

  12. La distribución de objetos en el Cinturón de Kuiper y la posible existencia de un nuevo planeta en el Sistema Solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    A pesar de que la capacidad observacional no lo limita, no se han descubierto objetos en el Cinturón de Kuiper más allá de las 50 AU. Recientemente, hemos propuesto que un embrión planetario originalmente formado en la región de Urano-Neptuno, y posteriormente migrado hacia distancias mayores a 50-60 AU, puede explicar este hecho. Presentamos simulaciones numéricas de acreción del Sistema Solar exterior que muestran cómo, naturalmente, podriamos esperar que un planeta de este tipo se encuentre actualmente en regiones distantes del sistema solar. Analizamos además la posibilidad de detectarlo con instrumentos actuales.

  13. Instalación de un nuevo telescopio robótico en la estación de altura Cesco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. A. Perna, P.; Mauas, P.; Veltri, A.; Hereñú, H.

    In this paper we present the works done for the installation of a 16 inches reflector telescope at the Carlos U. Cesco high altitude station of the Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar; San Juan; Argentina. We describe the implementation of the software and hardware needed for the remote control of the instrument and its future robotization. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Sistemas Eólicos Pequeños para Generación de Electricidad: Una guia para consumidores en Nuevo México

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-10-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A New Mexico Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  15. Uso de Cebos para el Control de la Termita de Formosa, Coptotermes formosanus, en Zonas Arboladas en la Ciudad de Nuevo Orleáns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 220 underground termite stations were installed 1 meter away from the base of trees located in the median area of seven blocks of Esplanade Avenue, New Orleans, LA. Aspen wood was used to monitor termite populations. A nutritionally based bait matrix developed by United States Department ...

  16. Angiomatosis dérmica difusa de la mama: aportación de un nuevo caso en paciente no fumadora.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Marquez, Ana Maria; Gargallo-Moneva, Vanessa; Rodriguez-Peralto, Jose Luis; Lopez-Gomez, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse cutaneous angiomatosis is one of the reactive angiomatoses. Historically, it is associated with lesions located in the lower extremities. Breast localization is uncommon, but may be under-reported. We report a non-smoking woman who exhibited this vascular condition of both breasts. PMID:27617469

  17. Angiomatosis dérmica difusa de la mama: aportación de un nuevo caso en paciente no fumadora.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Marquez, Ana Maria; Gargallo-Moneva, Vanessa; Rodriguez-Peralto, Jose Luis; Lopez-Gomez, Sara

    2016-04-18

    Diffuse cutaneous angiomatosis is one of the reactive angiomatoses. Historically, it is associated with lesions located in the lower extremities. Breast localization is uncommon, but may be under-reported. We report a non-smoking woman who exhibited this vascular condition of both breasts.

  18. High Prevalence of Mansonella perstans Filariasis in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Bassene, Hubert; Sambou, Masse; Fenollar, Florence; Clarke, Siân; Djiba, Sawdiatou; Mourembou, Gaël; L. Y., Alioune Badara; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Large parts of African and American countries are colonized by Mansonella, a very common but poorly described filarial nematode. Bloodsucking flies of the genus Culicoides are suspected to be the vector of Mansonella perstans, but no study in Senegal has confirmed that Culicoides can transmit the parasite. Designed specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used to identify microfilaria in stained blood smears. This study was performed in July and December 2010 in the southeastern Senegal, which is known to be endemic for M. perstans. We analyzed 297 blood smears from febrile and afebrile resident people by qPCR. The global prevalence of M. perstans was approximately 14.5% in both febrile and afebrile individuals. The age group of > 30 years had the highest prevalence (22.0%). No Culicoides among 1,159 studied specimens was positive for M. perstans and its vector in Senegal still requires identification. PMID:26078318

  19. High Prevalence of Mansonella perstans Filariasis in Rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bassene, Hubert; Sambou, Masse; Fenollar, Florence; Clarke, Siân; Djiba, Sawdiatou; Mourembou, Gaël; L Y, Alioune Badara; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-09-01

    Large parts of African and American countries are colonized by Mansonella, a very common but poorly described filarial nematode. Bloodsucking flies of the genus Culicoides are suspected to be the vector of Mansonella perstans, but no study in Senegal has confirmed that Culicoides can transmit the parasite. Designed specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used to identify microfilaria in stained blood smears. This study was performed in July and December 2010 in the southeastern Senegal, which is known to be endemic for M. perstans. We analyzed 297 blood smears from febrile and afebrile resident people by qPCR. The global prevalence of M. perstans was approximately 14.5% in both febrile and afebrile individuals. The age group of > 30 years had the highest prevalence (22.0%). No Culicoides among 1,159 studied specimens was positive for M. perstans and its vector in Senegal still requires identification. PMID:26078318

  20. Seroepidemiology of Bivens Arm virus infections of cattle in Florida, St. Croix and Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Tuekam, T; Greiner, E C; Gibbs, E P

    1991-07-01

    Bivens Arm virus (BAV) is a newly discovered rhabdovirus infecting cattle and water buffalo in Florida. The virus is classified as a member of the Tibrogargan group, members of which have hitherto been found only in Australasia. They are considered to be transmitted by Culicoides species. Bivens Arm virus was first isolated from Culicoides insignis which suggests that BAV is also transmitted by this genus. A serological survey of two small groups of cattle raised in St. Croix and Puerto Rico, in the Caribbean, established that antibody to BAV, or a closely related virus, exists on both island. A retrospective analysis of seroconversions to BAV in sentinel calves in Florida, relative to populations of potential Culicoides vectors, failed to demonstrate any statistically significant correlation.

  1. Spatio-temporal patterns of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) occurrence in the Continental USA (1980-2010)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Statement of the hypothesis or research question. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) is a Culicoides insect-borne viral disease of wild and domestic ruminants commonly reported in the USA. While the severity of disease varies by geographic location, mortality rates can be as high as 90...

  2. Comparison of cellular and humoral immunoassays for the assessment of summer eczema in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare and analyze three common diagnostic methods for summer eczema (SE) in horses, an allergic dermatitis caused by bites of Culicoides spp. Nine horses with a medical history of SE and nine control animals were intradermally challenged with whole body extracts ...

  3. The Dutch strain of BTV-8 in white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, contains ten double stranded RNA segments encoding at least ten viral proteins. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease; transmission to ruminants, including cattle, sheep, goats, and deer species by bites of species of Culicoides. In...

  4. Immune responses to ectoparasites of horses, with a focus on insect bite hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A D

    2014-11-01

    Horses are affected by a wide variety of arthropod ectoparasites, ranging from lice which spend their entire life on the host, through ticks which feed over a period of days, to numerous biting insects that only transiently visit the host to feed. The presence of ectoparasites elicits a number of host responses including innate inflammatory responses, adaptive immune reactions and altered behaviour; all of which can reduce the severity of the parasite burden. All of these different responses are linked through immune mechanisms mediated by mast cells and IgE antibodies which have an important role in host resistance to ectoparasites, yet immune responses also cause severe pathological reactions. One of the best described examples of such pathological sequelae is insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) of horses; an IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity to the salivary proteins of Culicoides spp. associated with T-helper-2 production of IL4 and IL13. Importantly, all horses exposed to Culicoides have an expanded population of Culicoides antigen-specific T cells with this pattern of cytokine production, but in those which remain healthy, the inflammatory reaction is tempered by the presence of FoxP3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells that express IL10 and TGF-beta, which suppresses the IL4 production by Culicoides antigen-activated T cells.

  5. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  6. [Risk assessment of bluetongue disease incursion into Germany using geographic information system (GIS)].

    PubMed

    Koslowsky, Sylvia; Staubach, Christoph; Kramer, Mathias; Wieler, Lothar H

    2004-01-01

    Using a geographic information system (GIS), by analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of cattle density and the risk factors temperature, altitude and rainfall, we defined geographical habitats enabling optimal development and competence of Culicoides spp. to transmit Bluetongue-Virus (BTV): Risk zones (low, high, highest risk) were identified mainly in Baden-Württemberg, Hessen and Rheinland-Pfalz if persistently infected ruminants are imported into these zones in summer (June to August mainly), based on the current climatic conditions, BTD outbreaks are considered a real possibility. Overwintering of the virus seems unlikely. However, global warming will lead to a steady increase of the size of the risk zones. In addition, the possibility of primary outbreaks increases. The reason for this is not only the expected northern shift of Culicoides imicola, but in addition an increasing vector competence of domestic Culicoides species. We therefore recommend the storage of vaccines as well as conducting ecological studies analysing the presence of Culicoides vectors. Using the data from these studies, it will be possible to produce updated quantitative risk assessment via GIS.

  7. Host and Potential Vector Susceptibility to an Emerging Orbivirus in the United States: Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses (EHDV) are orbiviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. EHDV-1 and -2 are enzootic in the U.S., where EHD is the most significant viral disease of white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and reports of EHD in ...

  8. A Preliminary RCT of CBT-AD for Adherence and Depression among HIV-Positive Latinos on the U.S. –Mexico Border: The Nuevo Día Study

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Jane M.; Wiebe, John S.; Sauceda, John A.; Huh, David; Sanchez, Giselle; Longoria, Virginia; Bedoya, C. Andres; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a preliminary RCT among 40 HIV-positive Latinos of Mexican descent on the U.S.-Mexico border who indicated imperfect adherence and depressive symptomatology. Participants were randomly assigned to culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) with an alarmed pillbox or usual care. Outcomes were depressive symptoms (self-report and blind clinician ratings), adherence (self-report and electronic pillbox), and biological markers. The intervention, delivered in English and Spanish, proved feasible and acceptable. Generalized estimating equations in intent-to-treat analyses showed some effects of “moderate” to “large” size, with maintenance over time. For example, intervention (vs. control) participants demonstrated at post-intervention a greater drop in BDI scores (OR = - 3.64, p = .05) and greater adherence according to the electronic pillbox (OR = 3.78, p = .03). Biological markers indicated some relative improvement for CD4 count but not VL. The promising results suggest a larger trial to determine efficacy is warranted. PMID:23812892

  9. Little Steps for New Parents: A Week-by-Week Guide and Journal for Baby's First Year = Pasitos para nuevos padres: Una guia y diario semanal para el primer ano del bebe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Sandy

    Providing young infants with a loving and interesting environment through play will have a positive impact on their future. This book, designed for first time parents, provides simple and enjoyable activities intended to promote brain development during the first year. The book's introduction discusses the importance of the environment during the…

  10. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Laredo, Crystal City-Eagle Pass, San Antonio, and Del Rio 1 x 2 Quadrangles, Texas, and the Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Acuna, Piedras Negras, and Nueva Rosita 1 x 2 Quadrangles, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Berry, Margaret E.; VanSistine, D. Paco; Snyders, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide an integrated, bi-national geologic map dataset for display and analyses on an Arc Internet Map Service (IMS) dedicated to environmental health studies in the United States-Mexico border region. The IMS web site was designed by the US-Mexico Border Environmental Health Initiative project and collaborators, and the IMS and project web site address is http://borderhealth.cr.usgs.gov/. The objective of the project is to acquire, evaluate, analyze, and provide earth, biologic, and human health resources data within a GIS framework (IMS) to further our understanding of possible linkages between the physical environment and public health issues. The geologic map dataset is just one of many datasets included in the web site; other datasets include biologic, hydrologic, geographic, and human health themes.

  11. Task-Based Language Learning: Old Approach, New Style. A New Lesson to Learn (Aprendizaje basado en tareas: un antiguo enfoque, un nuevo estilo. Una nueva lección para aprender)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez-Bonces, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bonces, Jeisson

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Task-Based Language Learning (TBL) and its use in the teaching and learning of foreign languages. It begins by defining the concept of TBL, followed by a presentation of its framework and implications, and finally, a lesson plan based on TBL. The article presents an additional stage to be considered when planning…

  12. Nuevo Amanecer: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Community-Based, Peer-Delivered Stress Management Intervention to Improve Quality of Life in Latinas With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz, Carmen; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L.; Gregorich, Steven; Lee, Howard E.; Durón, Ysabel; McGuire, Peggy; Luce, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a community-based, translational stress management program to improve health-related quality of life in Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer. Methods. We adapted a cognitive–behavioral stress management program integrating evidence-based and community best practices to address the needs of Latinas with breast cancer. Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer were randomly assigned to an intervention or usual-care control group. Trained peers delivered the 8-week intervention between February 2011 and February 2014. Primary outcomes were breast cancer–specific quality of life and distress, and general symptoms of distress. Results. Of 151 participants, 95% were retained at 6 months (between May 2011 and May 2014). Improvements in quality of life from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention than the control group on physical well-being, emotional well-being, breast cancer concerns, and overall quality of life. Decreases from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention group on depression and somatization. Conclusions. Results suggest that translation of evidence-based programs can reduce psychosocial health disparities in Latinas with breast cancer. Integration of this program into community-based organizations enhances its dissemination potential. PMID:25905829

  13. Un Nuevo Convenio para el Aprendizaje: Una Sociedad para Mejorar los Resultados Educativos en el Estado de Nueva York (A New Compact for Learning: A Partnership To Improve Educational Results in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Elementary, Middle and Secondary Education.

    This Spanish translation of the abridged version of "A New Compact for Learning" acknowledges the current U.S. education system's inadequacy to educate U.S. citizenry and introduces New York State's New Compact for Learning, intended as a plan to reorganize New York's own system. The compact's fundamental principles are: (1) recognizing that all…

  14. Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 Outbreak in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) 2007–2008. Data Support a Primary Vector Windborne Transport

    PubMed Central

    García-Lastra, Rodrigo; Leginagoikoa, Iratxe; Plazaola, Jose M.; Ocabo, Blanca; Aduriz, Gorka; Nunes, Telmo; Juste, Ramón A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease of ruminants that has expanded its traditional global distribution in the last decade. Recently, BTV-1 emerged in Southern Spain and caused several outbreaks in livestock reaching the north of the country. The aim of this paper was to review the emergence of BTV-1 in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) during 2007 and 2008 analyzing the possibility that infected Culicoides were introduced into Basque Country by winds from the infected areas of Southern Spain. Methodology/Principal Findings We use a complex HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model to draw wind roses and backward wind trajectories. The analysis of winds showed September 28 to October 2 as the only period for the introduction of infected midges in the Basque Country. These wind trajectories crossed through the areas affected by serotype 1 on those dates in the South of the Iberian Peninsula. Additionally meteorological data, including wind speed and humidity, and altitude along the trajectories showed suitable conditions for Culicoides survival and dispersion. Conclusions/Significance An active infection in medium-long distance regions, wind with suitable speed, altitude and trajectory, and appropriate weather can lead to outbreaks of BTV-1 by transport of Culicoides imicola, not only over the sea (as reported previously) but also over the land. This shows that an additional factor has to be taken into account for the control of the disease which is currently essentially based on the assumption that midges will only spread the virus in a series of short hops. Moreover, the epidemiological and serological data cannot rule out the involvement of other Culicoides species in the spread of the infection, especially at a local level. PMID:22479628

  15. FAMILY CERATOPOGONIDAE.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Gustavo A; Wolff, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty five species of Ceratopogonids arranged in 28 genera are listed for Colombia, mostly Culicoides (112 species) and Forcipomyia (50 species). For each listed species, information on type locality, type category and sex, location of type material, species distribution, localities for Colombia and main references, is provided. Localities are not specified for 17 species in which the literature searching was negative. Forcipomyia squamitibia Lutz and Bezzia clavipennis are excluded from the list. PMID:27395263

  16. A preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity: Intralymphatic injection with recombinant allergens in Alum or Alum and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Stefansdottir, Sara Bjork; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Rhyner, Claudio; Marti, Eliane; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2016-04-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides insects, not indigenous to Iceland. Horses born in Iceland and exported to Culicoides-rich areas are frequently affected with IBH. The aims of the study were to compare immunization with recombinant allergens using the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide (Alum) alone or combined with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) for development of a preventive immunization against IBH. Twelve healthy Icelandic horses were vaccinated intralymphatically three times with 10 μg each of four recombinant Culicoides nubeculosus allergens in Alum or in Alum/MPLA. Injection with allergens in both Alum and Alum/MPLA resulted in significant increase in specific IgG subclasses and IgA against all r-allergens with no significant differences between the adjuvant groups. The induced antibodies from both groups could block binding of allergen specific IgE from IBH affected horses to a similar extent. No IgE-mediated reactions were induced. Allergen-stimulated PBMC from Alum/MPLA horses but not from Alum only horses produced significantly more IFNγ and IL-10 than PBMC from non-vaccinated control horses. In conclusion, intralymphatic administration of small amounts of pure allergens in Alum/MPLA induces high IgG antibody levels and Th1/Treg immune response and is a promising approach for immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy against IBH. PMID:27032498

  17. A preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity: Intralymphatic injection with recombinant allergens in Alum or Alum and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Stefansdottir, Sara Bjork; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Rhyner, Claudio; Marti, Eliane; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2016-04-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides insects, not indigenous to Iceland. Horses born in Iceland and exported to Culicoides-rich areas are frequently affected with IBH. The aims of the study were to compare immunization with recombinant allergens using the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide (Alum) alone or combined with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) for development of a preventive immunization against IBH. Twelve healthy Icelandic horses were vaccinated intralymphatically three times with 10 μg each of four recombinant Culicoides nubeculosus allergens in Alum or in Alum/MPLA. Injection with allergens in both Alum and Alum/MPLA resulted in significant increase in specific IgG subclasses and IgA against all r-allergens with no significant differences between the adjuvant groups. The induced antibodies from both groups could block binding of allergen specific IgE from IBH affected horses to a similar extent. No IgE-mediated reactions were induced. Allergen-stimulated PBMC from Alum/MPLA horses but not from Alum only horses produced significantly more IFNγ and IL-10 than PBMC from non-vaccinated control horses. In conclusion, intralymphatic administration of small amounts of pure allergens in Alum/MPLA induces high IgG antibody levels and Th1/Treg immune response and is a promising approach for immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy against IBH.

  18. Equine insect bite hypersensitivity: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Schaffartzik, A; Hamza, E; Janda, J; Crameri, R; Marti, E; Rhyner, C

    2012-06-30

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis of the horse caused by bites of insects of the genus Culicoides and is currently the best characterized allergic disease of horses. This article reviews knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of IBH, with a particular focus on the causative allergens. Whereas so far hardly any research has been done on the role of antigen presenting cells in the pathogenesis of IBH, recent studies suggest that IBH is characterized by an imbalance between a T helper 2 (Th2) and regulatory T cell (T(reg)) immune response, as shown both locally in the skin and with stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Various studies have shown IBH to be associated with IgE-mediated reactions against salivary antigens from Culicoides spp. However, until recently, the causative allergens had not been characterized at the molecular level. A major advance has now been made, as 11 Culicoides salivary gland proteins have been identified as relevant allergens for IBH. Currently, there is no satisfactory treatment of IBH. Characterization of the main allergens for IBH and understanding what mechanisms induce a healthy or allergic immune response towards these allergens may help to develop new treatment strategies, such as immunotherapy.

  19. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-03-11

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors.

  20. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  1. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-03-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  2. Bluetongue and other orbiviruses in South America: gaps and challenges.

    PubMed

    Portela Lobato, Zélia Inês; Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Maria Isabel; Diniz Matos, Ana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    South America (SA) has the ideal climatic conditions for occurrence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) and other orbiviruses. Based on serological evidence of BTV circulation, the virus is widespread across SA. However, little knowledge has been acquired about BTV origin and distribution, and circulation of specific serotypes is almost non‑existent. The first barrier to a better understanding of Bluetongue (BT) in SA concerns its recognition in the field, as most infections of seropositive ruminants are unapparent in endemic areas. There are few reports on BTV isolation in SA, many of them from viraemic asymptomatic animals. Among the known competent BTV vectors, Culicoides insignis is the most abundant species in SA. However, information about biological characteristics and competence of various other Culicoides species described in SA is missing. The few reports on BT outbreaks lead to an underestimation of the disease impact on the continent economy. To overcome these major gaps, it is necessary to: improve diagnostic structure and disease recognition in the field; identify BTV serotypes and their distribution in different SA areas; and to study the biology and epidemiology of Culicoides. Furthermore, it is important to have a surveillance system for BT, as well as contingency plans for possible outbreaks in SA. PMID:26741241

  3. 75 FR 15772 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ..., Mexico; Citizen Mexico; Nationality Mexico; (INDIVIDUAL) 4. VELASQUEZ CABALLERO, Ivan (a.k.a. VELAZQUEZ.... VELAZQUEZ CABALLERO, Juan Daniel); Colonia Infonavit, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Colonia Buena...

