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Sample records for period surface wave

  1. Numerical Simulation of Long-period Surface Wave in Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiqiong; Yu, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    Studies have shown that the western Taiwan coastal plain is influenced by long-period ground motion from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake, and engineering structures with natural vibration long-period are damaged by strong surface wave in the western coastal plain. The thick sediments in the western coastal plain are the main cause of the propagation of strong long-period ground motion. The thick sediments similar to in the western coastal plain also exist in northern China. It is necessary to research the effects of thick sediments to long-period ground motion in northern China. The numerical simulation of ground motion based on theoretical seismology is one of important means to study the ground motion. We will carry out the numerical simulation of long-period ground motion in northern China by using the existing tomographic imaging results of northern China to build underground medium model, and adopting finite fault source model for wave input. In the process of simulation, our previous developed structure-preserving algorithm, symplectic discrete singular convolution differentiator (SDSCD), is used to deal with seismic wave field propagation. Our purpose is to reveal the formation and propagation of long-period surface wave in thick sediments and grasp the amplification effect of long-period ground motion due to the thick sediments. It will lay the foundation on providing the reference for the value of the long-period spectrum during determining the ground motion parameters in seismic design. This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41204046, 42574051).

  2. Lithospheric Thickness Modeled from Long Period Surface Wave Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E

    2008-05-15

    The behavior of surface waves at long periods is indicative of subcrustal velocity structure. Using recently published dispersion models, we invert surface wave group velocities for lithospheric structure, including lithospheric thickness, over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, encompassing Eurasia, Africa, and the Indian Ocean. Thicker lithosphere under Precambrian shields and platforms are clearly observed, not only under the large cratons (West Africa, Congo, Baltic, Russia, Siberia, India), but also under smaller blocks like the Tarim Basin and Yangtze craton. In contrast, it is found that remobilized Precambrian structures like the Saharan Shield and Sino-Korean Paraplatform do not have well-established lithospheric keels. The thinnest lithospheric thickness is found under oceanic and continental rifts, as well as along convergence zones. We compare our results to thermal models of continental lithosphere, lithospheric cooling models of oceanic lithosphere, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) estimates from S-wave receiver functions, and velocity variations of global tomography models. In addition to comparing results for the broad region, we examine in detail the regions of Central Africa, Siberia, and Tibet. While there are clear differences in the various estimates, overall the results are generally consistent. Inconsistencies between the estimates may be due to a variety of reasons including lateral and depth resolution differences and the comparison of what may be different lithospheric features.

  3. Geometric effects of global lateral heterogeneity on long-period surface wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, T.; Kanamori, H.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation has the objective to document examples of anomalous long-period surface wave amplitude behavior and to provide a preliminary appraisal of the effects of global lateral heterogeneity on surface wave propagation from a ray theory perspective. Attention is given to remarkable long-period surface wave anomalies described in literature, an equidistance azimuthal plot centered on the Iranian source region, Rayleigh wave and Love wave spectra for the 256-s period arrivals for the Tabas earthquake, constrained moment tensor and fault model inversion solutions ofr Iranian earthquakes, aspects of surface wave ray tracing, and a table of Rayleigh wave amplitude anomalies for Iranian earthquakes. Surface wave ray-tracing calculations for models of global phase velocity variations proposed by Nakanishi and Anderson (1984) are found to show that large-amplitude anomalies will be observed for Love and Rayleigh waves with periods of 100-250 s.

  4. Powerful surface-wave oscillators with two-dimensional periodic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Malkin, A. M.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2012-04-02

    We propose planar relativistic surface-wave oscillators with two-dimensional periodic gratings. Additional transverse propagating waves emerging on these gratings synchronize the emission from the wide sheet rectilinear electron beam which allows realizing a Cherenkov millimeter wave oscillator with gigawatt output power.

