Science.gov

Sample records for perineural catheter placement

  1. [Ultrasound-guided continuous infraclavicular block for hand surgery: technical report arm position for perineural catheter placement].

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Lemus, Guadalupe; Hernández-Gasca, Verónica; Espinosa-Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Continuous perineural infusion of local anesthetic provides better postoperative analgesia than intravenous administration of opioids or NSAIDs in upper limb surgery. The infraclavicular approach is a good option due to the muscular stability to catheter; the abduction of the arm apparently makes more superficial the brachial plexus and which elevates clavicle cephalad. The aim of this study was to identify whether the abduction of the arm for to decreases the skin-plexus distance, facilitating it catheter insertion in a perineural way for a better analgesia. This relation between the arm and the colocation of catheter has not yet been established. We included 58 adult patients, undergoing forearm and hand surgery, initially divided into two groups, adduction and abduction. It was placed continuous infraclavicular block guided by ultrasound, it allow the catheter tip was adjacent to the posterior cord. In the group patients with high technical difficulties were allowed to reposition the arm abduction, recording number of punctures, redirects, ease of insertion of the catheter and skin-plexus distance. The abduction of the arm moved the clavicle toward cephalad and separated it from the linear transducer, this allowed to maneuver the needle right angle and redirect it, the distance skin-plexus did not decrease significantly with arm position. Arm abduction allows better scanning facilitates the infraclavicular puncture and catheter introduction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  2. Bacterial colonization is decreased after tunneling femoral perineural catheters.

    PubMed

    Compere, Vincent; Daccache, George; Amdjar, Nora; Fourdrinier, Véronique; Moriceau, Jérôme; Foutel, Anne; Frebourg, Noël; Mourgeon, Eric; Houivet, Esthelle; Dureuil, Bertrand

    2016-12-01

    Infection of perineural catheter is rare, although bacterial colonization is frequent. An observational study reported that subcutaneous tunneling perineural catheter could decrease its colonization rate. We performed a comparative study to assess the incidence of catheter related bacterial colonization of tunnelized femoral perineural catheters. This bicentric, randomized, single-blind, controlled and intention-to-treat study was conducted from December 2009 to December 2011. The catheter was secured with adhesive strips in the control group and was tunneled subcutaneously in the tunnelization group. Primary endpoint was catheter colonization rate assessed by by Brun-Buisson quantitative culture. Secondary endpoints included catheter-related infection, inadvertent catheter dislodgement rate, incidence of technical problems with subcutaneous tunneling and, risk factors for catheter-related colonization. Of the total 338 patients included, 2 patients were later excluded and 78 were lost to follow-up for primary endpoint. Inadvertent removal of femoral catheter accounted for 33 of these 78 patients (10 for the tunnelization group versus 23 for the control group, P=0.02). There was a lower colonization rate in the patient group with tunnelization compared to the control group without tunnelization (6% versus 13.5%, respectively; OR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.1-5.3; P=0.02). No infection was observed. Coagulase-negative staphylococci is present in 61%. The absence of tunnelization is the only risk factor of colonization. For 7 patients, accidental perforation of perineural catheter during procedure was observed. Tunneled subcutaneous perineural catheter decreased the incidence of colonization. Moreover, tunnelization is an effective technique for securing the perineural catheter.

  3. Randomized comparison of popliteal-sciatic perineural catheter tip migration and dislocation in a cadaver model using two catheter designs

    PubMed Central

    Steffel, Lauren; Howard, Steven K.; Borg, Lindsay; Leng, Jody C.; Kim, T. Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background New catheter-over-needle (CON) technology for continuous peripheral nerve blockade has emerged, but its effect on the risk of perineural catheter tip dislocation is unknown. Less flexible catheters may be more likely to migrate away from the nerve with simulated patient movement. In the present study, we evaluated catheter tip migration between CON catheters and traditional catheter-through-needle (CTN) catheters during ultrasound-guided short-axis in-plane (SAX-IP) insertion. Methods We evaluated the migration of popliteal-sciatic catheters in a prone, unembalmed male cadaver. Thirty catheter placement trials were divided randomly into two groups based on the catheter type: CON or CTN. A single anesthesiology resident placed the catheters by SAX-IP insertion, and the catheters were then examined by ultrasound before and after ipsilateral knee range of motion (ROM) exercises (0°–130° flexion). A blinded expert regional anesthesiologist performed caliper measurements on the ultrasound images before and after the ROM exercises. The primary outcome was the change in distance from the catheter tip to the center of the nerve (cm) between before and after the ROM exercises. Results The change in the tip-to-nerve distance (median [10th–90th percentile]) was 0.06 (−0.16 to 0.23) cm for the CTN catheter and 0.00 (−0.12 to 0.69) for the CON catheter (P = 0.663). However, there was a statistically significant increase in dislocation out of the nerve compartment for the CON catheter (4/15; 0/15 for CTN) (P = 0.043). Conclusions Although the use of different catheter designs had no effect on the change in the measured migration distance of popliteal-sciatic catheters, 27% of the CON catheters were dislocated out of the nerve compartment. These results may influence the choice of catheter design when using SAX-IP perineural catheter insertion. PMID:28184270

  4. Principles of tunneled cuffed catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Wolf

    2011-12-01

    Tunneled cuffed catheters provide reliable and instant long-term intravenous access for a large variety of therapeutic purposes, including chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, and apheresis. The most frequent application is for patients with renal failure as an access device for hemodialysis. In this capacity, the rate of catheter use has remained stable in the United States, despite the promotion of arteriovenous fistulas and arteriovenous grafts. The latter 2 procedures achieve superior longevity and much higher cost-efficiency. Tunneled catheters, however, serve as bridging devices during maturation of newly placed arteriovenous fistulas or as the final option in patients in whom fistulas and grafts have failed. High-quality vascular access is a hallmark of interventional radiology, and its significance for patient care and for our specialty cannot be overestimated. Familiarity with basic concepts of the device and procedural techniques are crucial to achieve successful long-term venous access. The following article demonstrates key concepts of tunneled venous catheter placement by means of dialysis, inasmuch as dialysis catheters represent the most commonly placed tunneled central venous catheters. The principles of placement and techniques utilized, however, are applicable to devices that are used for chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition, such as the Hickman, Broviac, Groshong, or tunneled peripherally inserted central catheters.

  5. ATLS: Catheter and tube placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.; Pepper, L.; Orsak, Debra

    1991-01-01

    The specific objectives of this experiment are: to evaluate the rack mounted equipment and medical supplies necessary for medical procedures; to evaluate the attachments, mounting points, and inner drawer assemblies for the medical supplies; and to evaluate the procedures for performing medical scenarios. The resources available in the HMF miniracks to accomplish medical scenarios and/or procedures include: medical equipment mounted in the racks; a patch panel with places to attach tubing and catheters; self contained drawers full of critical care medical supplies; and an ALS 'backpack' for deploying supplies. The attachment lines, tubing and associated medical supplies will be deployed and used with the equipment and a patient mannequin. Data collection is provided by direct observations by the inflight experimenters, and analysis of still and video photography.

  6. Intermittent back pain after central venous catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Rosa, U W; Foreman, M; Willsie-Ediger, S

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of inadvertent azygos placement of a central venous catheter. The patient experienced ill-defined back pain associated with total parenteral nutrition infusion. The catheter malposition remained unrecognized and resulted in extensive diagnostic work-up. Symptoms resolved after the catheter was withdrawn.

  7. Translumbar placement of paired hemodialysis catheters (Tesio Catheters) and follow-up in 10 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, Rajiv; Nosher, John L.; Siegel, Randall L.; Bodner, Leonard J.

    2000-01-15

    For lack of other suitable access, 10 consecutive patients received paired hemodialysis catheters for long-term hemodialysis using a translumbar approach to the inferior vena cava (IVC). All attempts were successful. Five paired catheters were placed using the single-puncture technique, and five using the dual-puncture technique. Catheters were in place for a total of 2252 catheter days. The average duration of catheter placement was 250 days (range 30-580 days). All catheters were functioning up to the time the study was completed or the patient died. The most common complication was partial dislodgment of the catheter in 3 of 23 catheters (13%), all occurring in obese patients. One episode of retroperitoneal hemorrhage was noted in a patient having the single-access technique. There were no episodes of infection or IVC thrombosis.

  8. [Risk of infection after placement of an extraventricular drainage catheter].

    PubMed

    Novak, Vesna; Stefanović, Ivan; Kostić, Aleksander; Novak, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of infection after the placement of an extraventricular drainage (EVD) catheter can be a very serious problem in neurosurgery. The aim of this study was to confirm that the use of special catheters with impregnated antibiotics decreased the percentage of infection. The prospective study conducted at the Clinic of Neurosurgery in Nis in the period 2006-2009 is presented. Group 1 comprised of 43 patients in whom a commonly used system for EVD was applied. Group 2 comprised of 39 patients in whom the Rifampycin and Clindamycin impregnated EVD catheters were applied (Bactiseal catheters). In Group 1 infection occurred in nine patients, mainly caused by bacteria of Staphylococcus genus. In Group 2 only two patients developed infections caused by Acinetobacter. The use of Bactiseal EVD catheters considerably decreased the percentage of infection occurrence with prolonged EVD catheter drainage period.

  9. Central venous catheter placement: where is the tip?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, George M

    2012-09-01

    The insertion of central venous catheters is a common bedside procedure performed in intensive care units. Here, we present a case of an 82-year-old man who underwent insertion of a central venous catheter in the internal jugular vein without perceived complications. Postprocedural radiographs showed rostral migration of the catheter, and computed tomography performed coincidentally showed cannulation of the jugular bulb at the level of the jugular foramen. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document migration of a central venous catheter from the internal jugular vein into the dural sinuses, as confirmed by computed tomography. The case highlights the importance of acquiring postprocedural radiographs for all insertions of central venous catheters to confirm catheter placement.

  10. Ventriculopleural shunt: thoracoscopic placement of the distal catheter.

    PubMed

    Kurschel, S; Eder, H G; Schleef, J

    2003-11-01

    Ventriculopleural shunting is usually reserved for patients with limited options for shunt revisions. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus who required numerous shunt procedures. At the age of 6 years, a ventriculopleural shunt was inserted by an intercostal thoracotomy, and 4 years later replacement of the distal catheter was necessary. Recently, he presented again with a shunt malfunction due to migration of the pleural catheter. We describe a technique for performing the placement of the distal catheter under direct thoracoscopic vision by a peel-off needle into the unscarred thoracic cavity despite two previous pleural procedures. The postoperative course was uneventful. Thoracoscopic assistance in ventriculopleural shunt placement appears to be a safe and effective technique, offering several advantages over the open procedure: it is less invasive, allows a precise positioning of the thoracic catheter under visual control, and confirms appropriate function.

  11. Lumbar Catheter Placement Using Paramedian Approach Under Fluoroscopic Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Khan, Asif A.; Malik, Ahmed A.; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Herial, Nabeel A.; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Suri, M. Fareed K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lumbar catheter placement under fluoroscopic guidance may reduce the rate of technical failures and associated complications seen with insertion guided by manually palpable landmarks. Methods We reviewed our experience with 43 attempted lumbar catheter placements using paramedian approach under fluoroscopic guidance and ascertained rates of technical success, and clinical events. Results Among the 43 patients, 18, 1, and 1 patients were on aspirin (with dipyrimadole in 2), clopidogrel, and combination of both, respectively. Lumbar catheter placement was successful in 42 of 43 attempted placements. Floroscopic guidance was critical in three patients; one patient had severe cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) depletion (empty thecal sac phenomenon) following pituitary surgery leading to no cerebrospinal fluid return despite correct placement confirmation under fluoroscopy. Two patients had spinal needle placement at the junction between epidural and cerebrospinal fluid spaces (junctional position) leading to cerebrospinal fluid return but inability to introduce the lumbar catheter. After confirmation of position by the injection of contrast or radiographic landmarks the needle was advanced by indenting the subcutaneous tissue or reinserting at a spinal level above the first insertion. The lumbar catheter remained in position over a mean period (±standard deviation) of 4.1(±2.3) days. Improvement in hydrocephalus was seen in two patients with intracranial mass lesions. One patient developed cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the insertion track following removal of catheter and required skin suturing at the site of insertion. Conclusions We observed a high technical success rate with low rate of complications even in patients with intracranial mass lesions, those on ongoing antiplatelet medications or in whom insertion would not be possible guided by manually palpable landmarks. PMID:26958156

  12. Ambulatory setting for peritoneal dialysis catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Maya, Ivan D

    2008-01-01

    A modified fluoroscopic technique by adding ultrasound-assistance ensuring entry into the abdominal cavity and avoiding the risk of epigastric artery injury under direct ultrasound visualization was recently published. This study demonstrated that the technique was minimally invasive and allowed for accurate assessment of entry into the abdominal cavity and avoidance of vascular injury. In the current analysis, we report the impact of this technique on hospital stay during a peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion. Twenty-six PD catheters have been placed on an outpatient basis using this technique. All catheter insertions were successful. Patients were discharge on the same day of the procedure. There were no procedure-related complication or related to short hospital stay. An ambulatory setting allows for a short hospital stay without compromising patient care. This brief paper explains in detail the pre, peri and postoperative period and follow-up.

  13. Intracranial ventricular catheter placement with a smartphone assisted instrument.

    PubMed

    Thomale, Ulrich-W

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology has recently been introduced for blood pressure measurements or glucose level controls. In surgical disciplines the use of smartphone applications is mostly restricted as training tools or knowledge resources. Simple surgical procedures which are performed often in certain disciplines may be performed with limited accuracy since routine and overwork of medical staff lead to less awareness to possible mistakes. In these cases simple and effective means are necessary to achieve better patient safety.In this context, a surgical instrument for ventricular catheter placement in neurosurgical patients was designed which is assisted by measurements undertaken in a smartphone software application specifically visualizing the use of this instrument and achieving better accuracy for catheter positioning. On theoretical ground, the angulation of the catheter trajectory towards the surface of the skull in a coronal reconstructed CT or MR image is determined as the simplified but the most relevant individual parameter for correct ventricular catheter placement. Transfer of a CT/MRI image onto the smartphone can be performed via mail as anonymous file. Using this image, the trajectory measurement can be performed individually in a few steps by calibration of the image size, definition of the frontal entry point, and virtual placement of the instrument on the surface of the skull. Then the angulation can be adjusted and measured to place the catheter's trajectory towards the ipsilateral ventricle and the catheter length is determined. The parameters are now given by the app and visualized on the image in order to be applied to the surgical site of the patient.The tool represents a widely available and cost-effective solution as navigation technique which is simple to apply in order to achieve better accuracy in ventricular catheter placement for higher safety in a large cohort of neurosurgical patients.

  14. Device for Catheter Placement of External Ventricular Drain

    PubMed Central

    Ann, Jae-Min; Oh, Jae-Sang; Yoon, Seok-Mann

    2016-01-01

    To introduce a new device for catheter placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This device was composed of three portions, T-shaped main body, rectangular pillar having a central hole to insert a catheter and an arm pointing the tragus. The main body has a role to direct a ventricular catheter toward the right or left inner canthus and has a shallow longitudinal opening to connect the rectangular pillar. The arm pointing the tragus is controlled by back and forth movement and turn of the pillar attached to the main body. Between April 2012 and December 2014, 57 emergency EVDs were performed in 52 patients using this device in the operating room. Catheter tip located in the frontal horn in 52 (91.2%), 3rd ventricle in 2 (3.5%) and in the wall of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in 3 EVDs (5.2%). Small hemorrhage along to catheter tract occurred in 1 EVD. CSF was well drained through the all EVD catheters. The accuracy of the catheter position and direction using this device were 91% and 100%, respectively. This device for EVD guides to provide an accurate position of catheter tip safely and easily. PMID:27226870

  15. Popliteal catheter placement utilizing ultrasound needle guidance system

    PubMed Central

    Clendenen, Steven R; Robards, Christopher B; Greengrass, Roy A

    2010-01-01

    While ultrasound (US)-guided placement of peripheral nerve blocks is rapidly gaining popularity, expert practitioners agree that two of the most significant barriers to safety and efficacy are keeping the needle tip within the image and unintentional probe movement during the procedure.1 In addition, placing a nerve catheter past the needle tip under direct US observation requires two practitioners: one to hold the US probe and needle and another to advance the catheter. We present a case of a needle guidance system that attaches to the ultrasound probe and facilitates in-plane imaging. It enables a single practitioner to successfully execute a popliteal sciatic nerve block and visualize catheter placement. Therefore, a needle guidance system may represent an additional modification to ultrasound imaging that increases both time efficiency as well as safety. PMID:22915868

  16. Electromagnetically tracked placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacolick, Laura; Patel, Neilesh; Tang, Jonathan; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes a computer program to utilize electromagnetic tracking guidance during insertion of peripherally inserted central catheters. Placement of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) line is a relatively simple, routine procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the veins of the lower arm and threaded up the arm to the vena cava to sit just above the heart. However, the procedure requires x-ray verification of the catheter position and is usually done under continuous fluoroscopic guidance. The computer program is designed to replace fluoroscopic guidance in this procedure and make PICC line placement a bedside procedure. This would greatly reduce the time and resources dedicated to this procedure. The physician first goes through a quick registration procedure to register the patient space with the computer screen coordinates. Once registration is completed, the program provides a continuous, real-time display of the position of the catheter tip overlaid on an x-ray image of the patient on an adjacent computer screen. Both the position and orientation of the catheter tip is shown. The display is very similar to that shown when using fluoroscopy.

  17. Ultrasound/fluoroscopy-assisted placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Maya, Ivan D

    2007-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters may be inserted blindly, surgically, and either by laparoscopic, peritoneoscopic, or fluoroscopic approach. A modified fluoroscopic technique by adding ultrasound-assistance was performed in the present study to ensure entry into the abdominal cavity under direct ultrasound visualization. From March 2005 to May 2007, ultrasound-fluoroscopic guided placement of PD catheters was attempted in 32 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Preoperative evaluation was performed on all patients prior to the procedure. After initial dissection of the subcutaneous tissue anterior to the anterior rectus sheath, the needle was inserted into the abdominal cavity under the guidance of ultrasound. The position of the epigastric artery was also examined using ultrasonography to avoid the risk of arterial injury. PD catheters were successfully placed in 31 of the 32 ESRD patients using this technique. In all of these patients, the needle could be seen entering the abdominal cavity using an ultrasound. In one patient the procedure was abandoned because of bowel puncture by the micro-puncture needle that was inadvertently advanced into a loop of bowel. This patient did not develop acute abdomen nor needed any intervention. One patient died 4 days after placement of the catheter of unrelated causes. One patient was started on acute peritoneal dialysis the same day of catheter placement without any complications. The rest of the patients started peritoneal dialysis within 2-6 weeks of catheter placement. None of the patients had bleeding related to arterial injury as ultrasound was able to visualize the epigastric artery. Our experience shows that ultrasound-fluoroscopic technique is minimally invasive and allows for accurate assessment of the entry into the abdominal cavity. This technique can avoid the risk of vascular injury altogether.

  18. Death after legal abortion by catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D A; Cates, W; Tyler, C W

    1977-09-01

    A case of death following induction of legal abortion by catheter (Bougie technique) is reported. The procedure was performed on a 16-year-old, white, single girl, gravida 3, para 2, in a physician's clinic at 5 menstrual weeks' gestation. Death was attributed to incomplete abortion, clinical septicemia, and pulmonary edema. It is advised that blood and uterine cultures should have been obtained when the patient presented with septic shock. Disadvantages of this technique of abortion include 1) excessive times to abortion, 2) frequent need for a 2nd procedure, and 3) and a high incidence of complications.

  19. Decrease in central venous catheter placement due to use of ultrasound guidance for peripheral intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Au, Arthur K; Rotte, Masashi J; Grzybowski, Robert J; Ku, Bon S; Fields, J Matthew

    2012-11-01

    Obtaining intravenous (IV) access in the emergency department (ED) can be especially challenging, and physicians often resort to placement of central venous catheters (CVCs). Use of ultrasound-guided peripheral IV catheters (USGPIVs) can prevent many "unnecessary" CVCs, but the true impact of USGPIVs has never been quantified. This study set out to determine the reduction in CVCs by USGPIV placement. This was a prospective, observational study conducted in 2 urban EDs. Patients who were to undergo placement of a CVC due to inability to establish IV access by other methods were enrolled. Ultrasound-trained physicians then attempted USGPIV placement. Patients were followed up for up to 7 days to assess for CVC placement and related complications. One hundred patients were enrolled and underwent USGPIV placement. Ultrasound-guided peripheral IV catheters were initially successfully placed in all patients but failed in 12 patients (12.0%; 95 confidence interval [CI], 7.0%-19.8%) before ED disposition, resulting in 4 central lines, 7 repeated USGPIVs, and 1 patient requiring no further intervention. Through the inpatient follow-up period, another 11 patients underwent CVC placement, resulting in a total of 15 CVCs (15.0%; 95 CI, 9.3%-23.3%) placed. Of the 15 patients who did receive a CVC, 1 patient developed a catheter-related infection, resulting in a 6.7% (95 CI, 1.2%-29.8%) complication rate. Ultrasound prevented the need for CVC placement in 85% of patients with difficult IV access. This suggests that USGPIVs have the potential to reduce morbidity in this patient population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Placement of central venous catheters and patient safety].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, E

    2007-01-27

    Placement of a central venous catheter is one of the most common invasive procedures and is associated with septic and mechanical complications, such as bleeding and pneumothorax. Up to 30% of attempts to cannulate the central vein fail. Correct positioning of the patient can help to maximise the success rate. For placement of catheters in the subclavian vein, patients should be in the Trendelenburg position without the use of a shoulder roll to retract the shoulders. Traditionally, central venous catheters are placed using a 'blind' technique that relies on external anatomical reference marks to localise the vein. However, unnoticed anatomical variations or central venous thrombosis may contribute to cannulation failure with this technique. The use of ultrasound has been shown to increase the success rate and avoid mechanical complications when placing a catheter in the internal jugular vein. It may also increase the success rate in subclavian vein catheterisation. To increase patient safety, the use of ultrasound when placing a central venous catheter should be embraced and become the standard of care.

  1. Continuous Popliteal Sciatic Blocks: Does Varying Perineural Catheter Location Relative to the Sciatic Bifurcation Influence Block Effects? A Dual-Center, Randomized, Subject-Masked, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Amanda M; Madison, Sarah J; Loland, Vanessa J; Sztain, Jacklynn F; Bishop, Michael L; Sandhu, NavParkash S; Bellars, Richard H; Khatibi, Bahareh; Schwartz, Alexandra K; Ahmed, Sonya S; Donohue, Michael C; Nomura, Scott T; Wen, Cindy H; Ilfeld, Brian M

    2016-05-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that, for single-injection popliteal sciatic nerve blocks, block characteristics are dependent upon local anesthetic injection relative to the sciatic nerve bifurcation. In contrast, this relation remains unexamined for continuous popliteal sciatic nerve blocks. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that postoperative analgesia is improved with the perineural catheter tip at the level of the bifurcation compared with 5 cm proximal to the bifurcation. Preoperatively, subjects having moderately painful foot or ankle surgery were randomly assigned to receive an ultrasound-guided subepimyseal perineural catheter inserted either at or 5 cm proximal to the sciatic nerve bifurcation. Subjects received a single injection of mepivacaine 1.5% either via the insertion needle preoperatively or the perineural catheter postoperatively, followed by an infusion of ropivacaine 0.2% (6 mL/h basal, 4 mL bolus, and 30-min lockout) for the study duration. The primary end point was the average pain measured on a numeric rating scale (0-10) in the 3 hours before a data collection telephone call the morning after surgery. The average numeric rating scale of subjects with a catheter inserted at the sciatic nerve bifurcation (n = 64) was a median (10th, 25th to 75th, and 90th quartiles) of 3.0 (0.0, 2.4-5.0, and 7.0) vs 2.0 (0.0, 1.0-4.0, and 5.0) for subjects with a catheter inserted proximal to the bifurcation (n = 64; P = 0.008). Similarly, maximum pain scores were greater in the group at the bifurcation: 6.0 (3.0, 4.4-8.0, and 9.0) vs 5.0 (0.0, 3.0-8.0, and 10.0) (P = 0.019). Differences between the groups for catheter insertion time, opioid rescue dose, degree of numbness in the foot/toes, catheter dislodgement, and fluid leakage did not reach statistical significance. For continuous popliteal sciatic nerve blocks, a catheter inserted 5 cm proximal to the sciatic nerve bifurcation provides superior postoperative analgesia in subjects having moderately

  2. Continuous Popliteal Sciatic Blocks: Does Varying Perineural Catheter Location Relative to the Sciatic Bifurcation Influence Block Effects? A Dual-Center, Randomized, Subject-Masked, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Amanda M.; Madison, Sarah J.; Loland, Vanessa J.; Sztain, Jacklynn F.; Bishop, Michael L.; Sandhu, NavParkash S.; Bellars, Richard H.; Khatibi, Bahareh; Schwartz, Alexandra K.; Ahmed, Sonya S.; Donohue, Michael C.; Nomura, Scott T.; Wen, Cindy H.; Ilfeld, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that, for single-injection popliteal sciatic nerve blocks, block characteristics are dependent upon local anesthetic injection relative to the sciatic nerve bifurcation. In contrast, this relationship remains unexamined for continuous popliteal sciatic nerve blocks. We therefore tested the hypothesis that postoperative analgesia is improved with the perineural catheter tip at the level of the bifurcation compared to 5 cm proximal to the bifurcation. Methods Preoperatively, subjects having moderately painful foot or ankle surgery were randomly assigned to receive an ultrasound-guided subepimyseal perineural catheter inserted either at or 5 cm proximal to the sciatic nerve bifurcation. Subjects received a single injection of mepivacaine 1.5% either via the insertion needle preoperatively or the perineural catheter postoperatively, followed by an infusion of ropivacaine 0.2% (6 mL/h basal, 4 mL bolus, 30 min lockout) for the study duration. The primary end point was the average pain measured on a numeric rating scale (NRS; 0-10) in the 3 hours prior to a data collection telephone call the morning after surgery. Results The average NRS of subjects with a catheter inserted at the sciatic nerve bifurcation (n=64) was a median [10th, 25th-75th, 90th quartiles] of 3.0 [0.0, 2.4-5.0, 7.0] versus 2.0 [0.0, 1.0-4.0, 5.0] for subjects with a catheter inserted proximal to the bifurcation (n=64; P=0.008). Similarly, maximum pain scores were higher in the group at the bifurcation: 6.0 [3.0, 4.4-8.0, 9.0] versus 5.0 [0.0, 3.0-8.0, 10.0] (P=0.019). Differences between the groups for catheter insertion time, opioid rescue dose, degree of numbness in the foot/toes, catheter dislodgement, and fluid leakage did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions For continuous popliteal sciatic nerve blocks, a catheter inserted 5 cm proximal to the sciatic nerve bifurcation provides superior postoperative analgesia in subjects having moderately

  3. Bilateral ophthalmoplegia and exophthalmos complicating central hemodialysis catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Varelas, P N; Bertorini, T E; Halford, H

    1999-05-01

    We describe a 58-year-old woman who presented with bilateral ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, and headache and was found to have retrograde internal jugular vein flow secondary to a high-grade obstruction of the ipsilateral brachiocephalic vein from a previous hemodialysis catheter placement. The patient had also a high-flow dialysis graft in the ipsilateral arm. The cranial and extracranial venous system congestion resolved, and the signs disappeared soon after a balloon angioplasty and stent placement at the level of the obstruction.

  4. Dialysis Catheter Placement in Patients With Exhausted Access.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed; Kuban, Joshua D

    2017-03-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease undergo renal transplant, peritoneal dialysis, or intermittent hemodialysis for renal replacement therapy. For hemodialysis, native fistulas or grafts are preferred but hemodialysis catheters are often necessary. Per KDOQI, the right jugular vein is the preferred vessel of access for these catheters. However, in patients with long-standing end-stage renal disease vein thrombosis, stenosis and occlusion occurs. In these patients with end-stage vascular access, unconventional routes of placement of dialysis catheters are needed. These methods include placing them by means of sharp recanalization, via a translumbar route directly into the inferior vena cava, and via transhepatic and transrenal routes. These difficult, but potentially lifesaving methods of gaining vascular access are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Ultrasound-Only Central Venous Catheter Placement and Confirmation Procedure.

    PubMed

    Saul, Turandot; Doctor, Michael; Kaban, Nicole L; Avitabile, Nicholas C; Siadecki, Sebastian D; Lewiss, Resa E

    2015-07-01

    The placement of a central venous catheter remains an important intervention in the care of critically ill patients in the emergency department. We propose an ultrasound-first protocol for 3 aspects of central venous catheter placement above the diaphragm: dynamic procedural guidance, evaluation for pneumothorax, and confirmation of the catheter tip location.

  6. Complications of Permanent Hemodialysis Catheter Placement; Need for Better Pre-Implantation Algorithm?

    PubMed

    Premuzic, Vedran; Smiljanic, Ranko; Perkov, Drazen; Gavranic, Bruna Brunetta; Tomasevic, Boris; Jelakovic, Bojan

    2016-08-01

    There is a correlation between central venous cannulation and the development of central venous stenosis. Minor retrosternal vein lesions can be easily missed. Computerized tomographic (CT) venography is the diagnostic procedure of choice. The aim of this study was to examine the complications after catheter implantation in patients with prior permanent catheter placement and to evaluate present diagnostic procedures performed prior to choosing permanent access site in order to reduce possible complications after catheter placement. Complications of permanent CVC insertion in our department were analyzed between October 2011 and February 2015. We have implanted the Tesio twin catheter system and the Hickman Bard dual lumen catheter. All patients with prior permanent dialysis catheter were evaluated with color doppler, while patients with suspected central venous stenosis (CVS) or thrombosis were evaluated with phlebography or CT venography prior to catheter placement. One hundred and ninety-eight permanent dialysis catheters were placed (173 Tesio [87.4%] and 25 Hickman [12.6%]) in 163 patients. There were 125 patients (76.7%) with prior temporary catheter and 61 (48.8%) of them had more than one prior permanent catheter (1.92 catheter per person).There were 4/61 (6.5%) patients with catheter-related complications without prior phlebography and CT venography. Phlebography and CT venography were performed in 30 (24.0%) patients with suspected CVS/thrombosis and with dialysis vintage of 76.23 months (52.78-98.28). Phlebography and CT venography were more sensitive than color doppler in the detection of CVS/thrombosis in patients with prior permanent catheter placements (P < 0.001). Since this diagnostic algorithm was introduced prior to catheter placement there were no catheter insertion-related complications or dysfunctions (P < 0.001). All our procedures on patients with prior permanent catheters followed preliminary color doppler diagnostics. Nevertheless

  7. Evaluation of catheter infection rates in converted dialysis catheters versus de novo placement in the setting of chlorhexidine use.

    PubMed

    Criddle, Jared M; Hieb, Robert A; White, Sarah B; Patel, Parag J; Hohenwalter, Eric J; Tutton, Sean M; Rilling, William S

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have reported infection rates of converting non-tunneled dialysis catheters (NTDCs) to tunneled dialysis catheters (TDCs) versus de novo placement of TDCs using povidone-iodine. Chlorhexidine, per the Center of Disease Control guidelines, has been exclusively used in our institution since 2005. Therefore, our study aims to determine whether there is a difference in infection rates between conversion and de novo placement when utilizing chlorhexidine. A retrospective analysis from 1/1/2009 to 8/10/2012 was performed of patients who underwent placement of NTDCs, which were subsequently converted to TDCs and those who underwent de novo TDC placement. To assess the rate of infection, the following data points were collected: date of procedure(s), indication, outcomes, site of catheter insertion, pre- and post-procedure laboratory values, complications, infection rates within the life of the initially placed catheter, catheter days, and survival. The conversion cohort was composed of 205 patients, 135 of whom were lost to follow-up, leaving 70 patients. The de novo cohort included 70 randomly selected patients. Of the 70 patients who underwent conversion, 23 developed a catheter-related infection, with an infection rate of 0.26 events per 100 catheter days. Of the 70 de novo catheters, 20 developed infection with an infection rate of 0.25 events per 100 catheters days. In this series, there is no difference in infection rates between conversion and de novo TDC placement when utilizing chlorhexidine as the sterilization agent. However, these infection rates are superior to those reported when using povidone-iodine.

  8. Best practices consensus protocol for peritoneal dialysis catheter placement by interventional radiologists.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, Ahmed K; Dybbro, Paul; Hathaway, Peter; Guest, Steven; Neuwirth, Michael; Krishnamurthy, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters can be placed by interventional radiologists, an approach that might offer scheduling efficiencies, cost-effectiveness, and a minimally invasive procedure. In the United States, changes in the dialysis reimbursement structure by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are expected to result in the increased use of PD, a less costly dialysis modality that offers patients the opportunity to receive dialysis in the home setting and to have more independence for travel and work schedules, and that preserves vascular access for future dialysis options. Placement of PD catheters by interventional radiologists might therefore be increasingly requested by nephrology practices, given that recent publications have demonstrated the favorable impact on PD practices of an interventional radiology PD placement capability. Earlier reports of interventional radiology PD catheter placement came from single-center practices with smaller reported experiences. The need for a larger consensus document that attempts to establish best demonstrated practices for radiologists is evident. The radiologists submitting this consensus document represent a combined experience of more than 1000 PD catheter placements. The authors submit these consensus-proposed best demonstrated practices for placement of PD catheters by interventional radiologists under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. This technique might allow for expeditious placement of permanent PD catheters in late-referred patients with end-stage renal disease, thus facilitating urgent-start PD and avoiding the need for temporary vascular access catheters. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  9. Best Practices Consensus Protocol for Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Placement by Interventional Radiologists

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aal, Ahmed K.; Dybbro, Paul; Hathaway, Peter; Guest, Steven; Neuwirth, Michael; Krishnamurthy, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters can be placed by interventional radiologists, an approach that might offer scheduling efficiencies, cost-effectiveness, and a minimally invasive procedure. In the United States, changes in the dialysis reimbursement structure by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are expected to result in the increased use of PD, a less costly dialysis modality that offers patients the opportunity to receive dialysis in the home setting and to have more independence for travel and work schedules, and that preserves vascular access for future dialysis options. Placement of PD catheters by interventional radiologists might therefore be increasingly requested by nephrology practices, given that recent publications have demonstrated the favorable impact on PD practices of an interventional radiology PD placement capability. Earlier reports of interventional radiology PD catheter placement came from single-center practices with smaller reported experiences. The need for a larger consensus document that attempts to establish best demonstrated practices for radiologists is evident. The radiologists submitting this consensus document represent a combined experience of more than 1000 PD catheter placements. The authors submit these consensus-proposed best demonstrated practices for placement of PD catheters by interventional radiologists under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. This technique might allow for expeditious placement of permanent PD catheters in late-referred patients with end-stage renal disease, thus facilitating urgent-start PD and avoiding the need for temporary vascular access catheters. PMID:24584622

  10. Previous PICC Placement May Be Associated With Catheter-Related Infections in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Philip J. Sood, Shreya; Mojibian, Hamid; Tal, Michael G.

    2011-02-15

    Background: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The identification of novel, modifiable risk factors for CRIs may lead to improved outcomes in this population. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been hypothesized to compromise vascular access due to vascular damage and venous thrombosis, whereas venous thrombosis has been linked to the development of CRIs. Here we examine the association between PICC placement and CRIs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all chronic hemodialysis catheter placements and exchanges performed at a large university hospital from September 2003 to September 2008. History of PICC line use was determined by examining hospital radiologic records from December 1993 to September 2008. Catheter-related complications were assessed and correlated with PICC line history. Results: One hundred eighty-five patients with 713 chronic tunneled hemodialysis catheter placements were identified. Thirty-eight of those patients (20.5%) had a history of PICC placement; these patients were more likely to have CRIs (odds ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.71-3.53, p < .001) compared with patients without a history of PICC placement. There was no difference between the two groups in age or number of catheters placed. Conclusion: Previous PICC placement may be associated with catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients.

  11. Tips and tricks to facilitate ultrasound-guided placement of peripheral nerve catheters in children.

    PubMed

    de José María, Belén; Banús, Ester; Navarro-Egea, Montse; Banchs, Richard J

    2011-09-01

    To describe an approach to facilitate ultrasound (US)-guided placement of peripheral nerve catheters in children. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks (CPNB) provide excellent surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. However, catheters can be difficult to place, especially in children. Ten US-guided peripheral nerve catheters were placed and placement difficulties encountered were recorded. Four series of 15 consecutive US-guided CPNB were then performed, adding in each series one possible solution to each of the troubles previously encountered. Finally, all maneuvers were employed in the placement of 15 US-guided CPNB in children 3-10 years old and then followed clinically. Initial difficulties encountered were as follows: (i) introducing the catheter, (ii) catheter tip visualization, (iii) length of catheter to be introduced, and (iv) catheter fixation and appropriate long-lasting dressing. The proposed facilitating procedure that addresses each of these difficulties is as follows: (i) three-hand technique: an assistant's hand holds the US transducer, the proceduralist anesthetist slightly withdraws and rotates the needle tip with one hand and advances the catheter with the other, (ii) needle visualization in long axis (LAX) whenever possible with catheter placed inside the needle and US guidance of spread of local anesthetic (LA) through the catheter, (iii) catheter advanced until resistance is found or up to a maximum of 5 cm, and (iv) subcutaneous tunneling of the catheter, Dermabond glue, and careful transparent dressing. All catheters in the last series were 100% effective during surgery and provided complete analgesia for ≥3 days without complications. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children should be placed under US guidance in LAX whenever possible, with a three-hand technique and slightly withdrawing or rotating the needle tip to introduce the catheter, administering LA through the catheter, and performing subcutaneous tunneling and

  12. A comparative analysis of radiological and surgical placement of central venous catheters

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Kieran D.; Fisher, Ross; Warnock, Neil; Winfield, David A.; Reed, Malcolm W.; Gaines, Peter A.

    1997-01-15

    Purpose. To compare the differences in practice and outcome of all radiologically and surgically placed central venous catheters retrospectively over a 2-year period simultaneously, at a single institution. Methods.A total of 253 Hickman catheters were inserted in 209 patients; 120 were placed radiologically in 102 patients and 133 were placed surgically in 107 patients. The indication was chemotherapy in 76% of radiological and in 47% of surgical cases; the remainder were for total parenteral nutrition and venous access. Results. There were 6 (4.5%) primary surgical failures and a further 17 (13%) surgical cases requiring multiple placement attempts. Pneumothorax occurred once (0.8%) surgically and four times (3.3%) radiologically. There were no radiological primary misplacements but there were five (3.7%) surgical ones. Catheter or central vein thrombosis occurred in four (3.3%) radiological and five (3.7%) surgical cases. The rate of infection per 1000 catheter-days was 1.9 in radiologically placed catheters and 4.0 in surgically placed ones (p<0.001). Average catheter life-span was similar for the two placement methods (100{+-}23 days). Conclusion. Radiological placement is consistently more reliable than surgical placement. There are fewer placement complications and fewer catheter infections overall.

  13. Accidental subclavian artery catheterization during attempted internal jugular central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Bharat; Kamal, Manoj; Purohit, Anamika; Rana, Kirti; Chouhan, Dilip Singh

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheter placement has been routinely employed for anesthetic and intensive care management. Despite proper technique used and expertise complications do occur; some of which are related to catheter misplacements. We report a case in which subclavian artery was accidently catheterized during attempted internal jugular venous cannulation.

  14. Transhepatic Guidance of Translumbar Hemodialysis Catheter Placement in the Setting of Chronic Infrarenal IVC Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Jonathan M. Regalado, Sidney; Navuluri, Rakesh Zangan, Steven; Thuong Van Ha; Funaki, Brian

    2010-06-15

    When patients with end-stage renal disease have exhausted both conventional and unconventional venous access options, creative solutions must be sought for hemodialysis catheter placement in order to ensure survival. This case describes a patient in urgent need of a dialysis catheter despite total occlusion of the jugular, subclavian, and femoral veins. Occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right renal vein resulted in failed attempts at translumbar catheter placement. A gooseneck snare was temporarily advanced through the liver to the IVC for use as a fluoroscopic target to facilitate successful single-puncture, translumbar catheterization.

  15. The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view for central venous catheter placement and catheter change over guidewire.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Chan; Klebach, Christian; Heinze, Ingo; Hoeft, Andreas; Baumgarten, Georg; Weber, Stefan

    2014-12-23

    The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view can be useful for central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Venipuncture of the internal jugular veins (IJV) or subclavian veins is performed with a micro-convex ultrasound probe, using a neonatal abdominal preset with a probe frequency of 10 Mhz at a depth of 10-12 cm. Following insertion of the guidewire into the vein, the probe is shifted to the right supraclavicular fossa to obtain a view of the superior vena cava (SVC), right pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. Under real-time ultrasound view, the guidewire and its J-tip is visualized and pushed forward to the lower SVC. Insertion depth is read from guidewire marks using central venous catheter. CVC is then inserted following skin and venous dilation. The supraclavicular fossa view is most suitable for right IJV CVC insertion. If other insertion sites are chosen the right supraclavicular fossa should be within the sterile field. Scanning of the IJVs, brachiocephalic veins and SVC can reveal significant thrombosis before venipuncture. Misplaced CVCs can be corrected with a change over guidewire technique under real-time ultrasound guidance. In conjunction with a diagnostic lung ultrasound scan, this technique has a potential to replace chest radiograph for confirmation of CVC tip position and exclusion of pneumothorax. Moreover, this view is of advantage in patients with a non-p-wave cardiac rhythm were an intra-cardiac electrocardiography (ECG) is not feasible for CVC tip position confirmation. Limitations of the method are lack of availability of a micro-convex probe and the need for training.

  16. Placement of hemodialysis catheters through stenotic or occluded central thoracic veins.

    PubMed

    Haller, Claude; Déglise, Sébastien; Saucy, Francois; Mathieu, Claudine; Haesler, Erik; Doenz, Francesco; Corpataux, Jean Marc; Qanadli, Salah Dine

    2009-07-01

    A method for hemodialysis catheter placement in patients with central thoracic venous stenosis or occlusion is described and initial results are analyzed. Twelve patients, with a mean age of 63.2 years (42-80 years), with central venous stenosis or occlusion, and who required a hemodialysis catheter were reviewed. All lesions were confirmed by helical CT or phlebography. Five patients had stenosis while seven patients were diagnosed with an occlusion of thoracic central veins. All patients were asymptomatic, without sign of superior vena cava syndrome. After percutaneous transstenotic catheterization or guidewire-based recannalization in occlusions, a balloon dilatation was performed and a stent was placed, when necessary, prior to catheter placement. Technical success was 92%. Three patients had angioplasty alone and nine patients had angioplasty with stent placement. Dialysis catheters were successfully inserted through all recannalized accesses. No immediate complication occurred, nor did any patient develop superior vena cava syndrome after the procedure. The mean follow-up was 21.8 months (range, 8-48 months). Three patients developed a catheter dysfunction with fibrin sheath formation (at 7, 11, and 12 months after catheter placement, respectively). Two were successfully managed by percutaneous endovascular approach and one catheter was removed. In conclusion, for patients with central venous stenosis or occlusion and those who need a hemodialysis catheter, catheter insertion can be reliably achieved immediately after endovascular recannalization with acceptable technical and long-term success rates. This technique should be considered as an alternative procedure for placing a new hemodialysis catheter through a patent vein.

  17. Placement of Hemodialysis Catheters Through Stenotic or Occluded Central Thoracic Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Claude Deglise, Sebastien; Saucy, Francois; Mathieu, Claudine; Haesler, Erik; Doenz, Francesco; Corpataux, Jean Marc; Qanadli, Salah Dine

    2009-07-15

    A method for hemodialysis catheter placement in patients with central thoracic venous stenosis or occlusion is described and initial results are analyzed. Twelve patients, with a mean age of 63.2 years (42-80 years), with central venous stenosis or occlusion, and who required a hemodialysis catheter were reviewed. All lesions were confirmed by helical CT or phlebography. Five patients had stenosis while seven patients were diagnosed with an occlusion of thoracic central veins. All patients were asymptomatic, without sign of superior vena cava syndrome. After percutaneous transstenotic catheterization or guidewire-based recannalization in occlusions, a balloon dilatation was performed and a stent was placed, when necessary, prior to catheter placement. Technical success was 92%. Three patients had angioplasty alone and nine patients had angioplasty with stent placement. Dialysis catheters were successfully inserted through all recannalized accesses. No immediate complication occurred, nor did any patient develop superior vena cava syndrome after the procedure. The mean follow-up was 21.8 months (range, 8-48 months). Three patients developed a catheter dysfunction with fibrin sheath formation (at 7, 11, and 12 months after catheter placement, respectively). Two were successfully managed by percutaneous endovascular approach and one catheter was removed. In conclusion, for patients with central venous stenosis or occlusion and those who need a hemodialysis catheter, catheter insertion can be reliably achieved immediately after endovascular recannalization with acceptable technical and long-term success rates. This technique should be considered as an alternative procedure for placing a new hemodialysis catheter through a patent vein.

  18. Tension Pneumothorax After Placement of a Tunneled Pleural Drainage Catheter in a Patient with Recurrent Malignant Pleural Effusions

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsman, A.M. Hoffer, E.K.; Forauer, A.R.; Silas, A.M.; Gemery, J.M.

    2007-06-15

    A case of tension pneumothorax developed after placement of a tunneled pleural catheter for treatment of malignant pleural effusion in a patient with advanced lung cancer. The catheter placement was carried out by an experienced operator under direct ultrasound guidance, and the patient showed immediate symptomatic improvement with acute decompensation occurring several hours later. Possible mechanisms for this serious complication of tunneled pleural catheter placement are described, and potential strategies to avoid or prevent it in future are discussed.

  19. Comparison of methods and formulas used in umbilical venous catheter placement

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Mehmet; Parıltan, Burcu Küçükalioğlu; Aslan, Yakup; Eyüpoğlu, İlker; Kader, Şebnem; Aktürk, Filiz Acar

    2017-01-01

    Aim Central venous access is frequently provided by way of umbilical venous catheter placement in critically ill newborns. This study compared the methods of Dunn, Shukla-Ferrara, and Revised Shukla-Ferrara in determining the appropriate insertion length of umbilical vein catheters. Material and Methods This prospective observational study was carried out in 121 newborns with umbilical venous catheter, group 1 (n=41) used Dunn method, group 2 (n=40) used the Shukla-Ferrara formula, and group 3 used revised Shukla-Ferrara formula (n=40). Catheter tip position was evaluated with an anterior-posterior chest radiograph after insertion of the umbilical venous catheter. The ideal position for the umbilical venous catheter was defined as the catheter tip being visible between the 9th and 10th thoracic vertebrae on an anterior-posterior chest radiograph. The position of the umbilical venous catheter was considered too high if the tip of the catheter was higher than the 9th thoracic vertebra and too low if the tip was below the 10th thoracic vertebra. The following data were collected: appropriate, inappropriate (low, high) placement, and complications of umbilical venous catheterization. Results In the Shukla-Ferrara group, 53% (17/32) of umbilical venous catheters were placed directly in the appropriate position, compared with 40% (12/30) in the revised Shukla-Ferrara group and 38% (11/29) in the Dunn method group. Umbilical venous catheter-related complications developed in two patients, thrombus in one, and catheter-related blood stream infection in the other. Conclusions This study showed that the Shukla-Ferrara formula is more accurate in predicting the insertion length for umbilical venous catheters, though statistical significance was not found. Further studies with larger samples are needed on this topic. PMID:28439199

  20. Comparison of methods and formulas used in umbilical venous catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Mehmet; Parıltan, Burcu Küçükalioğlu; Aslan, Yakup; Eyüpoğlu, İlker; Kader, Şebnem; Aktürk, Filiz Acar

    2017-03-01

    Central venous access is frequently provided by way of umbilical venous catheter placement in critically ill newborns. This study compared the methods of Dunn, Shukla-Ferrara, and Revised Shukla-Ferrara in determining the appropriate insertion length of umbilical vein catheters. This prospective observational study was carried out in 121 newborns with umbilical venous catheter, group 1 (n=41) used Dunn method, group 2 (n=40) used the Shukla-Ferrara formula, and group 3 used revised Shukla-Ferrara formula (n=40). Catheter tip position was evaluated with an anterior-posterior chest radiograph after insertion of the umbilical venous catheter. The ideal position for the umbilical venous catheter was defined as the catheter tip being visible between the 9(th) and 10(th) thoracic vertebrae on an anterior-posterior chest radiograph. The position of the umbilical venous catheter was considered too high if the tip of the catheter was higher than the 9(th) thoracic vertebra and too low if the tip was below the 10(th) thoracic vertebra. The following data were collected: appropriate, inappropriate (low, high) placement, and complications of umbilical venous catheterization. In the Shukla-Ferrara group, 53% (17/32) of umbilical venous catheters were placed directly in the appropriate position, compared with 40% (12/30) in the revised Shukla-Ferrara group and 38% (11/29) in the Dunn method group. Umbilical venous catheter-related complications developed in two patients, thrombus in one, and catheter-related blood stream infection in the other. This study showed that the Shukla-Ferrara formula is more accurate in predicting the insertion length for umbilical venous catheters, though statistical significance was not found. Further studies with larger samples are needed on this topic.

  1. Sensory perineuritis.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, W B; Squier, M V

    1988-01-01

    A case of sensory perineuritis is described, affecting individual cutaneous nerves in the extremities and with a chronic inflammatory exudate confined to the perineurium in a sural nerve biopsy. No cause was found. The condition slowly resolved on steroid treatment. Images PMID:3379419

  2. Electromagnetic-guided neuronavigation for safe placement of intraventricular catheters in pediatric neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Elvis J; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Tschan, Christoph A; Krauss, Joachim K

    2012-10-01

    Ventricular catheter shunt malfunction is the most common reason for shunt revision. Optimal ventricular catheter placement can be exceedingly difficult in patients with small ventricles or abnormal ventricular anatomy. Particularly in children and in premature infants with small head size, satisfactory positioning of the ventricular catheter can be a challenge. Navigation with electromagnetic tracking technology is an attractive and innovative therapeutic option. In this study, the authors demonstrate the advantages of using this technology for shunt placement in children. Twenty-six children ranging in age from 4 days to 14 years (mean 3.8 years) with hydrocephalus and difficult ventricular anatomy or slit ventricles underwent electromagnetic-guided neuronavigated intraventricular catheter placement in a total of 29 procedures. The single-coil technology allows one to use flexible instruments, in this case the ventricular catheter stylet, to be tracked at the tip. Head movement during the operative procedure is possible without loss of navigation precision. The intraoperative catheter placement documented by screenshots correlated exactly with the position on the postoperative CT scan. There was no need for repeated ventricular punctures. There were no operative complications. Postoperatively, all children had accurate shunt placement. The overall shunt failure rate in our group was 15%, including 3 shunt infections (after 1 month, 5 months, and 10 months) requiring operative revision and 1 distal shunt failure. There were no proximal shunt malfunctions during follow-up (mean 23.5 months). The electromagnetic-guided neuronavigation system enables safe and optimal catheter placement, especially in children and premature infants, alleviating the need for repeated cannulation attempts for ventricular puncture. In contrast to stereotactic techniques and conventional neuronavigation, there is no need for sharp head fixation using a Mayfield clamp. This technique may

  3. A clever technique for placement of a urinary catheter over a wire

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Joel E.; Heinemann, Adam; Badalament, Robert; Davalos, Julio G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to present a straightforward, step-by-step reproducible technique for placement of a guide-wire into any type of urethral catheter, thereby offering a means of access similar to that of a council-tip in a situation that may require a different type of catheter guided over a wire. Materials and Methods: Using a shielded intravenous catheter inserted into the eyelet of a urinary catheter and through the distal tip, a “counsel-tip” can be created in any size or type of catheter. Once transurethral bladder access has been achieved with a hydrophilic guide-wire, this technique will allow unrestricted use of catheters placed over a wire facilitating guided catheterization. Results: Urethral catheters of different types and sizes are easily advanced into the bladder with wire-guidance; catheterization is improved in the setting of difficult urethral catheterization (DUC). Cost analysis demonstrates benefit overuse of traditional council-tip catheter. Conclusion: Placing urinary catheters over a wire is standard practice for urologists, however, use of this technique gives the freedom of performing wire-guided catheterization in more situations than a council-tip allows. This technique facilitates successful transurethral catheterization over wire in the setting of DUC for all catheter types and styles aiding in urologic management of patients at a cost benefit to the health care system. PMID:26229328

  4. CT-Guided Placement of a Drainage Catheter Within a Pelvic Abscess Using a Transsacral Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Toshihiro Asami, Shinya; Kubo, Shinichiro; Kin, Hitoshi; Katusi, Kuniaki; Sakurai, Jun; Hiraki, Takao; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2007-11-15

    A 66-year-old man underwent CT-guided drainage catheter placement within a pelvic abscess with a diameter of 46 mm. We performed the drainage by a transsacral approach because it was considered the safest and most feasible approach. An 8G bone marrow biopsy needle was used to penetrate the sacrum to create a path for subsequent drainage catheter insertion. After withdrawal of the biopsy needle, a 6 Fr catheter was advanced into the abscess cavity through the path using the Seldinger technique. Except for bearable pain, no procedure-related complications occurred. Twenty-nine days after the placement, the catheter was withdrawn safely and the abscess cavity had shrunk remarkably.

  5. Sonographically guided placement of intravenous catheters in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Pinkernelle, Jens; Raschzok, Nathanael; Teichgräber, Ulf K M

    2009-07-01

    Many procedures in minipigs require establishment of reliable deep venous access with a large-bore catheter. In animal experiments, such catheters are typically implanted surgically. In clinical settings, however, ultrasound imaging is routinely used to facilitate safe, minimally invasive puncture of deep vessels. The authors describe a technique for using ultrasound guidance to puncture and cannulate the minipig femoral vein. They carried out the procedure in six minipigs for the purpose of injecting contrast agents for subsequent imaging scans. The procedure was ultimately successful in all pigs, took 10 min on average and resulted in no physiological complications. In one minipig, however, a 10-cm-long catheter became dislodged from the femoral vein; use of a longer (25-cm-long) catheter was optimal for establishing reliable intravenous access.

  6. Creating and evaluating a data-driven curriculum for central venous catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Duncan, James R; Henderson, Katherine; Street, Mandie; Richmond, Amy; Klingensmith, Mary; Beta, Elio; Vannucci, Andrea; Murray, David

    2010-09-01

    Central venous catheter placement is a common procedure with a high incidence of error. Other fields requiring high reliability have used Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to prioritize quality and safety improvement efforts. To use FMEA in the development of a formal, standardized curriculum for central venous catheter training. We surveyed interns regarding their prior experience with central venous catheter placement. A multidisciplinary team used FMEA to identify high-priority failure modes and to develop online and hands-on training modules to decrease the frequency, diminish the severity, and improve the early detection of these failure modes. We required new interns to complete the modules and tracked their progress using multiple assessments. Survey results showed new interns had little prior experience with central venous catheter placement. Using FMEA, we created a curriculum that focused on planning and execution skills and identified 3 priority topics: (1) retained guidewires, which led to training on handling catheters and guidewires; (2) improved needle access, which prompted the development of an ultrasound training module; and (3) catheter-associated bloodstream infections, which were addressed through training on maximum sterile barriers. Each module included assessments that measured progress toward recognition and avoidance of common failure modes. Since introducing this curriculum, the number of retained guidewires has fallen more than 4-fold. Rates of catheter-associated infections have not yet declined, and it will take time before ultrasound training will have a measurable effect. The FMEA provided a process for curriculum development. Precise definitions of failure modes for retained guidewires facilitated development of a curriculum that contributed to a dramatic decrease in the frequency of this complication. Although infections and access complications have not yet declined, failure mode identification, curriculum development, and

  7. Creating and Evaluating a Data-Driven Curriculum for Central Venous Catheter Placement

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, James R.; Henderson, Katherine; Street, Mandie; Richmond, Amy; Klingensmith, Mary; Beta, Elio; Vannucci, Andrea; Murray, David

    2010-01-01

    Background Central venous catheter placement is a common procedure with a high incidence of error. Other fields requiring high reliability have used Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to prioritize quality and safety improvement efforts. Objective To use FMEA in the development of a formal, standardized curriculum for central venous catheter training. Methods We surveyed interns regarding their prior experience with central venous catheter placement. A multidisciplinary team used FMEA to identify high-priority failure modes and to develop online and hands-on training modules to decrease the frequency, diminish the severity, and improve the early detection of these failure modes. We required new interns to complete the modules and tracked their progress using multiple assessments. Results Survey results showed new interns had little prior experience with central venous catheter placement. Using FMEA, we created a curriculum that focused on planning and execution skills and identified 3 priority topics: (1) retained guidewires, which led to training on handling catheters and guidewires; (2) improved needle access, which prompted the development of an ultrasound training module; and (3) catheter-associated bloodstream infections, which were addressed through training on maximum sterile barriers. Each module included assessments that measured progress toward recognition and avoidance of common failure modes. Since introducing this curriculum, the number of retained guidewires has fallen more than 4-fold. Rates of catheter-associated infections have not yet declined, and it will take time before ultrasound training will have a measurable effect. Conclusion The FMEA provided a process for curriculum development. Precise definitions of failure modes for retained guidewires facilitated development of a curriculum that contributed to a dramatic decrease in the frequency of this complication. Although infections and access complications have not yet declined, failure

  8. Choice of valve type and poor ventricular catheter placement: Modifiable factors associated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, Kealeboga Josephine; Cherry, Catherine Louise; Wan, Kai Rui; Toy, Jennifer Ah; Wolfe, Rory; Danks, Robert Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion is a common neurosurgical procedure, essentially unchanged in recent years, with high revision rates. We aimed to identify potentially modifiable associations with shunt failure. One hundred and forty patients who underwent insertion of a VP shunt from 2005-2009 were followed for 5-9years. Age at shunt insertion ranged from 0 to 91years (median 44, 26% <18years). The main causes of hydrocephalus were congenital (26%), tumour-related (25%), post-haemorrhagic (24%) or normal pressure hydrocephalus (19%). Fifty-eight (42%) patients required ⩾1 shunt revision. Of these, 50 (88%) were for proximal catheter blockage. The median time to first revision was 108days. Early post-operative CT scans were available in 105 patients. Using a formal grading system, catheter placement was considered excellent in 49 (47%) but poor (extraventricular) in 13 (12%). On univariate analysis, younger age, poor ventricular catheter placement and use of a non-programmable valve were associated with shunt failure. On logistic regression modelling, the independent associations with VP shunt failure were poor catheter placement (odds ratio [OR] 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-18.9, p=0.02) and use of a non-programmable valve (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-1.0, p=0.04). In conclusion, poor catheter placement (revision rate 77%) was found to be the strongest predictor of shunt failure, with no difference in revisions between excellent (43%) and moderate (43%) catheter placement. Avoiding poor placement in those with mild or moderate ventriculomegaly may best reduce VP shunt failures. There may also be an influence of valve choice on VP shunt survival.

  9. Impact of Ultrasound on Short Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Placement on Vein Thrombosis Risk.

    PubMed

    Holder, Max R; Stutzman, Sonja E; Olson, DaiWai M

    Approximately 90% of hospitalized patients have a short peripheral intravenous catheter (SPC) placed. Methods of inserting the catheter have evolved over time and now include the use of ultrasound (US)-guided procedures for placement. Little is known about the impact that US-guided procedures have on the vein. This study compared the rate of venous thrombosis in patients with and without US-guided catheter placement. This prospective, single-blind, observational study assessed for venous thrombosis in 153 veins from 135 patients. Veins were evaluated by a research nurse blinded to the method of placement between 48 and 72 hours after the SPC was placed. The Fisher exact test showed a significant difference between vessel compressibility and catheter insertion method (P = .0012). The proportion of noncompressible veins was significantly greater when US was used in comparison with freehand SPC insertion. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square value of 10.34 (P = .0013) showed that US insertion technique is associated with a higher likelihood of noncompressible veins. This pilot study provides compelling evidence that the use of US to assist with catheter placement is associated with a higher rate of noncompressible veins at day 2 or 3. Further studies are needed with a larger sample to determine the generalizability of the results from this pilot study.

  10. Ommaya reservoir with ventricular catheter placement for chemotherapy with frameless and pinless electromagnetic surgical neuronavigation.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Gregory M; Chivukula, Srinivas; Chen, Ching-Jen; Ding, Dale; Engh, Johnathan A; Amankulor, Nduka

    2015-03-01

    Accuracy in Ommaya reservoir catheter placement is critical to chemotherapy infusion. Most frameless image guidance is light emitting diode (LED) based, requiring a direct line of communication between instrument and tracker, limiting freedom of instrument movement within the surgical field. Electromagnetic neuronavigation may overcome this challenge. To compare Ommaya reservoir ventricular catheter placement using electromagnetic neuronavigation to LED-based optical navigation, with emphasis on placement accuracy, operative time and complication rate. Twenty-eight patients who underwent placement of Ommaya reservoirs at our institution between 2010 and 2014 with either electromagnetic (12 patients) or optical neuronavigation (16 patients) were retrospectively reviewed. Half of the patients were male. Their mean age was 56 years (range 28-87 years). Accuracy and precision in catheter tip placement at the target site (foramen of Monro) were both higher (p=0.038 and p=0.043, respectively) with electromagnetic neuronavigation. Unintended placement of the distal catheter contralateral to the target site occurred more frequently with optical navigation, as did superior or inferior positioning by more than 5 mm. Mean operative times were shorter (p=0.027) with electromagnetic neuronavigation (43.2 min) than with optical navigation (51.0 min). There were three complications (10.7%)--one case each of cytotoxic edema, post-operative wound infection, and urinary tract infection. The rate of complication did not differ between groups. In contrast with optical neuronavigation, frameless and pinless electromagnetic image guidance allows the ability to track instrument depth in real-time. It may increase ventricular catheter placement accuracy and precision, and decrease operative times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting Surgery with Open Distal Shunt Catheter Placement in the Treatment of Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhao, Jinchuan; Hou, Kun; Gao, Xianfeng; Sun, Yang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaona

    2015-11-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a major therapy for hydrocephalus, but has a significant risk of device malfunctioning. In this study, we explored a novel distal shunt catheter placement method in VPS for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Five patients with different etiologies of hydrocephalus underwent VPS with open distant shunt catheter attached outside. We analyzed different variables (age, gender, medical history, clinical presentation, indication for surgery and surgical technique, postoperative complications) and occurrence of shunt failure and infection. All hydrocephalus patients who received the distal shunt catheter placed outside can undergo regular VPS again after the condition improves. The modified VPS in the treatment of hydrocephalus with the distal shunt catheter placed outside could potentially reduce the necessity of repeat surgery for addressing the complications caused by catheter obstruction and infections, reduce the chance of adhesions, and would be of benefit to those patients who need future revisions.

  12. Azygos Vein Dialysis Catheter Placement Using the Translumbar Approach in a Patient with Inferior Vena Cava Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jaber, Mohammad R.; Thomson, Matthew J.; Smith, Douglas C.

    2008-07-15

    We describe percutaneous, translumbar placement of a 14-Fr dialysis catheter into an ascending lumbar vein to achieve tip position in an enlarged azygos vein. The patient had thrombosis of all traditional vascular sites, as well as the inferior vena cava. This catheter functioned well for 7 months before fatal catheter-related infection developed.

  13. Minimum current requirement for confirming the localization of an epiradicular catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Seon; Shim, Jae Chol; Shim, Jae Hang; Kim, Dong Won; Kang, Min Serk

    2012-09-01

    Based on the necessity to confirm the epiradicular catheter misplacement, epiradicular threshold current for the confirmation of catheter tip localization is required. Thirty-four adult patients with low extremity radiating pain were to receive epiradicular catheterization at the lumbosacral level. The epidural space was accessed percutaneously in cranial to caudal direction. A metal coil-reinforced epidural catheter was inserted and advanced caudolaterally toward the target neural foramen until the catheter tip was located below the bisection of pedicle. The electrical stimulation was performed after catheter placement in epidural and epiradicular space. Using the constant current nerve stimulator, the stimulating current was increased from 0 to 5 mA (pulse width of 0.3 ms; frequency of 2 Hz) until adequate motor contraction was evident. The threshold current for motor response with epidural space (EDmA) and epiradicular space (ERmA) placement were recorded upon electrical stimulation. In addition, the threshold charge for motor response with epidural (EDnC) and epiradicular (ERnC) placement were recorded. Of 34 catheters intentionally placed in the epiradicular space, ERmA was 0.53 ± 0.48 mA. The ERnC was significantly lower than EDnC (P < 0.05). The EDmA and ERmA were below 1 mA in 3 patients and above 1 mA in 4 patients, respectively. We conclude that, threshold current for motor response seems to be lower for epiradicular compared with epidural placement, although we were not able to directly investigate the epidural threshold current. The threshold current of epiradicular space overlap that in the epidural space.