  4. Teaching Reading Comprehension in English in a Distance Web-Based Course: New Roles for Teachers (La enseñanza de la comprensión de lectura en inglés en un curso a distancia en la red: nuevos roles para los docentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz Marín, Jorge Hugo; González Moncada, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Distance web-based learning is a popular strategy in ELT teaching in Colombia. Despite of the growth of experiences, there are very few studies regarding teachers' participation in these courses. This paper reports preliminary findings of an on-going study aiming at exploring the roles that a teach er plays in an EFL reading comprehension…

  5. New Educational Environments Aimed at Developing Intercultural Understanding while Reinforcing the Use of English in Experience-Based Learning (Nuevos entornos educativos destinados a desarrollar la comprensión intercultural y a reforzar el uso del inglés mediante el aprendizaje basado en experiencias)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruguier, Leonard R.; Greathouse Amador, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    New learning environments with communication and information tools are increasingly accessible with technology playing a crucial role in expanding and reconceptualizing student learning experiences. This paper reviews the outcome of an innovative course offered by four universities in three countries: Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Course…

  6. Developing a preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity using recombinant allergens: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Hamza, Eman; Janda, Jozef; Rhyner, Claudio; Meinke, Andreas; Marti, Eliane; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2015-07-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of midges (Culicoides spp.). IgE-mediated reactions are often involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. IBH does not occur in Iceland due to the absence of Culicoides, but it occurs with a high frequency in Icelandic horses exported to mainland Europe, where Culicoides are present. We hypothesize that immunization with the Culicoides allergens before export could reduce the incidence of IBH in exported Icelandic horses. The aim of the present study was therefore to compare intradermal and intralymphatic vaccination using four purified recombinant allergens, in combination with a Th1 focusing adjuvant. Twelve horses were vaccinated three times with 10μg of each of the four recombinant Culicoides nubeculosus allergens. Six horses were injected intralymphatically, three with and three without IC31(®), and six were injected intradermally, in the presence or absence of IC31(®). Antibody responses were measured by immunoblots and ELISA, potential sensitization in a sulfidoleukotriene release test and an intradermal test, cytokine and FoxP3 expression with real time PCR following in vitro stimulation of PBMC. Immunization with the r-allergens induced a significant increase in levels of r-allergen-specific IgG1, IgG1/3, IgG4/7, IgG5 and IgG(T). Application of the r-allergens in IC31(®) adjuvant resulted in a significantly higher IgG1, IgG1/3, IgG4/7 allergen-specific response. Intralymphatic injection was slightly more efficient than intradermal injection, but the difference did not reach significance. Testing of the blocking activity of the sera from the horses immunized intralymphatically with IC31(®) showed that the generated IgG antibodies were able to partly block binding of serum IgE from an IBH-affected horse to these r-allergens. Furthermore, IgG antibodies bound to protein bands on blots of C. nubeculosus salivary gland extract. No allergen-specific IgE was induced and

  7. Development and Evaluation of Real Time RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Typing of Bluetongue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Narender Singh; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Potgieter, Abraham C.; Kumar, Vinay; Batra, Kanisht; Wright, Isabel M.; Kirkland, Peter D.; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus is the type species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Bluetongue viruses (BTV) are transmitted between their vertebrate hosts primarily by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) in which they also replicate. Consequently BTV distribution is dependent on the activity, geographic distribution, and seasonal abundance of Culicoides spp. The virus can also be transmitted vertically in vertebrate hosts, and some strains/serotypes can be transmitted horizontally in the absence of insect vectors. The BTV genome is composed of ten linear segments of double-stranded (ds) RNA, numbered in order of decreasing size (Seg-1 to Seg-10). Genome segment 2 (Seg-2) encodes outer-capsid protein VP2, the most variable BTV protein and the primary target for neutralising antibodies. Consequently VP2 (and Seg-2) determine the identity of the twenty seven serotypes and two additional putative BTV serotypes that have been recognised so far. Current BTV vaccines are serotype specific and typing of outbreak strains is required in order to deploy appropriate vaccines. We report development and evaluation of multiple ‘TaqMan’ fluorescence-probe based quantitative real-time type-specific RT-PCR assays targeting Seg-2 of the 27+1 BTV types. The assays were evaluated using orbivirus isolates from the ‘Orbivirus Reference Collection’ (ORC) held at The Pirbright Institute. The assays are BTV-type specific and can be used for rapid, sensitive and reliable detection / identification (typing) of BTV RNA from samples of infected blood, tissues, homogenised Culicoides, or tissue culture supernatants. None of the assays amplified cDNAs from closely related but heterologous orbiviruses, or from uninfected host animals or cell cultures. PMID:27661614

  8. The role of wildlife in bluetongue virus maintenance in Europe: lessons learned after the natural infection in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Sánchez-Matamoros, Almudena; Gortázar, Christian; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a re-emergent vector-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of the genus Orbivirus. A complex multi-host, multi-vector and multi-pathogen (26 serotypes) transmission and maintenance network has recently emerged in Europe, and wild ruminants are regarded as an important node in this network. This review analyses the reservoir role of wild ruminants in Europe, identifying gaps in knowledge and proposing actions. Wild ruminant species are indicators of BTV circulation. Excepting the mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), European wild ungulates do not develop clinical disease. Diagnostic techniques used in wildlife do not differ from those used in domestic ruminants provided they are validated. Demographic, behavioural and physiological traits of wild hosts modulate their relationship with BTV vectors and with the virus itself. While BTV has been eradicated from central and northern Europe, it is still circulating in the Mediterranean Basin. We propose that currently two BTV cycles coexist in certain regions of the Mediterranean Basin, a wild one largely driven by deer of the subfamily Cervinae and a domestic one. These are probably linked through shared Culicoides vectors of several species. We suggest that wildlife might be contributing to this situation through vector maintenance and virus maintenance. Additionally, differences in temperature and other environmental factors add complexity to the Mediterranean habitats as compared to central and northern European ones. Intervention options in wildlife populations are limited. There is a need to know the role of wildlife in maintaining Culicoides populations, and to know which Culicoides species mediate the wildlife-livestock-BTV transmission events. There is also a clear need to study more in depth the links between Cervinae deer densities, environmental factors and BTV maintenance. Regarding disease control, we suggest that research efforts should be

  9. Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies.

    PubMed

    Marsella, Rosanna

    2013-12-01

    Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management.

  10. Schmallenberg virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wernike, K; Elbers, A; Beer, M

    2015-08-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects domestic and wild ruminants. Adult animals show only mild clinical symptoms or none at all, whereas an infection during a critical period of gestation can lead to abortion, stillbirth or the birth of severely malformed offspring. The impact of the disease is usually greater in sheep than in cattle. Vaccination could be an important aspect of disease control. PMID:26601441

  11. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised.

  12. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

  13. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

  14. Experimental oral infection of bluetongue virus serotype 8 in type I interferon receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Nieto, José María; Ortego, Javier

    2010-11-01

    The identification of transmission routes for bluetongue virus (BTV) is essential to improve the control of the disease. Although BTV is primarily transmitted by several species of Culicoides biting midges, there has been evidence of transplacental and oral transmission. We now report that IFNAR((-/-)) mice are susceptible to oral infection by BTV-8. Viraemia, clinical manifestations and tissue lesions are similar to those in intravenously infected mice. In addition, we show that the oral cavity and oesophagus are susceptible to BTV infection and replication, suggesting that these organs are possible entry routes during BTV oral infection.

  15. VP2 Exchange and NS3/NS3a Deletion in African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) in Development of Disabled Infectious Single Animal Vaccine Candidates for AHSV

    PubMed Central

    van de Water, Sandra G. P.; van Gennip, René G. P.; Potgieter, Christiaan A.; Wright, Isabel M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a virus species in the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae. There are nine serotypes of AHSV showing different levels of cross neutralization. AHSV is transmitted by species of Culicoides biting midges and causes African horse sickness (AHS) in equids, with a mortality rate of up to 95% in naive horses. AHS has become a serious threat for countries outside Africa, since endemic Culicoides species in moderate climates appear to be competent vectors for the related bluetongue virus (BTV). To control AHS, live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) are used in Africa. We used reverse genetics to generate “synthetic” reassortants of AHSV for all nine serotypes by exchange of genome segment 2 (Seg-2). This segment encodes VP2, which is the serotype-determining protein and the dominant target for neutralizing antibodies. Single Seg-2 AHSV reassortants showed similar cytopathogenic effects in mammalian cells but displayed different growth kinetics. Reverse genetics for AHSV was also used to study Seg-10 expressing NS3/NS3a proteins. We demonstrated that NS3/NS3a proteins are not essential for AHSV replication in vitro. NS3/NS3a of AHSV is, however, involved in the cytopathogenic effect in mammalian cells and is very important for virus release from cultured insect cells in particular. Similar to the concept of the bluetongue disabled infectious single animal (BT DISA) vaccine platform, an AHS DISA vaccine platform lacking NS3/NS3a expression was developed. Using exchange of genome segment 2 encoding VP2 protein (Seg-2[VP2]), we will be able to develop AHS DISA vaccine candidates for all current AHSV serotypes. IMPORTANCE African horse sickness virus is transmitted by species of Culicoides biting midges and causes African horse sickness in equids, with a mortality rate of up to 95% in naive horses. African horse sickness has become a serious threat for countries outside Africa, since endemic Culicoides species in moderate

  16. Using shared needles for subcutaneous inoculation can transmit bluetongue virus mechanically between ruminant hosts

    PubMed Central

    Darpel, Karin E.; Barber, James; Hope, Andrew; Wilson, Anthony J.; Gubbins, Simon; Henstock, Mark; Frost, Lorraine; Batten, Carrie; Veronesi, Eva; Moffat, Katy; Carpenter, Simon; Oura, Chris; Mellor, Philip S.; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important arbovirus of ruminants that is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV infection of ruminants results in a high viraemia, suggesting that repeated sharing of needles between animals could result in its iatrogenic transmission. Studies defining the risk of iatrogenic transmission of blood-borne pathogens by less invasive routes, such as subcutaneous or intradermal inoculations are rare, even though the sharing of needles is common practice for these inoculation routes in the veterinary sector. Here we demonstrate that BTV can be transmitted by needle sharing during subcutaneous inoculation, despite the absence of visible blood contamination of the needles. The incubation period, measured from sharing of needles, to detection of BTV in the recipient sheep or cattle, was substantially longer than has previously been reported after experimental infection of ruminants by either direct inoculation of virus, or through blood feeding by infected Culicoides. Although such mechanical transmission is most likely rare under field condition, these results are likely to influence future advice given in relation to sharing needles during veterinary vaccination campaigns and will also be of interest for the public health sector considering the risk of pathogen transmission during subcutaneous inoculations with re-used needles. PMID:26853457

  17. Quantitative assessment of the probability of bluetongue virus overwintering by horizontal transmission: application to Germany

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Even though bluetongue virus (BTV) transmission is apparently interrupted during winter, bluetongue outbreaks often reappear in the next season (overwintering). Several mechanisms for BTV overwintering have been proposed, but to date, their relative importance remain unclear. In order to assess the probability of BTV overwintering by persistence in adult vectors, ruminants (through prolonged viraemia) or a combination of both, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed. Furthermore, the model allowed the role played by the residual number of vectors present during winter to be examined, and the effect of a proportion of Culicoides living inside buildings (endophilic behaviour) to be explored. The model was then applied to a real scenario: overwintering in Germany between 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the limited number of vectors active during winter seemed to allow the transmission of BTV during this period, and that while transmission was favoured by the endophilic behaviour of some Culicoides, its effect was limited. Even though transmission was possible, the likelihood of BTV overwintering by the mechanisms studied seemed too low to explain the observed re-emergence of the disease. Therefore, other overwintering mechanisms not considered in the model are likely to have played a significant role in BTV overwintering in Germany between 2006 and 2007. PMID:21314966

  18. Arbovirus surveillance from 1990 to 1995 in the Barkedji area (Ferlo) of Senegal, a possible natural focus of Rift Valley fever virus.

    PubMed

    Traoré-Lamizana, M; Fontenille, D; Diallo, M; Bâ, Y; Zeller, H G; Mondo, M; Adam, F; Thonon, J; Maïga, A

    2001-07-01

    Surveillance for mosquito-borne viruses was conducted in Barkedji area from 1990 to 1995, following an outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus in southern Mauritania. Mosquitoes, sand flies, and midges were collected from human bait and trapped by solid-state U.S. Army battery-powered CDC miniature light traps baited with dry ice or animals (sheep or chickens) at four ponds. Overall, 237,091 male and female mosquitoes representing 52 species in eight genera, 214,967 Phlebotomine sand flies, and 2,527 Culicoides were collected, identified, and tested for arboviruses in 9,490 pools (7,050 pools of female and 331 of male mosquitoes, 2,059 pools of sand flies and 50 pools of Culicoides). Viruses isolated included one Alphavirus, Babanki (BBK); six Flaviviruses, Bagaza (BAG), Ar D 65239, Wesselsbron (WSL), West Nile (WN), Koutango (KOU), Saboya (SAB); two Bunyavirus, Bunyamwera (BUN) and Ngari (NRI); two Phleboviruses, Rift Valley fever (RVF) and Gabek Forest (GF); one Orbivirus, Ar D 66707 (Sanar); one Rhabdovirus, Chandipura (CHP); and one unclassified virus, Ar D 95537. Based on repeated isolations, high field infection rates and abundance, Culex appeared to be the vectors of BAG, BBK, Ar D 65239 (BAG-like), and WN viruses, Ae. vexans and Ae. ochraceus of RVF virus, Mansonia of WN and BAG viruses, Mimomyia of WN and BAG viruses, and Phlebotomine of SAB, CHP, Ar D 95537, and GF viruses. Our data indicate that RVF virus circulated repeatedly in the Barkedji area.

  19. Haemosporidian vector research: marriage of molecular and microscopical approaches is essential.

    PubMed

    Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2011-08-01

    Many species of malaria and related haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida) are responsible for diseases in wild and domestic animals. These pathogens are exclusively transmitted by blood-sucking dipteran insects (Diptera). Traditional vector studies, which are based mainly on experimental infection and subsequent dissection of insects, are time-consuming, so progress in the identification of the vectors has been slow. Since the discovery of haemosporidians in wildlife by V. Danilewsky in 1884, it took over 70 years to determine the main vector groups of these parasites. However, precise vector-parasite relationships remain insufficiently investigated in wildlife, particularly at the species level of haemosporidians and their vectors. Molecular tools have provided innovative opportunities to speed such research. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Martínez-de la Puente et al. (2011) collected, for the first time, a significant PCR-based set of data on the presence of lineages of the pigment-forming haemosporidians (species of Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) in biting midges (Culicoides). They identified numerous associations between Culicoides spp. and Haemoproteus spp., indicating directions for future targeting vector studies of haemoproteids.

  20. Cloning and expression of recombinant equine interleukin-3 and its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Janda, Jozef; Lehmann, Melissa; Luttmann, Werner; Marti, Eliane

    2015-02-15

    Interleukin-3 is a growth and differentiation factor for various hematopoietic cells. IL-3 also enhances stimulus-dependent release of mediators and cytokine production by mature basophils. Function of IL-3 has not been studied in horses because of lack of horse-specific reagents. Our aim was to produce recombinant equine IL-3 and test its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Equine IL-3 was cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified. PBL of 19 healthy and 20 insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH)-affected horses were stimulated with Culicoides nubeculosus extract with or without IL-3. Sulfidoleukotriene (sLT) production was measured in supernatants by ELISA and mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-13 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) assessed in cell lysate by quantitative real-time PCR. Recombinant equine IL-3 (req-IL-3) had a dose dependent effect on sLT production by stimulated equine PBL and significantly increased IL-4, IL-13 and TSLP expression compared to non-primed cells. IL-3 priming significantly increased Culicoides-induced sLT production in IBH-affected but not in non-affected horses and was particularly effective in young IBH-affected horses (≤ 3 years). A functionally active recombinant equine IL-3 has been produced which will be useful for future immunological studies in horses. It will also allow improving the sensitivity of cellular in vitro tests for allergy diagnosis in horses. PMID:25530476

  1. Novel in vitro diagnosis of equine allergies using a protein array and mathematical modelling approach: a proof of concept using insect bite hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Marti, E; Wang, X; Jambari, N N; Rhyner, C; Olzhausen, J; Pérez-Barea, J J; Figueredo, G P; Alcocer, M J C

    2015-10-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal recurrent skin allergy of horses caused by IgE-mediated reactions to allergens present in the saliva of biting insects of the genus Culicoides, and possibly also Simulium and Stomoxys species. In this work we show that protein microarrays containing complex extracts and pure proteins, including recombinant Culicoides allergens, can be used as a powerful technique for the diagnosis of IBH. Besides the obvious advantages such as general profiling and use of few microliters of samples, this microarray technique permits automation and allows the generation of mathematical models with the calculation of individual risk profiles that can support the clinical diagnosis of allergic diseases. After selection of variables on influence on the projection (VIP), the observed values of sensitivity and specificity were 1.0 and 0.967, respectively. This confirms the highly discriminatory power of this approach for IBH and made it possible to attain a robust predictive mathematical model for this disease. It also further demonstrates the specificity of the protein array method on identifying a particular IgE-mediated disease when the sensitising allergen group is known.

  2. Novel in vitro diagnosis of equine allergies using a protein array and mathematical modelling approach: a proof of concept using insect bite hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Marti, E; Wang, X; Jambari, N N; Rhyner, C; Olzhausen, J; Pérez-Barea, J J; Figueredo, G P; Alcocer, M J C

    2015-10-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal recurrent skin allergy of horses caused by IgE-mediated reactions to allergens present in the saliva of biting insects of the genus Culicoides, and possibly also Simulium and Stomoxys species. In this work we show that protein microarrays containing complex extracts and pure proteins, including recombinant Culicoides allergens, can be used as a powerful technique for the diagnosis of IBH. Besides the obvious advantages such as general profiling and use of few microliters of samples, this microarray technique permits automation and allows the generation of mathematical models with the calculation of individual risk profiles that can support the clinical diagnosis of allergic diseases. After selection of variables on influence on the projection (VIP), the observed values of sensitivity and specificity were 1.0 and 0.967, respectively. This confirms the highly discriminatory power of this approach for IBH and made it possible to attain a robust predictive mathematical model for this disease. It also further demonstrates the specificity of the protein array method on identifying a particular IgE-mediated disease when the sensitising allergen group is known. PMID:26163936

  3. Inactivated and adjuvanted vaccine for the control of the African horse sickness virus serotype 9 infection: evaluation of efficacy in horses and guinea-pig model.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Rossella; Molini, Umberto; Ronchi, Gaetano Federico; Rossi, Emanuela; Franchi, Paola; Ulisse, Simonetta; Armillotta, Gisella; Capista, Sara; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Di Ventura, Mauro; Pini, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a non-contagious viral disease of solipeds transmitted by Culicoides. The disease is endemic in most African countries. Past experience has shown that Italy is a country exposed to emerging infectious diseases endemic to Africa; an incursion of AHS virus together with the widespread presence of Culicoides vectors could be the cause of a serious epidemic emergency. A live attenuated vaccine containing seven of the nine viral serotypes, serotype 5 and 9 are excluded, is commercially available from Onderstepoort Biological Products. However, the use of live vaccines is a matter of endless disputes, and therefore inactivated or recombinant alternative products have been investigated over the years. Since research on AHS is hampered by the use of horses to evaluate vaccine potency, in a previous experiment serological response to serotypes 5 and 9 was assayed in guinea-pigs and horses. A durable and comparable serological response was observed in the two animal species. In the present study antibody response in horses and guinea-pigs, immunised with the inactivated-adjuvanted vaccine formulated with serotype 9, was tested over a period of 12 months. When immunity was challenged, horses were protected from infection and disease. Antibody response in horses and guinea-pigs compared favourably.

  4. Using shared needles for subcutaneous inoculation can transmit bluetongue virus mechanically between ruminant hosts.

    PubMed

    Darpel, Karin E; Barber, James; Hope, Andrew; Wilson, Anthony J; Gubbins, Simon; Henstock, Mark; Frost, Lorraine; Batten, Carrie; Veronesi, Eva; Moffat, Katy; Carpenter, Simon; Oura, Chris; Mellor, Philip S; Mertens, Peter P C

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important arbovirus of ruminants that is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV infection of ruminants results in a high viraemia, suggesting that repeated sharing of needles between animals could result in its iatrogenic transmission. Studies defining the risk of iatrogenic transmission of blood-borne pathogens by less invasive routes, such as subcutaneous or intradermal inoculations are rare, even though the sharing of needles is common practice for these inoculation routes in the veterinary sector. Here we demonstrate that BTV can be transmitted by needle sharing during subcutaneous inoculation, despite the absence of visible blood contamination of the needles. The incubation period, measured from sharing of needles, to detection of BTV in the recipient sheep or cattle, was substantially longer than has previously been reported after experimental infection of ruminants by either direct inoculation of virus, or through blood feeding by infected Culicoides. Although such mechanical transmission is most likely rare under field condition, these results are likely to influence future advice given in relation to sharing needles during veterinary vaccination campaigns and will also be of interest for the public health sector considering the risk of pathogen transmission during subcutaneous inoculations with re-used needles. PMID:26853457

  5. Forty years continous monitoring for bluetongue virus at an Australian site of high arbovirus activity. What have we achieved?

    PubMed

    Melville, Lorna; Weir, Richard; Hunt, Neville; Davis, Steven; Walsh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Beatrice Hill Farm (BHF) near Darwin, Australia was identified in the early 1970's as a site of high arbovirus activity. The first isolation of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Australia was made on BHF in 1975. Since then, there has been continuous monitoring for BTV at BHF, the virus has been isolated on a yearly basis, with the only exception of 1990. All 10 serotypes known in Australia have been isolated at this site and an assessment of their biological behaviour made. Over the years, the methods and intensity of monitoring have been changed. In recent years molecular techniques have permitted more detailed examination of the origins of the viruses and their natural behaviour in field situations. Data collected at BHF have allowed modelling to detect likely origins of the BTVs that regularly enter Australia through wind borne infected Culicoides from South East Asia. Concurrent vector monitoring led to assess the Culicoides species more likely to be involved with transmission of these viruses. PMID:26741242

  6. Whole genome sequence analysis of circulating Bluetongue virus serotype 11 strains from the United States including two domestic canine isolates.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Natasha N; Jasperson, Dane C; Dubovi, Edward J; Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; Wilson, William C

    2015-07-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-transmitted pathogen that typically infects and causes disease in domestic and wild ruminants. BTV is also known to infect domestic canines as discovered when dogs were vaccinated with a BTV-contaminated vaccine. Canine BTV infections have been documented through serological surveys, and natural infection by the Culicoides vector has been suggested. The report of isolation of BTV serotype 11 (BTV-11) from 2 separate domestic canine abortion cases in the states of Texas in 2011 and Kansas in 2012, were apparently unrelated to BTV-contaminated vaccination or consumption of BTV-contaminated raw meat as had been previously speculated. To elucidate the origin and relationship of these 2 domestic canine BTV-11 isolates, whole genome sequencing was performed. Six additional BTV-11 field isolates from Texas, Florida, and Washington, submitted for diagnostic investigation during 2011 and 2013, were also fully sequenced and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the BTV-11 domestic canine isolates are virtually identical, and both share high identity with 2 BTV-11 isolates identified from white-tailed deer in Texas in 2011. The results of the current study further support the hypothesis that a BTV-11 strain circulating in the Midwestern states could have been transmitted to the dogs by the infected Culicoides vector. Our study also expands the short list of available BTV-11 sequences, which may aid BTV surveillance and epidemiology. PMID:26069226

  7. 78 FR 40821 - Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, Executive Order 11423, as Amended; Notice of Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... (HAZMAT) across the World Trade Bridge between the City of Laredo, Texas and Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas... amended Presidential permit is required to allow the transit of HAZMATs as this constitutes a...