  5. Almost Exponential Decay of Periodic Viscous Surface Waves without Surface Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yan; Tice, Ian

    2013-02-01

    We consider a viscous fluid of finite depth below the air, occupying a three-dimensional domain bounded below by a fixed solid boundary and above by a free moving boundary. The fluid dynamics are governed by the gravity-driven incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the effect of surface tension is neglected on the free surface. The long time behavior of solutions near equilibrium has been an intriguing question since the work of Beale (Commun Pure Appl Math 34(3):359-392, 1981). This paper is the third in a series of three (Guo in Local well-posedness of the viscous surface wave problem without surface tension, Anal PDE 2012, to appear; in Decay of viscous surface waves without surface tension in horizontally infinite domains, Preprint, 2011) that answers this question. Here we consider the case in which the free interface is horizontally periodic; we prove that the problem is globally well-posed and that solutions decay to equilibrium at an almost exponential rate. In particular, the free interface decays to a flat surface. Our framework contains several novel techniques, which include: (1) a priori estimates that utilize a "geometric" reformulation of the equations; (2) a two-tier energy method that couples the boundedness of high-order energy to the decay of low-order energy, the latter of which is necessary to balance out the growth of the highest derivatives of the free interface; (3) a localization procedure that is compatible with the energy method and allows for curved lower surface geometry. Our decay estimates lead to the construction of global-in-time solutions to the surface wave problem.

  6. Elastic waves at periodically-structured surfaces and interfaces of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Every, A. G.; Maznev, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a simple treatment of elastic wave scattering at periodically structured surfaces and interfaces of solids, and the existence and nature of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and interfacial (IW) waves at such structures. Our treatment is embodied in phenomenological models in which the periodicity resides in the boundary conditions. These yield zone folding and band gaps at the boundary of, and within the Brillouin zone. Above the transverse bulk wave threshold, there occur leaky or pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW, which are attenuated via radiation into the bulk wave continuum. These have a pronounced effect on the transmission and reflection of bulk waves. We provide examples of pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW for which the coupling to the bulk wave continuum vanishes at isloated points in the dispersion relation. These supersonic guided waves correspond to embedded discrete eigenvalues within a radiation continuum. We stress the generality of the phenomena that are exhibited at widely different scales of length and frequency, and their relevance to situations as diverse as the guiding of seismic waves in mine stopes, the metrology of periodic metal interconnect structures in the semiconductor industry, and elastic wave scattering by an array of coplanar cracks in a solid.

  7. Dynamics of laser ablative shock waves from one dimensional periodic structured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelikani, Leela; Pinnoju, Venkateshwarlu; Paturi, Prem Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Laser ablative shock waves (LASWs) from one dimensional periodic structured surfaces (1D-PSS) on Aluminum metal is studied using time resolved shadowgraphy technique. 1D-PSS of triangular and sinusoidal periodic density profiles consisting of 288 lines per laser focal spot diameter (lp2ω0) with periodicity of 0.83 μm are used as targets. The SW properties such as propagation distance, velocity and pressure behind the shock front were compared with flat Aluminum surface of the target under the same experimental conditions. The possibility of tailoring the nature of LASWs with varying density profile on the surface is presented.

  8. FE-Based Surface Elastic Wave Analysis of a Two-Dimensional Periodic Half-Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kazuhisa; Araki, Toshihide; Koro, Kazuhiro

    This paper presents a numerical method for surface elastic waves in a half-space possessing a two-dimensional periodicity. The solution is expressed by plane waves in the vertical direction, while it is approximated by finite elements in the horizontal plane. By virtue of the Bloch's theorem, the problem is reduced to equations of motion in a unit cell. The vertical wavenumbers satisfying the equations in the unit cell are determined by solving an eigenvalue problem with respect to the wavenumbers. As numerical examples, periodic arrays of piles embedded in a ground are analyzed. In the analyses piles made of concrete and a soft material are considered with arrangements given by the square and the triangular honeycomb lattices. Under these conditions, the influences of the stiffness and the lattice pattern of piles on the band structure are investigated.

  9. Dynamics of laser ablative shock waves from one dimensional periodic structured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paturi, Prem Kiran; Chelikani, Leela; Pinnoju, Venkateshwarlu; Acrhem Team

    2015-06-01

    Spatio-temporal evolution of Laser ablative shock waves (LASWs) from one dimensional periodic structured surfaces (1D-PSS) of Aluminum is studied using time resolved defocused shadowgraphy technique. LASWs are generated by focusing 7 ns pulses from second harmonic of Nd:YAG (532 nm, 10 Hz) laser on to 1D-PSS with sinusoidal and triangular modulations of varying periodicity. An expanded He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) is used as probe beam for shadowgraphy. Evolution of ablative shock front (SF) with 1.5 ns temporal resolution is used to measure position of the SF, its nature, density and pressure behind the SF. The effect of surface modulation on the LASW and contact front dynamics was compared to those from a flat surface (FS) of Aluminum. SWs from FS and PSS obeyed Taylor's solution for spherical and planar nature, respectively. The velocity of SF from 1D PSS had a twofold increase compared to the FS. This was further enhanced for structures whose periodicity is of the order of excitation wavelength. Variation of SF properties with varying periodicity over a range of 3.3 μm to 0.55 μm has the potential to tailor shockwaves of required parameters. The work is supported by Defence Research and Developement Organization, India through Grants-in-Aid Program. The periodic surfaces were procured with financial support from BRFST project No. NFP-MAT-A12-04.