  14. Minimum current requirement for confirming the localization of an epiradicular catheter placement

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Seon; Shim, Jae Hang; Kim, Dong Won; Kang, Min Serk

    2012-01-01

    Background Based on the necessity to confirm the epiradicular catheter misplacement, epiradicular threshold current for the confirmation of catheter tip localization is required. Methods Thirty-four adult patients with low extremity radiating pain were to receive epiradicular catheterization at the lumbosacral level. The epidural space was accessed percutaneously in cranial to caudal direction. A metal coil-reinforced epidural catheter was inserted and advanced caudolaterally toward the target neural foramen until the catheter tip was located below the bisection of pedicle. The electrical stimulation was performed after catheter placement in epidural and epiradicular space. Using the constant current nerve stimulator, the stimulating current was increased from 0 to 5 mA (pulse width of 0.3 ms; frequency of 2 Hz) until adequate motor contraction was evident. The threshold current for motor response with epidural space (EDmA) and epiradicular space (ERmA) placement were recorded upon electrical stimulation. In addition, the threshold charge for motor response with epidural (EDnC) and epiradicular (ERnC) placement were recorded. Results Of 34 catheters intentionally placed in the epiradicular space, ERmA was 0.53 ± 0.48 mA. The ERnC was significantly lower than EDnC (P < 0.05). The EDmA and ERmA were below 1 mA in 3 patients and above 1 mA in 4 patients, respectively. Conclusions We conclude that, threshold current for motor response seems to be lower for epiradicular compared with epidural placement, although we were not able to directly investigate the epidural threshold current. The threshold current of epiradicular space overlap that in the epidural space. PMID:23060981

  15. Risk factors associated with distal catheter migration following ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement.

    PubMed

    Abode-Iyamah, Kingsley O; Khanna, Ryan; Rasmussen, Zachary D; Flouty, Oliver; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Greenlee, Jeremy; Howard, Matthew A

    2016-03-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement is used to treat hydrocephalus. Shunt migration following VP shunt placement has been reported. The risk factors related to this complication have not been previously evaluated to our knowledge. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to determine risk factors leading to distal catheter migration and review the literature on the current methods of management and prevention. Adult patients undergoing VP shunt placement from June 2011 to December 2013 at a single institution were identified using electronic health records. The records were reviewed for demographic and procedural information, and subsequent treatment characteristics. The parameters of patients with distal shunt migration were compared to those undergoing new VP shunt placement for the same time period. We identified 137 patients undergoing 157 new VP shunt procedures with an average age of 57.7 ± standard deviation of 18.4 years old. There were 16 distal shunt migrations. Body mass index >30 kg/m(2) and number of previous shunt procedures were found to be independent risk factors for distal catheter migration. Obesity and number of previous shunt procedures were factors for distal catheter migration. Providers and patients should be aware of these possible risk factors prior to VP shunt placement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simplified point-of-care ultrasound protocol to confirm central venous catheter placement: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sean P.; Assaf, Samer; Lahham, Shadi; Subeh, Mohammad; Chiem, Alan; Anderson, Craig; Shwe, Samantha; Nguyen, Ryan; Fox, John C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current standard for confirmation of correct supra-diaphragmatic central venous catheter (CVC) placement is with plain film chest radiography (CXR). We hypothesized that a simple point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) protocol could effectively confirm placement and reduce time to confirmation. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a convenience sample of patients in the emergency department and intensive care unit who required CVC placement. Correct positioning was considered if turbulent flow was visualized in the right atrium on sub-xiphoid, parasternal or apical cardiac ultrasound after injecting 5 cc of sterile, non-agitated, normal saline through the CVC. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were enrolled. POCUS had a sensitivity of 86.8% (95%CI 77.1%–93.5%) and specificity of 100% (95%CI 15.8%–100.0%) for identifying correct central venous catheter placement. Median POCUS and CXR completion were 16 minutes (IQR 10–29) and 32 minutes (IQR 19–45), respectively. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound may be an effective tool to confirm central venous catheter placement in instances where there is a delay in obtaining a confirmatory CXR. PMID:28123616

  17. Calvarial slope affecting accuracy of Ghajar Guide technique for ventricular catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaechan; Son, Wonsoo; Park, Ki-Su; Kim, Min Young; Lee, Joomi

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The Ghajar Guide technique is used to direct a ventricular catheter at a 90° angle to the skull surface at Kocher's point. However, the human calvaria is not completely spherical. Lateral to the sagittal midline, the calvaria slopes downward with individual variation and thereby affects the accuracy of ventricular catheter placement. Accordingly, the authors investigated the accuracy of the orthogonal catheter trajectory using radiographic simulation and examined the effect of the calvarial slope on this accuracy. METHODS A catheter trajectory orthogonal to the skull surface at Kocher's point and the ideal catheter trajectory to the foramen of Monro were drawn bilaterally on coronal head images of 52 patients with hydrocephalus. The correction angle, the difference between the 2 catheter trajectories, was then measured. Meanwhile, the calvarial slope was measured around Kocher's point by using a coronal head image. The correlation between the correction angle and factors such as the calvarial slope and bicaudate index was then assessed using a Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS The ventricular catheter trajectory orthogonal to the skull at Kocher's point in the patients with hydrocephalus led to a catheter trajectory into the ipsilateral (70.2%) or contralateral (29.8%) lateral ventricles. The correction angles ranged from -3.3° to 16.4° (mean ± SD 5.7° ± 3.7°). In 87 (83.7%) head sides, lateral deviation from the orthogonal trajectory was required to approximate the ideal trajectory, and the correction angle ranged from 2.0° to 16.4° (mean 6.7° ± 2.9°). The calvarial slope in the 104 head sides ranged from 15.6° to 32.5° (mean 24.2° ± 3.1°). Pearson correlation analysis revealed a strong positive correlation (r = 0.733) between the calvarial slope and the correction angle. CONCLUSIONS The accuracy of ventricular catheter placement using the Ghajar Guide technique is affected primarily by the calvarial slope around Kocher's point. A

  18. Is the elapsed time following the placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter an individual risk factor for shunt fractures?

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Metin; Cakin, Hakan; Ozdemir, Niyazi; Gocmez, Cuneyt; Ozturk, Sait; Erol, Fatih S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether the resistance of peritoneal catheters against the retraction force changed over time following shunt placement, and the role of this resistance in shunt fracture is discussed. We investigated peritoneal catheters removed from patients treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt because of hydrocephalus; previously, patients underwent shunt revision. The maximum tension, maximum elongation and elongation percentages of the peritoneal catheters were measured. The mean and maximum tension values of the revised peritoneal catheters were increased compared to the unused catheters. The maximum elongation and elongation rates were significantly decreased. The changes in the maximum elongation, elongation rate and tension values were unrelated to the time elapsed after catheter insertion. This finding indicates that the time elapsed following peritoneal catheter placement was not an individual factor based on the strength of the response of the organism to the foreign body and the mechanical trauma exposed in shunt fractures.

  19. A system for visualization and automatic placement of the endoclamp balloon catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, Hugo; Stüdeli, Thomas; Sette, Mauro; Samset, Eigil; Gersak, Borut

    2010-02-01

    The European research network "Augmented Reality in Surgery" (ARIS*ER) developed a system that supports minimally invasive cardiac surgery based on augmented reality (AR) technology. The system supports the surgical team during aortic endoclamping where a balloon catheter has to be positioned and kept in place within the aorta. The presented system addresses the two biggest difficulties of the task: lack of visualization and difficulty in maneuvering the catheter. The system was developed using a user centered design methodology with medical doctors, engineers and human factor specialists equally involved in all the development steps. The system was implemented using the AR framework "Studierstube" developed at TU Graz and can be used to visualize in real-time the position of the balloon catheter inside the aorta. The spatial position of the catheter is measured by a magnetic tracking system and superimposed on a 3D model of the patient's thorax. The alignment is made with a rigid registration algorithm. Together with a user defined target, the spatial position data drives an actuator which adjusts the position of the catheter in the initial placement and corrects migrations during the surgery. Two user studies with a silicon phantom show promising results regarding usefulness of the system: the users perform the placement tasks faster and more accurately than with the current restricted visual support. Animal studies also provided a first indication that the system brings additional value in the real clinical setting. This work represents a major step towards safer and simpler minimally invasive cardiac surgery.

  20. Idiopathic eosinophilic peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: experience with percutaneous catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Il; Song, Jong-Oh; Park, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Sug Kyun

    2007-10-01

    Peritoneal fluid eosinophilia (PFE), which is classically associated with idiopathic eosinophilic peritonitis (EP), has been known as a common event in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). However, our recent retrospective study of CAPD patients following percutaneous catheter placement showed that PFE occurred rarely. The aim of this prospective study was to clarify the incidence and characteristics of idiopathic EP and PFE in patients on CAPD following percutaneous catheter placement. Forty-eight patients on CAPD following percutanous catheter placement were recruited for the present study. Peritoneal dialysis was initiated immediately after catheter insertion without break-in period. A cytological study of dialysate was performed on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14 and 30 after initiation of CAPD, and then monthly for 6 months. In addition, a cytological study was performed also when a patient revealed abdominal pain or cloudy peritoneal effluent. PFE developed in three (6.3%) patients during the study period. The incidence of idiopathic EP and PFE without any clinical findings suggestive of PD-related peritonitis was 2.1% and 4.2% respectively. All cases of PFE, including idiopathic EP, developed on a mean of 13 day following initiation of CAPD and resolved spontaneously after a mean of 7 days. There was no significant difference in IgE levels or the occurrence of peripheral blood eosinophilia between patients with PFE and those without. Idiopathic EP is infrequent among patients on CAPD following percutaneous catheter placement, but should be differentiated from infectious PD-related peritonitis.

  1. Postprocedural Aspiration Test to Predict Adequacy of Dialysis Following Tunneled Catheter Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jason C. Sullivan, Kevin L.; Michael, Beckie

    2006-08-15

    The objective of the study was to determine if a timed aspiration technique with a 20-ml syringe can be used to predict adequacy of blood flow in tunneled dialysis catheters. Sixteen patients referred for de novo placement or manipulation of failing tunneled hemodialysis catheters had the time it takes to fill a 20-ml syringe with the plunger fully withdrawn measured to the nearest tenth of a second. These measurements were correlated with flow rates recorded in dialysis just prior to (if failed catheter) and in the following dialysis session with adequacy determined as at least 300 ml/min. Syringe-filling time (22 catheters in 16 patients) was plotted against adequacy of dialysis. The mean time to fill a 20-ml syringe was 2.2 sec, with a range of 1.0-4.7 sec. The mean time to fill syringes for catheters with adequate dialysis was 1.7 {+-} 0.5 sec, and for inadequate catheters, it was 2.8 {+-} 0.8 sec. These differences are statistically significant (p < 0.001). Using a filling time of greater than or equal to 2 sec as a threshold gives the highest sensitivity (100%) for predicting inadequate dialysis while maintaining high specificity (75%). To achieve a specificity of 100%, a 3-sec cutoff would be necessary, but would lead to a sensitivity of only 20%. A simple and objective aspiration technique can be performed at the time of tunneled dialysis catheter placement/manipulation to reasonably predict adequacy of subsequent dialysis.

  2. Successful tunneled catheter placement in a hemodialysis patient with idiopathic multiple central venous stenoses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuliang; Cui, Tianlei; Yu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Fu, Ping; Zhou, Li; Li, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Central venous stenosis (CVS) in hemodialysis patients could be secondary to central venous catheterization, high flow arteriovenous fistula, as well as extrinsic compression. However, we report a senile hemodialysis patient of left internal jugular vein stenosis and right innominate vein occlusion unrelated to any known risk factors. Aided by computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography, we managed to dilate the stenosis by percutaneous balloon angioplasty, followed by successful tunneled catheter placement. Nephrologists should be aware of idiopathic CVS and its impact on the creation and preservation of vascular access. When confronted with difficulties in catheter placement, practitioners need to consider the possibilities of idiopathic CVS and refer to radiological tests. © 2013 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  3. Inadvertent Puncture of the Thoracic Duct During Attempted Central Venous Catheter Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Teichgraber, Ulf K.M. Nibbe, Lutz; Gebauer, Bernhard; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2003-11-15

    We report a case of puncture of the thoracic duct during left subclavian vein catheterization on the intensive care unit. Computed tomography and measurement of the triglyceride levels in the aspirated fluid proved the inadvertent penetration of the guidewire into the thoracic duct. Early recognition of central line misplacement avoided serious complications. Inadvertent central venous catheter placement into the thoracic duct may have the potential complications of infusion mediastinum and chylothorax.

  4. JUGULAR CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER PLACEMENT THROUGH A MODIFIED SELDINGER TECHNIQUE FOR LONG-TERM VENOUS ACCESS IN CHELONIANS.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Mariana A; Divers, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Long-term or repeated venous access in chelonians is difficult to obtain and manage, but can be critically important for administration of medications and blood sampling in hospitalized patients. Jugular catheterization provides the most rapid and secure route for vascular access, but catheters can be difficult to place, and maintaining catheter patency may be challenging. Long multilumen polyurethane catheters provide flexibility and sampling access, and minimize difficulties, such as catheter displacement, that have been encountered with traditional over-the-needle catheters. We describe placement of 4 Fr. 13-cm polyurethane catheters in three chelonians with the use of a modified Seldinger technique. Venous access was obtained with the use of an over-the-needle catheter, which allowed placement of a 0.018-in.-diameter wire, over which the polyurethane catheter was placed. Indwelling time has ranged between 1 and 4 mo currently. All tortoises were sedated for this procedure. Polyurethane central catheters provide safe, long-term venous access that allows clinicians to perform serial blood sampling as well as intravenous administration of medications, anesthetic agents, and fluids. A jugular catheter can also allow central venous pressure measurement. Utilization of central line catheters was associated with improvements in diagnostic efficiency and therapeutic case management, with minimal risks and complications.

  5. Temporary hemodialysis catheter placement by nephrology fellows: implications for nephrology training.

    PubMed

    Clark, Edward G; Schachter, Michael E; Palumbo, Andrea; Knoll, Greg; Edwards, Cedric

    2013-09-01

    The insertion of temporary hemodialysis catheters is considered to be a core competency of nephrology fellowship training. Little is known about the adequacy of training for this procedure and the extent to which evidence-based techniques to reduce complications have been adopted. We conducted a web-based survey of Canadian nephrology trainees regarding the insertion of temporary hemodialysis catheters. Responses were received from 45 of 68 (66%) eligible trainees. The median number of temporary hemodialysis catheters inserted during the prior 6 months of training was 5 (IQR, 2-11), with 9 (20%) trainees reporting they had inserted none. More than one-third of respondents indicated that they were not adequately trained to competently insert temporary hemodialysis catheters at both the femoral and internal jugular sites. These findings are relevant to a discussion of the current adequacy of procedural skills training during nephrology fellowship. With respect to temporary hemodialysis catheter placement, there is an opportunity for increased use of simulation-based teaching by training programs. Certain infection control techniques and use of real-time ultrasound should be more widely adopted. Consideration should be given to the establishment of minimum procedural training requirements at the level of both individual training programs and nationwide certification authorities.

  6. Tunneled Pleural Catheter Placement with and without Talc Poudrage for Treatment of Pleural Effusions Due to Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Majid, Adnan; Kheir, Fayez; Fashjian, Meghan; Chatterji, Sumit; Fernandez-Bussy, Sebastian; Ochoa, Sebastian; Cheng, George; Folch, Erik

    2016-02-01

    There is a paucity of evidence regarding the role of tunneled pleural catheters in pleural effusions caused by congestive heart failure that is refractory to medical management. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of tunneled pleural catheter drainage for treatment of refractory pleural effusions associated with congestive heart failure, either when used alone or with concomitant talc pleurodesis performed during thoracoscopy. This was a retrospective cohort study. We identified patients with congestive heart failure and recurrent symptomatic pleural effusions who were treated between 2005 and 2015 by placement of a tunneled pleural catheter. Patients underwent either thoracoscopy followed by talc poudrage and pleural catheter placement (group 1) or catheter insertion alone (group 2). Forthy-three catheters were inserted in 36 patients, with 15 placed in group 1 and 28 in group 2. Successful pleurodesis was seen in 80% in group 1 and 25% in group 2. The median time of catheter placement was 11.5 days in group 1 and 66 days in group 2. There was a significant decrease in hospital admissions and pleural interventions after catheter placement compared with before insertion (P < 0.05). This single-center, retrospective study demonstrated the feasibility of catheter placement used alone or with talc poudrage for the treatment of refractory pleural effusions associated with congestive heart failure. The addition of talc poudrage might increase the pleurodesis rate and reduce the days to catheter removal in highly selected patients. Prospective studies on a larger number of patients are warranted to verify the safety and efficacy of this intervention.

  7. EM-navigated catheter placement for gynecologic brachytherapy: an accuracy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

    2014-03-01

    Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and /or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems.

  8. EM-Navigated Catheter Placement for Gynecologic Brachytherapy: An Accuracy Study.

    PubMed

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

    2014-03-12

    Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and/or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems.

  9. Cryotherapeutic Topical Analgesics for Pediatric Intravenous Catheter Placement: Ice versus Vapocoolant Spray

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Marie R.; Liu, Deborah R.; Wang, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Intravenous catheter placement is one of the most common sources of pain for children in inpatient settings. We sought to compare the efficacy of two cryotherapeutic treatments for this procedure: vapocoolant spray versus topical ice-pack. METHODS We prospectively enrolled 95 patients, age 9–18 years, in a pediatric emergency department who required IV catheters as part of their treatment. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive vapocoolant spray, or topical ice-pack for three minutes, prior to IV catheter placement. Subjects completed visual analog scale (VAS) scores for three time points: baseline, pre-treatment with ice or spray, and IV insertion. The principal investigator, and two physicians viewing video recordings of the procedure, also completed VAS scores for observed pain levels. VAS scores were compared using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. RESULTS Although median VAS scores were similar, the change in VAS from baseline was of greater magnitude in the Painease® group, indicating that it may be more effective. More subjects in the Painease® group (76%) felt their treatment worked well, compared to 49% in the ice group. Physician-assigned VAS scores were lower and less variable than those of subjects. Most IV insertions were successful (83%). CONCLUSIONS Vapocoolant spray may be more effective than ice as an analgesic for IV insertion. Subjects were more satisfied with vapocoolant spray. Neither agent caused a decrease in successful IV insertion rates. PMID:23283254

  10. Comparison of results of placement of cuffed -tunneled hemodialysis catheter in internal jugular vein with subclavian vein for long -term dialysis.

    PubMed

    Zafarghandi, Mohammad-Reza; Nazari, Iraj; Taghavi, Morteza; Salimi, Javad; Moini, Majid; Askarpour, Shahnam

    2013-03-01

    was to comparison between internal jugular vs. subclavian vein cuffed tunnel catheter placement for dialysis. Cases who required central venous catheter for dialysis were included in this study. Forty cases were included in this study and divided to two groups. Catheters were placed randomly in internal jugular vein or subclavian. Patients were followed for 6 months. Early and late complications of catheter's placement were recorded. Analysis was done using Spss ver 13.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). There were no significant differences between subclavian and internal jugular vein regarding occurrence of infection resulted in extraction or treatment. Also there were no significant differences regarding occurrence of thrombosis resulted in extraction or treatment. Failure rate was significantly higher in cases with internal jugular vein catheter compared to cases with subclavian vein catheter (p=0.04). Failure rate was significantly higher in cases with internal jugular vein catheter compared to subclavian cathether. Subclavian catheter is more appropriate route for catheter placement.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Music Use During Epidural Catheter Placement on Laboring Parturient Anxiety, Pain, and Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Drzymalski, Dan M; Tsen, Lawrence C; Palanisamy, Arvind; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Kodali, Bhavani S

    2017-02-01

    Although music is frequently used to promote a relaxing environment during labor and delivery, the effect of its use during the placement of neuraxial techniques is unknown. Our study sought to determine the effects of music use on laboring parturients during epidural catheter placement, with the hypothesis that music use would result in lower anxiety, lower pain, and greater patient satisfaction. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of laboring parturients undergoing epidural catheter placement with or without music. The music group listened to the patient's preferred music on a Pandora® station broadcast through an external amplified speaker; the control group listened to no music. All women received a standardized epidural technique and local anesthetic dose. The primary outcomes were 3 measures of anxiety. Secondary outcomes included pain, patient satisfaction, hemodynamic parameters, obstetric parameters, neonatal outcomes, and anesthesia provider anxiety. Intention-to-treat analysis with Bonferroni correction was used for the primary outcomes. For secondary outcomes, a P value of <.001 was considered statistically significant. A total of 100 parturients were randomly assigned, with 99 included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Patient characteristics were similar in both groups; in the music group, the duration of music use was 31.1 ± 7.7 minutes (mean ± SD). The music group experienced higher anxiety as measured by Numeric Rating Scale scores immediately after epidural catheter placement (2.9 ± 3.3 vs 1.4 ± 1.7, mean difference 1.5 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.2-2.7], P = .02), and as measured by fewer parturients being "very much relaxed" 1 hour after epidural catheter placement (51% vs 78%, odds ratio {OR} 0.3 [95% CI 0.1-0.9], P = .02). No differences in mean pain scores immediately after placement or patient satisfaction with the overall epidural placement experience were observed; however, the desire for music use with

  12. Accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maietta, Pauline Marie

    2012-08-01

    More than 2.1 million central venous catheters are placed annually. While carotid artery cannulation is rare, its effects can be devastating. Anesthesia providers frequently work with central venous catheters in the perioperative setting. Therefore, it is imperative that they be able to identify and react appropriately to carotid artery injury both in preexisting central lines and those that they have placed. This case report details a case of accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted right internal jugular vein catheterization and the steps taken to treat the patient following its recognition. A discussion of technique for central venous catheterization, indications for suspicion of arterial puncture, methods for confirming venous or arterial placement, appropriate methods for management of carotid artery cannulation, and the benefit of ultrasound in central venous cannulation follow. Through the appropriate use of equipment, early detection and management of carotid artery injury, and proper training, patient outcomes may be improved.

  13. Placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter into the azygous vein

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Iain Gilmore, Christopher

    2015-06-15

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are used for a variety of infusion therapies. They are indicated in patients requiring long-term venous access. Incorrect positioning of the insertion of a PICC line is one of the known complications when inserting the device in clinical practice. Radiographers once performing imaging will commonly check if the tip of a PICC has entered the superior vena cava. This case study will report on a lesser known incorrect placement of a PICC line into the azygous vein and how this can be detected on radiographic imaging. This outcome for the patient can be detrimental as it has an increased risk of perforation, thrombus, and fistula formation.

  14. Mediastinal approach to the placement of tunneled hemodialysis catheters in patients with central vein occlusion in an outpatient access center.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, John; Dietrich, Anne; Steuben, Stephanie; Ricker, Jaren; Barkema, Karla; Kuhl, Taften

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular therapy for hemodialysis (HD) access is now performed in outpatient centers in a growing number of cities in the US. As patients live longer, we are facing a growing number of patients with central venous occlusion. We report our first three cases of mediastinal tunneled dialysis catheter placement in a clinic setting. Between 15 November 2009 and 1 April 2010, three patients with central vein occlusion required tunneled HD catheter placement. Case #1 was a 60-year-old male with left subclavian and innominate vein occlusion from a defibrillator pacemaker and two previous right internal jugular tunneled dialysis catheters with occlusion of the right internal jugular vein. He lost right arm access after two failed arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) and an occluded upper arm AV graft. His last right external jugular catheter was removed for infection. Case #2 was a 72-year-old female with a thrombosed left upper arm and a right basilic vein AV access. She had a history of left leg deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a vena cava filter. The left and right internal jugular veins were occluded as well as the left subclavian vein after stent placement. She required a tunneled HD catheter after a failed attempt at endovascular salvage of her right basilic AVF. Case #3 was a 78-year-old female who had been on HD for 4 yr. She refused AVF surgery and had four tunneled HD catheters removed for infection. She presented with bilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis and the removal of an infected right subclavian tunneled HD catheter. THE TECHNIQUE: The dialysis catheters were placed using standard C-arm fluoroscopy. We accessed the right femoral vein to pass a Berenstein catheter (Cordis, Inc, Warren, NJ) into the right innominate-subclavian vein junction. Using the catheter as a fluoroscopic target, a micropuncture needle was guided into the right innominate vein and a standard J-guidewire was used to dilate the mediastinal tract and place a new tunneled dialysis catheter

  15. Central venous stenosis in haemodialysis patients without a previous history of catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri; Yildirim, Sedat; Torun, Dilek

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate dialysis history, imaging findings and outcome of endovascular treatment in six patients with central venous stenosis without a history of previous catheter placement. Between April 2000 and June 2004, six (10%) of 57 haemodialysis patients had stenosis of a central vein without a previous central catheter placement. Venography findings and outcome of endovascular treatment in these six patients were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were three women (50%) and three men aged 32-60 years (mean age: 45 years) and all had massive arm swelling as the main complaint. The vascular accesses were located at the elbow in five patients and at the wrist in one patient. Three patients had stenosis of the left subclavian vein and three patients had stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein. The mean duration of the vascular accesses from the time of creation was 25.1 months. Flow volumes of the vascular access were very high in four patients who had flow volume measurement. The mean flow volume was 2347 ml/min. One of three patients with brachiocephalic vein stenosis had compression of the vein by the brachiocephalic artery. All the lesions were first treated with balloon angioplasty and two patients required stent placement on long term. Number of interventions ranged from 1 to 4 (mean: 2.1). Symptoms resolved in five patients and improved in one patient who had a stent placed in the left BCV. Central venous stenosis in haemodialysis patients without a history of central venous catheterization tends to occur or be manifested in patients with a proximal permanent vascular access with high flow rates. Balloon angioplasty with or without stent placement offers good secondary patency rates in mid-term.

  16. Lumbar epidural catheter placement in the presence of low back tattoos: a review of the safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Welliver, Dawn; Welliver, Mark; Carroll, Tammy; James, Peggy

    2010-06-01

    Current fashion in body art includes low back tattoos of varying designs and colors, a trend that presents unique concerns for anesthesia providers. Does the placement of epidural catheters risk the introduction of tattoo pigment dyes into the epidural space through the process of coring? Are there specific risks associated with tattoo dyes and epidural needle placement? We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using multiple search databases with the intent to form guidelines for practice using a level of evidence taxonomy. The available evidence does not identify any specific risks associated with epidural catheter placement through low back tattoos, although tissue coring with tissue transport to deeper sites has been confirmed. Continued investigation is necessary before comprehensive practice guidelines regarding the practice of placing epidural needles and catheters through lumbar tattoos can be developed. We suggest avoidance of piercing tattoos when performing epidural punctures until there is sound evidence of short-term and long-term safety.

  17. The carina as a landmark for central venous catheter placement in small children.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Knut; Breitmeier, Dirk; Panning, Bernhard; Tröger, Hans Dieter; Nave, Heike

    2006-04-01

    Central venous devices are frequently used in children to monitor haemodynamic status, to administer fluids, medication, parenteral nutrition and for blood sampling. Life-threatening complications that may occur on insertion if the central venous catheter (CVC) is misplaced, are cardiac tamponade or a hydro-/haemopericardium. There is still controversy over the optimum catheter tip position in paediatric patients, whether to place the CVC tip in the superior vena cava, outside the pericardial boundaries or in the right atrium. However, the exact location of the pericardium cannot be seen on a normal chest x-ray. The carina is a radiographic marker for CVC placement, suggested on the basis of studies with conserved and fresh adult cadavers. In order to confirm this landmark for children, the present study was performed with 31 fresh cadavers of small children (mean age 12.5+/-3.4 months) that had been selected for autopsy in the Institute of Legal Medicine. Results clearly demonstrate that the carina was 0.5+/-0.04 cm above the pericardial duplication as it transversed the SVC. In no infant cadaver was the carina inferior to the pericardium. Thus, the results are analogous to those in adults and confirm that the carina is a simple anatomical-radiological landmark, superior to the pericardial reflection, that can be used to identify the placement of CVC even in newborn and small children.

  18. Renal Ultrasound, Dialysis Catheter Placement, and Kidney Biopsy Experience of US Nephrology Fellows.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Mala; Ross, Daniel W; Shah, Hitesh H

    2016-08-01

    Procedures are a key component to the practice of nephrology. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires nephrology fellows to acquire skills and demonstrate competency in the performance of several procedures during fellowship training, including temporary hemodialysis catheter placement, biopsy of native and transplanted kidneys, and various dialytic therapies. It is also required that fellows acquire competency in the interpretation of renal imaging, including renal ultrasound, during their training. To gain a more recent perspective of nephrology fellows' experiences regarding renal ultrasonography, dialysis catheter placement, and kidney biopsies, we carried out a national survey of nephrology fellows in May 2014. A majority of the programs did not offer formal clinical training in renal ultrasonography. In addition, a significant percentage of fellows in adult nephrology may not be acquiring the required procedural skills and competency during fellowship training. In this perspective, we explore some of the reasons for this occurrence and propose some measures that the nephrology training community can take to enhance procedural skills and competency of fellows. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ventricular catheter placement accuracy in non-stereotactic shunt surgery for hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Lind, Christopher R P; Tsai, Amy M C; Lind, Christina J; Law, Andrew J J

    2009-07-01

    We aimed to compare the accuracy of different shunt catheter approaches to the lateral ventricle in adults with hydrocephalus. We conducted a retrospective review of 138 consecutive patients with hydrocephalus undergoing freehand initial shunt surgery. Of these, 79 had a post-operative brain scan and therefore the results were available for analysis. Scans were graded for successful catheter tip placement in the ventricular target zones: the frontal horn for frontal and occipital approaches, and the atrium for the parietal approach. Ventricular target zones were successfully catheterized in 85% of parietal and 64% of frontal shunts (this difference is not statistically significant). In contrast, only 42% of occipital shunts were correctly placed (p<0.01). Therefore, parietal and frontal catheters are more likely to be placed successfully in the target ventricle. This may be due to the smaller range of successful trajectories open to the occipital approach. Solutions to this problem may include using the theoretically favourable frontal approach for freehand surgery or using stereotactic guidance.

  20. Measurements of Epidural Space Depth Using Preexisting CT Scans Correlate with Loss of Resistance Depth during Thoracic Epidural Catheter Placement

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Nathaniel H.; Cobb, Benjamin G.; Linnau, Ken F.; Kent, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Thoracic epidural catheters provide the best quality postoperative pain relief for major abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures, but placement is one of the most challenging procedures in the repertoire of an anesthesiologist. Most patients presenting for a procedure that would benefit from a thoracic epidural catheter have already had high resolution imaging that may be useful to assist placement of a catheter. Methods. This retrospective study used data from 168 patients to examine the association and predictive power of epidural-skin distance (ESD) on computed tomography (CT) to determine loss of resistance depth acquired during epidural placement. Additionally, the ability of anesthesiologists to measure this distance was compared to a radiologist, who specializes in spine imaging. Results. There was a strong association between CT measurement and loss of resistance depth (P < 0.0001); the presence of morbid obesity (BMI > 35) changed this relationship (P = 0.007). The ability of anesthesiologists to make CT measurements was similar to a gold standard radiologist (all individual ICCs > 0.9). Conclusions. Overall, this study supports the examination of a recent CT scan to aid in the placement of a thoracic epidural catheter. Making use of these scans may lead to faster epidural placements, fewer accidental dural punctures, and better epidural blockade. PMID:25628654

  1. Convection-enhanced delivery catheter placements for high-grade gliomas: complications and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Tal; Ram, Zvi; Kanner, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of compounds into brain tumors reportedly circumvents the blood brain barrier. CED intends to increase drug delivery to malignant cells, reaching high local therapeutic concentration and decreasing or eliminating systemic side effects. Clinical experience and published data on catheter placement (CP) surgery are scarce. We propose practical and technical guidelines for planning CED based on our experience. We retrospectively analyzed the medical charts and relevant neuroimages of 25 patients following the insertion of 64 CED catheters. The patients were enrolled in at least one of four clinical trials using CED for treating recurrent glioblastoma multiforme in our institution between 2003-2006. Intra- and postoperative complications related to CP surgery and the difficulties and pitfalls of planning were evaluated. There were 29 CP surgeries. Forty-four peritumoral brain tissue catheters were inserted in 16 CP surgeries following tumor resection in 16 patients, and 20 catheters were placed into the tumor in 13 procedures in 10 patients. The lesions were in or near eloquent brain tissue areas in 13 of all CP surgeries. Complications included increased edema (31%), infection (6.9%), bleeding (6.9%) and seizures (13.8%). Significant neurological deterioration occurred in 4 patients (13.8%). Difficulties in adhering to CP surgery guidelines included lesion site (superficial, mesial temporal lobe, proximity to CSF spaces), proximity to eloquent cortical areas, tissue density that interfered with the trajectory, and technical limitations of stereotactic instruments. CED procedures for high-grade gliomas may be associated with surgical morbidity. Adherence to guidelines might be difficult because of lesion site and complicated by brain and tumor tissue characteristics. This should be considered while planning clinical trials that use convection-based technology.

  2. Subarachnoid catheter placement after wet tap for analgesia in labor: influence on the risk of headache in obstetric patients.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Sabry; Demian, Yousef; Narouze, Samer N; Tetzlaff, John E

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) after epidural wet tap for obstetric patients may be as high as 75%. We have studied how subsequent placement of a subarachnoid catheter immediately after confirmation of a wet tap, and leaving the catheter in place for 24 hours affects the incidence of PDPH. Over a 5-year interval, 115 consecutive patients who had unintentional dural puncture were divided into 3 groups by consecutive assignment. Group A had an epidural catheter placed at another interspace. Group B had a subarachnoid catheter placed for labor analgesia that was removed immediately after delivery. Group C had a subarachnoid catheter that was left in place for 24 hours after delivery. Data were collected retrospectively. The incidence of PDPH and blood patch was compared between groups. The overall incidence of PDPH was 46.9% and need for blood patch 36.5%, significantly less in both subarachnoid catheter groups, 31% in B and 3% in group C, compared with group A (PDPH 81%) (P <.001). Subarachnoid catheter placement after wet tap in obstetric patients reduces the PDPH rate and does so to a greater extent if left in place for 24 hours after delivery.

  3. A Missing Guide Wire After Placement of Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Kashif, Muhammad; Hashmi, Hafiz; Jadhav, Preeti; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 50 Final Diagnosis: Retained guidewire removal by interventional radiology Symptoms: Swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Fluoroscopic retrieval of the guidewire Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: Central venous catheterization is a common tool used in critically ill patients to monitor central venous pressure and administer fluids and medications such as vasopressors. Here we present a case of a missing guide wire after placement of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), which was incidentally picked up by bedside ultrasound in the intensive care unit. Case Report: A 50-year-old Hispanic male was admitted to the intensive care unit for alcohol intoxication. He was managed for septic shock and required placement of a peripherally inserted central line in his left upper extremity for antibiotics and vasopressor administration. A bedside ultrasound performed by the intensivist to evaluate upper extremity swelling revealed a foreign body in the left arm. Percutaneous procedure by Interventional radiologist was required for retrieval of the guidewire. Conclusions: Guide wire related complications are rarely reported, but are significantly associated with mortality and morbidity. The use of ultrasound guidance placement of PICC lines decreases the risk of complications, provides better optimal vein selection, and enhances success. PMID:27920421

  4. Emergency Department Placement and Management of Indwelling Urinary Catheters in Older Adults: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Kartik; Rosen, Tony; Mulcare, Mary R.; Clark, Sunday; Hayes, Jaime; Lachs, Mark S.; Flomenbaum, Neal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Indwelling Urinary Catheters (IUCs) are placed frequently in older adults in the emergency department (ED). While often a critical intervention, IUCs carry significant risks, particularly for geriatric patients, including infection, delirium, and falls. In addition, once placed, IUCs are rarely removed in the ED and may remain for an extended period after transfer of care, leading to poor outcomes. The purpose of this research was to examine the current knowledge, attitudes, and practice of ED nurses and other providers regarding IUC placement and management in older adults. METHODS We surveyed ED providers including nurses, attending physicians, Emergency Medicine (EM) residents, nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs) at a large, urban, academic medical center. We developed comprehensive written questionnaires designed using items from previously validated instruments and questions created specifically for this study. In addition, we assessed providers' management of 25 unique clinical scenarios, each representing an established appropriate or inappropriate indication for IUC placement. RESULTS 127 ED providers participated: 43 nurses, 21 attending physicians, 47 residents, and 17 NP/PAs. 91% of nurses and 88% of other providers reported comfort with appropriate indications for IUC placement. Despite this, in the clinical vignettes nurses correctly identified the appropriate approach for IUC placement in only 40% of cases and other providers in only 37%. Reported practices were most divergent from accepted standards in delirium, with 3% of nurses and 1% of other providers appropriately avoiding IUC placement. Practice varied widely between individual providers, with the nurse participants reporting appropriate practice in 16%–64% of clinical scenarios and other providers in 8%–68%. Few nurses or other providers reported reassessing their patients for IUC removal at transfer to the hospital upstairs (28% of nurses and 7% of other

  5. Initial experience with percutaneous coronary sinus catheter placement in minimally invasive cardiac surgery in an academic center.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Hajime; Swerczek, Michael; Ueda, Kenichi

    2016-07-11

    Placement of a percutaneous coronary sinus catheter (CSC) by an anesthesiologist for retrograde cardioplegia in minimally invasive cardiac surgery is relatively safe in experienced hands. However, the popularity of its placement remains limited to a small number of centers due to its perceived complexity and potential complications. We retrospectively reviewed all cardiac cases performed by one surgeon between December 2009 and April 2012. The reviewed cases were divided into two groups: cardiac cases with percutaneous CSC placement (CSC group) and cardiac cases without placement (control group). Anesthesia preparation time (APT) was then compared between the CSC group and control group. In the CSC group, cases were further divided into two groups. One group contained cases with an APT of less than 90 min (success group) and the other contained cases with an APT greater than or equal to 90 min or cases with CSC placement failure (delay/failure group). Patients' characteristics, type of surgery, and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) findings were compared between the two groups (success group vs. delay/failure group) to identify variables associated with prolongation of the APT or CSC placement failure. Percutaneous CSC placement was required in 83 cases (CSC group). The catheter was successfully placed in 74 of those cases. We experienced one complication, coronary sinus injury after multiple attempts at placing the catheter. The mean APT was 102 ± 31 min in the CSC group (n = 81) and 42 ± 15 min in the control group (n = 285). We could not identify any variables associated with prolongation of the APT or catheter placement failure. The success rate of the placement was 89.1 % in our academic center. On average, placing the CSC added approximately one additional hour to the APT. This time is not an accurate representation of true catheter placement time, as it included time for preparation of the CSC, TEE, and fluoroscopy. We experienced

  6. C-arm Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Needle Path Overlay for Fluoroscopic-Guided Placement of Translumbar Central Venous Catheters

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Alda; Mohamed, Ashraf; Pfister, Marcus; Rohm, Esther; Wallace, Michael J.

    2009-07-15

    C-arm cone beam computed tomography is an advanced 3D imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat-panel-based angiography systems. The overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real-time fluoroscopy. This overlay technology was used to guide the placement of three percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava catheters.

  7. [Significance of ultrasonics in the placement of a central venous catheter].

    PubMed

    Sauer, W; Luft, D; Risler, T; Renn, W; Eggstein, M

    1988-09-16

    An ultrasound investigation was undertaken of the neck region of 42 patients with normal neck anatomy in order to determine whether the results of ultrasound-gained topographical data provided pointers to the choice of entry site to the internal jugular vein (IJV). In addition, the IJV was punctured under ultrasound control in 23 patients in an intensive care unit in whom there was a problem of increased bleeding tendency, anatomical difficulty or previously failed "blind" puncture. In all of them a central venous catheter was placed without complication by the Seldinger technique via the primary chosen point for puncture. An approach through the sternocleidomastoid muscle, between the cricoid level and the "central" place of puncture between the two bellies of the sternocleidomastoid muscle proved to be the most satisfactory compromise between easy application of the ultrasound head, large vein diameter and reduction of any risk of mistakenly puncturing artery or pleura. This approach has to be varied according to the ultrasound findings. It is concluded from this experience that ultrasound is suitable for the placement of central venous catheters. But since the equipment is bulky it cannot be used in an emergency.

  8. Do iatrogenic factors bias the placement of external ventricular catheters?--a single institute experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Woernle, Christoph M; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Bellut, David; Krayenbuehl, Niklaus; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Placement of external ventricular drainage (EVD) catheters is the gold standard for managing acute hydrocephalus, but the range of complications varies in different studies. The objective of this present single institute study is to analyze iatrogenic factors, which may influence the EVD device placement and the patient's outcome. A total of 137 EVD placements in 120 patients at the University Hospital Zurich were analyzed retrospectively. Discriminative findings between the pre- and postoperative imaging were obtained and evaluated in detail with regards to the postoperative course, ventriculostomy-related infection, and acute neurological deterioration directly related to the EVD placement. These findings were correlated to iatrogenic factors including education level of the neurosurgeon and surgical setting. Overall EVD-related complication rate was 16.1%, including infection rate of 10.2%, catheter malplacement rate of 2.2%, and hemorrhage rate of 3.6%. Although not statistically significant, catheter-associated hemorrhages and malplacements were found mostly in primary EVD surgery, with a higher complication rate associated with junior residents as the performing surgeon. In contrast, ventriculostomy-related infection was most likely present in patients with more than one EVD placement and in patients treated by more experienced physicians. Complications related to EVD are common. The rate and character of the complication depends on the education level of the surgeon.

  9. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Placement with the Sonic Flashlight: Initial Clinical Trial by Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David; Amesur, Nikhil; Shukla, Gaurav; Bayless, Angela; Weiser, David; Scharl, Adam; Mockel, Derek; Banks, Christopher; Mandella, Bernadette; Klatzky, Roberta; Stetten, George

    2010-01-01

    Objective We describe a case series comprising the first clinical trial by intravenous (IV) team nurses using the Sonic Flashlight for ultrasound guidance of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement. Methods Two IV team nurses with more than 10 years experience placing PICCs and from 3–6 years experience with ultrasound (US) attempted to place PICCs under US guidance in patients requiring long-term IV access. One of two methods of US guidance was used: conventional ultrasound (CUS) (60 patients) or a new device called the Sonic Flashlight (SF) (44 patients). The number of needle punctures required to gain IV access was recorded for each subject. Results In both methods, 87% of the cases resulted in successful venous access on the first attempt. The average number of needle sticks per patient was 1.18 for SF-guided procedures, as compared to 1.20 for CUS-guided procedures. No significant difference was found in the distribution of the number of attempts between the two methods. Anecdotal comments by the nurses indicated the comparative ease of use of the SF display, although relatively small scale of the SF image compared to the CUS image was also noted. Conclusions We have shown that the Sonic Flashlight is a safe and effective device for guidance of PICC placement in the hands of experienced IV team nurses. The advantage of placing the ultrasound image at its actual location must be balanced against the relatively small scale of the SF image. PMID:19389904

  10. Accuracy of 11 formulae to guide umbilical arterial catheter tip placement in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lean, Wei Ling; Dawson, Jennifer A; Davis, Peter G; Theda, Christiane; Thio, Marta

    2017-08-17

    Umbilical arterial catheter (UAC) insertion is a common procedure in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Correct placement of the tip of the UAC at first attempt minimises handling of the infant and reduces the risk of infection and complications. We aimed to determine the accuracy of 11 published formulae to guide UAC placement. This was a one-year prospective observational study in a tertiary NICU. Clinicians used their preferred formula for UAC insertion, with X-rays performed immediately post-procedure to check the tip position. Birth weight and measurements included in the 11 formulae were recorded within 48 hours. The gold standard insertion distance was defined as the distance from the abdominal wall to the mid-descending aorta, at T8 level on X-ray (range T6-T10). Insertion length using the 11 formulae was calculated and compared with this gold standard distance. One hundred and three infants were included, with median (IQR) gestational age and weight of 28 (26-33.5) weeks and 980 (780-2045) g, respectively. The predicted value of the 11 formulae to place the UAC in correct position ranged from 51.0% to 73.8%. Formulae that involved direct body part measurements showed the highest predicted success rates, smallest mean difference from T8 and narrowest limits of agreement using the Bland-Altman method. Success rates for accurate UAC placement are highest when formulae that involve body measurements are used. However, even the most accurate method would result in more than 25% of UACs needing manipulation to achieve an optimal position. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Peritoneal dialysis catheter placement as a mode of renal replacement therapy: Long-term results from a tertiary academic institution.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Ivy N; Schreiber, Martin; Prabhu, Ajita S; Krpata, David M; Perez, Arielle J; Tastaldi, Luciano; Tu, Chao; Rosen, Michael J; Rosenblatt, Steven

    2017-08-31

    Peritoneal dialysis as a mode of renal replacement therapy still has not been embraced widely as an alternative to hemodialysis. Furthermore, there is marked variability in peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion techniques and perioperative management within the United States. After the publication of best-demonstrated practices for peritoneal dialysis catheter placement, the utilization of peritoneal dialysis has increased significantly at our institution. We detail the long-term success of peritoneal dialysis catheter placement after the adoption of best-demonstrated practices. Retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent laparoscopic peritoneal dialysis catheter placement using the best-demonstrated practice technique from January 2005 through December 2015. Preoperative patient demographic information, intraoperative variables, 30-day morbidity and mortality, and long-term catheter durability outcomes were investigated. A total of 457 patients met inclusion criteria. Four (0.9%) patients experienced an immediate postoperative complication requiring return to the operating room. There were no perioperative mortalities. A total of 298 (65.2%) patients were available for long-term follow-up; 221 (74.2%) patients are still alive, 76 (25.6%) patients are still undergoing peritoneal dialysis, 63 (21.1%) patients transitioned from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis, and 88 (29.5%) patients have undergone kidney transplantation. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival plots, 30% of patients will transition from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis after 5.5 years of peritoneal dialysis and the median time from commencing peritoneal dialysis to kidney transplantation is 5.6 years. Based on our institutional data, the adoption of best-demonstrated practices should provide long-term and reliable access to the peritoneal cavity. We recommend the adoption of these techniques to facilitate long-term peritoneal dialysis catheter survival. Copyright © 2017

  12. An Analysis of Intravenous Catheter Placement Among Patients in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Pade, Kathryn H; Johnson, Leighanne; Nager, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric emergency departments (PED) are overcrowded and at times inefficient with malaligned resources, especially regarding the use of intravenous (IV) catheters which are placed frequently, yet may be underused. This study seeks to determine which pediatric patients are more likely to need IV access in a PED. This retrospective study examined patients 3 days to 21 years seen in a tertiary PED from January 1, 2013, to February 28, 2013, who were triaged using the Emergency Severity Index, levels 1 to 3. Extracted data included age, chief complaints, chronic medical conditions, final diagnoses, evidence of venipuncture, and IV placement and usage. Patients were excluded if they entered the PED with an IV or central venous catheter, were older than 21 years, or had charts with missing data. Four thousand three hundred twenty-two patients were initially evaluated, and 122 patients were excluded. Mean age of the patients was 6.2 years (SD = 5.65), most common triage was level 3 (urgent), and the majority of patients (n = 2898, 69.0%) did not have a chronic medical condition. Five hundred forty-five (13%) had IVs placed, and of those, 152 (27.9%) had IVs placed and not used. Patients triaged as critical or emergent, patients older than 10 years, and those with a gastrointestinal chief complaint and chronic medical conditions involving hematology, oncology/immunology, or endocrinology were most likely to have an IV placed and used. Patients with higher acuities, specified systemic complaints, certain chronic medical conditions, and patients older than 10 years are more likely to need an IV.

  13. Impact of Multislice CT Angiography on Planning of Radiological Catheter Placement for Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sone, Miyuki Kato, Kenichi; Hirose, Atsuo; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko; Tomabechi, Makiko; Ehara, Shigeru; Hanari, Takao

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to assess prospectively the role of multislice CT angiography (MSCTA) on planning of radiological catheter placement for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC). Forty-six patients with malignant liver tumors planned for HAIC were included. In each patient, both MSCTA and intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed, except one patient who did not undergo DSA. Comparison of MSCTA and DSA images was performed for the remaining 45 patients. Detectability of anatomical variants of the hepatic artery, course of the celiac trunk, visualization scores of arterial branches and interobserver agreement, presence of arterial stenosis, and technical outcome were evaluated. Anatomical variations of the hepatic artery were detected in 19 of 45 patients (42%) on both modalities. The course of the celiac trunk was different in 12 patients. The visualization scores of celiac arterial branches on MSCTA/DSA were 3.0 {+-} 0/2.9 {+-} 0.2 in the celiac trunk, 3.0 {+-} 0/2.9 {+-} 0.3 in the common hepatic artery, 2.9 {+-} 0.2/2.9 {+-} 0.3 in the proper hepatic artery, 2.9 {+-} 0.3/2.9 {+-} 0.4 in the right hepatic artery, 2.8 {+-} 0.4/2.9 {+-} 0.4 in the left hepatic artery, 2.9 {+-} 0.2/2.9 {+-} 0.3 in the gastroduodenal artery, 2.1 {+-} 0.8/2.2 {+-} 0.9 in the right gastric artery, and 2.7 {+-} 0.8/2.6 {+-} 0.8 in the left gastric artery. No statistically significant differences exist between the two modalities. Interobserver agreement for MSCTA was equivalent to that for DSA. Two patients showed stenosis of the celiac trunk on both modalities. Based on these imaging findings, technical success was accomplished in all patients. In conclusion, MSCTA is accurate in assessing arterial anatomy and abnormalities. MSCTA can provide adequate information for planning of radiological catheter placement for HAIC.

  14. Impact of multislice CT angiography on planning of radiological catheter placement for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sone, Miyuki; Kato, Kenichi; Hirose, Atsuo; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko; Tomabechi, Makiko; Ehara, Shigeru; Hanari, Takao

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess prospectively the role of multislice CT angiography (MSCTA) on planning of radiological catheter placement for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC). Forty-six patients with malignant liver tumors planned for HAIC were included. In each patient, both MSCTA and intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed, except one patient who did not undergo DSA. Comparison of MSCTA and DSA images was performed for the remaining 45 patients. Detectability of anatomical variants of the hepatic artery, course of the celiac trunk, visualization scores of arterial branches and interobserver agreement, presence of arterial stenosis, and technical outcome were evaluated. Anatomical variations of the hepatic artery were detected in 19 of 45 patients (42%) on both modalities. The course of the celiac trunk was different in 12 patients. The visualization scores of celiac arterial branches on MSCTA/DSA were 3.0 +/- 0/2.9 +/- 0.2 in the celiac trunk, 3.0 +/- 0/2.9 +/- 0.3 in the common hepatic artery, 2.9 +/- 0.2/2.9 +/- 0.3 in the proper hepatic artery, 2.9 +/- 0.3/2.9 +/- 0.4 in the right hepatic artery, 2.8 +/- 0.4/2.9 +/- 0.4 in the left hepatic artery, 2.9 +/- 0.2/2.9 +/- 0.3 in the gastroduodenal artery, 2.1 +/- 0.8/2.2 +/- 0.9 in the right gastric artery, and 2.7 +/- 0.8/2.6 +/- 0.8 in the left gastric artery. No statistically significant differences exist between the two modalities. Interobserver agreement for MSCTA was equivalent to that for DSA. Two patients showed stenosis of the celiac trunk on both modalities. Based on these imaging findings, technical success was accomplished in all patients. In conclusion, MSCTA is accurate in assessing arterial anatomy and abnormalities. MSCTA can provide adequate information for planning of radiological catheter placement for HAIC.

  15. Simulation improves procedural protocol adherence during central venous catheter placement: a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Peltan, Ithan D.; Shiga, Takashi; Gordon, James A.; Currier, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Simulation training may improve proficiency at and reduces complications from central venous catheter (CVC) placement, but the scope of simulation’s effect remains unclear. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of a pragmatic CVC simulation program on procedural protocol adherence, technical skill, and patient outcomes. Methods Internal medicine interns were randomized to standard training for CVC insertion or standard training plus simulation-based mastery training. Standard training involved a lecture, a video-based online module, and instruction by the supervising physician during actual CVC insertions. Intervention-group subjects additionally underwent supervised training on a venous access simulator until they demonstrated procedural competence. Raters evaluated interns’ performance during internal jugular CVC placement on actual patients in the medical intensive care unit. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for outcome clustering within trainees. Results We observed 52 interns place 87 CVCs. Simulation-trained interns exhibited better adherence to prescribed procedural technique than interns who received only standard training (p=0.024). There were no significant differences detected in first-attempt or overall cannulation success rates, mean needle passes, global assessment scores or complication rates. Conclusions Simulation training added to standard training improved protocol adherence during CVC insertion by novice practitioners. This study may have been too small to detect meaningful differences in venous cannulation proficiency and other clinical outcomes, highlighting the difficulty of patient-centered simulation research in settings where poor outcomes are rare. For high-performing systems, where protocol deviations may provide an important proxy for rare procedural complications, simulation may improve CVC insertion quality and safety. PMID:26154250

  16. Laparoscopic-assisted catheter insertion for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: A case report of simple technique for optimal placement

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Tomohide; Nakauchi, Masaya; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Oike, Fumitaka; Tanaka, Takahiro; Gunji, Daigo; Okada, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old male underwent tube placement surgery for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A 2-cm skin incision was made, and the peritoneum was reflected enough to perform secure fixation. A swan-necked, double-felted silicone CAPD catheter was inserted, and the felt cuff was sutured to the peritoneum to avoid postoperative leakage. An adequate gradient for tube fixation to the abdominal wall was confirmed. The CAPD tube was passed through a subcutaneous tunnel. Aeroperitoneum was induced to confirm that there was no air leakage from the sites of CAPD insertion. Two trocars were placed, and we confirmed that the CAPD tube led to the rectovesical pouch. Tip position was reliably observed laparoscopically. Optimal patency of the CAPD tube was confirmed during surgery. Placement of CAPD catheters by laparoscopic-assisted surgery has clear advantages in simplicity, safety, flexibility, and certainty. Laparoscopic technique should be considered the first choice for CAPD tube insertion. PMID:24179625

  17. Echocardiographic diagnosis of air embolism associated with central venous catheter placement: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maddukuri, Prasad; Downey, Brian C; Blander, Jessica A; Pandian, Natesa G; Patel, Ayan R

    2006-04-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a valuable tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected air embolism. This report describes the presentation and evaluation of a critically ill woman with spontaneous air embolism occurring during a central venous catheter replacement. Bedside TTE established the diagnosis of air embolism, allowing prompt initiation of appropriate therapy. This case report highlights this uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of central line placement and the utility of echocardiography in its evaluation.

  18. Placement of an intrathecal catheter through a bony fusion mass using 3D image guidance: a case report.

    PubMed

    Candler, Shawn A; Osborne, Michael D; Derr, Michael J; Nottmeier, Eric W

    2013-11-01

    We describe the 3-dimensional (3D) image-guided placement technique for a lumbar intrathecal catheter through a dorsal fusion mass. This is the first time this technique has been reported. A patient with 6 prior spine surgeries and chronic pain syndrome presented with a challenging large dorsal fusion mass. The use of 3D cone beam computed tomography-based image guidance proved advantageous for the placement of an intrathecal drug delivery system (IDDS). Under general anesthesia, image guidance was accomplished with the Medtronic Stealth S7 image guidance system, used in conjunction with the O-ARM (Medtronic Inc.). Using an image-guided probe over the skin surface, we navigated the dorsal fusion mass to identify a thin area at the L4-L5 level. A small incision was made and the image-guided probe was used to target the selected thin area and drill an adequate opening in the fusion mass. We inserted a Tuohy needle through the bony defect for passage of the intrathecal catheter. We confirmed adequate catheter placement using free flowing cerebrospinal fluid and fluoroscopy. The remainder of the IDDS implant proceeded per routine. The patient tolerated the procedure well and had no complications. The morphine IDDS improved his overall pain and function with minimal side effects. This is the first case report using 3D cone beam computed tomography-based image guidance for the placement of an intrathecal catheter through a bony fusion mass. This technique appears to be a viable option for IDDS implantation in patients with difficult anatomy.

  19. Randomized controlled trial of ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous catheter placement versus traditional techniques in difficult-access pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Doniger, Stephanie J; Ishimine, Paul; Fox, John Christian; Kanegaye, John T

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesized that the use of ultrasound guidance would improve the success rate of peripheral intravenous catheter placement in pediatric patients with difficult access in a pediatric emergency department (ED). Our secondary hypotheses were that ultrasound guidance would reduce the number of attempts, the number of needle redirections, and the overall time to catheter placement. This was a prospective randomized study of pediatric ED patients younger than 10 years old requiring intravenous access, presenting between August 2006 and May 2007. Inclusion criteria were 2 unsuccessful traditional attempts at peripheral intravenous access or history of difficult access. Exclusion was critical illness or instability. Patients were randomized to undergo peripheral intravenous catheter placement using continued traditional approaches or real-time, dual-operator ultrasound-guided technique. Measured outcomes were success of cannulation, number of attempts, number of needle redirections, and overall time to catheter placement. Fifty patients were enrolled, with 25 patients randomized to each group. The overall success rates for the ultrasound-guided group were 80% and for the traditional-attempts group, 64%, with a difference in proportions of 16% (95% confidence interval, -9% to 38%, P = 0.208). The ultrasound-guided group required less overall time (6.3 vs 14.4 minutes, difference of -8.1 minutes [95% confidence interval, -12.5 to -3.6], P = 0.001), fewer attempts (median, 1 vs 3; P = 0.004), and fewer needle redirections (median, 2 vs 10; P G 0.0001) than traditional approaches. In a sample of pediatric ED patients with difficult access, ultrasound-guided intravenous cannulation required less overall time, fewer attempts, and fewer needle redirections than traditional approaches.

  20. Five French (5 Fr) guiding catheters for percutaneous coronary angioplasty and stent placement: An initial feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Schussler, J M; Smith, R; Schreibfeder, M; Hill, D; Anwar, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty patients were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using a 5 Fr guiding catheter. A recently developed, mechanically advantaged hand injector was used to deliver contrast and achieved excellent visualization through the 5 Fr system. Stent sizes ranged from 2.25 to 4.00 mm in diameter and from 8 to 24 mm in length. All primary lesions were successfully treated. The average contrast use was 70 cc per case. There were no major complications and only one minor femoral hematoma. In selected patients, a balloon angioplasty and stent placement can be performed safely and successfully with 5 Fr guiding catheters using currently available products. This technique creates a smaller arterial puncture site, which may obviate the need for a closure device and allow early and safe ambulation. With 5 Fr systems, it appears that contrast usage is reduced, thereby potentially decreasing cost and morbidity. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 51:352-357, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. [Two Cases of Retained Guide Wires after Placement of a Central Venous Catheter via the Internal Jugular Vein].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Masumori, Yasushi; Tanigawa, Saori; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Miki; Tateda, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    We report two cases of a retained guide wire after perioperative placement of a central venous catheter during a six-month period. Case 1: A 73-year-old male was scheduled for an open cholecystectomy and hepatectomy. After induction of anesthesia, a central venous (CV) catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein using an ultrasound guide. Chest radiographs showed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava immediately after surgery, which was removed by interventional radiologist before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Case 2: A 77-year-old male was scheduled for colostomy closure. The surgeon inserted a CV catheter in the right internal jugular vein 4 days before the colostomy. Chest radiographs revealed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava, which was removed by interventional radiologists before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Although a retained guide wire is a rare complication, awareness of this mishap is necessary to prevent it from happening.

  2. Mentors decrease compliance with best sterile practices during central venous catheter placement in the trauma resuscitation unit.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, James L; Seagull, F Jacob; Bochicchio, Grant V; Sisley, Amy; Mackenzie, Colin F; Dutton, Richard P; Scalea, Thomas; Xiao, Yan

    2006-02-01

    In the academic trauma unit during initial evaluation and resuscitation of trauma victims, central venous catheters are often placed by multiple operators. There are few data on compliance with accepted, standard sterile practices during such procedures. Prospective data were tabulated from video capture of 144 consecutive central venous catheterizations in a trauma resuscitation unit, during peak hours, by a team of trained video technicians. The physicians were surgical and emergency medicine residents. The number of primary operators (trainees) and secondary operators (mentors) for each line was recorded from the video analysis, as well as physician adherence to the use of maximum barrier precautions (MBP; sterile gown, gloves, full operative drape, cap, and mask). Procedures were stratified by level of urgency: Emergent (n = 7), semi-emergent (n = 20), and elective (n = 113). The subclavian vein was used for 73% of the elective catheter placements. For elective central venous catheters, 99 of 113 primary operators (88%) observed MBP, whereas only 31 of 45 secondary operators (69%) did so (p < or = 0.01). Among the 45 elective central venous catheters placed with a secondary operator, there were four instances of frank contamination (9%). Secondary operators, typically trauma surgery attendings, trauma/critical care fellows, or senior surgical residents, function as mentors in academic institutions and act as role models. Secondary operators participated in many of the studied cases, yet failed to demonstrate consistent use of MBP. In elective central venous catheter placement, those where there was the greatest opportunity to follow MBP, we observed a statistically significant difference in compliance rate between the primary and secondary operators. The study suggests the need to address the performance of the secondary operators and to educate them, as although they may be technically experienced in placing central venous catheters, they may comply less

  3. The Nelaton Catheter Guard for Safe and Effective Placement of Subdural Drain for Two-Burr-Hole Trephination in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Fichtner, Jens; Beck, Jürgen; Raabe, A; Stieglitz, Lennart Henning

    2015-09-01

    For chronic subdural hematoma, placement of a Blake drain with a two-burr-hole craniotomy is often preferred. However, the placement of such drains carries the risk of penetrating the brain surface or damaging superficial venous structures. To describe the use of a Nelaton catheter for the placement of a subdural drain in two-burr-hole trephination for chronic subdural hematoma. A Nelaton catheter was used to guide placement of a Blake drain into the subdural hematoma cavity and provide irrigation of the hematoma cavity. With the two-burr-hole method, the Nelaton catheter could be removed easily via the frontal burr hole after the Blake drain was in place. We used the Nelaton catheters in many surgical procedures and found it a safe and easy technique. This method allows the surgeon to safely direct the catheter into the correct position in the subdural space. This tool has two advantages. First, the use of a small and flexible Nelaton catheter is a safe method for irrigation of a chronic subdural hematoma cavity. Second, in comparison with insertion of subdural drainage alone through a burr hole, the placement of the Nelaton catheter in subdural space is easier and the risk of damaging relevant structures such as cortical tissue or bridging veins is lower. Thus this technique may help to avoid complications when placing a subdural drain. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Thoracic epidural catheter placement using a paramedian approach with cephalad angulation in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Franci, Paolo; Leece, Elizabeth A; Corletto, Federico

    2012-10-01

    To describe a technique for insertion of a thoracic epidural catheter. Clinical report. Dogs (n = 3) undergoing thoracic wall resection and thoracotomy. A paramedian approach with cephalic angulation was used to place a 24-g epidural catheter in 3 dogs. Dogs 1 and 2 had left caudal thoracic wall resection and dog 3 had left thoracotomy. In dog 1, the epidural catheter was inserted at L2-L3 intervertebral space and the tip of the catheter advanced to the level of T13 vertebral body. In dog 2, the epidural catheter was inserted at T12-T13 intervertebral space and the tip of the catheter was advanced to the level of T8 vertebral body. In dog 3, the epidural catheter was inserted at T13-L1 intervertebral space and its tip advanced until reaching the vertebral body of T10. All dogs were administered a combination of bupivacaine and morphine through the epidural catheter to provide intra- and postoperative analgesia. The peridural space was identified and the tip of the catheter was positioned where intended in all dogs. Dog 1 developed transient Horner's syndrome and dog 3 required intraoperative fentanyl during the first part of the procedure. Paramedian approach with cephalad angulation is a suitable technique to place thoracic epidural catheters in dogs. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Placement of long-term hemodialysis catheter (permcath) in patients with end-stage renal disease through external jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Beigi, Ali Akbar; Sharifi, Ali; Gaheri, Hafez; Abdollahi, Saeed; Esfahani, Morteza Abdar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The number of patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) has progressively increased in the population. Kidney transplantation is the specific treatment for such patients; however a majority of patients will require hemodialysis before kidney transplantation. The present study aims to investigate using the external jugular vein (EJV) for Permcath placement in these patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was conducted in Alzahra Medical Center, Isfahan, in 2012. Catheters were inserted by cutting down the right EJV. The patency rate and potential complications were studied. The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0. Results: Out of 45 live patients, within three months of surgery, 40 patients (81.6%) had no complications and dialysis continued through Permcath. Permcath Thrombosis occurred in two patients (4.4%). Catheter infection led to the removal of it in one patient (2.2%) 1.5 months after surgery. And accidental catheter removal occurred in one patient. Conclusion: Placement of the permcath in the external jugular vein can be a safe, uncomplicated, and reliable method for patients requiring hemodialysis, and can be a life-saving alternative in patients without accessible internal jugular vein. PMID:25590030

  6. Percutaneous Placement of Peritoneal Port-Catheter in Patients with Malignant Ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, Orhan; Akinci, Devrim Gocmen, Rahsan; Cil, Barbaros; Ozmen, Mustafa; Akhan, Okan

    2007-04-15

    We report our experience with a radiologically placed peritoneal port-catheter in palliation of malignant ascites. Port-catheters were successfully placed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance in seven patients (five women, two men) who had symptomatic malignant ascites. The long-term primary patency rate was 100%. The mean duration of catheter function was 148 days. Seven patients had a total of 1040 port-days. Two patients received intraperitoneal chemotherapy via the port-catheter. There were no procedure-related mortality and major complications. Minor complications such as ascitic fluid leakage from the peritoneal entry site, migration of the catheter tip to the right upper quadrant, and reversal of the port reservoir occurred in four patients. None of these complications affected the drainage and required port explantation. In patients with symptomatic malignant ascites, a peritoneal port-catheter can provide palliation and eliminate multiple hospital visits for repeated paracentesis with high patency and low complication rates.