  8. Experimentar con un cohete de plasma

    NASA Video Gallery

    El Dr. Franklin Chang-Díaz, el primer astronauta hispano de la NASA, es actualmente el presidente y CEO de Ad Astra Rocket Company, la empresa que desarrolla el nuevo cohete de plasma VASIMR. Apren...

  9. Una mirada hacia el pasado -- El Telescopio Espacial James Webb

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA planea usar el nuevo Telescopio Espacial James Webb para mirar el pasado. Al observar la luz de las estrellas que se formaron al principio del universo, la NASA está a punto de arrojar nuev...

  10. Mineralogical Composition of the Mexican Ordinary Chondrite Type Meteorite: A Raman, Infrared and XRD Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrooumov, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Raman microprobe (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of seven mexican meteorites: Aldama, Cosina, El Pozo, Escalon, Nuevo Mercurio,Pacula, Zapotitlan Salinas.

  11. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., scale 1:24,000, dated 1961, Photoinspected 1978, Photorevised 1968; (27) Pigeon Point, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  12. An outbreak of Oropouche virus diease in the vicinity of santarem, para, barzil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, F P; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Travassos da Rosa, J F; Bensabath, G

    1976-06-01

    An epidemic of human febrile illness caused by Oropouche virus was studied in the village of Mojui dos Campos, Pará State, in February 1975. The major clinical symptoms, fever, chills, headache, myalgia, arthralgia and dizziness persisted for 2 to 7 days. Leukopenia was commonly observed. Some patients were severely ill but no deaths were attributed to the disease. Recurrence of symptoms was reported in several people. 55 cases of recent infection were diagnosed in Mojuí dos Campos between February and April. In the same period 26 cases were recorded from the Palhal area, near to Mojuí. Two additional cases were observed, one in the small settlement of Terra Preta and the other in the town of Santarém, which are 12 and 20 km from Mojuí, respectively. Of the 83 infections, 65 were proven by virus isolation from the blood of patients and 18 by the demonstration of an increasing antibody level to the agent. Both sexes of the population were infected in equal proportions. Most patients were below 20 years of age. In the village of Mojuí dos Campos with a population of about 2,900, 45 (40,1%) out of 112 students aged 4 to 18, had HI antibodies to the virus when examined late in February. The epidemic, however, only declined after the middle of March. Two isolations of Oropouche virus were obtained from some 15,000 Culicoides inoculated into mice. About 4,000 Culicoides and all the 9,420 mosquitoes captured during the outbreak remain to be inoculated. Over 95% of the Culicoides were C. paraensis. Only 1 rodent of the genus Proechimys had HI antibodies to Oropouche virus out of the 602 wild and domestic mammals captured in the area. All 5 reptiles examined were negative. 34 (4.9%) out of the 681 wild birds and 12 (5.8%) out of the 206 domestic birds examined were positive for the presence of HI antibodies to the agent. PMID:941251

  13. Bluetongue.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, N J; Mayo, C E; Daniels, P W; Savini, G; Zientara, S; Gibbs, E P J

    2015-08-01

    Summary Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-transmitted viral disease of non-African ungulates, principally sheep. The disease results from vascular injury analogous to that of human haemorrhagic viral fevers, with characteristic tissue infarction, haemorrhage, vascular leakage, oedema, and hypovolaemic shock. Importantly, BT is not zoonotic. Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection of ruminants and vector Culicoides midges is endemic throughout many tropical and temperate regions of the world; however, within this global range the virus exists within relatively discrete ecosystems (syn. episystems) where specific constellations of BTV serotypes are spread by different species of biting Culicoides midges. Recently discovered goat-associated BTVs, notably BTV serotype 25 (BTV-25) in central Europe, appear to have distinctive biological properties and an epidemiology that is not reliant on Culicoides midges as vectors for virus transmission. Bluetongue virus infection of ruminants is often subclinical, but outbreaks of severe disease occur regularly at the upper and lower limits of the virus's global range, where infection is distinctly seasonal. There have been recent regional alterations in the global distribution of BTV infection, particularly in Europe. It is proposed that climate change is responsible for these events through its impact on vector midges. However, the role of anthropogenic factors in mediating emergence of BTV into new areas remains poorly defined; for example, it is not clear to what extent anthropogenic factors were responsible for the recent translocation to northern and eastern Europe of live attenuated vaccine viruses and an especially virulent strain of BTV-8 with distinctive properties. Without thorough characterisation of all environmental and anthropogenic drivers of the recent emergence of BT in northern Europe and elsewhere, it is difficult to predict what the future holds in terms of global emergence of BTV infection. Accurate and convenient

  14. Abundance and diversity of human-biting flies (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Simuliidae) around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, northwestern Russia.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, M V; Brodskaya, N K; Haarto, A; Kuusela, K; Schäfer, M; Zverev, V

    2005-12-01

    In the summers of 2001 and 2002, we quantitatively sampled human-biting flies in twelve sites located 1.6 to 63 km from a large copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. We collected 429 specimens of three species of Ceratopogonidae, 92 specimens of seven species of Culicidae, 76 specimens of seven species of Tabanidae, and 4,788 specimens of 19 species of Simuliidae. Culicoides chiropterus was for the first time reported from the Kola Peninsula. Catches of Culicidae and Simuliidae decreased near the smelter, presumably due to the combined action of toxicity of pollutants, pollution-induced forest damage, and decline in vertebrate density. An abundance of Ceratopogonidae and Tabanidae, the size of the most common black fly species, Simulium pusillum, and the diversity of all families did not change along the pollution gradient. PMID:16599161

  15. A Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus (MVA) Vaccine Expressing African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) VP2 Protects Against AHSV Challenge in an IFNAR −/− Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Casanova, Isabel; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Chiam, Rachael; Maan, Sushila; Nieto, Jose Maria; Ortego, Javier; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement

    2011-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal viral disease of equids, which is transmitted by Culicoides midges that become infected after biting a viraemic host. The use of live attenuated vaccines has been vital for the control of this disease in endemic regions. However, there are safety concerns over their use in non-endemic countries. Research efforts over the last two decades have therefore focused on developing alternative vaccines based on recombinant baculovirus or live viral vectors expressing structural components of the AHS virion. However, ethical and financial considerations, relating to the use of infected horses in high biosecurity installations, have made progress very slow. We have therefore assessed the potential of an experimental mouse-model for AHSV infection for vaccine and immunology research. We initially characterised AHSV infection in this model, then tested the protective efficacy of a recombinant vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara expressing AHS-4 VP2 (MVA-VP2). PMID:21298069

  16. Repellency of two deet formulations and Avon Skin-So-Soft against biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Magnon, G J; Robert, L L; Kline, D L; Roberts, L W

    1991-03-01

    Two U.S. military issue deet repellent formulations (75% deet liquid and 33% deet lotion) and Avon Skin-So-Soft were tested against ceratopogonid midges under field conditions in Honduras. Test subjects were U.S. military personnel deployed to Honduras for training. Culicoides furens accounted for 96.3% of all midges collected. The liquid and lotion formulations of deet and Avon Skin-So-Soft provided 97.9, 95.9 and 71.4% protection, respectively, compared with the untreated control. Both deet formulations provided significantly better protection (P less than 0.05) than Avon Skin-So-Soft. The latter provided protection by trapping the midges in the oily film and not by repelling the insects as did the deet formulations.

  17. When DNA barcoding and morphology mesh: Ceratopogonidae diversity in Finnmark, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Stur, Elisabeth; Borkent, Art

    2014-01-01

    Abstract DNA barcoding in Ceratopogonidae has been restricted to interpreting the medically and veterinary important members of Culicoides Latreille. Here the technique is utilised, together with morphological study, to interpret all members of the family in a select area. Limited sampling from the county of Finnmark in northernmost Norway indicated the presence of 54 species, including 14 likely new to science, 16 new to Norway, and one new to Europe. No species were previously recorded from this county. Only 93 species were known for all of Norway before this survey, indicating how poorly studied the group is. We evaluate and discuss morphological characters commonly used in identification of biting midges and relate species diagnoses to released DNA barcode data from 223 specimens forming 58 barcode clusters in our dataset. DNA barcodes and morphology were congruent for all species, except in three morphological species where highly divergent barcode clusters indicate the possible presence of cryptic species. PMID:25589864

  18. Impact of biting midges on residential property values in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Jay; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil G; Daniels, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides spp.) are an important environmental health issue in Hervey Bay, an area of rapid population growth in Australia. It is also the gateway to a World Heritage area (Great Sandy Strait) and a destination for tourists. The spread of housing developments into suburbs close to midge breeding habitats has led to a problem for the local government responsible for managing biting insects in its area. Suburbs with a severe biting midge problem were found to have significantly lower residential property values than less affected suburbs. The gross reduction in value in due to the midge problem was estimated to range from more than AUS dollar 25 million, based on actual sale price, to more than AUS dollar 55 million, based on the perceptions of the most severely affected residents. PMID:16646336

  19. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  20. Epidemiologic survey of Mansonella ozzardi in Corail, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Raccurt, Christian P; Brasseur, Philippe; Cicéron, Micheline; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    An epidemiologic (cross-sectional study) survey on 462 inhabitants in Corail, Haiti showed that 16.5% were infected with Mansonella ozzardi. This finding was determined from a single 20-μL sample of finger prick blood from each person. Among children, < 2% had a detectable microfilaremia. In persons > 15 years of age, the prevalence of infection for males and females was 23% and 21%, respectively. In general, the microfilaremias were low and 70% of positive persons had < 10 microfilariae per 20 μL of blood; only 5% had > 50 microfilariae. This study shows that persons living near mangrove marshes that are breeding sites for Culicoides furens and C. barbosai biting midges, which are recognized vectors of M. ozzardi in Haiti, are consequently more frequently infected than those living in downtown area of Corail or inland. PMID:24710617

  1. Epidemiologic Survey of Mansonella ozzardi in Corail, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Raccurt, Christian P.; Brasseur, Philippe; Cicéron, Micheline; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    An epidemiologic (cross-sectional study) survey on 462 inhabitants in Corail, Haiti showed that 16.5% were infected with Mansonella ozzardi. This finding was determined from a single 20-μL sample of finger prick blood from each person. Among children, < 2% had a detectable microfilaremia. In persons > 15 years of age, the prevalence of infection for males and females was 23% and 21%, respectively. In general, the microfilaremias were low and 70% of positive persons had < 10 microfilariae per 20 μL of blood; only 5% had > 50 microfilariae. This study shows that persons living near mangrove marshes that are breeding sites for Culicoides furens and C. barbosai biting midges, which are recognized vectors of M. ozzardi in Haiti, are consequently more frequently infected than those living in downtown area of Corail or inland. PMID:24710617

  2. Mosquito vector control and biology in Latin America--a second symposium.

    PubMed

    Clark, G G; Suárez, M F

    1992-09-01

    The second Spanish language symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 58th Annual Meeting in Corpus Christi, TX in March 1992. The principal objective, as it was for the 1991 symposium, was to increase and stimulate greater participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists and public health workers from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 25 individual presentations that were given in Spanish. The symposium included the following topics: biology and chemical control of Aedes aegypti and anopheline vectors of malaria; field and laboratory studies of biological control agents for Aedes aegypti; community participation in the prevention of dengue; and other various aspects of the biology of other medically important arthropods (e.g., Simulium ochraceum, Lutzomyia and Culicoides).

  3. Bluetongue virus in South America: overview of viruses, vectors, surveillance and unique features.

    PubMed

    Lager, I A

    2004-01-01

    Since the first published report of bluetongue (BT) virus (BTV) infection in South America from Brazil in 1978, serological surveys have determined that the infection is widespread in sheep, cattle, goats and water buffalo but generally without clinical signs. Only four outbreaks of BT disease have been reported so far in Brazil. Brazil and Argentina are the only countries in South America where BTV serotypes 12 and 4 have been isolated, respectively. By serology, serotypes 4, 6, 14, 17, 19 and 20 were detected in Brazil, 12, 14 and 17 in Colombia, 14 and 17 in Guyana and 6, 14 and 17 in Suriname. Culicoides insignis is the predominant vector in the area, but C. pusillus could also be a BTV vector. The virus has not yet been isolated from the vector in the region.

  4. Isolation of Bluetongue Virus 24 from India - An Exotic Serotype to Australasia.

    PubMed

    Krishnajyothi, Y; Maan, S; Kandimalla, K; Maan, N S; Tutika, R B; Reddy, Y V; Kumar, A; Mrunalini, N; Reddy, G H; Putty, K; Ahmed, S M; Reddy, Y N; Hemadri, D; Singh, K P; Mertens, P P C; Hegde, N R; Rao, P P

    2016-08-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral disease of ruminants and is caused by different serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), which is transmitted by several species of Culicoides midges. The disease is endemic in tropical areas, and incursions have been observed in some of the temperate areas. Twenty-seven recognized serotypes of BTV have been reported so far. Some serotype viruses have been shown to circulate in certain geographical areas. BTV-24 has been reported from Africa, the Mediterranean and the Americas, whereas it is exotic to Australasia. Here, we report isolation of BTV-24 from India and show that it has high sequence homology in genome segment 2 with other Western isolates of BTV-24. Entry of this serotype into Australasian region is a cause of concern. PMID:27241307

  5. Akabane virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, P D

    2015-08-01

    Akabane virus is a Culicoides-borne orthobunyavirus that is teratogenic to the fetus of cattle and small ruminant species. Depending upon the stage of gestation atwhich infection occurs, and the length of gestation of the mammalian host, a range of congenital defects may be observed. The developing central nervous system is usually the most severely affected, with hydranencephaly and arthrogryposis most frequently observed. Less commonly, some strains of Akabane virus can cause encephalitis in the neonate or, rarely, adult cattle. Akabane viruses are known to be widespread in temperate and tropical regions of Australia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and some African countries. Disease is infrequently observed in regions where this virus is endemic and the presence of the virus remains unrecognised in the absence of serological surveillance. In some Asian countries, vaccines are used to minimise the occurrence of disease. PMID:26601444

  6. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  7. Bluetongue in Spain: from the first outbreak to 2012.

    PubMed

    de Diego, A C Pérez; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2014-12-01

    Outbreaks of bluetongue disease have occurred in Spain six times and have been caused by the following serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), in chronological order: BTV10, BTV2, BTV4, BTV1 and BTV8. Serotypes BTV1, BTV2 and BTV4 may have entered the country in Culicoides transported by wind; BTV8 via infected animal movements; and BTV10 across the Portuguese border. The evolution of each serotype has been different: BTV1, BTV4 and BTV10 spread throughout mainland Spain; BTV2 did not spread from the Balearic Islands to the Iberian Peninsula; and BTV8 has proven very poor at spreading throughout mainland Spain. The significant economic impact of the disease has led authorities to adopt control and eradication measures, which have evolved as new diagnostic tools and vaccines have become available. This review describes BTV infection in Spain, and it focuses on the clinical disease produced by each serotype, the Culicoides species which were present at what time, the origin of the virus and the control measures adopted. In the field, it has proven necessary to vaccinate livestock against each new BTV serotype as it arrived. Therefore, future eradication strategies should focus on developing polyvalent vaccines and vaccines that allow the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. As of 1 January 2013, the Iberian Peninsula is considered a restricted area for BTV1, and a small zone in southern Spain is a restricted area for BTV4, which includes the little BTV8 restricted area. Serotypes BTV1 and BTV4 were detected in sentinel animals in January and November and in March 2012, respectively. The last BTV8 positive animal was detected in November 2010, which implies that in the coming months, Spain may be declared free of BTV8.

  8. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y. Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y.; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  9. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  10. Ecological study on antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic bacteria transmitted by flies in cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Asmaa N; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Abdel-Azeem, Naglaa M; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Flies were qualitatively and quantitatively monitored on both livestock animals and the surrounding environment to investigate their role as a potential carrier for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance in cattle farms. This was done by the use of visual observations and animal photography; meanwhile, in the surrounding environment, flies were collected using sticky cards and then microscopically identified. Representative fly samples were cultured for bacterial isolation, biochemical identification, and then tested against common 12 antibiotics. The total average of dipterous flies in examined farms was 400.42 ± 6.2. Culicoides biting midges were the most common existing species (70.01 %) followed by house flies, stable flies, and mosquitoes (18.31, 7.74, and 3.91 %, respectively) at X (2) = 9.0, P < 0.05. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (22.6 %), Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter (17.3 % each), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) (14.7 %), Klebsiella sp. (8 %), Salmonella spp. (6.7 %), and Shigella spp. and Proteus spp. (6.7 % each). The tested bacterial isolates were resistant to variant antibiotics used. S. aureus exhibited 100 % resistance to colistine. However, E. coli revealed 92.9 and 78.6 % resistance against tetracycline and colistine, respectively. Both Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 100 % resistant to penicillin, and Klebsiella sp. had 100 % resistance to tetracycline. In conclusion, Culicoides biting midges and house flies could be considered as a potential carrier for multi-drug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance. Furthermore, cows' environment has an essential role in propagation and wide spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  11. Evidence for transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 through direct contact.

    PubMed

    Batten, Carrie; Darpel, Karin; Henstock, Mark; Fay, Petra; Veronesi, Eva; Gubbins, Simon; Graves, Samantha; Frost, Lorraine; Oura, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms of transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 (BTV-26) in goats. A previous study, which investigated the pathogenicity and infection kinetics of BTV-26 in goats, unexpectedly revealed that one control goat may have been infected through a direct contact transmission route. To investigate the transmission mechanisms of BTV-26 in more detail an experimental infection study was carried out in which three goats were infected with BTV-26, three goats were kept uninfected, but were housed in direct contact with the infected goats, and an additional four goats were kept in indirect contact separated from infected goats by metal gates. This barrier allowed the goats to have occasional face-to-face contact in the same airspace, but feeding, watering, sampling and environmental cleaning was carried out separately. The three experimentally infected goats did not show clinical signs of BTV, however high levels of viral RNA were detected and virus was isolated from their blood. At 21 dpi viral RNA was detected in, and virus was isolated from the blood of the three direct contact goats, which also seroconverted. The four indirect barrier contact goats remained uninfected throughout the duration of the experiment. In order to assess replication in a laboratory model species of Culicoides biting midge, more than 300 Culicoides sonorensis were fed a BTV-26 spiked blood meal and incubated for 7 days. The dissemination of BTV-26 in individual C. sonorensis was inferred from the quantity of virus RNA and indicated that none of the insects processed at day 7 possessed transmissible infections. This study shows that BTV-26 is easily transmitted through direct contact transmission between goats, and the strain does not seem to replicate in C. sonorensis midges using standard incubation conditions.

  12. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  13. Ecological Drivers of Mansonella perstans Infection in Uganda and Patterns of Co-endemicity with Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Vounatsou, Penelope; Onapa, Ambrose W.; Utzinger, Jürg; Pedersen, Erling M.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mansonella perstans is a widespread, but relatively unknown human filarial parasite transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Although it is found in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, only few studies have been carried out to deepen the understanding of its ecology, epidemiology, and health consequences. Hence, knowledge about ecological drivers of the vector and parasite distribution, integral to develop spatially explicit models for disease prevention, control, and elimination strategies, is limited. Methodology We analyzed data from a comprehensive nationwide survey of M. perstans infection conducted in 76 schools across Uganda in 2000–2003, to identify environmental drivers. A suite of Bayesian geostatistical regression models was fitted, and the best fitting model based on the deviance information criterion was utilized to predict M. perstans infection risk for all of Uganda. Additionally, we investigated co-infection rates and co-distribution with Wuchereria bancrofti and Plasmodium spp. infections observed at the same survey by mapping geographically overlapping areas. Principal Findings Several bioclimatic factors were significantly associated with M. perstans infection levels. A spatial Bayesian regression model showed the best fit, with diurnal temperature range, normalized difference vegetation index, and cattle densities identified as significant covariates. This model was employed to predict M. perstans infection risk at non-sampled locations. The level of co-infection with W. bancrofti was low (0.3%), due to limited geographic overlap. However, where the two infections did overlap geographically, a positive association was found. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first geostatistical risk map for M. perstans in Uganda. We confirmed a widespread distribution of M. perstans, and identified important potential drivers of risk. The results provide new insight about the ecologic preferences of this otherwise poorly known filarial

  14. Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y

    1994-12-01

    The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They

  15. Free-living ciliates as potential reservoirs for eukaryotic parasites: occurrence of a trypanosomatid in the macronucleus of Euplotes encysticus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flagellates of the family Trypanosomatidae are obligate endoparasites, which can be found in various hosts. Several genera infect insects and occur as monoxenous parasites especially in representatives of Diptera and Hemiptera. These trypanosomatid flagellates probably share the worldwide distribution of their hosts, which are often infested by large numbers of endoparasites. Traditionally, their taxonomy was based on morphology, host origin, and life cycle. Here we report the characterization of a trypanosomatid infection detected in a protozoan, a ciliate collected from a polluted freshwater pond in a suburb of New Delhi (India). Methods Live observations and morphological studies applying light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy were conducted. Molecular analyses of host and parasite were performed and used for phylogenetic reconstructions and species (host) or genus level (parasite) identification. Results Although the morphological characteristics were not revealing, a high similarity of the trypanosomatids 18S rRNA gene sequence to Herpetomonas ztiplika and Herpetomonas trimorpha (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae), both parasites of biting midges (Culicoides kibunensis and Culicoides truncorum, respectively) allowed the assignment to this genus. The majority of the host population displayed a heavy infection that significantly affected the shape of the host macronucleus, which was the main site of parasite localization. In addition, the growth rate of host cultures, identified as Euplotes encysticus according to cell morphology and 18S rRNA gene sequence, was severely impacted by the infection. Conclusions The host-parasite system described here represents a recent example of free-living protists acting as environmental reservoirs for parasitic eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:24774858

  16. Host and Potential Vector Susceptibility to an Emerging Orbivirus in the United States: Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 6.