  10. Surface Acoustic Wave Ammonia Sensors Based on ST-cut Quartz under Periodic Al Structure.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Liang; Shen, Chi-Yen; Tsai, Rume-Tze; Su, Ming-Yau

    2009-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are key components for sensing applications. SAW propagation under a periodic grating was investigated in this work. The theoretical method used here is the space harmonic method. We also applied the results of SAW propagation studied in this work to design a two-port resonator with an Al grating on ST-cut quartz. The measured frequency responses of the resonator were similar to the simulation ones. Then, the chemical interface of polyaniline/WO(3) composites was coated on the SAW sensor for ammonia detection. The SAW sensor responded to ammonia gas and could be regenerated using dry nitrogen.

  11. Variable-period surface-wave magnitudes: A rapid and robust estimator of seismic moments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonner, J.; Herrmann, R.; Benz, H.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that surface-wave magnitudes (Ms), measured at local, regional, and teleseismic distances, can be used as a rapid and robust estimator of seismic moment magnitude (Mw). We used the Russell (2006) variable-period surface-wave magnitude formula, henceforth called Ms(VMAX), to estimate the Ms for 165 North American events with 3.2 period surface-wave observed at a local or near-regional distance seismic station after a preliminary epicentral location has been formed. Therefore, it may be used to make rapid measurements of Mw, which are needed by government agencies for early warning systems.

  12. Verification of Long Period Surface Waves from Ambient Noise and Its Application in Constructing 3D Shear Wave Structure of Lithosphere in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Yang, Y.; Ni, S.; Zhao, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decade, ambient noise tomography (ANT) has become an estimated method to construct the earth's interior structures thanks to its advantage in extracting surface waves from cross-correlations of ambient noise without using earthquake data. However, most of previous ambient noise tomography studies concentrate on short and intermediate periods (<50sec) due to the dominant energy of the microseism at these periods. Studies of long period surface waves from cross-correlation of ambient noise are limited. In this study, we verify the accuracy of the long period (50-250sec) surface wave (Rayleigh wave) from ambient noise by comparing both dispersion curves and seismic waveforms from ambient noise with those from earthquake records quantitatively. After that, we calculate vertical-vertical cross-correlation functions among more than1800 USArray Transportable Array stations and extract high quality interstation phase velocity dispersion curves from them at 10-200 sec periods. Then, we adopt a finite frequency ambient noise tomography method based on Born approximation to obtain high resolution phase velocity maps using the obtained dispersion measurements at 10-150 sec periods. Afterward, we extract local dispersion curves from these dispersion maps and invert them for 1D shear wave velocity profiles at individual grids using a Bayesian Monte Carlo method. Finally, a 3D shear velocity model is constructed by assembling all the 1D Vs profiles. Our 3D model is overall similar to other models constructed using earthquake surface waves and body waves. In summary, we demonstrate that the long period surface waves can be extracted from ambient noise, and the long period dispersion measurements from ambient noise are as accurate as those from earthquake data and can be used to construct 3D lithospheric structure from surface down to lithosphere/asthenosphere depths.

  13. Observations and modelling of winds and waves during the surface wave dynamics experiment. Report 2. Intensive observation period IOP-3, 25 February-9 March 1991. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso, M.J.; Graber, H.C.; Jensen, R.E.; Donelan, M.A.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the compilation of observed and modelled wind, wave and current parameters during the third intensive observation period (IOP-3) from February 25 to March 9, 1991, of the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment. The measurements include wind speed and direction, wave heights and periods, air and sea temperatures, and atmospheric pressures from four directional wave buoys, two meteorological buoys, and several routinely operated buoys from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). Examples of directional wave spectra obtained from two airborne radars and from a Swath ship are presented along with surface currents from airborne expendable current profilers (AXCP) and acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP). In addition, a summary of directional wave spectra is presented for this period. The model data include examples of wind fields from six numerical weather prediction models and the corresponding wave height maps as derived from the 3G-WAM ocean wave model. Estimated surface current velocities and directions from the Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center (FNOC) model and selected satellite images of sea surface temperature fields are also presented for this time period.