  7. Effect of Ultrasound-Guided Placement of Difficult-to-Place Peripheral Venous Catheters: A Prospective Study of a Training Program for Nurse Anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Partovi-Deilami, Kohyar; Nielsen, Jesper K; Moller, Ann M; Nesheim, Sara-Sophie S; Jorgensen, Vibeke L

    2016-04-01

    Patients with difficult intravenous access (DIVA) often experience discomfort because of failed attempts to place peripheral venous catheters (PVCs); however, ultrasound guidance may improve this problem with catheter placement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ultrasound when operated by nurse anesthetists for these patients. This prospective observational study with a pre/post design focused on inpatients with DIVA referred for PVC placement, a service provided by nurse anesthetists in most Scandinavian hospitals. The rate of success, procedure time, number of skin punctures, discomfort, catheter size, location, and incidence of central venous catheter placement are reported before and after implementation of a training program and a mobile service using ultrasound to place difficult-to-place PVCs. The success rate increased from 0% (0 of 33 patients) to 83% (58 of 70 patients) with ultrasound. Procedure time was reduced from 20 to 10 minutes, discomfort was unchanged, and the median number of skin punctures decreased from 3 to 2. The incidence of central venous catheter placement dropped from 34% to 7%. Implementation of a training program and a mobile service in which nurse anesthetists performed ultrasound-guided PVC placement improved the success rate and quality of care in patients with DIVA.

  8. [Peritoneal catheter placement into the suprahepatic space: a report of 2 cases with abdominal complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunts].

    PubMed

    Ishi, Yukitomo; Ito, Masaki; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Motegi, Hiroaki; Shinbo, Daisuke; Kaneko, Sadahiro; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2011-11-01

    Complications arising from the placement of ventriculoperitoneal shunts are common. These complications may be related to a number of causes and present with various symptoms. Of these, abdominal complications such as formation of intraperitoneal pseudocysts and abdominal abscesses possibly recur, but, alternative sites for placing the peritoneal catheter of ventriculoperitoneal shunts are limited. We present two cases of ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunctioning due to repeated abdominal complications. The location of the peritoneal end of the shunt was successfully revised to the suprahepatic space in the peritoneal cavity. We describe the clinical course of these two cases in this report, along with a precise technique of placing the peritoneal end of the shunt into the suprahepatic space. In addition, we will discuss the validity of this space as an alternative site for the placement of the peritoneal end of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

  9. Umbilical venous catheters placement evaluation on frontal radiogram: application of a simplified flow-chart for radiology residents.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Sergio; Tudisca, Chiara; Murmura, Elena; Matranga, Domenica; La Tona, Giuseppe; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Lo Casto, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Umbilical Venous Catheter (UVC) are commonly used in neonatal period; they can be not correctly positioned and could be associated with complications. The purpose of this article is to suggest a flow-chart to evaluate the placement of UVC, testing it in young radiologists-in-training. We developed a simple flow-chart to asses, steps by step, UVC placement considering its course and tip location (ideally placed in the atriocaval junction). We tested the flow-chart impact asking to 20 residents to evaluate the placement of 10 UVC before and after they familiarized with the flow-chart and the anatomical findings of a newborn. The agreement among the 20 students was evaluated too. The number of correct characterizations was different due to the administration of the flow-chart. One hundred and six correct UVC assessments at the beginning switched to 196 after the administration of the flow-chart (p = 0.0001). The observed agreement among the twenty radiology residents was statistically significant, both before (kappa = 0.41, p < 0.001) and after (kappa = 0.37, p < 0.001) the flow-chart administration. The developed flow-chart demonstrated to be useful in increasing residents performance in UVC placement assessment.

  10. Update for nurse anesthetists evidence-based anesthesia: The use of preprocedural ultrasonography during labor to facilitate placement of an epidural catheter.

    PubMed

    Spence, Dennis; Nations, Ryan; Rivera, Orlando; Bowdoin, Shawn; Hazen, Bradley; Orgill, Robert; Maye, John

    2012-06-01

    Placement of an epidural catheter in parturients can be challenging because the anatomic changes of pregnancy may make it difficult to palpate an ideal insertion point or detect loss of resistance. Preprocedural ultrasonography (U/S-P) is reported to facilitate placement of epidural catheters in parturients. U/S-P provides information on the ideal insertion point, angle of needle insertion, and estimated depth to the epidural space. The purposes of this course are to describe the technique, systematically review the literature, and discuss techniques for integrating U/S-P into practice. It provides evidence demonstrating that U/S-P is a useful adjunct for placement of epidural catheters in obstetrical patients, especially patients with presumed "difficult backs" or obesity.

  11. Closure Using a Surgical Closure Device of Inadvertent Subclavian Artery Punctures During Central Venous Catheter Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Berlet, Matthew H.; Steffen, Diana; Shaughness, George; Hanner, James

    2001-03-15

    Severe complications can and do occur when central venous catheters are inadvertently placed into subclavian arteries. Two cases are discussed that describe how these inadvertent arterial punctures can be closed using the Perclose device (Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA, USA)

  12. Incidence of intravenous contrast extravasation: increased risk for patients with deep brachial catheter placement from the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Andrew D; Kereshi, Borko

    2014-06-01

    Deep brachial intravenous catheter (IV) placement can be performed in emergency department patients with difficult vascular access, but the safety of deep brachial IV for iodinated contrast administration has not been assessed. This study compares the relative risk for extravasation of deep brachial IV compared with antecubital IV during power injected computed tomography (CT) examinations. A departmental practice quality improvement was performed to assess the rate of IV extravasation for all CT examinations during a 1 year period. De-identified data was analyzed with a waiver of informed consent to identify the rate and relative risk of iodinated contrast extravasation by catheter type. A total of 10,750 injections were performed, with 82 extravasation events (0.8 %). There were 51 extravasations of antecubital IV from approximately 8,599 placed (0.6 %). For 123 deep brachial IV placed, there were eight extravasations (6.5 %). The relative risk of a deep brachial IV extravasation was 9.4 compared to 0.4 for antecubital placement. Deep brachial IV demonstrated a markedly higher rate of contrast extravasation than antecubital IV. For power injected iodinated contrast administration, it is recommended to avoid the use of deep brachial IV whenever possible.

  13. Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Placement Is an Underrecognized Source of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection.

    PubMed

    Austin, Eloise D; Sullivan, Sean B; Whittier, Susan; Lowy, Franklin D; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have focused on the risks of peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVs) as sources for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB), a life-threatening complication. We identified 34 PIV-related infections (7.6%) in a cohort of 445 patients with SAB. Peripheral intravenous catheter-related SAB was associated with significantly longer bacteremia duration and thrombophlebitis at old PIV sites rather than current PIVs.

  14. Peritoneoscintigraphy in detection of improper placement of peritoneal catheter into bowel lumen prior to chromic phosphate P-32 therapy. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Neutze, J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Major, W.

    1985-11-01

    Radionuclide peritoneoscintigraphy has been used prior to chromic phosphate P-32 (P-32CP) intraperitoneal therapy to assure proper placement of the catheter in the peritoneal cavity, to exclude loculation, and to predict inadequate distribution of P-32CP. This is a case report of the detection of a peritoneal catheter improperly placed into the bowel lumen by pretherapy radionuclide peritoneoscintigraphy, and this case demonstrates the distinguishing characteristics of the radiocolloid distribution secondary to an intraluminal injection relative to an intraperitoneal injection.

  15. Carina as a useful and reliable radiological landmark for detection of accidental arterial placement of central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Ranjan, Shetty; Jasvinder, Kaur; Nanda, Shetty

    2010-12-01

    Central venous catheters are commonly used in the management of critically ill patients. Their insertion can be challenging in hemodynamically unstable patients and in those with altered thoracic anatomy. Although ultrasound guided insertion can reduce this problem, this facility may not be available in all locations and in all institutions. Accidental arterial puncture is one of the very serious complications that can occur during central venous catheter insertion. This is usually detected clinically by bright color and projectile/pulsatile flow of the returning blood. However, such means are known to be misleading especially in hypoxic and hemodynamically unstable patients. Other recognized measures used to identify arterial puncture would be blood gas analysis of the returning blood, use of pressure transducer to identify waveform pattern and the pressures. In this article, we propose that trachea and carina can be used as a reliable radiological landmark to identify accidental arterial placement of central venous catheters. We further conclude that this information could be useful especially when dealing with post-resuscitation victims and hemodynamically unstable critically ill patients.

  16. Endoscopic transaqueductal placement of a single-catheter cyst-ventriculoperitoneal shunt in a neonate with Dandy-Walker malformation-associated hydrocephalus: case report.

    PubMed

    Morigaki, Ryoma; Pooh, Kyong-Hon; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    A neonate with hydrocephalus associated with Dandy-Walker malformation was successfully treated with an endoscopic placement of a transaqueductal ventricular single catheter. The modified catheter was provided with additional fenestration on its proximal side to allow simultaneous drainage from both the supra- and infratentorial compartments. This technique is well known for isolated fourth ventricles, but has not been applied to hydrocephalus associated with Dandy-Walker malformation. The cyst-ventriculoperitoneal shunt effectively drained both compartments. The patient was doing well 18 months after the surgical procedure. Endoscopic transaqueductal shunt placement can be considered, especially in patients with aqueductal patency.

  17. Central venous catheter placement in the inferior vena cava via the direct translumbar approach.

    PubMed

    Elduayen, B; Martínez-Cuesta, A; Vivas, I; Delgado, C; Pueyo, J C; Bilbao, J I

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical aspects and efficacy of placing tunneled central venous access catheters (CVA) in the inferior vena cava (IVC) via a direct translumbar approach. Between August 1994 and July 1998, 50 CVA (Hickman 13.5 F) were placed in the IVC via a direct translumbar approach in 46 patients (10 males, 36 females) with a mean age of 39.9 years (age range 10-87 years). The indications were chemotherapy administration plus leukoaphoresis (n = 39), bone marrow transplantation (n = 2) and hemodialysis (n = 5). The reasons for placing the CVA in the IVC were cosmetic (n = 34), supradiaphragmatic venous thrombosis (n = 8), previous catheter infection (n = 2), and non-functioning arteriovenous fistula (n = 2). There were no immediate complications. The mean period of time the CVA was in place was 3 months (15 days to 15 months), during which the function was excellent. The commonest late complication was infection (4 local, 6 bacteremia). Others included: pain (n = 2), ureteric fistula (n = 1), pericatheter fibrin sheath formation (n = 6) and catheter-tip impaction (n = 2). Two catheters were damaged due to postprocedural inappropriate manipulations and two others fell off due to incorrect fixation. Due to these complications, it was necessary to remove ten catheters, replace an additional four and reposition two. Direct translumbar catheterization of the IVC is a safe and effective way of placing a long-term CVA with a moderate complication rate.

  18. Ultrasound-guided tunneled lower extremity peripherally inserted central catheter placement in infants.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Moe, David C; Vo, Jack N

    2013-12-01

    Tunneled lower extremity peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are placed in infants under combined ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance in the interventional radiology suite. In infants requiring a bedside procedure, image guidance is limited, often using portable radiographs during the procedure. This report demonstrates feasibility of placing tunneled lower extremity PICCs using ultrasound as the sole imaging modality for vascular access, intravascular length measurement, and final confirmation of catheter tip position in a case series of 15 critically ill infants. The technique negates the need for added imaging confirmation methods that use ionizing radiation and can be performed at the bedside.

  19. Surgical treatment of sacral perineural cyst--case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Miki, Takanori; Miyaji, Yuki; Minami, Hiroaki; Masuda, Atsushi; Tominaga, Shogo; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Yamaura, Ikuya; Natsume, Shigeatsu; Yoshida, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    A 67-year-old man presented with persistent penis and scrotum pain due to S-2 and S-3 radiculopathy caused by a sacral perineural cyst. The cyst was treated with microsurgical partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication, together with closure of the point through which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flowed from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity. His pain resolved without recurrence of the cyst or complications. Symptomatic perineural cysts are quite rare. Surgical closure of the point through which CSF flows from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity is the most important intervention for symptomatic perineural cysts. If the source of CSF leakage cannot be detected, placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt should be considered in addition to partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication.

  20. Wound healing and catheter thrombosis after implantable venous access device placement in 266 breast cancers treated with bevacizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Irène; Cottu, Paul H; Fourchotte, Virginie; Sanchez, Sebastian; Fromantin, Isabelle; Kirov, Krassen; Guillaume, Alain; Pelloquin, Anne; Esteve, Marc; Salmon, Remy J

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, in a population with metastatic breast cancer treated with bevacizumab therapy, the incidence of wound dehiscence after placement of an implantable venous access device (VAD) and to study the risk of catheter thrombosis. This study enrolled all VADs placed by 14 anesthetists between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2009: 273 VADs in patients treated with bevacizumab therapy and 4196 VADs in patients not treated with bevacizumab therapy. In the bevacizumab therapy group, 13 cases of wound dehiscence occurred in 12 patients requiring removal of the VAD (4.76%). All cases of dehiscence occurred when bevacizumab therapy was initiated less than 7 days after VAD placement. Bevacizumab therapy was initiated less than 7 days after VAD placement in 150 cases (13 of 150: 8.6%). The risk of dehiscence was the same from 0 to 7 days. In parallel, the VAD wound dehiscence rate in patients not receiving bevacizumab therapy was eight of 4197 cases (0.19%) (Fisher's test significant, P<0.001). No risk factors of dehiscence were identified: anesthetists, learning curves, and irradiated patients. VAD thrombosis occurred in four patients (1.5%). In parallel, VAD thrombosis occurred in 51 of 4197 patients (1.2%) not receiving bevacizumab therapy (Fisher's test not significant; P=0.43). Bevacizumab therapy was permanently discontinued in five patients related to wound dehiscence and in one patient due to extensive skin necrosis. These data suggest the need to observe an interval of at least 7 days between VAD placement and initiation of bevacizumab therapy to avoid the risk of a wound dehiscence requiring chest wall port explant. The risk of VAD thrombosis does not require any particular primary prevention.

  1. Impact of Simulation-based Learning on Immediate Outcomes of Temporary Haemodialysis Catheter Placements by Nephrology Fellows.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ru Yu; Lee, Kian Guan; Gan, Sheryl Wen Shien; Li, Huihua; Yeon, Wenxiang; Pang, Suh Chien; Teh, Swee Ping; Htay, Htay; Teo, Su Hooi; Kwek, Jia Liang; Tok, Pei Loo; Poh, Cheng Boon; Ng, Chee Yong; Liu, Peiyun; Tay, Hui Boon; Koniman, Riece; Foo, Marjorie Wai Yin; Choong, Lina Hui Lin; Tan, Chieh Suai

    2017-08-18

    Traditional apprenticeship model (AM) of teaching in invasive procedures such as temporary haemodialysis catheter (THDC) insertion can result in propagation of errors and complications. Simulation-based learning (SBL) offers standardization of skills and allows trainees to repeatedly practice invasive procedures prior to performing them on actual patient. Retrospective cohort study of first-, second- and third-year Nephrology Fellows from a tertiary teaching hospital from September 2008 to September 2015. The intervention group (n=9) received simulation training in ultrasound-guided THDC placement. The historical control group (n=12) received training through traditional AM. The primary and secondary outcomes were the immediate complications and success rates of THDC insertion. A total of 2481 THDCs were placed in 1787 patients. Success rate of internal jugular THDC placement for AM vs. SBL Fellow was 99.8% vs 100% (p=0.90), while the success rate for femoral THDC placement was 99.6% vs. 99.2% (p=0.53). SBL Fellows reported fewer overall peri-procedure complications (8.3% vs. 11.2%, p=0.02) and mechanical complications (1% vs. 2.4%, p=0.02) compared to AM Fellows. The rate of reported technical difficulty was similar (7.5% vs. 9.2%, p=0.17). After adjusting for side and site of THDC placement, body mass index and laboratory indices, THDC inserted by AM Fellows were independently associated with increased overall peri-procedure complications (OR=1.396, 95% CI: 1.052-1.854, p=0.02) and mechanical complications (OR=2.481, 95% CI: 1.178-4.810, p=0.02) CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based learning was associated with lower procedure related complications and should be an integral component in the teaching of procedural skills in Nephrology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-axis view for ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement via the internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Angel F.; McEvoy, Matthew D.; Gravenstein, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Background In modern practice, real-time ultrasound guidance is commonly employed for the placement of internal jugular vein catheters. With a new tool, such as ultrasound, comes the opportunity to refine and further optimize the ultrasound view during jugular vein catheterization. We describe jugular vein access techniques and use the long-axis view as an alternative to the commonly employed short-axis cross-section view for internal jugular vein access and cannulation. Conclusion The long-axis ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein approach for internal jugular vein cannulation is a useful alternative technique that can provide better needle tip and guidewire visualization than the more traditional short-axis ultrasound view. PMID:28913474

  3. Conservative management of iatrogenic superior vena cava (SVC) perforation after attempted dialysis catheter placement: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kabutey, Nii-Kabu; Rastogi, Neeraj; Kim, Ducksoo

    2013-01-01

    A 68-year-old male with end-stage renal disease, congestive heart failure, and facial and bilateral arm swelling was referred for placement of a tunneled dialysis catheter. Distal left subclavian vein access was obtained. The procedure was complicated by iatrogenic perforation of the superior vena cava (SVC). This resulted in rapid development of a right-sided hemothorax and hemodynamic instability. A right-sided thoracostomy tube was placed to drain the pleural cavity. Extrapericardial perforation of the SVC can be managed conservatively in select cases without endovascular balloon dilatation and/stent graft deployment or surgical repair provided the antegrade blood flow is maintained via patent collateral circulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Laparotomy versus Laparoscopic Placement of Distal Catheter in Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Seop; Park, Kyung Bum; Lee, Chul Hee; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Han, Jong Woo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Traditionally, peritoneal catheter is inserted with midline laparotomy incision in ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt procedures. Complications of V-P shunt is not uncommon and have been reported to occur in 5-37% of cases. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes and the operation time between laparotomy and laparoscopic groups. Methods A total of 155 V-P shunt procedures were performed to treat hydrocephalic patients of various origins in our institute between June 2006 to January 2010; 95 of which were laparoscopically guided and 65 were not. We reviewed the operation time, surgery-related complications, and intraoperative and postoperative problems. Results In the laparoscopy group, the mean duration of the procedure (52 minutes) was significantly shorter (p < 0.001) than the laparotomy group (109 minutes). There were two cases of malfunctions and one incidence of diaphragm injury in the laparotomy group. In contrast, there were neither malfunction nor any internal organ injuries in the laparoscopy group (p = 0.034). There were total of two cases of infections from both groups (p = 0.7). Conclusion Laparoscopically guided insertions of distal shunt catheter is considered a fast and safe method in contrast to the laparotomy technique. This method allows the exact localization of the peritoneal catheter and a confirmation of its patency. PMID:21113359

  5. Robotic-Assisted Placement of an Hepatic Artery Infusion Pump and Catheter for Regional Chemotherapy of the Liver.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Mashaal; Magge, Deepa; Novak, Stephanie; Bartlett, David L; Zureikat, Amer H

    2016-12-01

    Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) chemotherapy is an effective regional therapy for unresectable colorectal liver metastases (U-CRLM).1 (,) 2 One of its limitations is the need for a laparotomy, which can delay the use of systemic therapy.3 Here, we describe a purely robotic technique for placement of an HAI pump (Fig 1). A 62-year-old male presented with a symptomatic ascending colon cancer and multiple bilobar unresectable liver metastases. He underwent laparoscopic right colectomy followed by six cycles of FOLFOXIRI and bevacizumab with stable disease by RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria, and also underwent robotic HAI pump placement. The patient was placed supine on a split-leg table, and four robotic and two laparoscopic assistant ports were placed as shown. Use of the robot allowed for precise dissection of the common hepatic artery (CHA) and gastroduodenal artery (GDA), as well as a portal lymphadenectomy. A standard cholecystectomy was performed and the GDA was dissected for a distance of 2-3 cm from its takeoff from the CHA. The robotic scissors were used to create a precise transverse GDA arteriotomy, and the HAI pump catheter tip was advanced to the CHA/GDA junction and secured with two silk ties. Finally, a methylene blue dye injection test was performed to ensure uniform distribution within the liver. Operative time was 147 min, estimated blood loss was 20 ml, and the postoperative course was uneventful. The first dose of HAI with floxuridine was administered on postoperative day 4 (day of discharge) and systemic chemotherapy was administered 2 weeks later. The robotic platform allows for minimally invasive HAI pump placement. Fig. 1 Port placement for robotic-assisted hepatic artery infusion pump placement using the DaVinci Si platform. Illustration depicts a 12 mm periumbilical port for the robotic camera (upper green port), three 8 mm (purple) robotic working ports (the left MCL, right MCL, and right AAL for robotic arms

  6. Surgical Placement of Catheters for Long-term Cardiovascular Exercise Testing in Swine.

    PubMed

    De Wijs-Meijler, Daphne P M; Stam, Kelly; van Duin, Richard W B; Verzijl, Annemarie; Reiss, Irwin K; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2016-02-09

    This protocol describes the surgical procedure to chronically instrument swine and the procedure to exercise swine on a motor-driven treadmill. Early cardiopulmonary dysfunction is difficult to diagnose, particularly in animal models, as cardiopulmonary function is often measured invasively, requiring anesthesia. As many anesthetic agents are cardiodepressive, subtle changes in cardiovascular function may be masked. In contrast, chronic instrumentation allows for measurement of cardiopulmonary function in the awake state, so that measurements can be obtained under quiet resting conditions, without the effects of anesthesia and acute surgical trauma. Furthermore, when animals are properly trained, measurements can also be obtained during graded treadmill exercise. Flow probes are placed around the aorta or pulmonary artery for measurement of cardiac output and around the left anterior descending coronary artery for measurement of coronary blood flow. Fluid-filled catheters are implanted in the aorta, pulmonary artery, left atrium, left ventricle and right ventricle for pressure measurement and blood sampling. In addition, a 20 G catheter is positioned in the anterior interventricular vein to allow coronary venous blood sampling. After a week of recovery, swine are placed on a motor-driven treadmill, the catheters are connected to pressure and flow meters, and swine are subjected to a five-stage progressive exercise protocol, with each stage lasting 3 min. Hemodynamic signals are continuously recorded and blood samples are taken during the last 30 sec of each exercise stage. The major advantage of studying chronically instrumented animals is that it allows serial assessment of cardiopulmonary function, not only at rest but also during physical stress such as exercise. Moreover, cardiopulmonary function can be assessed repeatedly during disease development and during chronic treatment, thereby increasing statistical power and hence limiting the number of animals

  7. Cervical puncture and perimedullary cistern shunt placement for idiopathic intracranial hypertension: An alternative to lumbar cistern or cerebral ventricular catheter placement a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeremiah N.; Elhammady, Mohamed Samy; Theodotou, Christian B.; Ashour, Ramsey; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of an identifiable cause, and if untreated, can result in permanent vision loss. In symptomatic IIH patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion can lower ICP and protect vision; however, currently used CSF diversion systems are prone to malfunction in this population. Materials and Methods: In two IIH patients with histories of numerous prior shunt revisions that presented with proximal ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction, ICP reduction was achieved by an alternative surgical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion technique: Fluoroscopically guided, percutaneous placement of a catheter in the premedullary cistern and subsequent connection to the valve and distal shunt system. Results: Postoperatively, both patients’ papilledema resolved, headaches improved, and the shunts were working well at 3-month follow-up. At 1-year follow-up, one patient was well without papilledema or symptom recurrence, and the second patient had the shunt system removed by an outside surgeon. Conclusion: This technique may hold promise as an alternative shunting strategy in IIH patients with numerous proximal shunt failures or who are poor candidates for ventricular and lumbar shunts. PMID:25685206

  8. Thoracic paravertebral catheter placement for acute rib pain in a pregnant patient with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Jacob L; Jacobs, Robert Alexander

    2015-02-01

    A 30-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis at 33 weeks, 4 days' gestation sustained a rib injury during an acute pulmonary exacerbation, resulting in noncompliance with her chest wall oscillation therapy and worsening of her respiratory status with concern for inducing labor early. Insertion of an ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral catheter produced immediate pain relief, eliminating the need for further opioids, and she was able to tolerate her chest wall oscillation treatment. She was discharged home after 7 days and was able to deliver a healthy baby at 38 weeks via spontaneous vaginal delivery.

  9. Initial Experience with Computed Tomography and Fluoroscopically Guided Placement of Push-Type Gastrostomy Tubes Using a Rupture-Free Balloon Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Takeshi Tanabe, Masahiro; Yamatogi, Shigenari; Shimizu, Kensaku; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy placement of push-type gastrostomy tubes using a rupture-free balloon (RFB) catheter under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic guidance. A total of 35 patients (23 men and 12 women; age range 57-93 years [mean 71.7]) underwent percutaneous CT and fluoroscopically guided gastrostomy placement of a push-type gastrostomy tube using an RFB catheter between April 2005 and July 2008. Technical success, procedure duration, and complications were analyzed. Percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy placement was considered technically successful in all patients. The median procedure time was 39 {+-} 13 (SD) min (range 24-78). The average follow-up time interval was 103 days (range 7-812). No major complications related to the procedure were encountered. No tubes failed because of blockage, and neither tube dislodgement nor intraperitoneal leakage occurred during the follow-up period. The investigators conclude that percutaneous CT and fluoroscopically guided gastrostomy placement with push-type tubes using an RFB catheter is a safe and effective means of gastric feeding when performed by radiologists.

  10. Placement of a port catheter through collateral veins in a patient with central venous occlusion.

    PubMed

    Teichgräber, Ulf Karl-Martin; Streitparth, Florian; Gebauer, Bernhard; Benter, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  11. Placement of a Port Catheter Through Collateral Veins in a Patient with Central Venous Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl-Martin Streitparth, Florian; Gebauer, Bernhard; Benter, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  12. Catheter placement for lysis of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas: does a catheter position in the core of the hematoma allow more effective and faster hematoma lysis?

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; Schlegel, Anna; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2017-07-01

    For the fibrinolytic therapy of intracerebral hematomas (ICH) using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), a catheter position in the core of the hematoma along the largest clot diameter was assumed to be optimal for an effective clot lysis. However, it never had been proven that core position indeed enhances clot lysis if compared with less optimal catheter positions. In this study, the impact of the catheter position on the effectiveness and on the time course of clot lysis was evaluated. We analyzed the catheter position using a relative error calculating the distance perpendicular to the catheter's center in relation to hematoma's diameter and evaluated the relative hematoma volume reduction (RVR). The correlation of the RVR with the catheter position was evaluated. Additionally, we tried to identify patterns of clot lysis with different catheter positions. The patient's outcome at discharge was evaluated using the Glasgow outcome score. A total of 105 patients were included in the study. The mean hematoma volume was 56 ml. The overall RVR was 62.7 %. In 69 patients, a catheter position in the core of the clot was achieved. We found no significant correlation between catheter position and hematoma RVR (linear regression, p = 0.14). Core catheter position leads to more symmetrical hematoma RVR. Faster clot lysis happens in the vicinity of the catheter openings. We found no significant difference in the patient's outcome dependent on the catheter position (linear regression, p = 0.90). The catheter position in the core of the hematoma along its largest diameter does not significantly influence the effectiveness of clot lysis after rtPA application.

  13. Bevel direction of epidural needles reliably predicts direction of catheter placement and contrast spread in human cadavers: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shaparin, Naum; Bernstein, Jeffrey; White, Robert S; Kaufman, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    To confirm the relationship between bevel orientation, catheter direction, and radiopaque contrast spread in the lumbar region. Pilot cadaver study. Anatomy laboratory of a university hospital. Cadavers were randomized to two groups of 4 cadavers each. In Group 1, needle bevel direction at epidural entry was cephalad; in Group 2, it was caudad. After placement of each epidural catheter in L4-L5 interspace, 2 mL of radiopaque contrast was injected and a lumbar posterior-anterior radiograph was obtained. Catheter direction and direction of radiopaque contrast spread were collected. Due to the inability to access the epidural space secondary to surgical changes in the lumbar spine, one cadaver in the cephalad group was excluded. In 7 of 7 (100%) cadavers, the catheter tip direction according to the radiograph corresponded directly with bevel direction. A strong relationship exists between bevel orientation and catheter direction; however, catheter position does not reliably predict the direction in which the injected fluid spreads in all cadavers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does tailoring instructional style to a medical student's self-perceived learning style improve performance when teaching intravenous catheter placement? A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Serrano, Antonio; Barkley, Kaitlyn; Chandra, Shruti; Governatori, Nicholas; Piela, Nicole; Wanner, Gregory K; Shin, Richard

    2016-08-12

    Students may have different learning styles. It is unclear, however, whether tailoring instructional methods for a student's preferred learning style improves educational outcomes when teaching procedures. The authors sought to examine whether teaching to a student's self-perceived learning style improved the acquisition of intravenous (IV) catheter placement skills. The authors hypothesized that matching a medical student's preferred learning style with the instructor's teaching style would increase the success of placing an IV catheter. Using the VARK model (i.e., visual [V], auditory [A], read/write [R] and kinesthetic [K]), third-year medical students reported their self-perceived learning style and were subsequently randomized to instructors who were trained to teach according to a specific learning format (i.e., visual, auditory). Success was gauged by: 1) the placement of an IV on the first attempt and 2) the number of attempts made until an IV line was successfully placed. The average number of attempts in the matched learning style group was 1.53, compared to 1.64 in the unmatched learning style group; however, results were not statistically significant. Both matched and unmatched groups achieved a similar success rate (57 and 58 %, respectively). Additionally, a comparison of success between the unmatched and matched students within each learning style modality yielded no statistical significance. Results suggest that providing procedural instruction that is congruent with a student's self-perceived learning style does not appear to improve outcomes when instructing students on IV catheter placement.

  15. Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy Technology, Physics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Thermometry, and Technical Considerations for Proper Catheter Placement During Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nitesh V; Mian, Matthew; Stafford, R Jason; Nahed, Brian V; Willie, Jon T; Gross, Robert E; Danish, Shabbar F

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced thermal therapy has become a powerful tool in the neurosurgical armamentarium. The physics of laser therapy are complex, but a sound understanding of this topic is clinically relevant, as many centers have incorporated it into their treatment algorithm, and educated patients are demanding consideration of its use for their disease. Laser ablation has been used for a wide array of intracranial lesions. Laser catheter placement is guided by stereotactic planning; however, as the procedure has popularized, the number of ways in which the catheter can be inserted has also increased. There are many technical nuances for laser placement, and, to date, there is not a clear understanding of whether any one technique is better than the other. In this review, we describe the basic physics of magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced thermal therapy and describe the several common techniques for accurate Visualase laser catheter placement in a stepwise fashion. MRg-LITT, magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced thermal therapyPAD, precision aiming device.

  16. Impact of Dose-Modified Protocols on Radiation Doses in Patients Undergoing CT Examinations following Image-Guided Catheter Placement.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Yasir; Saadeh, Thomas S; Uppot, Raul N; Arellano, Ronald S; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the impact of dose-modified (DM) scan protocols on decreasing radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scans obtained following image-guided catheter procedures. In this retrospective analysis, between December 2012 and June 2014, 192 patients (mean age, 60.7 y; 102 men) who underwent abdomen/pelvis CT examinations for catheter placement follow-up were included. The standard-dose (SD) baseline CT parameters included tube potential of 120 kVp, tube current of 75-550 mA, and noise index (NI) of 18-22. Weight-based scan parameters applied for follow-up CT were based on two reconstruction algorithms: filtered back projection (FBP; 120 kVp, 75-350 mA, NI = 30) and iterative reconstruction technique (IRT; 100/120 kVp, 75-250/350 mA, NI = 35). Two readers reviewed image quality (IQ) of follow-up and baseline CT examinations for 22 randomly sampled patients. Radiation doses were retrieved by dose monitoring software. Compared with baseline, DM follow-up CT protocols enabled substantial (62.4%) dose reductions (mean CT dose indexes: 4.1 mGy at follow-up, 10.9 mGy at baseline; P < .0001). Doses were significantly lower for IRT follow-up CT examinations compared with FBP (mean CT dose indexes: IRT, 3.6 mGy; FBP, 4.6 mGy; P < .05). In 47 patients with more than one follow-up CT examination (mean, 3.1 examinations per patient; range, 2-6), the observed cumulative radiation dose (CRD) was 42.1% lower than the expected CRD (observed, 1,437.9 mGy·cm; expected, 2,483.6 mGy·cm; P < .0001). Subjective IQ scores were acceptable for follow-up CT examinations (follow-up, 3.6; baseline, 4; P < .05). DM CT examinations enable substantial dose reduction (62.4%) for each follow-up examination compared with SD baseline scans, without any IQ concerns. Use of IRT decreases dose by an additional 22%. The CRD is lowered by 42% in patients undergoing multiple DM follow-up CT examinations. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Perineural pseudoinvasion in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, K; Hauptmann, S

    2000-09-01

    The occurrence of perineural epithelial complexes within the pancreas cannot always be regarded as evidence of malignancy. Chronic pancreatitis can induce alterations in the anatomy of the organ with a histological picture comparable to that of neural invasion. The important criteria for differential diagnosis are neuroendocrine differentiation of these cells or their ductular morphology without atypia.

  18. Feasibility of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block catheters for pain control on pediatric medical missions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Edward R; Ilfeld, Brian M; Cheng, Gloria S; Nicodemus, Hector F; Suresh, Santhanam

    2008-07-01

    Continuous peripheral nerve blocks (CPNB) are effective for postoperative pain management in children in the hospital and at home. CPNB techniques are particularly advantageous when compared with systemic or oral opioids on medical missions to unfamiliar environments with minimal monitoring capacity. In addition, ultrasound-guidance facilitates the placement of perineural catheters in anesthetized children even in the absence of commercially packaged regional anesthesia equipment. We present a series of successful cases employing ultrasound-guided CPNB for postoperative analgesia on medical missions and discuss the impact of this technology on present and future patients in underserved countries.

  19. Superior success rate of intracavitary electrocardiogram guidance for peripherally inserted central catheter placement in patients with cancer: A randomized open-label controlled multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Aifeng; Feng, Yuling; Wu, Xiancui; Yang, Yiqun; Chen, Ping; Qiu, Zhenzhu; Qi, Jing; Chen, Chuanying; Wei, Jia; Qin, Minyi; Kong, Weiwei; Chen, Xiangyu; Xu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Intracavitary electrocardiogram (IC ECG) guidance emerges as a new technique for peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) placement and demonstrates many potential advantages in recent observational studies. Aims To determine whether IC ECG-guided PICCs provide more accurate positioning of catheter tips compared to conventional anatomical landmarks in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods In this multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02409589), a total of 1,007 adult patients were assigned to receive either IC ECG guidance (n = 500) or anatomical landmark guidance (n = 507) for PICC positioning. The confirmative catheter tip positioning x-ray data were centrally interpreted by independent radiologists. All reported analyses in the overall population were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Analyses of pre-specified subgroups and a selected large subpopulation were conducted to explore consistency and accuracy. Results In the IC ECG-guided group, the first-attempt success rate was 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.5% to 91.9%), which was significantly higher than 77.4% (95% CI, 73.7% to 81.0%) in the anatomical landmark group (P < 0.0001). This trend of superiority of IC ECG guidance was consistently noted in almost all prespecified patient subgroups and two selected large subpopulations, even when using optimal target rates for measurement. In contrast, the superiority nearly disappeared when PICCs were used via the left instead of right arms (interaction P-value = 0.021). No catheter-related adverse events were reported during the PICC intra-procedures in either group. Conclusions Our findings indicated that the IC ECG-guided method had a more favorable positioning accuracy versus traditional anatomical landmarks for PICC placement in adult patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Furthermore, there were no significant safety concerns reported for catheterization using

  20. A comprehensive review of clinical nurse specialist-led peripherally inserted central catheter placement in Korea: 4101 cases in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Yun; Kim, Hyun Lim

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are expected to be convenient and reliable venous access devices. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical nurse specialist (CNS)-led PICC placement and to describe its growth in a tertiary hospital. A computerized database identified 3508 patients who had PICCs placed between November 2001 and June 2010. One thousand, eight hundred ninety-eight of the 4101 PICCs were available for complete follow-up, and 791 of 1898 PICCs were still in place. The mean dwell time of 1898 PICCs was 27.4 days (1∼422 days). Most PICCs were removed after the completion of infusion therapy; the remainder were removed following death, occlusion, suspected infection, or phlebitis, or were removed by the patient. The study found that CNS-led PICC placement for infusion therapies was effective and safe with relatively low complication rates and that CNSs played important roles in the increased use of PICCs.

  1. Perineural spread in head and neck tumors.

    PubMed

    Brea Álvarez, B; Tuñón Gómez, M

    2014-01-01

    Perineural spread is the dissemination of some types of head and neck tumors along nervous structures. Perineural spread has negative repercussions on treatment because it requires more extensive resection and larger fields of irradiation. Moreover, perineural spread is associated with increased local recurrence, and it is considered an independent indicator of poor prognosis in the TNM classification for tumor staging. However, perineural spread often goes undetected on imaging studies. In this update, we review the concept of perineural spread, its pathogenesis, and the main pathways and connections among the facial nerves, which are essential to understand this process. Furthermore, we discuss the appropriate techniques for imaging studies, and we describe and illustrate the typical imaging signs that help identify perineural spread on CT and MRI. Finally, we discuss the differential diagnosis with other entities.

  2. Comparison between the fixation of peritoneal dialysis catheters to the peritoneal wall and the conventional placement technique: clinical experience and follow-up of a new implant technique for peritoneal dialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Io, Hiroaki; Maeda, Kunimi; Sekiguchi, Yoshimi; Shimaoka, Tetsutaro; Aruga, Seiki; Nakata, Junichiro; Nakamoto, Hirotaka; Hotta, Yoko; Koyanagi, Ichiro; Inaba, Masanori; Kanda, Reo; Nakano, Takanori; Wakabayashi, Keiichi; Sasaki, Yuu; Inuma, Jiro; Kaneko, Kayo; Hamada, Chieko; Fukui, Mitsumine; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters often become severely dislocated, which may lead to malfunction. With the aim of preventing this complication, we have developed a simple method of fixing the catheter downwards in the peritoneal cavity (fixation technique), a technique that does not require a laparoscope. Sixteen patients were implanted using the conventional placement technique and 25 patients were implanted using the fixation technique. The location of the catheter tip was classified from grade 1 (downward, normal) to 5 (dislocated). The frequency of dislocation (defined as the extended time and/or decrease in volume when draining the PD solution) was measured for both the fixation technique and conventional placement technique. There was a significant difference in grade between the fixation technique (2.72 ± 1.01) and conventional technique (3.92 ± 1.31). The time until first dislocation was significantly different between the fixation technique (59.3 ± 48.1 days) and conventional technique (8.8 ± 14.6 days). The time until any dislocation was significantly different between the fixation technique (69.2 ± 41.9 days) and conventional technique (12.9 ± 13.7 days). Complications were not significantly different between the fixation technique and conventional technique. The fixation technique appears to be simple, safe, and useful for preventing severe dislocation and for lengthening the time until dislocation in PD patients.

  3. Comparison of the Complications between Left Side and Right Side Subclavian Vein Catheter Placement in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarbiat, Masoud; Manafi, Babak; Davoudi, Maryam; Totonchi, Ziae

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous subclavian vein catheterization is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to compare left and right subclavian vein catheter placement via the infraclavicular approach in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. This prospective, randomized clinical trial was performed in193 patients. The technique applied for cannulation was infraclavicular approach for both the right and the left sides. Subclavian vein of other side was attempted only when catheterization at initial side was unsuccessful at two attempts. The success and complication rates were compared for the two sides. On193 patients, catheterization attempts were performed. Overall 177 catheterizations (91.7%) were successful during the first attempt, 105 (92.1%) on the right side and 72 (91.1%) on the left side. There was no significant difference between success rate and side of catheterization. Malposition of the catheter tip on the right side (9.6%) was significantly more than the left side (0%) (P= 0.003). The differences in other complications on two sides were statistically insignificant. Compared with the right side, insertion of the cannula on the left side resulted in fewer catheter tip misplacements. Incidence of cannulation failure and other complications were similar on both sides.

  4. Impact of using a telescoping-support catheter system for left ventricular lead placement on implant success and procedure time of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kevin P; Hegland, Donald D; Frazier-Mills, Camille; Piccini, Jonathan P; Koontz, Jason I; Atwater, Brett D; Daubert, James P; Worley, Seth J

    2013-05-01

    Proper positioning of the left ventricular (LV) lead improves clinical outcomes and survival in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Techniques of LV lead insertion using contrast injection and a telescoping system of delivery catheters to support advancement of the lead into the target branch may allow more efficient, targeted lead placement. We sought to evaluate the impact of an LV lead implant approach using telescoping-support catheters (group TS) on success rate, lead location, and procedural time compared to standard over-the-wire implant techniques (group OTW). Four hundred thirty-seven consecutive patients undergoing CRT implantation were divided into group TS (n = 105) or group OTW (n = 332) based upon a review of the operative technique used for LV lead implantation. The primary outcome was success of LV lead implantation at the index procedure. Secondary endpoints included optimal positioning of the LV lead and reduction in procedural fluoroscopy time. Failed LV lead placement was lower (1.9% vs 8.1%, P = 0.02) and optimal lead positioning was achieved more often for group TS than group OTW (87% vs 75%, P = 0.01). In addition, there were significantly shorter fluoroscopy times for group TS versus group OTW (29.6 minutes vs 41.9 minutes, P < 0.01). A CRT-implant approach using contrast injection and a telescoping-support catheter system results in fewer failed LV lead implants, improved LV lead location, and shorter procedure times. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A comparative study of two techniques (electrocardiogram- and landmark-guided) for correct depth of the central venous catheter placement in paediatric patients undergoing elective cardiovascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Barnwal, Neeraj Kumar; Dave, Sona T; Dias, Raylene

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The complications of central venous catheterisation can be minimized by ensuring catheter tip placement just above the superior vena cava-right atrium junction. We aimed to compare two methods, using an electrocardiogram (ECG) or landmark as guides, for assessing correct depth of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Methods: In a prospective randomised study of sixty patients of <12 years of age, thirty patients each were allotted randomly to two groups (ECG and landmark). After induction, central venous catheterisation was performed by either of the two techniques and position of CVC tip was compared in post-operative chest X-ray with respect to carina. Unpaired t-test was used for quantitative data and Chi-square test was used for qualitative data. Results: In ECG group, positions of CVC tip were above carina in 12, at carina in 9 and below carina in 9 patients. In landmark group, the positions of CVC tips were above carina in 10, at carina in 4 and below carina in 16 patients. Mean distance of CVC tip in ECG group was 0.34 ± 0.23 cm and 0.66 ± 0.35 cm in landmark group (P = 0.0001). Complications occurred in one patient in ECG group and in nine patients in landmark group (P = 0.0056). Conclusion: Overall, landmark-guided technique was comparable with ECG technique. ECG-guided technique was more precise for CVC tip placement closer to carina. The incidence of complications was more in the landmark group. PMID:27512162

  6. Computed Tomography-Guided Central Venous Catheter Placement in a Patient with Superior Vena Cava and Inferior Vena Cava Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, Maria A.; Shaw, Dennis W.W.; Schaller, Robert T. Jr.

    1999-01-15

    An 18-year-old man with a gastrointestinal hypomotility syndrome required lifelong parenteral nutrition. Both the superior and inferior vena cava were occluded. Computed tomography guidance was used to place a long-term central venous catheter via a large tributary to the azygos vein.

  7. Catheter-Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Trautner, Barbara W.; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2010-01-01

    Intravascular catheters and urinary catheters are the 2 most commonly inserted medical devices in the United States, and they are likewise the two most common causes of nosocomially acquired bloodstream infection. Biofilm formation on the surfaces of indwelling catheters is central to the pathogenesis of infection of both types of catheters. The cornerstone to any preventive strategy of intravascular catheter infections is strict attention to infection control practices. Antimicrobial-impregnated intravascular catheters are a useful adjunction to infection control measures. Prevention of urinary catheter–associated infection is hindered by the numbers and types of organisms present in the periurethral area as well as by the typically longer duration of catheter placement. Antimicrobial agents in general have not been effective in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection in persons with long-term, indwelling urethral catheters. Preventive strategies that avoid the use of antimicrobial agents may be necessary in this population. PMID:15111369

  8. Early initiation of enteral feeding in cancer patients after outpatient percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided gastrostomy catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Sharjeel H; Armstrong, Ryan; Elting, Linda S; Wallace, Michael J; Gupta, Sanjay; Tam, Alda L

    2014-04-01

    To report the results of early enteral feeding in patients with cancer after outpatient placement of a percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided gastrostomy (PFG). From January 2008 through December 2008, 121 consecutive patients with cancer underwent outpatient placement of a PFG for nutrition. Of these patients, 118 patients met criteria for early feeding, and 113 were successfully fed early (after at least 3 hours). Of the patients fed early, 5 had insufficient follow-up for further analysis leaving 108 patients for outcomes analysis. After placement of the PFG, patients were put on low-wall suction via the PFG for 1 hour followed by feeding via the PFG at least 3 hours after placement. Follow-up evaluation was done the next business day. The medical records were reviewed for 30-day outcomes of early feeding, technical aspects of the procedures, and complications. After placement of the PFG, 98% (118 of 121) of patients met criteria for early feeding, and 93% (113 of 121) of patients were successfully fed early. The median time between the end of the procedure and initiation of feeding was 4 hours (interquartile range, 3.7-4.4 h). The 30-day minor complication rate was 14% (15 of 108), and the 30-day major complication rate was 1% (1 of 108). No complications were directly attributable to early feeding. Early initiation of tube feedings after outpatient placement of a PFG was well tolerated in patients with cancer and carried comparable risks to previously reported results using traditional delayed feeding protocols. Early feeding provided patients with prompt enteral nutrition and eliminated the need for routine hospital admission after the procedure. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical feasibility and safety of image-guided parieto-occipital ventricular catheter placement with the assistance of a wearable head-up display.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jang W; Chen, Robert E; ReFaey, Karim; Diaz, Roberto J; Reimer, Ronald; Komotar, Ricardo J; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Brown, Benjamin L; Wharen, Robert E

    2017-05-19

    Wearable technology is growing in popularity as a result of its ability to interface with normal human movement and function. Using proprietary hardware and software, neuronavigation images were captured and transferred wirelessly via a password-encrypted network to the head-up display. The operating surgeon wore a loupe-mounted wearable head-up display during image-guided parieto-occipital ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in two patients. The shunt placement was completed successfully without complications. The tip of the catheter ended well within the ventricles away from the ventricular wall. The wearable device allowed for continuous monitoring of neuronavigation images in the right upper corner of the surgeon's visual field without the need for the surgeon to turn his head to view the monitors. The adaptable nature of this proposed system permits the display of video data to the operating surgeon without diverting attention away from the operative task. This technology has the potential to enhance image-guided procedures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Perineural cyst presenting like cubital tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bayrakli, Fatih; Kurtuncu, Murat; Karaarslan, Ercan; Ozgen, Serdar

    2012-06-01

    Perineural cysts are believed to be asymptomatic; however, they rarely cause symptoms related to nerve root compression. Cervical symptomatic perineural cysts are in fact exceedingly rare. There are no reported cervical perineural cysts in the literature that present like cubital tunnel syndrome. A patient with motor weakness of the abductor and adductor muscles of the fingers of the left hand and hypoesthesia in the hypothenar region of the left hand presented at our clinic. A neurological examination, and neuroradiological and electrophysiological evaluations supported the finding that the patient's clinical condition was caused by a perineural cyst located around the C8 neural root. The neurological symptoms of the patient markedly improved after medical treatment. We reported the first cervical perineural cyst as presenting like cubital tunnel syndrome patient in the literature. The visualization of perineural cyst may need extra magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sections in order to view the nerve root through the neural foramen or extraforaminal area. These lesions are benign, and the appropriate treatment is curative.

  11. Tracheal rupture after intubation and placement of an endotracheal balloon catheter (A-view®) in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Timman, Simone T; Mourisse, Jo M; van der Heide, Stefan M; Verhagen, Ad F

    2016-09-01

    The endotracheal balloon catheter (A-view®) is a device developed to locate atherosclerotic plaques of the ascending aorta (AA) in cardiac surgery to prevent stroke. The saline-filled balloon is located in the trachea and combines the advantages of transoesophageal echocardiography (e.g. used before performing the sternotomy) and intraoperative epiaortic ultrasound scanning (e.g. complete view of the AA). We report the first severe complication after the use of A-view®. This is a case of a 66-year old woman who underwent elective myocardial revascularization complicated by an intraoperative iatrogenic tracheal rupture of 6 cm, after uncomplicated intubation and the use of an endotracheal balloon catheter (A-view®), which required direct surgical repair with a posterolateral thoracotomy after the myocardial revascularization was completed, weaning from bypass and closure of the median sternotomy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Perineural hematoma may result in nerve inflammation and myelin damage.

    PubMed

    Steinfeldt, Thorsten; Wiesmann, Thomas; Nimphius, Wilhelm; Cornelius, Valér; Eismann, Daniel; Kratz, Thomas; Hadzic, Admir; Wulf, Hinnerk; Werner, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    Perineural hematoma may occur during performance of peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an iatrogenic hematoma in the immediate vicinity of a peripheral nerve may cause histologic evidence of nerve injury. Fifty milliliters of autologous blood was injected adjacent to the right sciatic nerve in 20 anesthetized female pigs. In order to discern between blood-related volume and immune effects, 50 mL of albumin was injected at the same location in an additional 22 pigs. Either blood or albumin was injected in random order. The left sciatic nerve served as a negative control in all animals, that is, either no needle placement or needle placement without injection. After 48 hours, the nerves were resected. The grade of nerve injury was scored from 0 (no injury) to 3 (severe injury) by histologic analysis of myelin tissue and inflammatory cells. Eighty-two nerve specimens were examined. Injury scores were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the blood injection (n = 20; median [interquartile range] 2 [2-2]) and albumin injection (n = 22, 1 [1-2]) conditions compared with the no needle placement (n = 22, 0 [0-1]) and "dry needle placement" (n = 20, 1 [0-1]) conditions. Widespread inflammatory changes were seen in the blood injection group, in which 15% of nerve specimens showed damage to myelin. Our data suggest that hematoma adjacent to nerve tissue may result in structural nerve injury and inflammatory changes.

  13. [The bladder catheter].

    PubMed

    Pestalozzi, D M

    1996-09-01

    The benefit of the transurethral catheter to protect or measure renal function is well accepted. Urethral stricture and infection of the lower urinary tract as the complications should lead to a cautious use of catheters. A careful placement, the choice of the best material and a correct management help to avoid complications. Alternatives are discussed.

  14. Image-guided placement of port catheters: is there an increased risk of infection if the port is immediately accessed and used?

    PubMed

    Salazar, Gloria; Yeddula, Kalpana; Wicky, Stephan; Oklu, Ramhi; Ganguli, Suvranu; Waltman, Arthur C; Walker, Thomas G; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2013-01-01

    To compare complication rates in patients who have port-a-catheters inserted and left accessed for immediate use and those who have ports inserted but not accessed. In this retrospective, IRB-approved study, medical records of patients who received a port catheter between 9/2009 and 2/2010 were reviewed. The data collected included patient demographics, diagnosis, procedure and complications. The patients were categorized into two groups: accessed (patients in whom the port was accessed with a Huber needle for immediate intravenous use and the patient left the procedure area with needle indwelling) and control (patients in whom the ports were not accessed). Complications were classified according to Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Results are given as mean ±SD. Statistical analysis was performed with student t test and statistical significance was considered at P<.05. A total of 467 ports were placed in 465 patients (Men: 206); 10.7% in the accessed group (n=50, age: 60±13.9) and 89.3% in the control group (n=417, age: 59±13.5). There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographics between the groups. The overall complication rate was 0.6% (n=3). Two complications (hematoma causing skin necrosis and thrombosis of the port) occurred in the control group and one (infection) in the accessed group. Infection rates after procedures were 2% (1/50) in the accessed group and 0% (0/417) in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in overall complication (P=.1) and infection (P=.1) rates among the groups. Leaving the port accessed immediately after placement does not increase the risk of infection or other complications.

  15. Vascular Access for Placement of Tunneled Dialysis Catheters for Hemodialysis: A Systematic Approach and Clinical Practice Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Keith; Osiason, Adam; Salsamendi, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The role of interventional radiology in the overall management of patients on dialysis continues to expand. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the use of tunneled dialysis catheters (TDCs) for hemodialysis has become an integral component of treatment plans. Unfortunately, long-term use of TDCs often leads to infections, acute occlusions, and chronic venous stenosis, depletion of the patient's conventional access routes, and prevention of their recanalization. In such situations, the progressive loss of venous access sites prompts a systematic approach to alternative sites to maximize patient survival and minimize complications. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each vascular access option. We illustrate the procedures with case histories and images from our own experience at a highly active dialysis and transplant center. We rank each vascular access option and classify them into tiers based on their relative degrees of effectiveness. The conventional approaches are the most preferred, followed by alternative approaches and finally the salvage approaches. It is our intent to have this review serve as a concise and informative reference for physicians managing patients who need vascular access for hemodialysis. PMID:26167389

  16. Vascular Access for Placement of Tunneled Dialysis Catheters for Hemodialysis: A Systematic Approach and Clinical Practice Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Keith; Osiason, Adam; Salsamendi, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The role of interventional radiology in the overall management of patients on dialysis continues to expand. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the use of tunneled dialysis catheters (TDCs) for hemodialysis has become an integral component of treatment plans. Unfortunately, long-term use of TDCs often leads to infections, acute occlusions, and chronic venous stenosis, depletion of the patient's conventional access routes, and prevention of their recanalization. In such situations, the progressive loss of venous access sites prompts a systematic approach to alternative sites to maximize patient survival and minimize complications. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each vascular access option. We illustrate the procedures with case histories and images from our own experience at a highly active dialysis and transplant center. We rank each vascular access option and classify them into tiers based on their relative degrees of effectiveness. The conventional approaches are the most preferred, followed by alternative approaches and finally the salvage approaches. It is our intent to have this review serve as a concise and informative reference for physicians managing patients who need vascular access for hemodialysis.

  17. Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

  18. Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  19. Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

    2012-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst.

  20. Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young

    2012-01-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

  1. Post operative pain management in shoulder surgery: Suprascapular and axillary nerve block by arthroscope assisted catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Basat, H Çağdaş; Uçar, D Hakan; Armangil, Mehmet; Güçlü, Berk; Demirtaş, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative pain management is the part of shoulder surgery to improve patient satisfaction, start rehabilitation process rapidly and decrease for hospital stay. Various treatment modalities have been used for pain management, but they have some limitations, side effects and risks. Throughout intraoperative and postoperative period, nerve blocks have been used more popularly than others because of efficacy. For the regional nerve block, local anesthetic should be infiltrated close to the nerve for maximum effect. Consequently, aim of this study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy when catheters are placed with assistance of arthroscope to block suprascapular and axillary nerves in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff under general anesthesia. 24 patients (5 males, 19 females; mean age: 54.3 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff between June 2014 and September 2014 and were catheterized to block suprascapular and axillary nerves during shoulder arthroscopy were included in the study. Clinical outcomes were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS) scores preoperatively and at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, and postoperative day 2. Preoperative and postoperative 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, and day 2 mean VAS scores were 6.38 ± 0.77, 0.44 ± 0.42, 0.58 ± 0.42, 0.63 ± 0.40, 0.60 ± 0.44, 0.52 ± 0.42, and 1.55 ± 0.46, respectively. No statistical difference was found among 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, and 24 h time points; however, comparison of postoperative day 2 and postoperative 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18h and 24 h VAS scores showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). All patients were discharged at the end of 24 h with no complication. The mean time (in minutes) required for blocking suprascapular nerve and axillar nerve were 14.38 ± 3.21 and 3.75 ± 0.85, respectively. These results demonstrated that blocking two nerves with arthroscopic approach was an excellent pain management method in postoperative period. Accordingly

  2. Ultrasound Identification of the Guidewire in the Brachiocephalic Vein for the Prevention of Inadvertent Arterial Catheterization During Internal Jugular Central Venous Catheter Placement.

    PubMed

    Bowdle, Andrew; Jelacic, Srdjan; Togashi, Kei; Ferreira, Renata

    2016-10-01

    Imaging the guidewire with ultrasonography in the internal jugular vein during central venous catheterization often is used to verify proper guidewire placement and to aid in prevention of inadvertent arterial catheterization. It is known, however, that inadvertent arterial catheterization can occur despite imaging the guidewire in the internal jugular vein because the guidewire may continue through the far wall of the internal jugular vein and into an adjacent artery. We propose confirmation of the guidewire in the brachiocephalic vein with ultrasonography as a more reliable method of confirming proper guidewire placement. A prospective feasibility study of 200 adult cardiothoracic surgery patients undergoing internal jugular vein catheterization was performed to determine whether the guidewire could be imaged with ultrasonography in the brachiocephalic vein. The guidewire was imaged in the internal jugular vein in a short-axis view, and the transducer was then angled caudally under the clavicle, following the guidewire into the brachiocephalic vein. The right internal jugular vein was catheterized in 193 patients and the left internal jugular in 7 patients. The brachiocephalic vein was successfully imaged in all but 2 patients. In 3 patients, the guidewire could not be clearly identified in the brachiocephalic vein because of interference from the leads of a heart rhythm device (pacemaker or defibrillator) or preexisting catheter. In 2 patients, the guidewire was not seen initially in the brachiocephalic vein because of coiling in the internal jugular vein, and in 1 patient because of the guidewire passing into the right subclavian vein, but all 3 were subsequently imaged in the brachiocephalic vein after repositioning. During internal jugular vein catheterization, the brachiocephalic vein was imaged with ultrasonography in 99% of patients (the lower 1-sided 99% confidence limit is 96%). The guidewire was imaged in the brachiocephalic vein in all cases except

  3. Multi-catheter interstitial brachytherapy for partial breast irradiation: an audit of implant quality based on dosimetric evaluation comparing intra-operative versus post-operative placement

    PubMed Central

    Gurram, Lavanya; Joshi, Kishor; Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji; Sarin, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The use of multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy (MIB) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in early breast cancer (EBC) patients outside the trial setting has increased. Hence, there is a need to critically evaluate implant quality. Moreover, there is a scarcity of reports using an open cavity technique. We report the dosimetric indices of open and closed cavity MIB techniques. Material and methods The dosimetric parameters of 60 EBC patients treated with MIB (open and closed cavity) who underwent three dimensional, computerized tomography (CT) based planning for APBI from November 2011 to July 2015 were evaluated. Coverage Index (CI), Dose Homogeneity Index (DHI), Conformity Index (COIN), Plan Quality Index (PQI), and Dose Non-uniformity Index (DNR) were assessed. Results Forty-one patients underwent open cavity and 19 patients underwent closed cavity placement of brachytherapy catheters. The median number of planes was 4 and median number of needles was 20. Median dose was 34 Gy with dose per fraction of 3.4 Gy, given twice a day, 6 hours apart. The D90 of the cavity and clinical target volume (CTV) were 105% and 89%, respectively. The median doses to the surgical clips were greater than 100%. The median CI of the cavity and CTV was 0.96 and 0.82, respectively. The DHI and COIN index of the CTV was 0.73 and 0.67. There were no significant differences in the dosimetric parameters based on whether the technique was done open or closed. Conclusions Critical evaluation of the dosimetric parameters of MIB-APBI is important for optimal results. While the open and closed techniques have similar dosimetry, our institutional preference is for an open technique which eases the procedure due to direct visualization of the tumor cavity. PMID:27257415

  4. Surgical results of sacral perineural (Tarlov) cysts.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Ito, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Ikuma, Hisanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes and to determine indicators of the necessity of surgical intervention. Twelve consecutive patients harboring symptomatic sacral perineural cysts were treated between 1995 and 2003. All patients were assessed for neurological deficits and pain by neurological examination. Magnetic resonance of imaging, computerized tomography, and myelography were performed to detect signs of delayed filling of the cysts. We performed a release of the valve and imbrication of the sacral cysts with laminectomies in 8 cases or recapping laminectomies in 4 cases. After surgery, symptoms improved in 10 (83%) of 12 patients, with an average follow-up of 27 months. Ten patients had sacral perineural cysts with signs of positive filling defect. Two (17%) of 12 patients experienced no significant improvement. In one of these patients, the filling defect was negative. In conclusion, a positive filling defect may become an indicator of good treatment outcomes.

  5. Sacral Perineural Cyst Accompanying Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2009-01-01

    Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

  6. Perineural infusion of 0.5% ropivacaine for successful treatment of phantom limb syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Borghi, B; Bugamelli, S; Stagni, G; Missiroli, M; Genco, R; Colizza, M T

    2009-11-01

    Phantom limb syndrome (PLS) comprises various disturbances, including pain in the missing limb and phantom sensations. This study is about the successful treatment of a PLS patient by prolonged infusion of local anesthetic through a perineural catheter. A 45-year-old man came to the Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute (Bologna, Italy) complaining of a painful right leg after trauma. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II was diagnosed. Therapy with tricyclics, gabapentin, and spinal infusion of morphine was started. After 4 years of treatment, infection led to the need for right below-the-knee amputation. After amputation, PLS appeared immediately and was not responsive to pharmacological treatment. At day II, a perineural sciatic catheter was positioned and 0.5% ropivacaine infusion with an elastomeric pump at 5 mL/h was started. The infusion was temporarily discontinued every week to evaluate the PLS. After 7 days, a 30% reduction in pain was observed, increased to 60% after 14 days, and disappeared completely after 21 days, leaving only the phantom limb sensations. After 28 days of continuous infusion, the phantom limb sensations had also disappeared. The perineural catheter was removed after 48 hours without perineural infusion. The patient was weaned from morphine over 150 days. Follow-ups at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months confirmed that the PLS did not reappear. The results are limited to one patient but are encouraging, particularly due to the relevance of the pathology and the poor results of conventional treatments. More cases are obviously needed to support the efficacy of this therapy.

  7. Management of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianqiang; Sun, Yongdong; Huang, Xin; Luan, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been no consensus on the optimal treatment of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. Most previous reports concerning the management methods were either sporadic case reports or a series of limited cases. This study is to further optimize the management for patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts by analyzing the outcomes of a cohort of patients who were treated with different strategies. Methods and Findings We reviewed the outcomes of 15 patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts who were managed by three different modalities from 1998 through 2010. Six patients underwent microsurgical cyst fenestration and cyst wall imbrication. Seven patients underwent a modified surgical procedure, during which the cerebrospinal fluid leak aperture was located and repaired. Two patients were treated with medication and physical therapy. Outcomes of the patients were assessed by following up (13 months to 10 years). All of the six patients treated with microsurgical cyst fenestration and cyst wall imbrication experienced complete or substantial relief of their preoperative symptoms. However, the symptoms of one patient reappeared eight months after the operation. Another patient experienced a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Six of the seven patients treated with the modified surgical operation experienced complete or substantial resolution of their preoperative symptoms, with only one patient who experienced temporary worsening of his preoperative urine incontinence, which disappeared gradually one month later. No new postoperative neurological deficits, no cerebrospinal fluid leaks and no recurrence were observed in the seven patients. The symptoms of the two patients treated with conservative measures aggravated with time. Conclusions Microsurgical operation should be a treatment consideration in patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. Furthermore, the surgical procedure with partial cyst removal and aperture repair

  8. Urinary catheters

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider's office. An indwelling catheter has a small balloon inflated on the end of it. This prevents ... When the catheter needs to be removed, the balloon is deflated. CONDOM CATHETERS Condom catheters can be ...