    PubMed

    Ruder, M G; Stallknecht, D E; Allison, A B; Mead, D G; Carter, D L; Howerth, E W

    2016-05-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDVs) are orbiviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 are endemic in the United States, where epizootic hemorrhagic disease is the most significant viral disease of white-tailed deer (WTD;Odocoileus virginianus) and reports of epizootic hemorrhagic disease in cattle are increasing. In 2006, a reassortant EHDV-6 was isolated from dead WTD in Indiana and has been detected each subsequent year over a wide geographic region. Since EHDV-6 is not a historically endemic serotype in the United States, it is important to understand infection outcome in potential hosts. Specifically, we aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of the virus in 2 primary US ruminant hosts (WTD and cattle) and the susceptibility of a confirmed US vector (Culicoides sonorensis). Five WTD and 4 cattle were inoculated with >10(6)TCID50EHDV-6 by intradermal and subcutaneous injection. All 5 WTD exhibited moderate to severe disease, and 3 died. Viremia was first detected 3 to 5 days postinfection (dpi) with surviving animals seroconverting by 10 dpi. Two of 4 inoculated cattle had detectable viremia, 5 to 10 dpi and 7 to 24 dpi, respectively. No clinical, hematologic, or pathologic abnormalities were observed. Antibodies were detected by 10 dpi in 3 of 4 cows.C. sonorensis were fed on WTD blood spiked with EHDV-6 and held for 4 to 14 days postfeeding at 25°C. From 4 to 14 days postfeeding, 19 of 171 midges were virus isolation positive and 6 of 171 had ≥10(2.7)TCID50EHDV-6. Although outcomes varied, these studies demonstrate the susceptibility of ruminant and vector hosts in the United States for this recently emerged EHDV serotype. PMID:26459518

  17. Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: A FRESH Start to Enhancing the Quality and Equity of Education. World Education Forum 2000. Final Report = Accorder la priorite a un programme efficace de sante scolaire: Une maniere FRAICHE (FRESH) d'aneliorer la qualite et d'accroitre l'equite dans le domaine de l'education. Forum mondial 2000 sur l'education. Rapport final = Recursos efectivos en salud escolar: Un enfogue NUEVO para mejorar la calidad y la equidad educativa. Foro Mundial par la educacion 2000. Informe final.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This booklet, written in English, Spanish, and French, describes the foundation and reasoning behind the partnership to Focus on Resources on Effective School Health (FRESH), making the case that an effective school health program: responds to the greater number of school-age children and the greater proportion of those children attending school;…

  18. Base Lunar Alpha

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tu misión: Recuperar los sistemas críticos cuando un meteoro daña los equipos de supervivencia de tu ambiente lunar. Parece una película de ciencia ficción, ¿verdad? En realidad, es el nuevo juego ...

  19. Multiculturalism and the Community College: A Case Study of an Immigrant Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Robert A.; Solorzano, Sylvia

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the goals and effectiveness of the Nuevos Horizontes program at Chicago's Triton College, an outreach effort to provide educational opportunities to Triton's diverse communities. Cites the general success of the program, suggesting that the two-way exchange between the college and communities served provides a model for multiculturalism…

  20. Multiculturalism and the Community College: A Case Study of an Immigrant Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Robert A.

    To gather data on the goals and effectiveness of a postsecondary program organized from the perspective of multiculturalism, a case study was conducted of Nuevos Horizontes (NH), an immigrant education program at Triton College, in Illinois. NH is designed to facilitate access to higher education for Hispanics and other minority students; provide…

  1. Pairing K-12 Teachers with Geographic Researchers: Why It Should Take Place and How It Can.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orvis, Kenneth H.; Horn, Sally P.; Jumper, Sidney R.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that excitement can be infused into the K-12 geography curriculum by involving teachers in real research projects led by professional geographers. Describes a project where K-12 teachers and geographers participated in geography field research in the mountain highlands of the Valle Nuevo Scientific Reserve of the Dominican Republic. (CMK)

  2. Environmental Learning in Adolescents from a Mexican Community Involved in Forestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, I.; Barraza, L.

    2006-01-01

    Education can generate knowledge and foster a change in attitude provided that people feel individually and collectively responsible for the state of the environment. San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro is an internationally recognised indigenous community located in western Mexico that manages its forest sustainably through a community-based forest…

  3. CLAVE: Revista Especializada de ASOVELE (Asociacion Venezolana para la Ensenanza de la Lengua), 1997-1998 (CLAVE: Specialized Magazine of ASOVELE [Venezuelan Association for Language Teaching], 1997-1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon, Adolfo, Ed.; Serron, Sergio, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    These two issues of the journal "CLAVE" contain these articles in Spanish with one article in English: "La ensenanza de la lingua materna" (Pablo Arnaez); "Saben resumir los alumnos universitarios de nuevo ingreso?" (Marisol Garcia); "El desempeno en la escritura de cartas argumentativas y cuentos en alumnos de octavo grado" (Yolanda Perez, Maria…

  4. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012, es una actualización de los índices de casos nuevos, muertes y tendencias de los cánceres más comunes en los Estados Unidos.

  5. Pruebas de BRCA en pacientes jóvenes con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Pruebas de mutaciones genéticas fuertemente asociadas con un mayor riesgo de cáncer de seno han aumentado dramáticamente entre mujeres menores de 40 años diagnosticadas con la enfermedad, según un nuevo estudio.

  6. An Enrichment Program for Migrant Students: MENTE/UOP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Michael B.

    The report describes the objectives and accomplishments of a summer enrichment program, Migrantes Envueltos en Nuevos Temas de Educacion/Migrants Engaged in New Themes in Education (MENTE), for promising and talented migrant high schoolers. The program is a cooperative one with a university. Students selected by a review committee are tested for…

  7. Faltar a sesiones de radioterapia aumenta el riesgo de que regrese el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Pacientes que faltan a sesiones de radioterapia durante el tratamiento del cáncer tienen un riesgo mayor de que regrese su enfermedad, aun cuando eventualmente completen su plan de tratamiento con radiación, según un nuevo estudio.

  8. Neuropatía persistente aumenta el riesgo de caídas entre supervivientes de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas mujeres supervivientes de cáncer tienen problemas de movilidad y de otras funciones físicas como resultado de la neuropatía periférica persistente causada por el tratamiento de quimioterapia, según un estudio nuevo.

  9. Educational Discourse in Spain during the Early Franco Regime (1936-1943): Toward a Genealogy of Doctrine and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laudo, Xavier; Vilanou, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    In this article an analysis is undertaken of Spanish educational discourse during the early years of the Franco regime, from the Civil War (1936-1939) to the establishment of the "Nuevo Estado" or New State (1939-1943), employing Reinhart Koselleck's principles of conceptual history. Without totally spurning the totalitarian and fascist…

  10. Digital Portfolios: Documenting Student Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The digital portfolio process at Camino Nuevo High School (CNHS) offers an essential 21st century skill to students. All students are trained in basic web design to build and maintain their digital portfolios. These skills equip them with tools they will likely use in their future endeavors in college and the professional world. Teachers at CNHS…

  11. Adolescentes que no habrían fumado pueden ser atraídos por los cigarrillos electrónicos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y relatos sobre un estudio reciente que sugiere que los adolescentes están usando cigarrillos electrónicos no solo como sustituto de cigarrillos convencionales sino cigarrillos electrónicos están atrayendo nuevos usuarios de tabaco

  12. An Entrepreneurial Learning Exercise as a Pedagogical Tool for Teaching CSR: A Peruvian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Vanina A.; Prialé, María Angela; Fuchs, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory cross-sectional study of the value of an entrepreneurial learning exercise as a tool for examining the entrepreneurship dimension of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The study used grounded theory to analyse diaries kept by graduate (MBA) students during the "20 Nuevos Soles Project". From the…

  13. Seafloor Rocks and Sediments of the Continental Shelf From Monterey Bay to Point Sur, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, Stephen L.; Anima, Roberto J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Wong, Florence L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Acoustic swath mapping of the greater Monterey Bay area continental shelf from Point Ano Nuevo to Point Sur reveals complex patterns of rock outcrops on the shelf, and coarse sand bodies that occur in distinct depressions on the inner and mid-shelves. This publication portrays the seafloor components in a 36- by 48-inch map sheet at 1:100,000 scale.

  14. Estudio de NIH señala que la sigmoidoscopia reduce los índices de cáncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Estudio señala que la sigmoidoscopia flexible es efectiva para reducir los índices de casos nuevos y de muertes por cáncer colorrectal. Los investigadores encontraron que la mortalidad general por cáncer colorrectal se redujo 26% y que la incidencia se re

  15. No boundaries. Texas' Christus Health bucks trend by looking to Mexico for expansion.

    PubMed

    Jaklevic, M C

    2001-08-01

    Christus Health has bucked the trend by looking to Mexico for expansion. The Roman Catholic system based in Irving, Texas, bought 51% of Hospital Muquerza in the prosperous northern Mexico state of Nuevo Leon. Christus believes the move makes sense on many levels.

  16. La Importancia de la Entrada, Descenso y Aterrizaje

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la Oficina de Exploración de Marte de la NASA, y conozca todas la nuevas tecnologías desarrolladas dentro del nuevo Laboratorio Científico ...

  17. Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Nora H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

  18. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  19. Are Adolescents from a Forest Community Well-Informed about Forest Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The indigenous community of San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro in Mexico has been engaged in a successful Community Forest Enterprise employing sustainable management practices since 1981. These environmental practices do not seem to be reflected in the educational programmes developed at school. In this study, the environmental knowledge and interest…

  20. Concepto de ingeniería del Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El robot más grande y "más malo", y más nuevo para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte. Tiene el tamaño de un vehículo utilitario deportivo y está provisto de 10 instrumentos, nunca antes h...

  1. Rene Saldana's "The Jumping Tree": Exploring Childhood Universals through a Hispanic Novel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Beatrice Mendez

    2006-01-01

    In "The Jumping Tree", set in Nuevo Penitas, an actual South Texas town, 12-year-old Rey Castaneda recounts landmark events in his journey toward becoming a man. Rey's stories of his childhood escapades, adventures, and everyday experiences could be anyone's childhood stories. When readers have finished the last page, they have relived the…

  2. Monitoring bird population trends in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Bystrak, D.; Geissler, P.H.; Purroy, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Se ofrece un nuevo metodo para computar las oscilaciones demograficas de las aves a lo largo de los anos. Con los datos suministrados por el proyecto 'Aves nidificantes en Norteamerica' , se indican en la Tabla 1 las pautas de cambio numerico de una serie seleccionada de aves holarticas.

  3. Hacer frente - Supervivencia

    Cancer.gov

    Muchos supervivientes de cáncer dicen que cuando terminó el tratamiento, fue difícil ajustarse a una nueva forma de vida. Entérese de cómo ajustarse a nuevos sentimientos y problemas que aparecen después del tratamiento del cáncer.

  4. 27 CFR 9.75 - Central Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., scale 1:24,000, dated 1961, Photoinspected 1978, Photorevised 1968; (33) Pigeon Point, California, scale..., Año Nuevo, Franklin Point, Pigeon Point, San Gregorio, Half Moon Bay, Montara Mountain and San... Santa Cruz Mountains viticultural area are described in 27 CFR § 9.31.) (1) The beginning point is...

  5. 78 FR 48855 - Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Mexico November 18-23, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    .... Ranked by the OECD as the most productive state in Mexico, Nuevo Le n offers a business climate very open... International Trade Administration Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Mexico November 18... Development Mission to Mexico from November 18-23, 2013. This business development mission will promote...

  6. 78 FR 21603 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Santiago Clariond Reyes and Alejandra Rangel Hinojosa both of Nuevo Leon, Mexico; ETH Trigo Holding, S.A... Mexico City, Mexico; MBI Holding, LP, Mexico City, Mexico and Fernando Gerardo Chico Pardo, Mexico City..., Elias Abadi Cherem, all of Mexico City, Mexico; Tenedora FAMVA, S.A. de C.V., Fernando Manuel del...

  7. Atención médica más importante que la biolo

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices más altos de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal que experimentan los afroamericanos pueden deberse principalmente a las diferencias en la utilización de servicios médicos y en menor proporción a la biología, según un nuevo estudio

  8. Generation of equine TSLP-specific antibodies and their use for detection of TSLP produced by equine keratinocytes and leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Janda, Jozef; Plattet, Philippe; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjörg; Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Marti, Eliane

    2012-06-30

    Culicoides extract. Similarly, increased TSLP concentrations were detected in PBL after stimulation with ConA, Culicoides extract, or IgE cross-linking. In conclusion, recombinant TSLP proteins and TSLP-specific antibodies produced in this study will allow further studies of the role of TSLP in equine allergic diseases. PMID:22560725

  9. Serosurveillance of Schmallenberg virus in Switzerland using bulk tank milk samples.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Sandra; Vögtlin, Andrea; Thür, Barbara; Büchi, Martina; Abril, Carlos; Houmard, Matthias; Danuser, Jürg; Schwermer, Heinzpeter

    2014-10-15

    Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel Orthobunyavirus transmitted by biting midges, can cause abortions and malformations of newborns and severe symptoms in adults of domestic and wild ruminants. Understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of the virus in a certain territory is important for the control and prevention of the disease. In this study, seroprevalence of antibodies against SBV and the spatial spread of the virus was investigated in Swiss dairy cattle applying a milk serology technique on bulk milk samples. The seroprevalence in cattle herds was significantly higher in December 2012 (99.5%) compared to July 2012 (19.7%). This high between-herd seroprevalence in cattle herds was observed shortly after the first detection of viral infections. Milk samples originating from farms with seropositive animals taken in December 2012 (n=209; mean 160%) revealed significantly higher S/P% ratios than samples collected in July 2012 (n=48; mean 103.6%). This finding suggests a high within-herd seroprevalence in infected herds which makes testing of bulk tank milk samples for the identification farms with past exposures to SBV a sensitive method. It suggests also that within-herd transmission followed by seroconversion still occurred between July and December. In July 2012, positive bulk tank milk samples were mainly restricted to the western part of Switzerland whereas in December 2012, all samples except one were positive. A spatial analysis revealed a separation of regions with and without positive farms in July 2012 and no spatial clustering within the regions with positive farms. In contrast to the spatial dispersion of bluetongue virus, a virus that is also transmitted by Culicoides midges, in 2008 in Switzerland, the spread of SBV occurred from the western to the eastern part of the country. The dispersed incursion of SBV took place in the western part of Switzerland and the virus spread rapidly to the remaining territory. This spatial

  10. Risk of introducing African horse sickness virus into the Netherlands by international equine movements.

    PubMed

    de Vos, C J; Hoek, C A; Nodelijk, G

    2012-09-15

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vector-borne viral disease of equines that is transmitted by Culicoides spp. and can have severe consequences for the horse industry in affected territories. A study was performed to assess the risk of introducing AHS virus (AHSV) into the Netherlands (P_AHS) by international equine movements. The goal of this study was to provide more insight into (a) the regions and equine species that contribute most to this risk, (b) the seasonal variation in this risk, and (c) the effectiveness of measures to prevent introduction of AHSV. Countries worldwide were grouped into three risk regions: (1) high risk, i.e., those countries in which the virus is presumed to circulate, (2) low risk, i.e., those countries that have experienced outbreaks of AHS in the past and/or where the main vector of AHS, Culicoides imicola, is present, and (3) very low risk, i.e., all other countries. A risk model was constructed estimating P_AHS taking into account the probability of release of AHSV in the Netherlands and the probability that local vectors will subsequently transmit the virus to local hosts. Model calculations indicated that P_AHS is very low with a median value of 5.1×10(-4)/year. The risk is highest in July and August, while equine movements in the period October till March pose a negligible risk. High and low risk regions contribute most to P_AHS with 31% and 53%, respectively. Importations of donkeys and zebras constitute the highest risk of AHSV release from high risk regions, while international movements of competition horses constitute the highest risk of AHSV release from low and very low risk regions. Preventive measures currently applied reduce P_AHS by 46% if compared to a situation in which no preventive measures are applied. A prolonged and more effective quarantine period in high risk regions and more stringent import regulations for low risk regions could further reduce P_AHS. Large uncertainty was involved in estimating model input

  11. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  12. Identification of human-derived volatile chemicals that interfere with attraction of the Scottish biting midge and their potential use as repellents.

    PubMed

    Logan, James G; Seal, Nicola J; Cook, James I; Stanczyk, Nina M; Birkett, Michael A; Clark, Suzanne J; Gezan, Salvador A; Wadhams, Lester J; Pickett, John A; Mordue, A Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), is a major pest in Scotland, causing a significant impact to the Scottish tourist and forestry industries. C. impunctatus is a generalist feeder, preferring to feed on large mammals, and is notorious for its attacks on humans. Until now, there was anecdotal evidence for differential attraction of female host-seeking C. impunctatus to individual human hosts, and the mechanism for this phenomenon was unknown. Using extracts of human odor collected by air entrainment, electroantennogram recordings to identify the physiologically active components, followed by behavioral assays, we show, for the first time, the differential attraction of female C. impunctatus to human odors and the chemical basis for this phenomenon. Certain chemicals, found in greater amounts in extracts that cause low attractiveness to midges, elicit a repellent effect in laboratory assays and repellency trials in the field. Differences in the production of these natural human-derived compounds could help to explain differential "attractiveness" between different human hosts. A mixture of two compounds in particular, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and geranylacetone [(E)-6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-one], showed significant repellency (87, 77.4, 74.2, and 31.6% at hours 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively) in the field and have the potential to be developed as novel repellents. PMID:19351071

  13. The use of discriminant analysis in predicting the distribution of bluetongue virus in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P

    1994-01-01

    The climatic variables that were most useful in classifying the infection status of Queensland cattle herds with bluetongue virus were assessed using stepwise linear discriminant analysis. A discriminant function that included average annual rainfall and average daily maximum temperature was found to correctly classify 82.6% of uninfected herds and 72.4% of infected herds. Overall, the infection status of 74.1% of herds was correctly classified. The spatial distribution of infected herds was found to parallel that of the suspected vector, Culicoides brevitarsis. This evidence supports the role of this arthropod species as a vector of bluetongue viruses in Queensland. The effect of potential changes in temperature and rainfall (the so-called 'global warming' scenario) on the distribution of bluetongue virus infection of cattle herds in Queensland was then investigated. With an increase in both rainfall and temperature, the area of endemic bluetongue virus infection was predicted to extend a further 150 km in and in southern Queensland. The implications of this for sheep-raising in Queensland are discussed.

  14. Climate Change Influences on the Global Potential Distribution of Bluetongue Virus.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; Peterson, A Townsend

    2016-01-01

    The geographic distribution of arboviruses has received considerable attention after several dramatic emergence events around the world. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is classified among category "A" diseases notifiable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE), and is transmitted among ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. Here, we developed a comprehensive occurrence data set to map the current distribution, estimate the ecological niche, and explore the future potential distribution of BTV globally using ecological niche modeling and based on diverse future climate scenarios from general circulation models (GCMs) for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The broad ecological niche and potential geographic distribution of BTV under present-day conditions reflected the disease's current distribution across the world in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. All model predictions were significantly better than random expectations. As a further evaluation of model robustness, we compared our model predictions to 331 independent records from most recent outbreaks from the Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases Information System (EMPRES-i); all were successfully anticipated by the BTV model. Finally, we tested ecological niche similarity among possible vectors and BTV, and could not reject hypotheses of niche similarity. Under future-climate conditions, the potential distribution of BTV was predicted to broaden, especially in central Africa, United States, and western Russia.

  15. Screening of oomycete fungi for their potential role in reducing the biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) larval populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Kirsty; Kurtböke, D Ipek

    2011-05-01

    Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region.

  16. Schmallenberg virus in Germany 2011-2014: searching for the vectors.

    PubMed

    Kameke, Daniela; Werner, Doreen; Hoffmann, Bernd; Lutz, Walburga; Kampen, Helge

    2016-02-01

    Following the emergence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in 2011, 21,397 culicoid biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from targeted and non-targeted sampling activities carried out during the summer months of 2011 to 2013 and in late 2014 in various regions in Germany were analyzed for the virus by real-time RT-PCR. While no SBV was found in biting midges collected during 2011 and 2013, 2 out of 334 pools including 20 and 22 non-engorged females of the Obsoletus complex sampled in 2012 tested positive for the SBV S-segment with C(t) values of 42.46 and 35.45. In addition, 673 black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) captured during the same studies were screened for the presence of SBV and proved negative. In late autumn 2014, biting midges were collected again in a limited study in eastern Germany after some cases of SBV infection had occurred in a quarantine station for cattle. Due to the unfavorable seasonal weather conditions, only few specimens were caught, and these were also negative for SBV. The German experience suggests that biting midge collections launched only after an outbreak and are not locally targeted may be ineffective as to virus detection. It rather might be advisable to collect biting midges at sentinel farms on a permanent basis so to have material available to be examined in the case of a disease outbreak.