  14. Line-focus probe excitation of Scholte acoustic waves at the liquid-loaded surfaces of periodic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Every, A.G.; Vines, R.E.; Wolfe, J.P.

    1999-10-01

    A model is introduced to explain our observation of Scholte-like ultrasonic waves traveling at the water-loaded surfaces of solids with periodically varying properties. The observations pertain to two two-dimensional superlattices: a laminated solid of alternating 0.5-mm-thick layers of aluminum and a polymer, and a hexagonal array of polymer rods of lattice spacing 1 mm in an aluminum matrix. The surface waves are generated and detected by line focus acoustic lenses aligned parallel to each other, and separated by varying distances. The acoustic fields of these lenses may be considered a superposition of plain bulk waves with wave normals contained within the angular apertures of the lenses. For homogeneous solids, phase matching constraints do not allow the Scholte wave to be coupled into with an experimental configuration of this type. This is not true for a spatially periodic solid, where coupling between bulk waves and the Scholte surface wave takes place through Umklapp processes involving a change in the wave-vector component parallel to the surface by a reciprocal lattice vector. In the experiments, the source pulse is broadband, extending up to about 6 MHz, whereas the spectrum of the observed Scholte wave is peaked at around 4 and 4.5 MHz for the layered solid and hexagonal lattice, respectively. We attribute this to a resonance in the surface response of the solid, possibly associated with a critical point in the dispersion relation of the superlattice. On rotating the solid about its surface normal, the Scholte wave displays dramatic variation in phase arrival time and, to a lesser extent, also group arrival time. This variation is well accounted for by our model. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Investigating Global 3-D Shear-Wave Anisotropy in the Earth's Mantle from Free Oscillations, Body Waves, Surface Waves and Long-period Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulik, P.; Ekstrom, G.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a framework that can be used to investigate anisotropic velocity, density and anelastic heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a wide spectrum (0.3-50 mHz) of seismological observables. We start with the extensive dataset of surface-wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body-wave travel times collected by Kustowski et al. (2008) for the development of the global model S362ANI. The additional data included in our analysis are splitting functions of spheroidal and toroidal modes, which are analogous to phase velocity maps at low frequencies. We include in this set of observations a new dataset containing the splitting functions of 56 spheroidal fundamental modes and overtones, measured by Deuss et al. (2011, 2012) using data from large recent earthquakes. Apart from providing unique constraints on the long-wavelength elastic and density structure in the mantle, the overtone splitting data are especially sensitive to the velocity (and anisotropic) structure in the transition zone and in the deeper mantle. The detection of anisotropy, a marker of flow, in the transition zone has implications for our understanding of mantle convection. Our forward modeling of the splitting functions, like the other types of data, includes the effects of radial anisotropy (Mochizuki, 1986). We show that the upper-mantle shear-wave anisotropy of S362ANI generates a clear contribution to the splitting functions of the modes that are sensitive to the upper-mantle structure. We explore the tradeoffs between fitting the mode splitting functions and the travel-times of body waves that turn in the transition zone or in the lower mantle (e.g. SS), while observing that the waveforms and the surface wave phase-anomalies provide complementary information about the mantle. Our experiments suggest that the splitting data are sufficiently sensitive to the anisotropy in the mantle such that their inclusion may provide a better depth resolution of the anisotropic shear

  16. High-speed landslide mechanism extracted from long-period surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Yu, H.; Mangeney, A.; Stutzmann, E.