  9. Management of post-operative pain by placement of an intraoperative intercostal catheter after single port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: a propensity-score matched study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ching-Feng; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Liu, Hung-Pin; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Liu, Yun-Hen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chao, Yin-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background The establishment of a golden standard for post-operative analgesia after thoracic surgery remains an unresolved issue. Benefiting from the rapid development of single port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), a good candidate for the alleviation of patients’ pain is the placement of an intercostal catheter (ICC) safely after uniport VATS. We hypothesized that continual infusion through ICC could provide effective analgesia for patients with only one wound and we evaluate its postoperative analgesic function in uniport VATS patients with or without intercostal nerve blockade. Methods Since March 2014, 235 patients received various kinds of single port VATS. We identified 50 patients who received single port VATS with intercostal nerve blockade and retrospectively compared them with a group of patients who had received single port VATS without intercostal nerve blockade. The operative time, post operation day 0, 1, 2, 3 and discharge day pain score, narcotic requirements, drainage duration and post-operative hospital stay were collected. In order to establish a well-balanced cohort study, we also used propensity scores matching (1:1) to compare the short term clinical outcome in two groups. Results No operative deaths occurred in this study. The uniport VATS with intercostal nerve blockade group was associated with less post operation day 0 and day 1 pain score, and narcotic requirements in our cohort study (P<0.001, <0.001, and 0.003). After propensity scores matching, there were 50 patients in each group. Mean day 0 and day 1, day 2, day 3 pain score, drainage duration, post-operative hospital stay, and narcotic requirements were smaller in uniport VATS with intercostal nerve blockade (P<0.001, <0.001, 0.038, 0.007, 0.02, 0.042, and 0.003). Conclusions In conclusion, in patients post single port VATS, continual intercostal nerve block with levobupivacaine infusion appears to be a safe, effective and promising technique in our study, associated

  10. Management of post-operative pain by placement of an intraoperative intercostal catheter after single port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: a propensity-score matched study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Feng; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Liu, Hung-Pin; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Liu, Yun-Hen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chao, Yin-Kai; Wu, Ching-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of a golden standard for post-operative analgesia after thoracic surgery remains an unresolved issue. Benefiting from the rapid development of single port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), a good candidate for the alleviation of patients' pain is the placement of an intercostal catheter (ICC) safely after uniport VATS. We hypothesized that continual infusion through ICC could provide effective analgesia for patients with only one wound and we evaluate its postoperative analgesic function in uniport VATS patients with or without intercostal nerve blockade. Since March 2014, 235 patients received various kinds of single port VATS. We identified 50 patients who received single port VATS with intercostal nerve blockade and retrospectively compared them with a group of patients who had received single port VATS without intercostal nerve blockade. The operative time, post operation day 0, 1, 2, 3 and discharge day pain score, narcotic requirements, drainage duration and post-operative hospital stay were collected. In order to establish a well-balanced cohort study, we also used propensity scores matching (1:1) to compare the short term clinical outcome in two groups. No operative deaths occurred in this study. The uniport VATS with intercostal nerve blockade group was associated with less post operation day 0 and day 1 pain score, and narcotic requirements in our cohort study (P<0.001, <0.001, and 0.003). After propensity scores matching, there were 50 patients in each group. Mean day 0 and day 1, day 2, day 3 pain score, drainage duration, post-operative hospital stay, and narcotic requirements were smaller in uniport VATS with intercostal nerve blockade (P<0.001, <0.001, 0.038, 0.007, 0.02, 0.042, and 0.003). In conclusion, in patients post single port VATS, continual intercostal nerve block with levobupivacaine infusion appears to be a safe, effective and promising technique in our study, associated with a shorter hospital stay and less

  11. Sciatic neuralgia associated with a perineural (Tarlov) cyst

    PubMed Central

    Emary, Peter C.; Taylor, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are rare and are usually asymptomatic and an incidental finding on routine spinal imaging. Presented here is a case of sciatic neuralgia in a 56-year-old patient whose clinical symptoms correlated with a lower lumbar perineural cyst. PMID:27713584

  12. Sciatic neuralgia associated with a perineural (Tarlov) cyst.

    PubMed

    Emary, Peter C; Taylor, John A

    2016-09-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are rare and are usually asymptomatic and an incidental finding on routine spinal imaging. Presented here is a case of sciatic neuralgia in a 56-year-old patient whose clinical symptoms correlated with a lower lumbar perineural cyst.

  13. Virtual reality distraction decreases routine intravenous sedation and procedure-related pain during preoperative adductor canal catheter insertion: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Pooja G; Kim, T Edward; Howard, Steven K; Stary, Erica; Leng, Jody C; Hunter, Oluwatobi O; Mariano, Edward R

    2017-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) distraction is a nonpharmacological method to prevent acute pain that has not yet been thoroughly explored for anesthesiology. We present our experience using VR distraction to decrease routine intravenous sedation for patients undergoing preoperative perineural catheter insertion. This 1-month quality improvement project involved all elective unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty patients who received a preoperative adductor canal catheter. Clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. For the first half of the month, all patients received usual care; intravenous sedation was administered at the discretion of the regional anesthesiologist. For the second half of the month, patients were offered VR distraction with intravenous sedation upon request. The primary outcome was fentanyl dosage; other outcomes included midazolam dosage, procedure-related pain, procedural time, and blood pressure changes. Seven patients received usual care and seven used VR. In the VR group, 1/7 received intravenous sedation versus 6/7 who received usual care (P = 0.029). The fentanyl dose was lower (median [10th-90th percentiles]) in the VR group (0 [0-20] µg) versus the non-VR group (50 [30-100] µg; P = 0.008). Midazolam use was lower in the VR group (0 [0-0] mg) than in the non-VR group (1 [0-1] mg; P = 0.024). Procedure-related pain was lower in the VR group (1 [1-4] NRS) versus the non-VR group (3 [2-6] NRS; P = 0.032). There was no difference in other outcomes. VR distraction may provide an effective nonpharmacological alternative to intravenous sedation for the ultrasound-guided placement of certain perineural catheters.

  14. Clonidine added to a continuous interscalene ropivacaine perineural infusion to improve postoperative analgesia: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, Brian M; Morey, Timothy E; Thannikary, Lisa J; Wright, Thomas W; Enneking, F Kayser

    2005-04-01

    Although clonidine has been shown to increase the duration of local anesthetic action and prolong postoperative analgesia when included in single-injection nerve blocks, the only controlled investigation of the efficacy of this practice to improve analgesia for continuous perineural local anesthetic infusion failed to discern any clinically relevant benefits. For this study, we used a larger dose of clonidine in an attempt to improve analgesia. Patients (n = 20) undergoing moderately painful orthopedic surgery of the shoulder received an interscalene brachial plexus block (40 mL of mepivacaine 1.5%, epinephrine 2.5 microg/mL, and clonidine 50 microg) and a perineural catheter before surgery. After surgery, ropivacaine 0.2% or ropivacaine 0.2% plus clonidine 2 microg/mL was delivered via the catheter for 3 days (basal rate, 5 mL/h; patient-controlled bolus, 5 mL; lockout, 1 h). Investigators and patients were blind to random group assignment. The primary outcome variable was designated as the most intense pain during the day after surgery. Secondary end-points included additional pain scores, patient-controlled bolus doses, oral analgesic use, sleep quality, and catheter- or infusion-related complications. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for any of the variables investigated. We conclude that adding clonidine 2 microg/mL to a ropivacaine interscalene perineural infusion does not decrease breakthrough pain intensity the day after surgery. For the additional end-points, our negative findings are only suggestive of a lack of effect and require further study for verification.

  15. Continuous infraclavicular perineural infusion with clonidine and ropivacaine compared with ropivacaine alone: a randomized, double-blinded, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, Brian M; Morey, Timothy E; Enneking, F Kayser

    2003-09-01

    Although clonidine has been shown to increase the duration of local anesthetic action and prolong postoperative analgesia when included in single-injection nerve blocks, a controlled investigation of the efficacy of this practice to improve analgesia for continuous perineural local anesthetic infusion has not been reported. In this study, ambulatory patients (n = 34) undergoing moderately painful upper extremity orthopedic surgery received an infraclavicular brachial plexus block (mepivacaine 1.5%, epinephrine 2.5 micro g/mL, and bicarbonate 0.1 mEq/mL) and a perineural catheter before surgery. After surgery, patients were discharged home with a portable infusion pump delivering either ropivacaine 0.2% or ropivacaine 0.2% plus clonidine 1 micro g/mL via the catheter for 3 days (basal, 8 mL/h; patient-controlled bolus, 2 mL every 20 min). Investigators and patients were blinded to random group assignment. Daily end-points included pain scores, patient-controlled bolus doses, oral analgesic use, sleep quality, and symptoms of catheter- or infusion-related complications. Adding clonidine to ropivacaine resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the number of self-administered 2-mL bolus doses on postoperative Days 0 and 1 (P < 0.02), but this decreased actual local anesthetic consumption by an average of only 2-7 mL/d (P < 0.02). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups for any of the other variables investigated, including sleep quality or oral analgesic requirements. We conclude that adding 1 micro g/mL of clonidine to a ropivacaine infraclavicular perineural infusion does not provide clinically relevant improvements in analgesia, sleep quality, or oral analgesic requirements for ambulatory patients having moderately painful upper extremity surgery.

  16. A symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cyst -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Hee; Kim, Jin Mo

    2012-01-01

    Lumbosacral perineural cysts are formed by the arachnoid membrane of the nerve root at the lumbosacral level. Most of these cysts are asymptomatic and are found incidentally during computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for other causes of chronic lower back pain. This type of cyst requires a differential diagnosis to distinguish it from other causes of radiating pain and neurological symptoms. In the present case, a symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cyst was found, and pain relief was achieved by non-surgical treatment. A lumbosacral perineural cyst was identified from a differential diagnosis of a lumbar disc disorder that presented as radiating pain and neurological symptoms. PMID:22679550

  17. Ultrasound-guided perineural injection for nerve blockade: Does a single-sided injection produce circumferential nerve coverage?

    PubMed

    Nwawka, O Kenechi; Miller, Theodore T; Jawetz, Shari T; Saboeiro, Gregory R

    2016-10-01

    Our current clinical technique for sonographic-guided perineural injection consists of two-sided perineural needle placement to obtain circumferential distribution of the injectate. This study aimed to determine if a single-side needle position will produce circumferential nerve coverage. Fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were used for this study. In six upper extremities, a needle was positioned along the deep surface of median, radial, and ulnar nerves in the carpal tunnel, radial tunnel, and cubital tunnel, respectively, and 2 ml of contrast was injected for each nerve. In three pelvic specimens, a needle was positioned deep to the sciatic nerves bilaterally, and 5 ml of contrast was injected. An additional four median nerve injections were performed using superficial surface needle position. The specimens then underwent CT scanning to assess the distribution of the perineural contrast medium. One hundred percent of the radial, ulnar, and sciatic nerves demonstrated circumferential distribution on CT. Only 50% of the median nerve injections with the needle placed deep to the nerve produced circumferential coverage, whereas 100% of median nerves injected with the needle between the nerve and retinaculum demonstrated circumferential coverage. The average length of spread of perineural injectate was 11.6 cm in the upper extremity and 10.3 cm for the sciatic nerves. Using clinical volumes of fluid, needle positioning at the deep surface of upper extremity and sciatic nerves was sufficient to produce circumferential coating of the nerve, except in the carpal tunnel, where placement of the needle between the nerve and flexor retinaculum is recommended. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:465-469, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Intracorporeal knotting of a femoral nerve catheter.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Schnoor, Jörg; Wiegel, Martin; Josten, Christoph; Reske, Andreas W

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve catheters are effective and well-established tools to provide postoperative analgesia to patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. The performance of these techniques is usually considered safe. However, placement of nerve catheters may be associated with a considerable number of side effects and major complications have repeatedly been published. In this work, we report on a patient who underwent total knee replacement with spinal anesthesia and preoperative insertion of femoral and sciatic nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia. During insertion of the femoral catheter, significant resistance was encountered upon retracting the catheter. This occurred due to knotting of the catheter. The catheter had to be removed by operative intervention which has to be considered a major complication. The postoperative course was uneventful. The principles for removal of entrapped peripheral catheters are not well established, may differ from those for neuroaxial catheters, and range from cautious manipulation up to surgical intervention.

  19. Intracorporeal knotting of a femoral nerve catheter

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Schnoor, Jörg; Wiegel, Martin; Josten, Christoph; Reske, Andreas W.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve catheters are effective and well-established tools to provide postoperative analgesia to patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. The performance of these techniques is usually considered safe. However, placement of nerve catheters may be associated with a considerable number of side effects and major complications have repeatedly been published. In this work, we report on a patient who underwent total knee replacement with spinal anesthesia and preoperative insertion of femoral and sciatic nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia. During insertion of the femoral catheter, significant resistance was encountered upon retracting the catheter. This occurred due to knotting of the catheter. The catheter had to be removed by operative intervention which has to be considered a major complication. The postoperative course was uneventful. The principles for removal of entrapped peripheral catheters are not well established, may differ from those for neuroaxial catheters, and range from cautious manipulation up to surgical intervention. PMID:26504733

  20. A unilateral optic perineuritis in a teenager - A case report.

    PubMed

    Ameilia, Ahmad; Shatriah, Ismail; Wan-Hitam, Wan Hazabbah; Yunus, Rohaizan

    2015-06-01

    Optic perineuritis is an uncommon inflammatory disorder that involves optic nerve sheath. Numerous case reports have been published on optic perineuritis in adults, the majority of whom had bilateral presentation. There are limited data on optic perineuritis occurring in pediatric patients. We report a teenager who presented with a unilateral sign that mimicked the presentation of optic neuritis. The orbit and brain magnetic resonance imaging confirmed features of unilateral optic perineuritis. She was treated with a high dose of corticosteroids for 2weeks, and her final visual outcome was satisfactory. No signs of relapse were noted during follow-up visits. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Variations in epidural catheter manufacture: implications for bending and stiffness.

    PubMed

    Eckmann, David M

    2003-01-01

    There is no formal evaluation method used to relate epidural catheter design and manufacture to clinical outcomes, such as subarachnoid or intravascular catheter placement. We analyzed catheter bending stiffness to determine the range of stiffness of catheters commonly used. We hypothesized that catheter material has a greater influence on stiffness than does cross-sectional shape. We determined the elastic modulus by axial load testing and the area moment of inertia using calibrated microscopic measurements of cross-sectional geometry for 6 different catheter types, including 2 types of wire styletted catheters. We calculated bending stiffness as the product of the elastic modulus and the area moment of inertia. Catheters had similar area moments of inertia, but markedly different elastic moduli. Nylon and polyurethane catheters had the same bending stiffness, which was twice as high as that of coil reinforced catheters (P <.05), but 35% lower than that of radiopaque catheters (P <.05). Nylon and radiopaque wire styletted catheters had similar bending stiffness, which were 23-fold to 90-fold greater than that of the nonstyletted catheters (P <.05). Catheters currently available establish the range of bending stiffness that should not be exceeded, only optimized to clinical outcome. Clinical studies are needed to correlate the incidence of unintentional intravascular or subarachnoid catheter placement or migration and bending stiffness. Catheter technology improvements may enhance safety and increase the likelihood of successful catheter insertion, maintenance, and removal.

  2. Pleiotrophin promotes perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-Feng; Feng, Xiao-Shan; Gao, She-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) in pancreatic cancer is an important cause of local recurrence, but little is known about its mechanism. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important neurotrophic factor. It is of interest that our recent experimental data showed its involvement in PNI of pancreatic cancer. PTN strongly presents in the cytoplasm of pancreatic cancer cells, and high expression of PTN and its receptor may contribute to the high PNI of pancreatic cancer. Correspondingly, PNI is prone to happen in PTN-positive tumors. We thus hypothesize that, as a neurite growth-promoting factor, PTN may promote PNI in pancreatic cancer. PTN is released at the time of tumor cell necrosis, and binds with its high-affinity receptor, N-syndecan on pancreatic nerves, to promote neural growth in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, neural destruction leads to a distorted neural homeostasis. Neurons and Schwann cells produce more N-syndecan in an effort to repair the pancreatic nerves. However, the abundance of N-syndecan attracts further PTN-positive cancer cells to the site of injury, creating a vicious cycle. Ultimately, increased PTN and N-syndecan levels, due to the continuous nerve injury, may promote cancer invasion and propagation along the neural structures. Therefore, it is meaningful to discuss the relationship between PTN/N-syndecan signaling and PNI in pancreatic cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of PNI in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24151381

  3. Pleiotrophin promotes perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-Feng; Feng, Xiao-Shan; Gao, She-Gan

    2013-10-21

    Perineural invasion (PNI) in pancreatic cancer is an important cause of local recurrence, but little is known about its mechanism. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important neurotrophic factor. It is of interest that our recent experimental data showed its involvement in PNI of pancreatic cancer. PTN strongly presents in the cytoplasm of pancreatic cancer cells, and high expression of PTN and its receptor may contribute to the high PNI of pancreatic cancer. Correspondingly, PNI is prone to happen in PTN-positive tumors. We thus hypothesize that, as a neurite growth-promoting factor, PTN may promote PNI in pancreatic cancer. PTN is released at the time of tumor cell necrosis, and binds with its high-affinity receptor, N-syndecan on pancreatic nerves, to promote neural growth in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, neural destruction leads to a distorted neural homeostasis. Neurons and Schwann cells produce more N-syndecan in an effort to repair the pancreatic nerves. However, the abundance of N-syndecan attracts further PTN-positive cancer cells to the site of injury, creating a vicious cycle. Ultimately, increased PTN and N-syndecan levels, due to the continuous nerve injury, may promote cancer invasion and propagation along the neural structures. Therefore, it is meaningful to discuss the relationship between PTN/N-syndecan signaling and PNI in pancreatic cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of PNI in pancreatic cancer.

  4. Reducing inappropriate urinary catheter use: quality care initiatives.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine; Clements, Charlotte; Hopper, Adrian

    Healthcare-acquired urinary infection presents a substantial burden for patients and the healthcare system. Urinary tract infections have not gained the same level of media attention as other healthcare-associated infections, yet interventions to reduce urinary catheter use are one of the top ten recommended patient safety strategies. To improve practice around urinary catheter placement and removal requires interventions to change the expectations and habits of nurses, medical teams and patients regarding the need for a urinary catheter. In the authors' trust, a redesign of the existing urinary catheter device record was undertaken to help avoid unnecessary placement of catheters, and resulted in a reduction of urinary catheters in situ longer than 48 hours. Other strategies included implementation of catheter rounds in a high-usage area, and credit-card-sized education cards. A catheter 'passport' was introduced for patients discharged with a catheter to ensure information for insertion and ongoing use were effectively communicated.

  5. Antibiotic lock for treatment of tunneled hemodialysis catheter bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Maya, Ivan D

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among catheter-dependent hemodialysis patients. Microorganism biofilm matrix formation in the catheter is the pathogenic process of this entity. Administration of systemic antibiotics and removal of the offending catheter is the most logical treatment. This article discusses an alternative option, instillation of an antibiotic-lock solution into the lumen of the catheter plus systemic antibiotic therapy. Recent studies suggest that this strategy could treat the infection and salvage the catheter, thus avoiding the need for further interventional procedures including but not limited to the removal of the catheter, placement of a temporary catheter, and finally placement of a new permanent catheter. The implementation of this effective approach will reduce morbidity and possibly reduce the cost and interventions associated with it.

  6. Serendipitous detection of an errant central venous catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, J.A.; Romdall, K.; Griep, R.

    1985-09-01

    The inappropriate placement of a patient's central venous catheter in the pleural space by the serendipitous injection of Tc-99m labeled red blood cells through the catheter during a GI bleeding study was discovered. Position and patency of central venous lines can be incidentally evaluated by using existing central venous catheters for administration of radiopharmaceuticals during radionuclide imaging studies.

  7. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters and Hemodialysis Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGill, Rita L; Ruthazer, Robin; Meyer, Klemens B; Miskulin, Dana C; Weiner, Daniel E

    2016-08-08

    Use of peripherally inserted central catheters has expanded rapidly, but the consequences for patients who eventually require hemodialysis are undefined. Our national, population-based analysis included 33,918 adult Medicare beneficiaries from the US Renal Data System who initiated hemodialysis with central venous catheters as their sole vascular access in 2010 and 2011. We used linked Medicare claims to identify peripherally inserted central catheter exposures and evaluate the associations of peripherally inserted central catheter placement with transition to working arteriovenous fistulas or grafts and patient survival using a Cox model with time-dependent variables. Among 33,918 individuals initiating hemodialysis with a catheter as sole access, 12.6% had received at least one peripherally inserted central catheter. Median follow-up was 404 days (interquartile range, 103-680 days). Among 6487 peripherally inserted central catheters placed, 3435 (53%) were placed within the 2 years before hemodialysis initiation, and 3052 (47%) were placed afterward. Multiple peripherally inserted central catheters were placed in 30% of patients exposed to peripherally inserted central catheters. Recipients of peripherally inserted central catheters were more likely to be women and have comorbid diagnoses and less likely to have received predialysis nephrology care. After adjustment for clinical and demographic factors, peripherally inserted central catheters placed before or after hemodialysis initiation were independently associated with lower likelihoods of transition to any working fistula or graft (hazard ratio for prehemodialysis peripherally inserted central catheter, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.91; hazard ratio for posthemodialysis peripherally inserted central catheter, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.89). Peripherally inserted central catheter placement was common and associated with adverse vascular access outcomes. Recognition of potential long

  8. A rare case of atypical skull base meningioma with perineural spread

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Henry; Morley, Simon; Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Atypical meningioma is a rare cause of perineural tumour spread. In this report, we present the case of a 46-year-old female with an atypical meningioma of the skull base demonstrating perineural tumour spread. We describe the imaging features of this condition and its distinguishing features from other tumours exhibiting perineural spread. PMID:27200171

  9. Labor Analgesia Consumption and Time to Neuraxial Catheter Placement in Women with a History of Surgical Correction for Scoliosis: A Case-Matched Study.

    PubMed

    Bauchat, Jeanette R; McCarthy, Robert J; Koski, Tyler R; Wong, Cynthia A

    2015-10-01

    Neuraxial analgesic techniques are the most effective form of labor analgesia. Small studies (9-21 patients), conducted 10 to 20 years ago, demonstrated successful neuraxial labor analgesia in only 50% to 66% of patients with surgical correction for scoliosis. Newer surgical techniques for scoliosis correction make the epidural space more accessible, but postsurgical changes may still alter the efficacy of neuraxial labor analgesia. The purpose of this prospective case-matched study was to compare hourly bupivacaine consumption and time to placement of neuraxial technique in laboring women with spinal instrumentation compared with women without previous back surgery. All women with previous spinal instrumentation surgery for scoliosis correction who requested neuraxial labor analgesia at Prentice Women's Hospital during the study period were approached. Control subjects were matched for anesthesiologist level of experience. The primary outcomes were bupivacaine consumption per hour of labor analgesia and time to placement of the neuraxial technique. Secondary outcomes included supplemental analgesia requirements and neuraxial analgesia failures and complications. Data from 41 women with surgical correction for scoliosis and 41 control subjects requesting neuraxial labor analgesia were analyzed. Obstetric and demographic characteristics of study participants were not different between groups. Median (interquartile range) hourly bupivacaine consumption was 15.2 mg/h (12.5-18.7) in the spinal instrumentation group and 14.2 mg/h (11.8-16.0) in the control group; the difference in medians was 1 mg/h (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.3 to 3.0; P = 0.38). The total bupivacaine consumption, number of manual reboluses, and number of subjects requiring greater bupivacaine concentrations did not differ between groups. Neuraxial analgesia failure occurred in 5 (12%) of women in the spinal instrumentation group but in none of the control patients (difference [95% CI], 12% [-0

  10. Inhibitory effect of sustained perivascular delivery of paclitaxel on neointimal hyperplasia in the jugular vein after open cutdown central venous catheter placement in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongyup; Kim, Younglim; Hwang, Ji Woong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Inhibitory effect of paclitaxel on neointimal hyperplasia after open cutdown has not been elucidated. Methods For the control group (n = 16), silicone 2.7-Fr catheters were placed via the right external jugular vein with the cutdown method. For the treatment group (n = 16), a mixture of 0.65 mg of paclitaxel and 1 mL of fibrin glue was infiltrated around the exposed vein after cutdown. After scheduled intervals (1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks), the vein segment was harvested and morphometric analysis was performed on cross-sections. Results Proliferation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) was strongly suppressed in the treatment group, and the ratio of neointima to vein wall was significantly reduced in the treatment group (8 weeks; 0.63 ± 0.08 vs. 0.2 ± 0.08, P < 0.05). Luminal patency was significantly more preserved in the treatment group, and the luminal area was significantly wider in the paclitaxel-treated group compared to the control group (8 weeks; 1.91 ± 0.43 mm2 vs. 5.1 ± 0.43 mm2, P < 0.05). Mean SMC counts measured at 1 and 2 weeks after cutdown were significantly lower in the treatment group (2 weeks; 115 ± 22 vs. 62 ± 22). Paclitaxel was undetectable in systemic circulation (<10 ng/mL). Conclusion Sustained perivascular delivery of paclitaxel with fibrin glue was effective in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in rat jugular vein after open cutdown. PMID:28203557

  11. The Effect of Fixation Technique on Continuous Interscalene Nerve Block Catheter Success: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Auyong, David B; Cantor, David Asher; Green, Cynthia; Hanson, Neil A

    2017-03-01

    Continuous peripheral nerve blocks offer advantages over single-injection blocks, including extended analgesia and reduction in opioid consumption. These benefits require that the perineural catheter remain intact for the duration of the planned local anesthetic infusion. Mechanical displacement of catheters, leaking, and consequent failure are known complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate continuous perineural catheter tip-to-nerve apposition in vivo over 48 hours comparing 2 different simple fixation strategies. Subjects presenting for a continuous interscalene nerve block were randomized to perineural catheter fixation with 1 of 2 types of adhesive: Dermabond (2-octylcyanoacrylate) or Mastisol (alcohol 23A, gum mastic, storax, and methyl salicylate), covered with a simple transparent dressing. The primary outcome was the evaluation of catheter-to-nerve apposition maintenance over 48 hours via both a blinded ultrasound evaluation of local anesthetic distribution and a blinded clinical assessment. Secondary outcomes included leakage at the catheter site, pain scores, opioid consumption, catheter-to-skin migration at the insertion site, and patient satisfaction. Sixty-six subjects were recruited and randomized to compare adhesive group catheter tip-to-nerve apposition on postoperative day 2 (POD 2). Within the intention-to-treat cohort, a statistically significant decrease of perineural catheter tip-to-nerve apposition in the Mastisol group (64.7%) compared with the Dermabond group (90.6%) on POD 2 (odds ratios [OR] 0.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.75; P = .012) was observed. Similar results were observed on POD 1 (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.03-1.38; P = NS) and POD 2 (OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.97; P = .008) within the as-treated cohort. Catheter leakage (OR 67; 95% CI 7.3-589) and median catheter migration difference at the skin insertion site (2.0 cm; 95% CI 0.5-2.5) were also significantly greater in the Mastisol group than in the Dermabond group from

  12. A novel adaptation of laparoscopic Tenckhoff catheter insertion technique to enhance catheter stability and function in automated peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Clemens M; Poppleton, Aaron; Fliser, Danilo; Klingele, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) normally takes place overnight. Maintaining a stable PD catheter position, independent of body position, omental wrapping or catheter displacement secondary to bowel movements is essential in maintaining effective catheter function. We developed a new procedure of catheter placement through combining and adapting several previously described operative techniques including laparoscopic placement of a curled double cuff Tenckhoff catheter with subcutaneous tunneling superior to the rectus sheet, an oblique course through the abdominal wall, deep entry into the pelvic peritoneum and directed placement of the curled tip within the pouch of Douglas. Retrospective analysis of catheter function was conducted, evaluating catheter position, function, complication rate and catheter survival against findings for current insertion techniques described within literature. Between March 2009 and November 2011, 54 patients underwent PD catheter insertion. The observation period was an average of 343 ± 273 days. All patients received abdominal plain film showing optimal catheter position in 89 %. Reported catheter function was very good in 85.2 %, with no or few alarms per week during APD, moderate in 9.3 % with occasional minor dysfunctions (≤ 2 alarms per night), and poor in 5.6 %, with regular alarm disturbance. In one case, primary dysfunction led to catheter replacement. At completion, stable catheter function with occasional minor dysfunction was achieved in 52 of 54 cases. Catheter-related complications (leakage, hydrocele formation, infection and need for replacement) were observed in 14.8 %. At the end of the observation period, 55.6 % of catheters remained in use. Patient dropout occurred through death (18.5 %), renal transplantation (7.4 %), renal recovery (1.9 %), removal secondary to infection or dysfunction (9.3 %) and conversion to HD due to poor dialysis quality (7.4 %). The above technique combines and optimises previously

  13. Robotic positioning of standard electrophysiology catheters: a novel approach to catheter robotics.

    PubMed

    Knight, Bradley; Ayers, Gregory M; Cohen, Todd J

    2008-05-01

    Robotic systems have been developed to manipulate and position electrophysiology (EP) catheters remotely. One limitation of existing systems is their requirement for specialized catheters or sheaths. We evaluated a system (Catheter Robotics Remote Catheter Manipulation System [RCMS], Catheter Robotics, Inc., Budd Lake, New Jersey) that manipulates conventional EP catheters placed through standard introducer sheaths. The remote controller functions much like the EP catheter handle, and the system permits repeated catheter disengagement for manual manipulation without requiring removal of the catheter from the body. This study tested the hypothesis that the RCMS would be able to safely and effectively position catheters at various intracardiac sites and obtain thresholds and electrograms similar to those obtained with manual catheter manipulation. Two identical 7 Fr catheters (Blazer II; Boston Scientific Corp., Natick, Massachusetts) were inserted into the right femoral veins of 6 mongrel dogs through separate, standard 7 Fr sheaths. The first catheter was manually placed at a right ventricular endocardial site. The second catheter handle was placed in the mating holder of the RCMS and moved to approximately the same site as the first catheter using the Catheter Robotics RCMS. The pacing threshold was determined for each catheter. This sequence was performed at 2 right atrial and 2 right ventricular sites. The distance between the manually and robotically placed catheters tips was measured, and pacing thresholds and His-bundle recordings were compared. The heart was inspected at necropsy for signs of cardiac perforation or injury. Compared to manual positioning, remote catheter placement produced the same pacing threshold at 7/24 sites, a lower threshold at 11/24 sites, and a higher threshold at only 6/24 sites (p > 0.05). The average distance between catheter tips was 0.46 +/- 0.32 cm (median 0.32, range 0.13-1.16 cm). There was no difference between right atrial

  14. Malfunctioning and infected tunneled infusion catheters: over-the-wire catheter exchange versus catheter removal and replacement.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, David M; Trerotola, Scott O; Clark, Timothy W; Dagli, Mandeep; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D; Itkin, Maxim; Soulen, Michael C; Mondschein, Jeffrey I; Stavropoulos, S William

    2011-05-01

    To compare the safety and effectiveness of over-the-wire catheter exchange (catheter-exchange) with catheter removal and replacement (removal-replacement) at a new site for infected or malfunctioning tunneled infusion catheters. Using a quality assurance database, 61 patients with tunneled infusion catheters placed during the period July 2001 to June 2009 were included in this study. Patients receiving hemodialysis catheters were excluded. Catheter-exchange was performed in 25 patients, and same-day removal-replacement was performed in 36 patients. Data collected included demographic information, indication for initial catheter placement and replacement, dwell time for the new catheter, and ultimate fate of the new device. Statistical comparisons between the two cohorts were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier technique and Fisher exact test. Catheters exchanged over the wire remained functional without infection for a median of 102 days (range, 2-570 days), whereas catheters removed and replaced were functional for a median 238 days (range, 1-292 days, P = .12). After catheter replacement, there were 11 instances of subsequent infection in the catheter-exchange group and 7 instances in the removal-replacement cohort, accounting for infection rates of 4.4 and 2.3 per 1,000 catheter days (P = .049). Patients in the catheter-exchange group had 3.2 greater odds of infection compared with patients in the removal-replacement group. Five malfunction events occurred in each group, accounting for 2.0 and 1.7 malfunctions per 1,000 catheter days in the catheter-exchange and removal-replacement groups (P = .73). Catheter-exchange of tunneled infusion catheters results in a higher infection rate compared with removal-replacement at a new site. The rate of catheter malfunction is not significantly different between the two groups. Catheter-exchange is an alternative for patients with tunneled infusion catheters who have limited venous access, but this technique should not be

  15. Outcome of radiologically placed tunneled haemodialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Sayani, Raza; Anwar, Muhammad; Tanveer-ul-Haq; Al-Qamari, Nauman; Bilal, Muhammad Asif

    2013-12-01

    To study the outcome of radiologically placed double lumen tunneled haemodialysis catheters for the management of renal failure. Case series. Interventional Suite of Radiology Department at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from April 2010 to June 2011. All consecutive patients who were referred to the department of radiology by the nephrologists for double lumen tunneled haemodialysis catheter (Permacath) placement during the study period were included. Patients with septicemia, those for whom follow-up was not available, those coming for catheter exchange or who died due to a noncatheter related condition were excluded. A radio-opaque, soft silicone double lumen catheter was inserted through a subcutaneous tunnel created over the anterior chest wall. The catheter tip was placed in the right atrium via the internal jugular vein. Ultrasound guidance was used for initial venous puncture. The rest of the procedure was carried out under fluoroscopic guidance. Technical success, catheter related bacteremia rates, adequacy of dialysis, patency, and adverse events were analyzed. Overall 88 tunneled haemodialysis catheters were placed in 87 patients. Patients were followed-up for duration of 1 - 307 days with mean follow-up period of 4 months. Immediate technical success was 100%. The procedural complication rate was 5.6% (5 catheters). Eight patients died during the study period, seven from causes unrelated to the procedure. One patient died due to septicemia secondary to catheter related infection. Of the remaining 69 patients, 50 (72.4%) predominantly had uneventful course during the study period. Twelve patients developed infection (17.3%); two were successfully treated conservatively while in 10 patients catheter had to be removed. Seven catheters (10.1%) failed due to mechanical problems. In 3 patients the internal jugular veins got partially thrombosed. One catheter was accidentally damaged in the ward and had to be removed. Radiological guided tunneled

  16. Catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M; Shenasa, M

    1991-02-01

    Catheter ablation is gaining increasing interest for the therapy of symptomatic, sustained arrhythmias of various origins. The scope of this review is to give an overview of the biophysical aspects and major characteristics of some of the most widely used energy sources in catheter ablation, e.g., the discharge of conventional defibrillators, modified defibrillators, laser light, and radiofrequency current application. Results from animal studies are considered to explain the basic mechanisms of catheter ablation. The recent achievements with the use of radiofrequency current to modify or ablate cardiac conduction properties are outlined in more detail.

  17. Catheter Ablation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you during the procedure. Machines will measure your heart’s activity. All types of ablation require cardiac catheterization to place flexible tubes, or catheters, inside your heart to make the scars. Your doctor will clean ...

  18. Umbilical catheters

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries and one umbilical vein in the umbilical cord. After the umbilical cord is cut off, the health care provider can find these blood vessels. The catheters are placed into the blood vessel, ... Complications include: Interruption of the blood flow ...

  19. Catheter Embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... the scrotum that may be a cause of infertility. Catheter embolization may be used alone or combined ... in patients with diabetes or other pre-existing kidney disease. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  20. Surgical options for recalcitrant carpal tunnel syndrome with perineural fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Joshua M; Jacoby, Sidney M; Osterman, A Lee

    2012-03-01

    Surgical release of the transverse carpal ligament for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is, in general, a very successful procedure. Some patients, however, fail this standard release and have persistent or recurrent symptoms. Such recalcitrance may relate to incomplete release but more often relates to perineural or intraneural fibrosis of the median nerve. While there is no good treatment for intraneural fibrosis, numerous procedures have evolved in an attempt to treat perineural fibrosis which restricts nerve gliding. These include procedures to isolate the nerve from scar as well as procedures to bring neovascularization to the median nerve. This review describes the various surgical treatment options for recalcitrant CTS as well as their reported outcomes.

  1. Urinary catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  2. Symptomatic cervical perineural (Tarlov) cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zibis, AH; Fyllos, AH; Arvanitis, DL

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are benign, usually asymptomatic, cerebrospinal fluid filled cysts of the spine, most often found in the sacral region. Description of case: We report a Tarlov cyst, located in the cervical spine, in a 44-year-old woman who presented with a 3-week history of radicular symptoms of the right C6 root. The perineural cyst was identified at the C5-C6 level following magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. A conservative approach was chosen, with the use of a soft cervical collar for two weeks, a 15-day-course of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication and instructions concerning limitation of her activities. The outcome of this approach was 90% improvement of her symptoms 24 months after her diagnosis. Conclusion: This is the first report of a cervical Tarlov cyst treated conservatively without the use of oral or injected steroids. The perineural cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with radicular symptoms. Hippokratia 2015, 19 (1): 76-77. PMID:26435653

  3. Perineural dexmedetomidine effects on sciatic nerve in rat.

    PubMed

    Yektaş, Abdulkadir; Çabalar, Murat; Sar, Mehmet; Alagöl, Ayşin; Çelik, Duygu Sultan; Yayla, Vildan; Tolga, Deniz

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that high dose dexmedetomidine would increase the duration of antinociception to a thermal stimulus in a rat model of sciatic nerve blockade without causing nerve damage. The rats were anesthetized with isoflurane. After electromyography (EMG) recordings, right sciatic nerves were explored and perineural injections were delivered: Group D (n=7), 40μgμgkg(-1) dexmedetomidine administration, Group II (n=6), (0.2mL) saline administration, Group III (n=2), only surgically exploration of the right sciatic nevre. Time to paw withdrawal latency (PAW) to a thermal stimulus for both paws and an assessment of motor function were measured every 30min after the nerve block until a return to baseline. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of right and left sciatic nerves were recorded 10 times per each nerve once more after perineural injections at 14 day. After EMG recordings, right and the part of left sciatic nerve were excised at a length of at minimum 15mm for histopathological examination. Comparison of right/left CMAP amplitude ratios before and 14 days after the procedure showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.000). There were no differences in perineural inflammation between the Group D, Group S, and Group E at 14 days.

  4. [Perineural dexmedetomidine effects on sciatic nerve in rat].

    PubMed

    Yektaş, Abdulkadir; Çabalar, Murat; Sar, Mehmet; Alagöl, Ayşin; Çelik, Duygu Sultan; Yayla, Vildan; Tolga, Deniz

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that high dose dexmedetomidine would increase the duration of antinociception to a thermal stimulus in a rat model of sciatic nerve blockade without causing nerve damage. The rats were anesthetized with isoflurane. After electromyography (EMG) recordings, right sciatic nerves were explored and perineural injections were delivered: Group D (n=7), 40μgμgkg(-1) dexmedetomidine administration, Group II (n=6), (0.2mL) saline administration, Group III (n=2), only surgically exploration of the right sciatic nevre. Time to paw withdrawal latency (PAW) to a thermal stimulus for both paws and an assessment of motor function were measured every 30min after the nerve block until a return to baseline. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of right and left sciatic nerves were recorded 10 times per each nerve once more after perineural injections at 14 day. After EMG recordings, right and the part of left sciatic nerve were excised at a length of at minimum 15mm for histopathological examination. Comparison of right/left CMAP amplitude ratios before and 14 days after the procedure showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.000). There were no differences in perineural inflammation between the Group D, Group S, and Group E at 14 days.

  5. Symptomatic cervical perineural (Tarlov) cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zibis, A H; Fyllos, A H; Arvanitis, D L

    2015-01-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are benign, usually asymptomatic, cerebrospinal fluid filled cysts of the spine, most often found in the sacral region. We report a Tarlov cyst, located in the cervical spine, in a 44-year-old woman who presented with a 3-week history of radicular symptoms of the right C6 root. The perineural cyst was identified at the C5-C6 level following magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. A conservative approach was chosen, with the use of a soft cervical collar for two weeks, a 15-day-course of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication and instructions concerning limitation of her activities. The outcome of this approach was 90% improvement of her symptoms 24 months after her diagnosis. This is the first report of a cervical Tarlov cyst treated conservatively without the use of oral or injected steroids. The perineural cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with radicular symptoms. Hippokratia 2015, 19 (1): 76-77.

  6. Growth and Survival Mechanisms Associated with Perineural Invasion in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    CANCER RESEARCH 64, 6082–6090, September 1, 2004] Growth and Survival Mechanisms Associated with Perineural Invasion in Prostate Cancer Gustavo E...Departments of 1Pathology, 2Urology, and 3Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas ABSTRACT Perineural invasion (PNI) is...PNI. Cancer cells in a perineural location acquire a survival and growth advantage using a NFB survival pathway. Targeting PNI might help detain local

  7. Two cases of symptomatic perineural cysts (tarlov cysts) in one family: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Il Sup; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

    2008-09-01

    Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed.

  8. Two Cases of Symptomatic Perineural Cysts (Tarlov Cysts) in One Family: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

    2008-01-01

    Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

  9. Hemodialysis catheter-associated central venous stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yevzlin, Alexander S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and interventional treatment of central vein stenosis (CVS) that may result from central vein catheter (CVC) placement. The precise mechanism of CVC-associated CVS remains largely undefined, though anatomic considerations appear to play a prominent pathologic role. The impact of CVC-associated CVS on arteriovenous fistula outcomes is reviewed. The percutaneous treatment of CVS, observation, angioplasty, or angioplasty with stent placement is reviewed, along with potential surgical treatment options. As the treatment outcomes of CVC-associated CVS have been disappointing, catheter avoidance remains the best strategy.

  10. The Gore-Tex peritoneal catheter: a clinical evaluation and comparison with the Tenckhoff catheter.

    PubMed

    Bay, W H; Vaccaro, P S; Powell, S L; Erlich, L F

    1984-11-01

    In January of 1983, the Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc, Flagstaff, Ariz) peritoneal catheter was introduced into the dialysis market. Presently, there is no other peritoneal catheter that offers this unique subcutaneous tunnel design. This catheter has an external and intra-abdominal Silastic (Dow Corning, Midland, Mich) segment and a transcutaneous segment with a flange and cuff of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). This catheter was designed to decrease the incidence of tunnel infections, catheter cuff extrusions, and exit site infections. The clinical experience with 57 Gore-Tex catheters and 47 Tenckhoff catheters at Ohio State University from May 1980 through April 1983 is presented. In addition, the Gore-Tex catheter's surgical insertion technique and postoperative care procedures are described. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of tunnel infections with the Gore-Tex catheter versus the Tenckhoff catheter (0.03 versus 0.21 infections per patient-year, respectively; P less than .05). There was no significant difference between the Gore-Tex catheter and the Tenckhoff catheter with regard to the patient peritonitis rate (1.12 versus 1.38 episodes of peritonitis per patient-year, respectively) or the exit site infection rate (0.65 versus 0.50 infections per patient-year, respectively). There were no cuff extrusions with the Gore-Tex catheter. The decrease in the incidence of tunnel infections with the Gore-Tex catheter suggests that the PTFE barrier inhibits longitudinal bacterial movement and avoids bacterial sequestration. Patients with repeat tunnel infections may benefit from a Gore-Tex catheter placement.

  11. Comparison of three techniques for ultrasound-guided femoral nerve catheter insertion: A randomized, blinded trial

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Ehab; Atim, Abdulkadir; Ghosh, Raktim; Bauer, Maria; Sreenivasalu, Thilak; Kot, Michael; Kurz, Andrea; Dalton, Jarrod E.; Mascha, Edward J.; Mounir-Soliman, Loran; Zaky, Sherif; Esa, Wael Ali Sakr; Udeh, Belinda L.; Barsoum, Wael; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasound guidance for continuous femoral perineural catheters may be supplemented by electrical stimulation through a needle or through a stimulating catheter. We tested the primary hypothesis that ultrasound guidance alone is noninferior on both postoperative pain scores and opioid requirement and superior on at least one of the two. Secondarily, we compared all interventions on insertion time and incremental cost. Methods Patients having knee arthroplasty with femoral nerve catheters were randomly assigned to catheter insertion guided by: 1) ultrasound alone (n=147); 2) ultrasound and electrical stimulation through the needle (n=152); or, 3) ultrasound and electrical stimulation through both the needle and catheter (n=138). Noninferiority between any two interventions was defined for pain as no more than 0.5 points worse on a 0–10 Verbal Response Scale (VRS) scale and for opioid consumption as no more than 25% greater than the mean. Results The stimulating needle group was significantly noninferior to the stimulating catheter (difference (95% CI) in mean VRS pain score [stimulating needle versus stimulating catheter] of −0.16 (−0.61, 0.29), P<0.001; percent difference in mean IV morphine equivalent dose of −5% (−25%, 21%), P=0.002) and to ultrasound only (difference in mean VRS pain score of −0.28 (−0.72, 0.16), P<0.001; percent difference in mean IV morphine equivalent dose of −2% (−22%, 25%), P=0.006). In addition, the use of ultrasound alone for femoral nerve catheter insertion was faster and cheaper than the other two methods. Conclusion Ultrasound guidance alone without adding either stimulating needle or needle/catheter combination thus appears to be the best approach to femoral perineural catheters. PMID:24758775

  12. Percutaneous management of postoperative duodenal stump leakage with foley catheter.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Giu; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

  13. Keyword: Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The practical goal of graduate education is placement of graduates. But what does "placement" mean? Academics use the word without thinking much about it. "Placement" is a great keyword for the graduate-school enterprise. For one thing, its meaning certainly gives a purpose to graduate education. Furthermore, the word is a portal into the way of…

  14. Keyword: Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The practical goal of graduate education is placement of graduates. But what does "placement" mean? Academics use the word without thinking much about it. "Placement" is a great keyword for the graduate-school enterprise. For one thing, its meaning certainly gives a purpose to graduate education. Furthermore, the word is a portal into the way of…

  15. Perineural Spread of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Manifesting as Ophthalmoplegia

    PubMed Central

    Koukkoulli, Antigoni; Koutroumanos, Nikolas; Kidd, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 89-year-old female presented with horizontal diplopia and was diagnosed with VI nerve palsy attributed to a microvascular event. She subsequently progressed to develop an orbital apex syndrome, with neuroimaging demonstrating tumour invasion. Eighteen months earlier, she had squamous cell carcinoma of the forehead excised with clear margins. Intraneural and perineural spread of squamous carcinoma from the face to the cranial cavity is an important cause of delayed cranial nerve palsies after local excision of the skin tumour. PMID:27928347

  16. [Pliability and deflection of diagnostic catheters].

    PubMed

    Pelyhe, Liza; Bognár, Eszter

    2014-09-28

    The cardiac catheter is an intravascular catheter, which is introduced or implanted into the heart for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. The catheters may break or king during their introduction and/or removal. The aim of the authors was to study the pliability of two catheters with the same material but different diameters according to the Food and Drug Administration's recommendation. The bending points, diameter decrease, deflection, and their correlation and dependence on the distance from the tip, as well as the influence of the initial diameter of the catheters were determined. The bending of catheters was performed on 9 bending points (120-280 mm from the tip by 20 mm) on 16 gauges with different radius (10-2.5 mm by 0.5 mm). A linear dependency between the diameter decrease and deflection was observed, which was independent from the placement of the measurement in both catheters examined. The larger initial diameter had significant (p = 0.05) greater diameter decrease than the smaller, but the curves characteristic of the diameter decrease and deflection were similar. The applied method seems to be useful for the examination of weak points of cardiac catheters.

  17. Ventricular catheter entry site and not catheter tip location predicts shunt survival: a secondary analysis of 3 large pediatric hydrocephalus studies.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, William E; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Wellons, John C; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Tamber, Mandeep S; Limbrick, David D; Browd, Samuel R; Naftel, Robert P; Shannon, Chevis N; Simon, Tamara D; Holubkov, Richard; Illner, Anna; Cochrane, D Douglas; Drake, James M; Luerssen, Thomas G; Oakes, W Jerry; Kestle, John R W

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate placement of ventricular catheters may result in prolonged shunt survival, but the best target for the hole-bearing segment of the catheter has not been rigorously defined. The goal of the study was to define a target within the ventricle with the lowest risk of shunt failure. METHODS Five catheter placement variables (ventricular catheter tip location, ventricular catheter tip environment, relationship to choroid plexus, catheter tip holes within ventricle, and crosses midline) were defined, assessed for interobserver agreement, and evaluated for their effect on shunt survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. De-identified subjects from the Shunt Design Trial, the Endoscopic Shunt Insertion Trial, and a Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network study on ultrasound-guided catheter placement were combined (n = 858 subjects, all first-time shunt insertions, all patients < 18 years old). The first postoperative brain imaging study was used to determine ventricular catheter placement for each of the catheter placement variables. RESULTS Ventricular catheter tip location, environment, catheter tip holes within the ventricle, and crosses midline all achieved sufficient interobserver agreement (κ > 0.60). In the univariate survival analysis, however, only ventricular catheter tip location was useful in distinguishing a target within the ventricle with a survival advantage (frontal horn; log-rank, p = 0.0015). None of the other catheter placement variables yielded a significant survival advantage unless they were compared with catheter tips completely not in the ventricle. Cox regression analysis was performed, examining ventricular catheter tip location with age, etiology, surgeon, decade of surgery, and catheter entry site (anterior vs posterior). Only age (p < 0.001) and entry site (p = 0.005) were associated with shunt survival; ventricular catheter tip location was not (p = 0.37). Anterior entry site lowered the risk of shunt failure compared

  18. Silicone and polyurethane tunneled infusion catheters: a comparison of durability and breakage rates.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aaron B; Dagli, Mandeep; Stavropoulos, S William; Mondschein, Jeffrey I; Soulen, Michael C; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D; Solomon, Jeffrey A; Chittams, Jesse L; Trerotola, Scott O

    2011-05-01

    To examine the overall durability and breakage rates of dual-lumen silicone catheters in comparison with power-injectable dual-lumen polyurethane catheters. Patients who received a 10-F dual-lumen silicone catheter or 9.5-F dual-lumen polyurethane catheter between January 2002 and July 2009 were identified through a quality assurance database. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 117 silicone and 94 polyurethane catheters were identified in 192 patients. Reasons for catheter placement and removal were recorded, as were cases of breakage and repairs. Catheter durability was compared; survival analysis was also performed. Breakage occurred in nine of 117 silicone catheters (8%) and none of 94 polyurethane catheters (P = .005). Most catheters were placed for malignancy (162 of 211; 77%); nonmalignant indications such as total parenteral nutrition accounted for 49 out of 211 catheters (23%). The mean silicone catheter dwell time was 99 days (11,612 total catheter-days), and the mean polyurethane catheter dwell time was 78 days (7,362 total catheter-days). There was no significant difference in overall duration of function (ie, survival) between silicone and polyurethane catheters (P = .12). The infection rates were 3.6 per 1,000 catheter-days for silicone catheters and 3.5 per 1,000 catheter-days for polyurethane catheters (P value not significant). There were fewer catheter fractures with the polyurethane catheter compared with the silicone catheter, although there was no difference in the total access site service interval for the two catheter types. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of Dysfunctional Catheters and Tubes Inserted by Interventional Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Steven Y.; Engstrom, Bjorn I.; Lungren, Matthew P.; Kim, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive percutaneous interventions are often used for enteral nutrition, biliary and urinary diversion, intra-abdominal fluid collection drainage, and central venous access. In most cases, radiologic and endoscopic placement of catheters and tubes has replaced the comparable surgical alternative. As experience with catheters and tubes grows, it becomes increasingly evident that the interventional radiologist needs to be an expert not only on device placement but also on device management. Tube dysfunction represents the most common complication requiring repeat intervention, which can be distressing for patients and other health care professionals. This manuscript addresses the etiologies and solutions to leaking and obstructed feeding tubes, percutaneous biliary drains, percutaneous catheter nephrostomies, and drainage catheters, including abscess drains. In addition, we will address the obstructed central venous catheter. PMID:26038615

  20. Manipulation by catheter of unopened LGM filter.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, S; Gray, R R; Pugash, R A

    1993-06-01

    The use of the transfemoral and transjugular venous routes for placement of inferior vena cava filters is accepted practice. However, the transjugular route is associated with substantially higher rates of incomplete filter opening for the LGM Vena Tech filter (Vena Tech, Evanston, Ill.). The appropriate course of action when a filter fails to open is unclear from the literature. Current recommendations include close observation or placement of a second filter above the unopened device. The authors report a case in which an incompletely opened filter delivered through the transjugular route was directly manipulated with a multipurpose catheter. The filter opened sufficiently to provide stability and obviate the need for a second filter. The authors recommend that manipulation by catheter be considered as the first option at the time of placement should an LGM filter fail to open completely.

  1. Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Idiopathic Optic Perineuritis using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Byon, Ik Soo; Jung, Jae Ho; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Seo, Je Hyun; Lee, Ji Eun; Choi, Hee-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of idiopathic Optic perineuritis on the retinal nerve fiber layer, and determine the ability of optical coherence tomography to evaluate retinal nerve fiber loss after idiopathic Optic perineuritis. Four patients were assessed in this study. In all cases, average retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in the affected eye in comparison with the normal reference value and with the value for the contralateral normal eye at 12 months after the onset of optic perineuritis. Our study revealed that retinal nerve fiber layer loss occurs in idiopathic optic nerve sheath inflammation. PMID:27928329

  2. Acute effects of perineural administration of sodium hyaluronate on palmar digital neurectomy sites in horses.

    PubMed

    Murray, R C; Gaughan, E M; DeBowes, R M; Mosier, D A; Hoskinson, J J

    1994-10-01

    Biaxial palmar digital neurectomy of all limbs was performed on 6 mixed-breed castrated adult male horses, using a standard guillotine method. Using a Teflon catheter, 20 mg (2 ml) of sodium hyaluronate (group 1), 2 ml of phosphate-buffered saline solution (group 2), or catheter placement with no infusion (group 3) was applied to 4 (group 1) or 2 (groups 2 and 3) of 8 incisions/horse. Treatments were administered after closure of the neurectomy incision, and the catheter was removed. Horses were evaluated daily for 1 week, then weekly over a 9-week period for evidence of lameness, swelling, and ultrasonographic changes. On week 9, horses were euthanatized and neurectomy sites were removed en bloc for histologic evaluation of axonal regrowth, inflammation, and fibrosis. Neither lameness nor sign of painful neuroma was observed clinically in any of the horses. Neurectomy eliminated cutaneous heel sensation in all limbs for the duration of the study. Swelling was evident at all neurectomy sites. There were no significant differences between treatment sites for measurement of pastern circumference or ultrasonographic evaluation of incisional swelling. Foci of ultrasonographic hyperechogenicity increased over time, but there was no significant difference in hyperechogenicity between treatment groups. Histologic evidence of neuroma formation was observed at all sites. Morphometric assessment of neuroma cross-sectional areas revealed no significant difference between the groups, as did subjective histologic assessment of neuroma density and fibrous tissue content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Incidence of catheter-related complications in patients with central venous or hemodialysis catheters: a health care claims database analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central venous catheter (CVC) and hemodialysis (HD) catheter usage are associated with complications that occur during catheter insertion, dwell period, and removal. This study aims to identify and describe the incidence rates of catheter-related complications in a large patient population in a United States-based health care claims database after CVC or HD catheter placement. Methods Patients in the i3 InVision DataMart® health care claims database with at least 1 CVC or HD catheter insertion claim were categorized into CVC or HD cohorts using diagnostic and procedural codes from the US Renal Data System, American College of Surgeons, and American Medical Association’s Physician Performance Measures. Catheter-related complications were identified using published diagnostic and procedural codes. Incidence rates (IRs)/1000 catheter-days were calculated for complications including catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), thrombosis, embolism, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), major bleeding (MB), and mechanical catheter–related complications (MCRCs). Results Thirty percent of the CVC cohort and 54% of the HD cohort had catheter placements lasting <90 days. Catheter-related complications occurred most often during the first 90 days of catheter placement. IRs were highest for CRBSIs in both cohorts (4.0 [95% CI, 3.7-4.3] and 5.1 [95% CI, 4.7-5.6], respectively). Other IRs in CVC and HD cohorts, respectively, were thrombosis, 1.3 and 0.8; MCRCs, 0.6 and 0.7; embolism, 0.4 and 0.5; MB, 0.1 and 0.3; and ICH, 0.1 in both cohorts. Patients with cancer at baseline had significantly higher IRs for CRBSIs and thrombosis than non-cancer patients. CVC or HD catheter–related complications were most frequently seen in patients 16 years or younger. Conclusions The risk of catheter-related complications is highest during the first 90 days of catheter placement in patients with CVCs and HD catheters and in younger patients (≤16 years of age) with HD

  4. Intracranial Management of Perineural Spread in the Trigeminal Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Michael J.; Panizza, Benedict J.

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s surgeons have attempted to cure intracranial perineural spread (PNS) of cutaneous malignancies. Untreated patients with trigeminal PNS die from brainstem invasion and leptomeningeal disease. It was understood that resection with clear margins was potentially curative, but early surgical attempts were unsuccessful. The prevailing wisdom considered that this surgery failed to improve the results achieved with radiation therapy alone and was associated with high morbidity. However, with improved imaging, surgical equipment, and better understanding of cavernous sinus (CS) anatomy and access, contemporary surgeons can improve outcomes for this disease. The aim of this paper is to describe a technique to access the interdural compartment of the CS and treat PNS of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in the intracranial trigeminal nerve and ganglion. It is based on the experience of the Queensland Skull Base Unit, Australia in managing PNS of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (cSCCHN). PMID:27123391

  5. ADCON-T/N reduces in vivo perineural adhesions in a rat sciatic nerve reoperation model.

    PubMed

    Palatinsky, E A; Maier, K H; Touhalisky, D K; Mock, J L; Hingson, M T; Coker, G T

    1997-06-01

    Excessive perineural scarring may affect the result of peripheral nerve surgery. The ability of a novel implant material (ADCON-T/N) to prevent this complication was tested in 38 rats. Four weeks after a bilateral sciatic nerve external neurolysis, a secondary bilateral lysis of the adhesions was performed; ADCON-T/N was locally implanted at one side, while the contralateral side was left untreated. Four or 8 weeks later, perineural adhesions were dissected in 24 animals and graded blindly. Significantly fewer perineural adhesions were found in ADCON-T/N treated nerves compared with controls at both 4 and 8 weeks. Residual implant material or adverse effects were not observed at either time. Histological examination of the neurolysis sites in another 14 animals confirmed these findings at both time intervals. This study shows that ADCON-T/N is effective in inhibiting perineural adhesions, is resorbed within 4 weeks and is well tolerated.

  6. Mandibular Canal Widening and Bell's Palsy: Sequelae of Perineural Invasion in Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Gopinath Thilak Parepady; Sherigar, Vishwanath; Shetty, Sameep S; Satya, Shree; Gohil, Sourabh M

    2016-01-01

    Perineural invasion is an underrecognized route of metastatic spread along the nerve bundles within the nerve sheath into the surrounding tissues. It hinders the ability to establish local control as tumour cells can traverse along nerve tracts well beyond the extent of any local invasion rendering them inoperable and unresectable. Perineural invasion is a marker of poor prognosis. Oral submucous fibrosis with oral cancer constitutes a clinicopathologically distinct disease. Our case highlights an enigmatic presentation of oral submucous fibrosis and its coexistence with oral cancer presenting with unusual neurological disturbance of the inferior alveolar nerve and facial nerve and diffuse widening of the mandibular canal. The objective of this case report is to enumerate the significance of perineural invasion in determining the course of the disease and necessitate the need for future studies that can shed light on molecular mediators and pathogenesis of perineural spread.

  7. Mandibular Canal Widening and Bell's Palsy: Sequelae of Perineural Invasion in Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Gopinath Thilak Parepady; Sherigar, Vishwanath; Satya, Shree; Gohil, Sourabh M.

    2016-01-01

    Perineural invasion is an underrecognized route of metastatic spread along the nerve bundles within the nerve sheath into the surrounding tissues. It hinders the ability to establish local control as tumour cells can traverse along nerve tracts well beyond the extent of any local invasion rendering them inoperable and unresectable. Perineural invasion is a marker of poor prognosis. Oral submucous fibrosis with oral cancer constitutes a clinicopathologically distinct disease. Our case highlights an enigmatic presentation of oral submucous fibrosis and its coexistence with oral cancer presenting with unusual neurological disturbance of the inferior alveolar nerve and facial nerve and diffuse widening of the mandibular canal. The objective of this case report is to enumerate the significance of perineural invasion in determining the course of the disease and necessitate the need for future studies that can shed light on molecular mediators and pathogenesis of perineural spread. PMID:28025626

  8. Perineural fibrosis of superficial peroneal nerve complicating ankle sprain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Acus, R W; Flanagan, J P

    1991-02-01

    The peroneal nerve is susceptible to traction injury during inversion ankle sprains. Previously, these traction lesions have been identified only at the fibular neck and popliteal fossa level. This report illustrates a previously unreported condition of perineural fibrosis of the superficial peroneal nerve at the level of the ankle following an inversion ankle sprain. Perineural fibrosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent pain after ankle sprain.

  9. [Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation (malignant perineurinoma) of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Dolzhikov, A A; Mukhina, T S

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation and at the rare site of the cervix uteri in a 57-year-old patient. The diagnosis was established on the basis of extensive immunohistochemical examination, by excluding the similar neoplasms and detecting an immunophenotype characteristic of perineural differentiation. There are data available in the literature on the morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics of this tumor.

  10. Practical Aspects of Nontunneled and Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Edward; Kappel, Joanne; MacRae, Jennifer; Dipchand, Christine; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Lok, Charmaine; Moist, Louise; Oliver, Matthew; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Nontunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) are typically used when vascular access is required for urgent renal replacement therapy. The preferred site for NTHC insertion in acute kidney injury is the right internal jugular vein followed by the femoral vein. When aided by real-time ultrasound, mechanical complications related to NTHC insertion are significantly reduced. The preferred site for tunneled hemodialysis catheters placement is the right internal jugular vein followed by the left internal jugular vein. Ideally, the catheter should be inserted on the opposite side of a maturing or planned fistula/graft. Several dual-lumen, large-diameter catheters are available with multiple catheter tip designs, but no one catheter has shown significant superior performance. PMID:28270920

  11. Practical Aspects of Nontunneled and Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheters.

    PubMed

    Clark, Edward; Kappel, Joanne; MacRae, Jennifer; Dipchand, Christine; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Lok, Charmaine; Moist, Louise; Oliver, Matthew; Miller, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Nontunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) are typically used when vascular access is required for urgent renal replacement therapy. The preferred site for NTHC insertion in acute kidney injury is the right internal jugular vein followed by the femoral vein. When aided by real-time ultrasound, mechanical complications related to NTHC insertion are significantly reduced. The preferred site for tunneled hemodialysis catheters placement is the right internal jugular vein followed by the left internal jugular vein. Ideally, the catheter should be inserted on the opposite side of a maturing or planned fistula/graft. Several dual-lumen, large-diameter catheters are available with multiple catheter tip designs, but no one catheter has shown significant superior performance.

  12. Comparison of french-pezzar and Malecot catheters for percutaneously placed gastrostomy tubes in cats.

    PubMed

    DeBowes, L J; Coyne, B; Layton, C E

    1993-06-15

    Gastrostomy tubes were placed percutaneously in 28 cats by use of an endoscope. French-pezzar mushroom-tip catheters were used for 14 of the procedures, and Malecot catheters were used for the remainder. Inner flanges were not used in gastrostomy tube placement. The french-pezzar catheters remained in place and functional for 2 weeks in all 14 cats. The Malecot catheters remained in place and functional for 2 weeks in 4 cats. Malecot catheters pulled out in 10 cats, and 2 of these cats died or were euthanatized because of complications. The gastrostomy tubes were removed in 18 cats 2 weeks after placement by applying gentle, steady traction and removing the entire catheter or by cutting the tube flush with the skin and leaving the catheter tip in the cat's stomach. Neither method of removal was associated with problems.

  13. Neonatal peripherally inserted central catheters: recommendations for prevention of insertion and postinsertion complications.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Pamela R; Miller, Kellee M

    2008-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) continue to be necessary in neonatal care. They benefit many premature infants and those needing long-term intravenous access. An experienced inserter, early recognition of PICC candidates, early PICC placement, knowledge of anatomy, and correct choice of vein all increase placement success. As with any invasive procedure, there are risks. These include pain, difficulty advancing the catheter, damage to vessels, catheter malposition, and bleeding. Utilizing assessment skills, following the product manufacturer's instructions, and carefully placing the catheter should minimize most of these risks. Additional risks include postinsertion complications such as occlusions, thrombosis, catheter failure, infection, and catheter malposition. Proper nursing care--which includes controlling infection, properly securing the catheter, and changing the dressing as needed--is key to preventing complications and maintaining the PICC until treatment has been completed.

  14. Vascular Access Tracking System: a Web-Based Clinical Tracking Tool for Identifying Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections in Interventional Radiology Placed Central Venous Catheters.

    PubMed

    Morrison, James; Kaufman, John

    2016-12-01

    Vascular access is invaluable in the treatment of hospitalized patients. Central venous catheters provide a durable and long-term solution while saving patients from repeated needle sticks for peripheral IVs and blood draws. The initial catheter placement procedure and long-term catheter usage place patients at risk for infection. The goal of this project was to develop a system to track and evaluate central line-associated blood stream infections related to interventional radiology placement of central venous catheters. A customized web-based clinical database was developed via open-source tools to provide a dashboard for data mining and analysis of the catheter placement and infection information. Preliminary results were gathered over a 4-month period confirming the utility of the system. The tools and methodology employed to develop the vascular access tracking system could be easily tailored to other clinical scenarios to assist in quality control and improvement programs.

  15. Technological advances for PICC placement and management.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Janet

    2007-06-01

    Placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is often complicated by the infant's small size and previous use of the peripheral veins, making the traditional means of insertion inadequate. New techniques and technologies, previously reserved for pediatric and adult patients, are now available for use in neonates and can enhance the practice of neonatal PICC teams. The modified Seldinger technique allows insertion of the PICC via smaller peripheral veins while decreasing venous trauma and enhancing the rate of successful placement. A second useful technique, the catheter exchange procedure, allows insertion of a new catheter within the same vein when complications such as occlusion, breakage, or inappropriate position occur and require removal of the currently dwelling PICC. Clinicians caring for neonates and infants must continually update their knowledge and skill by incorporating new techniques into their practice.