  17. Where are the horses? With the sheep or cows? Uncertain host location, vector-feeding preferences and the risk of African horse sickness transmission in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Robin, Charlotte A.; Newton, J. Richard; Gubbins, Simon; Wood, James L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, provides an insightful example because: (i) the patterns of risk are expected to be influenced by the presence of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts (cattle and sheep) and (ii) incomplete information on the spatial distribution of horses is available because the GB National Equine Database records owner, rather than horse, locations. Here, we combine land-use data with available horse owner distributions and, using a Bayesian approach, infer a realistic distribution for the location of horses. We estimate the risk of an outbreak of AHS in GB, using the basic reproduction number (R0), and demonstrate that mapping owner addresses as a proxy for horse location significantly underestimates the risk. We clarify the role of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts by showing that the risk of disease in the presence of many hosts (susceptible and non-susceptible) can be ultimately reduced to two fundamental factors: first, the abundance of vectors and how this depends on host density, and, second, the differential feeding preference of vectors among animal species. PMID:23594817

  18. The Most Likely Time and Place of Introduction of BTV8 into Belgian Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Saegerman, Claude; Mellor, Philip; Uyttenhoef, Aude; Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Haubruge, Eric; Delcroix, Pierre; Houtain, Jean-Yves; Pourquier, Philippe; Vandenbussche, Frank; Verheyden, Bart; De Clercq, Kris; Czaplicki, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Background In northern Europe, bluetongue (BT) caused by the BT virus (BTV), serotype 8, was first notified in August 2006 and numerous ruminant herds were affected in 2007 and 2008. However, the origin and the time and place of the original introduction have not yet been determined. Methods and Principal Findings Four retrospective epidemiological surveys have been performed to enable determination of the initial spatiotemporal occurrence of this emerging disease in southern Belgium: investigations of the first recorded outbreaks near to the disease epicenter; a large anonymous, random postal survey of cattle herds and sheep flocks; a random historical milk tank survey of samples tested with an indirect ELISA and a follow-up survey of non-specific health indicators. The original introduction of BTV into the region probably occurred during spring 2006 near to the National Park of Hautes Fagnes and Eifel when Culicoides become active. Conclusions/Significance The determination of the most likely time and place of introduction of BTV8 into a country is of paramount importance to enhance awareness and understanding and, to improve modeling of vector-borne emerging infectious diseases. PMID:20195379

  19. Evaluation of a diagnostic ELISA for insect bite hypersensitivity in horses using recombinant Obsoletus complex allergens.

    PubMed

    van der Meide, Nathalie M A; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Meulenbroeks, Chantal; Ducro, Bart J; Tijhaar, Edwin

    2014-04-01

    Culicoides spp. of the Obsoletus complex belong to the most important species of midge, involved in causing insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses in The Netherlands. The aim of the current study was to evaluate seven different Obsoletus complex-derived recombinant allergens (Cul o 1-Cul o 7) and to compare these with Obsoletus complex whole body extract (WBE) in an IgE ELISA, using sera of 194 clinically-confirmed cases of IBH and 175 unaffected horses. The highest test accuracy was obtained with WBE, followed by Cul o 2, 3 and 5. Two ELISAs with a combination of recombinant allergens, Combi-1 (Cul o 3, 5 and 7) and Combi-2 (Cul o 1, 2, 5 and 7) were additionally performed and both resulted in high test accuracies close to that obtained with WBE. Combi-1 resulted in the best sensitivity and specificity, both 89%. Both Combi-1 and Combi-2 performed less well with samples collected in winter, but over 70% of the IBH-affected horses could still be identified. In conclusion, a combination of three Obsoletus complex recombinant allergens (Cul o 3, 5 and 7) could potentially replace Obsoletus complex WBE in an IgE ELISA for diagnosis of IBH in horses.

  20. Bluetongue virus in Oryx antelope (Oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bosnić, Sanja; Beck, Relja; Listeš, Eddy; Lojkić, Ivana; Savini, Giovanni; Roić, Besi

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral infectious non‑contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Insect species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) to susceptible hosts. The infection is present in the Mediterranean region. Recently, it has also been reported in Central, Western, and Northern Europe where BTV‑8 was recognised as the causative serotype. In the meantime, BTV‑14 has appeared in the North‑Eastern part of Europe. In the present study, BTV serotype 16 (BTV‑16) was detected by virus neutralisation (VNT)‑assay and real‑time reverse transcription‑PCR (rRT‑PCR) in 1 antelope and BTV‑1 in 3 of 10 Oryx antelopes (Oryx leucoryx) imported in Croatia from the Sultanate of Oman. No BTV vectors were collected during the antelope quarantine on the Veliki Brijun Island. Also, no BTV antibodies were detected in sheep, cattle, and deer on the Island. Entomological studies did not reveal any new vector species that may have been introduced with the infected antelopes on their transportation. It was the first time that BTV was demonstrated in animals imported in Croatia. It involved BTV‑1, which had never been demonstrated before and BTV‑16, which had been previously recorded in domestic ruminants.

  1. Comparing the effect of modeled climatic variables on the distribution of African horse sickness in South Africa and Namibia.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Danica; van Hamburg, Huib; Piketh, Stuart; Burger, Roelof

    2015-12-01

    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal disease of horses with a seasonal occurrence that is influenced by environmental conditions that favor the development of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). This study compared and evaluated the relationship of various modeled climatic variables with the distribution and abundance of AHS in South Africa and Namibia. A comprehensive literature review of the historical AHS reported data collected from the Windhoek archives as well as annual reports from the Directorate of Veterinary services in Namibia were conducted. South African AHS reported data were collected from the South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. Daily climatic data were extracted for the time period 1993-2011 from the ERA-interim re-analysis dataset. The principal component analysis of the complete dataset indicated a significant statistical difference between Namibia and South Africa for the various climate variables and the outbreaks of AHS. The most influential parameters in the distribution of AHS included humidity, precipitation, evaporation, and minimum temperature. In South Africa, temperature had the most significant effect on the outbreaks of AHS, whereas in Namibia, humidity and precipitation were the main drivers. The maximum AHS cases in South Africa occurred at temperatures of 20-22° C and relative humidity between 50-70%. Furthermore, anthropogenic effects must be taken into account when trying to understand the distribution of AHS.

  2. Generation of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Encoding VP2, NS1, and VP7 Proteins of Bluetongue Virus.

    PubMed

    Marín-López, Alejandro; Ortego, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) is employed widely as an experimental vaccine vector for its lack of replication in mammalian cells and high expression level of foreign/heterologous genes. Recombinant MVAs (rMVAs) are used as platforms for protein production as well as vectors to generate vaccines against a high number of infectious diseases and other pathologies. The portrait of the virus combines desirable elements such as high-level biological safety, the ability to activate appropriate innate immune mediators upon vaccination, and the capacity to deliver substantial amounts of heterologous antigens. Recombinant MVAs encoding proteins of bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus that infects domestic and wild ruminants transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species, are excellent vaccine candidates against this virus. In this chapter we describe the methods for the generation of rMVAs encoding VP2, NS1, and VP7 proteins of bluetongue virus as a model example for orbiviruses. The protocols included cover the cloning of VP2, NS1, and VP7 BTV-4 genes in a transfer plasmid, the construction of recombinant MVAs, the titration of virus working stocks and the protein expression analysis by immunofluorescence and radiolabeling of rMVA infected cells as well as virus purification.

  3. Schmallenberg disease in sheep or goats: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Lievaart-Peterson, K; Luttikholt, S; Peperkamp, K; Van den Brom, R; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Schmallenberg disease has emerged in North-Western Europe in 2011 and has since spread widely, even across the European borders. It has the potency to infect many, mainly ruminant, species, but seems to lack zoonotic potential. Horizontal transmission occurs through various Culicoides biting midges and subsequent trans-placental transmission causes teratogenic effects. In some small ruminants, clinical signs, including fever, decreased milk production and diarrhea occur during the viraemic phase, but infection is mostly asymptomatic. However, fetal Schmallenberg virus infection in naïve ewes and goats can result in stillborn offspring, showing a congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome. The economic impact of infection depends on the number of malformed lambs, but is generally limited. There is debate on whether Schmallenberg virus has newly emerged or is re-emerging, since it is likely one of the ancestors of Shamonda virus, both Orthobunyaviruses belonging to the species Sathuperi virus within the Simbu serogroup viruses. Depending on the vector-borne transmission and the serologic status, future outbreaks of Schmallenberg disease induced congenital disease are expected.

  4. Climate Change Influences on the Global Potential Distribution of Bluetongue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah M.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2016-01-01

    The geographic distribution of arboviruses has received considerable attention after several dramatic emergence events around the world. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is classified among category “A” diseases notifiable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE), and is transmitted among ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. Here, we developed a comprehensive occurrence data set to map the current distribution, estimate the ecological niche, and explore the future potential distribution of BTV globally using ecological niche modeling and based on diverse future climate scenarios from general circulation models (GCMs) for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The broad ecological niche and potential geographic distribution of BTV under present-day conditions reflected the disease’s current distribution across the world in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. All model predictions were significantly better than random expectations. As a further evaluation of model robustness, we compared our model predictions to 331 independent records from most recent outbreaks from the Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases Information System (EMPRES-i); all were successfully anticipated by the BTV model. Finally, we tested ecological niche similarity among possible vectors and BTV, and could not reject hypotheses of niche similarity. Under future-climate conditions, the potential distribution of BTV was predicted to broaden, especially in central Africa, United States, and western Russia. PMID:26959424

  5. Disease prevention and anti-vector campaigns: insects.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen, J

    2015-04-01

    Control of insect vector populations is an integral part of disease management but has many challenges. Area-wide campaigns, mainly based on insecticide administration, are most effective for control of insect populations, whereas disease prevention is more localised and protects a smaller number of animals against insect vector contact. Various control and prevention techniques are available for use against most insectvectors and are illustrated here by focusing on two important insect groups: biting midges and tsetse flies. Biting midges (Culicoides) present a major threat and challenge to disease and vector control because of limited large-scale control options and the huge population sizes and wide distribution of these insects. Localised disease prevention forms the basis for control, and there is a need for better understanding of the ecology and biology of these insects in order to develop large-scale control techniques. The necessary techniques to effectively control tsetse flies (Glossina) and trypanosomosis exist for both localised and area-wide control. The development of a new, cost-efficient device has had a significant impact in the control of both human and animal trypanosomosis. This is especially relevant in Uganda, where the movement of livestock for trading purposes is implicated in disease distribution and poses an immediate health threat where the two forms of the disease overlap. Although many successes have been achieved, continued research and development is needed to keep abreast of the multitude of challenges in insect vector control.

  6. Bluetongue: a historical and epidemiological perspective with the emphasis on South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious, infectious, arthropod transmitted viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype member of the Orbivirus genus in the family Reoviridae. Bluetongue was first described in South Africa, where it has probably been endemic in wild ruminants since antiquity. Since its discovery BT has had a major impact on sheep breeders in the country and has therefore been a key focus of research at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute in Pretoria, South Africa. Several key discoveries were made at this Institute, including the demonstration that the aetiological agent of BT was a dsRNA virus that is transmitted by Culicoides midges and that multiple BTV serotypes circulate in nature. It is currently recognized that BT is endemic throughout most of South Africa and 22 of the 26 known serotypes have been detected in the region. Multiple serotypes circulate each vector season with the occurrence of different serotypes depending largely on herd-immunity. Indigenous sheep breeds, cattle and wild ruminants are frequently infected but rarely demonstrate clinical signs, whereas improved European sheep breeds are most susceptible. The immunization of susceptible sheep remains the most effective and practical control measure against BT. In order to protect sheep against multiple circulating serotypes, three pentavalent attenuated vaccines have been developed. Despite the proven efficacy of these vaccines in protecting sheep against the disease, several disadvantages are associated with their use in the field. PMID:22973992

  7. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Martín García Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ronderos, María M; Marino, Pablo I; Díaz, Florentina; Estévez, Ana L

    2011-09-01

    Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. PMID:22017124

  8. Effects of aerial applications of naled on nontarget insects at Parris Island, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, M S; de Szalay, F A

    2010-04-01

    Testing impacts of large-scale aerial spraying to control public health pests under realistic field conditions are needed to understand impacts on natural populations of nontarget insects. Responses of terrestrial insects to aerial applications of an organophosphate insecticide, naled, used for mosquito and biting midge control were studied on Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC. Aerial applications were made with C-130 aircraft at dusk in 2003 and in 2005. In 2003, we sampled two locations on Parris Island with Malaise traps before and after spraying, and used Before-After analyses to examine changes in terrestrial insect diversity and abundance. In 2005, we sampled insects with yellow pan traps at three locations on Parris Island and at an untreated control site. A Before-After Control-Impact analysis at each location was conducted to compare changes. In 2003, numbers of four of 12 common taxa (Dolichopodidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Tachinidae) were lower after sprays. However, there were no significant changes in numbers of common taxa or total numbers in 2005. Shannon diversities (H') were not different in either year indicating that sprays had minimal impact on overall community biodiversity. In contrast, populations of pestiferous biting midges (Culicoides spp.) collected in CDC-style traps were reduced by 94-99% after spraying in both years; mosquito numbers declined by 88.2% in 2003 and 92.5% in 2005, after sprays. PMID:20388292

  9. Impact of temperature, feeding preference and vaccination on Schmallenberg virus transmission in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Bessell, Paul R; Auty, Harriet K; Searle, Kate R; Handel, Ian G; Purse, Bethan V; de C Bronsvoort, B Mark

    2014-07-18

    First identified in 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is principally transmitted by Culicoides midges and affects ruminants. Clinical presentation is typified by foetal abnormalities, but despite very high infection rates, relatively few animals present with clinical signs. In this paper we further develop a previously published stochastic mathematical model of SBV spread to investigate the optimal deployment of a vaccine for SBV in Scotland, a country that has experienced only sporadic and isolated cases of SBV. We consider the use of the vaccine under different temperatures and explore the effects of a vector preference for feeding on cattle. We demonstrate that vaccine impact is optimised by targeting it at the high risk areas in the south of Scotland, or vaccinating only cattle. At higher than average temperatures, and hence increased transmission potential, the relative impact of vaccination is considerably enhanced. Vaccine impact is also enhanced if vectors feed preferentially on cattle. These findings are of considerable importance when planning control strategies for SBV and also have important implications for management of other arboviruses such as Bluetongue virus. Environmental determinants and feeding preferences should be researched further to inform development of effective control strategies.

  10. Using remote sensing and machine learning for the spatial modelling of a bluetongue virus vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van doninck, J.; Peters, J.; De Baets, B.; Ducheyne, E.; Verhoest, N. E. C.

    2012-04-01

    Bluetongue is a viral vector-borne disease transmitted between hosts, mostly cattle and small ruminants, by some species of Culicoides midges. Within the Mediterranean basin, C. imicola is the main vector of the bluetongue virus. The spatial distribution of this species is limited by a number of environmental factors, including temperature, soil properties and land cover. The identification of zones at risk of bluetongue outbreaks thus requires detailed information on these environmental factors, as well as appropriate epidemiological modelling techniques. We here give an overview of the environmental factors assumed to be constraining the spatial distribution of C. imicola, as identified in different studies. Subsequently, remote sensing products that can be used as proxies for these environmental constraints are presented. Remote sensing data are then used together with species occurrence data from the Spanish Bluetongue National Surveillance Programme to calibrate a supervised learning model, based on Random Forests, to model the probability of occurrence of the C. imicola midge. The model will then be applied for a pixel-based prediction over the Iberian peninsula using remote sensing products for habitat characterization.

  11. Characteristics of Wind-Infective Farms of the 2006 Bluetongue Serotype 8 Epidemic in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Luigi; Morley, David; Brown, Heidi E

    2015-09-01

    Bluetongue is a Culicoides-borne viral disease of livestock. In 2006, northern Europe experienced a major outbreak of this disease with devastating effects on the livestock industry. The outbreak quickly spread over the region, primarily affecting cattle and sheep. A previous analysis of the role of vector flight and wind in the spread of this virus across northern Europe indicated that infection at 1,326 (65%) of the reported infected farms could be traced back to just 599 (29%) farms (wind-infective farms). Rather than focusing on presence or absence of vectors or difference between infected and non-infected farms, we investigate the zoological and environmental characteristics of these 599 wind-infective farms (which can be thought of as super-spreaders) in order to characterize what makes them distinct from non-infective farms. Differences in temperature, precipitation, and the density of sheep at individual farms were identified between these two groups. These environmental and zoological factors are known to affect vector abundance and may have promoted bluetongue virus transmission. Identifying such ecological differences can help in the description and quantification of relative risk in affected areas.

  12. Experimental infection of small ruminants with bluetongue virus expressing Toggenburg Orbivirus proteins.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Piet A; van de Water, Sandra G P; Maris-Veldhuis, Mieke A; van Gennip, René G P

    2016-08-30

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype orbivirus (Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus) consisting of more than 24 recognized serotypes or neutralization groups. Recently, new BTV serotypes in goats have been found; serotype 25 (Toggenburg Orbivirusor TOV), serotype 26 (KUW2010/02), and serotype 27 from Corsica, France. KUW2010/02 has been isolated in mammalian cells but is not replicating in Culicoides cells. TOVhas been detected in goats but could not been cultured, although TOV has been successfully passed to naïve animals by experimental infection using viremic blood. Genome segments Seg-2[VP2], Seg-6[VP5], Seg-7[VP7], and Seg-10[NS3/NS3a] expressing the respective TOV proteins were incorporated in BTV using reverse genetics, demonstrating that these TOV proteins are functional in BTV replication. Depending on the incorporated TOV proteins, in vitro replication is, however, decreased compared to the ancestor BTV, in particular by TOV-VP5. Sheep and goats were experimentally infected with BTV expressing both outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5 of TOV, so-named 'TOV-serotyped BTV'. Viremia was not detected in sheep, and hardly detected in goats after infection with TOV-serotyped BTV. Seroconversion by cELISA, however, was detected, suggesting that TOV-serotyped BTV replicates in small ruminants. One goat was coincidentally pregnant, and the fetus was strong PCR-positive in blood samples and several organs, which conclusively demonstrates that TOV-serotyped BTV replicates in vivo. PMID:27527776

  13. Mansonella ozzardi: a neglected New World filarial nematode.

    PubMed

    Lima, Nathália F; Veggiani Aybar, Cecilia A; Dantur Juri, María J; Ferreira, Marcelo U

    2016-05-01

    Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) is an understudied filarial nematode, originally described by Patrick Manson in 1897, that can be transmitted by two families of dipteran vectors, biting midges (most of them members of the genus Culicoides) and black flies (genus Simulium). With a patchy geographic distribution from southern Mexico to northwestern Argentina, human infection with M. ozzardi is highly prevalent in some of the Caribbean islands, along riverine communities in the Amazon Basin, and on both sides of the border between Bolivia and Argentina. There is no clinical entity unequivocally associated with M. ozzardi infection, although fever, arthralgia, headache, cold lower extremities, and itchy cutaneous rashes are occasionally mentioned in case report series. More recently, ocular manifestations (especially keratitis) have been associated with mansonelliasis, opening an important area of investigation. Here, we briefly review the biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical aspects of M. ozzardi infection and point to some existing knowledge gaps, aiming to stimulate a research agenda to help filling them. PMID:27376501

  14. Outbreak of bluetongue disease (BTD) in Germany and the danger for Europe.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven; Schmahl, Günter

    2008-12-01

    In August 2006, the blue tongue virus (BTV-type South Africa serotype 8) was detected for the first time in cattle blood probes in the Netherlands, immediately followed by cases in Belgium and in cattle on German farms, which were situated close to Aachen at the border to those countries. Within less than 2 months the disease spread eastwards crossing the Rhine, southwards to Luxemburg and to Northern France. At the end of the year 2006, nearly 1,000 farms were affected in Germany. Catches on two German cattle farms proved that the ceratopogonid species Culicoides obsoletus was obviously the vector, since many females-fed and unfed ones-were found to be infected with this virus. This sudden outbreak of bluetongue disease (BTD) is surely not a primary result of global warming, but rather an effect of globalization-i.e. the intensive worldwide import and export of animals; but a hot summer, as in 2006, and a warm winter like that of the years 2006/2007 supported the new spread starting again in masses in August 2007 leading to 596 PCR-confirmed cases until then with more than 200,000 animals infected. Thus, new agents coming from elsewhere have only a chance to spread if appropriate vectors are available and the conditions remain favourable during a reasonably long period. Effects of global warming-of course-will support persistence of such outbreaks of diseases due to offering of spreading of imported viruses, bacteria and/or parasites.

  15. Disease prevention and anti-vector campaigns: insects.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen, J

    2015-04-01

    Control of insect vector populations is an integral part of disease management but has many challenges. Area-wide campaigns, mainly based on insecticide administration, are most effective for control of insect populations, whereas disease prevention is more localised and protects a smaller number of animals against insect vector contact. Various control and prevention techniques are available for use against most insectvectors and are illustrated here by focusing on two important insect groups: biting midges and tsetse flies. Biting midges (Culicoides) present a major threat and challenge to disease and vector control because of limited large-scale control options and the huge population sizes and wide distribution of these insects. Localised disease prevention forms the basis for control, and there is a need for better understanding of the ecology and biology of these insects in order to develop large-scale control techniques. The necessary techniques to effectively control tsetse flies (Glossina) and trypanosomosis exist for both localised and area-wide control. The development of a new, cost-efficient device has had a significant impact in the control of both human and animal trypanosomosis. This is especially relevant in Uganda, where the movement of livestock for trading purposes is implicated in disease distribution and poses an immediate health threat where the two forms of the disease overlap. Although many successes have been achieved, continued research and development is needed to keep abreast of the multitude of challenges in insect vector control. PMID:26470462

  16. Bluetongue virus in Oryx antelope (Oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bosnić, Sanja; Beck, Relja; Listeš, Eddy; Lojkić, Ivana; Savini, Giovanni; Roić, Besi

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral infectious non‑contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Insect species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) to susceptible hosts. The infection is present in the Mediterranean region. Recently, it has also been reported in Central, Western, and Northern Europe where BTV‑8 was recognised as the causative serotype. In the meantime, BTV‑14 has appeared in the North‑Eastern part of Europe. In the present study, BTV serotype 16 (BTV‑16) was detected by virus neutralisation (VNT)‑assay and real‑time reverse transcription‑PCR (rRT‑PCR) in 1 antelope and BTV‑1 in 3 of 10 Oryx antelopes (Oryx leucoryx) imported in Croatia from the Sultanate of Oman. No BTV vectors were collected during the antelope quarantine on the Veliki Brijun Island. Also, no BTV antibodies were detected in sheep, cattle, and deer on the Island. Entomological studies did not reveal any new vector species that may have been introduced with the infected antelopes on their transportation. It was the first time that BTV was demonstrated in animals imported in Croatia. It involved BTV‑1, which had never been demonstrated before and BTV‑16, which had been previously recorded in domestic ruminants. PMID:26129665

  17. African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M

    2016-09-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians. PMID:27292229

  18. Impact of temperature, feeding preference and vaccination on Schmallenberg virus transmission in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Bessell, Paul R.; Auty, Harriet K.; Searle, Kate R.; Handel, Ian G.; Purse, Bethan V.; de C. Bronsvoort, B. Mark

    2014-01-01

    First identified in 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is principally transmitted by Culicoides midges and affects ruminants. Clinical presentation is typified by foetal abnormalities, but despite very high infection rates, relatively few animals present with clinical signs. In this paper we further develop a previously published stochastic mathematical model of SBV spread to investigate the optimal deployment of a vaccine for SBV in Scotland, a country that has experienced only sporadic and isolated cases of SBV. We consider the use of the vaccine under different temperatures and explore the effects of a vector preference for feeding on cattle. We demonstrate that vaccine impact is optimised by targeting it at the high risk areas in the south of Scotland, or vaccinating only cattle. At higher than average temperatures, and hence increased transmission potential, the relative impact of vaccination is considerably enhanced. Vaccine impact is also enhanced if vectors feed preferentially on cattle. These findings are of considerable importance when planning control strategies for SBV and also have important implications for management of other arboviruses such as Bluetongue virus. Environmental determinants and feeding preferences should be researched further to inform development of effective control strategies. PMID:25034464

  19. The occurrence of Mansonella perstans among residents of Calabar metropolis in Cross River State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Samuel S; Mbah, Maurice; Achi, Ernestine

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of Mansonella perstans was studied among people who had resided in Calabar metropolis for at least one year prior to the time of this study, which lasted from February to August, 2011. One thousand residents, comprising 530 males and 470 females, with an age range of 4 to 59 years, participated in the study, after an informed consent. Two millilitres of venous blood were collected at day time into EDTA bottles. The blood samples were processed by diluting 1ml of blood in 9 mls of 1% formalin and centrifuging the preparation at 3,000 revolutions per minute for 5 minutes. Deposits were left as blood smears on clean slides and after air-drying, were stained with 3% Giemsa solution for microscopy. Overall, the prevalence of Mansonella perstans was 2% (20 vs 1,000). The prevalence of the parasite among the females was 2.1% (10 vs 470) and males 1.9% (10 vs 530). Microfilaraemia only occurred among subjects aged between 25 and 45 years. The results of this study suggest that loiasis, which earned Calabar an unenviable mention in early medical literature, is no longer very prevalent in the area. Instead, a low prevalence of mansonelliasis occurs, in tandem with the existence of sparse farmlands of banana and plantain. Old stems of these crops provide suitable habitats for Culicoides species, which transmit Mansonella perstans. PMID:25911033

  20. [Malaria in Spain: entomological aspects and future outlook].