    2013-12-01

    Long-period seismic signals gathered at stations far from the landslide source can be used to recover the characteristics of the event. Source mechanism inversion based on the surface waves had already been done on two large volcanic debris avalanches (Montserrat, Lesser Antilles 1997 and Mount St. Helens, USA 1980), the initial flow direction, the total volume and the mean slope of the topography had been successfully extracted. We here try to apply the method to two other landslide events, our objective is to refine the source model used in the inversion, and to improve the method for a wider application. The first event is a huge landslide occurred in Yigong Bomi district (30.22N, 94.99E) in Tibet province of China on 9 April 2000. This landslide began as a sliding mass started to fall at the elevation of 5500m, when colliding with the ground, it broke up into debris, and ran for long distance. The whole process lasted about 10 minutes, about 300 million cube meters deposit formed a 60m-high dam in the Yigong river at the elevation of 2190m. The other event is the sudden failure happened at Qianjiangping village (30.97N, 110.61E) on 13 July 2003, on the bank of the Qinggan river. It is the biggest landslide in the last 20 years in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The landslide flow brought about 20 million cube meters rock and soil masses right into the Qinggan river in a short time with a maximum sliding velocity of about 16m/s. It is a typical rocky-bedding slide, which has been compared to the 1963 Vaiont landslide in Italy. Seismic waves generated by these two events have been recorded respectively by more than 3 seismic stations from China Earthquake Networks (CEN), in the distance range between 360km and 1700km from the landslide source. We use a source model with impulse forces, derived from the schematic view of the mass traveling down the slope.We also perform waveform inversion and compare the result with the force model. The two landslides are

  17. Transversally periodic solitary gravity–capillary waves

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Paul A.; Wang, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity–capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity–capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles. PMID:24399922

  18. Imaging the Anisotropic Shear-wave Velocity in the Earth's Mantle using Free Oscillations, Body Waves, Surface Waves and Long-period Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulik, P.; Ekstrom, G.

    2013-12-01

    We incorporate normal-mode splitting functions into a framework containing surface-wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body-wave travel times to investigate the three-dimensional structure of anisotropic shear-wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. In contrast with earlier studies, our modeling approach spans a wider spectrum (0.3-50 mHz) of seismological observables, jointly inverts for velocity and anisotropy apart from the discontinuity topographies, and incorporates new crustal corrections for the splitting functions that are consistent with the nonlinear corrections we employ for the waveforms. Our preferred anisotropic model, S362ANI+, an update to S362ANI, gives better fits to the recently measured splitting functions of spheroidal and toroidal modes that are modeled in this study. The splitting functions require additional isotropic variations in the transition zone and the mid mantle that are geographically distributed in the southern hemisphere. The level of agreement in the isotropic shear-velocity structure is higher between S362ANI+ and other recent studies than in the earlier generation of models. The anisotropic part of S362ANI+ is similar to S362ANI and is restricted to the upper 300 km in the mantle since only small improvements in fits are observed on adding anisotropy at depth. We also show that modeling the splitting functions reduces the tradeoffs between lateral variations in velocity and anisotropy in the lowermost mantle. Therefore, more data should be included to constrain any radial anisotropy in the transition zone and in the lower mantle.

  19. High-speed landslide mechanism extracted from long-period surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Long-period seismic signals gathered at stations far from landslide area can be used to recover the landslide source force applied on ground during the rapid sliding process. This force history is helpful to improve our ability to deduce the characteristics of the event as well as the dynamic properties of bulk motion. We use source mechanism inversion to analyse two different large landslides. Seismic waves generated by these two events have been recorded respectively by more than 5 stations, with the distance range from 69km to 1325km. The first event is the sudden failure happened at Qianjiangping village (30.97°N, 110.61°E) on 13 July 2003, on the bank of the Qinggan river. The landslide flow brought about 20 million cubic meters rock and soil masses right into the river in a short time. It moved about 250 meters in the main sliding direction of S45°E before stopped by the opposite bank. It is a typical reservoir landslide, which has been compared to the 1963 Vaiont landslide in Italy. The other event is the Xiaolin (120.64°E; 23.16°N) deep-seated landslide, located in southwestern Taiwan and had volume of about 27 million cubic meters. The landslide moved in the westward direction, divided into two streams at about the middle of the run-out, because there had been a small ridge and two valleys extended from the west side of the ridge. The deposit spreading length of this landslide is about 2300 meters. We discuss the different characteristics of the two events in both geological structure and movement mode based on the field survey. Then we show that those differences are also revealed by the source force-time functions from inversion.

  20. Imaging upper mantle structures in regional, continental and global scales using long-period surface waves (50-300 sec) from ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Xie, J.