  16. Initial Clinical Experience: Symmetric-Tip Dialysis Catheter with Helical Flow Characteristics Improves Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy W I; Redmond, Jonas W; Mantell, Mark P; Nadolski, Gregory J; Mondschein, Jeffrey I; Dowd, Michael F; Dagli, Mandeep S; Sudheendra, Deepak; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D; Cohen, Raphael D

    2015-10-01

    To report preliminary clinical experience with a new symmetric-tip dialysis catheter compared with a conventional split-tip catheter. Over a 5-month period, patients requiring a tunneled catheter for hemodialysis or undergoing exchange of a dysfunctional dialysis catheter at a tertiary academic medical center were retrospectively analyzed. Patients underwent placement of a VectorFlow or Ash Split Cath catheter at the discretion of the inserting interventional radiologist. Patient demographics, catheter patency, mean blood flow rate, and arterial and venous pressures were compared according to catheter type. Catheter failure was analyzed based on clinical and anatomic variables by using a multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model. A total of 33 VectorFlow and 46 Ash Split Cath catheters were placed. Patients in the VectorFlow group had significantly higher body mass index (P = .013) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P = .049), as well as more non-internal jugular vein placements. At 120 days, 89% of VectorFlow catheters remained functional, compared with 45% of Ash Split Cath catheters (P = .046). The VectorFlow catheter was associated with 16% lower arterial pressures during dialysis (P = .009); mean blood flow rate was equivalent. On multivariate analysis, the risk of catheter failure was 13.3 times higher in the Ash Split Cath group compared with the VectorFlow group (P = .004). Left-sided catheters were also predictive of catheter failure (relative risk = 5.5; P = .02). The VectorFlow catheter was associated with a significant increase in intervention-free catheter patency compared with the Ash Split Cath catheter, with equivalent flow at lower arterial pressures during dialysis. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hemodialysis Tunneled Catheter Noninfectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lisa M.; MacRae, Jennifer M.; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Kappel, Joanne; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Moist, Louise; Oliver, Matthew; Pike, Pamela; Hiremath, Swapnil

    2016-01-01

    Noninfectious hemodialysis catheter complications include catheter dysfunction, catheter-related thrombus, and central vein stenosis. The definitions, causes, and treatment strategies for catheter dysfunction are reviewed below. Catheter-related thrombus is a less common but serious complication of catheters, requiring catheter removal and systemic anticoagulation. In addition, the risk factors, clinical manifestation, and treatment options for central vein stenosis are outlined. PMID:28270922

  18. Catheter malplacement during central venous cannulation through arm veins in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind; Bithal, Parmod K; Dash, Harihar; Chauhan, Rajendra S; Mohanty, Bibekanand

    2003-07-01

    For successful catheter placement, central venous cannulation (CVC) through internal jugular vein and subclavian vein has been recommended in both adult and pediatric patients. But it carries a risk of serious complications, such as pneumothorax, carotid, or subclavian artery puncture, which can be life-threatening, particularly in critically ill children. So a prospective study was carried out to determine the success rate of correct catheter tip placement during CVC through antecubital veins in pediatric neurosurgical patients. A total of 200 pediatric patients (age 1-15 years) of either sex were studied. Basilic or cephalic veins of either arm were selected. All the patients were cannulated in the operation room under general anesthesia. Single lumen, proper size catheters (with stillete) were used for cannulation. The catheter was inserted in supine position with the arm abducted at right angle to the body and neck turned ipsilaterally. The length of insertion was determined from cubital fossa to the right second intercostal space. The exact position of the tip of the catheter was confirmed radiologically in ICU. Correct catheter tip placement was achieved in 98 (49%) patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of data shows that there was no statistically significant difference among correct and incorrect catheter tip placement in relation to factors including sex, side of cannulation (left or right), and type of vein (basilic or cephalic). The analysis of correct catheter tip placement in relation to age showed that the highest success rate was achieved in children of age group 6 to 10 years (60.2%) followed by 30.6% in the 11 to 15 year group. The lowest success rate of tip placement of only 9.2% was observed in younger children of age 1 to 5 years, which is statistically significant (P = 0.001). Of 102 incorrect placements reported, 37% were in 1 to 5 year age group versus 9.2% correct tip placements. The most common unsatisfactory placements were

  19. Sacral perineural cyst mimicking inflammatory low back pain.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, P

    2015-02-01

    This case describes a 46-year-old woman with local pelvic and perineal pain, persisting for 2 years at presentation. The pain worsened during the night and morning and was alleviated during daily activities. Low back pain was associated with morning stiffness lasting longer than 2 h. Sometimes, she felt pain and numbness along her left S1 dermatome, without overt bladder or bowel incontinence. Lasegue's sign was negative. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were elevated (35 mm/h and 9.4, respectively) and Mennel's sign was present on both sides, indicating possible inflammation of the sacroiliac joints. However, radiographs of the lumbosacral spine and sacroiliac joints were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large spinal meningeal cyst in the sacrum (60 × 37 × 22 mm) consisting of multiple perineural cysts. The cyst eroded the surrounding sacral bone structures, narrowed several sacral foramina, and compressed neighboring nerve fibers. MRI findings on sacroiliac and hip joints were normal.

  20. Prognosis and Progression of ESCC Patients with Perineural Invasion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guanghui; Feng, Fan; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Xiao, Shuao; Cai, Lei; Yang, Xuewen; Li, Guocai; Lian, Xiao; Guo, Man; Sun, Li; Yang, Jianjun; Fan, Daiming; Lu, Qun; Zhang, Hongwei

    2017-03-03

    Perineural invasion (PNI) has been recognized as a poor prognostic factor in several malignancies, but the definition and pathogenesis of PNI in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains to be defined. PNI was evaluated by H&E staining and S100 immunohistochemistry. The predictive value of PNI in the prognosis of ESCC patients was analyzed. PNI was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A total of 54 specimens (17.88%) were defined as PNI-a and 99 specimens (32.78%) as PNI-b. S100 staining was superior to H&E staining for PNI detection (50.66% vs 27.15%, P < 0.001, κ = 0.506). Tumor depth (P = 0.001), tumor stage (P = 0.010), and vascular invasion (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with PNI. PIN-a and PNI-b had significant lower disease free survival (DFS) and disease specific survival (DSS) than PNI-0 patients, and the prognosis of PNI-b patients was significantly worse than PNI-a patients for DFS (P = 0.009). PNI was an independent predictor for DFS and DSS in ESCC as evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. ESCC cells could metastasize along the nerve in vitro and in vivo, and PNI was a dynamic process. S100 staining significantly improved the accuracy of PNI detection. PNI was associated with local recurrence and poor prognosis of ESCC patients.

  1. Skin carcinoma of the head and neck with perineural invasion.

    PubMed

    Balamucki, Christopher J; Mancuso, Anthony A; Amdur, Robert J; Kirwan, Jessica M; Morris, Christopher G; Flowers, Franklin P; Stoer, Charles B; Cognetta, Armand B; Mendenhall, William M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to update the experience treating cutaneous squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas of the head and neck with incidental or clinical perineural invasion (PNI) with radiotherapy (RT). From 1965 to 2007, 216 patients received RT alone or with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The 5-year overall, cause-specific, and disease-free survivals for incidental and clinical PNIs were 55% vs 54%, 73% vs 64%, and 67% vs 51%. The 5-year local control, local-regional control, and freedom from distant metastases for incidental and clinical PNIs were 80% vs 54%, 70% vs 51%, and 90% vs 94%. On univariate and multivariate (P = .0038 and .0047) analyses, clinical PNI was a poor prognostic factor for local control. The rates of grade 3 or higher complication in the incidental and clinical PNI groups were 16% and 36%, respectively. Radiotherapy plays a critical role in the treatment of this disease. Clinical PNI should be adequately irradiated to include the involved nerves to the skull base. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Silastic catheters: pinpointing the end tip of the catheter by means of electrocardiographic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Lozano, L; Barjau Capdevila, M

    1997-10-01

    The placement of catheters with a silastic center has been a common procedure in neonatal intensive care units for several years. Nonetheless, this procedure, like many others, bears its risks and complications if not properly carried out. The majority of complications, which are described in medical journals, include arrhythmias, myocardiac perforations, thrombosis, hemorrhage in the pleura, etc., and these are related with the catheter and its possible movement inside the blood vessel where it was originally inserted. The usual exploratory procedure to pinpoint the end tip of the catheter has been an ordinary x-ray, but often this x-ray does not allow one to see precisely where the catheter tip is located. This problem is caused by the tiny catheter calibre which does not allow for all the necessary contrast; because of this, it is frequently necessary to administer a radiopaque contrasting sub-stance and then repeat the x-ray in order to ensure that the catheter tip is located exactly where it should be. By means of electrocardiographic monitoring, a three-pronged key with an electrode and a 5.85% sodium chloride solution, it is possible to pinpoint the end tip of the catheter without resorting to an x-ray nor administering a contrasting solution.

  3. Atypical findings of perineural cysts on postmyelographic computed tomography: a case report of intermittent intercostal neuralgia caused by thoracic perineural cysts.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Hirokazu; Yanagawa, Taro; Takamizawa, Sachiko; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2017-06-13

    Perineural cysts are sometimes found incidentally with magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical symptoms requiring treatment are rare. Perineural cysts typically exhibit delayed filling with contrast medium on myelography, which is one of the criteria used by Tarlov to distinguish perineural cysts from meningeal diverticula. We present a case of multiple thoracolumbar perineural cysts, one of which was considered the cause of intermittent intercostal neuralgia with atypical findings on postmyelographic computed tomography seen as selective filling of contrast medium. A 61-year-old woman presented with intermittent pain on her left chest wall with distribution of the pain corresponding to the T10 dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple thoracolumbar perineural cysts with the largest located at the left T10 nerve root. On postmyelographic computed tomography immediately after contrast medium injection, the largest cyst and another at left T9 showed selective filling of contrast medium, suggesting that inflow of cerebrospinal fluid to the cyst exceeded outflow. Three hours after the injection, the intensity of the cysts was similar to the intensity of the thecal sac, and by the next day, contrast enhancement was undetectable. The patient was treated with an intercostal nerve block at T10, and the pain subsided. However, after 9 months of observation, the neuralgia recurred, and the nerve block was repeated with good effect. There was no recurrence 22 months after the last nerve block. We concluded that intermittent elevation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the cyst caused the neuralgia because of an imbalance between cerebrospinal fluid inflow and outflow, and repeated intercostal nerve blocks resolved the neuralgia. Our case demonstrates the mechanism of cyst expansion.

  4. Effect of Arm Positioning on Entrapment of Infraclavicular Nerve Block Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rahul; Kendall, Mark C.; Nader, Antoun; Weeks, Jessica J.

    2017-01-01

    Continuous brachial plexus nerve block catheters are commonly inserted for postoperative analgesia after upper extremity surgery. Modifications of the insertion technique have been described to improve the safety of placing an infraclavicular brachial plexus catheter. Rarely, these catheters may become damaged or entrapped, complicating their removal. We describe a case of infraclavicular brachial plexus catheter entrapment related to differences in arm positioning during catheter placement and removal. Written authorization to obtain, use, and disclose information and images was obtained from the patient. PMID:28348896

  5. A case of symptomatic cervical perineural (Tarlov) cyst: clinical manifestation and management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keewon; Chun, Se Woong; Chung, Sun G

    2012-01-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are most often found in the sacral region and are rare in the cervical spine. Although they are usually asymptomatic, a small number of those at the lumbosacral level have been known to produce localized or radicular pain. Few reports are available on symptomatic perineural cysts in the cervical spine and it has not been discussed how they should be managed. We present here a case of cervical perineural cysts with persistent radicular pain where the pain was adequately managed with repetitive transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI). The patient had experienced intractable pain in the posterior neck and left upper extremity for more than 7 years. The nature of the pain was cramping and a tingling sensation, which was aggravated in the supine position. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a perineural cyst in the neural foramen of left C7 root. The patient underwent three repetitive TFESIs targeted at the root. Each injection provided incremental relief, which lasted more than 6 months. Follow-up image revealed shrinkage of the cyst. This case illustrates in detail the clinical manifestation of a rare symptomatic perineural cyst in the cervical region and to our knowledge is the first to report the beneficial effect of repetitive TFESI.

  6. A randomised controlled trial of perineural vs intravenous dexamethasone for foot surgery.

    PubMed

    Dawson, R L; McLeod, D H; Koerber, J P; Plummer, J L; Dracopoulos, G C

    2016-03-01

    We used 20 ml ropivacaine 0.75% for ankle blocks before foot surgery in 90 participants who we allocated in equal numbers to: perineural dexamethasone 8 mg and intravenous saline 0.9%; perineural saline 0.9% and intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg; or perineural and intravenous saline 0.9%. Dexamethasone increased the median (IQR [range]) time for the return of some sensation or movement, from 14.6 (10.8-18.8 [5.5-38.0]) h with saline to 24.1 (19.3-29.3 [5.0-44.0]) h when given perineurally, p = 0.00098, and to 20.9 (18.3-27.8 [8.8-31.3]) h when given intravenously, p = 0.0067. Dexamethasone increased the median (IQR [range]) time for the return of normal neurology, from 17.6 (14.0-21.0 [9.5-40.5]) h with saline to 27.5 (22.0-36.3 [7.0-53.0]) h when given perineurally, p = 0.00016, and to 24.0 (20.5-32.3 [13.0-42.5]) h when given intravenously, p = 0.0022. Dexamethasone did not affect the rates of block success, postoperative pain scores, analgesic use, or nausea and vomiting. The route of dexamethasone administration did not alter its effects.

  7. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management.

    PubMed

    Gibson, F; Bodenham, A

    2013-03-01

    Large numbers of central venous catheters (CVCs) are placed each year and misplacement occurs frequently. This review outlines the normal and abnormal anatomy of the central veins in relation to the placement of CVCs. An understanding of normal and variant anatomy enables identification of congenital and acquired abnormalities. Embryological variations such as a persistent left-sided superior vena cava are often diagnosed incidentally only after placement of a CVC, which is seen to take an abnormal course on X-ray. Acquired abnormalities such as stenosis or thrombosis of the central veins can be problematic and can present as a failure to pass a guidewire or catheter or complications after such attempts. Catheters can also be misplaced outside veins in a patient with otherwise normal anatomy with potentially disastrous consequences. We discuss the possible management options for these patients including the various imaging techniques used to verify correct or incorrect catheter placement and the limitations of each. If the course of a misplaced catheter can be correctly identified as not lying within a vulnerable structure then it can be safely removed. If the misplaced catheter is lying within or traversing large and incompressible arteries or veins, it should not be removed before consideration of what is likely to happen when it is removed. Advice and further imaging should be sought, typically in conjunction with interventional radiology or vascular surgery. With regard to misplaced CVCs, in the short term, a useful aide memoir is: 'if in doubt, don't take it out'.

  8. Seldinger Technique for Placement of “Peripheral” Internal Jugular Line: Novel Approach for Emergent Vascular Access

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Adam J.; Raio, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report describing the ultrasound-guided placement of a peripheral intravenous catheter into the internal jugular vein of a patient with difficult vascular access. Although this technique has been described in the past, this case is novel in that the Seldinger technique was used to place the catheter. This allows for safer placement of a longer catheter (2.25″) without the need for venous dilation, which is potentially hazardous. PMID:26823937

  9. A pilot study to assess adductor canal catheter tip migration in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Leng, Jody C; Harrison, T Kyle; Miller, Brett; Howard, Steven K; Conroy, Myles; Udani, Ankeet; Shum, Cynthia; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-04-01

    An adductor canal catheter may facilitate early ambulation after total knee arthroplasty, but there is concern over preoperative placement since intraoperative migration of catheters may occur from surgical manipulation and result in ineffective analgesia. We hypothesized that catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may influence tip migration for preoperatively inserted adductor canal catheters. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 20 catheter insertion trials were divided randomly into one of four groups: flexible epidural catheter either tunneled or not tunneled; or rigid stimulating catheter either tunneled or not tunneled. Intraoperative patient manipulation was simulated by five range-of-motion exercises of the knee. Distance and length measurements were performed by a blinded regional anesthesiologist. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.225) and length of catheter within the adductor canal (p = 0.467) were not different between the four groups. Two of five non-tunneled stimulating catheters (40 %) were dislodged compared to 0/5 in all other groups (p = 0.187). A cadaver model may be useful for assessing migration of regional anesthesia catheters; catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may not affect migration of adductor canal catheters based on this preliminary study. However, future studies involving a larger sample size, actual patients, and other catheter types are warranted.

  10. CT-guided Perineural Injections for Chronic Pelvic Pain.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Scott, Kelly M; Rozen, Shai; Starr, Adam J; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a disabling condition that affects a large number of men and women. It may occur after a known inciting event, or it could be idiopathic. A common cause of pelvic pain syndrome is neuropathy of the pelvic nerves, including the femoral and genitofemoral nerves, ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves, pudendal nerve, obturator nerve, lateral and posterior femoral cutaneous nerves, inferior cluneal nerves, inferior rectal nerve, sciatic nerve, superior gluteal nerve, and the spinal nerve roots. Pelvic neuropathy may result from entrapment, trauma, inflammation, or compression or may be iatrogenic, secondary to surgical procedures. Imaging-guided nerve blocks can be used for diagnostic and therapeutic management of pelvic neuropathies. Ultrasonography (US)-guided injections are useful for superficial locations; however, there can be limitations with US, such as its operator dependence, the required skill, and the difficulty in depicting various superficial and deep pelvic nerves. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided injections are radiation free and lead to easy depiction of the nerve because of the superior soft-tissue contrast; although the expense, the required skill, and the limited availability of MR imaging are major hindrances to its widespread use for this purpose. Computed tomography (CT)-guided injections are becoming popular because of the wide availability of CT scanners, the lower cost, and the shorter amount of time required to perform these injections. This article outlines the technique of perineural injection of major pelvic nerves, illustrates the different target sites with representative case examples, and discusses the pitfalls. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  11. Prognosis and Progression of ESCC Patients with Perineural Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guanghui; Feng, Fan; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Xiao, Shuao; Cai, Lei; Yang, Xuewen; Li, Guocai; Lian, Xiao; Guo, Man; Sun, Li; Yang, Jianjun; Fan, Daiming; Lu, Qun; Zhang, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) has been recognized as a poor prognostic factor in several malignancies, but the definition and pathogenesis of PNI in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains to be defined. PNI was evaluated by H&E staining and S100 immunohistochemistry. The predictive value of PNI in the prognosis of ESCC patients was analyzed. PNI was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A total of 54 specimens (17.88%) were defined as PNI-a and 99 specimens (32.78%) as PNI-b. S100 staining was superior to H&E staining for PNI detection (50.66% vs 27.15%, P < 0.001, κ = 0.506). Tumor depth (P = 0.001), tumor stage (P = 0.010), and vascular invasion (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with PNI. PIN-a and PNI-b had significant lower disease free survival (DFS) and disease specific survival (DSS) than PNI-0 patients, and the prognosis of PNI-b patients was significantly worse than PNI-a patients for DFS (P = 0.009). PNI was an independent predictor for DFS and DSS in ESCC as evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. ESCC cells could metastasize along the nerve in vitro and in vivo, and PNI was a dynamic process. S100 staining significantly improved the accuracy of PNI detection. PNI was associated with local recurrence and poor prognosis of ESCC patients. PMID:28256609

  12. The stuck central venous catheter: a word of caution.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Neeti; Choudhury, Minati; Kiran, Usha; Chowdhury, Ujjwal

    2008-10-01

    The placement of central venous catheter (CVC) through internal jugular vein is not free from potential hazards. We report two cases of triple lumen central venous catheter, placed into right internal jugular vein, which got entrapped in patients who had undergone mitral valve replacement. The entrapment of catheter went unnoticed until the time of removal. Subsequent investigations, mechanism of entrapment, prevention, and removal is described. To conclude, we encountered an unusual cause of stuck central venous catheter, in the left atrial suture line. Removal of central venous catheter requires utmost care, and should never be done by forceful traction in the postoperative cardiac surgical patients, as it may lead to disruption of suture lines or rupture of vessels.

  13. Symptomatic perineural cyst: report of two cases treated with cyst-subarachnoid shunts.

    PubMed

    Takemori, Toshiyuki; Kakutani, Kenichiro; Maeno, Koichiro; Akisue, Toshihiro; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Nishida, Kotaro

    2014-05-01

    Symptomatic perineural cysts are rare. Resection and closure of such cysts sometimes results in postoperative neurological deficits and they can recur. We report two cases of symptomatic perineural cysts treated with subarachnoid shunts. Case 1: A 62-year-old woman presented with bladder dysfunction. We identified a cyst communicating with the subarachnoid space adjacent to the S2 nerve root and implanted a subarachnoid shunt. Seven years after this surgery, her bladder dysfunction had not recurred. Case 2: A 35-year-old woman had low back pain, radiculopathy and bladder dysfunction. We identified a cyst adjacent to the S1 nerve root and implanted a subarachnoid shunt. Her low back pain and radiculopathy improved immediately and she experienced neither postoperative neurological deficits nor recurrence. Cyst-subarachnoid shunts are a useful treatment option for symptomatic perineural cysts.

  14. Post-discectomy perineural fibrosis: comparison of conventional versus microsurgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Touliatos, A S; Soucacos, P N; Beris, A E

    1992-01-01

    The lumbar spines of twenty-one dogs were used as an experimental model. The animals were divided into three groups. In the first group, selective damage to the perimeningeal blood vessels was induced and the resultant hematoma was left untouched in the spinal canal. In the second group, the posterior longitudinal ligament was incised, and in the third group, the posterior longitudinal ligament was incised and damage induced to the perimeningeal blood vessels. The pathology examination revealed: (1) the hematoma itself did not lead to the formation of perineural fibrosis, (2) the incision of the posterior longitudinal ligament led to the formation of a limited amount of fibrosis, and (3) the coexistence of hematoma and incision of the posterior longitudinal ligament led to the formation of extensive perineural fibrosis. When discs are removed using microsurgical techniques, it is possible to avoid the formation of the postoperative hematoma and consequently to eliminate the perineural fibrosis.

  15. Surgical Excision of a Symptomatic Thoracic Nerve Root Perineural Cyst Resulting in Complete Resolution of Symptoms: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Aljuboori, Zaid; Yaseen, Alae; Simpson, Jessica; Boakye, Maxwell

    2017-06-12

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve root are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine. There are a few case reports where symptomatic thoracic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report a case of a high thoracic nerve root perineural cyst that failed conservative therapy, requiring surgical intervention. Our patient presented with radicular symptoms involving the left hand. Imaging workup revealed a cystic lesion of the left T1 nerve root at the level of the foramen. Surgical resection resulted in significant improvement in patient symptoms, and pathology revealed a perineural cyst. We conclude that a thoracic perineural (Tarlov) cyst can be symptomatic by causing nerve root compression and can be mistaken as a nerve root sheath tumor on imaging. Surgical treatment can be curative.

  16. Surgical Excision of a Symptomatic Thoracic Nerve Root Perineural Cyst Resulting in Complete Resolution of Symptoms: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, Alae; Simpson, Jessica; Boakye, Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve root are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine. There are a few case reports where symptomatic thoracic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report a case of a high thoracic nerve root perineural cyst that failed conservative therapy, requiring surgical intervention. Our patient presented with radicular symptoms involving the left hand. Imaging workup revealed a cystic lesion of the left T1 nerve root at the level of the foramen. Surgical resection resulted in significant improvement in patient symptoms, and pathology revealed a perineural cyst. We conclude that a thoracic perineural (Tarlov) cyst can be symptomatic by causing nerve root compression and can be mistaken as a nerve root sheath tumor on imaging. Surgical treatment can be curative. PMID:28706767

  17. Emergent Right Coronary Artery Thrombectomy with a Jet Aspiration Thrombectomy Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Teiyu; Furui, Shigeru; Isshiki, Takaaki; Toyoizumi, Hideki; Kohtake, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Kohji; Suzuki, Shigeru; Harasawa, Arimi; Sasaki, Yasushi

    1999-07-15

    A saline-jet aspiration thrombectomy (JAT) catheter was used in a patient with acute myocardial infarction. A right coronary arteriogram showed complete thrombotic occlusion at the proximal segment. With this catheter the thrombus was removed without complications in 5 sec. The patient underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and placement of a Palmaz-Schatz stent after successful thrombectomy. Thrombectomy with a JAT catheter was very useful in this patient.0.

  18. The Midline Catheter: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Daniel Z; Little, Andrew; Vinsant, Charles; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2016-09-01

    Venous access in the emergency department (ED) is an often under-appreciated procedural skill given the frequency of its use. The patient's clinical status, ongoing need for laboratory investigation, and intravenous therapeutics guide the size, type, and placement of the catheter. The availability of trained personnel and dedicated teams using ultrasound-guided insertion techniques in technically difficult situations may also impact the selection. Appropriate device selection is warranted on initial patient contact to minimize risk and cost. To compare venous access device indications and complications, highlighting the use of midline catheters as a potentially cost-effective and safe approach for venous access in the ED. Midline catheters (MC) offer a comparable rate of device-related bloodstream infection to standard peripheral intravenous catheters (PIV), but with a significantly lower rate than peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) and central venous catheters (CVC) (PIV 0.2/1000, MC 0.5/1000, PICC 2.1-2.3/1000, CVC 2.4-2.7/1000 catheter days). The average dwell time of a MC is reported as 7.69-16.4 days, which far exceeds PIVs (2.9-4.1 days) and is comparable to PICCs (7.3-16.6 days). Cost of insertion of a MC has been cited as comparable to three PIVs, and their use has been associated with significant cost savings when placed to avoid prolonged central venous access with CVCs or in patients with difficult-to-access peripheral veins. Placement of a MC includes modified Seldinger and accelerated, or all-in-one, Seldinger techniques with or without ultrasound guidance, with a high rate of first-attempt success. The MC is a versatile venous access device with a low complication rate, long dwell time, and high rate of first-attempt placement. Its utilization in the ED in patients deemed to require prolonged hospitalization or to have difficult-to-access peripheral vasculature could reduce cost and risk to patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Natural history of tunneled dialysis catheters placed for hemodialysis initiation.

    PubMed

    Shingarev, Roman; Barker-Finkel, Jill; Allon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of hemodialysis recipients in the United States initiate hemodialysis with a tunneled dialysis catheter (TDC). Published data on TDC outcomes are based on a case mix of prevalent and incident TDCs. The present study analyzes factors affecting patency and complications of first TDCs placed in a large cohort of incident hemodialysis recipients. A prospective, computerized vascular access database was retrospectively queried to identify 472 patients receiving a first-ever TDC. Multiple-variable survival analysis was used to identify clinical parameters affecting TDC patency (from placement to nonelective removal) and infection (from placement to first episode of catheter-related bacteremia [CRB]). The median patency of all TDCs was 202 days. Left-sided placement of TDCs was the only variable associated with inferior TDC patency (hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.81; P < .0001). The 6-month TDC patency rate was 37% for left internal jugular vein (LIJV) catheters, versus 54% for right internal jugular vein (RIJV) catheters. The 1-year patency rate was 6% for LIJV catheters, versus 35% for RIJV catheters. Catheter patency was not associated with patient age, sex, race, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, or heart failure. The median time to the first episode of CRB was 163 days. None of the clinical variables was associated with TDC infection. TDCs are plagued by high rates of infection. RIJV TDCs should be used preferentially to maximize catheter patency. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensory nerve conduction and nociception in the equine lower forelimb during perineural bupivacaine infusion along the palmar nerves

    PubMed Central

    Zarucco, Laura; Driessen, Bernd; Scandella, Massimiliano; Cozzi, Francesca; Cantile, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study lateral palmar nerve (LPN) and medial palmar nerve (MPN) morphology and determine nociception and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) following placement of continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) catheters along LPN and MPN with subsequent bupivacaine (BUP) infusion. Myelinated nerve fiber distribution in LPN and MPN was examined after harvesting nerve specimens in 3 anesthetized horses and processing them for morphometric analysis. In 5 sedated horses, CPNB catheters were placed along each PN in both forelimbs. Horses then received in one forelimb 3 mL 0.125% BUP containing epinephrine 1:200 000 and 0.04% NaHCO3 per catheter site followed by 2 mL/h infusion over a 6-day period, while in the other forelimb equal amounts of saline (SAL) solution were administered. The hoof withdrawal response (HWR) threshold during pressure loading of the area above the dorsal coronary band was determined daily in both forelimbs. On day 6 SNCV was measured under general anesthesia of horses in each limb’s LPN and MPN to detect nerve injury, followed by CPNB catheter removal. The SNCV was also recorded in 2 anesthetized non-instrumented horses (sham controls). In both LPN and MPN myelinated fiber distributions were bimodal. The fraction of large fibers (>7 μm) was greater in the MPN than LPN (P < 0.05). Presence of CPNB catheters and SAL administration did neither affect measured HWR thresholds nor SNCVs, whereas BUP infusion suppressed HWRs. In conclusion, CPNB with 0.125% BUP provides pronounced analgesia by inhibiting sensory nerve conduction in the distal equine forelimb. PMID:21197231

  1. Efficacy of percutaneous pigtail catheters for thoracostomy at bedside

    PubMed Central

    Penupolu, Sudheer; Flores, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective Given the potential morbidity of traditional chest tube insertion, use of pigtail is desirable. The purpose of this case series is to determine the efficacy of bedside pigtail thoracostomy catheters in Adult population by using bedside ultrasound by the pulmonologists. Methods It is a retrospective case series, which describes the importance of bedside pigtail catheters placements for emergent symptomatic relief for the patients. Predicting a successful drainage, procedure is a complex and multifactorial process based on size, location, character and configuration of the abscess. Results Our experience shows that the use of standard size (7-8.5 F) pigtail catheters is usually very successful in draining of the pleural fluids. Less time consumption, lower cost and bedside technique makes it superior to conventional chest tube placement in many aspects. Conclusions Percutaneous pigtail catheters are useful in the drainage of pleural fluids. The pigtail catheters can be placed successful at bedside by the pulmonologists under ultrasound guidance with minimal complications and marked clinical improvement. The cost effectives of this procedure over the conventional chest tube placement, makes this procedure more desirable in most of the hospital settings. PMID:22754668

  2. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes radiopaque urological catheters, ureteral catheters, urethral catheters, coude catheters, balloon retention type catheters, straight catheters, upper urinary tract...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes radiopaque urological catheters, ureteral catheters, urethral catheters, coudé catheters, balloon retention type catheters, straight catheters, upper urinary tract...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes radiopaque urological catheters, ureteral catheters, urethral catheters, coudé catheters, balloon retention type catheters, straight catheters, upper urinary tract...

  5. Port catheter fracture and migration in Internal Jugular Vein.

    PubMed

    Doley, Rudra Prasad; Brar, Preetinder; Chaudhary, Sanchit; Bedi, Rajeev; Swami, Adarsh Chander; Wig, Jai Dev

    2012-01-01

    Central venous access devices for chemotherapy are being used extensively in patients with cancer. Spontaneous fracture and migration of the catheter is uncommon. We present the uncommon occurrence of a fracture and spontaneous migration of the fragment into the internal jugular vein as a delayed complication of a central venous access catheter implanted for chemotherapy administration. A patient with Ewing's sarcoma of the humerus with metastasis in the lungs underwent placement of a totally implantable venous access device. The port was in place for 1 year. The patient presented with pain in the right side of the neck. A chest X-ray demonstrated complete transection of the catheter and migration of the catheter fragment in the internal jugular vein. Both the migrated catheter fragment and the proximal part of the catheter were retrieved surgically. He had an uneventful recovery. Catheter fracture remains a potential complication, which must be recognized and treated promptly. Periodic chest imaging is recommended for detection and timely removal of the catheter.

  6. Femoral venous catheters: a safe alternative for delivering parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Kanter, G; Titus, D

    1994-04-01

    Femoral vein catheterization is an alternative method of obtaining central venous access. Placement of femoral venous catheters (FVCs) is possible in the majority of patients, suitable for most indications, and associated with a low complication rate during insertion. We wished to determine the incidence of infections or other complications resulting when parenteral nutrition was delivered through FVCs. Fifty-two patients were followed from a hospital-wide population including patients in the critical care units. Triple-lumen catheters were placed by using the sterile Seldinger technique, and sites were examined daily for inflammation. Bacteriologic surveillance was accomplished by submitting the catheter tip for semiquantitative cultures. If catheter line sepsis was suspected, blood samples for cultures were drawn through the catheter and peripherally. The rate of occurrence of colonized catheters was 9.6% (five of 52), and catheter sepsis was found in one case (1.9%). Other than inflammation at six (11.5%) of 52 catheter sites, noninfectious complications of FVCs were not found. On the basis of these findings, we consider FVC-delivered parenteral alimentation a safe and effective alternative to other forms of central venous access.

  7. Perineural versus intravenous dexamethasone as adjuncts to local anaesthetic brachial plexus block for shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, D M; Ivancic, M G; Hattrup, S J; Renfree, K J; Watkins, A R; Hentz, J G; Gorlin, A W; Spiro, J A; Trentman, T L

    2016-04-01

    This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effect of perineural with intravenous dexamethasone, both administered concomitantly with interscalene brachial plexus block for shoulder surgery. Patients received 8 mg dexamethasone mixed with ropivacaine in the block injection (n = 42), 8 mg dexamethasone intravenously at the time of the block (n = 37), or intravenous saline (n = 41) at the time of the block. Perineural and intravenous dexamethasone resulted in prolonged mean (SD) duration of block to 16.9 (5.2) h and 18.2 (6.4) h, respectively, compared with 13.8 (3.8) h for saline (p = 0.001). Mean (SD) opioid consumption (morphine equivalents) during the first 24 h after postanaesthesia recovery arrival was 12.2 (9.3) mg in the perineural dexamethasone, 17.1 (15.9) mg in the intravenous dexamethasone and 24.1 (14.3) mg in the saline groups (p = 0.001). Dexamethasone via either route reduced anti-emetic use (p = 0.046). There was no effect on patient satisfaction. These results suggest that both perineural and intravenous dexamethasone are useful adjuncts to ropivacaine interscalene block, with the intravenous route preferred as this avoids the possibility of neural toxicity of dexamethasone.

  8. Sequestrated caudal catheter in a child: An anesthetic nightmare and surgical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Eu, Chong Soon; Kumar, Shyamala V.; Ali, Saedah; Hassan, Shamsul Kamalrujan

    2017-01-01

    The usage of epidural infusion for intraoperative and postoperative pain relief is widely used in certain pediatric anesthetic practice because of the effectiveness and advantages. However, there is drawback for these techniques due to its potential complications such as inadvertent intrathecal placement, local anesthetic toxicity, catheter migration, infection, and breakage of epidural catheter. Though occur infrequently, epidural catheters have been known to snap during insertion or removal. The retained catheter tip may lead to multiple complications, including nerve injury, infection, and even catheter migration. Although there are literatures recommend options for management of removal of retained catheter, there are limited reports of these occurrences, especially among children. We report a case of sequestrated sheared epidural catheter segment in a child, aiming to share this experience for the future management of patients under similar condition. PMID:28217061

  9. Factors associated with external ventricular drain placement accuracy: data from an electronic health record repository

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vaibhav; Lacson, Ronilda; Vosburgh, Kirby G.; Wong, Judith M.; Prevedello, Luciano; Andriole, Katherine; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Popp, A. John; Khorasani, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated external ventricular drain placement for factors associated with placement accuracy. Data was acquired using an electronic health record data requisition tool. Method Medical records of all patients who underwent ventriculostomy from 2003–2010 were identified and evaluated. Patient demographics, diagnosis, type of guidance and number of catheter passes were searched for and recorded. Post-procedural hemorrhage and/or infection were identified. A grading scale was used to classify accuracy of catheter placements. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to assess features associated with accurate catheter placement. Results One hundred nine patients who underwent 111 ventriculostomies from 2003–2010 were identified. Patient diagnoses were classified into vascular (63%), tumor (21%), trauma (14%), and cyst (2%). Procedures were performed freehand in 90 (81%), with the Ghajar guide in 17 (15%), and with image guidance in 4 (4%) patients. Eighty-eight (79%) catheters were placed in the correct location. Trauma patients were more likely to have catheters misplaced (p=0.007) whereas patients in other diagnostic categories were not significantly associated with misplaced catheters. Post-procedural hemorrhage was noted in 2 (1.8%) patients on post-procedural imaging studies. Five (4.5%) definite and 6 (5.4%) suspected infections were identified. Conclusions External ventricular drain placement can be performed accurately in most patients. Patients with trauma are more likely to have catheters misplaced. Further development is required to identify and evaluate procedure outcomes using an electronic health record repository. PMID:23700258

  10. Intraoperative Fluoroscopy for Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Daniel; Anon, Javier; Rossi, Frederic; Marbacher, Serge; Fandino, Javier; Berkmann, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Catheter malpositioning is one of the most frequent causes of ventriculoperitoneal shunt dysfunction and revision surgery. Most intraoperative tools used to improve the accuracy of catheter insertion are time consuming and expensive or do not display the final position. We evaluate the usefulness of intraoperative fluoroscopy to decrease catheter malpositioning, and define radiological landmarks to identify the correct localization. A total of 104 patients undergoing ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement were analyzed for shunt position, revision surgery and outcome. The results for patients operated on using intraoperative biplanar fluoroscopic assessment of catheter location (X-ray group, n = 57) were compared with a control group operated without intraoperative radiography (control, n = 47). In order to generate a surgical reference map for intraoperative validation of shunt location, different ventricular system landmarks were defined on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions of hydrocephalic patients (n = 60) and exported to a two-dimensional layer of the skull. The use of intraoperative X-ray imaging correlated with a significant increase of optimal catheter positions (X-ray group, n = 45, 79%; control group, n = 23, 49%; P = 0.0018). The sensitivity and positive predictive value for estimating an optimal shunt catheter position on biplanar imaging was 96% (95% confidence interval, 87%-99%). The specificity and negative predictive value were both 92% (95% confidence interval, 78%-98%). Intraoperative fluoroscopy is easy to perform and is a reliable method to assess correct catheter positioning. Based on its predictive value, corrections of malpositioned ventricular catheters can be performed during the same procedure. The use of intraoperative fluoroscopy decreases early surgical revisions in ventriculoperitoneal shunt treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Perineural Administration of Dexmedetomidine in Combination with Levobupivacaine in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Block☆

    PubMed Central

    Ali Erdogan, Mehmet; Polat, Alaaddin; Yucel, Aytac; Aydogan, Mustafa Said; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Tekin, Suat; Durmus, Mahmut; Ozcan Ersoy, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess if perineural administration of dexmedetomidine combined with levobupivacaine increases the duration of the sensory and motor blockade of a sciatic peripheral nerve block in rats. Methods Forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups: Group 1, sham; Group 2, perineural levobupivacaine (0.2 mL of a 0.5% solution) and subcutaneous saline; Group 3, perineural levobupivacaine (0.2 mL of a 0.5% solution) plus dexmedetomidine (20 µg/kg dexmedetomidine) and subcutaneous saline; Group 4, perineural saline and subcutaneous dexmedetomidine; and Group 5, perineural saline and subcutaneous saline. Pain reflexes in response to a thermal stimulus were measured at 0 and 240 minutes after drug administration by using a hot-plate and tail-flick tests. Neurobehavioral status, including sensory and motor functions, was assessed by an investigator who was blinded to the experimental groups every 30 minutes until normal functioning resumed. Results The sensory and motor blockades of the rats did not increase in the treatment with dexmedetomidine plus levobupivacaine when compared with the treatment with levobupivacaine alone at all the time points (P > 0.05). Compared with rats in Group 2, those in Group 3 showed significantly higher latency times at 30 and 60 minutes in the hot plate test (P < 0.01). At 30 and 60 minutes, the latency times of the rats in Group 3 were longer than those in Group 2 in the tail-flick test (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the durations of the complete sensory and motor blockade were similar when treatment with levobupivacaine plus dexmedetomidine was compared with treatment with levobupivacaine alone. Conclusions A 20µg/kg dose of dexmedetomidine added to levobupivacaine did not increase the duration of the sensory and motor blockades in rats. However, treatment with dexmedetomidine plus levobupivacaine increased the quality of analgesia in rats. PMID:24385106

  12. Prognostic significance of lymphatic, vascular and perineural invasion for bladder cancer patients treated by radical cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Muppa, Prasuna; Gupta, Sounak; Frank, Igor; Boorjian, Stephen A; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Thompson, R Houston; Thapa, Prabin; Tarrell, Robert F; Herrera Hernandez, Loren P; Jimenez, Rafael E; Cheville, John C

    2017-04-01

    In radical cystectomy specimens with bladder cancer, lymphatic and vascular invasion are often reported as 'angiolymphatic' or 'lymphovascular' invasion, terms that combine the findings of tumour within simple endothelial-lined lymphatic spaces and tumour within muscle-lined blood vessels. It is unclear if these patterns of invasion have different prognostic significance. In addition, there are conflicting data regarding the significance of lymphatic, vascular and perineural invasion in patients with bladder cancer. Herein, we studied 1504 patients treated by radical cystectomy for bladder cancer at our institution and followed for a mean of 10.6 years. Cases were re-reviewed by a urological pathologist for lymphatic invasion defined as tumour within a non-muscle-lined endothelial-lined lymphatic space, vascular invasion defined as tumour in a muscle-lined blood vessel, and perineural invasion defined as tumour within the perineural sheath. Associations of clinical and pathological features with bladder cancer death were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and summarised with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis showed that lymphatic and vascular invasion but not perineural invasion were significantly associated with cancer specific survival (p<0.0001 and p=0.02, respectively). There was a significant association of lymphatic and vascular invasion but not perineural invasion with involved regional lymph nodes (p<0.0001 and p=0.004, respectively). In patients with metastasis to regional lymph nodes, lymphatic invasion remained significantly associated with outcome (p=0.02). The frequency of lymphatic and vascular invasion varied amongst histological subtypes of bladder cancer. Vascular and lymphatic invasion should be clearly defined and reported for radical cystectomy specimens containing bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of

  13. Incidence of catheter-associated bloodstream infection after introduction of minocycline and rifampin antimicrobial-coated catheters in a pediatric burn population.

    PubMed

    Weber, Joan M; Sheridan, Robert L; Fagan, Shawn; Ryan, Colleen M; Pasternack, Mark S; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections suggest that antimicrobial-coated catheters can decrease the risk of developing catheter-related bloodstream infection in a variety of adult patient populations. There are limited data on their efficacy in the pediatric population, particularly among children with burn injuries. A study was conducted at Shriners Hospitals for Children®, Boston, to determine whether minocycline/rifampin (MR)-coated catheters could decrease the incidence of catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI) in a pediatric burn population. A historical control group included all patients with double- or triple-lumen catheters inserted in the 18-month period from January 2006 to June 2007. The study group included all patients with MR antimicrobial double- or triple-lumen catheters inserted in the subsequent 18-month period, July 2007 to December 2008. Data collected included name, age, date of burn/injury, date of admission, percent TBSA area burn injury or other diagnosis, catheter site (subclavian, internal jugular, or femoral), method of insertion (new percutaneous stick or guidewire), type of catheter (double or triple lumen), date inserted, duration of catheter placement (days), and positive blood cultures recovered while the central venous catheter was in place. CABSI was defined using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection. There were a total of 66 patients with 252 catheters (1780 catheter days) in the control group and 75 patients with 263 catheters (1633 catheter days) in the study group. Age, percent burn injury, catheter site, and method of insertion were not statistically different between the two groups. The percentage of infected catheters and the rate of infection were significantly different for the two groups, with the MR antimicrobial catheters only half as likely to become infected. In

  14. Guided Application of Ventricular Catheters (GAVCA) - multicentre study to compare the ventricular catheter position after use of a catheter guide versus freehand application: study protocol for a randomised trail

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The standard technique for the placement of ventricular catheters (VC) comprises a high proportion of malpositioning of the catheter (12.5 to 40%). Technical advances such as neuronavigation or ultrasound have been shown to increase the accuracy of the procedure. Since these means result in significant technical and time consuming efforts, they are used for selected cases only. In order to simplify the controlled placement of ventricular catheters a newly developed smartphone assisted guiding tool has been introduced. In this study the efficacy and safety of this guiding tool is determined. Methods/design This study is a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial. A total of 144 patients planned for an elective shunting procedure will be enrolled throughout 10 study centres within two years. The primary objective of the trial is to show the superiority of the guided placement in comparison to the standard freehand technique of ventricular catheter application. Patients will be followed up for 30 days after the operation in regard to image-based evaluation of the catheter position as well as possible shunt dysfunction and complications. Discussion The Guided Application of Ventricular Catheters (GAVCA) trial compares the guided catheter positioning with the standard freehand technique of catheter placement in hydrocephalic patients. If superiority is shown, the standard technique may be changed with the advantage of a more reliable and safer positioning of the ventricular catheter with just a slight effort in time and pre-operative planning. Trial registration The GAVCA trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under the number NCT01811589. PMID:24330776

  15. Pulmonary Artery Catheter Use During Cardiac Surgery in the United States, 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Brovman, Ethan Y; Gabriel, Rodney A; Dutton, Richard P; Urman, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    To examine patterns of use of pulmonary artery catheters in a large cohort of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A retrospective study with univariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors for the utilization of pulmonary artery catheters. University, small, medium and large community hospitals participating in the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry. A total of 116,333 patients undergoing pulmonary artery catheter placement during cardiac surgery in the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry from the Anesthesia Quality Institute. Age older than 50 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of 3 or higher, case duration of longer than 6 hours, and presence of a resident physician or certified nurse anesthetist were associated with increased likelihood of pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) placement. Age<18 years, or presence of a board-certified anesthesiologist, were associated with a decreased likelihood of catheter placement. The use of PACs has increased from 2010 to 2014. The presence of a PAC did not alter the risk of cardiac arrest intraoperatively. A nonsignificant decrease in mortality was associated with catheter placement. Transfusion was 75% less likely in the PAC cohort than in the control group. Pulmonary artery catheter use remains a mainstay of cardiac anesthesia practice. No significant change in the incidence of intraoperative death was noted, but patients with a PAC were less likely to have blood transfused. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Refractory optic perineuritis due to granulomatosis with polyangiitis successfully treated with methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshitaka; Asako, Kurumi; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Kono, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Optic perineuritis is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of the optic sheath that causes visual loss or eye pain. There are few case reports of optic perineuritis associated with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Herein we report the case of a 37-year-old male with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and who presented with headache, blurred vision in the right eye, diplopia, and numbness in the right forehead. Brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) findings revealed hypertrophic pachymeningitis and refractory optic perineuritis. These were manageable only by means of weekly methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil combination therapy but not with methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, intravenous cyclophosphamide, rituximab, azathioprine, or cyclosporine individually. PMID:28293459

  17. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. April 2011. ... MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. ...

  18. Assessment of reused catheters.

    PubMed

    Mussivand, T; Duguay, D G; Valadares, M J; Rajagopalan, K; Mackenzie, A M; Blohon, R; Marquis, J F; Beanlands, D S; Keon, W J

    1995-01-01

    Demands for health care cost containment have prompted the assessment of recycling medical devices, including catheters. The investigation of catheter reuse for effectiveness and safety began at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute in early 1994. This report provides the preliminary results from this ongoing assessment on the feasibility of catheter reuse. Burst tests were conducted to detect changes in catheter mechanical integrity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess surface changes and protein deposition after use and the subsequent cleaning process. Results of burst testing showed no significant difference in burst patterns or burst pressures between single use and unused catheters. Surface differences were observed between used and unused catheters. SEM studies detected physical changes such as scratches, gouges, cuts, and deposits on the used catheters. Unused balloon surfaces appeared to be clean and uniform compared to used ones. Residue and cracking were identified on other used devices. In conclusion, the methods used can assess various effects of recycling. A blind study of large samples of used catheters is planned to establish statistically the level and variance of structural damage to catheters during typical use.

  19. Pulmonary artery catheter insertion in a patient of dextrocardia with anomalous venous connections.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Mukesh; Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Prabhat K

    2004-08-01

    In a young adult patient having situs solitus with dextrocardia the attempted pulmonary artery catheter placement for emergency mitral valve replacement required an unduly long length (50cm) of catheter insertion to get into right ventricle and then into pulmonary artery. Although catheter coiling was suspected initially, chest x-ray taken after successfully placement revealed an uncommon congenital anomalous venous connection i.e. right internal jugular opening into left sided superior vena cava then into inferior vena cava after running all along the left border of the heart. With the result, it required to pass 50cm of PA catheter to get into right ventricle in our patient. This emphasizes the need to look for abnormal venous connections during echocardiography and x-ray screening in congenital heart disease. Fluoroscopy is recommended when an unusual length of pulmonary artery catheter insertion is required to enter the pulmonary artery.

  20. Conversion of tunneled hemodialysis catheter into HeRO device can provide immediate access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Julio C; DeLaRosa, Jacob; Rahim, Fahim; Rahim, Naeem

    2010-11-01

    Patients with central venous occlusion who are ''tunneled catheter dependent'' are a challenge for hemodialysis access. A relatively new option for them is the hemodialysis reliable outflow (HeRO) device that can be totally implanted subcutaneously. However, patients still require a tunneled hemodialysis catheter that is used until the HeRO device is mature, 4 to 6 weeks later. Here, we describe a conversion of an existing tunneled hemodialysis catheter into a HeRO device, which was combined with a ''self-sealing'' Flixene graft. This allowed almost immediate use of the HeRO device without the need for placement of a catheter.

  1. Utility of collecting blood cultures through newly inserted intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Isaacman, D J; Karasic, R B

    1990-11-01

    We prospectively examined the utility of obtaining blood cultures through newly inserted intravenous catheters in 99 children who required both a blood culture and placement of an intravenous catheter. Two blood cultures were collected from each patient, one through a freshly inserted intravenous catheter and another through a butterfly needle at a separate venipuncture site. A standardized technique of skin preparation with povidone-iodine was used. The rate of contamination was 1.0% (95% confidence intervals, 0 to 3.0%) for each method. Ten patients had blood cultures yielding true pathogens; in five of these bacteremic children, only one of two sets of blood cultures was positive. We conclude that blood cultures can be collected through freshly placed intravenous catheters without increasing the risk of contamination. These results also raise the possibility that obtaining two blood cultures instead of a single culture may improve the detection of bacteremia in children.

  2. Baclofen pump catheter leakage after migration of the abdominal catheter in a pediatric patient with spasticity.

    PubMed

    Dastgir, Amer; Ranalli, Nathan J; MacGregor, Theresa L; Aldana, Philipp R

    2015-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of intrathecal baclofen withdrawal due to the perforation and subsequent leakage of a baclofen pump catheter in a patient with spastic cerebral palsy. A 15-year-old boy underwent an uncomplicated placement of an intrathecal baclofen pump for the treatment of spasticity due to cerebral palsy. After excellent control of symptoms for 3 years, the patient presented to the emergency department with increasing tremors following a refill of his baclofen pump. Initial evaluation consisted of radiographs of the pump and catheter, which appeared normal, and a successful aspiration of CSF from the pump's side port. A CT dye study revealed a portion of the catheter directly overlying the refill port and extravasation of radiopaque dye into the subfascial pocket anterior to the pump. During subsequent revision surgery, a small puncture hole in the catheter was seen to be leaking the drug. The likely cause of the puncture was an inadvertent perforation of the catheter by a needle during the refilling of the pump. This case report highlights a unique complication in a patient with an intrathecal baclofen pump. Physicians caring for these patients should be aware of this rare yet potential complication in patients presenting with baclofen withdrawal symptoms.

  3. The incidence and management of inability to advance Arrow FlexTip Plus epidural catheters in obstetric patients.

    PubMed

    Sviggum, H P; Farber, M K

    2014-05-01

    Difficulty advancing epidural catheters is troublesome to obstetric anesthesiologists. Flexible epidural catheters have been shown to reduce paresthesiae and intravascular catheter placement in parturients, but the cause of inability to advance these catheters past the epidural needle tip remains undefined. Specifically, its incidence and effective management strategies have not been described. All labor epidural catheters were recorded for a 22-week period. Difficulty advancing the epidural catheter was defined as an inability to advance the catheter beyond the needle tip after obtaining loss of resistance. Anesthesiologists completed a survey when difficulty advancing a catheter occurred. A total of 2148 epidural catheter placements were performed. There were 97 cases of an inability to advance the epidural catheter (4.5%, 95% CI 3.7 to 5.5%). This occurred in 4.2% of combined spinal-epidural and 4.6% of epidural placements (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.62). On a 0 to 10scale, the median [IQR] provider confidence in loss of resistance was 9 [8, 10]. A total of 230 corrective maneuvers were performed, using nine distinct approaches. The incidence of accidental dural puncture was 3.1% if an inability to advance occurred (n=97) compared to 1.2% for other placements (n=2051, P=0.12). Inability to advance Arrow FlexTip Plus® epidural catheters was relatively common (4.5%) and occurred despite confidence in obtaining loss of resistance. Injecting saline may be corrective and appears to have little disadvantage. However, removing the needle and performing a new placement was the most successful corrective maneuver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term blood access by catheters implanted into arteriovenous fistulas of sheep.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M B; Cole, J J; Jensen, W M; Scribner, B H

    1984-08-01

    Reliable long-term blood access in sheep was provided by implanting one or two catheters into the high velocity blood flow in the vein draining an arteriovenous fistula created in the neck. Thrombosis of the catheterized vein occurred in only one of 31 cases in which a catheter with rounded intravascular tip was used, as compared with seven in 10 cases using a sharp-tipped catheter. The mean duration of placement for all rounded-tip catheters was 228.6 days. Extrusion from the vessel occurred with 3 of 8 short catheters (2 cm intravascular length), but only after a period of more than seven months of implantation. Using a program of trice-weekly disinfection of the skin exit site, exterior portion of the catheter, and catheter lumen resulted in failure of only two catheters due to infection. Rounded-tip catheters with 5 cm intravascular length had 75% life table functional rate at 15 months. Implantation of two catheters permitted extracorporeal circulation at flows of up to 300 ml/min using a blood pump to withdraw blood from one catheter while simultaneously returning it through the second.

  5. [Medial venous catheter or midline (MVC)].

    PubMed

    Carrero Caballero, Ma Carmen; Montealegre Sanz, María; Cubero Pérez, Ma Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Current clinical practice is characterised for importance of the patient's quality of life and the need to reduce the costs of their treatment. We search intravenous therapy alternatives that meet the needs of the patient, reducing the complications associated with the use of venous catheters. Scientific evidence shows that there are midline venous catheters that offer patients and professionals the possibility of extending the duration of infusion therapy, using more venous compatibility materials, and with less risk of infection. The Midlines are becoming in a safe an efficient device for intravenous therapy, continuous and intermittent infusion, provided the necessary care by expert nurses. Midline catheters are peripheral venous access devices between 3 to 10 inches in length (8 to 25 cm). Midlines are usually placed in an upper arm vein, such as the brachial or cephalic, and the distal extreme ends below the level of the axillary line. Midlines catheters implanted in the cephalic or deep basilica veins get more blood flow. This large blood volume justifies the lower risk of mechanical or chemical phlebitis. Midlines are routinely used for two to six weeks. Due that the extrem of these catheters does not extend beyond the axillary line, there are limitations for its use: type of infused drugs, velocity of infusion, etc. In general, solutions that have pH 5 to 9, or an osmolarity less than 500 mOsm are appropriate for infusion through a Midline. Its use is recommended in case of treatments over 7 days with low irritant capacity fluids. According to the Infusion Nurses Society's standards of practice, Midline catheters are appropriate for all intravenous fluids that would normally be administered through a short peripheral IV Importantly, due that the catheter does not pass through the central veins, Midlines can be placed without a chest X-ray to confirm placement. For certain situations, Midlines are suitable for acute units and even for care home settings

  6. New tools in diagnosing catheter-related infections.

    PubMed

    Blot, F; Nitenberg, G; Brun-Buisson, C

    2000-07-01

    Clinical criteria alone are insufficient to allow a diagnosis of intravascular catheter-related sepsis (CRS). A definite diagnosis of CRS usually requires removal of the catheter for quantitative catheter tip culture. However, only about 15-25% of central venous catheters (CVC) removed because infection is suspected actually prove to be infected, and the diagnosis is always retrospective. Other diagnostic tests, such as differential quantitative blood cultures from samples taken simultaneously from the catheter and a peripheral vein, have been proposed to avoid unjustified removal of the catheter and the potential risks associated with the placement of a new catheter at a new site: a central-to-peripheral blood culture colony count ratio of 5:1 to 10:1 is considered indicative of CRS. Despite its high specificity, the latter diagnostic technique is not routinely used in clinical practice because of its complexity and cost. The measurement of the differential time to positivity between hub blood (taken from the catheter port) and peripheral blood cultures might be a reliable tool facilitating the diagnosis of CRS in situ. In an in vitro study, we found a strong relationship between the inoculum size of various microorganisms and the time to positivity of cultures. When the times to positivity of cultures of blood taken simultaneously from central and peripheral veins in patients with and without CRS were examined, we found that earlier positivity of central vs peripheral vein blood cultures was highly correlated with CRS. Using a cut-off value of +120 min, the "differential time to positivity" of the paired blood samples, defined as time to positivity of the peripheral blood minus that of the hub blood culture, had 91% specificity and 94% sensitivity for the diagnosis of CRS. This method may be coupled with other techniques that have high negative predictive value, such as skin cultures at the catheter exit site. This diagnostic test can be proposed for routine

  7. Atypical Presentation of Idiopathic Bilateral Optic Perineuritis in a Young Patient

    PubMed Central

    Tevaraj, Jessica Mani Penny; Mohd-Noor, Raja-Azmi; Thavaratnam, Lakana Kumar; Salmah, Win Mar

    2016-01-01

    A previously healthy 27-year-old Malay male presented with acute onset of painless, severe blurring of vision in his right eye. It was associated with headache and vomiting for the past week. Relative afferent pupillary defect was present in the right eye, with reduced optic nerve function. Patient also had bilateral generalised optic disc swelling, splinter haemorrhages, and tortuous vessels. Initial examination was suggestive of either optic neuritis or raised intracranial pressure. Typical features of bilateral optic perineuritis (OPN) such as tram track and doughnut sign were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Connective tissue and infective screening were negative. He was diagnosed with bilateral optic perineuritis and treated with high dose intravenous corticosteroids followed by a three-month course of oral steroids. His vision and optic nerve function recovered to baseline levels. PMID:28078151

  8. The effect of perineural anesthesia on infrared thermographic images of the forelimb digits of normal horses

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Layne C.; Gaughan, Earl M.; Gorondy, Denise A.; Hogge, Steve; Spire, Mark F.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared thermography is an imaging modality gaining popularity as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation of equine lameness. Anecdotal reports of skin hyperthermia induced by local anesthesia, detected by thermography, have been made; however, no controlled studies have been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of perineural anesthesia on infrared thermographic images of the forelimb digits in normal horses. After environmental acclimation, infrared thermographs were made at intervals of 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min from administration of mepivacaine hydrochloride or phosphate buffered saline in 6 adult horses with no clinical evidence of abnormality of the forelimb digits. The mean limb surface temperatures were compared by 2-factor ANOVA. Results indicated no significant difference between treatments, time after injection, or an interaction of time and treatment. Infrared thermographic imaging apparently can be performed within 45 min of perineural mepivacaine hydrochloride anesthesia without risk of artifactual changes in limb surface temperature. PMID:12757130

  9. Perineural tumour spread from colon cancer, an unusual cause of trigeminal neuropathy - a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Kavitha; George, Thomas; El Beltagi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Malignant trigeminal neuralgia due to perineural spread along the branches of the trigeminal nerve, is known to commonly occur secondary to squamous cell carcinomas, lymphomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas in the head and neck region. Rarely metastases to the trigeminal nerve have been reported in breast cancer, prostate cancer and colon cancer. To the best of our knowledge trigeminal neuropathy due to skull base metastases and perineural spread along the maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) branches of the trigeminal nerve, secondary to colon cancer, has not been previously reported. The diagnosis in our index case was made on magnetic resonance imaging, and patient was treated accordingly by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, with subsequent relief of her pain. PMID:26629299

  10. A prevalence survey of intravascular catheter use in a general hospital.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Granda, María Jesús; Guembe, María Ramírez; Rincón, Cristina; Muñoz, Patricia; Bouza, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Survey of intravascular catheter management is an essential step in the control and prevention of catheter-related infection. In recent years, most surveillance studies only included catheters from intensive care units (ICUs). Data regarding the level of care and adherence to international guidelines in a whole general institution are scarce. Our objective was to evaluate the care situation of intravascular catheters in our adult units of a General Hospital. We surveyed adults hospitalized in non-psychiatric/maternity wards. In a week, a nurse visited all the adult hospitalized patients. Data were registered in a protocol that included variables, such as no. of catheters, location of catheter, type of catheter, date of placement and the need of an indication of each catheter in the visit day. We included in the study a total of 753 adult patients. Of them, 653 (86.7%) had one or more inserted catheters at the moment of the study visit (total: 797 catheters). Of all the catheters, 144 (18.0%) were central venous catheters and 653 (81.9%) were peripheral lines. The hospitalization units where the patients were admitted were ICU, 52 (6.9%); and non-ICU, 601 (92.0%). There were 183 (22.9%) catheters with no need to remain in place in the day of the study. Overall, we found 464 (71.0%) patients with one or more opportunities for catheter care improvement. A rapid survey of the care situation of intravascular catheters is feasible and easy to do with our methodology. The data show great opportunity for improvement, mainly in the non-ICU areas.

  11. Two-Piece Extraoral Prosthetic Rehabilitation to a Perineural Invasion Lip Cancer.

    PubMed

    Şahan, Makbule Heval; Eskiizmir, Görkem; Ateş, Pınar

    2016-08-12

    Lip cancers can severely affect a person in terms of function, esthetics, and psychological trauma. After surgical resection, lip defects require special rehabilitation. This clinical report describes a neck prosthesis of a male patient diagnosed with lower lip squamous cell carcinoma with perineural involvement. The neck prosthesis was connected to the mandibular complete denture with cobalt samarium magnets. Both prostheses improved the patient's mastication, deglutition, and esthetics. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. An Injectable and In Situ-Gelling Biopolymer for Sustained Drug Release Following Perineural Administration

    PubMed Central

    Shamji, Mohammed F.; Whitlatch, Lyman; Friedman, Allan H.; Richardson, William J.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Setton, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design This study evaluated whether the aggregation behavior of a thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) prolongs protein residence time at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This work involves development of a sustained-release drug delivery vehicle to provide high and sustained levels of biologic therapeutics to the dorsal root ganglion while minimizing systemic exposure. Objective To study the potential of the ELP biopolymer to sustain release and lower systemic exposure of bioactive peptides following perineural administration. Summary of Background Data Anticytokine treatment for lumbar radiculopathy may offer clinical improvement, but exposes patients to systemic toxicities of immunosuppression. ELPs are environmentally responsive polypeptides that undergo a phase transition on heating to form an insoluble aggregate. Drug conjugates with ELP exhibit both temperature-sensitivity and in vitro bioactivity. Monomer resolubilization yields solution-phase molecules, and this reversible aggregation behavior may create a perineural drug depot to sustain drug delivery to an inflamed nerve. Methods This experiment involved 48 rats in which radiolabeled ELPs (aggregating or soluble) were injected overlying the L5 dorsal root ganglion. Animals were killed at 6 different time points, and radioactivity associated with the injected segment, serum, and other tissues was evaluated. Results The aggregating ELP demonstrated a 7-fold longer perineural half-life compared with the soluble ELP. This supports the hypothesis that the aggregating ELP forms a depot from which slow resolubilization and clearance provides sustained, local protein release. Furthermore, serum radioactivity reached a lower peak for the aggregating group, demonstrating slower absorption of the aggregating protein into the systemic circulation. Conclusion These results suggest that ELP aggregation confer the benefit of perineural compartment longevity for bioactive therapeutics delivered fused

  13. Perineural fibrous thickening within the dental pulp in type 1 neurofibromatosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Curtin, J P; McCarthy, S W

    1997-10-01

    A case of type 1 neurofibromatosis is presented that illustrates oral manifestations and their role in the diagnosis of this condition. The oral lesions may be overlooked in the diagnosis of intraoral swellings. This case documents the finding of perineural fibrous thickening within the dental pulp. Such changes may indicate pulpal involvement in neurofibromatosis and the effect of a genetically transmitted disorder upon the pulp.

  14. [Advantages and disadvantages in the use of central venous catheters in children with malignant diseases].

    PubMed

    Sporisević, L; Hasanbegović, E; Hadzihasanović, E; Bajraktarević, A; Khatib, H; Hamamdzić, M

    1999-01-01

    The authors report the problem of central venous catheter appliance to the children with malignant diseases, employed for the first time in Bosnia and Herzegovina with the aim of pediatric oncologic patients treatment. During 1997 central venous catheter type Hickman was used in nine children between two and half to eleven years old (average six years and one months). The average time of catheter placement was six months, in two cases catheter were eliminated after two and three months respectively since application (spontaneous elimination and repeated septic attacks, caused bu resistant bacterial strains). Gram-positive bacteria have been isolated with eight children (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), and gram-negative enterobacteriaceae (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella oxytocia and pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Enterococcus faecalis) in samples taken from the catheter and hemoculture. The central venous catheter is useful in treating oncological patients, but may cause serious consequences, like local infections or septicaemia.