    PubMed

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Malaria was officially eradicated in Spain in 1964. However, at the present time, hundreds of imported cases are registered in our country each year. In this context, the study of the vector is seen to be highly significant in order to infer possible transmission scenarios, whether of a sporadic or a regular nature. Although the socio-economic level of the country does not appear to foreshadow the possible re-emergence of the disease in the short and medium term, the presence of well-established populations of anophelini and plasmodium gametocytes circulating in a certain percentage of the human population does appear to warrant the continuation of the current status of epidemiological surveillance. Moreover, the globalisation of markets and the emerging process of climate change could enable the colonisation of our territory by part of the Anopheles species that transmit human plasmodiosis in tropical and subtropical regions. In order to obtain a more thorough knowledge of the range of fauna, spatial distribution and bioecology of the anopheline Culicoides, a number of intensive larval samplings were taken in the Community of Valencia, a region with sufficient surface water heterogeneity and historical data of malaria prevalence to substantiate the decision to choose it for this study. Five species of the Anopheles genus, with varying degrees of impact in the dissemination of the disease, were identified. PMID:19039501

  1. Immunogenicity of recombinant VP2 proteins of all nine serotypes of African horse sickness virus

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Yuta; van Rijn, Piet A.; Maris-Veldhuis, Mieke; Kaname, Yuki; Athmaram, T.N.; Roy, Polly

    2014-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine disease with a mortality of up to 90% for susceptible horses. The causative agent AHS virus (AHSV) is transmitted by species of Culicoides. AHSV serogroup within the genus Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family consists of nine serotypes that show no or very limited cross-neutralization. Of the seven structural proteins (VP1-VP7) of AHSV, VP2 is the serotype specific protein, and the major target for neutralizing antibodies. In this report, recombinant VP2 proteins of all nine serotypes were expressed individually by the baculovirus expression system and the immunogenicity of each was studied by immunization of guinea pigs with single VP2 as well as with cocktails of VP2 proteins. Homologous neutralizing antibodies measured by 50% plaque reduction assay showed varying degrees (from 37 to 1365) of titers for different VP2 proteins. A low cross-neutralizing antibody titer was found for genetically related AHSV serotypes. Immunization with VP2 cocktails containing equal amounts of each of the VP2 proteins also triggered neutralizing antibodies albeit to lower titers (4-117) to each of the serotypes in the cocktail. This study is a first step to develop a VP2 subunit vaccine for AHS and our results indicate that VP2 subunit vaccines are feasible individually or in a multi-serotype cocktail. PMID:25045805

  2. Where are the horses? With the sheep or cows? Uncertain host location, vector-feeding preferences and the risk of African horse sickness transmission in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Robin, Charlotte A; Newton, J Richard; Gubbins, Simon; Wood, James L N

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, provides an insightful example because: (i) the patterns of risk are expected to be influenced by the presence of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts (cattle and sheep) and (ii) incomplete information on the spatial distribution of horses is available because the GB National Equine Database records owner, rather than horse, locations. Here, we combine land-use data with available horse owner distributions and, using a Bayesian approach, infer a realistic distribution for the location of horses. We estimate the risk of an outbreak of AHS in GB, using the basic reproduction number (R0), and demonstrate that mapping owner addresses as a proxy for horse location significantly underestimates the risk. We clarify the role of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts by showing that the risk of disease in the presence of many hosts (susceptible and non-susceptible) can be ultimately reduced to two fundamental factors: first, the abundance of vectors and how this depends on host density, and, second, the differential feeding preference of vectors among animal species.

  3. [Malaria in Spain: entomological aspects and future outlook].

    PubMed

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Malaria was officially eradicated in Spain in 1964. However, at the present time, hundreds of imported cases are registered in our country each year. In this context, the study of the vector is seen to be highly significant in order to infer possible transmission scenarios, whether of a sporadic or a regular nature. Although the socio-economic level of the country does not appear to foreshadow the possible re-emergence of the disease in the short and medium term, the presence of well-established populations of anophelini and plasmodium gametocytes circulating in a certain percentage of the human population does appear to warrant the continuation of the current status of epidemiological surveillance. Moreover, the globalisation of markets and the emerging process of climate change could enable the colonisation of our territory by part of the Anopheles species that transmit human plasmodiosis in tropical and subtropical regions. In order to obtain a more thorough knowledge of the range of fauna, spatial distribution and bioecology of the anopheline Culicoides, a number of intensive larval samplings were taken in the Community of Valencia, a region with sufficient surface water heterogeneity and historical data of malaria prevalence to substantiate the decision to choose it for this study. Five species of the Anopheles genus, with varying degrees of impact in the dissemination of the disease, were identified.

  4. African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M

    2016-09-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians.

  5. Arthropod Surveillance Programs: Basic Components, Strategies, and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rochon, Kateryn; Duehl, Adrian J.; Anderson, John F.; Barrera, Roberto; Su, Nan-Yao; Gerry, Alec C.; Obenauer, Peter J.; Campbell, James F.; Lysyk, Tim J.; Allan, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. Herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium “Advancements in arthropod monitoring technology, techniques, and analysis” presented at the 58th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in San Diego, CA. Interdisciplinary examples of arthropod monitoring for urban, medical, and veterinary applications are reviewed. Arthropod surveillance consists of the three components: 1) sampling method, 2) trap technology, and 3) analysis technique. A sampling method consists of selecting the best device or collection technique for a specific location and sampling at the proper spatial distribution, optimal duration, and frequency to achieve the surveillance objective. Optimized sampling methods are discussed for several mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) and ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The advantages and limitations of novel terrestrial and aerial insect traps, artificial pheromones and kairomones are presented for the capture of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), small hive beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) respectively. After sampling, extrapolating real world population numbers from trap capture data are possible with the appropriate analysis techniques. Examples of this extrapolation and action thresholds are given for termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and red flour beetles. PMID:26543242

  6. Isolation of bluetongue virus serotype 1 from aborted goat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, H C; Biswas, S K; Chand, K; Rehman, W; Das, B; Dadawala, A I; Chandel, B S; Kher, H N; Mondal, B

    2014-12-01

    Abortions and stillbirths were noticed in pregnant goats on a farm in the state of Gujarat, India. About 50% of the pregnant goats aborted or gave birth to dead kids. Bluetongue virus (BTV) antibody in the sera of affected goats was detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Viral antigen in the blood of these goats and in the aborted fetal spleens was detected using a sandwich ELISA. Two viruses (SKN-9, SKN-10) were isolated in cell culture from aborted fetal spleens and were confirmed as Orbivirus by demonstration of ten bands in RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified as BTV-1 by sequencing of the VP2 gene. Sequence analyses revealed thatthese isolates were very closely related to a BTV-1 (strain SKN-8) isolated from Culicoides vectors captured on the same farm one month after the occurrence of abortion. Isolation of BTV-1 from fetuses is probably evidence of transplacental transmission of the wild-type strain, because attenuated or laboratory-adapted BTV-1 strains have never been used in this region. This may have important implications in the epidemiology of bluetongue, considering the presence of many BTV serotypes in India.

  7. Screening of Oomycete Fungi for Their Potential Role in Reducing the Biting Midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Larval Populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Kirsty; Kurtböke, D. Ipek

    2011-01-01

    Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region. PMID:21655137

  8. Susceptibility of laboratory primates to infection with Mansonella ozzardi from man.

    PubMed

    Orihel, T C; Lowrie, R C; Eberhard, M L; Raccurt, C; Kozek, W J; Tidwell, M A; Tidwell, M

    1981-07-01

    The study was undertaken to determine primates were susceptible to infection with Caribbean and/or Amazon strains of Mansonella ozzardi of man. Twenty-three animals including three chimpanzees, four squirrel monkeys, one capuchin, five rhesus and 10 patas monkeys each received, by subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection, 25-170 infective larvae of M. ozzardi harvested either from infected Culicoides furens collected in Haiti or Simulium sp. (sanguineum complex) collected in the Colombian Amazon and transported to our laboratories in Louisiana. Patent infections were obtained in seven of 10 patas monkeys but not in any other species of primates. The prepatent period ranged in duration from 149-186 days with a mean of 168 days. All of the patas monkeys developed modest microfilaremias that persisted for as long as 1 year, the duration of our observations. Adult worms were obtained at necropsy from three of four patas monkeys. The worms were recovered from soakings of the carcass and skin rather than from the abdominal cavity and mesenteries. However, their precise habitat was not determined. PMID:7020456

  9. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  10. Sugar-feeding status alters biting midge photoattraction.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-03-01

    The biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) transmits pathogens to both livestock and wildlife. Biting midge surveillance relies heavily on light traps for collection; however, little is known about the light spectra preferences of C. sonorensis midges. A light assay arena was constructed and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of various light spectra were used as light sources to evaluate midge photoattraction. A comparison of responses to light spectra indicated the highest proportions of C. sonorensis were attracted to ultraviolet (UV) light and that midges differentiated 10-nm differences in wavelength. Stronger intensities of UV light resulted in greater attraction. Midges exhibited both sugar-seeking and escape behaviours under different conditions of sugar supplementation before and during the experiment. These behaviours occurred with lights of 355 nm and 365 nm in wavelength. Based on the results of this study, the attraction of C. sonorensis to light traps can be improved through the use of bright LEDs at 355 nm or 365 nm. PMID:26555011

  11. Comparing the effect of modeled climatic variables on the distribution of African horse sickness in South Africa and Namibia.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Danica; van Hamburg, Huib; Piketh, Stuart; Burger, Roelof

    2015-12-01

    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal disease of horses with a seasonal occurrence that is influenced by environmental conditions that favor the development of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). This study compared and evaluated the relationship of various modeled climatic variables with the distribution and abundance of AHS in South Africa and Namibia. A comprehensive literature review of the historical AHS reported data collected from the Windhoek archives as well as annual reports from the Directorate of Veterinary services in Namibia were conducted. South African AHS reported data were collected from the South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. Daily climatic data were extracted for the time period 1993-2011 from the ERA-interim re-analysis dataset. The principal component analysis of the complete dataset indicated a significant statistical difference between Namibia and South Africa for the various climate variables and the outbreaks of AHS. The most influential parameters in the distribution of AHS included humidity, precipitation, evaporation, and minimum temperature. In South Africa, temperature had the most significant effect on the outbreaks of AHS, whereas in Namibia, humidity and precipitation were the main drivers. The maximum AHS cases in South Africa occurred at temperatures of 20-22° C and relative humidity between 50-70%. Furthermore, anthropogenic effects must be taken into account when trying to understand the distribution of AHS. PMID:26611969

  12. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  13. Cytokine release and endothelial dysfunction: a perfect storm in orbivirus pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Although bluetongue viruses (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV) are closely related, there are differences in susceptibility to these viruses both between and within a species. White‑tailed deer are susceptible to disease by both BTV and EHDV, sheep are susceptible to BTV, but resistant to EHDV, and cattle can be infected with both viruses but disease is usually subclinical. Host genetics probably play a role in the disease outcome, but cytokine and endothelial responses are likely to determine if subclinical or clinical disease develops. Dendritic macrophages deliver virus to lymph nodes following the bite of an infected Culicoides. The virus then disseminates to many organs replicating in mononuclear phagocytes and endothelium. Initially, an interferon‑1 response probably determines if the disease develops. Replication in mononuclear cells and endothelium results in the release of cytokines and vasoactive mediators, and may result in endothelial cell death leading to the clinical features of fever, hyperaemia, exudation of fluid, and haemorrhage. Disease outcome may also be linked to virus binding Toll‑like receptor‑3 and upregulation of endothelial surface receptors potentiating cytokine release and allowing transmigration of inflammatory cells, respectively. Despite a wealth of information, host genetics involved in resistance to BTV and EHDV and how variations in cytokines and endothelial responses determine clinical outcome still need further elucidation. PMID:26741244

  14. Climate Change Influences on the Global Potential Distribution of Bluetongue Virus.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; Peterson, A Townsend

    2016-01-01

    The geographic distribution of arboviruses has received considerable attention after several dramatic emergence events around the world. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is classified among category "A" diseases notifiable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE), and is transmitted among ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. Here, we developed a comprehensive occurrence data set to map the current distribution, estimate the ecological niche, and explore the future potential distribution of BTV globally using ecological niche modeling and based on diverse future climate scenarios from general circulation models (GCMs) for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The broad ecological niche and potential geographic distribution of BTV under present-day conditions reflected the disease's current distribution across the world in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. All model predictions were significantly better than random expectations. As a further evaluation of model robustness, we compared our model predictions to 331 independent records from most recent outbreaks from the Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases Information System (EMPRES-i); all were successfully anticipated by the BTV model. Finally, we tested ecological niche similarity among possible vectors and BTV, and could not reject hypotheses of niche similarity. Under future-climate conditions, the potential distribution of BTV was predicted to broaden, especially in central Africa, United States, and western Russia. PMID:26959424

  15. Spatial epidemiological analysis of bovine encephalomyelitis outbreaks caused by Akabane virus infection in western Japan in 2011.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Yoko; Moriguchi, Sachiko; Yanase, Tohru; Ishikura, Youji; Abe, Shigeki; Higashi, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hajime; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Kobayashi, Sota; Murai, Kiyokazu; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Akabane disease, which is distributed in temperate and tropical regions in the world, is a vector-borne disease of ruminants caused by the Akabane virus, transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. In 2011, outbreaks of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis occurred in the Shimane Prefecture in western Japan. In this study, a spatial epidemiological analysis was conducted to understand environmental factors associated with the spread of Akabane disease. By applying a conditional autoregressive model, the relationship between infection and environmental variables was explored. The results showed that the dominance of farmlands and the presence of infected farms within a 3-km radius had a significant effect on infection. This result implies that land use, which would relate with the vector habitat, and the presence of neighboring infected farms as a source of infection may have influenced the spread of the disease in this region. These findings provide basic insights into the spread of Akabane disease and useful suggestions for developing a surveillance program and preventive measures against the disease. PMID:26898692

  16. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, N J; Zientara, S; Savini, G; Daniels, P W

    2015-08-01

    Summary Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an arthropod-transmitted viral disease of certain wild ungulates, notably North American white-tailed deer and, more rarely, cattle. The disease in white-tailed deer results from vascular injury analogous to that caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), to which EHD virus (EHDV) is closely related. There are seven serotypes of EHDV recognised, and Ibaraki virus, which is the cause of sporadic disease outbreaks in cattle in Asia, is included in EHDV serotype 2. The global distribution and epidemiology of BTV and EHDV infections are also similar, as both viruses occur throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world where they are transmitted by biting Culicoides midges and infect a wide variety of domestic and wild ungulates. However, the global distribution and epidemiology of EHDV infection are less well characterised than they are for BTV. Whereas most natural and experimental EHDV infections (other than Ibaraki virus infection) of livestock are subclinical or asymptomatic, outbreaks of EHD have recently been reported among cattle in the Mediterranean Basin, Reunion Island, South Africa, and the United States. Accurate and convenient laboratory tests are increasingly available for the sensitive and specific serological and virological diagnosis of EHDV infection and confirmation of EHD in animals, but commercial vaccines are available only for prevention of Ibaraki disease and not for protection against other strains and serotypes of EHDV. PMID:26601439

  17. [Decentralization of the health sector in Mexico. Scope and limitations of local health systems].

    PubMed

    González-Block, M A

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a product of the reflection on the decentralization and sectorization experiences in Mexico since 1917 with particular emphasis on the 1980s. The historical analysis included the creation of an analytical model designed to identify the relationship between the distinct sanitary policies implemented in Mexico and the tendencies towards decentralization and integration. This analysis is combined with a critical review of the recent decentralization experiences undertaken in the states of Guerrero, Oaxaca and Nuevo León. While comparing Guerrero and Oaxaca, restitution and deconcentration under similar socio-economic conditions were discussed. The comparison between Guerrero and Nuevo Leon allowed the discussion of the benefits and limits of restitution under different socio-economic conditions. In addition, with this model the author discusses a few generalizations regarding the possible future of decentralization.

  18. Marine pollution effects on the southern surf crab Ovalipes trimaculatus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Polybiidae) in Patagonia Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, Aníbal Hernán; Rojas Quiroga, María Laura; Liberoff, Ana Laura; Van der Molen, Silvina

    2015-02-28

    We compared the carapace shape and thickness as well as the energy density of Ovalipes trimaculatus inhabiting areas comprising a gradient of marine pollution: high, moderate and undetected, in the Nuevo gulf (Patagonia Argentina). The carapace shape was evaluated by means of individual asymmetry scores (=fluctuating asymmetry) whereas the carapace thickness was assessed by measuring the carapace dry weight. The energy density was analyzed through its negative relationship with water content in muscle tissue. The individual asymmetry scores as well as the percentage of water content in muscle tissue were proportional to the marine pollution gradient, whereas the carapaces thickness did not differ among sampling sites. Our results are consistent with previous findings and demonstrate the direct effect of marine pollution on other taxa different from gastropods, cephalopods and polyplacophora and add to long-standing concerns about detrimental effects caused by marine pollution on the benthic community of the Nuevo gulf.

  19. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH.

  20. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE1

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  1. Marine pollution effects on the southern surf crab Ovalipes trimaculatus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Polybiidae) in Patagonia Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, Aníbal Hernán; Rojas Quiroga, María Laura; Liberoff, Ana Laura; Van der Molen, Silvina

    2015-02-28

    We compared the carapace shape and thickness as well as the energy density of Ovalipes trimaculatus inhabiting areas comprising a gradient of marine pollution: high, moderate and undetected, in the Nuevo gulf (Patagonia Argentina). The carapace shape was evaluated by means of individual asymmetry scores (=fluctuating asymmetry) whereas the carapace thickness was assessed by measuring the carapace dry weight. The energy density was analyzed through its negative relationship with water content in muscle tissue. The individual asymmetry scores as well as the percentage of water content in muscle tissue were proportional to the marine pollution gradient, whereas the carapaces thickness did not differ among sampling sites. Our results are consistent with previous findings and demonstrate the direct effect of marine pollution on other taxa different from gastropods, cephalopods and polyplacophora and add to long-standing concerns about detrimental effects caused by marine pollution on the benthic community of the Nuevo gulf. PMID:25293645

  2. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  3. Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios

    Cancer.gov

    El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a

  4. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  5. Determinación de parámetros Post-Newtonianos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.; Vucetich, H.

    Icaro es un asteroide que, debido a su gran excentricidad, (0.83), puede ser utilizado para verificar la relatividad general. Tiene acercamientos periódicos a la Tierra cada 18 años aproximadamente. Los ocurridos en 1949 y 1968 permitieron realizar una primera determinación de la variación de su perihelio por efectos relativistas. En 1987 tuvo un nuevo acercamiento que permitirá mejorar los resultados existentes.

  6. Impacts of a North Pacific Predator on Nearshore Seawater Mercury Cycling via Top-Down Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossaboon, J. M.; Ganguli, P. M.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Marine mammals are common sentinel species for studying marine pollution, however their potential role as vectors of contaminants to local ecosystems has rarely been addressed. Organic methylmercury, or MeHg, is a potent neurotoxin that biomagnifies approximately one to ten million-fold in aquatic carnivores such as the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), whose excreta and molted pelage, in turn, constitute a source of environmental MeHg contamination at the base of marine food chains. This recycling of MeHg was evidenced by comparing total mercury (HgT) and MeHg concentrations in seawater at the Año Nuevo State Reserve pinniped rookery to those of neighboring coastal sites in Central California. The observed 17-fold enrichment of MeHg in seawater at Año Nuevo during the M. angustirostris molting season (0.28—9.5 pM) was remarkable, and exceeded the range of surface water MeHg concentrations observed in the highly urbanized San Francisco Bay estuary (<0.05—2.3 pM). The importance of MeHg inputs to Año Nuevo waters from Northern elephant seals was confirmed by the HgT concentrations in molted pelage samples (average = 3.6 μg g-1 dry wt.), which presumably contained >80% MeHg. This equates to an annual per-capita emission factor of 0.05 g MeHg per adult elephant seal. Based on this estimate, we calculate that approximately 0.2 kg of organic Hg entered the nearshore environment of Año Nuevo during that molting season. This elevated methylmercury (MeHg) in seawater adjacent to the rookery may become bioavailable to lower trophic levels, demonstrating that marine mammal colonization can substantially influence nearshore mercury cycling and potentially threaten ecosystem health.