    2014-12-01

    Most of ambient noise tomography studies performed to date exploit surface waves at periods shorter than 40/50 sec. Two natural questions one may ask are (1) whether longer-period surface wave (>50 s) can also be extracted from ambient noise and (2) whether long-period dispersion curves from ambient noise are accurate enough for tomography to constrain upper-mantle structures. In this study, we investigate the capability of using teleseismic long-period surface waves from ambient noise in regional-, continental- and global-scale surface wave tomography and also evaluate the accuracy of long-period dispersion measurements at periods up to 300 sec. For regional and continental scale studies, we process ambient noise data from USArray to extract inter-station long-period surface wave dispersion curves and then perform surface wave tomography using the dispersion curves. For the global scale studies, we process ambient noise data from more than 1000 stations distributed around the globe, including both permanent FDSN stations and a number of PASSCAL transportable arrays. We observe clear, strong, and coherent long-period surface waves at 50-300 sec periods at both regional and teleseismic inter-station distances. Using long-period dispersion curves from ambient noise, we generate phase velocity maps at 50-300 sec periods and then compare them with those generated from earthquake data. The results show that long-period dispersion measurements from ambient noise are compatible with those from earthquake data and phase velocity maps from ambient noise data and earthquake data are similar to each other, verifying the feasibility and validity of using long-period surface waves from ambient noise in regional, continental and global surface wave tomography. Long-period surface waves from ambient noise are complementary to those from earthquakes. The inclusion of them in regional and global surface wave tomography could significantly increase both lateral and azimuthal path

  1. On neutron surface waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatovich, V. K.

    2009-01-15

    It is shown that neutron surface waves do not exist. The difference between the neutron wave mechanics and the wave physics of electromagnetic and acoustic processes, which allows the existence of surface waves, is analyzed.

  2. Periodicity effects on compound guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-09-01

    Surface waves of different types can be compounded when a homogeneous layer is sandwiched between two half spaces filled with dissimilar periodically non-homogeneous dielectric materials and the intermediate layer is sufficiently thin. We solved the boundary-value problem for compound waves guided by a layer of a homogeneous and isotropic (metal or dielectric) material sandwiched between a structurally chiral material (SCM) and a periodically multi-layered isotropic dielectric material. We found that the periodicity of the SCM is crucial to excite a multiplicity of compound guided waves with strong coupling between the two interfaces.

  3. Quasi-optical theory of relativistic surface-wave oscillators with one-dimensional and two-dimensional periodic planar structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Malkin, A. M.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2013-11-15

    Within the framework of a quasi-optical approach, we develop 2D and 3D self-consistent theory of relativistic surface-wave oscillators. Presenting the radiation field as a sum of two counter-propagating wavebeams coupled on a shallow corrugated surface, we describe formation of an evanescent slow wave. Dispersion characteristics of the evanescent wave following from this method are in good compliance with those found from the direct cst simulations. Considering excitation of the slow wave by a sheet electron beam, we simulate linear and nonlinear stages of interaction, which allows us to determine oscillation threshold conditions, electron efficiency, and output coupling. The transition from the model of surface-wave oscillator operating in the π-mode regime to the canonical model of relativistic backward wave oscillator is considered. We also described a modified scheme of planar relativistic surface-wave oscillators exploiting two-dimensional periodic gratings. Additional transverse propagating waves emerging on these gratings synchronize the emission from a wide sheet rectilinear electron beam allowing realization of a Cherenkov millimeter-wave oscillators with subgigawatt output power level.

  4. Intermediate period surface waves from mining explosions for crustal structure and source studies: Application in the western United States and northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rongmao

    The study of intermediate period surface waves from mining explosions in Western USA (Wyoming) and Northeast China (QianAn) provides constraints on the crustal structure in these regions and the source mechanism of the explosions. Large-scale mining explosions as a result of their long time duration and large spatial extent can generate short- to intermediate-period (1--20 s) surface waves. Regional surface waves observed in the Western US were generated by four large-scale cast blasts in a Wyoming coal mine. Intermediate-period surface waves in Northeast China were generated by a mining explosion in an iron mine. Fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocities were estimated using multiple filter analysis and refined by phase matched filtering. Station specific velocity models were determined by linear inversion of the dispersion curves and found to complement known shallow crustal structure in each area. Synthetics based on mining source models and the inverted velocity structure suggest that some combination of mine free face orientation, blasting direction and material casting contribute to the observations. The Wyoming and China studies are presented at Paper I and Paper II, respectively. Assessment of surface wave dispersion provides the opportunity to make intermediate period Ms estimates with path correction. These surface wave magnitude estimates are combined with regional body wave magnitude estimates, mb, and compared to M s:mb data from explosions and earthquakes for purposes of identifying the source type. These results suggest that mining explosions are different from simultaneously detonated explosions and may appear earthquake like. This work is discussed in Paper III. The surface wave inversions used in the first part of the study utilized common linearized inversion procedures. In order to assess the effect of the linearization, a niching genetic algorithm (NGA) was introduced, developed and tested for crustal shear-wave velocity inversion in