  15. Total parenteral alimentation via indwelling umbilical catheters in the newborn period.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R T; Rhodes, P G

    1976-01-01

    Total parenteral alimentation (TPA) was delivered to 80 infants via indwelling umbilical artery and to 9 via indwelling umbilical venous catheters. The primary indication for catheter placement and maintenance was monitoring of arterial blood gases (umbilical venous catheter tip in left atrium) in a group of sick neonates requiring increased inspired oxygen or assisted ventilation. Results were compared with those from 23 infants who had tunnelled jugular catheters for a variety of chronic medical and surgical problems preventing gastric or intestinal feeding. A mean weight gain was achieved in both groups. Mortality and morbidity rates were similar in both groups. The most common complications were infection and thrombotic phenomena. Metabolic complications were few. It is concluded that infusing TPA solutions via indwelling umbilical catheters presents no greater risk than infusion via tunnelled jugular catheters, and provides a method for supplying adequate caloric intake for growth during the acute stage of illness. PMID:827978

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Perineural Injection at Guyon's Tunnel: An Anatomic Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Stefan; Tinhofer, Ines; Grisold, Wolfgang; Weninger, Wolfgang J

    2015-08-01

    Compression of the ulnar nerve (UN) at the wrist causes neuropathy in the ulnar tunnel (UT), or Guyon's tunnel. In the absence of trauma and motor syndromes, primarily conservative treatment is considered. As in carpal tunnel syndrome, a perineural injection of corticosteroids may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound-guided injections at the UT. We performed ultrasound-guided injections of ink at the UN within the UT in 21 limbs from 11 non-embalmed cadavers. In all cases, we stained the perineural sheath of the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve within the UT. No ink was found inside the nerve or in adjacent structures such as blood vessels and tendons. In conclusion, perineural injection of the UN in the UT seems to be a technically feasible procedure. On the basis of these anatomic data, clinical trials are needed to prove the concept for routine use. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of perineural invasion as a prognostic factor in laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    MESOLELLA, MASSIMO; IORIO, BRIGIDA; MISSO, GABRIELLA; LUCE, AMALIA; CIMMINO, MARIANO; IENGO, MAURIZIO; LANDI, MARIO; SPERLONGANO, PASQUALE; CARAGLIA, MICHELE; RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of laryngeal cancer cells in the perineural space is a parameter associated with a negative prognosis, high loco-regional recurrence and low disease-free survival rates. The spread of tumor cells on the perineural sheath highlights the histopathological and clinically aggressive behavior of this type of tumor, which may extend proximally or distally in the nerve for >10 cm. Therefore, the surgical resection margin is generally insufficient to treat patients with laryngeal cancer presenting with perineural invasion (PNI) with surgery alone. In PNI, the minor laryngeal nerves are frequently involved, rather than the superior and inferior laryngeal nerves. The aim of the present study was: i) To evaluate the prognostic importance of PNI; ii) to correlate the rate of infiltration with factors associated with the tumor, including histotype, site and tumor-node-metastasis stage, and with the type of surgery (total or partial laryngectomy); and iii) to evaluate the rate of disease-free survival according to the outcome of combined surgery and radiotherapy (RT) treatment, by means of retrospective analysis. The results of the present study highlighted the importance of performing a closer clinical and instrumental follow-up in patients with laryngeal cancer whose histopathological examination is positive for PNI. In such cases, it is important to complement the surgical therapeutic treatment with adjuvant RT. PMID:27073523

  18. Novel polysaccharide-derived hydrogel prevents perineural adhesions in a rat model of sciatic nerve adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Michiro; Endo, Nobuyuki; Ito, Masaya; Okui, Nobuyuki; Koh, Shukuki; Kaneko, Hiroaki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the effects of a novel carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-derived hydrogel, in which phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was introduced into the carboxyl groups of CMC, for preventing perineural adhesion after extensive internal neurolysis of rat sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerves were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: the Control group, operated but no treatment; the HA group, operated and treated with 1% hyaluronan; the CMC-PE(L) group, operated and treated with low-viscosity CMC-PE hydrogel; and the CMC-PE(H) group, operated and treated with high-viscosity CMC-PE hydrogel. Perineural adhesions were evaluated at 6 weeks. Nerves were also subjected to biomechanical testing to assess ultimate breaking strength. Electrophysiological and wet muscle weight measurements were performed. Breaking strengths were significantly lower for the CMC-PE(L) group than for the Control and HA groups. Latency was significantly longer for the Control group than for the CMC-PE(L) group at 20 days. The mean percentage of wet muscle weight to body weight was significantly lower for the Control group than for the CMC-PE(L) group at 6 weeks. Low-viscosity CMC-PE hydrogel appears to prevent perineural adhesions and allow early restoration of nerve function.

  19. Suprapubic catheter care

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine bag only a few times a day. Caring for Your Skin Near your Catheter Follow these ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  20. Sinuplasty (Balloon Catheter Dilation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... development of the balloon dilating catheter and its adaptation to sinus surgery. In the 1980s, the field ... used in endoscopic sinus surgery. It is the adaptation or application of minimally-invasive balloon technology to ...

  1. Indwelling catheter care

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin care part of your daily routine. Avoid physical activity for a week or two after your catheter is placed in your bladder. Cleaning Your Skin You will need these supplies for cleaning your ...

  2. Central venous catheter - flushing

    MedlinePlus

    ... To flush your catheter, you will need: Clean paper towels Saline syringes (clear), and maybe heparin syringes (yellow) ... your fingers before washing. Dry with a clean paper towel. Set up your supplies on a clean surface ...

  3. A randomized comparison between intravenous and perineural dexamethasone for ultrasound-guided axillary block.

    PubMed

    Aliste, Julian; Leurcharusmee, Prangmalee; Engsusophon, Phatthanaphol; Gordon, Aida; Michelagnoli, Giuliano; Sriparkdee, Chonticha; Tiyaprasertkul, Worakamol; Tran, Dana Q; Van Zundert, Tom C R V; Finlayson, Roderick J; Tran, De Q H

    2017-01-01

    This randomized double-blinded trial compared the effect of intravenous and perineural dexamethasone (8 mg) on the duration of motor block for ultrasound (US)-guided axillary brachial plexus block (AXB). Patients undergoing upper limb surgery with US-guided AXB were randomly allocated to receive preservative-free dexamethasone (8 mg) via intravenous (n = 75) or perineural (n = 75) administration. The local anesthetic agent, 1% lidocaine -0.25% bupivacaine (30 mL) with epinephrine 5 µg·mL(-1), was identical in all subjects. Operators and patients were blinded to the nature of the intravenous and perineural injectate. A blinded observer assessed the block success rate (i.e., a minimal sensorimotor composite score of 14 out of 16 points at 30 min), block onset time, as well as the presence of surgical anesthesia. Postoperatively, the blinded observer contacted all patients with successful blocks to record the duration of motor block (primary outcome), sensory block, and postoperative analgesia. No intergroup differences were observed in terms of success rate, surgical anesthesia, and block onset time. Compared to intravenous administration, perineural dexamethasone provided longer mean (SD) durations for motor block [17.5 (4.6) hr vs 12.8 (4.5) hr; mean difference, 4.6 hr; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.21 to -3.08; P < 0.001], sensory block [17.7 (5.1) hr vs 13.7 (5.0) hr; mean difference, 4.0 hr; 95% CI, -5.77 to -2.27; P < 0.001], and postoperative analgesia [21.1 (4.6) hr vs 17.1 (4.6) hr; mean difference, 4.0 hr; 95% CI, -5.70 to -2.30; P < 0.001]. Compared to intravenous dosing, perineural dexamethasone (8 mg) results in longer durations of sensorimotor block and postoperative analgesia for ultrasound-guided axillary block. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT02629835.

  4. Complications Associated with Insertion of Intrauterine Pressure Catheters: An Unusual Case of Uterine Hypertonicity and Uterine Perforation Resulting in Fetal Distress after Insertion of an Intrauterine Pressure Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Kara M.

    2012-01-01

    Insertion of intrauterine pressure catheters is a routine procedure performed in labor and delivery departments, with few associated complications. There are several reports of maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with the use of intrauterine pressure catheters and their rare adverse outcomes. We report an unusual case of uterine hypertonicity resulting in fetal distress, immediately after the placement of an intrauterine pressure catheter. An emergent Cesarean section was performed for fetal distress and revealed a 5 cm vertical rent in the posterior lower uterine segment. The uterine perforation was repaired intraoperatively. Mother and infant did well and were discharged home on postoperative day four. PMID:22928133

  5. Complications associated with insertion of intrauterine pressure catheters: an unusual case of uterine hypertonicity and uterine perforation resulting in fetal distress after insertion of an intrauterine pressure catheter.

    PubMed

    Rood, Kara M

    2012-01-01

    Insertion of intrauterine pressure catheters is a routine procedure performed in labor and delivery departments, with few associated complications. There are several reports of maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with the use of intrauterine pressure catheters and their rare adverse outcomes. We report an unusual case of uterine hypertonicity resulting in fetal distress, immediately after the placement of an intrauterine pressure catheter. An emergent Cesarean section was performed for fetal distress and revealed a 5 cm vertical rent in the posterior lower uterine segment. The uterine perforation was repaired intraoperatively. Mother and infant did well and were discharged home on postoperative day four.

  6. Use of an Intrathecal Catheter for Analgesia, Anesthesia, and Therapy in an Obstetric Patient with Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gragasin, Ferrante S; Chiarella, Angelo B

    2016-03-15

    Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is a rare disorder chiefly observed in obese women of childbearing age. We describe a case of a parturient with PTCS managed successfully with an intrathecal catheter, after inadvertent dural puncture, for labor analgesia, surgical anesthesia, and treatment of headache because of intracranial hypertension during the peripartum period. Prolonged placement of the intrathecal catheter (i.e., >24 hours) may have contributed to the absence of postdural puncture headache symptoms and an uneventful postpartum period. Intrathecal catheter placement may therefore be a viable option in patients with PTCS should inadvertent dural puncture occur.

  7. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient.

  8. Fibrin sheath and its relation to subsequent events after tunneled dialysis catheter exchange.

    PubMed

    Shanaah, Almothana; Brier, Michael; Dwyer, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The use of tunneled catheters (TDC) for chronic hemodialysis is frequent and often fails due to fibrin or thrombus and infection. We hypothesized that the presence of fibrin sheath in TDC increases the risk for subsequent catheter malfunction and infection. We did a retrospective review of TDC exchanges and de novo placements from January 2005 to September 2011. Demographic data, information about the catheter procedure, and radiological data were collected. Final outcome analysis included 168 procedure events. Three groups of catheter procedures were identified: catheter exchange without a fibrin sheath (CE), catheter exchange with a treated fibrin sheath (CEF), and de novo catheter placements (DCP). Fibrin sheath incidence was 47%. In the CEF group, there was no statistical difference in the incidence of subsequent infections or dysfunctions (7% and 60%, respectively), when compared with the CE group (9% and 43%, respectively), (p=0.3). Mean time to subsequent dysfunction or infection was similar for CEF and CE (135 vs. 136 days, p-value, 0.98). Fibrin sheaths are common and should be evaluated when performing TDC exchange. If the fibrin sheath is treated, there is no increased incidence in subsequent catheter dysfunction or infection compared with patients without a fibrin sheath. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Laparoscopic versus open peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion, the LOCI-trial: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. It allows patients more freedom to perform daily activities compared to haemodialysis. Key to successful PD is the presence of a well-functioning dialysis catheter. Several complications, such as in- and outflow obstruction, peritonitis, exit-site infections, leakage and migration, can lead to catheter removal and loss of peritoneal access. Currently, different surgical techniques are in practice for PD-catheter placement. The type of insertion technique used may greatly influence the occurrence of complications. In the literature, up to 35% catheter failure has been described when using the open technique and only 13% for the laparoscopic technique. However, a well-designed randomized controlled trial is lacking. Methods/Design The LOCI-trial is a multi-center randomized controlled, single-blind trial (pilot). The study compares the laparoscopic with the open technique for PD catheter insertion. The primary objective is to determine the optimum placement technique in order to minimize the incidence of catheter malfunction at 6 weeks postoperatively. Secondary objectives are to determine the best approach to optimize catheter function and to study the quality of life at 6 months postoperatively comparing the two operative techniques. Discussion This study will generate evidence on any benefits of laparoscopic versus open PD catheter insertion. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR2878 PMID:22185091

  10. Lumbar nerve rootlet entrapment by an iatrogenically spliced percutaneous intra-thecal lumbar cerebrospinal fluid catheter.

    PubMed

    Yue, James J; Castro, Carlos A; Scott, David

    2015-01-01

    Complications associated with the use of percutaneous intra-thecal lumbar indwelling spinal catheters include infection, hematoma, neurologic dysfunction, and persistent undesired retention among others. A case of iatrogenic splicing associated with neurologic dysfunction with the use of a percutaneous intra-thecal indwelling spinal catheter is presented in this study. Single case study review. Review of case materials indicate Y pattern splicing/fragmentation of an indwelling intra-thecal catheter causing neurologic dysfunction and resistance to removal during attempted removal. Pain and weakness were evident soon after insertion of the catheter and were amplified with attempted catheter removal. Computed tomography revealed a double dot sign on axial view and a Y appearance on sagittal view. Surgical findings revealed entrapment of nerve rootlets in the axilla of the spliced catheter. Splicing/fragmentation causing neurologic dysfunction as well as catheter retention is described as a potential complication of intra-thecal indwelling cerebrospinal fluid catheters. A symptom of fragmentation of a catheter may include neurologic dysfunction including pain and weakness of a lumbar nerve root. If resistance is experienced upon attempted catheter removal, with or without associated neurologic dysfunction, further attempts at removal should not be attempted. In those cases in which pain and/or lumbar weakness are evident post catheter placement and/or following attempted removal, computed tomography should be performed. If fragmentation of a catheter is evident on CT scan, spinal surgical consultation should be obtained. Recommended spinal surgical intervention includes an open durotomy and visualization of catheter fragments and nerve rootlets and removal of catheter fragments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of strength for two continuous peripheral nerve block catheter dressings.

    PubMed

    Borg, Lindsay; Howard, Steven K; Kim, T Edward; Steffel, Lauren; Shum, Cynthia; Mariano, Edward R

    2016-10-01

    Despite the benefits of continuous peripheral nerve blocks, catheter dislodgment remains a major problem, especially in the ambulatory setting. However, catheter dressing techniques to prevent such dislodgment have not been studied rigorously. We designed this simulation study to test the strength of two commercially available catheter dressings. Using a cadaver model, we randomly assigned 20 trials to one of two dressing techniques applied to the lateral thigh: 1) clear adhesive dressing alone, or 2) clear adhesive dressing with an anchoring device. Using a digital luggage scale attached to a loop secured by the dressing, the same investigator applied steadily increasing force with a downward trajectory towards the floor until the dressing was removed or otherwise disrupted. The weight, measured (median [10th-90th percentile]) at the time of dressing disruption or removal, was 1.5 kg (1.3-1.8 kg) with no anchoring device versus 4.9 kg (3.7-6.5 kg) when the dressing included an anchoring device (P < 0.001). Based on this simulation study, using an anchoring device may help prevent perineural catheter dislodgement and therefore premature disruption of continuous nerve block analgesia.

  12. Update on Insertion and Complications of Central Venous Catheters for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bream, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheters are a popular choice for the initiation of hemodialysis or for bridging between different types of access. Despite this, they have many drawbacks including a high morbidity from thrombosis and infection. Advances in technology have allowed placement of these lines relatively safely, and national guidelines have been established to help prevent complications. There is an established algorithm for location and technique for placement that minimizes harm to the patient; however, there are significant short- and long-term complications that proceduralists who place catheters should be able to recognize and manage. This review covers insertion and complications of central venous catheters for hemodialysis, and the social and economic impact of the use of catheters for initiating dialysis is reviewed. PMID:27011425

  13. [Use of ECG-EC in the positioning of central venous catheters].

    PubMed

    Calabria, Maria; Zamboli, Pasquale; D'Amelio, Alessandro; Granata, Antonio; Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Logias, Franco; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are widely used in clinical practice for the administration of chemotherapy, parental nutrition, hemodynamic monitoring, and hemodialysis. International guidelines have defined the right internal jugular vein as the preferred site of CVC insertion and underline that accurate positioning of the catheter tip is essential to maximize the blood flow and reduce long-term complications. Endocavitary electrocardiography (EC-ECG) improves the accuracy of catheter tip positioning without increasing the placement time by the recognition of typical P wave patterns during catheter insertion:the normally shaped P wave identifies the mid to upper superior vena cava, the widest P wave may be used to place the CVC tip at the superior vena cava-right atrium junction, and biphasic P waves identify the location of the right atrium. Because of its simplicity and safety, EC-ECG should always be considered during CVC placement, especially if other means of verifying correct CVC insertion are not available.

  14. Peritoneal catheters and related infections.

    PubMed

    Thodis, Elias; Passadakis, Ploumis; Lyrantzopooulos, Nikolaos; Panagoutsos, Stelios; Vargemezis, Vassilis; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    Catheter related infectious complications (exit-site infections, tunnel infections, and peritonitis) remain the major reasons for technique failure during the three decades since, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment has been first established. Despite improvements in catheter's survival rates, catheter related complications result in an increase in the cumulative patients' morbidity and often leading to the catheter removal. The ideal catheter provides reliable and rapid dialysate flow rates without leaks or infections. Among several types, the double-cuff straight Tenckhoff catheter, developed in 1968, is still the most widely used, although its use is decreasing in favour of swanneck catheters. Although there are only few well-designed trials comparing catheters and catheters related infectious complications, controlling for all other important variables, no difference in these complications among the main types of catheters was seen. The single cuff catheters have been associated with a shorter survival rate and time to the first peritonitis episode than the double-cuff catheters. Also exit-site infections were found to be more frequent and significantly more resistant to treatment with single-cuff compared to double-cuff ones. Finally, better results have been reported with the latest developed presternal peritoneal dialysis catheter both regarding survival rates and exit-site infection and peritonitis rates. Recently a renewed interest in continuous flow peritoneal dialysis stimulated inventions of imaginative, double-lumen catheters since a suitable peritoneal access is a sine qua non condition for the development of this new technique of peritoneal dialysis.

  15. Catheter-Related Mortality among ESRD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wasse, Haimanot

    2010-01-01

    Hemodialysis access-related complications remain one of the most important sources of morbidity and cost among persons with end-stage renal disease, with total annual costs exceeding $1 billion annually. In this context, the creation and maintenance of an effective hemodialysis vascular access is essential for safe and adequate hemodialysis therapy. Multiple reports have documented the type of vascular access used for dialysis and associated risk of infection and mortality. Undoubtedly, the central venous catheter (CVC) is associated with the greatest risk of infection-related and all-cause mortality compared with the autogenous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or synthetic graft (AVG). The AVF has the lowest risk of infection, longer patency rates, greater quality of life, and lower all-cause mortality compared with the AVG or CVC. It is for these reasons that the National Kidney Foundation’s Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines for Vascular Access recommend the early placement and use of the AVF among at least 50% of incident hemodialysis patients. This report presents catheter-related mortality and calls for heightened awareness of catheter-related complications. PMID:19000119

  16. Assistive technology for ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Ikhsan, Mohammad; Tan, Kok Kiong; Putra, Andi Sudjana

    2017-04-19

    This study evaluated the existing technology used to improve the safety and ease of ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization. Electronic database searches were conducted in Scopus, IEEE, Google Patents, and relevant conference databases (SPIE, MICCAI, and IEEE conferences) for related articles on assistive technology for ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization. A total of 89 articles were examined and pointed to several fields that are currently the focus of improvements to ultrasound-guided procedures. These include improving needle visualization, needle guides and localization technology, image processing algorithms to enhance and segment important features within the ultrasound image, robotic assistance using probe-mounted manipulators, and improving procedure ergonomics through in situ projections of important information. Probe-mounted robotic manipulators provide a promising avenue for assistive technology developed for freehand ultrasound-guided percutaneous procedures. However, there is currently a lack of clinical trials to validate the effectiveness of these devices.

  17. Experience of Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter in Patients with Hematologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Fukuta, Takanori; Maruyama, Junko; Omura, Hiromi; Tanaka, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although use of the peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) has become increasingly common, there are few reports of PICCs used for patients with hematologic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the safety of PICC placement in patients with hematologic diseases where PICCs had been placed to perform blood collection, blood transfusion, drug administration, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods This study included 142 PICCs placed in 95 patients managed at our department from November 2013 to December 2015. The PICCs used were the GroshongⓇ Catheter (NXT single-lumen; BARD Inc.). Results A total of 95 patients underwent the placement of 142 PICCs. The mean patient age was 65.5 years. The total duration of catheterization was 8,089 days, with a mean duration of 57.0 days. Chemotherapy was administered through 107 catheters. Stem cells were injected through 12 catheters. Although a fever was observed in association with 103 catheters, it was generally controlled by antimicrobial therapy. There were 18 catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) cases, an incidence equivalent to 2.1 cases per 1,000 catheter-days. Conclusion The present study demonstrated a low CRBSI incidence rate and found no evidence of serious complications with PICC placement. PICCs can be used for blood collection, blood transfusion, drug administration, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without problems. Thus, PICC placement appears to be a safe procedure for patients with hematologic diseases. Safe catheters are therefore urgently needed for these patients. We expect that PICCs will be widely adopted in Japan in the near future. PMID:28202859

  18. The Survival Benefit of "Fistula First, Catheter Last" in Hemodialysis Is Primarily Due to Patient Factors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert S; Patibandla, Bhanu K; Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, Alexander S

    2017-02-01

    Patients needing hemodialysis are advised to have arteriovenous fistulas rather than catheters because of significantly lower mortality rates. However, disparities in fistula placement raise the possibility that patient factors have a role in this apparent mortality benefit. We derived a cohort of 115,425 patients on incident hemodialysis ≥67 years old from the US Renal Data System with linked Medicare claims to identify the first predialysis vascular access placed. We compared mortality outcomes in patients initiating hemodialysis with a fistula placed first, a catheter after a fistula placed first failed, or a catheter placed first (n=90,517; reference group). Of 21,436 patients with a fistula placed first, 9794 initiated hemodialysis with that fistula, and 8230 initiated dialysis with a catheter after failed fistula placement. The fistula group had the lowest mortality over 58 months (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.52; P<0.001), with mortality rates at 6, 12, and 24 months after initiation of 9%, 17%, and 31%, respectively, compared with 32%, 46%, and 62%, respectively, in the catheter group. However, the group initiating hemodialysis with a catheter after failed fistula placement also had significantly lower mortality rates than the catheter group had over 58 months (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.68; P<0.001), with mortality rates of 15%, 25%, and 42% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Thus, patient factors affecting fistula placement, even when patients are hemodialyzed with a catheter instead, may explain at least two thirds of the mortality benefit observed in patients with a fistula.

  19. [Intrathoracic migration of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Medina, Yanire; Domínguez-Báez, Jaime; Lazo-Fernández, Eglis; Pérez Del Rosario, Pedro Antonio; Zanabria-Ortiz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The intrathoracic complications from ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement are very rare. However, they are potentially serious if not treated. We report the case of thoracic migration of a peritoneal catheter after ventriculoperitoneal shunt and we also review the literature references with discussion of the different mechanisms of shunt-tip migration described. No case of previous sternotomy as in our patient has been found published. All reports recommend early catheter repositioning into the peritoneal cavity after diagnosing the migration described, to prevent worse complications. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that intrathoracic migration can happen and it is necessary to palpate the catheter continuously during passage through subcutaneous tunnelling to prevent it. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Severe hypernatremia associated catheter malposition in an intensive care patient.

    PubMed

    Silahli, Musa; Gökdemir, Mahmut; Duman, Enes; Gökmen, Zeynel

    2016-09-01

    We present a catheter related severe hypernatremia in a 2-month-old baby who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care. Imbalance of plasma sodium is commonly seen in pediatric intensive care patients. The water and sodium balance is a complex process. Especially, brain and kidneys are the most important organs that affect the water and sodium balance. Other mechanisms of the cellular structure include osmoreceptors, Na-K ATPase systems, and vasopressin. Hypernatremia is usually an iatrogenic condition in hospitalized patients due to mismanagement of water electrolyte imbalance. Central venous catheterization is frequently used in pediatric intensive care patients. Complications of central venous catheter placement still continue despite the usage of ultrasound guidance. Malposition of central venous catheter in the brain veins should be kept in mind as a rare cause of iatrogenic hypernatremia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostic errors with inserted tubes, lines and catheters in children.

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, Isabel; Taylor, George A

    2012-11-01

    Tubes and catheters are frequently used in the care of hospitalized children. Yet little is known about errors in diagnosis in commonly implanted devices in a pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and range of diagnostic errors with inserted devices in a pediatric population. During a 9-year period 142,041 cases were reviewed as part of our ongoing quality-assurance process. Of 4,084 disagreements in diagnosis encountered, 50 cases with diagnostic errors related to endovascular catheters, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and neurosurgical tubes, and pacemaker wires were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Diagnostic error was defined as a diagnosis that was unintentionally delayed, wrong or missed. These errors were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable and were graded according to potential clinical impact using a scale from 1 to 4, with 4 being the most serious. Device-related diagnostic errors accounted for 1.2% of all discrepancies identified and 10% of errors potentially leading to a change in therapy. Seventeen of the 50 diagnostic errors were related to vascular catheters (34%), including wrong anatomical location of catheter tip (12) and missed catheter fracture or migration (5). Twenty-seven errors (54%) were related to non-vascular catheters and involved enteric tube location (15), ventricular drainage catheters (7), endotracheal tubes (3) and genitourinary catheters (2). Six additional errors involved a vascular stent, endovascular cuff, needle, chest tube and epicardial wire placement (2). Device-related diagnostic errors are not frequent in complex pediatric patients. However, they can have a clinically significant impact on patient outcomes and management. High-risk situations include altered patient anatomy, poor or limited image quality, inconspicuous lines and incomplete review of prior studies.

  2. Six Month Follow-Up of a Patient With a Retained Fascia Iliaca Catheter: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Borg, Lindsay K; Kumar, Gunjan; Funck, Natasha; Tamm-Daniels, Inge; Giori, Nicholas J; Mariano, Edward R

    2017-10-05

    Retained catheters are a rare but known complication of continuous peripheral nerve block. To date there have been several case reports of retained catheters but none that include longer-term follow-up of the patient experience and outcomes. Here, we present the case of a retained fascia iliaca catheter used for analgesia after total hip arthroplasty that fractured during removal and was ultimately never retrieved. The patient initially experienced paresthesias emanating from the site of continuous peripheral nerve block catheter placement, but these issues resolved completely over several weeks. No infectious or serious sequelae were encountered during 6 months of follow-up.

  3. Bladder Morphology Using 2 Different Catheter Designs

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-10

    Urologic Injuries; Urologic Diseases; Bladder Infection; Urinary Tract Infections; Mucosal Inflammation; Mucosal Infection; Bladder Injury; Catheter-Related Infections; Catheter Complications; Catheter; Infection (Indwelling Catheter); Pelvic Floor Disorders; Urinary Incontinence

  4. Risk factors for central venous catheter-related thrombosis in children: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Agarwal, Arnav; Tassone, Maria Cristina; Shahjahan, Nadia; Walton, Mark; Chan, Anthony; Mondal, Tapas

    2016-06-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) placement is associated with increased risk of thrombosis in the paediatric population, particularly in relation to the type of catheter and the manner of its insertion. Here, we investigate risk factors associated with CVC-related thrombosis in children, with particular emphasis on positioning of the catheter tip. Patients aged 0-18 who underwent at least one CVC placement from 2008 to 2013 at a single centre with a subsequent follow-up echocardiogram were included for a total of 104 patients and 147 lines. Data on clinical and catheter-related risk factors were collected from patient charts. Statistical analysis using Pearson's χ tests, independent samples t-test, and odds ratios were used to assess potential risk factors for thrombosis. Neither insertion site (subclavian vein or otherwise), left- vs. right-sided insertion, nor catheter type were significant risk factors for thrombosis. There were no thrombotic events reported at the superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium junction and no significant differences in thrombotic risk with initial tip placement in the SVC-right atrium junction vs. the SVC, right atrium, or inferior vena cava. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was a major clinical risk factor for thrombosis. Tip movement was common and may have been an important factor in the development of CVC-related thrombi. Prospective studies can yield insight into the role of follow-up imaging in the prevention of catheter-related thrombosis in children.

  5. Percutaneous Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Insertion by a Nephrologist: A New, Simple, and Safe Technique

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hwiesh, Abdullah Khalaf

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: Insertion of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter by a nephrologist has been encouraged by several studies. The ultimate goal is to provide safe, timely, and effective catheter insertion without an unduly long wait time or delay. The success of PD depends partly on the ease of catheter insertion. We developed a new technique for percutaneous PD catheter insertion by nephrologists. Our new technique, in addition to being easy, proved to be safe and to eliminate the need for the peel-away sheath. ♦ Methods: Data were collected prospectively on all patients having a PD catheter inserted by a nephrologist using our new technique (40 catheters in 38 patients). All catheters were evaluated for infectious and mechanical complications. ♦ Results: The mean duration of the procedure from skin sterilization to the end of insertion was 24 ± 3 minutes. No bowel perforation or serious hemorrhage was recorded. Poor initial drainage was recorded in 12.5% of the catheters (n = 5) during the 4 weeks after insertion. The incidence of early exit-site leakage was 2.5% (1 catheter). Episodes of exit-site infection occurred in 5.0% and 12.5% of catheters (within 1 month and by the end of study period respectively). Two episodes of peritonitis were reported by the end of the 12-month period. Catheter survival was 95.0% and 87.5% at 6 months and 12 months respectively. ♦ Conclusions: Percutaneous bedside placement of PD catheters using our new technique is safe and carries less morbidity in terms of bowel perforation, catheter-related infection, and exit-site leak. In addition, our new technique appears to have a high success rate and to offer considerable savings in terms of operating time. PMID:24084842

  6. Automated 3D coronary sinus catheter detection using a scanning-beam digital x-ray system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerley, David A. P.; Slagowski, Jordan M.; Bodart, Lindsay E.; Speidel, Michael A.

    2017-03-01

    Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system capable of tomosynthesis-based 3D tracking of catheter electrodes concurrent with fluoroscopic display. To facilitate respiratory motion-compensated 3D catheter tracking, an automated coronary sinus (CS) catheter detection algorithm for SBDX was developed. The technique uses the 3D localization capability of SBDX and prior knowledge of the catheter shape. Candidate groups of points representing the CS catheter are obtained from a 3D shape-constrained search. A cost function is then minimized over the groups to select the most probable CS catheter candidate. The algorithm was implemented in MATLAB and tested offline using recorded image sequences of a chest phantom containing a CS catheter, ablation catheter, and fiducial clutter. Fiducial placement was varied to create challenging detection scenarios. Table panning and elevation was used to simulate motion. The CS catheter detection method had 98.1% true positive rate and 100% true negative rate in 2755 frames of imaging. Average processing time was 12.7 ms/frame on a PC with a 3.4 GHz CPU and 8 GB memory. Motion compensation based on 3D CS catheter tracking was demonstrated in a moving chest phantom with a fixed CS catheter and an ablation catheter pulled along a fixed trajectory. The RMS error in the tracked ablation catheter trajectory was 1.41 mm, versus 10.35 mm without motion compensation. A computationally efficient method of automated 3D CS catheter detection has been developed to assist with motion-compensated 3D catheter tracking and registration of 3D cardiac models to tracked catheters.

  7. Permanent arteriovenous fistula or catheter dialysis for heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Roca-Tey, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the most frequent cardiovascular disease associated with chronic kidney disease and represents a high risk for cardiovascular mortality in incident hemodialysis (HD) patients. This risk is especially high during the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation period due to the marked hemodynamic changes related to the large increase in the blood flow and also within the first 120 days after HD inception because in this period the highest mortality rate occurs. When planning the vascular access for each incident HF patient, the risk of aggravating HF after AVF creation must be evaluated carefully alongside the risk of catheter-related complications, but avoiding a non-selective 'catheter first' approach for all these patients. HF patients classified within the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class I-II and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Stage A-B could initiate HD through a distal arm AVF. High-flow brachial artery-based AVF creation must be avoided because it displays the highest risk of worsening the cardiac function. The decision for AVF creation or tunneled central catheter placement in HF patients classified within the NYHA Class III and the ACC/AHA Stage C must have been individualized according the degree of systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction. HF patients with significant reduction in systolic function (ejection fraction lower than 30%) or classified within the NYHA Class IV and the ACC/AHA Stage D, are candidates for tunneled catheter placement to start HD treatment.

  8. Perineural Injection for Treatment of Root-Signature Signs Associated with Lateralized Disk Material in Five Dogs (2009–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Giambuzzi, Sarah; Pancotto, Theresa; Ruth, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) is common in dogs; cervical IVDD accounts for 13–25% of all cases. Ventral slot decompression provides access to ventral and centrally extruded or protruded disk material. However, procedures to remove dorsally or laterally displaced material are more difficult. This case series describes the use of perineural injection as a potential treatment option for dogs experiencing root-signature signs associated with lateralized disk material in the cervical spine. Five dogs underwent fluoroscopically guided perineural injection of methylprednisolone ± bupivacaine. Most patients experienced improvement in root-signature signs and remained pain free without the assistance of oral pain medication. These findings suggest the perineural injection of methylprednisolone ± bupivacaine represents a viable option for dogs with cervical lateralized disk material causing root-signature signs. PMID:26858952

  9. Neurotoxicity of perineural vs intraneural-extrafascicular injection of liposomal bupivacaine in the porcine model of sciatic nerve block.

    PubMed

    Damjanovska, M; Cvetko, E; Hadzic, A; Seliskar, A; Plavec, T; Mis, K; Vuckovic Hasanbegovic, I; Stopar Pintaric, T

    2015-12-01

    Liposomal bupivacaine is a prolonged-release local anaesthetic, the neurotoxicity of which has not yet been determined. We used quantitative histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses to evaluate the neurotoxic effect of liposomal bupivacaine after perineural and intraneural (extrafascicular) injection of the sciatic nerve in pigs. In this double-blind prospective randomised trial, 4 ml liposomal bupivacaine 1.3% was injected either perineurally (n = 5) or intraneurally extrafascicularly (n = 5). Intraneural-extrafascicular injection of saline (n = 5) was used as a control. After emergence from anaesthesia, neurological examinations were conducted over two weeks. After harvesting the sciatic nerves, no changes in nerve fibre density or myelin width indicative of nerve injury were observed in any of the groups. Intraneural injections resulted in longer sensory blockade than perineural (p < 0.003) without persistent motor or sensory deficit. Sciatic nerve block with liposomal bupivacaine in pigs did not result in histological evidence of nerve injury.

  10. Central Venous Catheter Intravascular Malpositioning: Causes, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Correction.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Carlos J; Paniagua, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Despite the level of skill of the operator and the use of ultrasound guidance, central venous catheter (CVC) placement can result in CVC malpositioning, an unintended placement of the catheter tip in an inadequate vessel. CVC malpositioning is not a complication of central line insertion; however, undiagnosed CVC malpositioning can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this review were to describe factors associated with intravascular malpositioning of CVCs inserted via the neck and chest and to offer ways of preventing, identifying, and correcting such malpositioning. A literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and MD Consult was performed in June 2014. By searching for "Central line malposition" and then for "Central venous catheters intravascular malposition," we found 178 articles written in English. Of those, we found that 39 were relevant to our objectives and included them in our review. According to those articles, intravascular CVC malpositioning is associated with the presence of congenital and acquired anatomical variants, catheter insertion in left thoracic venous system, inappropriate bevel orientation upon needle insertion, and patient's body habitus variants. Although plain chest radiography is the standard imaging modality for confirming catheter tip location, signs and symptoms of CVC malpositioning even in presence of normal or inconclusive conventional radiography findings should prompt the use of additional diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out CVC malpositioning. With very few exceptions, the recommendation in cases of intravascular CVC malpositioning is to remove and relocate the catheter. Knowing the mechanisms of CVC malpositioning and how to prevent, identify, and correct CVC malpositioning could decrease harm to patients with this condition.

  11. Multiple Large Perineural (Tarlov) Cysts in the Sacrum of a Cadaver: A Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Joe; Topale, Nitsa; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled sacs found between the perineurium and epineurium of the nerve roots. It is still unsure whether the origin of these cysts is intradural or extradural. They can either be asymptomatic or create a variety of negative impacts on comfort and quality of life. In this case report, we describe the presentation of multiple Tarlov cysts including one large cyst discovered during a routine cadaveric spinal dissection and the relevant and related literature. To our knowledge, this is the only cadaveric case report of Tarlov cysts and offers an interesting window into their anatomy. PMID:28507828

  12. Multiple Large Perineural (Tarlov) Cysts in the Sacrum of a Cadaver: A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Jocelyn; Iwanaga, Joe; Topale, Nitsa; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-12

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled sacs found between the perineurium and epineurium of the nerve roots. It is still unsure whether the origin of these cysts is intradural or extradural. They can either be asymptomatic or create a variety of negative impacts on comfort and quality of life. In this case report, we describe the presentation of multiple Tarlov cysts including one large cyst discovered during a routine cadaveric spinal dissection and the relevant and related literature. To our knowledge, this is the only cadaveric case report of Tarlov cysts and offers an interesting window into their anatomy.

  13. A Placement Advisory Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The primary method of placement at Portland CC (PCC) is the Compass Placement test. For the most part, students are placed correctly, but there are cases when students feel that they have been placed too low. In such cases we use our newly created Placement Advisory Test (PAT) to help us place them appropriately. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. A Placement Advisory Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The primary method of placement at Portland CC (PCC) is the Compass Placement test. For the most part, students are placed correctly, but there are cases when students feel that they have been placed too low. In such cases we use our newly created Placement Advisory Test (PAT) to help us place them appropriately. (Contains 2 figures.)

  15. Job Placement Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    Designed to serve as a guide for job placement personnel, this handbook is written from the point of view of a school or job preparation facility, based on methodology applicable to the placement function in any setting. Factors identified as critical to a successful placement operation are utilization of a systems approach, establishment of…

  16. Catheter-related bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Tracie A

    2009-06-01

    Tunneled, cuffed, double-lumen catheters are commonly used for long-term venous access in hemodialysis patients. Complications of these catheters, including catheter-related infection, are a major cause of morbidity and resource utilization in the hemodialysis population. Treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections includes the use of antibiotics and evaluation of the need for catheter removal or exchange. Measures to prevent catheter-related infections include use of an aseptic technique and antiseptic cleaning solution, elimination of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, topical exit site application of antibiotics, use of antibiotic lock solutions, and use of catheters and cuffs coated or impregnated with antimicrobial or antiseptic agents. This review article will provide an update on the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of catheter-related infections in the hemodialysis population.

  17. Balloon Catheter Prevents Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginson, Gregory A.; Bouffard, Marc R.; Hoehicke, Beth S.; King, Bradley D.; Peterson, Sandra L.

    1994-01-01

    Balloon catheter similar to that used in such medical procedures as angioplasty and heart surgery protects small orifices against contamination and blockage by chips generated in machining operations. Includes small, inflatable balloon at end of thin, flexible tube. Contains additional features adapting it to anticontamination service: balloon larger to fit wider channel it must block; made of polyurethane (rather than latex), which does not fragment if bursts; material made thicker to resist abrasion better; and kink-resistant axial wire helps catheter negotiate tight bends.

  18. Balloon Catheter Prevents Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginson, Gregory A.; Bouffard, Marc R.; Hoehicke, Beth S.; King, Bradley D.; Peterson, Sandra L.

    1994-01-01

    Balloon catheter similar to that used in such medical procedures as angioplasty and heart surgery protects small orifices against contamination and blockage by chips generated in machining operations. Includes small, inflatable balloon at end of thin, flexible tube. Contains additional features adapting it to anticontamination service: balloon larger to fit wider channel it must block; made of polyurethane (rather than latex), which does not fragment if bursts; material made thicker to resist abrasion better; and kink-resistant axial wire helps catheter negotiate tight bends.

  19. Acute mediastinitis due to extravasation of parenteral nutritional formula via a central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Marín, Miguel Ruiz; Rodríguez, Maria Encarnación Tamayo; Buleje, Jorge Alejandro Benavides; Valverde, Francisco Miguel González; Martínez, Marcelino Méndez; Pérez, Patricia Pastor; Ruiz, María Vicente; Rodríguez, Ana Ruiz; Sales, Alejandro Puerta; Rodríguez, Pedro Marín; Blázquez, Antonio Albarracín Marín

    2012-07-01

    Mediastinitis is a complication generally associated with thoracic surgery. Its occurrence after placement of a central venous catheter is uncommon, and only a few cases have been reported. An 83-year-old man who had mediastinitis due to extravasation of parenteral nutritional formula via a central venous catheter is presented. The signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of this unusual complication are described. This complication should be included in the differential diagnosis of mediastinitis in patients with a central venous catheter in place who have not had thoracic surgery.

  20. Small bowel injury after suprapubic catheter insertion presenting 3 years after initial insertion

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kevin M; Good, Daniel W; Brush, John P; Al-hasso, Ammar; Stewart, Grant D

    2013-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred to urology with blockages of her suprapubic catheter (SPC). The catheter was replaced easily in the emergency department, however, no urine was draining, only a cloudy green fluid was visible. On cystoscopy bilious material was identified in the bladder. There was no catheter visible. There seemed to be a fistulous tract entering the bladder at the left dome. The urethra was dilated, a urethral catheter was placed and the SPC was removed. A CT demonstrated that the SPC tract transfixed a loop of pelvic small bowel and entered the bladder with no intraperitoneal contrast leak. The patient recovered well and did not require laparotomy. This case emphasises that bowel perforation, although rare, must be considered as a complication of SPC placement even years after initial insertion when catheter problems arise. Unusually, we learn that this complication may not present with abdominal pain or peritonism. PMID:24326435

  1. Multiple Coaxial Catheter System for Reliable Access in Interventional Stroke Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcsar, Zsolt Yilmaz, Hasan; Bonvin, Christophe; Lovblad, Karl O.; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.

    2010-12-15

    In some patients with acute cerebral vessel occlusion, navigating mechanical thrombectomy systems is difficult due to tortuous anatomy of the aortic arch, carotid arteries, or vertebral arteries. Our purpose was to describe a multiple coaxial catheter system used for mechanical revascularization that helps navigation and manipulations in tortuous vessels. A triple or quadruple coaxial catheter system was built in 28 consecutive cases presenting with acute ischemic stroke. All cases were treated by mechanical thrombectomy with the Penumbra System. In cases of unsuccessful thrombo-aspiration, additional thrombolysis or angioplasty with stent placement was used for improving recanalization. The catheter system consisted of an outermost 8-Fr and an intermediate 6-Fr guiding catheter, containing the inner Penumbra reperfusion catheters. The largest, 4.1-Fr, reperfusion catheter was navigated over a Prowler Select Plus microcatheter. The catheter system provided access to reach the cerebral lesions and provided stability for the mechanically demanding manipulations of thromboaspiration and stent navigation in all cases. Apart from their mechanical role, the specific parts of the system could also provide access to different types of interventions, like carotid stenting through the 8-Fr guiding catheter and intracranial stenting and thrombolysis through the Prowler Select Plus microcatheter. In this series, there were no complications related to the catheter system. In conclusion, building up a triple or quadruple coaxial system proved to be safe and efficient in our experience for the mechanical thrombectomy treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

  2. Malignant ascites in patients with terminal cancer is effectively treated with permanent peritoneal catheter

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Frank V.; Madsen, Hans Henrik Torp

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant ascites is a pathological condition caused by intra- or extra-abdominal disseminated cancer. The object of treatment is palliation. In search of an effective and minimally invasive palliative treatment of malignant ascites placement of a permanent intra peritoneal catheter has been suggested. Purpose To evaluate our experiences with treatment of malignant ascites by implantation of a permanent PleurX catheter. Material and Methods A retrospective study was conducted, comprising 20 consecutive patients with terminal cancer, who had a permanent PleurX catheter implanted because of malignant ascites in the period from February to November 2014. Using the patients’ medical records, we retrieved data on patients and procedures. Results The technical success rate was 100%. Catheter patency was 95.2%, one catheter was removed due to dislocation. Ten patients (50.0%) experienced minor adverse events. No procedural difficulties were reported and there was no need for additional treatment of malignant ascites after catheter implantation. Median residual survival after catheter implantation was 27 days. Conclusion Implantation of a permanent PleurX catheter is a minimally invasive and effective procedure with only minor adverse events and a high rate of catheter patency in patients with malignant ascites caused by terminal cancer disease. PMID:26346641

  3. REcanalisation and Balloon-Oriented Puncture for Re-Insertion of Dialysis Catheter in Nonpatent Central Veins (REBORN).

    PubMed

    Too, Chow Wei; Sayani, Raza; Lim, Elvin Yuan Ting; Leong, Sum; Gogna, Apoorva; Teo, Terence K

    2016-08-01

    To describe a technique involving REcanalisation and Balloon-Oriented puncture for Re-insertion of dialysis catheter in Nonpatent central veins (REBORN) and to report long-term results. This is a retrospective study of ten subjects in whom dialysis catheters were inserted using the REBORN technique from March 2012 to October 2014 and followed up till April 2016. Data on the duration of catheter usage, complications and reasons for removal were obtained. Seven patients had partially occluded lower internal jugular veins (IJV) recanalised in an antegrade fashion via a more cranial puncture. The balloon was then inflated at usual puncture site with an 18G needle. The collapsed balloon was cannulated with a guide wire, and both balloon and guide wire were advanced together into the superior vena cava. This was followed by tunnelled catheter placement using standard techniques. Two patients had catheters placed in the subclavian vein using a similar antegrade technique, and one patient had catheter placed via the left IJV following retrograde recanalisation from a right femoral puncture. Mean duration of catheter use was 278 days (range 32-503). Three catheters were removed due to matured arteriovenous accesses. Four patients had successful catheter change over the same subcutaneous track due to catheter malfunction. One catheter was removed after 7 months because of sepsis. No complications were reported. The REBORN technique allows for the preservation of central veins for future haemodialysis access, which can be challenging in patients requiring long-term dialysis.

  4. Restoration of patency in failing tunneled hemodialysis catheters: a comparison of catheter exchange, exchange and balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath, and femoral stripping.

    PubMed

    Janne d'Othée, Bertrand; Tham, Jacques C; Sheiman, Robert G

    2006-06-01

    To compare median patency times after treatment of malfunctioning tunneled hemodialysis catheters by one of three techniques: over-the-wire catheter exchange (CE), fibrin sheath stripping (FSS) from a femoral vein approach, and over-the-wire catheter removal with balloon dilation of fibrin sheath (DFS) followed by catheter replacement with use of the same tract. Retrospective study was conducted of 66 consecutive procedures performed over a period of 47 months for poor flow through tunneled hemodialysis catheters despite tissue plasminogen activator infusion trials (CE, n=33; FSS, n=18; DFS, n=15). Baseline parameters (time since initial catheter placement, number of previous catheter interventions, catheter access site, and patient age and sex) were recorded to identify possible pretreatment differences among groups. Outcome comparison was based on duration of adequate catheter function on dialysis during follow-up. No significant differences in baseline parameters were identified among the three groups (P>.05). Mean follow-up duration (67+/-89 days; range, 0-398 d) was similar among the three groups. The immediate technical success rate was 100%, and there were no complications. Cumulative catheter patency rates were 73% (CE), 72% (FSS), and 65% (DFS) at 1 month; 43% (CE), 60% (FSS), and 39% (DFS) at 3 months; and 28% (CE), 45% (FSS), and 39% (DFS) at 6 months. Median duration of patency was similar among groups (P=.60). All three therapies were equivalent in terms of immediate technical success, complication rates, and durability of catheter function during later follow-up. Hence, when one technique is chosen over another, factors other than the period of secondary patency should be considered, such as cost and patient and physician preference.

  5. A randomized trial comparing conventional swan-neck straight-tip catheters to straight-tip catheters with an artificial subcutaneous swan neck.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiu-Leong; Cui, Tai-Gen; Gan, Hong-Bing; Cheung, Kin; Lio, Weng-In; Kuok, Un-I

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of inserting a straight-tip Tenckhoff catheter configured with a subcutaneous artificial swan neck. Clinical outcomes of conventional swan-neck straight-tip catheters and Tenckhoff straight-tip catheters implanted with an artificial subcutaneous swan neck were compared in a prospective randomized controlled trial in a single-center setting. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion were randomized to receive either a double-cuff straight-tip Tenckhoff catheter with an artificial subcutaneous swan-neck (TC) or a conventional double-cuff straight-tip swan-neck catheter (SN). The primary outcome was catheter exit-site infection rate; the secondary outcomes were catheter-related mechanical events and surgery-related bleeding. A total of 39 consecutive patients were enrolled: 20 into the TC group and 19 into the SN group. More exit-site infections were observed in the SN group than in the TC group, although the difference was not statistically significant (0.97 vs 0.51 episodes per patient-year, p = 0.0657). However, there were more peritonitis episodes in the TC group than in the SN group (0.35 vs 0.15 episodes per patient-year, p = 0.0256). Exit-site and main wound bleeding post surgery were generally mild and similar in the 2 groups. No events of dialysate leakage, catheter tip migration, or subcutaneous cuff protrusion were observed in patients of either group. Outflow failure due to mechanical causes occurred in 2 patients in the TC group and in 1 patient in the SN group during the intermittent peritoneal dialysis period; all were corrected successfully by laparoscopic omentectomy. Placement of the double-cuff straight-tip Tenckhoff catheter configured with an artificial subcutaneous swan neck appears to be an effective and safe procedure. It may be a good alternative to the conventional swan-neck catheter.

  6. Initial experience with a multielectrode catheter equipped with the single-axis sensor technology for high-density electroanatomical mapping in a swine model.

    PubMed

    Beinart, Roy; Perna, Francesco; Danik, Stephan; Barrett, Conor D; Heist, E Kevin; Ruskin, Jeremy; Mansour, Moussa

    2010-12-01

    magnetic-based electroanatomical mapping systems are widely used during catheter ablation. Currently, the size of the sensor incorporated in the catheter to allow its localization is large, prohibiting the placement of more than one sensor on any single catheter. As a result, multielectrode catheters cannot be tracked by the magnetic-based mapping systems. Single-axis sensors (SAS) are new generation sensors that are significantly smaller in size. The small size of these new sensors allows the placement of more than one sensor on each catheter, allowing the tracking of multielectrode catheters. The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of creating high-density magnetic electroanatomical maps using a new generation multielectrode catheter equipped with the SAS technology. anatomical reconstruction of cardiac chambers and the aorta, together with activation mapping of the right atrium during both sinus rhythm and pacing-induced premature atrial contractions (PACs), were performed in 5 swine using both a conventional mapping catheter and the novel multielectrode catheter equipped with SAS. The multielectrode mapping provided a detailed definition of cardiac anatomy while requiring shorter acquisition times. In addition, mapping of PACs origin was significantly faster using the multielectrode catheter. the novel multielectrode catheter equipped with the SAS technology can be used in combination with magnetic electroanatomical mapping systems to generate high-density anatomical reconstructions and activation maps.

  7. Transcortical Transventricular Endoscopic Approach and Ommaya Reservoir Placement for Cystic Craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dhaval

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of craniopharyngioma is varied. It ranges from radical excision to direct radiotherapy. As the morbidity of excision is high, more conservative approaches are used. Placement of a catheter and reservoir is one such option for cystic craniopharyngiomas. The positioning of catheters has been performed by various means. A method of endoscopic reservoir catheter placement is described. Three children with ages ranging from 5 to 12 years presented with clinical features of raised intracranial pressure. They did not have vision impairment. Imaging showed a predominantly cystic craniopharyngioma extending into the third ventricle with hydrocephalus. All underwent precoronal burr hole, transcortical transventricular endoscopic biopsy of craniopharyngioma, and Ommaya reservoir placement. There were no complications. All children did well after surgery and did not require further cyst aspiration.

  8. Intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Walavan; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cutler, Aaron; Couldwell, William T

    2014-06-01

    Although most patients with intracranial hypotension typically present with headaches, the rest of the clinical spectrum is characteristically non-specific and often quite variable. In a patient with concurrent pathologies that can produce a similar clinical picture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to achieve the correct diagnosis. The authors report a patient with intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 63-year-old woman with a family history of ruptured intracranial aneurysms presented after a sudden thunderclap headache and was found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging revealed anterior communicating and superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms. Following the uneventful clipping of both aneurysms, the patient experienced a delayed return to her neurological baseline. After it was noted that the patient had an improved neurological examination when she was placed supine, further investigation confirmed intracranial hypotension from perineural cyst rupture. The patient improved and returned to her neurological baseline after undergoing a high-volume blood patch and remained neurologically intact at postoperative follow-up. Although intracranial hypotension is known to be commonly associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak, its causal and temporal relationship with subarachnoid hemorrhage has yet to be elucidated.

  9. Evaluation of the association between perineural invasion and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, You-Sheng; Yao, De-Sheng; Long, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) has been investigated as a new prognostic factor in a number of carcinomas. However, studies on PNI in cervical cancer are limited, and inconsistent conclusions have been reported by different groups. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between perineural invasion (PNI) and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer, and to evaluate the clinical significance of PNI of cervical cancer. Retrospective review identified 206 patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy between December 2012 and August 2014. The association between PNI and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer and post-operative radiotherapy was evaluated based on univariate and multivariate analyses. PNI of cervical cancer was identified in 33 of 206 (16%) cervical cancer patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated that PNI was associated with clinical stage, tumor grade, tumor size, depth of invasion, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), but not associated with age and histopathological types (P>0.05). Multivariate analysis suggests that LVSI and lymph node metastasis were associated with PNI of cervical cancer (P<0.05). In addition, post-operative radiotherapy was significantly more recommended for patients with PNI than those without PNI (P<0.001). In conclusion, PNI of cervical cancer is associated with LVSI and lymph node metastasis and can be used as an index for the determination of post-operative radiotherapy for cervical cancer patients.

  10. A survey of the use of arterial catheters in anesthetized dogs and cats: 267 cases.

    PubMed

    Trim, Cynthia M; Hofmeister, Erik H; Quandt, Jane E; Shepard, Molly K

    2017-01-01

    To describe the clinical practice of insertion of arterial catheters in anesthetized dogs and cats, to document complications of arterial catheterization, and to determine risk factors associated with the complications. Prospective clinical study and retrospective evaluation of medical records. University teaching hospital. Dogs (n = 251) and 13 cats anesthetized for clinical procedures with arterial catheters inserted for blood pressure monitoring. None. Details of the animal and catheter were collected at the time of anesthesia. On the following day, the catheter site was palpated and observed for abnormalities and the medical records of all animals were reviewed retrospectively for complications. Details of catheter placement were available for 216 catheters: 158 catheters in a dorsal pedal artery, 50 catheters in the median caudal (coccygeal) artery, 6 in the median artery, and 1 each in a cranial tibial and lingual artery. Blood pressure was obtained from 200 catheters, and 12 catheters failed before the end of anesthesia. Postoperative observational data obtained from 112 catheters described a palpable arterial pulse at 73 sites and no pulse at 21 sites. No risk factor for arterial occlusion was identified. No complications resulting from arterial catheterization were noted in the medical records. Arterial catheterization resulted in loss of a peripheral pulse postoperatively in 21/94 (22.3%) of animals examined, although no evidence of tissue ischemia was noted in the medical records of any of the patients in this study. These results suggest that insertion of a catheter in the dorsal pedal or coccygeal arteries was not associated with a high risk for complications. However, the course of arterial occlusion postoperatively warrants further investigation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  11. The Swan-Ganz catheters: past, present, and future. A viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kanu

    2009-01-06

    The Swan-Ganz balloon flotation catheter was introduced in 1970. It can be placed at the bedside within a few minutes even in critically ill patients. Although placement of these catheters is not difficult, some training and experience are required to avoid complications and for proper interpretation of the hemodynamic data that can be obtained by pulmonary artery catheterization. Because of the many advantages of balloon flotation catheters compared with conventional catheters, they have been used without a proper indication and frequently overused in critical care units, resulting in many complications, including mortality. The prospective randomized trials have reported that in the majority of clinical circumstances, the routine use of balloon flotation catheters is not indicated. These results are not surprising because balloon flotation catheters are diagnostic and not therapeutic tools. That we have learned a great deal about hemodynamics in critically ill patients with the use of balloon flotation catheters should not be ignored or forgotten. Furthermore, our clinical knowledge of hemodynamics has been made possible because of extensive experience gained from directly determined hemodynamics with the use of balloon flotation catheters. It should also be realized that despite the introduction and refinement of newer noninvasive imaging modalities, a number of clinical circumstances exist in which determination of hemodynamics with the use of a balloon flotation catheter is necessary and should be considered, but only by experienced physicians. With the proper use of Swan-Ganz catheters, our knowledge of hemodynamics has been enhanced considerably. Its abuse, particularly by relatively inexperienced operators, has resulted in serious complications, including death. Prospective randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that the routine use of Swan-Ganz catheters does not provide any benefit. However, use of the Swan-Ganz catheter is still indicated in many

  12. Abduction of Arm Facilitates Correction of Kinked Peel-Away Sheath During Subclavian Central Line Placement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghoon

    2015-12-01

    A tunneled central line catheter placement using a subclavian vein approach can be complicated by an occurrence of peel-away sheath kink which prevents the advancement of the catheter through the sheath. The kink is created due to the angular junction of subclavian and brachiocephalic veins which meet at 90 degree angle. A technique is described which corrects the peel-away sheath kink by extending the subclavian/brachiocephalic vein angle to greater than 90 degrees by abducting the patient's arm.

  13. Accuracy of Novel Computed Tomography-Guided Frameless Stereotactic Drilling and Catheter System in Human Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sankey, Eric W; Butler, Eric; Sampson, John H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate accuracy of a computed tomography (CT)-guided frameless stereotactic drilling and catheter system. A prospective, single-arm study was performed using human cadaver heads to evaluate placement accuracy of a novel, flexible intracranial catheter and stabilizing bone anchor system and drill kit. There were 20 catheter placements included in the analysis. The primary endpoint was accuracy of catheter tip location on intraoperative CT. Secondary endpoints included target registration error and entry and target point error before and after drilling. Measurements are reported as mean ± SD (median, range). Target registration error was 0.46 mm ± 0.26 (0.50 mm, -1.00 to 1.00 mm). Two (10%) target point trajectories were negatively impacted by drilling. Intracranial catheter depth was 59.8 mm ± 9.4 (60.5 mm, 38.0-80.0 mm). Drilling angle was 22° ± 9 (21°, 7°-45°). Deviation between planned and actual entry point on CT was 1.04 mm ± 0.38 (1.00 mm, 0.40-2.00 mm). Deviation between planned and actual target point on CT was 1.60 mm ± 0.98 (1.40 mm, 0.40-4.00 mm). No correlation was observed between intracranial catheter depth and target point deviation (accuracy) (Pearson coefficient 0.018) or between technician experience and accuracy (Pearson coefficient 0.020). There was no significant difference in accuracy with trajectories performed for different cadaver heads (P = 0.362). Highly accurate catheter placement is achievable using this novel flexible catheter and bone anchor system placed via frameless stereotaxy, with an average deviation between planned and actual target point of 1.60 mm ± 0.98 (1.40 mm, 0.40-4.00 mm). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspective on the management of catheter-related infections in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hiemenz, J; Skelton, J; Pizzo, P A

    1986-01-01

    The risk of infectious complications ranges from 9 to 80% depending on patient population and definition of catheter-related infection. In the vast majority of these patients, those infections can be treated successfully without catheter removal. The major exceptions to this guideline are patients with significant exit site or tunnel infections or with fungal isolates. Because the majority of those infections are caused by Gram-positive organisms such as S. epidermidis or S. aureus that have variable sensitivities to the antistaphylococcal penicillins, intravenous vancomycin along with gentamicin should be administered empirically until culture results are available. It appears to be unnecessary to remove the Silastic catheter automatically just because the patient is febrile, particularly if there is no microbiological evidence that the catheter is the source of the fever. Quantitative blood cultures drawn through the catheter and from a peripheral vein may lead to a better understanding of the role the catheter plays in the septic episodes in these patients but has yet to be definitive in identifying patients who absolutely require catheter removal to cure their infection. Surveillance cultures have not proved helpful in defining an "at risk" group for catheter-related infection and, due to cost and possible added risk of inducing an infectious complication, should not be routinely performed outside of an investigational setting. Instruction of patients in proper catheter care both before and after placement is of critical importance. To date there is no proved standard of catheter care and maintenance. There is a need for careful investigation in this area. We recommend that routine handling of the catheter be done with aseptic technique, which usually requires use of Betadine swabs when manipulating the catheter tip and use of a sterile dressing (e.g. E. Med IV Strip) or Op-Site (a transparent occlusive dressing) at the exit site. Continued dressings with

  15. Percutaneous Fibrin Gel Injection under C-Arm Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Minimally Invasive Choice for Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Qiu, QuanHe; Hao, Jie; Zhang, XiaoJun; Shui, Wei; Hu, ZhenMing

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are a common cause of chronic pain. Surgery is one choice for symptom relief but has a high risk of cyst recurrence and complications. As a simple and safe method to manage symptomatic sacral perineural cysts, C-arm fluoroscopy-guided fibrin gel injection may represent a new minimally invasive alternative. To evaluate the efficacy of this new method, we conducted a retrospective study of 42 patients. Methods and Findings From June 2009 to August 2012, a total of 42 patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts underwent C-arm fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous fibrin gel injection therapy. Patient outcomes in terms of improvements in pain and neurologic function were evaluated during a follow-up period of 13–39 months. The preoperative and postoperative pain severity were assessed according to a 10-cm visual analog pain scale, and imaging changes were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. We also assessed postoperative complications. Most patients experienced benefit from the procedure: twenty-five patients (59.5%) reported excellent recovery, eleven (26.2%) reported good recovery, three (7.1%) reported fair recovery, and three (7.1%) reported poor recovery. The overall effectiveness rate (excellent and good recoveries) was 85.7%. No serious postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion Percutaneous fibrin gel injection under C-arm fluoroscopy guidance could be a simple, safe and effective treatment option for symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. PMID:25706639

  16. Combined approaches to the skull base for intracranial extension of tumors via perineural spread can improve patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Palejwala, Sheri K; Barry, Jonnae Y; Rodriguez, Crystal N; Parikh, Chandni A; Goldstein, Stephen A; Lemole, G Michael

    2016-11-01

    Many neoplasms of the head and neck extend centripetally, gaining access to the central nervous system via nerves through the skull base foramina. Often patients with perineural spread have been excluded from aggressive interventions given the overall poor prognosis and technical difficulty when addressing the perineural components. However, in carefully selected patients combined surgical approaches can provide the greatest potential for disease control as well as neural decompression for symptom relief. We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients who underwent skull base approaches for resection of tumors with intracranial extension via perineural spread from 2011 to 2014. Patients were evaluated for symptom change, surgical approaches, histopathology, adjuvant therapy, outcome, and prognosis. The most common presenting symptoms were pain or cranial nerve palsies. 55% of patients underwent endoscopic endonasal approaches, 50% transcranial approaches, and 15% underwent transfacial approaches. Overall 85% of patients reported symptom improvement in the post-operative period while 40% were completely asymptomatic following surgical resection. Ultimately, we observed a 45% mortality rate with an average survival of 8 months after diagnosis. In carefully selected patients, an aggressive multidisciplinary approach using a combination of surgical avenues to the skull base for the treatment of intracranial tumor via perineural extension can improve patient quality of life.

  17. The effects of free fat grafts on the stiffness of the rat sciatic nerve and perineural scar.

    PubMed

    Dumanian, G A; McClinton, M A; Brushart, T M

    1999-01-01

    We developed a new quantitative rat sciatic nerve model to test whether free fat grafts can reduce postoperative perineural scar formation. Epineurectomies of sciatic nerves were performed to create scar. The force required to distract the nerve a unit distance was measured after surgery to determine the time of maximal scar formation. Nerve stiffness normalized for rat weight was statistically greater at 2 months after the initial dissection (0.097+/-0.009 g/mm/g rat weight; n = 10 limbs) than rat limbs that had not undergone a previous dissection (0.075+/-0.012 g/mm/g rat weight). Perineural scar thickness was thicker at 2 months than the perineural tissue in preoperative controls. Free fat grafts decreased nerve stiffness at 2 months (0.078+/-0.012 g/mm/g rat weight) in comparison to the contralateral surgical control limb without a fat graft (0.094+/-0.014 g/mm/g rat weight). Free fat grafts reduced the strength of postoperative perineural scar in this surgical model; however, they were associated with an unexpected finding of substantial postoperative neuropathy.

  18. Three-dimensional volume-rendered multidetector CT imaging of the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery: its anatomy and role in diagnosing extrapancreatic perineural invasion

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, Craig; Brooke Jeffrey, R.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Olcott, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Extrapancreatic perineural spread in pancreatic adenocarcinoma contributes to poor outcomes, as it is known to be a major contributor to positive surgical margins and disease recurrence. However, current staging classifications have not yet taken extrapancreatic perineural spread into account. Four pathways of extrapancreatic perineural spread have been described that conveniently follow small defined arterial pathways. Small field of view three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images allow visualization of small peripancreatic vessels and thus perineural invasion that may be associated with them. One such vessel, the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (PIPDA), serves as a surrogate for extrapancreatic perineural spread by pancreatic adenocarcinoma arising in the uncinate process. This pictorial review presents the normal and variant anatomy of the PIPDA with 3D volume-rendered MDCT imaging, and emphasizes its role as a vascular landmark for the diagnosis of extrapancreatic perineural invasion from uncinate adenocarcinomas. Familiarity with the anatomy of PIPDA will allow accurate detection of extrapancreatic perineural spread by pancreatic adenocarcinoma involving the uncinate process, and may potentially have important staging implications as neoadjuvant therapy improves. PMID:24434918

  19. Ultrasound guidance for distal insertion of ventriculo-atrial shunt catheters: technical note.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Sameer A; McGirt, Matthew; Woodworth, Graeme; Wang, Paul; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2009-04-01

    Ventriculo-atrial (VA) shunts are often used for CSF diversion in situations involving abdominal pathology that preclude the use of ventriculo-peritoneal shunts. Distal (venous) catheters of VA shunts have historically been inserted using a cut-down on the internal jugular vein (IJV). Less invasive placement of atrial catheters may minimize operative times and attenuate post-operative incisional discomfort. We describe a method for atrial catheter placement using ultrasound guidance to visualize the IJV and facilitate percutaneous venous puncture in 17 adult patients (23 total insertions) undergoing treatment for hydrocephalus or pseudotumor cerebri. The IJV and carotid artery were visualized by ultrasound in 23 (100%) cases. Venous penetration and successful atrial catheter placement was achieved on the first attempt in 23 (100%) cases. Pneumothorax, carotid artery puncture or need for venous cut-down occurred in no cases. The utilization of ultrasound guidance for distal VA shunt catheter insertion may increase comfort with this procedure and ultimately decrease complication rate and operative time.