  7. Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability in the Reproduction Ratio of the Bluetongue (BTV-1) Epidemic in Southern Spain (Andalusia) in 2007 Using Epidemic Trees.

    PubMed

    Napp, S; Allepuz, A; Purse, B V; Casal, J; García-Bocanegra, I; Burgin, L E; Searle, K R

    2016-01-01

    not linear, probably as a result of the complex relationship between temperature and the different parameters affecting BTV transmission. Rt values for BTV-1 in Andalusia fell below the threshold of 1 when temperatures dropped below 21°C, a much higher threshold than that reported in other BTV outbreaks, such as the BTV-8 epidemic in Northern Europe. This divergence may be explained by differences in the adaptation to temperature of the main vectors of the BTV-1 epidemic in Andalusia (Culicoides imicola) compared those of the BTV-8 epidemic in Northern Europe (Culicoides obsoletus). Importantly, we found that BTV transmission (Rt value) increased significantly in areas with higher densities of sheep. Our analysis also established that control of BTV-1 in Andalusia was complicated by the simultaneous establishment of several distant foci at the start of the epidemic, which may have been caused by several independent introductions of infected vectors from the North of Africa. We discuss the implications of these findings for BTV surveillance and control in this region of Europe.

  8. Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability in the Reproduction Ratio of the Bluetongue (BTV-1) Epidemic in Southern Spain (Andalusia) in 2007 Using Epidemic Trees.

    PubMed

    Napp, S; Allepuz, A; Purse, B V; Casal, J; García-Bocanegra, I; Burgin, L E; Searle, K R

    2016-01-01

    not linear, probably as a result of the complex relationship between temperature and the different parameters affecting BTV transmission. Rt values for BTV-1 in Andalusia fell below the threshold of 1 when temperatures dropped below 21°C, a much higher threshold than that reported in other BTV outbreaks, such as the BTV-8 epidemic in Northern Europe. This divergence may be explained by differences in the adaptation to temperature of the main vectors of the BTV-1 epidemic in Andalusia (Culicoides imicola) compared those of the BTV-8 epidemic in Northern Europe (Culicoides obsoletus). Importantly, we found that BTV transmission (Rt value) increased significantly in areas with higher densities of sheep. Our analysis also established that control of BTV-1 in Andalusia was complicated by the simultaneous establishment of several distant foci at the start of the epidemic, which may have been caused by several independent introductions of infected vectors from the North of Africa. We discuss the implications of these findings for BTV surveillance and control in this region of Europe. PMID:26963397

  9. Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability in the Reproduction Ratio of the Bluetongue (BTV-1) Epidemic in Southern Spain (Andalusia) in 2007 Using Epidemic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Napp, S.; Allepuz, A.; Purse, B. V.; Casal, J.; García-Bocanegra, I.; Burgin, L. E.; Searle, K. R.

    2016-01-01

    not linear, probably as a result of the complex relationship between temperature and the different parameters affecting BTV transmission. Rt values for BTV-1 in Andalusia fell below the threshold of 1 when temperatures dropped below 21°C, a much higher threshold than that reported in other BTV outbreaks, such as the BTV-8 epidemic in Northern Europe. This divergence may be explained by differences in the adaptation to temperature of the main vectors of the BTV-1 epidemic in Andalusia (Culicoides imicola) compared those of the BTV-8 epidemic in Northern Europe (Culicoides obsoletus). Importantly, we found that BTV transmission (Rt value) increased significantly in areas with higher densities of sheep. Our analysis also established that control of BTV-1 in Andalusia was complicated by the simultaneous establishment of several distant foci at the start of the epidemic, which may have been caused by several independent introductions of infected vectors from the North of Africa. We discuss the implications of these findings for BTV surveillance and control in this region of Europe. PMID:26963397

  10. A Modeling Framework to Describe the Transmission of Bluetongue Virus within and between Farms in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Szmaragd, Camille; Wilson, Anthony J.; Carpenter, Simon; Wood, James L. N.; Mellor, Philip S.; Gubbins, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Background Recently much attention has been given to developing national-scale micro-simulation models for livestock diseases that can be used to predict spread and assess the impact of control measures. The focus of these models has been on directly transmitted infections with little attention given to vector-borne diseases such as bluetongue, a viral disease of ruminants transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Yet BT has emerged over the past decade as one of the most important diseases of livestock. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a stochastic, spatially-explicit, farm-level model to describe the spread of bluetongue virus (BTV) within and between farms. Transmission between farms was modeled by a generic kernel, which includes both animal and vector movements. Once a farm acquired infection, the within-farm dynamics were simulated based on the number of cattle and sheep kept on the farm and on local temperatures. Parameter estimates were derived from the published literature and using data from the outbreak of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. The model was validated using data on the spread of BTV in Great Britain during 2007. The sensitivity of model predictions to the shape of the transmission kernel was assessed. Conclusions/Significance The model is able to replicate the dynamics of BTV in Great Britain. Although uncertainty remains over the precise shape of the transmission kernel and certain aspects of the vector, the modeling approach we develop constitutes an ideal framework in which to incorporate these aspects as more and better data become available. Moreover, the model provides a tool with which to examine scenarios for the spread and control of BTV in Great Britain. PMID:19890400

  11. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sergeant, Evan S.

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country. PMID:26986002

  12. The association of winds with the spread of EHDV in dairy cattle in Israel during an outbreak in 2006.

    PubMed

    Kedmi, Maor; Herziger, Yael; Galon, Nadav; Cohen, Reuma Magori; Perel, Marc; Batten, Carrie; Braverman, Yehuda; Gottlieb, Yuval; Shpigel, Nahum; Klement, Eyal

    2010-09-01

    Winds may play a major role in spread of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Arboviruses like epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), bluetongue virus and bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) frequently cause major outbreaks in Israel with a unique pattern of spread. Most of these outbreaks begin in the Jordan valley, near the Sea of Galilee and then spread to the north, south and west through the major valleys of Israel. The aim of this study was to describe the spread pattern in such an outbreak and to find if this pattern can be explained by winds. Herein, we compared the spread rate to each direction and used Cox proportional hazards model to test factors associated with the spread of EHDV, which emerged in diary cattle in Israel during the summer of 2006. Documented, clinical and serological data on spread of the outbreak were then compared with wind data collected by meteorological stations along the trail of virus spread and with modeled winds at high altitude (>500 m). The analysis revealed that both the hazard and the rate of outbreak spread to the south and to the north were significantly higher than to the west. Average rate of outbreak spread during periods in which at least 3 h of winds to spread direction were recorded was 20,880 m/week (SD=13,230) vs. 7486 m/week (SD=4936) in periods during which no such winds were recorded. Serological evidence demonstrated exposure to the virus up to 166 km away from the location of the initial outbreak center. Modeled wind data showed that this spread may be explained by winds at high altitudes. Animal movements due to shipments of feedlot calves and slaughters could not explain the spread pattern observed during the outbreak. This study therefore shows that winds are probably a major contributory factor for long and medium distance spread of Culicoides borne viruses in this region.

  13. Disentangling vector-borne transmission networks: a universal DNA barcoding method to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Muñoz, Joaquín; Figuerola, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases represent a challenge for global economies and public health. About one fourth of the last pandemics have been originated by the spread of vector-borne pathogens. In this sense, the advent of modern molecular techniques has enhanced our capabilities to understand vector-host interactions and disease ecology. However, host identification protocols have poorly profited of international DNA barcoding initiatives and/or have focused exclusively on a limited array of vector species. Therefore, ascertaining the potential afforded by DNA barcoding tools in other vector-host systems of human and veterinary importance would represent a major advance in tracking pathogen life cycles and hosts. Here, we show the applicability of a novel and efficient molecular method for the identification of the vertebrate host's DNA contained in the midgut of blood-feeding arthropods. To this end, we designed a eukaryote-universal forward primer and a vertebrate-specific reverse primer to selectively amplify 758 base pairs (bp) of the vertebrate mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene. Our method was validated using both extensive sequence surveys from the public domain and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) experiments carried out over specimens from different Classes of vertebrates (Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia and Amphibia) and invertebrate ectoparasites (Arachnida and Insecta). The analysis of mosquito, culicoid, phlebotomie, sucking bugs, and tick bloodmeals revealed up to 40 vertebrate hosts, including 23 avian, 16 mammalian and one reptilian species. Importantly, the inspection and analysis of direct sequencing electropherograms also assisted the resolving of mixed bloodmeals. We therefore provide a universal and high-throughput diagnostic tool for the study of the ecology of haematophagous invertebrates in relation to their vertebrate hosts. Such information is crucial to support the efficient management of initiatives aimed at reducing

  14. Haemosporidian infections in the Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) and potential insect vectors of their transmission.

    PubMed

    Synek, Petr; Popelková, Alena; Koubínová, Darina; Šťastný, Karel; Langrová, Iva; Votýpka, Jan; Munclinger, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary bird species are suitable model hosts for identifying potential vectors of avian blood parasites. We studied haemosporidian infections in the Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) in the Ore Mountains of the Czech Republic using molecular detection methods. Sex of owl nestlings was scored using molecular sexing based on fragment analysis of PCR-amplified CHD1 introns. Observed infection prevalences in nestlings and adult owls were 51 and 86 %, respectively. Five parasite lineages were detected. Most of the infections comprised the Leucocytozoon AEFUN02 and STOCC06 lineages that probably refer to distinct Leucocytozoon species. Other lineages were detected only sporadically. Mixed infections were found in 49 % of samples. The main factor affecting the probability of infection was host age. No effect of individual sex on infection probability was evidenced. The youngest infected nestling was 12 days old. High parasite prevalence in the Tengmalm's Owl nestlings suggests that insect vectors must enter nest boxes to transmit parasites before fledging. Hence, we placed sticky insect traps into modified nest boxes, collected potential insect vectors, and examined them for the presence of haemosporidian parasites using molecular detection. We trapped 201 insects which were determined as biting midges from the Culicoides genus and two black fly species, Simulium (Nevermannia) vernum and Simulium (Eusimulium) angustipes. Six haemosporidian lineages were detected in the potential insect vectors, among which the Leucocytozoon lineage BT2 was common to the Tengmalm's Owl and the trapped insects. However, we have not detected the most frequently encountered Tengmalm's Owl Leucocytozoon lineages AEFUN02 and STOCC06 in insects.

  15. To bite or not to bite! A questionnaire-based survey assessing why some people are bitten more than others by midges

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. Methods In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle and health related characteristics. Results Most people (85.8%) reported being bitten sometimes, often or always with only 14.2% reporting never being bitten by midges when in Scotland. There was no association between level of bites received and age, smoking, diet, exercise, medication, eating strongly flavoured foods or alcohol consumption. However, there was a strong association between the probability of being bitten and increasing height (in men) and BMI (in women). A large proportion of participants (33.8%) reported experiencing a bad/severe reaction to midge bites while 53.1% reported a minor reaction and 13.1% no reaction at all. Also, women tend to react more than men to midge bites. Additionally, the results indicated that the susceptibility to being bitten by midges is hereditary. Conclusions This study suggests that midges prefer to bite men that are tall and women that have a large BMI, and that the tendency for a child to be bitten or not could be inherited from their parent. The study is questionnaire-based; therefore, the interpretation of the results may be limited by the subjectivity of the answers given by the respondents. Although the results are relevant only to the Scottish biting midge, the approach used here could be useful for investigating human-insect interactions for other insects, particularly those which transmit pathogens that cause disease. PMID:20500852

  16. BTV infection in wild ruminants, with emphasis on red deer: a review.

    PubMed

    Falconi, Caterina; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of bluetongue virus has changed, possibly related to climate change. Vaccination of domestic ruminants is taking place throughout Europe to control BT expansion. The high density of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in some European regions has raised concerns about the potential role that unvaccinated European wild ungulates might play in maintaining or spreading the virus. Most species of wild ruminants are susceptible to BTV infection, although frequently asymptomatically. The red deer population density in Europe is similar to that of domestic livestock in some areas, and red deer could account for a significant percentage of the BTV-infection susceptible ruminant population in certain regions. High serum antibody prevalence has been found in red deer, and BTV RNA (BTV-1, BTV-4 and BTV-8) has been repeatedly detected in naturally infected European red deer by means of RT-PCR. Moreover, red deer may carry the virus asymptomatically for long periods. Epidemiological studies suggest that there are more BT cases in domestic ungulates in those areas where red deer are present. Vector and host density and environmental factors are implicated in the spatial distribution of BT. As in domestic ruminants, BTV transmission among wild ruminants depends almost exclusively on Culicoides vectors, mainly C. imicola but also members of the C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris complex. However, BTV transmission from red deer to the vector remains to be demonstrated. Transplacental, oral, and mechanical transmissions are also suspected. Thus, wild red deer contribute to the still unclear epidemiology of BTV in Europe, and could complicate BTV control in domestic ruminants. However, further research at the wildlife host-vector-pathogen interface and regarding the epidemiology of BT and BT vectors in wildlife habitats is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Moreover, red deer could be used as BT sentinels. Serum and spleen tissue of calves sampled from late autumn onwards

  17. Genomic characterisation of Wongabel virus reveals novel genes within the Rhabdoviridae.

    PubMed

    Gubala, Aneta J; Proll, David F; Barnard, Ross T; Cowled, Chris J; Crameri, Sandra G; Hyatt, Alex D; Boyle, David B

    2008-06-20

    Viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae infect a variety of different hosts, including insects, vertebrates and plants. Currently, there are approximately 200 ICTV-recognised rhabdoviruses isolated around the world. However, the majority remain poorly characterised and only a fraction have been definitively assigned to genera. The genomic and transcriptional complexity displayed by several of the characterised rhabdoviruses indicates large diversity and complexity within this family. To enable an improved taxonomic understanding of this family, it is necessary to gain further information about the poorly characterised members of this family. Here we present the complete genome sequence and predicted transcription strategy of Wongabel virus (WONV), a previously uncharacterised rhabdovirus isolated from biting midges (Culicoides austropalpalis) collected in northern Queensland, Australia. The 13,196 nucleotide genome of WONV encodes five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L. In addition, the WONV genome contains three genes located between the P and M genes (U1, U2, U3) and two open reading frames overlapping with the N and G genes (U4, U5). These five additional genes and their putative protein products appear to be novel, and their functions are unknown. Predictive analysis of the U5 gene product revealed characteristics typical of viroporins, and indicated structural similarities with the alpha-1 protein (putative viroporin) of viruses in the genus Ephemerovirus. Phylogenetic analyses of the N and G proteins of WONV indicated closest similarity with the avian-associated Flanders virus; however, the genomes of these two viruses are significantly diverged. WONV displays a novel and unique genome structure that has not previously been described for any animal rhabdovirus.

  18. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country. PMID:26986002

  19. Bluetongue virus serotype 6 in Europe in 2008-Emergence and disappearance of an unexpected non-virulent BTV.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Piet A; Geurts, Yvon; van der Spek, Arco N; Veldman, Daniel; van Gennip, René G P

    2012-07-01

    Bluetongue viruses (BTVs) could invade N-W Europe similar to BTV serotype 8 (BTV8/net06), since the source and route of introduction of this virus has not been solved. Therefore, the Dutch survey for Bluetongue by PCR testing was extended by further analysis of PCR positives to identify the involved BTV. In late August 2008, BTV was reported with 12 nucleotide differences in the S10 amplicon (S10 genotyping). This virus was identified as serotype 6, here named BTV6/net08. Promptly, serotype specific real-time PCR tests were developed for serotypes 1, 6, and 8 (S2 genotyping). Agreement was found between results by S10- and S2 genotyping. Further, BTV1 was identified by both S10- and S2 genotyping in one imported animal. After initial discovery of BTV6 in the Netherlands, animals from 18 holdings tested PCR positive for BTV6/net08 in 2008. Remarkably only one or two PCR positive animals per holding were found. Serum neutralization tests did not result in the discovery of more BTV6 infected animals. Retrospective studies indicated no evidence for infections by BTV6/net08 prior to the first discovery. Experimental infections with BTV6/net08 did not cause clinical disease in sheep, calves and cattle, except for a very short fever in some animals. This clearly showed that the vaccine-related BTV6/net08 is not virulent. BTV6/net08 was not found by passive and active surveys in the years after its discovery. Apparently, BTV6/net08 was not efficiently transmitted by endemic species of Culicoides in N-W Europe, and disappeared without the need of any control measure.

  20. Generation of virus like particles for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Forzan, Mario; Maan, Sushila; Mazzei, Maurizio; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N; Bonuccelli, Lucia; Calamari, Monica; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Cappello, Valentina; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Mertens, Peter P C; Tolari, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a distinct species within the genus Orbivirus, within the family Reoviridae. The epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus genome comprises ten segments of linear, double stranded (ds) RNA, which are packaged within each virus particle. The EHDV virion has a three layered capsid-structure, generated by four major viral proteins: VP2 and VP5 (outer capsid layer); VP7 (intermediate, core-surface layer) and VP3 (innermost, sub-core layer). Although EHDV infects cattle sporadically, several outbreaks have recently occurred in this species in five Mediterranean countries, indicating a potential threat to the European cattle industry. EHDV is transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, which can travel long distances through wind-born movements (particularly over water), increasing the potential for viral spread in new areas/countries. Expression systems to generate self-assembled virus like particles (VLPs) by simultaneous expression of the major capsid-proteins, have been established for several viruses (including bluetongue virus). This study has developed expression systems for production of EHDV VLPs, for use as non-infectious antigens in both vaccinology and serology studies, avoiding the risk of genetic reassortment between vaccine and field strains and facilitating large scale antigen production. Genes encoding the four major-capsid proteins of a field strain of EHDV-6, were isolated and cloned into transfer vectors, to generate two recombinant baculoviruses. The expression of these viral genes was assessed in insect cells by monitoring the presence of specific viral mRNAs and by western blotting. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the formation and purification of assembled VLPs. PMID:27473984

  1. Testing of UK Populations of Culex pipiens L. for Schmallenberg Virus Vector Competence and Their Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Robyn; Harrup, Lara E.; Veronesi, Eva; Stubbins, Francesca; Stoner, Jo; Gubbins, Simon; Wilson, Anthony; Batten, Carrie; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Henstock, Mark; Barber, James; Carpenter, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an arboviral pathogen of ruminants, emerged in northern Europe during 2011 and has subsequently spread across a vast geographic area. While Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have been identified as a biological transmission agent of SBV, the role of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) as potential vectors has not been defined beyond small-scale field collections in affected areas. Culex pipiens L. are one of the most widespread mosquitoes in northern Europe; they are present on farms across the region and have previously been implicated as vectors of several other arboviruses. We assessed the ability of three colony lines of Cx. pipiens, originating from geographically diverse field populations, to become fully infected by SBV using semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR (sqPCR). Findings Two colony lines of Cx. pipiens were created in the UK (‘Brookwood’ and ‘Caldbeck’) from field collections of larvae and pupae and characterised using genetic markers. A third strain of Cx. pipiens from CVI Wageningen, The Netherlands, was also screened during experiments. Intrathoracic inoculation of the Brookwood line resulted in infections after 14 days that were characterised by high levels of RNA throughout individuals, but which demonstrated indirect evidence of salivary gland barriers. Feeding of 322 individuals across the three colony lines on a membrane based infection system resulted in no evidence of full dissemination of SBV, although infections did occur in a small proportion of Cx. pipiens from each line. Conclusions/Significance This study established two novel lines of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes of UK origin in the laboratory and subsequently tested their competence for SBV. Schmallenberg virus replication and dissemination was restricted, demonstrating that Cx. pipiens is unlikely to be an epidemiologically important vector of the virus in northern Europe. PMID:26291533

  2. Full-Genome Sequencing as a Basis for Molecular Epidemiology Studies of Bluetongue Virus in India.

    PubMed

    Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N; Rao, Pavuluri Panduranga; Singh, Karam Pal; Hemadri, Divakar; Putty, Kalyani; Kumar, Aman; Batra, Kanisht; Krishnajyothi, Yadlapati; Chandel, Bharat S; Reddy, G Hanmanth; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Reddy, Yella Narasimha; Attoui, Houssam; Hegde, Nagendra R; Mertens, Peter P C

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998 there have been significant changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV). Ten previously exotic BTV serotypes have been detected in Europe, causing severe disease outbreaks in naïve ruminant populations. Previously exotic BTV serotypes were also identified in the USA, Israel, Australia and India. BTV is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and changes in the distribution of vector species, climate change, increased international travel and trade are thought to have contributed to these events. Thirteen BTV serotypes have been isolated in India since first reports of the disease in the country during 1964. Efficient methods for preparation of viral dsRNA and cDNA synthesis, have facilitated full-genome sequencing of BTV strains from the region. These studies introduce a new approach for BTV characterization, based on full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, facilitating the identification of BTV serotype, topotype and reassortant strains. Phylogenetic analyses show that most of the equivalent genome-segments of Indian BTV strains are closely related, clustering within a major eastern BTV 'topotype'. However, genome-segment 5 (Seg-5) encoding NS1, from multiple post 1982 Indian isolates, originated from a western BTV topotype. All ten genome-segments of BTV-2 isolates (IND2003/01, IND2003/02 and IND2003/03) are closely related (>99% identity) to a South African BTV-2 vaccine-strain (western topotype). Similarly BTV-10 isolates (IND2003/06; IND2005/04) show >99% identity in all genome segments, to the prototype BTV-10 (CA-8) strain from the USA. These data suggest repeated introductions of western BTV field and/or vaccine-strains into India, potentially linked to animal or vector-insect movements, or unauthorised use of 'live' South African or American BTV-vaccines in the country. The data presented will help improve nucleic acid based diagnostics for Indian serotypes/topotypes, as part of control strategies.