  20. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava Identified During Central Line Placement: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Wassim H.; Birchard, Katherine R.; Yankaskas, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A persistent left superior vena cava is found in 0.3–0.5% of the general population and in up to 10% of patients with a congenital cardiac anomaly. It is the most common thoracic venous anomaly and is usually asymptomatic. Being familiar with such anomaly could help clinicians avoid complications during placement of central lines, Swan-Ganz catheters, PICC lines, dialysis catheters, defibrillators, and pacemakers. Case Presentation We describe a case of persistent left superior vena cava that was noted after placement of a central line. Mr JJ is a 41 year old African American man who was hospitalized for evaluation and management of alcoholic necrotizing pancreatitis. He required multiple central lines placements. He was noted to have a persistent left superior vena cava that was not recognized initially and thus lead to an unnecessary extra central line placement. Discussion This anatomic variant may pose iatrogenic risks if it is not recognized by the clinician. A central catheter that tracks down the left mediastinal border may also be in the descending aorta, internal thoracic vein, superior intercostal vein, pericardiophrenic vein, pleura, pericardium, or mediastinum. Conclusion Our case is significant because the patient had two extra central venous catheter placements. This case strongly demonstrates the importance of knowing the thoracic venous anomalies. PMID:22121390

  1. Cardiac Perforation and Tamponade During Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement

    SciTech Connect

    McCowan, Timothy C.; Hummel, Michael M.; Schmucker, Tracey; Goertzen, Timothy C.; Culp, William C.; Habbe, Thomas G.

    2000-07-15

    A patient developed acute severe hemodynamic compromise during a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure for intractable ascites. Rapid clinical and radiographic evaluation of the patient disclosed pericardial blood and cardiac tamponade as the cause, probably due to right heart perforation from guidewire and catheter manipulation. The tamponade was successfully treated percutaneously, and the patient survived. Cardiac tamponade should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who develop hypotension during TIPS placement.

  2. The use of HeRo catheter in catheter-dependent dialysis patients with superior vena cava occlusion.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathryn L; Gurley, John C; Davenport, Daniel L; Xenos, Eleftherios S

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients with superior vena cava (SVC) occlusion have limited access options. Femoral access is commonly employed but is associated with high complication rates. Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) catheters can be used in tunneled catheter-dependent (TCD) patients who have exhausted other access options. The HeRO graft bypasses occlusion and traverses stenosis with outflow directly into the central venous circulation. At our institution we have used the inside-out central venous access technique (IOCVA) to traverse an occluded vena cava for HeRO graft placement. We review our experience with this technique. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with HeRO graft placement at our institution. All were dependent on a tunneled femoral dialysis catheter due to central venous occlusion (CVO). The IOCVA technique was used in each case. This technique was used as last resort for patients who had no other dialysis access option. Demographics, patency rates, complications, and mortality were recorded. A total of 11 HeRO grafts were placed in 11 patients from January 2012 to June 2013, with 100% technical success rate. Three grafts were ligated due to steal syndrome. Two grafts were lost due to thrombosis. Five of 11 patients experienced a 30-day complication. Three patients died within the follow-up period; however, none were directly related to the graft placement. Follow up range was 65-573 days; 5 of 11 grafts were used for dialysis at the end of the follow-up period. The 12-month patency rate was 30%. HeRO grafts are one option for dialysis patients with CVO. There is, however, a high incidence of steal syndrome and other complications. These grafts should be offered as a final potential alternative to catheter dependence.

  3. Catheter associated urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

  4. Electrifying catheters with light.

    PubMed

    Pekař, Martin; van Rens, Jeannet; van der Mark, Martin B

    2017-04-17

    Smart minimally invasive devices face a connectivity challenge. An example is found in intracardiac echocardiography where the signal transmission and supply of power at the distal end require many thin and fragile wires in order to keep the catheter slim and flexible. We have built a fully functional bench-top prototype to demonstrate that electrical wires may be replaced by optical fibers. The prototype is immediately scalable to catheter dimensions. The absence of conductors will provide intrinsic galvanic isolation as well as radio frequency (RF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility. Using optical fibers, we show signal transfer of synthetic aperture ultrasound images as well as photo-voltaic conversion to supply all electronics. The simple design utilizes only off the shelf components and holds a promise of cost effectiveness which may be pivotal for translation of these advanced devices into the clinic.

  5. Review of the Management of Peroral Extrusion of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Catheter.

    PubMed

    Ghritlaharey, Rajendra Kumar

    2016-11-01

    ; (b) removal of entire VPS catheter, and delayed re-VPS n=5; (c) removal of peritoneal catheter with or without External Ventricular Drainage (EVD), and revision of peritoneal catheter n=3; (d) removal of peritoneal catheter, with or without EVD, and VA shunt n=3; (e) removal of peritoneal catheter, EVD and delayed re-VPS n=2; (f) removal of entire VPS catheter, EVD and delayed re-VPS n=2; (g) removal of peritoneal catheter, EVD and others n=2. Two deaths are also reported during the management of peroral extrusion of VPS catheter. Peroral extrusion of peritoneal part of VPS catheter is an extremely rare complication following VPS insertion, and most frequently observed in children, although also reported in adults. In more than two-third of the cases it occurred within one-year of the VPS placement or last shunts revision, so a close follow-up is a must during this period following VPS placement. Management of such a case depends upon many factors such as presence or absence of shunt tract infection, peritonitis, meningitis, and cerebro spinal fluid infection.

  6. Pain and dysphagia in patients with squamous carcinomas of the head and neck: the role of perineural spread.

    PubMed

    Carter, R L; Pittam, M R; Tanner, N S

    1982-08-01

    Clinical and pathological features of perineural spread have been investigated in patients with squamous carcinomas at several sites in the head and neck. In 100 surgical cases, the clinical and pathological findings were congruent in 76%. Combined clinical and histological evidence of perineural invasion was recorded in 33% and the overall incidence of nerve involvement detected morphologically was 44%. Perineural infiltration was demonstrated histologically in 51% of major excisions from the buccal cavity and in 34% of resections from the oropharynx, hypopharynx and cervical oesophagus. The neurological findings were dominated by hypoaesthesia, dysaesthesia and referred pain - mainly in the territories of cranial nerves V and IX. Multiple and/or sequential nerve involvement was occasionally seen. No correlation was established between nerve invasion and metastasis to regional lymph nodes. Long-distance infiltration of nerve trunks, and multiple involvement, are grave prognostic features.In 17 terminal patients submitted to autopsy, 65% had combined clinical and pathological evidence of perineural spread and the overall incidence of nerve involvement detected morphologically was 88%. Sensory changes again predominated. Multiple nerve involvement was observed in 35%. An apparently new `dysphagia syndrome' is described in 4 patients with oropharyngeal carcinomas in whom gross mechanical obstruction was simulated by a combination of perineural spread of tumour into the ipsilateral vagal trunk, sometimes accompanied by segmental infarction, variable invasion of the sympathetic chain, and `splinting' of the pharynx by local fibrosis and tumour in the soft tissues of the neck. Short-term palliation was achieved in these patients with high-dose steroids.

  7. Use of pressure-volume conductance catheters in real-time cardiovascular experimentation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Abraham E; Maslov, Mikhail Y; Pezone, Matthew J; Edelman, Elazer R; Lovich, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    Most applications of pressure-volume conductance catheter measurements assess cardiovascular function at a single point in time after genetic, pharmacologic, infectious, nutritional, or toxicologic manipulation. Use of these catheters as a continuous monitor, however, is fraught with complexities and limitations. Examples of the limitations and optimal use of conductance catheters as a continuous, real-time monitor of cardiovascular function are demonstrated during inotropic drug infusion in anesthetised rats. Inotropic drug infusion may alter ventricular dimensions causing relative movement of a well-positioned catheter, generating artifacts, including an abrupt pressure rise at end-systole that leads to over estimation of indices of contractility (max dP/dt) and loss of stroke volume signal. Simple rotation of the catheter, echocardiography-guided placement to the centre of the ventricle, or ventricular expansion through crystalloid infusion may correct for these artifacts. Fluid administration, however, alters left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and volume and therefore stroke volume, thereby obscuring continuous real-time haemodynamic measurements. Pressure-volume artifacts during inotropic infusion are caused by physical contact of the catheter with endocardium. Repeated correction of catheter position may be required to use pressure volume catheters as a continuous real-time monitor during manipulations that alter ventricular dimensions, such as inotropic therapy. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Complications of peripherally inserted central catheters in adults with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christian; Gouya, Hervé; Panzo, Rozy; Hubert, Dominique; Correas, Jean-Michel; Agrario, Line; Chapron, Jeanne; Honoré, Isabelle; Kanaan, Reem; Legmann, Paul; Dusser, Daniel; Vignaux, Olivier; Burgel, Pierre-Régis

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are increasingly used in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) or with non-CF bronchiectasis, but little data exist on catheter-related complications in this setting. Prospective follow-up of consecutive PICCs inserted for intravenous (IV) antibiotics in adults with CF or with non-CF bronchiectasis at Cochin Hospital (Paris, France). Between March 2009 and December 2011, 182 PICCs were prescribed in 117 adults (67 CF and 50 non-CF patients). Ultrasound-guided placement of catheter was successful in 174/182 (95.6%) procedures; no insertion complication occurred. The mean ± SD catheter dwell time was 15 ± 9 days. No catheter-associated bloodstream infection occurred; main complications were symptomatic upper limb deep vein thrombosis (2%), catheter obstruction (18%) and persistent pain after catheter insertion (18%). Patients' satisfaction was high and PICC could be used to perform antibiotic courses in most patients. PICCs were generally safe for performing IV antibiotic courses in patients with CF or non-CF bronchiectasis, but prolonged pain and/or catheter obstruction occurred in approximately 20% of cases.

  9. Knowledge Level on Administration of Chemotherapy through Peripheral and Central Venous Catheter among Oncology Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Kapucu, Sevgisun; Özkaraman, Ayşe Özaydın; Uysal, Neşe; Bagcivan, Gulcan; Şeref, Ferhan Çetin; Elöz, Aygül

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge levels of oncology nurses about peripheral and central venous catheter during their chemotherapy administration. Methods: Data collection of this descriptive study was started on April 15, 2015–July 15, 2015. The data presented in this summary belong to 165 nurses. Data were collected with data collection form including questions related to sociodemographic qualifications and knowledge levels of nurses. Data collection forms were E-mailed to the members of Turkish Oncology Nursing Society. Data presented with numbers, percentages, and mean ± standard deviation. Results: The mean age of nurses was 33.60 ± 7.34 years and mean duration for oncology nursing experience was 2.65 ± 0.91 years. Nurses had correct information about the importance of selecting peripheral venous catheter and choosing the placement area for chemotherapy administration (63.6%), control of catheter before the administration (93.9%), influence of chemotherapeutic agent on length of catheter (40.6%), and management of extravasation (75.7%). Nurses also had correct information about the first use of port catheter (67.3%) and checking the catheter whether it is working properly or not (75.8%). Conclusions: In General, nurses’ level of knowledge related to catheter is 50% and higher. It is recommended to increase the knowledge of nurses about evidence-based information for catheter care as a step to safe chemotherapy practice. PMID:28217732

  10. The Impact of Tunneled Catheters for Ascites and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis on Patient Rehospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chuanxing; Xing, Minzhi; Ghodadra, Anish; McCluskey, Kevin M; Santos, Ernesto; Kim, Hyun S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess patient outcomes, complications, impact on rehospitalizations, and healthcare costs in patients with malignant ascites treated with tunneled catheters. A total of 84 patients with malignant ascites (mean age, 60 years) were treated with tunneled catheters. Patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and malignant ascites treated with tunneled drain catheter placement over a 3-year period were studied. Overall survival from the time of ascites and catheter placement were stratified by primary cancer and analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Complications were graded by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTCAE). The differences between pre- and post-catheter admissions, hospitalizations, and Emergency Department (ED) visits, as well as related inpatient expenses were compared using paired t tests. There were no significant differences in gender, age, or race between different primary cancer subgroups. One patient (1%) developed bleeding (CTCAE-2). Four patients (5%) developed local cellulitis (CTCAE-2). Three patients (4%) had prolonged hospital stay (between 7 and 10 days) to manage ascites-related complications such as abdominal distention, discomfort, or pain. Comparison between pre- and post-catheter hospitalizations showed significantly lower admissions (-1.4/month, p < 0.001), hospital stays (-4.2/month, p = 0.003), and ED visits (-0.9/month, p = 0.002). The pre- and post-catheter treatment health care cost was estimated using MS-DRG IPPS payment system and it demonstrated significant cost savings from decreased inpatient admissions in post-treatment period (-$9535/month, p < 0.001). Tunneled catheter treatment of malignant ascites is safe, feasible, well tolerated, and cost effective. Tunneled catheter treatment may play an important role in improving patients' quality of life and outcomes while controlling health care expenditures.

  11. Common patterns of perineural spread in head-neck squamous cell carcinoma identified on fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Piyush; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Perineural spread in HNSCC is associated with dismal prognosis and decreased overall survival. Clinical diagnosis of this relatively asymptomatic entity is usually delayed and made incidentally on imaging. MRI is gold standard imaging for early diagnosing of this condition owing to its excellent anatomic resolution. With the ever increasing use of PET/CT in commonly encountered cancer such as HNSCC for staging and re-staging, observing perineural spread on PET/CT is not infrequent. Through this pictorial essay we demonstrate the common patterns of perineural spread in HNSCC on PET/CT with the aim of improving reporting accuracy across readers. PMID:27833312

  12. [Recurrent Hiccups Caused by Malposition of the Peritoneal Catheter of a Lumboperitoneal Shunt: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuya; Nakajima, Yoshio; Tokuda, Kazuhiko; Kidani, Ryuichi

    2016-02-01

    A number of rare and unpredictable shunt-related complications after shunt placement to treat hydrocephalus have been described. Here a 78-year-old man who underwent lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt placement presented postoperatively with recurrent hiccups. Abdominal radiography and computed tomography performed at 7 days postoperative revealed that a peritoneal catheter had migrated into the upper abdominal cavity and contacted the diaphragm. The patient underwent LP shunt revision, during which the catheter was pulled back and repositioned within the lower abdominal cavity. The hiccups ceased completely. To our knowledge, the only other report of a similar complication was published in the 1980s. Here we describe a case in which a peritoneal catheter from an LP shunt migrated into the upper abdominal cavity and irritated the diaphragm, causing recurrent hiccups.

  13. The Pigtail Catheter for Pleural Drainage: A Less Invasive Alternative to Tube Thoracostomy

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, James S.; Banks, Michael C.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Pham, Si M.; Griffith, Bartley p.; Keenan, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Tube thoracostomy remains the standard of care for the treatment of pneumothoraces and simple effusions. This report describes a favorable experience with the 8.3 French pigtail catheter as a less invasive alternative to traditional chest tube insertion. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 109 consecutive pigtail catheter placements. Catheters were inserted under local anesthesia at the bedside without radiographie guidance. Pre- and post-insertion chest radiographs were reviewed to determine efficacy of drainage. Results: Fifty-one of 109 patients (47%) were mechanically ventilated and 26 patients (24%) had a coagulopathy. There were no complications related to pigtail catheter insertion. Seventy-seven pigtail catheters were placed for pleural effusion and 32 for pneumothorax. Mean effusion volume decreased from 43 to 9 percent, and drainage averaged 2899 ml over 97 hours. Mean pneumothorax size diminished from 38 to 1 percent during an average 71-hour placement. Clinical success rates in the effusion and pneumothorax groups were 86 and 81 percent, respectively. Conclusion: The pigtail catheter offers reliable treatment of pneumothoraces and simple effusions and is a safe and less invasive alternative to tube thoracostomy. PMID:10323171

  14. Endoscopic placement of flatus tube using "lasso" technique with snare wire.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, Piers Anthony Cheyne; Elton, Colin

    2006-09-28

    A 55-year old man presented with acute sigmoid volvulus. The distal level of obstruction was above the level which could be reached by the rigid sigmoidoscope to allow decompression, and so a flatus tube was "lassoed" onto the side of a flexible endoscope which allowed accurate placement under direct vision. This technique allows accurate placement of catheters, feeding tubes and other devices endoscopically, which cannot be placed through the instrument channel of the endoscope.

  15. Endoscopic placement of flatus tube using "lasso" technique with snare wire

    PubMed Central

    Gatenby, Piers Anthony Cheyne; Elton, Colin

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year old man presented with acute sigmoid volvulus. The distal level of obstruction was above the level which could be reached by the rigid sigmoidoscope to allow decompression, and so a flatus tube was "lassoed" onto the side of a flexible endoscope which allowed accurate placement under direct vision. This technique allows accurate placement of catheters, feeding tubes and other devices endoscopically, which cannot be placed through the instrument channel of the endoscope. PMID:17007062

  16. [Rotational stability of angiography catheters].

    PubMed

    Schröder, J; Weber, M

    1992-10-01

    Rotatory stability is a parameter that reflects the ability of a catheter to transmit a rotation applied at the outer end to the catheter tip for the purpose of selective probing. A method for measuring the rotatory stability is described, and the results of rotatory stability measurements of 70 different commercially available catheters are reported. There is an almost linear correlation between the rotatory stability and the difference between the respective fourth power of the external and internal diameter or, approximately, to the fourth power of the external diameter for catheters without wire reinforcement. With the same cross-sectional dimensions, the rotatory stability of teflon, polyethylene, and nylon catheters has an approximate ratio of 1:2:4. Wire reinforcement increases rotatory stability by an average factor of about 3. For catheters of calibers 5 F and 6 F, a correlation between the rotatory stability and the weight of the reinforcing wire mesh is apparent.

  17. Therapeutic Potential of Perineural Invasion, Hypoxia and Desmoplasia in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Ma, Qingyong; Xu, Qinhong; Lei, Jianjun; Li, Xuqi; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Erxi

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal human malignancies. Though a relatively rare malignancy, it remains one of the deadliest tumors, with an extremely high mortality rate. The prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor; only patients with small tumors and complete resection have a chance of a complete cure. Pancreatic cancer responds poorly to conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and irradiation. Tumor-specific targeted therapy is a relatively recent addition to the arsenal of anti-cancer therapies. It is important to find novel targets to distinguish tumor cells from their normal counterparts in therapeutic approaches. In the past few decades, studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms of pancreatic tumorigenesis, growth, invasion and metastasis. The proteins that participate in the pathophysiological processes of pancreatic cancer might be potential targets for therapy. This review describes the main players in perineural invasion, hypoxia and desmoplasia and the molecular mechanisms of these pathophysiological processes. PMID:22372500

  18. Galanin modulates the neural niche to favour perineural invasion in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Christina Springstead; Banerjee, Rajat; Inglehart, Ronald C; Liu, Min; Russo, Nickole; Hariharan, Amirtha; van Tubergen, Elizabeth A; Corson, Sara L; Asangani, Irfan A; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; D’Silva, Nisha J

    2015-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is an indicator of poor survival in multiple cancers. Unfortunately, there is no targeted treatment for PNI since the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. PNI is an active process, suggesting that cancer cells communicate with nerves. However, nerve-tumour crosstalk is understudied due to the lack of in vivo models to investigate the mechanisms. Here, we developed an in vivo model of PNI to characterise this interaction. We show that the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) initiates nerve-tumour crosstalk via activation of its G-protein-coupled receptor, GALR2. Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which GAL from nerves stimulates GALR2 on cancer cells to induce NFATC2-mediated transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 and GAL. Prostaglandin E2 promotes cancer invasion, and in a feedback mechanism, GAL released by cancer induces neuritogenesis, facilitating PNI. This study describes a novel in vivo model for PNI and reveals the dynamic interaction between nerve and cancer. PMID:25917569

  19. Therapeutic potential of perineural invasion, hypoxia and desmoplasia in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Ma, Qingyong; Xu, Qinhong; Lei, Jianjun; Li, Xuqi; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Erxi

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal human malignancies. Though a relatively rare malignancy, it remains one of the deadliest tumors, with an extremely high mortality rate. The prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor; only patients with small tumors and complete resection have a chance of a complete cure. Pancreatic cancer responds poorly to conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and irradiation. Tumor-specific targeted therapy is a relatively recent addition to the arsenal of anti-cancer therapies. It is important to find novel targets to distinguish tumor cells from their normal counterparts in therapeutic approaches. In the past few decades, studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms of pancreatic tumorigenesis, growth, invasion and metastasis. The proteins that participate in the pathophysiological processes of pancreatic cancer might be potential targets for therapy. This review describes the main players in perineural invasion, hypoxia and desmoplasia and the molecular mechanisms of these pathophysiological processes.

  20. Cortactin is associated with perineural invasion in the deep invasive front area of laryngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Eliane Papa; Rosa, Fabíola Encinas; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio; Villacis, Rolando André Rios; Coudry, Renata de Almeida; Tagliarini, José Vicente; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2011-09-01

    The cortactin gene, mapped at 11q13, has been associated with an aggressive clinical course in many cancers because of its function of invasiveness. This study evaluated CTTN protein and its prognostic value in the deep invasive front and superficial areas of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The transcript expression levels were evaluated in a subset of cases. Overexpression of CTTN cytoplasmatic protein (80% of cases in both the deep invasive front and superficial areas) and transcript (30% of samples) was detected in a significant number of cases. In more than 20% of cases, observation verified membrane immunostaining in the deep invasive front and superficial areas. Perineural invasion was significantly associated with N stage and recurrence (P = .0058 and P = .0037, respectively). Higher protein expression levels were correlated with perineural invasion (P = .004) in deep invasive front cells, suggesting that this area should be considered a prognostic tool in laryngeal carcinomas. Although most cases had moderate to strong CTTN expression on the tumor surface, 2 sets of cases revealed a differential expression pattern in the deep invasive front. A group of cases with absent to weak expression of CTTN in the deep invasive front showed good prognosis parameters, and a second group with moderate to strong expression of CTTN were associated with an unfavorable prognosis, suggesting an association with worse outcome. Taken together, these results suggest that the deep invasive front might be considered a grading system in laryngeal carcinomas and that cortactin is a putative marker of worse outcome in the deep invasive front of laryngeal carcinomas.

  1. [Intravenous catheters and nosocomial infection].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara

    2004-01-01

    Peripheral, especially central venous catheters, are used with increasing frequency in the intensive care unit and in general medical wards to administer intravenous fluids and blood products, drugs, parenteral nutrition, and to monitor hemodynamic status. Catheter infection is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and duration of hospital stay. Risk factors in the development of catheter colonization and bloodstream infections include patient factors (increased risk associated with malignancy, neutropenia, and shock) and treatment-related factors (increased risk associated with total parenteral nutrition, intensive care unit admission for any reason, and endotracheal intubation). In this review article terms and definitions of catheter-related infections, pathophysiology and epidemiology of "catheter sepsis", factors determining risk of infection, catheter types and materials, insertion procedure, choice of insertion site, indwelling time, dressing and care of the insertion site, various preventive strategies and future developments, special situations and procedures, and treatment are discussed. Reducing catheter infections rates requires a multiple-strategy approach. Therefore, intensive care units and other locations where catheters are used should implement strict guidelines and protocols for catheter insertion, care, and maintenance.

  2. Development and Implementation of an Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Program for Emergency Nurses.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Courtney; Jones, Jodi

    2017-08-09

    Emergency medical care often necessitates placement of peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters. When traditional methods for obtaining PIV access are not successful, ultrasound guidance is a rescue technique for peripheral vascular placement that improves the quality of patient care. The aim of this training program was to develop a process where emergency nurses would be competent to perform ultrasound guided PIV to improve the quality of patient care delivered while reducing throughput time. Administrative program development required creating a nursing practice statement, procedure guideline, operational plan, and competency validation. A training program comprising both didactic and hands-on training was developed and provided by emergency medicine physicians with formal ultrasound fellowship training. In determining whether the training program was adequate in preparing the student to place an ultrasound-guided PIV, 92.9% of students "agreed" or "strongly agreed." In having confidence in their ability to obtain an ultrasound guided PIV catheter placement, 35.7% of respondents "agreed" and 64.3% "strongly agreed." In finding it difficult to be successful in achieving ultrasound guided PIV catheter placement, 71.4% of students "strongly disagreed" and 14.3% "disagreed." All students (100%) felt it was a feasible task to train nurses to successfully place ultrasound-guided PIV catheters and 71.4% of students strongly support continuing to provide this training program and competency validation. Establishment of an effective didactic and hands-on training program resulted in emergency department nurses becoming competent in placement of ultrasound guided PIV catheters to provide optimal patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modification of the HeRO graft allowing earlier cannulation and reduction in catheter dependent days in patients with end stage renal disease: a single center retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Hart, Deirdre; Gooden, Christie; Cummings, L S; Wible, Brandt C; Borsa, John; Randall, Henry

    2014-01-01

    After creation of an arteriovenous fistula or placement of an arteriovenous graft, several weeks are required for maturation prior to first cannulation. Patients need an alternative way to receive hemodialysis during this time, frequently a catheter. After multiple failed access attempts, patients can run out of options and become catheter dependent. At our institution, we place HeRO grafts in eligible patients who have otherwise been told they would be catheter dependent for life. By combining the HeRO graft system with a Flixene graft, patients are able to remove catheters sooner or avoid placement as they can undergo cannulation for hemodialysis the next day. Utilizing this novel technique, twenty-one patients over a two-year period with various forms of central venous stenosis, catheter dependence, or failing existing arteriovenous access have been successfully converted to stable long term noncatheter based upper extremity access.

  4. Comparison of histopathological effects of perineural administration of bupivacaine and bupivacaine-dexmedetomidine in rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Memari, Elham; Hosseinian, Mohammad-Ali; Mirkheshti, Ali; Arhami-Dolatabadi, Ali; Mirabotalebi, Mojtaba; Khandaghy, Mohsen; Daneshbod, Yahya; Alizadeh, Leila; Shirian, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

    Injection of a variety of drugs such as local anesthetics (LAs) for peripheral nerve block has been shown to cause damage to peripheral nerves. Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxicity of LAs including Bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine (DEX)-Bupivacaine on sciatic nerve tissue at histopathological level. In addition, we investigated whether perineural administration of DEX can attenuate Bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty adult Sprague Dawley rats received unilateral sciatic nerve blocks with either 0.2ml of 0.5% bupivacaine (n=8) or 0.5% bupivacaine plus 0.005% DEX (n=8) or normal saline (0.9%, as control group) (n=4) in the left hind extremity. Sciatic nerves were harvested at 14days post-injection and analyzed for nerve damage using ultrastructure and histopathologic analysis. Histopathology of sciatic nerve at day 14 post-injection showed a variable degree of neuronal injury associated with perineural inflammation in each treatment group and was classified as none or mild, intermediate or severe. Administration of both LAs resulted in a significant decrease in the total number of myelinated fibers per nerve (95% CI for group difference: Bupivacaine, P=0.001, DEX-Bupivacaine, P=0.036) compared to the saline control group. Animals that received these perineural local anesthetics (LAs) injections showed increased severity of injury compared to the control group. Animals in the DEX-Bupivacaine group had higher perineural inflammation and nerve damage than those of the saline control group and less than those of the Bupivacaine group at day 14 post-injection. Quantitatively, average total nerve fiber per nerve and average myelinated nerve fiber density in the injured region of the Bupivacaine-treated group was less than that of the DEX-Bupivacaine-treated group. LAs injection into the nerve causes peripheral nerve damage and remains an important clinical danger. Bupivacaine is

  5. Architectural Analyses and Developments of 1 mm Diameter Micro Forceps for Catheter Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokata, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takumi

    Blockage in a blood vessel due to cardiovascular disease such as arteriosclerosis or aneurysms requires minimally invasive placement of a mesh tube or platinum coil stent via a catheter to open the affected area. Stents are positioned using a guide wire via a catheter, but the stent may be dropped on the way to its destination and requires much time in surgery, increasing the burden on the patient. Medical apparatuses are thus desired having a mechanism to grasp artifacts securely in blood vessels. We designed prototype microforceps for use on the end of a catheter for grasping operation in blood vessels and to contribute to medical apparatuses in this field. The microforceps we designed using a minimum number of parts uses metal injection molding (MIM) to realize strong mass production. Microforceps installed in the tip of a catheter. Stress analysis verified its capability to grasp, bend and turn within the confines of a blood vessels model.

  6. Tension compared to no tension on a Foley transcervical catheter for cervical ripening: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fruhman, Gary; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Amon, Erol; Flick, Kathleen V G; Miller, Collin; Gross, Gilad A

    2017-01-01

    Cervical ripening of an unfavorable cervix can be achieved by placement of a transcervical catheter. Advantages of this method include both lower cost and lower risk of tachysystole than other methods. Despite widespread use with varying degrees of applied tension, an unanswered question is whether there is an advantage to placing the transcervical catheter to tension compared with placement without tension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tension placed on a transcervical balloon catheter that is inserted for cervical ripening results in a faster time to delivery. This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial; 140 women who underwent cervical ripening (Bishop score, ≤6) were assigned randomly to a balloon catheter with applied tension vs no tension. Tension was created when the catheter was taped to the patient's thigh and tension was reapplied in 30-minute increments. There were 67 patients in the tension group and 73 patients in the no tension group. Low-dose oxytocin (maximum, 6 mU/min) was administered after catheter placement. The primary outcome was time from catheter insertion to delivery. A secondary outcome was time from insertion to catheter expulsion. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine whether the data were distributed normally. Survival curves that used lifetables were constructed from time of catheter insertion to delivery and from time of catheter insertion to catheter expulsion and were compared with the use of the Wilcoxon (Gehan) Breslow statistic. A probability value of <.05 was set to denote statistical significance. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The median time from catheter insertion to delivery was not significantly different between the tension group and the no tension group (16.2 vs 16.9 hours; P=.814). The median time from catheter insertion to expulsion, however, was significantly less in the tension group vs the no tension group (2.6 vs 4.6 hours; P<.001), respectively

  7. 5-F catheter in cerebral angiography

    SciTech Connect

    O'Reilly, G.V.; Naheedy, M.H.; Colucci, V.M.; Hammerschlag, S.B.

    1981-11-01

    Although the 5-F catheter is reputed to cause less vascular trauma than larger catheters, subintimal injections of contrast material have occurred following intimal damage by the catheter tip. Microscopic studies of the tips of two widely used 5-F polyethylene catheters have revealed a difference in configuration resulting in one of the catheters becoming markedly damaged during angiography. The authors make recommendations for finishing and protecting the catheter tip.

  8. Large or small bore, push or pull: a comparison of three classes of percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy catheters.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuo-Chen; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D; Mondschein, Jeffrey I; Stavropoulos, S William; Patel, Aalpen A; Solomon, Jeffrey A; Soulen, Michael C; Kwak, Andrew; Itkin, Maxim; Chittams, Jesse L; Trerotola, Scott O

    2008-04-01

    To compare the tube performance and complication rates of small-bore, large-bore push-type, and large-bore pull-type gastrostomy catheters. A total of 160 patients (74 men, 86 women; mean age, 66.9 years, range, 22-95 y) underwent percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy placement between January 2004 and March 2006. Choice of catheter was based on the preference of the attending radiologist. Data were collected retrospectively with institutional review board approval. Radiology reports provided information on the catheter, indication for gastrostomy, technical success, and immediate outcome. Chart review provided data on medical history, postprocedural complications, progress to feeding goal, and clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the three classes of gastrostomy catheters. All 160 catheters were placed successfully. Patients who received small-bore catheters (14 F; n = 88) had significantly more tube complications (17% vs 5.6%) and were less likely to meet their feeding goal (P = .035) compared with patients with large-bore catheters (20 F; n = 72). No difference was observed in terms of major or minor complications. Large-bore push-type (n = 14) and pull-type catheters (n = 58) were similar in terms of complication rates. Patients who received large-bore push-type catheters achieved their feeding goals in significantly less time than those with large-bore pull-type catheters (average, 3.8 days vs 6.0 days; P = .04). Patients who received small-bore gastrostomy catheters are significantly more prone to tube dysfunction. Large-bore catheters should be preferentially used, with push-type catheters performing better with regard to the time to achieve feeding goal.

  9. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Meddings, Jennifer; Rogers, Mary A M; Krein, Sarah L; Fakih, Mohamad G; Olmsted, Russell N; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are costly, common and often preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter (UC) use. Methods To summarise interventions to reduce UC use and CAUTIs, we updated a prior systematic review (through October 2012), and a meta-analysis regarding interventions prompting UC removal by reminders or stop orders. A narrative review summarises other CAUTI prevention strategies including aseptic insertion, catheter maintenance, antimicrobial UCs, and bladder bundle implementation. Results 30 studies were identified and summarised with interventions to prompt removal of UCs, with potential for inclusion in the meta-analyses. By meta-analysis (11 studies), the rate of CAUTI (episodes per 1000 catheter-days) was reduced by 53% (rate ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.64, p<0.001) using a reminder or stop order, with five studies also including interventions to decrease initial UC placement. The pooled (nine studies) standardised mean difference (SMD) in catheterisation duration (days) was −1.06 overall (p=0.065) including a statistically significant decrease in stop-order studies (SMD −0.37; p<0.001) but not in reminder studies (SMD, −1.54; p=0.071). No significant harm from catheter removal strategies is supported. Limited research is available regarding the impact of UC insertion and maintenance technique. A recent randomised controlled trial indicates antimicrobial catheters provide no significant benefit in preventing symptomatic CAUTIs. Conclusions UC reminders and stop orders appear to reduce CAUTI rates and should be used to improve patient safety. Several evidence-based guidelines have evaluated CAUTI preventive strategies as well as emerging evidence regarding intervention bundles. Implementation strategies are important because reducing UC use involves changing well-established habits. PMID:24077850

  10. Evaluation of complications and feasibility of indwelling epidural catheter use for post-operative pain control in dogs in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L R; McAbee, K P; Stephenson, N; Stanke, N J; Booms, M L; Degner, D D

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the use of indwelling epidural catheters post-operatively in dogs in a home environment, and to report associated complications. Dogs undergoing surgical procedures of the hind limb (n=83) were included in the study and were administered 0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg epidural morphine via an indwelling epidural catheter every 6 hours. Data compiled relating to catheter placement included time of placement, ease of placement and problems encountered, number of attempts of placement, and individual placing the catheter. A client questionnaire was provided to evaluate side effects, complications, pain, and ease of use of the epidural catheter system after discharge from the hospital and catheter removal at home. Side effects were compared between the dogs receiving 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg epidural morphine. The most common patient complication was abnormal urination patterns (32/82, 39%); specifically dribbling urine where laying, emptying the entire bladder where laying, not urinating for extended periods of time, and taking a longer time to pass urine were reported. There were no significant differences in the number or types of side effects reported in either dosing group. The most common technical issues reported by owners were difficulty getting the needle into the injection port (10/81, 12%) and removing the adhesive covering keeping the epidural catheter system in place (19/78, 24%). There were no reports of inflammation or discharge at the catheter site in any of the dogs. Of the respondents surveyed, 76/79 (97%) found the epidural catheter system easy to use at home in the post-operative period. Indwelling epidural catheters are a feasible method of administration of post-operative analgesia in the immediate post-operative period in the home environment and were associated with only a few minor complications in this population.

  11. Intensivist supervision of resident-placed central venous catheters decreases the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infections.

    PubMed

    Papadimos, Thomas J; Hensely, Sandra J; Duggan, Joan M; Hofmann, James P; Khuder, Sadik A; Borst, Marilyn J; Fath, John J

    2008-04-30

    Catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) cause significant morbidity and mortality. A retrospective study of a performance improvement project in our teaching hospital's surgical intensive care unit (SICU) showed that intensivist supervision was important in reinforcing maximal sterile barriers (MSB) use during the placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) in the prevention of CRBSI. A historical control period, 1 January 2001-31 December 2003, was established for comparison. From 1 January 2003-31 December 2007, MSB use for central venous line placement was mandated for all operators. However, in 2003 there was no intensivist supervision of CVC placements in the SICU. The use of MSB alone did not cause a significant change in the CRBSI rate in the first year of the project, but close supervision by an intensivist in years 2004-2007, in conjunction with MSB use, demonstrated a significant drop in the CRBSI rate when compared to the years before intensivist supervision (2001-2003), p < .0001. A time series analysis comparing monthly rates of CRBSI (2001-2007) also revealed a significant downward trend, p = .028. Additionally, in the first year of the mandated MSB use (2003), 85 independently observed resident-placed CVCs demonstrated that breaks in sterile technique (34/85), as compared those placements that had no breaks in technique (51/85), had more CRBSI, 6/34 (17.6%) vs. 1/51 (1.9%), p < .01. Interventions to reduce CRBSI in our SICU needed emphasis on adequate supervision of trainees in CVC placement, in addition to use of MSB, to effect lower CRBSI rates.

  12. Catheter drainage of pleural fluid collections and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Frendin, J; Obel, N

    1997-06-01

    A technique for virtually atraumatic placement of small size chest catheters for suction drainage of pleural effusions and pneumothorax in the dog and cat is described. Thirty-nine dogs and two cats were treated for pyothorax (10 cases), hydrothorax (eight), chylothorax (three), haemothorax (three), haemothorax/ pneumothorax (three) and pneumothorax (14). In all 41 cases, thin or viscous fluid and/or air were efficiently drained. The mean period of drainage was four days (range, 0.5 to 18 days). The average amount of fluid removed from each patient in 24 hours was 530 ml in pyothorax cases (range, 140 to 1100 ml) and 1300 ml in the other cases (range, 20 to 5000 ml). In 40 cases there were no complications related to the procedure. One dog with severe pleural adhesions was euthanased because of lung perforation and pneumothorax secondary to misplacement of the catheter.

  13. Ultrasound guided transrectal catheter drainage of pelvic collections.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Anuj; Sundareyan, Ramaniwas; Kumar, Sheo; Arora, Divya

    2015-01-01

    The transrectal approach to draining deep-seated pelvic collections may be used to drain The transrectal approach to draining deep-seated pelvic collections may be used to drain intra-abdominal collections not reached by the transabdominal approach. We discuss 6 patients with such pelvic collections treated with transrectal drainage using catheter placement via Seldinger technique. Transrectal drainage helped achieve clinical and radiological resolution of pelvic collections in 6 and 5 of 6 cases, respectively. It simultaneously helped avoid injury to intervening bowel loops and neurovascular structures using real-time visualization of armamentarium used for drainage. Radiation exposure from fluoroscopic/CT guidance was avoided. Morbidity and costs incurred in surgical exploration were reduced using this much less invasive ultrasound guided transrectal catheter drainage of deep-seated pelvic collections.

  14. We still go for the jugular: implications of the 3SITES central venous catheter study for nephrology.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Christina M; Vassalotti, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    The 3SITES study randomly assigned a nontunneled central venous catheter site in over 3000 adults treated in intensive care units. The subclavian site was associated with a lower rate of short-term complications, including catheter-related bloodstream infection and deep venous thrombosis, compared to the femoral or internal jugular site. Nephrologists should be aware of this study and should continue to advocate for alternatives to subclavian vein catheter placement in patients with chronic kidney disease who are expected to require arteriovenous access for dialysis in the future.

  15. Ultrasound as a Screening Tool for Central Venous Catheter Positioning and Exclusion of Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Amir, Rabia; Knio, Ziyad O; Mahmood, Feroze; Oren-Grinberg, Achikam; Leibowitz, Akiva; Bose, Ruma; Shaefi, Shahzad; Mitchell, John D; Ahmed, Muneeb; Bardia, Amit; Talmor, Daniel; Matyal, Robina

    2017-07-01

    Although real-time ultrasound guidance during central venous catheter insertion has become a standard of care, postinsertion chest radiograph remains the gold standard to confirm central venous catheter tip position and rule out associated lung complications like pneumothorax. We hypothesize that a combination of transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound is noninferior to chest radiograph when used to accurately assess central venous catheter positioning and screen for pneumothorax. All operating rooms and surgical and trauma ICUs at the institution. Single-center, prospective noninferiority study. Patients receiving ultrasound-guided subclavian or internal jugular central venous catheters. During ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement, correct positioning of central venous catheter was accomplished by real-time visualization of the guide wire and positive right atrial swirl sign using the subcostal four-chamber view. After insertion, pneumothorax was ruled out by the presence of lung sliding and seashore sign on M-mode. Data analysis was done for 137 patients. Chest radiograph ruled out pneumothorax in 137 of 137 patients (100%). Lung ultrasound was performed in 123 of 137 patients and successfully screened for pneumothorax in 123 of 123 (100%). Chest radiograph approximated accurate catheter tip position in 136 of 137 patients (99.3%). Adequate subcostal four-chamber views could not be obtained in 13 patients. Accurate positioning of central venous catheter with ultrasound was then confirmed in 121 of 124 patients (97.6%) as described previously. Transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound are noninferior to chest x-ray for screening of pneumothorax and accurate central venous catheter positioning. Thus, the point of care use of ultrasound can reduce central venous catheter insertion to use time, exposure to radiation, and improve patient safety.

  16. Balloon-assisted guide catheter positioning to overcome extreme cervical carotid tortuosity: technique and case experience

    PubMed Central

    Peeling, Lissa; Fiorella, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and significance We describe a method by which to efficiently and atraumatically achieve distal positioning of a flexible guiding catheter beyond extreme cervical tortuosity using a hypercompliant temporary occlusion balloon. Methods A retrospective review of a prospective neuroendovascular database was used to identify cases in which a hypercompliant balloon catheter (Hyperform or Hyperglide, ev3/Covidien, Irvine, California, USA; Scepter or Scepter XC, Alisa Viejo, California, USA) was used to achieve distal positioning of a flexible guiding catheter (Navion, ev3/Covidien, Irvine, California, USA; Neuron, Penumbra Inc, Alameda, California, USA). After achieving a stable guiding sheath position within the proximal cervical carotid artery, a hypercompliant balloon catheter was manipulated beyond the tortuous cervical internal carotid segment into the distal carotid artery. The balloon was then inflated to anchor it distally within an intracranial (cavernous or petrous) segment of the internal carotid artery. The guiding catheter was then advanced beyond the tortuous cervical segment, over the balloon catheter, as gentle counter traction was applied to the balloon. Results Balloon-assisted guiding catheter placement was used to perform endovascular treatments of 12 anterior circulation aneurysms. One patient underwent coiling alone. Five patients underwent balloon-assisted coiling. One patient underwent balloon and stent assisted coil embolization. Four patients with five carotid aneurysms (one with bilateral carotid aneurysms) underwent vascular reconstruction with the pipeline embolization device. All patients had severe tortuosity of the extracranial carotid system. Three patients had findings consistent with cervical carotid fibromuscular dysplasia. The technique was successful each time it was attempted. No parent artery dissections or catheter induced vasospam were noted in any case. Discussion Hypercompliant balloon catheters can be reliably used

  17. Import catheter in erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kayigil, O; Atahan, O; Metin, A

    1997-08-01

    We propose an alternative technique for intracavernous self-injection of sodium nitroprusside for erectile dysfunction by inserting a Medtronic ImPort* catheter with a valved tip. A silicone catheter was implanted in 3 patients with psychogenic impotence. The reservoir, which is used for vasoactive agent injection, was implanted laterally to the anterosuperior iliac spine and the distal tip of the catheter was inserted into the corpora cavernosa via a subcutaneous tunnel. The injection technique was taught to the patient and the initial injection was performed 1 week later. All patients and partners were satisfied with the technique and quality of erections at a mean followup of 14 months. There were no major local complications due to catheter implantation and no systemic complications due to sodium nitroprusside injection. An alternative technique for intracavernous pharmacotherapy of inserting an ImPort catheter prevented the complications of intracavernous injections in patients with erectile dysfunction.

  18. Optimal Dose of Perineural Dexamethasone to Prolong Analgesia After Brachial Plexus Blockade: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Kyle Robert; Jacot-Guillarmod, Alain; Albrecht, Eric

    2017-09-14

    Perineural dexamethasone has gained popularity in regional anesthesia to prolong analgesia duration. However, uncertainty remains regarding the optimal perineural dose. Clarification of this characteristic is of significant importance as the administration of dexamethasone may lead to dose-dependent complications. The objective of this meta-analysis was to define the optimal perineural dexamethasone dose to prolong analgesia after brachial plexus blockade for adult patients undergoing upper limb surgery. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guidelines and searched databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE until January 2017, without language restriction. Only trials comparing perineural dexamethasone and local anesthetics with local anesthetics alone for brachial plexus blocks were included in the present meta-analysis. The Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess the methodological quality of each trial and meta-analyses were performed following a random effects model. The primary outcome was duration of analgesia for each type of local anesthetic (short-/intermediate-acting and long-acting local anesthetics). A meta-regression followed by a subgroup analysis were performed to assess the impact of different perineural dexamethasone doses on duration of analgesia; for the latter analysis, trials were grouped in low (1-4 mg) and moderate (5-10 mg) dexamethasone doses. Secondary outcomes included the rate of neurologic complication and resting pain scores and morphine consumption within the first 24 hours. Thirty-three controlled trials, including 2138 patients, were identified. The meta-regression revealed a ceiling effect with a perineural dexamethasone dose of 4 mg when combined with short-/intermediate-acting (8 trials; 366 participants) or long-acting local anesthetics (23 trials; 1869 participants). This finding was confirmed by subgroup analyses comparing low and moderate

  19. Transhepatic central venous catheter for long-term access in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Mortell, Alan; Said, Hanan; Doodnath, Reshma; Walsh, Kevin; Corbally, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Vascular access in paediatric patients with chronic and/or life-threatening illness is crucial to survival. Access is frequently lost in this group because of thrombosis, infection, or displacement, and vascular options can quickly be exhausted. The last resort access procedure is generally a direct atrial catheter inserted via a thoracotomy. A viable alternative is the percutaneous transhepatic Broviac catheter (Bard Access Systems, Salt Lake City, UT). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 5 patients who underwent percutaneous transhepatic Broviac insertion for long-term access over a 4-year period in a single institution. Four of the patients (80%) had a significant cardiac abnormality, with 1 patient requiring long-term parenteral nutrition after complicated necrotizing enterocolitis. All patients had significant caval thrombosis, which precluded them having placement of a standard percutaneous or openly placed central catheter. Of the 5 patients, 2 (40%) died of cardiac-related illnesses. Of the 3 surviving patients, 2 had functioning catheters electively removed because they were no longer required. One catheter was removed at thoracotomy for right atrial perforation because of catheter erosion. Vascular access in paediatric patients with chronic and/or life-threatening illness is crucial to survival. Transhepatic central venous catheters are a feasible, reliable, and relatively easily placed form of central access in patients with multiple venous thromboses requiring long-term access. This route should be considered in paediatric patients requiring central access in preference to a thoracotomy.

  20. CT guided transthoracic catheter drainage of intrapulmonary abscess.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Mahira

    2009-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of CT- guided transthoracic catheter drainage of intrapulmonary abscess considering success rate versus complications. This prospective study was carried out at radiology department of Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, from 1.1.2003 to 31.12.2005. Nineteen patients were selected for CT guided percutaneous drainage. Under CT guidance catheter placement was carried out using Seldinger technique. Nineteen patients with lung abscess were selected for the percutaneous CT guided drainage. Eight (42.105%) patients encountered no complications and lung abscess completely resolved with no residual cavity. Five (26.31%) patients developed pneumothorax, which was the most common complication of this study. These patients were kept under observation and followed-up by chest X-rays. Three (15.78%) had mild pneumothorax, which resolved and needed no further management, while two (10.52%) patients developed moderate pneumothorax and chest tube was inserted. Two (10.52%) patients developed mild haemoptysis which resolved within two hours, hence, no further management was required. Two (10.52%) patients had residual cavity and surgery was performed. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) was found in both cases. Two patients out of nineteen patients (10.52%) developed bronchopleural fistula and were operated. No mortality occurred during or after the procedure. CT allows optimal placement of catheter and hence enables safe and effective percutaneous evacuation of lung abscess. The morbidity and mortality of patients with percutaneous catheter drainage is lower than with surgical resection. Hence, CT guided drainage should be considered the first therapeutic choice in most patients of lung abscess who do not respond to medical therapy.

  1. Delayed Diagnosis of Cauda Eqina Syndrome with Perineural Cyst after Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia in Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Akeda, Koji; Tsujii, Masaya; Sudo, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic Tarlov (perineural cysts) are uncommon. In the following hemodialysis case, cauda equina syndrome was not detected after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia untilthe patient reported a lack of sensation in the perianal area 14 days postoperatively. She had normal motor function of her extremities. A laminectomy and cyst irrigation was performed. After the operation, her sphincter disturbance subsided gradually and her symptoms had disappeared. PMID:24066221

  2. Microsurgical fenestration of perineural cysts to the thecal sac at the level of the distal dural sleeve.

    PubMed

    Neulen, Axel; Kantelhardt, Sven R; Pilgram-Pastor, Sara M; Metz, Imke; Rohde, Veit; Giese, Alf

    2011-07-01

    Surgery for symptomatic sacral perineural cysts remains an issue of discussion. Assuming micro-communications between the cyst and thecal sac resulting in a valve mechanism and trapping of CSF as a pathomechanism, microsurgical fenestration from the cyst to the thecal sac was performed to achieve free CSF communication. In 13 consecutive patients (10 female, 3 male), MRI revealed sacral perineural cysts and excluded other pathologies. Micro-communication between the thecal sac and the cysts was shown by delayed contrast filling of the cysts on postmyelographic CT. Surgical fenestration achieved free CSF communication between the thecal sac and cysts in all patients. The patient histories, follow-up examinations and self-assessment scales were analyzed. Symptoms at initial presentation included lumbosacral pain, pseudoradicular symptoms, genital pain and urinary dysfunction. Mean follow-up was 10.7 ± 6.6 months. Besides one CSF fistula, no surgical complications were observed. Five patients did not improve after surgery; in four of these cases multiple cysts were found, but small and promptly filling cysts remained untreated. Seven patients reported lasting benefit following surgery; three of these had single cysts, and all had cysts >1 cm. One patient initially benefited from cyst fenestration but experienced recurrent pain within 2 months postoperatively. Re-myelography revealed delayed contrast filling of the recurrent cyst; however, surgical revision did not lead to an improvement despite successful fenestration and collapse of the cyst revealed by postoperative imaging. Microsurgical fenestration of sacral perineural cysts to the thecal sac is a surgical approach that has shown success in the treatment of lumbosacral pain, pseudoradicular symptoms, genital pain and urinary dysfunction associated with sacral perineural cysts. Our analysis, however, shows that mainly patients with singular large cysts benefit from this treatment.

  3. Perineural versus intravenous dexamethasone as an adjuvant in regional anesthesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wen-Ling; Ou, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone is a common adjuvant for local anesthetics in regional anesthesia, but the optimal route of administration is controversial. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of perineural versus intravenous dexamethasone on local anesthetic regional nerve-blockade outcomes. Materials and methods Medline (through PubMed), Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Biosis Previews databases were systematically searched (published from inception of each database to January 1, 2017) to identify randomized controlled trials. The data of the selected trials were statistically analyzed to find any significant differences between the two modalities. The primary outcome was the duration of analgesia. Secondary outcomes included duration of motor block, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and postoperative analgesic dose at 24 hours. We conducted a planned subgroup analysis to compare the effects between adding epinephrine or not. Results Ten randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria of our analysis, with a total of 749 patients. Without the addition of epinephrine, the effects of perineural and intravenous dexamethasone were equivalent concerning the duration of analgesia (mean difference 0.03 hours, 95% CI –0.17 to 0.24). However, with the addition of epinephrine, the analgesic duration of perineural dexamethasone versus intravenous dexamethasone was prolonged (mean difference 3.96 hours, 95% CI 2.66–5.27). Likewise, the impact of epinephrine was the same on the duration of motor block. The two routes of administration did not show any significant differences in the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, nor on postoperative analgesic consumption at 24 hours. Conclusion Our results show that perineural dexamethasone can prolong the effects of analgesic duration when compared to the intravenous route, only when epinephrine is coadministered. Without epinephrine, the two

  4. Reexcision Perineural Invasion and Epithelial Sheath Neuroma Possibly on a Spectrum of Postinjury Reactive Hyperplasia Mediated by IL-6.

    PubMed

    Wang, James Y; Nuovo, Gerard; Kline, Mitchell; Magro, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial sheath neuroma is a rarely recognized but established entity in the medical literature. First described in 2000 by Requena et al, there have only been 7 published cases to date, mostly in female patients and presenting as symptomatic solitary lesions on the back without a known history of trauma. In 2006, Beer et al described and reviewed a dozen cases in which epithelial sheath neuroma-like features were seen in the advent of a surgical procedure, which was termed "re-excision perineural invasion" and attributed to possible eccrine duct implantation during surgery. Our case is a 66-year-old male patient who underwent an excision of a melanocytic neoplasm in which a reactive epithelial sheath neuroma was incidentally discovered in the excision specimen, adjacent to the biopsy site cicatrix. Histologically, there was benign cutaneous nerve hyperplasia with a proliferation of squamous epithelium in intimate apposition to the nerve bundles in the superficial dermis. We postulate that the process active in the formation of re-excision perineural invasion is the same as in epithelial sheath neuroma and that minor trauma not appreciable on histologic examination is responsible in the latter entity. We performed IL-6 staining and documented that IL-6 was upregulated at the interface of the nerve and reactive epithelium, but was absent in nerves distant from the site of surgery, suggesting that IL-6 may be essential to the lesion's development. The recognition of reactive epithelial sheath neuroma including the subcategory of re-excision perineural invasion is crucial for the dermatopathologist to prevent mislabeling this reactive entity as a perineural squamous cell carcinoma, which has clinical consequences for the patient such as wider re-excision and radiation treatment. Additionally, we have identified a potential pathophysiologic basis for this lesion.

  5. Incidence of Central Vein Stenosis and Occlusion Following Upper Extremity PICC and Port Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Carin F. Eschelman, David J.; Sullivan, Kevin L.; DuBois, Nancy; Bonn, Joseph

    2003-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters(PICCs) and venous ports. One hundred fifty-four patients who underwent venography of the ipsilateral central veins prior to initial and subsequent venous access device insertion were retrospectively identified. All follow-up venograms were interpreted at the time of catheter placement by one interventional radiologist over a 5-year period and compared to the findings on initial venography. For patients with central vein abnormalities, hospital and home infusion service records and radiology reports were reviewed to determine catheter dwelltime and potential alternative etiologies of central vein stenosis or occlusion. The effect of catheter caliber and dwell time on development of central vein abnormalities was evaluated. Venography performed prior to initial catheter placement showed that 150 patients had normal central veins. Three patients had central vein stenosis, and one had central vein occlusion. Subsequent venograms (n = 154)at the time of additional venous access device placement demonstrated 8 patients with occlusions and 10 with stenoses. Three of the 18 patients with abnormal follow-up venograms were found to have potential alternative causes of central vein abnormalities. Excluding these 3 patients and the 4 patients with abnormal initial venograms, a 7% incidence of central vein stenosis or occlusion was found in patients with prior indwelling catheters and normal initial venograms. Catheter caliber showed no effect on the subsequent development of central vein abnormalities. Patients who developed new or worsened central vein stenosis or occlusion had significantly (p =0.03) longer catheter dwell times than patients without central vein abnormalities. New central vein stenosis or occlusion occurred in 7% of patients following upper arm placement of venous access devices

  6. Review of the Management of Peroral Extrusion of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Catheter

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    of frequency were: (a) removal of entire VPS catheter n=5; (b) removal of entire VPS catheter, and delayed re-VPS n=5; (c) removal of peritoneal catheter with or without External Ventricular Drainage (EVD), and revision of peritoneal catheter n=3; (d) removal of peritoneal catheter, with or without EVD, and VA shunt n=3; (e) removal of peritoneal catheter, EVD and delayed re-VPS n=2; (f) removal of entire VPS catheter, EVD and delayed re-VPS n=2; (g) removal of peritoneal catheter, EVD and others n=2. Two deaths are also reported during the management of peroral extrusion of VPS catheter. Conclusion Peroral extrusion of peritoneal part of VPS catheter is an extremely rare complication following VPS insertion, and most frequently observed in children, although also reported in adults. In more than two-third of the cases it occurred within one-year of the VPS placement or last shunts revision, so a close follow-up is a must during this period following VPS placement. Management of such a case depends upon many factors such as presence or absence of shunt tract infection, peritonitis, meningitis, and cerebro spinal fluid infection. PMID:28050444

  7. ESL Placement and Schools

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn. PMID:20617111

  8. Fiducial Marker Placement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body General Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) Proton Therapy Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Images related to Fiducial Marker Placement Sponsored by ...

  9. Gastrostomy tube placement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100125.htm Gastrostomy tube placement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Ultrasound-guided deep-arm veins insertion of long peripheral catheters in patients with difficult venous access after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, Adam; Dreas, Lorella; Sanson, Gianfranco

    To analyze success rate, dwell-time, and complications of long peripheral venous catheters (L-PVCs) inserted under ultrasound guidance. In difficult venous access (DVA) patients, L-PVC can represent an alternative to central or midline catheters. Prospective observational study. L-PVCs were positioned in DVA patients. The outcome of the cannulation procedure and the times and reasons for catheters removal were analyzed. A 100% placement success rate was documented. The catheter dwell-time was 14.7 ± 11.1 days. Most catheters were removed at end-use in the absence of complications. The rate of catheters appropriately or inappropriately removed before completing the intravenous therapies was 27.7/1000 catheter-days. Two thrombophlebitis (1.91/1000 catheter-days) and 1 catheter-related bloodstream infection (0.96/1000 catheter-days) occurred. L-PVC could be a viable solution in DVA patients, as it may reduce the need for multiple vein punctures, patients' discomfort, and nursing workload. A better adherence to catheter management recommendations should further reduce complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Image-guided intrathecal baclofen pump catheter implantation: a technical note and case series.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Shenandoah; Robertson, Faith C; Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar H; O'Brien, Cormac P; Berde, Charles; Padua, Horacio

    2017-02-03

    OBJECTIVE Medically refractory spasticity and dystonia are often alleviated with intrathecal baclofen (ITB) administration through an indwelling catheter inserted in the lumbar spine. In patients with cerebral palsy, however, there is a high incidence of concomitant neuromuscular scoliosis. ITB placement may be technically challenging in those who have severe spinal deformity or who have undergone prior instrumented thoracolumbar fusion. Although prior reports have described drilling through the lumbar fusion mass with a high-speed bur, as well as IT catheter implantation at the foramen magnum or cervical spine, these approaches have notable limitations. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ITB placement using cone beam CT (CBCT) image guidance to facilitate percutaneous IT catheterization. METHODS Data were prospectively collected on patients treated between November 2012 and June 2014. In the interventional radiology suite, general anesthesia was induced and the patient was positioned prone. Imaging was performed to identify the optimal trajectory. Percutaneous puncture was performed at an entry site with image-guided placement of a sheathed needle. CBCT provided real-time 2D projections and 3D reconstructions for detailed volumetric imaging. A biopsy drill was passed through the sheath, and subsequently a Tuohy needle was advanced intrathecally. The catheter was threaded cephalad under fluoroscopic visualization. After tip localization and CSF flow were confirmed, the stylet was replaced, the external catheter tubing was wrapped sterilely in a dressing, and the patient was transported to the operating room. After lateral decubitus positioning of the patient, the IT catheter was exposed and connected to the distal abdominal tubing with typical pump placement. RESULTS Of 15 patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels IV and V cerebral palsy and instrumented thoracolumbar fusion, 8 had predominantly spasticity, and 7 had mixed

  12. Effects of perineural capsaicin treatment of the abdominal vagus on endotoxin fever and on a non-febrile thermoregulatory event.

    PubMed

    Pétervári, Erika; Garami, András; Pákai, Eszter; Székely, Miklós

    2005-01-01

    Following perineural capsaicin pretreatment of the main trunks of the abdominal vagus of rats, the first and the second phases of the polyphasic febrile response to intravenous lipopolysaccharide were unaltered, while the third phase of fever course (peak at 5 h) was attenuated. In rats desensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) capsaicin (i.e. abdominal non-systemic desensitization), mainly the first but not the later fever phases were reduced. The postprandial hyperthermia to intragastric injection of BaSO4 suspension was attenuated by either i.p. or perineural capsaicin treatment. It is concluded that, in contrast to the accepted model of postprandial hyperthermia, which is mediated by capsaicin-sensitive fibers of the abdominal vagus, in the early phase of polyphasic fever the vagal afferent nerves appear to play no role. The influence of i.p. capsaicin-desensitization on this initiating fever phase is independent of the vagus, and a capsaicin-induced alteration of endotoxin action in the liver, prior to vagal nerve endings, is more likely. The late febrile phase is probably influenced by efferent vagal fibers, which might be damaged more easily by perineural than i.p. capsaicin treatment.

  13. Effects of perineurally applied cytostatic, cytotoxic and chelating agents upon peripheral and central processes of primary nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Mihály, A; Pór, I; Bencze, G; Csillik, B

    1980-01-01

    After perineural application, the effects of mannomustine, cyclophosphamide, tetrameskylmannite, 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine and d-penicillamine upon structure of peripheral nerves and the substantia gelatinosa Rolandi were studied by means of neurohistochemical techniques and compared to those of the microtubule inhibitors Vinblastine, Vincristine and colchicine. While the cytostatic and cytotoxic drugs induced only sporadic degeneration in the structure of the peripheral nerve and, accordingly, caused only a minor extent of transganglionic degenerative atrophy in the Rolando substance, the chelating agent d-penicillamine causes massive Wallerian degeneration after perineural application and, consequently, induces an extensive degenerative atrophy in the Rolando substance. The destructive effect of d-penicillamine upon conduction properties of the impaired nerve has been established also by means of electrophysiological recording. All the drugs studied differ fundamentally from microtubule inhibitors like the Vinca alcaloids that, by virtue of their blocking effect of axoplasmic transport, induce degenerative atrophy in the Rolando substance after perineural application without causing Wallerian degeneration in the peripheral nerve. Accordingly Vinca alcaloids are the most promising candidates as locally applied therapeutics in intractable pain.

  14. Use of human amniotic membrane wrap in reducing perineural adhesions in a rabbit model of ulnar nerve neurorrhaphy.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Sohn, S K; Lee, K Y; Lee, M J; Roh, M S; Kim, C H

    2010-03-01

    The object of this experimental study was to assess the effect of wrapping human amniotic membrane around a repaired ulnar nerve in a rabbit model of perineural adhesion. Ulnar nerves from 10 white New Zealand rabbits were exposed bilaterally, dissected and repaired. Human amniotic membrane was then wrapped around the repair site in one limb with no such wrap in the neurorrhaphy of the contralateral limb. Three months later, the same nerves were re-explored and removed using microsurgical external neurolysis. Perineural adhesion around the ulnar nerve was evaluated by blinded surgical dissection and scored using a visual 4-point qualitative scale. Extent and grade of fibrosis around repair sites were measured microscopically (x 200) after Masson trichrome staining using measure of the depth of fibrosis and the grading criteria of adhesion. Quantitative morphometric analysis was also performed under light microscopy (x 200) with the aid of a digital counter and virtual slide imaging software (ScanScope T2, Vista, CA, USA). Human amniotic membrane wrapped nerves showed significantly less perineural adhesion and fibrosis than controls (P < 0.05). No nerve healing problems were encountered. This study suggests that human amniotic membrane application can reduce fibrosis and adhesion around neurorrhaphy sites in this animal model.

  15. Evaluation of routine postoperative chest roentgenogram for determination of the correct position of permanent central venous catheters tip

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Fereshteh; Hekmatnia, Ali; Shahabi, Javad; Keshavarzian, Amir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Jazi, Amir Hosein Davarpanah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proper placement of central venous catheter (CVC) tip could reduce early and late catheter-related complications. Although the live fluoroscopy is standard of care for placement of the catheter, it is not available in many centers. Therefore, the present study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of bedside chest X-ray (CXR) for proper positioning of the catheter tip. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 adult patients undergoing elective placement of tunneled CVC were enrolled in this study during 2010-2012. The catheter tip position was evaluated by postoperative bedside chest radiographs as well as trans-thoracic echocardiogram as definite diagnostic tool. The catheter position was considered correct if the tip was positioned in the right atrium both in CXR or echocardiography. Finally, CXRs interpreted by expert radiologist. Thus findings were compared by echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: The patients were 57.37 ± 18.91 years of age, weighed 65.79 ± 15.58 kg and were 166.36 ± 9.91 cm tall. Sensitivity and specificity of CXR for proper catheter tip position were 74.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 91.2% and 28%. In addition accuracy, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 71.9%, 1.78, and 2.27 respectively. Conclusion: Bedside CXR alone does not reliably predict malpositioning after CVC placement. PMID:25767527

  16. [Risk factors for the appearance of central venous catheters colonisation].

    PubMed

    Mioljević, Vesna; Suljagić, Vesna; Jovanović, Biljana; Gligorijević, Jelena; Jovanović, Snezana; Mazić, Natasa

    2007-11-01

    Intravascular device placement (IVD) is a part of everyday medical practice, however, its application is associated with a high risk of onset of nosocomial infections (NI) and increased mortality and morbidity. Nosocomial blood infections (NBIs) account for 10% of all the registered NI. NBIs are more frequent in patients with a placed IVD and it present an important risk factor for the onset of NBI, i.e. catheter-associated NBIs (CANBIs). Pathogenesis of CANBIs is complex and conditioned by the presence of different characteristics related to a catheter, patient and a specific causative organism. The most common CRBSI causes include coagulase-negative staphylococcus, S. aureus, Enterobacter spp, Candida spp, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterococcus spp. All the patients hospitalized at the Intensive Care Department of the Clinic of Digestive Diseases over the period January 1, 2004-September 1, 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. The study included 107 patients in whom central venous catheter (CVC) was placed for more than 48 h. All the causes isolated from a CVC segment were recorded. Culture, isolation and identification of the causative organisms were performed using standard microbiological methods in the Bacteriological Laboratory within the Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia. Catheter segment samples (tip of the CVC 3-5 cm long) were analyzed. Based on the insight into medical documentation, patients' examination and medical staff interview, catheter and patient-related characteristics were recorded. A total of 107 CVCs were analyzed, out of which 56 (52%) were sterile while 51 (48%) were colonized. The results of our study evidenced that total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (p < 0.05), number of catheterization days (p < 0.05), and central venous pressure measurement (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with CVC colonization. In this study, no statistically significant difference in catheter colonization was found with respect to sex, age

  17. The insertion of chronic indwelling central venous catheters (Hickman lines) in interventional radiology suites.

    PubMed

    Page, A C; Evans, R A; Kaczmarski, R; Mufti, G J; Gishen, P

    1990-08-01

    The insertion of Hickman central venous catheters for chronic venous access is a procedure usually conducted in the operating theatre under local or general anaesthesia. In a prospective study over a one year period we have assessed the feasibility of radiologists inserting central venous catheters for long term access. A subclavicular approach to the subclavian vein with prior digital subtraction angiography or video imaging of the vein was the technique of choice. Thirty-one Hickman catheters were inserted in 21 patients. All but two patients had a haematological malignancy. Ages ranged from 19 to 77 years. The mean time for insertion was 43 min (range 20-80 min). The catheters remained in situ for between 2 days and 242 days with a mean of 86 days. There was one documented line infection; nine patients had episodes of septicaemia with identified organisms, and a further six had pyrexias of unknown origin during the line indwelling period. There were four documented line and or ipsilateral subclavian vein thromboses, and one death occurred within 36 hours of the procedure. We conclude that radiological placement is an excellent alternative to 'blind' surgical placement. Screening during insertion provides immediate facilities for correction of malposition and monitoring of immediate complications. The time taken for catheter insertion did not impede the usual patient throughout in the interventional radiology suite.

  18. Prospective follow-up of complications related to peripherally inserted central catheters.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, C; Lashéras, A; Marie, V; Le Bras, Y; Carteret, T; Dupon, M; Rogues, A-M

    2013-08-01

    An increased use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in French hospitals has been observed in recent years. We report complications having occurred following the placement of PICC in a teaching hospital. A prospective study was made for 7 months, between October 2010 and April 2011, including all patients having undergone PICC placement in interventional radiology. Two hundred and sixty-seven PICC were inserted in 222 patients for intravenous antibiotic therapy (68%), parenteral nutrition (13%), or chemotherapy (9%). The median duration of PICC use was 17 days (min-max: 1-140) for the 200 PICC monitored until removal. The most common complication was obstruction (n=41), 16 of which motivated PICC removal (8%). Five cases of vein thrombosis (2.5%) and 20 infectious complications (10%) led to removal. There were 14 accidental removals (7%). The overall infection rate was 2.3 per 1000 catheter-days with 0.86 per 1000 catheter-days for central line-associated bloodstream infection. Thirty-four percent of PICC were removed without any complications without any difference according to use. PICC are a simple alternative to standard central venous catheter but the rate of complications is high and could be decreased by a stringent management and training for this type of catheter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Foley catheter guide use during midurethral slings: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Miranne, Jeannine Marie; Dominguez, Aurora; Sokol, Andrew Ian; Gutman, Robert Eric; Iglesia, Cheryl Bernadette

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether foley catheter guide use decreased the risk of cystotomy and urethrotomy during retropubic midurethral sling placement. This retrospective cohort study included all women undergoing retropubic synthetic midurethral sling placement at a single academic institution between January 2011 and September 2012. Patients were divided into groups based on whether or not the foley catheter guide was used during surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of cystotomy. A total of 310 patients underwent retropubic midurethral sling placement. The foley catheter guide was used in 76/310 cases (24.5%). The mean age was 57 ± 11 and mean body mass index was 28 ± 7. More patients in the no-guide group had preoperative urgency (70% versus 58%, p = 0.049), anterior prolapse (95% versus 78%, p < 0.0001), and concomitant prolapse surgery (65% versus 51%, p = 0.03). There was no difference in preoperative urgency urinary incontinence, medical comorbidities, previous surgical history, intraoperative time, blood loss, or postoperative voiding dysfunction rates between groups. Fourteen of the 310 patients (4.5%) had cystotomies: 1/76 (1.3%) in the foley catheter guide group and 13/234 (5.6%) in the no-guide group (p = 0.12). No patients had urethrotomies. On multiple logistic regression, there was no difference in the odds of cystotomy between groups after adjusting for previous prolapse and anti-incontinence surgery, concomitant prolapse repair, level of first assistant, and retropubic local anesthesia use (AOR = 0.2 [95% CI 0.02-1.7]). Foley catheter guide use did not decrease the risk of intraoperative lower urinary tract injury during retropubic midurethral sling placement. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  20. Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P.

    1987-01-01

    The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.

  1. [Catheter-related infections: microbiology].

    PubMed

    Timsit, J F

    2005-03-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas sp. are the most frequent microorganisms responsible for catheter-related infections. A relative frequency of microorganisms varies according to the countries, microenvironment and outbreaks of multiresistant bacterias. Infections due to fungi, S. aureus and Pseudomonas sp. are associated with the more severe complications. Recent data suggest that chlorhexidine, either used for cutaneous antisepsis or for catheter impregnation decreases infections due to gram positive cocci. Ecological data should be taken into account when deciding a probabilistic treatment in case of suspicion of catheter-related infection.

  2. Five-Lumen Antibiotic-Impregnated Femoral Central Venous Catheters in Severely Burned Patients: An Investigation of Device Utility and Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce C; Mian, Mohammad A H; Mullins, Robert F; Hassan, Zaheed; Shaver, Joseph R; Johnston, Krystal K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) rate in a severely burned patient population, many of whom required prolonged use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Between January 2008 and June 2012, 151 patients underwent placement of 455 five-lumen minocycline/rifampin-impregnated CVCs. CRBSI was defined as at least one blood culture (>100,000 colonies) and one simultaneous roll-plate CVC tip culture (>15 colony forming units) positive for the same organism. Most patients had accidental burns (81.5%) with a mean TBSA of 50%. A mean of three catheters were inserted per patient (range, 1-25). CVCs were inserted in the femoral vein (91.2%), subclavian vein (5.3%), and internal jugular vein (3.3%). Mean overall catheter indwell time was 8 days (range, 0-39 days). The overall rate of CRBSI per 1000 catheter days was 11.2; patients with a TBSA >60% experienced significantly higher rates of CRBSI than patients with a TBSA ≤60% (16.2 vs 7.3, P = .01). CVCs placed through burned skin were four times more likely to be associated with CRBSI than CVCs placed through intact skin. The most common infectious organism was Acinetobacter baumannii. Deep venous thrombosis developed in eleven patients (7%). The overall rate of CRBSI was 11.2, consistent with published rates of CRBSI in burn patients. Thus, femoral placement of 5-lumen CVCs did not result in increased CRBSI rates. These data support the safety of femoral CVC placement in burn patients, contrary to the Centers for Disease Control recommendation to avoid femoral CVC insertion.

  3. Optimizing ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: an analysis of neuroendoscopy, frameless stereotaxy, and intraoperative CT.

    PubMed

    Yim, Benjamin; Reid Gooch, M; Dalfino, John C; Adamo, Matthew A; Kenning, Tyler J

    2016-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid shunting can effectively lower intracranial pressure and improve the symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Placement of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts in this patient population can often be difficult due to the small size of the ventricular system. Intraoperative adjuvant techniques can be used to improve the accuracy and safety of VP shunts for these patients. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of some of these techniques, including the use of intraoperative CT (iCT) and frameless stereotaxy, in optimizing postoperative ventricular catheter placement. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 49 patients undergoing initial ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for the treatment of IIH. The use of the NeuroPEN Neuroendoscope, intraoperative neuronavigation, and iCT was examined. To analyze ventricular catheter placement on postoperative CT imaging, the authors developed a new grading system: Grade 1, catheter tip terminates optimally in the ipsilateral frontal horn or third ventricle; Grade 2, catheter tip terminates in the contralateral frontal horn; Grade 3, catheter terminates in a nontarget CSF space; and Grade 4, catheter tip terminates in brain parenchyma. All shunts had spontaneous CSF flow upon completion of the procedure. The average body mass index among all patients was 37.6 ± 10.9 kg/m2. The NeuroPEN Neuroendoscope was used in 44 of 49 patients. Intraoperative CT scans were obtained in 24 patients, and neuronavigation was used in 32 patients. Grade 1 or 2 final postoperative shunt placement was achieved in 90% of patients (44 of 49). In terms of achieving optimal postoperative ventricular catheter placement, the use of iCT was as effective as neuronavigation. Two patients had their ventricular catheter placement modified based on an iCT study. The use of neuronavigation significantly increased time in the operating room (223.4 ± 46.5 vs. 190.8 ± 31.7 minutes, p = 0.01). There were no

  4. Effect of Electromagnetic Navigated Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement on Failure Rates

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Nayoung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of electromagnetic (EM) navigation system on ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt failure rate through comparing the result of standard shunt placement. Methods All patients undergoing VP shunt from October 2007 to September 2010 were included in this retrospective study. The first group received shunt surgery using EM navigation. The second group had catheters inserted using manual method with anatomical landmark. The relationship between proximal catheter position and shunt revision rate was evaluated using postoperative computed tomography by a 3-point scale. 1) Grade I; optimal position free-floating in cerebrospinal fluid, 2) Grade II; touching choroid or ventricular wall, 3) Grade III; tip within parenchyma. Results A total of 72 patients were participated, 27 with EM navigated shunts and 45 with standard shunts. Grade I was found in 25 patients from group 1 and 32 patients from group 2. Only 2 patients without use of navigation belonged to grade III. Proximal obstruction took place 7% in grade I, 15% in grade II and 100% in grade III. Shunt revision occurred in 11% of group 1 and 31% of group 2. Compared in terms of proximal catheter position, there was growing trend of revision rate according to increase of grade on each group. Although infection rate was similar between both groups, the result had no statistical meaning (p=0.905, chi-square test). Conclusion The use of EM navigation in routine shunt surgery can eliminate poor shunt placement resulting in a dramatic reduction in failure rates. PMID:23634264

  5. Right atrial thrombus associated with subclavian catheter developed due to total parenteral nutrition application

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Nursel; Basarici, Ibrahim; Erbasan, Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheterization as a frequent routine clinical procedure may have significant complications. Mechanical complications may occur during catheter placement, whereas thromboembolic and infectious complications can be seen during follow-up. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) associated central venous catheterizations may result in early mechanical complications and thrombotic and infectious complications in the long term. This paper describes a patient diagnosed as mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy requiring long-term central venous catheterization for TPN implementation, who had an infected thrombus on the catheter tip resected by cardiac surgery. PMID:27212985

  6. Diagnosis, management, and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Carol E; Gould, Carolyn V; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is common, costly, and causes significant patient morbidity. CAUTIs are associated with hospital pathogens with a high propensity toward antimicrobial resistance. Treatment of asymptomatic patients with CAUTI accounts for excess antimicrobial use in hospitals and should be avoided. Duration of urinary catheterization is the predominant risk for CAUTI; preventive measures directed at limiting placement and early removal of urinary catheters have an impact on decreasing CAUTI rates. The use of bladder bundles and collaboratives, coupled with the support and active engagement from both hospital leaders and followers, seem to help prevent this common problem.

  7. Perineural (Tarlov) cysts mimicking adnexal masses: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    H'ng, M W C; Wanigasiri, U I D K; Ong, C L

    2009-08-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for low back pain. However, in a tertiary women's hospital, they may present as incidental findings on gynecological ultrasound imaging. Approximately 40,000 pelvic scans are performed annually in our department. Tarlov cysts were identified in three women between August 2007 and September 2008. In two patients (Cases 1 and 3), these cysts were initially misdiagnosed as hydrosalpinges on ultrasound examination, the latter having a differential diagnosis of an ovarian cyst. Two patients (Cases 1 and 2) were symptomatic, although Case 2 had symptoms that could not entirely be accounted for by the location of the cyst. Although asymptomatic, Case 3 underwent laparoscopy with a view to salpingectomy/cystectomy. In these patients, confirmation of Tarlov cysts was subsequently made on either computed tomography (CT) or MRI. All three patients were managed conservatively. Here we describe their clinical presentation, the appearance of the cysts on ultrasound imaging and on CT or MRI, and their eventual outcomes.

  8. The chemokine (CCL2-CCR2) signaling axis mediates perineural invasion

    PubMed Central

    He, Shizhi; He, Shuangba; Chen, Chun-Hao; Deborde, Sylvie; Bakst, Richard L.; Chernichenko, Natalya; McNamara, William F.; Lee, Sei Young; Barajas, Fernando; Yu, Zhenkun; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A.; Wong, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is a form of cancer progression where cancer cells invade along nerves. This behavior is associated with poor clinical outcomes; therefore, it is critical to identify novel ligand-receptor interactions between nerves and cancer cells that support the process of PNI. A proteomic profiler chemokine array was used to screen for nerve-derived factors secreted from tissue explants of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and CCL2 was identified as a lead candidate. Prostate cancer cell line expression of CCR2, the receptor to CCL2, correlated closely with MAPK and Akt pathway activity and cell migration towards CCL2 and DRG. In vitro nerve and cancer co-culture invasion assays of PNI demonstrated that cancer cell CCR2 expression facilitates PNI. PNI is significantly diminished in co-culture assays when using DRG harvested from CCL2−/− knockout mice as compared with control CCL2+/+ mice, indicating that CCR2 is required for PNI in this murine model of PNI. Furthermore, 20/21 (95%) of patient specimens of prostate adenocarcinoma with PNI exhibited CCR2 expression by immunohistochemistry, while just 3/13 (23%) lacking PNI expressed CCR2. In summary, nerve-released CCL2 supports prostate cancer migration and PNI though CCR2-mediated signaling. PMID:25312961

  9. A Model for Perineural Invasion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huyett, Phillip; Gilbert, Mark; Liu, Lijun; Ferris, Robert L; Kim, Seungwon

    2017-01-05

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is found in approximately 40% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Despite multimodal treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, locoregional recurrences and distant metastases occur at higher rates, and overall survival is decreased by 40% compared to HNSCC without PNI. In vitro studies of the pathways involved in HNSCC PNI have historically been challenging given the lack of a consistent, reproducible assay. Described here is the adaptation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) assay for the examination of PNI in HNSCC. In this model, DRG are harvested from the spinal column of a sacrificed nude mouse and placed within a semisolid matrix. Over the subsequent days, neurites are generated and grow in a radial pattern from the cell bodies of the DRG. HNSCC cell lines are then placed peripherally around the matrix and invade preferentially along the neurites toward the DRG. This method allows for rapid evaluation of multiple treatment conditions, with very high assay success rates and reproducibility.

  10. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Charles; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Poulsen, Michael; Martin, Jarad; Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  11. Tumours of the oropharynx and oral cavity: perineural spread and bone invasion.

    PubMed

    Maroldi, R; Battaglia, G; Farina, D; Maculotti, P; Chiesa, A

    1999-12-01

    Clinical examination of the oral cavity and oropharynx provides essential information in the assessment of neoplastic lesions. A precise evaluation of their deep spread along the most common growth pathways can be achieved by imaging, ranging from the basic, but nowadays incomplete, information of conventional X-ray, to the sophisticated details obtained by MR. Three oncological questions must be faced: the three dimensional evaluation of primary tumour spread; the assessment of nodal involvement; the post-treatment survey with the early detection of local recurrences, during the follow up. Either CT or MR accurately assesses the deep extension of neoplasms, nevertheless, the most cost-effective protocol is provided by a combination of CT and ultrasound (staging respectively T and N). MR is the technique of first choice when an infiltration of the base of the tongue or perineural spread is suspected, because of its superior ability to detect muscular invasion and segmental abnormalities of cranial nerves. Bone involvement can be adequately showed by MR not only because focal erosions of the cortical rim are well demonstrated, but also by means of the early demonstration of bone marrow abnormalities. Moreover, MR plays an essential role during the follow up, as it is the only morphological imaging technique permitting to differentiate recurrent tumour and necrosis from scar tissue.

  12. Symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cysts: A report of three cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mayur; Velho, Vernon; Mally, Rahul; Khan, Shadma W.

    2015-01-01

    Lumbosacral perineural cysts (Tarlov's cysts) are nerve root cysts, which are usually asymptomatic and are detected incidentally on imaging. These cysts are rare with an incidence of 4.6%. We report three cases of Lumbosacral Tarlov's cysts, which presented with cauda equina syndrome and radicular pain syndrome. Two of our patients had symptoms of cauda equina syndrome, and one had acute sciatica. Complete excision of the cyst was achieved in two patients and marsupialization of the cyst was done in another patient due to its large size and dense adherence to the sacral nerve roots. All the patients were relieved of the radicular pain with no new neurological deficit following surgery. Symptomatic lumbosacral Tarlov's cyst is a rare lesion, and the presentation can be low back pain, cauda equina syndrome or sciatica. Therefore, this entity should be kept in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these symptoms. Complete Surgical excision of these symptomatic cysts is the treatment of choice to achieve a cure. PMID:26396612

  13. Thoracic needle decompression for tension pneumothorax: clinical correlation with catheter length

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.; Wyrzykowski, Amy D.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Dente, Christopher J.; Nicholas, Jeffrey M.; Salomone, Jeffrey P.; Rozycki, Grace S.; Kortbeek, John B.; Feliciano, David V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Tension pneumothorax requires emergent decompression. Unfortunately, some needle thoracostomies (NTs) are unsuccessful because of insufficient catheter length. All previous studies have used thickness of the chest wall (based on cadaver studies, ultrasonography or computed tomography [CT]) to extrapolate probable catheter effectiveness. The objective of this clinical study was to identify the frequency of NT failure with various catheter lengths. Methods We evaluated the records of all patients with severe blunt injury who had a prehospital NT before arrival at a level-1 trauma centre over a 48-month period. Patients were divided into 2 groups: helicopter (4.5-cm catheter sheath) and ground ambulance (3.2 cm) transport. Success of the NT was confirmed by the absence of a large pneumothorax on subsequent thoracic ultrasonography and CT. Results Needle thoracostomy decompression was attempted in 1.5% (142/9689) of patients. Among patients with blunt injuries, the incidence was 1.4% (101/7073). Patients transported by helicopter (74%) received a 4.5-cm sheath. The remainder (26% ground transport) received a 3.2-cm catheter. A minority in each group (helicopter 15%, ground 28%) underwent immediate chest tube insertion (before thoracic ultrasound) because of ongoing hemodynamic instability. Failure to decompress the pleural space by NT was observed via ultrasound and/or CT in 65% (17/26) of attempts with a 3.2-cm catheter, compared with only 4% (3/75) of attempts with a 4.5-cm catheter (p < 0.001). Conclusion Tension pneumothorax decompression using a 3.2-cm catheter was unsuccessful in up to 65% of cases. When a larger 4.5-cm catheter was used, fewer procedures (4%) failed. Thoracic ultrasonography can be used to confirm NT placement. PMID:20507791

  14. Cost savings associated with antibiotic-impregnated shunt catheters in the treatment of adult and pediatric hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; McGirt, Matthew J; Murphy, Jeffrey A; Megerian, J Thomas; Stout, Michael; Engelhart, Luella

    2015-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the treatment of hydrocephalus and is associated with significant medical cost. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated (AI) shunt catheters in reducing CSF shunt infection; however, providers remain reluctant to adopt AI catheters into practice because of the increased upfront cost. The objective of this study was to determine if the use of AI catheters provided cost savings in a large nationwide database. Hospital discharge and billing records from the Premier Perspective Database from 2003-2009 were retrospectively reviewed to identify all adult and pediatric patients undergoing de novo ventricular shunt placement. The incidence of shunt infection within 1 year of implantation was determined. Shunt infection-related cost was defined as all inpatient billing costs incurred during hospitalization for treatment of shunt infection. In 287 U.S. hospitals, 10,819 adult (AI catheters, 963; standard catheters, 9856) and 1770 pediatric (AI catheters, 229; standard catheters, 1541) patients underwent ventricular shunt placement. AI catheters were associated with significant reduction in infection for both adult (2.2% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.02) and pediatric (2.6% vs. 7.1%, P < 0.01) patients. Total infection-related costs were $17,371,320 ($45,714 ± $49,745 per shunt infection) for adult patients and $6,508,064 ($56,104 ± $65,746 per shunt infection) for pediatric patients. Infection-related cost per 100 de novo shunts placed was $120,534 for AI catheters and $162,659 for standard catheters in adult patients and $165,087 for AI catheters and $395,477 for standard catheters in pediatric patients. In analysis of this large, nationwide database, AI catheters were found to be associated with a significant reduction in infection incidence, resulting in tremendous cost savings. AI catheters were associated with a cost savings of $42,125 and $230,390 per 100 de

  15. Central Venous Catheter (Central Line)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ATS Patient Education Series © 2007 American Thoracic Society ■ ■ Infection— Any tube (catheter) entering the body can make it easier for bacteria from the skin to get into the bloodstream. ...

  16. Peripherally inserted central catheter - insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... nontunneled central venous catheters. In: Mauro MA, Murphy KPJ, Thomson KR, et al., eds. Image-Guided Interventions . ... by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is ...

  17. Catheter Ablation for Ventricular Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Nof, Eyal; Stevenson, William G; John, Roy M

    2013-01-01

    Catheter ablation has emerged as an important and effective treatment option for many recurrent ventricular arrhythmias. The approach to ablation and the risks and outcomes are largely determined by the nature of the severity and type of underlying heart disease. In patients with structural heart disease, catheter ablation can effectively reduce ventricular tachycardia (VT) episodes and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks. For VT and symptomatic premature ventricular beats that occur in the absence of structural heart disease, catheter ablation is often effective as the sole therapy. Advances in catheter technology, imaging and mapping techniques have improved success rates for ablation. This review discusses current approaches to mapping and ablation for ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:26835040

  18. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... will need: Sterile gloves Cleaning solution A special sponge A special patch, called a Biopatch A clear ... around the catheter. Clean the skin with the sponge and cleaning solution. Air dry after cleaning. Place ...

  19. Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing

    MedlinePlus

    ... To flush your catheter, you will need: Clean paper towels Saline syringes (clear), and maybe heparin syringes (yellow) ... your fingers before washing. Dry with a clean paper towel. Set up your supplies on a clean surface ...

  20. Comparison of cuffed tunneled hemodialysis catheter survival.

    PubMed

    Rocklin, M A; Dwight, C A; Callen, L J; Bispham, B Z; Spiegel, D M

    2001-03-01

    Despite efforts to have hemodialysis patients begin renal replacement therapy with a mature arteriovenous shunt, many patients begin dialysis with a cuffed tunneled catheter as their access. An increasing number of differently designed tunneled hemodialysis catheters have become available in the last decade. The primary aim of this study is to compare catheter survival for Hickman (Bard, Salt Lake City, UT) and Opti-flow (Bard) catheters. The 16-month experience with 182 catheters, totaling 13,861 catheter-days, is reported. The probability of Hickman catheter failure at 30, 60, and 90 days was 29%, 49%, and 67%. The probability of Opti-flow catheter failure was significantly less at 10%, 24%, and 38% for the same times, respectively (P: < 0.05 for all time points). The difference in catheter failure rates was caused by a greater malfunction rate of Hickman catheters; the two catheters had similar infection rates. We conclude that survival of Opti-flow catheters was significantly better than that of Hickman catheters from 30 to 90 days, which is a clinically relevant period when patients are waiting for maturation of a permanent access or replacement of a failed access. Since the conclusion of our study, we documented 10 episodes of Opti-flow catheter malfunction within 4 months secondary to hairline fracture of the arterial hub. The Opti-flow catheter was recalled and is now available with retooled hubs.

  1. Hickman to central venous catheter: A case of difficult venous access in a child suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arunangshu; Agrawal, Sanjit; Datta, Taniya; Mitra, Suparna; Khemka, Rakhi

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy in children suffering from cancer usually requires placement of an indwelling central venous catheter (CVC). A child may need to undergo repeated procedures because of infection and occlusion of previous access devices. We present a case of CVC insertion in a child suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia where an innovative technique was employed. PMID:27695218

  2. The effects of perineural versus intravenous dexamethasone on sciatic nerve blockade outcomes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rahangdale, Rohit; Kendall, Mark C; McCarthy, Robert J; Tureanu, Luminita; Doty, Robert; Weingart, Adam; De Oliveira, Gildasio S

    2014-05-01

    Perineural dexamethasone has been investigated as an adjuvant for brachial plexus nerve blocks, but it is not known whether the beneficial effect of perineural dexamethasone on analgesia duration leads to a better quality of surgical recovery. We hypothesized that patients receiving dexamethasone would have a better quality of recovery than patients not receiving dexamethasone. We also sought to compare the effect of perineural with that of IV dexamethasone on block characteristics. Patients undergoing elective ankle and foot surgery were recruited over a 9-month period. Patients received ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve blocks by using 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1:300,000 (0.45 mL/kg) and were randomized into 3 groups: group 1 = perineural dexamethasone 8 mg/2 mL with 50 mL IV normal saline, group 2 = perineural saline/2 mL with IV 8 mg dexamethasone in 50 mL normal saline, and group 3 = perineural saline/2 mL with 50 mL normal saline. The primary outcome was the global score in the quality of recovery (QoR-40). The secondary outcomes included analgesia duration, opioid consumption, patient satisfaction, numeric pain rating scores, and postoperative neurologic symptoms. Eighty patients were randomized, and 78 patients completed the study protocol. There was no improvement in the global QoR-40 score at 24 hours between the perineural dexamethasone and saline, median (97.5% CI) difference of -3 (-7 to 3); IV dexamethasone and saline, median difference of -1 (-8 to 5); or perineural dexamethasone and IV dexamethasone median difference of -2 (-6 to 5). Analgesia duration (P < 0.001) and time to first toe movement (P < 0.001) were prolonged by perineural dexamethasone compared with saline. IV dexamethasone prolonged time to first toe movement compared with saline (P = 0.008) but not analgesia duration (P = 0.18). There was no significant difference in the time to first toe movement or analgesia duration between the perineural and IV dexamethasone groups

  3. No evidence that medicinal honey reduces bacterial skin colonisation at a peripheral catheter insertion site in dogs.

    PubMed

    Royaux, E; Polis, I; Boyen, F; Van Ham, L; de Rooster, H

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether topical exit-site application of medicinal honey at the catheter insertion place reduces bacterial skin colonisation. Dogs were selected at random and divided into the honey or the control group. When the catheter was removed, an area of approximately 3×3 cm of the skin at the insertion site was sampled with a sterile cotton swab. The catheter stayed in place for a median of 84 hours. Out of 46 patients, 6 patients in the honey group and 5 out of 54 patients in the control group had a positive skin culture at the time of catheter removal (P=0·547). Infection was clinically suspected in 1 of those 11 dogs; catheter-associated complications were observed in 8 additional dogs that did not have a positive skin culture. Few catheter-associated complications were observed. Extra attention to hygiene by working with a standardised catheter placement and handling protocol might have resulted in this low incidence. In this study topical application of a medicinal honey did not reduce bacterial skin colonisation at the insertion site of peripheral catheters in dogs. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Agitated saline bubble-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography: a novel method to visualize the position of central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Stock, Konrad; Heemann, Uwe; Aussieker, Mario; Küchle, Claudius

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a novel method to visualize the position of central venous catheters, which is safe, expeditious, and less expensive than the routine postprocedural chest radiograph. Retrospective comparative study. Dialysis Center of the Department of Nephrology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. Two hundred and two adult patients undergoing central venous catheter placement for dialysis, plasmapheresis, or administration of medication and solutions. None. Data of 202 adult patients with 219 central venous catheterizations were retrospectively analyzed. Each catheter insertion was followed by an agitated saline bubble-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography, which was used to localize the tip of the catheter. The position of catheter was then controlled by chest radiograph in all cases. During the 13-month study period, two catheter malpositions occurred. Both were identified by agitated saline bubble-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography and confirmed by chest radiograph. The mean time between catheter insertion and chest radiograph control (28.3 min) was clearly longer than agitated saline bubble-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography (3.2 min) (p < 0.001). The total costs of the procedure were reduced by 86.7-95.0%. Specific complications related to the procedure were not observed. The results revealed that the accuracy of agitated saline bubble-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography is equivalent to the chest radiograph. It offers a safe, cost-effective, expeditious alternative to routine chest radiograph for position controls of central venous catheters.

  5. Prospective study of peripheral arterial catheter infection and comparison with concurrently sited central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Koh, David Boon Chai; Gowardman, John R; Rickard, Claire M; Robertson, Iain K; Brown, Andrew

    2008-02-01

    Peripheral arterial catheters are perceived as having low infective potential compared with other catheters and may be overlooked as a cause of catheter-related bloodstream infection. We aimed to measure colonization and rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection in arterial catheters, to investigate risk factors for arterial catheter colonization, and to compare arterial catheter infection rates with those in concurrently sited and managed central venous catheters. Prospective 24-month cohort study. Eight-bed combined general intensive care and high-dependency unit of a 350-bed Australian teaching hospital. Three hundred twenty-one arterial catheters in 252 adult and pediatric patients were observed for 1,082 catheter days, and 618 central venous catheters in 410 patients were observed for 4,040 catheter days. All catheters were inserted in, or presented to, the intensive care unit. Both arterial catheters and central venous catheters were inserted by trained personnel under aseptic conditions, and management was standardized. None. The incidence per 1,000 (95% confidence interval) catheter days of colonization (> or = 15 colonies) and catheter-related bloodstream infection was 15.7 (9.5-25.9) and 0.92 (0.13-6.44) for arterial catheters and 16.8 (13.3-21.3) and 2.23 (1.12-4.44) for central venous catheters. Arterial catheter colonization was not significantly different than that in central venous catheters (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-3.36; p = .77). Arterial catheter colonization increased with dwell time and was similar to central venous catheters over time. Femoral arterial catheters were colonized more often than radial arterial catheters (hazard ratio, 5.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.85, 30.3; p = .075), and colonization was significantly higher when the catheter was inserted in the operating theater or emergency department (hazard ratio, 4.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-13.9; p = .01) compared with the intensive care unit. The

  6. Rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Early onset of distal catheter migration into scrotum in an adult male: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bryan S.; Vadera, Sumeet; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of shunt placement is to divert cerebrospinal fluid from within the ventricles to an alternative location in the setting of hydrocephalus. One of the rare shunt complications is distal catheter migration, and various body sites have been reported, including the scrotum. Although cases of scrotal migration of distal catheter have been reported in pediatric patients, cases in adult patients are rare due to obliterated processus vaginalis. Furthermore, there has not been a case reported for scrotal migration in an adult at an early onset. Presentation of case 65-year-old male underwent shunt placement for normal-pressure hydrocephalus-like symptoms. On post-operative day seven patient developed right testicular edema, for which ultrasound was performed, revealing hydrocele along with the presence of distal catheter in the scrotum. On post-operative day nine patient underwent distal catheter trimming via laparoscopic approach with general surgery, with post-operative imaging showing satisfactory location of distal catheter in the peritoneal cavity. Discussion/Conclusion Early onset of distal catheter migration into scrotum in an adult male is a unique case, as most cases are reported in pediatric patients, and it is the first case reported in the English literature to have occurrence at an early onset during the peri-operative period. As our case demonstrates, early occurrence and detection of scrotal migration of the distal catheter prevent shunt malfunction. Prompt surgical management of catheter repositioning is therefore recommended to avoid the risk of further complications. PMID:25553524

  7. Case report of migration of 2 ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheters to the scrotum: Use of an inguinal incision for retrieval, diagnostic laparoscopy and hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Caesar; Velimirovic, Bratislav M; Fitzgerald, Tamara N

    2016-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunts are commonly used in the treatment of hydrocephalus, and catheter migration to various body sites has been reported. Pediatric and general surgeons are asked on occasion to assist with intraabdominal access for these shunts, particularly when there may be extensive adhesions or other complicating factors. We describe a case in which an old shunt catheter was never removed from the abdomen, and it migrated through an inguinal hernia into the scrotum. The catheter became entangled and fibrosed to the testicle. A second and more recent shunt catheter was also in the scrotum. A single incision in the inguinal region was used to remove both shunt catheters, repair the inguinal hernia and perform diagnostic laparoscopy to assist in placing a new ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Prompt surgical removal is recommended for catheters remaining in the abdomen after ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction. These catheters may cause injury to the testicle, or possibly other intraabdominal organs. General or pediatric surgical consultation should be obtained for lost catheters or inguinal hernias. In the case of an inguinal hernia containing a fractured shunt catheter, the hernia sac can be used to remove the catheter, repair the hernia and gain laparoscopic access to the abdomen to assist with shunt placement. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. An Endovascular Approach to the Entrapped Central Venous Catheter After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shamit S; Konanur, Meghana; Foltz, Gretchen; Malaisrie, S Chris; Resnick, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Entrapment of central venous catheters (CVC) at the superior vena cava (SVC) cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation site by closing purse-string sutures is a rare complication of cardiac surgery. Historically, resternotomy has been required for suture release. An endovascular catheter release approach was developed. Four cases of CVC tethering against the SVC wall and associated resistance to removal, suggestive of entrapment, were encountered. In each case, catheter removal was achieved using a reverse catheter fluoroscopically guided over the suture fixation point between catheter and SVC wall, followed by the placement of a guidewire through the catheter. The guidewire was snared and externalized to create a through-and-through access with the apex of the loop around the suture. A snare placed from the femoral venous access provided concurrent downward traction on the distal CVC during suture release maneuvers. In the initial attempt, gentle traction freed the CVC, which fractured and was removed in two sections. In the subsequent three cases, traction alone did not release the CVC. Therefore, a cutting balloon was introduced over the guidewire and inflated. Gentle back-and-forth motion of the cutting balloon atherotomes successfully incised the suture in all three attempts. No significant postprocedural complications were encountered. During all cases, a cardiovascular surgeon was present in the interventional suite and prepared for emergent resternotomy, if necessary. An endovascular algorithm to the "entrapped CVC" is proposed, which likely reduces risks posed by resternotomy to cardiac surgery patients in the post-operative period.

  9. [Permanent tunneled drainage for malignant ascites: initial experience with the PleurX® catheter].

    PubMed

    Saiz-Mendiguren, R; Gómez-Ayechu, M; Noguera, J J; García-Lallana, A; Marginet, C; Cano, D; Benito, A

    2010-01-01

    The most common treatment in recurrent malignant ascites is generally temporary peritoneal drainage. We present our experience in placing permanent tunneled catheters in a series of patients and analyze the safety and efficacy of the treatment. We used total aseptic measures in the interventional ultrasonography suite to place permanent tunneled catheters in 10 patients under ultrasonographic guidance and local anesthesia. The catheters remained patent for a median of 52 days in the nine patients who died. In one of these, the catheter was withdrawn while still patent due to generalized sepsis. At the end of the study, one patient still had a permeable catheter 124 days after placement. Although the low number of patients in our series precludes generalizations, tunneled peritoneal catheters seem to be a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment for malignant ascites in terminal oncologic patients. This approach facilitates the draining of the ascites at home, obviating the need for repeated hospital visits and punctures and the risks involved therein. Nevertheless, further experience and prospective randomized trials are necessary. Copyright © 2010 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Intravascular catheter-related infections: a preventable challenge in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Chatzinikolaou, I; Raad, I I

    2000-12-01

    In modem medicine, central venous catheters (CVCs) have a pivotal role in the management of critically ill patients. The most serious complication of effective CVC placement is catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). Microbial colonization and CRBSI are the byproducts of the interaction of 4 factors: (1) microbial factors (hydrophobicity and exopolysaccharide production), (2) host factors (such protein adhesins as fibrin and fibronectin that attach to the catheter surface), (3) catheter material (hydrophobicity, surface charges, thrombogenicity), and (4) iatrogenic factors (total parenteral nutrition, interleukin-2). The organisms most frequently associated with CRBSI are Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp. CRBSIs were traditionally diagnosed through semiquantitative or quantitative cultures of the catheter tip. However, the diagnosis can be achieved without catheter removal through cultures of blood specimens collected simultaneously though the CVC and a peripheral vein. Currently, the most effective method of preventing a CRBSI is the use of a CVC coated with antimicrobial agents. Intravenous administration of vancomycin for 7 days is adequate for an uncomplicated CRBSI caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, and at least 10 days of therapy with beta-lactams is required for an uncomplicated infection caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. CRBSI caused by Candida albicans or Candida parapsilosis can be treated with at least 14 days of therapy with fluconazole or amphotericin B. In the case of Candida krusei, only amphotericin B is effective.

  11. Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection and the Medicare Rule Changes

    PubMed Central

    Saint, Sanjay; Meddings, Jennifer A.; Calfee, David; Kowalski, Christine P.; Krein, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection, a common and potentially preventable complication of hospitalization, is one of the hospital-acquired complications chosen by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for which hospitals no longer receive additional payment. To help understand the potential consequences of the recent CMS rule changes we examine the preventability of catheter-associated infection, review the CMS rules changes regarding catheter-associated urinary tract infection, offer our assessment of the possible consequences of these changes, and provide guidance for hospital-based administrators and clinicians. Though controversial, we conclude that the CMS rule changes related to catheter-associated urinary tract infection may do more good than harm since hospitals are likely to re-double their efforts in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection, which may minimize unnecessary placement and facilitate prompt removal of indwelling catheters. While we applaud CMS for forcing hospitals to increase efforts to prevent complications stemming from hospital-acquired infection, the opportunity costs and potential for unintended consequences cannot be overlooked. Consequently, how hospitals and physicians respond to the CMS rule changes must be monitored closely. PMID:19528567

  12. Bacterial and fungal colonisation of peripheral intravenous catheters in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Seguela, J; Pages, J-P

    2011-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of intravenous catheter colonisation in a routine clinical setting, to identify pathogens involved and to explore factors associated with an increased risk of colonisation. A prospective study of 100 peripherally placed intravenous catheters from 13 cats and 78 dogs was conducted. The distal two-thirds were removed and submitted for bacterial and fungal cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility of each isolate was determined. Nineteen peripheral catheters were positive for microbiologic culture from 14 animals. Twenty organisms were isolated among which Staphylococcus species was the most common. Isolates displayed lower levels of resistance against the antimicrobial agents amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalosporins and gentamicin than against other agents tested. Major risk factors predisposing to catheter-related colonisation included dextrose infusion, duration of catheter placement, local complications and immunosuppressive diseases or drugs. In a routine clinical setting, the prevalence of microbial colonisation of peripheral intravenous catheters is comparable to that found in an intensive care unit. However, consequences on morbidity and mortality rates differ. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Management of postpartum hemorrhage with intrauterine balloon tamponade using a condom catheter in an Egyptian setting.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Mohamed; Sanad, Zakaria; Ellakwa, Hamed; El Halaby, Alaa; Rezk, Mohamed; Saif, Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate uterine balloon tamponade using a condom catheter for the management of early postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In a prospective observational study at Menoufia University Hospital, Shebin Elkom, Egypt, women with early PPH were enrolled between May 2011 and September 2012. Uterine balloon tamponade with a condom catheter was applied in women who were unresponsive to uterotonics and bimanual compression; patients with successful catheter placement were included in analyses. The primary outcome was successful control (reduction or cessation) of bleeding. A condom catheter was successfully placed for 50 of the 151 women enrolled. The overall success rate of the procedure was 96% (48/50). The condom catheter was successful in all 28 cases of atonic PPH after vaginal or cesarean delivery. It successfully controlled PPH due placental site bleeding in 20 (91%) of 22 patients with placenta previa and a well-contracted uterus. Condom balloon catheter was found to effectively control PPH. The procedure is simple, inexpensive, and safe, and can preserve reproductive capacity, as well as saving the life of the mother. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT02672891. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Percutaneous Placement of Metallic Stents in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: One-Stage or Two-Stage Procedure? Pre-Dilate or Not?

    SciTech Connect

    Inal, Mehmet; Aksungur, Erol; Akguel, Erol; Oguz, Mahmut; Seydaoglu, Guelsah

    2003-02-15

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the necessity of percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation procedures performed before stent insertion. One hundred and twenty-six patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction underwent palliative therapy by means of percutaneous transhepatic placement of 183 metallic biliary endoprotheses. Forty-four (35%) patients underwent metallic stent insertion in a one-stage procedure and 82(65%) had undergone percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage before stent insertion. Balloon dilation of the stenosis before stent placement (pre-dilation) was performed in 53 (42%) of 126 patients. The rate of the 30-day mortality was 11%, with no procedure-related deaths. The total rate of early complications was 29%, and 84% of these complications were due to percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation procedures. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation had no clinical or statistically significant effect on the patients' survival and stent patency rate. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation increased the cost of stent placement 18% and 19%, respectively. Palliation of malignant biliary obstruction with percutaneous transhepatic stent insertion should be done directly, in the simplest way, without performing percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation before stent placement. It is more useful, safe, and cost-effective.

  15. A randomized trial comparing gentamicin/citrate and heparin locks for central venous catheters in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Moran, John; Sun, Sumi; Khababa, Ishrag; Pedan, Alexander; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are used for vascular access in hemodialysis patients who have no alternative access or are awaiting placement or maturation of a permanent access. The major complications of CVCs are catheter-related bloodstream infection and clotting in the catheter lumen. Parallel-group, randomized, multicenter clinical trial, with patients blinded to study intervention. 16 free-standing dialysis facilities in Northern California belonging to a single provider. 303 adult maintenance hemodialysis patients who were using a tunneled cuffed CVC for vascular access. The treatment group received an antibiotic lock containing gentamicin 320 μg/mL in 4% sodium citrate, whereas the control group received the standard catheter lock containing heparin 1,000 U/mL. Both groups received triple-antibiotic ointment on the catheter exit site during dressing changes at each dialysis treatment. Catheter-related bloodstream infection and catheter clotting. Catheter-related bloodstream infection was defined as the occurrence of symptoms consistent with bacteremia together with positive blood culture results in the absence of another obvious source of infection. Catheter clotting was measured as the rate of thrombolytic agent use required to maintain adequate blood flow. A single patient could contribute more than one infection or clotting episode. The rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection was 0.91 episodes/1,000 catheter-days in the control group and 0.28 episodes/1,000 catheter-days in the treatment group (P = 0.003). The time to the first episode of bacteremia was significantly delayed (P = 0.005). The rates of tissue plasminogen activator use were similar in the treatment and control groups: 2.36 versus 3.42 events/1,000 catheter-days, respectively (P = 0.2). The requirement for dialysis facility staff to prepare the treatment intervention prevented a completely blinded study. Gentamicin 320 μg/mL in 4% sodium citrate used as a routine catheter lock in

  16. Prevention and management of hemodialysis catheter infections.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Venkat; Darouiche, Rabih O

    2012-12-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) catheters are associated with blood stream infections, and catheter use continues to be high among incident and prevalent patients on maintenance HD. Migration of micro-organism along the external surface of the catheter is probably the most common route of infection, followed by the endoluminal route of contamination. Almost all HD catheters have biofilm formation on their surfaces and this serves as a good reservoir for micro-organisms. These active but protected microorganisms have been implicated in local and systemic infections associated with HD catheters. Good personal hygiene, exit-site care with topical antibiotics and antibiotic lock solution in the dialysis catheter reduce the incidence of catheter infection. In selected subgroup of patients, HD catheter is promptly removed after the diagnosis of blood stream infection. However, catheter guidewire exchange is an acceptable alternate strategy in some patients. The most important goal should be to increase the rate of incident arteriovenous fistula use in the HD population.

  17. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction caused by proximal catheter fat obstruction.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Cezar José; Spektor, Sergey; Margolin, Emil; Shoshan, Yigal; Ben-David, Eliel; Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement is the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus, yet shunts remain vulnerable to a variety of complications. Although fat droplet migration into the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid pathways following craniotomy has been observed, a VP shunt obstruction with fat droplets has never been reported to our knowledge. We present the first reported case of VP shunt catheter obstruction by migratory fat droplets in a 55-year-old woman who underwent suboccipital craniotomy for removal of a metastatic tumor of the left medullocerebellar region, without fat harvesting. A VP shunt was inserted 1month later due to communicating hydrocephalus. The patient presented with gait disturbance, intermittent confusion, and pseudomeningocele 21days after shunt insertion. MRI revealed retrograde fat deposition in the ventricular system and VP shunt catheter, apparently following migration of fat droplets from the fatty soft tissue of the craniotomy site. Spinal tap revealed signs of aseptic meningitis. Steroid treatment for aseptic "lipoid" meningitis provided symptom relief. MRI 2months later revealed partial fat resorption and resolution of the pseudomeningocele. VP shunt malfunction caused by fat obstruction of the ventricular catheter should be acknowledged as a possible complication in VP shunts after craniotomy, even in the absence of fat harvesting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Compensation for Unconstrained Catheter Shaft Motion in Cardiac Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Degirmenci, Alperen; Loschak, Paul M.; Tschabrunn, Cory M.; Anter, Elad; Howe, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization with ultrasound (US) imaging catheters provides real time US imaging from within the heart, but manually navigating a four degree of freedom (DOF) imaging catheter is difficult and requires extensive training. Existing work has demonstrated robotic catheter steering in constrained bench top environments. Closed-loop control in an unconstrained setting, such as patient vasculature, remains a significant challenge due to friction, backlash, and physiological disturbances. In this paper we present a new method for closed-loop control of the catheter tip that can accurately and robustly steer 4-DOF cardiac catheters and other flexible manipulators despite these effects. The performance of the system is demonstrated in a vasculature phantom and an in vivo porcine animal model. During bench top studies the robotic system converged to the desired US imager pose with sub-millimeter and sub-degree-level accuracy. During animal trials the system achieved 2.0 mm and 0.65° accuracy. Accurate and robust robotic navigation of flexible manipulators will enable enhanced visualization and treatment during procedures. PMID:27525170

  19. Research: Hyperactivity, Placement Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A diet that emphasizes the elimination of food containing artificial coloring and flavoring from meals served to hyperactive children has met with success in preliminary studies; college placement centers are advised to shift their emphasis from job research and counseling. (Author/MLF)

  20. Perineural dexamethasone added to local anesthesia for brachial plexus block improves pain but delays block onset and motor blockade recovery.

    PubMed

    Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick; Anantamongkol, Utchariya; Candido, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that perineural dexamethasone improves postoperative analgesia. However, some studies have shown minimal benefit, and have raised concerns regarding adverse physio-chemical effects of perineural dexamethasone. Furthermore, there is a paucity of studies wherein control (IV) dexamethasone was considered. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of different concentrations of perineural dexamethasone injection on postoperative analgesia, as well as complications from its use for brachial plexus blocks. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Scopus. Trials comparing control and local dexamethasone-treated groups, and those which reported duration of analgesia and/or pain scores/opioid consumptions were selected. Meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager (RevMan) software 5.1. Fourteen studies consisting of a total of 1,022 patients were included. Perineural dexamethasone significantly prolonged the duration of postoperative analgesia in patients receiving both low-dose (4 - 5 mg) [SMD 2.41 (95% CI: 1.47, 3.35 P = 0<0.00001) I² = 82%], and higher-doses (8 - 10 mg) [SMD 4.46 (95% CI 3.54, 5.38 P < 0.00001) I² = 94%]. However, the duration of motor block was also prolonged [SMD 2.52 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.98 P = 0.0007) I² = 97%] and dexamethasone delayed latency of onset of sensory [SMD -0.49 (95% CI: -0.89, -0.09 P = 0.02) I² = 76%] and motor [SMD -0.56 (95% CI: -1.13, 0.00 P = 0.05) I² = 87%] blocks. Postoperative pain scores were improved at both 24 hours [SMD -1.46 (95% CI: -2.43, -0.50 P = 0.003) I² = 95%] and 48 hours [SMD -1.20 (95% CI: -2.26, -0.13 P = 0.03) I² = 95%] in dexamethasone-treated groups, whereas opioid consumption was reduced only at 48 hours [SMD -2.97 (95% CI: -4.17, -1.76 P < 0.00001) I² = 88%]. Complications were comparable between control and dexamethasone-adjuvant groups, except for the excessively

  1. Microsurgical treatment of sacral perineural (Tarlov) cysts: case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Burke, John F; Thawani, Jayesh P; Berger, Ian; Nayak, Nikhil R; Stephen, James H; Farkas, Tunde; Aschyan, Hovik John; Pierce, John; Kanchwala, Suhail; Long, Donlin M; Welch, William C

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Tarlov cysts (TCs) occur most commonly on extradural components of the sacral and coccygeal nerve roots. These lesions are often found incidentally, with an estimated prevalence of 4%-9%. Given the low estimated rates of symptomatic TC and the fact that symptoms can overlap with other common causes of low-back pain, optimal management of this entity is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, the authors investigate the effects of surgical intervention on symptomatic TCs and aim to solidify the surgical criteria for this disease process. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of data from consecutive patients who were surgically treated for symptomatic TCs from September 2011 to March 2013. Clinical evaluations and results from surveying pain and overall health were used. Univariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS Twenty-three adults (4 males, 19 females) who had been symptomatic for a mean of 47.4 months were treated with laminectomy, microsurgical exposure and/or imbrication, and paraspinous muscle flap closure. Eighteen patients (78.3%) had undergone prior interventions without sustained improvement. Thirteen patients (56.5%) underwent lumbar drainage for an average of 8.7 days following surgery. The mean follow-up was 14.4 months. Univariate analyses demonstrated that an advanced age (p = 0.045), the number of noted perineural cysts on preoperative imaging (p = 0.02), and the duration of preoperative symptoms (p = 0.03) were associated with a poor postoperative outcome. Although 47.8% of the patients were able to return to normal activities, 93.8% of those surveyed reported that they would undergo the operation again if given the choice. CONCLUSIONS This is one of the largest published studies on patients with TCs treated microsurgically. The data suggest that patients with symptomatic TCs may benefit from open microsurgical treatment. Although outcomes seem related to patient age, duration of symptoms, and extent of disease

  2. Perineural invasion in prostate biopsy specimens is associated with increased bone metastasis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Seyfettin; Yilmaz, Hasan; Ciftci, Esra; Simsek, Emrah; Ustuner, Murat; Yavuz, Ufuk; Muezzinoglu, Bahar; Dillioglugil, Ozdal

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between perineural invasion (PNI) and bone metastasis in prostate cancer (PCa). We retrospectively reviewed the data of 633 PCas who had whole-body bone scan (WBBS) between 2008 and 2014. We recorded the age, clinical T-stage, total PSA (tPSA) prior to biopsy, Gleason sum (GS), and PNI in transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (TRUS-Bx) and digital rectal examination findings. Bone metastases were assessed with WBBS and magnetic resonance image if WBBS was suspicious. We divided the patients into two groups according to NCCN criteria: (Group 1) bone scan not indicated, (Group 2) bone scan indicated. There were 262 patients in Group 1 and 371 in 2. There is not significant relationship between PNI and bone metastasis in Group 1. However, there is very limited number of metastatic patients (n = 12) in this group. There is a strong relationship between PNI and bone metastasis in Group 2 (P = 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of PNI for bone metastasis were 72.4%, 81.7%, and 77.7%, respectively. In this group, tPSA, GS, positive DRE, and PNI were significant covariates for prediction of bone metastasis in univariate and multivariate analysis (except age). The most powerful predictor was PNI, and it increased the risk of bone metastasis 11-fold. PNI in the TRUS-Bx specimens is the most powerful predictive histopathological feature for bone metastasis, by increasing the risk of bone metastasis 11-fold in NCCN bone scan indicated patients (Group 2). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Chick embryo xenograft model reveals a novel perineural niche for human adipose-derived stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Ingrid R.; Lopes, Daiana V.; Abreu, José G.; Carneiro, Katia; Rossi, Maria I. D.; Brito, José M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSC) are a heterogeneous cell population that contains adult multipotent stem cells. Although it is well established that hADSC have skeletal potential in vivo in adult organisms, in vitro assays suggest further differentiation capacity, such as into glia. Thus, we propose that grafting hADSC into the embryo can provide them with a much more instructive microenvironment, allowing the human cells to adopt diverse fates or niches. Here, hADSC spheroids were grafted into either the presumptive presomitic mesoderm or the first branchial arch (BA1) regions of chick embryos. Cells were identified without previous manipulations via human-specific Alu probes, which allows efficient long-term tracing of heterogeneous primary cultures. When grafted into the trunk, in contrast to previous studies, hADSC were not found in chondrogenic or osteogenic territories up to E8. Surprisingly, 82.5% of the hADSC were associated with HNK1+ tissues, such as peripheral nerves. Human skin fibroblasts showed a smaller tropism for nerves. In line with other studies, hADSC also adopted perivascular locations. When grafted into the presumptive BA1, 74.6% of the cells were in the outflow tract, the final goal of cardiac neural crest cells, and were also associated with peripheral nerves. This is the first study showing that hADSC could adopt a perineural niche in vivo and were able to recognize cues for neural crest cell migration of the host. Therefore, we propose that xenografts of human cells into chick embryos can reveal novel behaviors of heterogeneous cell populations, such as response to migration cues. PMID:26319582

  4. GFRα1 released by nerves enhances cancer cell perineural invasion through GDNF-RET signaling.

    PubMed

    He, Shuangba; Chen, Chun-Hao; Chernichenko, Natalya; He, Shizhi; Bakst, Richard L; Barajas, Fernando; Deborde, Sylvie; Allen, Peter J; Vakiani, Efsevia; Yu, Zhenkun; Wong, Richard J

    2014-05-13

    The ability of cancer cells to invade along nerves is associated with aggressive disease and diminished patient survival rates. Perineural invasion (PNI) may be mediated by nerve secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) attracting cancer cell migration through activation of cell surface Ret proto-oncogene (RET) receptors. GDNF family receptor (GFR)α1 acts as coreceptor with RET, with both required for response to GDNF. We demonstrate that GFRα1 released by nerves enhances PNI, even in the absence of cancer cell GFRα1 expression. Cancer cell migration toward GDNF, RET phosphorylation, and MAPK pathway activity are increased with exposure to soluble GFRα1 in a dose-dependent fashion. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) release soluble GFRα1, which potentiates RET activation and cancer cell migration. In vitro DRG coculture assays of PNI show diminished PNI with DRG from GFRα1(+/-) mice compared with GFRα1(+/+) mice. An in vivo murine model of PNI demonstrates that cancer cells lacking GFRα1 maintain an ability to invade nerves and impair nerve function, whereas those lacking RET lose this ability. A tissue microarray of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas demonstrates wide variance of cancer cell GFRα1 expression, suggesting an alternate source of GFRα1 in PNI. These findings collectively demonstrate that GFRα1 released by nerves enhances PNI through GDNF-RET signaling and that GFRα1 expression by cancer cells enhances but is not required for PNI. These results advance a mechanistic understanding of PNI and implicate the nerve itself as a key facilitator of this adverse cancer cell behavior.

  5. Continuous Low-dose-rate Irradiation of Iodine-125 Seeds Inhibiting Perineural Invasion in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zheng; Dong, Teng-Hui; Si, Pei-Ren; Shen, Wei; Bi, Yi-Liang; Min, Min; Chen, Xin; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perineural invasion (PNI) is a histopathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PanCa). The aim of this study was to observe the treatment effect of continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) irradiation to PNI and assess the PNI-related pain relief caused by iodine-125 (125I) seed implantation. Methods: The in vitro PNI model established by co-culture with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and cancer cells was interfered under 2 and 4 Gy of 125I seeds CLDR irradiation. The orthotopic models of PNI were established, and 125I seeds were implanted in tumor. The PNI-related molecules were analyzed. In 30 patients with panCa, the pain relief was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Pain intensity was measured before and 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, and 6 months after 125I seed implantation. Results: The co-culture of DRG and PanCa cells could promote the growth of PanCa cells and DRG neurites. In co-culture groups, the increased number of DRG neurites and pancreatic cells in radiation group was significantly less. In orthotopic models, the PNI-positive rate in radiation and control group was 3/11 and 7/11; meanwhile, the degrees of PNI between radiation and control groups was significant difference (P < 0.05). At week 2, the mean VAS pain score in patients decreased by 50% and significantly improved than the score at baseline (P < 0.05). The pain scores were lower in all patients, and the pain-relieving effect was retained about 3 months. Conclusions: The CLDR irradiation could inhibit PNI of PanCa with the value of further study. The CLDR irradiation could do great favor in preventing local recurrence and alleviating pain. PMID:27748339

  6. Interobserver Variation Among Pathologists in Evaluating Perineural Invasion for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chi, Angela C; Katabi, Nora; Chen, Huey-Shys; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study are as follows: (1) to assess variations among pathologists in evaluating perineural invasion (PNI) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), (2) to survey PNI criteria used by pathologists and how they came to adopt those criteria. An electronic survey was sent to 363 oral and/or surgical pathologists. Eligibility criteria included pathology board certification. The survey participants were asked to rate whether PNI was present, absent, or uncertain for 15 provided photomicrographs, which depicted various types of tumor-nerve relationships without excessive desmoplasia or lymphocytic host response. The survey obtained information regarding demographics, whether PNI criteria were taught during residency, criteria used by participants to evaluate PNI, how the participants developed their criteria, and agreement with six proposed PNI definitions. 88 pathologists completed the survey. The participants included 47 males and 41 females, with average age = 49 years and average practice experience = 17 years. Practice settings included dental school (40 %), medical school (36 %), private pathology lab (13 %), and other (11 %). Agreement between participants in rating PNI status for the provided images was fair (κ = .38, 95 % CI .37-.39). 56 % of respondents indicated that they were taught PNI criteria during residency training. The basis for criteria currently used by participants included residency training (n = 42), published literature (n = 29), and own experience/views (n = 32). Agreement regarding six proposed PNI definitions was slight (κ = .10, 95 % CI .08-.11). In conclusion, interobserver agreement in assessing PNI status was fair. Our results suggest that more widely accepted, objective, and reproducible criteria are needed for evaluating PNI in OSCC.

  7. [Value of perineural invasion in prostatectomy specimen in the assessment on tumor progression and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y J; Wang, Y Q; Pan, J H; Dong, B J; Xu, F; Sha, J J; Xue, W; Huang, Y R

    2016-03-01

    To assess perineural invasion in prostatectomy specimen(PNIp)on tumor progression and prognosis after radical prostatectomy. Retrospective analysis including 502 prostate cancer patients admitted in Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University from December 2002 to May 2014 was studied.Differences of serum prostate specific antigen(PSA), Gleason score of prostate biopsy, Gleason score of prostatectomy specimen, tumor stage, capsular invasion, positive surgical margin, seminal invasion, pelvic lymph node metastasis, nadir PSA were analyzed in patients with PNIp and without PNIp. Logistic regression analysis, Log-rank test and Cox regression analysis was used to analyzed the data, respectively. There were 91 patients with PNIp(18.1%) and 411 patients without PNIp(81.9%). Differences of serum PSA, Gleason score of prostate biopsy, Gleason score of prostatectomy specimen, tumor stage, capsular invasion, seminal invasion, nadir PSA between the two groups were found(all P<0.05). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, PNIp was independent predictor of Gleason score of prostate biopsy, Gleason score of prostatectomy specimen, tumor stage, capsular invasion(OR=1.515, 1.955, 2.069, 1.859, all P<0.05). One hundred and twenty-one patients with biochemical serum recurrence(26.7%). Serum PSA, Gleason score of prostate biopsy, Gleason score of prostatectomy specimen, tumor stage, PNIp, seminal invasion were related to biochemical serum recurrence(P<0.05). In the multivariable cox regression analysis, serum PSA, Gleason score of prostate biopsy, PNIp, seminal invasion were independent predictors of biochemical serum recurrence(HR=1.021, 1.441, 1.663, 3.257, all P<0.05). PNIp is the important predictor of the tumor progression and prognosis of prostate cancer.

  8. Compartment syndrome in a patient treated with perineural liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel).

    PubMed

    Soberón, José Raul; Sisco-Wise, Leslie E; Dunbar, Ross M

    2016-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a condition that may result in sensorimotor deficits and loss of function of the affected limb as a result of ischemic injury. It is considered a surgical emergency and prompt diagnosis and treatment results in more favorable outcomes. The use of regional anesthesia is controversial in patients at risk for compartment syndrome due to concern of its potential to mask symptoms of the condition. A 44-year-old African American male presented to surgery for open reduction and internal fixation of a comminuted distal radius fracture. As part of an off-label, investigator-initiated, and institutional review board-approved study, he received a perineural injection of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) around the median, ulnar, and radial nerves at the level of the proximal forearm. The following morning, his initial complaints of numbness and incisional pain progressively evolved into worsening numbness, diffuse discomfort, and pain with passive movement. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made and he underwent an emergency fasciotomy. The diagnosis of compartment syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment. This patient's changing pattern of symptoms-rather than his pain complaints alone-resulted in the diagnosis of compartment syndrome treated with emergent fasciotomy in spite of finger numbness that was initially attributed to the liposomal bupivacaine. While the use of liposomal bupivacaine did not preclude the diagnosis of compartment syndrome in our patient, it should be used with caution in patients at risk for compartment syndrome until additional data, particularly regarding block characteristics, are available.

  9. College Placement in Today's Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, James L.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed the effects of reduced financing on college placement items such as services, staffing, fees, conference attendance, travel, recruitment, and salaries. Placement personnel (N=224) responded to a questionnaire. Results indicated that budgets have generally remained the same. (RC)

  10. WE-G-17A-05: Real-Time Catheter Localization Using An Active MR Tracker for Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W; Damato, A; Viswanathan, A; Cormack, R; Penzkofer, T; Schmidt, E; Pan, L; Gilson, W; Seethamraju, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel active MR-tracking system which can provide accurate and rapid localization of brachytherapy catheters, and assess its reliability and spatial accuracy in comparison to standard catheter digitization using MR images. Methods: An active MR tracker for brachytherapy was constructed by adding three printed-circuit micro-coils to the shaft of a commercial metallic stylet. A gel phantom with an embedded framework was built, into which fifteen 14-Gauge catheters were placed, following either with parallel or crossed paths. The tracker was inserted sequentially into each catheter, with MR-tracking running continuously. Tracking was also performed during the tracker's removal from each catheter. Catheter trajectories measured from the insertion and the removal procedures using the same micro-coil were compared, as well as trajectories obtained using different micro-coils. A 3D high-resolution MR image dataset of the phantom was acquired and imported into a treatment planning system (TPS) for catheter digitization. A comparison between MR-tracked positions and positions digitized from MR images by TPS was performed. Results: The MR tracking shows good consistency for varying catheter paths and for all micro-coils (mean difference ∼1.1 mm). The average distance between the MR-tracking trajectory and catheter digitization from the MR images was 1.1 mm. Ambiguity in catheter assignment from images due to crossed paths was resolved by active tracking. When tracking was interleaved with imaging, real-time images were continuously acquired at the instantaneous tip positions and displayed on an external workstation. Conclusion: The active MR tracker may be used to provide an independent measurement of catheter location in the MR environment, potentially eliminating the need for subsequent CT. It may also be used to control realtime imaging of catheter placement. This will enable MR-based brachytherapy planning of interstitial implants without ionizing

  11. A Retrospective Study of Preferable Alternative Route to Right Internal Jugular Vein for Placing Tunneled Dialysis Catheters: Right External Jugular Vein versus Left Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Wang, Yufei; Qiao, Yingjin; Zhou, Sijie; Liang, Xianhui; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Right internal jugular vein (IJV) is a preferred access route for tunneled (cuffed) dialysis catheters (TDCs), and both right external jugular vein (EJV) and left IJV are alternative routes for patients in case the right IJV isn’t available for TDC placement. This retrospective study aimed to determine if a disparity exists between the two alternative routes in hemodialysis patients in terms of outcomes of TDCs. Methods 49 hemodialysis patients who required TDCs through right EJV (n = 21) or left IJV (n = 28) as long-term vascular access were included in this study. The primary end point was cumulative catheter patency. Secondary end points include primary catheter patency, proportion of patients that never required urokinase and incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). Results A total of 20,870 catheter-days were evaluated and the median was 384 (interquartile range, 262–605) catheter-days. Fewer catheters were removed in the right EJV group than in the left IJV group (P = 0.007). Mean cumulative catheter patency was higher in the right EJV group compared with the left IJV group (P = 0.031). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of CRBSI, primary catheter patency or proportion of patients that never required urokinase use. Total indwell time of antecedent catheters was identified as an independent risk factor for cumulative catheter patency by Cox regression hazards test with an HR of 2.212 (95% CI, 1.363–3.588; p = 0.001). Conclusions Right EJV might be superior to left IJV as an alternative insertion route for TDC placement in hemodialysis patients whose right IJVs are unavailable. PMID:26751380

  12. Perineural capsaicin induces the uptake and transganglionic transport of choleratoxin B subunit by nociceptive C-fiber primary afferent neurons.