  3. Type I interferon limits the capacity of bluetongue virus to infect hematopoietic precursors and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calvo, Teresa; Rojas, José-Manuel; Martín, Verónica; Sevilla, Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to progenitors with potential to produce multiple cell types, including dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are the principal antigen-presenting cells and represent the crucial link between innate and adaptive immune responses. Bluetongue virus (BTV), an economically important Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, causes a hemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in other species of ruminants. BTV is transmitted between its mammalian hosts by certain species of biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and is a potent alpha interferon (IFN-α) inducer. In the present report, we show that BTV infects cells of hematopoietic origin but not HSCs in immunocompetent sheep. However, BTV infects HSCs in the absence of type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in vitro and in vivo. Infection of HSCs in vitro results in cellular death by apoptosis. Furthermore, BTV infects bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs), interfering with their development to mature DCs in the absence of type I IFN signaling. Costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 and costimulatory molecules CD40 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) are affected by BTV infection, suggesting that BTV interferes with DC antigen-presenting capacity. In vivo, different DC populations are also affected during the course of infection, probably as a result of a direct effect of BTV replication in DCs and the production of infectious virus. These new findings suggest that BTV infection of HSCs and DCs can impair the immune response, leading to persistence or animal death, and that this relies on IFN-I.

  4. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.

  5. Balance of RNA sequence requirement and NS3/NS3a expression of segment 10 of orbiviruses.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Femke; van Gennip, René G P; Schreuder, Myrte; van Rijn, Piet A

    2016-02-01

    Orbiviruses are insect-transmitted, non-enveloped viruses with a ten-segmented dsRNA genome of which the bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype. Viral non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is encoded by genome segment 10 (Seg-10), and is involved in different virus release mechanisms. This protein induces specific release via membrane disruptions and budding in both insect and mammalian cells, but also the cytopathogenic release that is only seen in mammalian cells. NS3/NS3a is not essential for virus replication in vitro with BTV Seg-10 containing RNA elements essential for virus replication, even if protein is not expressed. Recently, new BTV serotypes with distinct NS3/NS3a sequence and cell tropism have been identified. Multiple studies have hinted at the importance of Seg-10 in orbivirus replication, but the exact prerequisites are still unknown. Here, more insight is obtained with regard to the needs for orbivirus Seg-10 and the balance between protein expression and RNA elements. Multiple silent mutations in the BTV NS3a ORF destabilized Seg-10, resulting in deletions and sequences originating from other viral segments being inserted, indicating strong selection at the level of RNA during replication in mammalian cells in vitro. The NS3a ORFs of other orbiviruses were successfully exchanged in BTV1 Seg-10, resulting in viable chimeric viruses. NS3/NS3a proteins in these chimeric viruses were generally functional in mammalian cells, but not in insect cells. NS3/NS3a of the novel BTV serotypes 25 and 26 affected virus release from Culicoides cells, which might be one of the reasons for their distinct cell tropism. PMID:26644214

  6. Bluetongue: Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, K; Minakshi, P; Prasad, G

    2015-12-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insect borne (Culicoides) viral disease of small ruminants in India. While seroprevalence for BT is observed mostly in domestic and wild ruminant animals, the clinical form of disease and severe mortality is observed in sheep. Since the first report of BT in 1960s the country became endemic for the disease and most of the BT virus (BTV) serotypes (22 out of 27 worldwide) have been reported. The genome sequence analyses of these viruses revealed that both the eastern and western topotypes as well as their reassortant strains are present in India. It further revealed that some of these viruses are very close to live vaccines used in other countries. The severe economic concern justifies the need to develop sensitive and reliable diagnostic tests for BT. The virus isolation followed by identification by electron microscopy is gold standard test, but it is time consuming and not easily available in all the laboratories. Therefore, nucleic acid-based rapid diagnostic tests such as PCR, real-time PCR etc. are used nowadays. The BT control program in India includes vector control as well as effective vaccination. The vector population is controlled by vector traps, synthetic pesticides and some of the herbal compounds. For effective vaccination, the serotypes prevalent in a particular geographical area must be known, which can be achieved by continuous monitoring and sero-surveillance of disease. The multivalent inactivated vaccines are more suitable for India in comparison to modified live vaccines as the latter may turn to virulent and may lead to severe outbreak of the disease. PMID:26666181

  7. Reconstruction of the Schmallenberg virus epidemic in Belgium: Complementary use of disease surveillance approaches.

    PubMed

    Poskin, Antoine; Théron, Léonard; Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Saegerman, Claude; Vervaeke, Muriel; Van der Stede, Yves; Cay, Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged across Europe in 2011 and Belgium was among the first countries affected. In this study, published findings are combined with new data from veterinary surveillance networks and the Belgian reference laboratory for SBV at the Veterinary and Agrochemical Research centre (CODA-CERVA) to reconstruct the epidemic in Belgium. First retrospective cases of SBV were reported by veterinarians that observed decreased milk yield and fever in dairy cattle in May 2011. The number of SBV suspicions subsequently increased in adult cattle in August 2011. That month, first SBV positive pools of Culicoides were detected and extensive virus circulation occurred in Belgium during late summer and autumn 2011. As a consequence, most pregnant ruminants were infected and their fetuses exposed to the virus. This resulted in an outbreak of abortions, still-births and malformed new-borns observed between January and April 2012. The number of cases drastically diminished in 2012-2013, although multiple lines of evidence obtained from cross-sectional serological surveys, analyses on aborted foetuses, sentinel herd surveillance and surveillance of SBV in vectors prove that SBV was still circulating in Belgium at that time. Virus circulation was then probably strongly reduced in 2013-2014, while increasing evidence indicates its recirculation in 2014-2015 in Belgium. Based on the experience gathered with the closely related Akabane virus, recurrent outbreaks of congenital events can be expected for a long period. Vaccination of seronegative animals before the first mating could be used to prevent the deleterious effects of SBV. During this epidemic, different surveillance approaches including syndromic surveillance, sentinel herd surveillance, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies and pathogen surveillance in vectors have proven their utility and should be considered to continue in the future. PMID:26790935

  8. Experimental infection of Holstein cows and calves with EHDV‑7 and preliminary evaluation of different inoculation methods.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Mead, Daniel G; Stallknecht, David E; Kedmi, Maor; Klement, Eyal; Brown, Justin D; Carter, Deborah L; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Infection of cattle with epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus (EHDV) is frequently subclinical, yet reports of disease have increased in recent years. In 2006, a widespread EHDV‑7 epidemic caused disease and economic loss in the Israeli dairy industry. In this study, the main objective was to infect cattle with EHDV‑7 and replicate disease observed in Israel during 2006. Two infection studies were performed. Experiment 1, 4 cows inoculated with intradermal (ID) and subcutaneous (SC) injections with an EHDV‑7 blood inoculum. Experiment 2, 6 calves inoculated using 1 of the following 3 methods (2 calves/method): (1) mammalian cell culture supernatant by ID and SC injection; (2) culture supernatant by ID, SC, and intravenous injection; and (3) bite transmission from Culicoides sonorensis. Further, during experiment 2, C. sonorensis were fed on 4 infected calves (18 days post-inoculation) and processed for virus isolation 10 days later in order to evaluate infectivity of low‑titer viraemia. Three cows had detectable viraemia and all 4 seroconverted. No clinical signs were observed. All 6 calves developed viraemia, peaking 7‑10 dpi and all calves seroconverted. No differences in virus kinetics were observed between the inoculation groups. Calves in group 2 had transiently elevated rectal temperatures but no other clinical abnormalities were observed. The 124 midge pools processed after feeding on calves with low‑titer viraemia were virus isolation negative. Detectable viraemia was more consistent in calves than adult cows. This study demonstrates US‑origin cattle are susceptible to EHDV‑7 infection by multiple inoculation methods; however, as reported in other studies, the disease was not replicated experimentally. PMID:26741239

  9. Nest ecology of blood parasites in the European roller and its ectoparasitic carnid fly.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Betáková, Tatiana; Švančarová, Petra; Pérez-Serrano, Jorge; Criado-Fornelio, Ángel; Škorvanová, Lucia; Valera, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    Haemosporidian parasites are considered the most important vector-borne parasites. However, vector identity and ecology is unknown for most such host-vector-parasite systems. In this study, we employ microscopic and molecular analyses to examine haemosporidian prevalence in a migratory, cavity-nesting bird, European roller Coracias garrulus, and its nidicolous blood-feeding ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus. This system is unique in that the ectoparasite is confined to a near-closed environment, in contrast to the free-wandering system of haematophagous dipterans such as mosquitoes. Blood film analysis confirms previous works in that Haemoproteus parasites are widely prevalent in adult rollers and belong to a single species, Haemoproteus coraciae. Leucocytozoon sp. and Trypanosoma sp. also are detected in adult rollers at low intensities with this technique. By means of molecular analysis, we report for the first time Plasmodium sp. presence in C. garrulus. Based on PCR results, Plasmodium parasites are relatively less prevalent than Haemoproteus parasites (20% vs. 31%) in rollers. In contrast, haemosporidian prevalences show the opposite trend for Carnus flies: Plasmodium sp. occurrence (62%) clearly predominates over that of Haemoproteus sp. (5%). A comparison between roller and Carnus samples reveals a significantly higher prevalence of Plasmodium sp. in Carnus samples. Insect survey and phylogenetic analysis suggest Culicoides flies as Haemoproteus sp. vectors, which appear to readily transmit the parasite in southern Spain. This study does not find support for Carnus flies to serve as biological or mechanical vectors of haemosporidians. In spite of this, nidicolous blood-feeding ectoparasites, such as carnid flies, appear as a suitable model for studies on the occurrence and temporal dynamics of avian haemosporidians such as Plasmodium sp. present at low intensities. PMID:26993083

  10. Recent advances in knowledge of BTV‑host‑vector interaction.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Peter; Venter, Estelle H

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) has since 1998 extended its distribution further North than where it has previously been encountered. Changes in the epidemiology of Bluetongue (BT), as well as novel features of recent outbreaks of BTV in Europe, have stimulated research on BTV‑vector‑host interaction. The outbreak of BTV‑8 in Northern Europe from 2006‑2008 is particular noteworthy in this regard, as the European strain of BTV‑8 demonstrated novel properties, including high virulence - especially for cattle - and the capability to cross the ruminant placenta. The virus was in addition transmitted by indigenous European Culicoides species that had not previously been implicated in the widespread transmission of BTV. Recent advances in the scientific understanding of BTV‑vector‑host interaction include increased knowledge of the virus' replication cycle, the role of biotic factors in influencing viral infection of the insect vector, increased knowledge of BTV immunology and pathogenesis in the mammalian host, and increased knowledge of virulence and pathogenicity features of newly discovered serotypes/strains of the virus. New research on aspects of BTV‑vector‑host interaction has been driven in part by developments in molecular biology and experimental infection biology, of which next generation sequencing, the expression of individual viral proteins in cell culture, the establishment of a reverse genetics system for the virus, the development of novel in vitro and in vivo infection models, and refinement of existing BTV experimental infection methodologies have proven instrumental. Moreover, these developments have also provided the opportunity for the development of novel vaccine strategies. This article provides a synopsis of selected recent advances that have been made in the understanding of BTV‑vector‑host interaction, with a particular focus on research that has been conducted in Europe over the last 5 years. PMID:26741246

  11. Expression and functional characterization of bluetongue virus VP2 protein: role in cell entry.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S S; Roy, P

    1999-12-01

    Segment 2 of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10, which encodes the outer capsid protein VP2, was tagged with the S-peptide fragment of RNase A and expressed by a recombinant baculovirus. The recombinant protein was subsequently purified to homogeneity by virtue of the S tag, and the oligomeric nature of the purified protein was determined. The data obtained indicated that the majority of the protein forms a dimer and, to a lesser extent, some trimer. The recombinant protein was used to determine various biological functions of VP2. The purified VP2 was shown to have virus hemagglutinin activity and was antigenically indistinguishable from the VP2 of the virion. Whether VP2 is responsible for BTV entry into permissive cells was subsequently assessed by cell surface attachment and internalization studies with an immunofluorescence assay system. The results demonstrated that VP2 alone is responsible for virus entry into mammalian cells. By competition assay, it appeared that both VP2 and the BTV virion attached to the same cell surface molecule(s). The purified VP2 also had a strong affinity for binding to glycophorin A, a sialoglycoprotein component of erythrocytes, indicating that VP2 may be responsible for BTV transmission by the Culicoides vector to vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Further, by various enzymatic treatments of BTV-permissive L929 cells, preliminary data have been obtained which indicated that the BTV receptor molecule(s) is likely to be a glycoprotein and that either the protein moiety of the glycoprotein or a second protein molecule could also serve as a coreceptor for BTV infection. PMID:10559295

  12. European Bluetongue Serotype 8: Disease Threat Assessment for U.S. Sheep.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Barbara S; Reister-Hendricks, Lindsey M; Podell, Brendan K; Breitenbach, Jonathan E; McVey, D Scott; van Rijn, Piet A; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an orbivirus transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) that can result in moderate to high morbidity and mortality primarily in sheep and white-tailed deer. Although only 5 serotypes of BTV are considered endemic to the United States, as many as 11 incursive serotypes have been detected in livestock and wildlife in the past 16 years. Introductions of serotypes, with unknown virulence and disease risk, are constant threats to US agriculture. One potential incursive serotype of particular concern is the European strain of BTV-8, which was introduced into Northern Europe in 2006 and caused unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess disease risk of BTV-8 in a common white-faced American sheep breed, eight Polled Dorset yearlings were experimentally infected and monitored for clinical signs. Viremia and viral tissue distribution were detected and quantified by real-time qRT-PCR. Overall, clinical disease was moderate with no mortality. Viremia reached as high as 9.7 log10 particles/mL and persisted at 5 logs or higher through the end of the study (28 days). Virus distribution in tissues was extensive with the highest mean titers at the peak of viremia (day 8) in the kidney (8.38 log10 particles/mg) and pancreas (8.37 log10 particles/mg). Virus persisted in tissues of some sheep at 8 logs or higher by day 28. Results of this study suggest that should BTV-8 emerge in the United States, clinical disease in this common sheep breed would likely be similar in form, duration, and severity to what is typically observed in severe outbreaks of endemic serotypes, not the extraordinary disease levels seen in Northern Europe. In addition, a majority of exposed sheep would be expected to survive and act as significant BTV-8 reservoirs with high titer viremias for subsequent transmission to other livestock and wildlife populations. PMID:27111674

  13. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    In permafrost areas the seasonal snow cover is an important factor on the ground thermal regime. Snow depth and timing are important in ground insulation from the atmosphere, creating different snow patterns and resulting in spatially variable ground temperatures. The aim of this work is to characterize the interactions between ground thermal regimes and snow cover and the influence on permafrost spatial distribution. The study area is the ice-free terrains of northwestern Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". Air and ground temperatures and snow thickness data where analysed from 4 sites along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2012: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). The data covers 6 cold seasons showing different conditions: i) very cold with thin snow cover; ii) cold with a gradual increase of snow cover; iii) warm with thick snow cover. The data shows three types of periods regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: a) thin snow cover and short-term fluctuation of ground temperatures; b) thick snow cover and stable ground temperatures; c) very thick snow cover and ground temperatures nearly constant at 0°C. a) Thin snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show frequent temperature variations, alternating between short-term fluctuations and stable ground temperatures. Nuevo Incinerador displays during most of the winter stable ground temperatures; b) Cold winters with a gradual increase of the snow cover: Nuevo Incinerador, Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show similar behavior, with a long period of stable ground temperatures; c) Thick snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski show long periods of stable ground, while Nuevo Incinerador shows temperatures close to 0°C since the beginning of the winter, due to early snow cover

  14. Evaluating consumer preferences for healthy eating from Community Kitchens in low-income urban areas: A discrete choice experiment of Comedores Populares in Peru.

    PubMed

    Buttorff, Christine; Trujillo, Antonio J; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Many low-income individuals from around the world rely on local food vendors for daily sustenance. These small vendors quickly provide convenient, low-priced, tasty foods, however, they may be low in nutritional value. These vendors serve as an opportunity to use established delivery channels to explore the introduction of healthier products, e.g. fresh salad and fruits, to low-income populations. We sought to understand preferences for items prepared in Comedores Populares (CP), government-supported food vendors serving low-income Peruvians, to determine whether it would be feasible to introduce healthier items, specifically fruits and vegetables. We used a best-worst discrete choice experiment (DCE) that allowed participants to select their favorite and least favorite option from a series of three hypothetical menus. The characteristics were derived from a series of formative qualitative interviews conducted previously in the CPs. We examined preferences for six characteristics: price, salad, soup, sides, meat and fruit. A total of 432 individuals, from two districts in Lima, Peru responded to a discrete choice experiment and demographic survey in 2012. For the DCE, price contributed the most to individual's utility relative to the other attributes, with salad and soup following closely. Sides (e.g. rice and beans) were the least important. The willingness to pay for a meal with a large main course and salad was 2.6 Nuevos Soles, roughly a 1 Nuevo Sol increase from the average menu price, or USD $0.32 dollars. The willingness to pay for a meal with fruit was 1.6 Nuevo Soles. Overall, the perceived quality of service and food served in the CPs is high. The willingness to pay indicates that healthier additions to meals are feasible. Understanding consumer preferences can help policy makers design healthier meals in an organization with the potential to scale up to reach a considerable number of low-income families.

  15. Evaluating consumer preferences for healthy eating from Community Kitchens in low-income urban areas: A discrete choice experiment of Comedores Populares in Peru.

    PubMed

    Buttorff, Christine; Trujillo, Antonio J; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Many low-income individuals from around the world rely on local food vendors for daily sustenance. These small vendors quickly provide convenient, low-priced, tasty foods, however, they may be low in nutritional value. These vendors serve as an opportunity to use established delivery channels to explore the introduction of healthier products, e.g. fresh salad and fruits, to low-income populations. We sought to understand preferences for items prepared in Comedores Populares (CP), government-supported food vendors serving low-income Peruvians, to determine whether it would be feasible to introduce healthier items, specifically fruits and vegetables. We used a best-worst discrete choice experiment (DCE) that allowed participants to select their favorite and least favorite option from a series of three hypothetical menus. The characteristics were derived from a series of formative qualitative interviews conducted previously in the CPs. We examined preferences for six characteristics: price, salad, soup, sides, meat and fruit. A total of 432 individuals, from two districts in Lima, Peru responded to a discrete choice experiment and demographic survey in 2012. For the DCE, price contributed the most to individual's utility relative to the other attributes, with salad and soup following closely. Sides (e.g. rice and beans) were the least important. The willingness to pay for a meal with a large main course and salad was 2.6 Nuevos Soles, roughly a 1 Nuevo Sol increase from the average menu price, or USD $0.32 dollars. The willingness to pay for a meal with fruit was 1.6 Nuevo Soles. Overall, the perceived quality of service and food served in the CPs is high. The willingness to pay indicates that healthier additions to meals are feasible. Understanding consumer preferences can help policy makers design healthier meals in an organization with the potential to scale up to reach a considerable number of low-income families. PMID:26184703

  16. Chemical and isotopic compositions in acid residues from various meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, N.; Yamakoshi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.

    1993-01-01

    We are planning to carry out systematic isotopic investigations of Ru, Mg, etc., in primordial samples. The investigations will be pursued in the context of a study of the pre-history of the solar system. It is hoped that the study will yield direct evidence for processes of nucleosynthesis in the pre-solar stage and detection of extinct radioactive nuclides. In this paper, we present the results of chemical compositions of acid residues obtained from three types of meteorites: Canyon Diablo (IA), Allende (CV3), and Nuevo Mercuro (H5); and the preliminary results of Ru isotopic compositions.

  17. A border context of violence: Mexican female sex workers on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M

    2014-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) represent a population confronted with an array of intersecting social problems. We explore the case of FSW in Nuevo Laredo and Ciudad Juarez to understand the everyday violence associated with sex work within the unique context of Mexico. Life history interviews were conducted with 109 FSW revealing violent acts by clients and other sex industry employees (bar owners, police, other FSW). The risk of violence by different types of persons associated with the sex work industry varied by venue and geographic area. Moreover, the violence was shaped by the social structural constraints of dominant gender ideologies.

  18. Soluciones analiticas AL problema de jets con velocidad de eyeccion variable EN EL tiempo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, J.; Raga, A. C.; D'Alessio, P.

    1998-11-01

    Se presenta un nuevo metodo que permite resolver de manera exacta y analitica las ecuaciones que describen un jet hipersonico con velocidad de eyeccion variable en el tiempo. El metodo se basa en consideraciones sencillas de conservacion de momento para las superficies de trabajo que se forman en el interior del jet. Como ejemplo, se presentan soluciones para jets con variacion sinusoidal en la velocidad de eyeccion, y tambien para el caso de un incremento lineal en el tiempo. Estas soluciones analiticas tienen una clara aplicacion en la interpretacion de las observaciones de jets asociados a objetos Herbig-Haro.

  19. [Microdeletion 12p12 involving SOX5 gene: a new syndrome with developmental delay].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Carrera, Ignacio; de Zaldívar-Tristancho, M Solo; Martín-Fernández, Rebeca; Hernández-Martín, Raquel; López-Lafuente, Amparo; Rodríguez-Revenga, Laia

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. El gen SOX5 codifica un factor de transcripcion implicado en la regulacion de la condrogenia y el desarrollo del sistema nervioso. Caso clinico. Niña de 10 anos con discapacidad intelectual, alteracion conductual y malformaciones menores de este nuevo sindrome con alteracion en el neurodesarrollo, con una delecion 12p12 que incluye el gen SOX5. Conclusiones. Se revisan los casos publicados tanto de deleciones intragenicas de SOX5 como de deleciones mas grandes que incluyen este gen, y se analizan las correlaciones genotipo-fenotipo y los genes implicados en esta paciente.

  20. Educación no formal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.