  5. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  6. Tamm-Langmuir surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golenitskii, K. Â. Yu.; Koshelev, K. Â. L.; Bogdanov, A. Â. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we develop a theory of surface electromagnetic waves localized at the interface of periodic metal-dielectric structures. We have shown that the anisotropy of plasma frequency in metal layers lifts the degeneracy of plasma oscillations and opens a series of photonic band gaps. This results in appearance of surface waves with singular density of states—we refer to them as Tamm-Langmuir waves. Such naming is natural since we have found that their properties are very similar to the properties of both bulk Langmuir and surface Tamm waves. Depending on the anisotropy parameters, Tamm-Langmuir waves can be either forward or backward waves. Singular density of states and high sensitivity of the dispersion to the anisotropy of the structure makes Tamm-Langmuir waves very promising for potential applications in nanophotonics and biosensing.

  7. Asymmetric coupling and dispersion of surface-plasmon-polariton waves on a periodically patterned anisotropic metal film

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Jhuma; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-01-07

    The morphology of a columnar thin film (CTF) of silver renders it an effectively biaxially anisotropic continuum. CTFs of silver deposited on one-dimensional gratings of photoresist showed strong blazing action and asymmetrically coupled optical radiation to surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves propagating only along one direction supported by either the CTF/photoresist or the CTF/air interfaces. Homogenization of the CTFs using the Bruggeman formalism revealed them to display hyperbolic dispersion, and the dispersion of SPP waves was adequately described thereby.

  8. An anisotropic shear velocity model of the Earth's mantle using normal modes, body waves, surface waves and long-period waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulik, P.; Ekström, G.

    2014-12-01

    We use normal-mode splitting functions in addition to surface wave phase anomalies, body wave traveltimes and long-period waveforms to construct a 3-D model of anisotropic shear wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. Our modelling approach inverts for mantle velocity and anisotropy as well as transition-zone discontinuity topographies, and incorporates new crustal corrections for the splitting functions that are consistent with the non-linear corrections we employ for the waveforms. Our preferred anisotropic model, S362ANI+M, is an update to the earlier model S362ANI, which did not include normal-mode splitting functions in its derivation. The new model has stronger isotropic velocity anomalies in the transition zone and slightly smaller anomalies in the lowermost mantle, as compared with S362ANI. The differences in the mid- to lowermost mantle are primarily restricted to features in the Southern Hemisphere. We compare the isotropic part of S362ANI+M with other recent global tomographic models and show that the level of agreement is higher now than in the earlier generation of models, especially in the transition zone and the lower mantle. The anisotropic part of S362ANI+M is restricted to the upper 300 km in the mantle and is similar to S362ANI. When radial anisotropy is allowed throughout the mantle, large-scale anisotropic patterns are observed in the lowermost mantle with vSV > vSH beneath Africa and South Pacific and vSH > vSV beneath several circum-Pacific regions. The transition zone exhibits localized anisotropic anomalies of ˜3 per cent vSH > vSV beneath North America and the Northwest Pacific and ˜2 per cent vSV > vSH beneath South America. However, small improvements in fits to the data on adding anisotropy at depth leave the question open on whether large-scale radial anisotropy is required in the transition zone and in the lower mantle. We demonstrate the potential of mode-splitting data in reducing the trade-offs between isotropic velocity and

  9. Spectra of Surface Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-22

    with a wave follower during Marsen. J. Gophysical Res. 88, 9844-9849. 11. Hughes, B.A., 1978. The effects on internal waves on surface waves : 2...Spectra of Surface Waves K. Watson March 1989 JSR-88-130 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DTIC SELECTE JUN0 11989 0 JASONE The...Arlington, VA 22209 8503Z 11. TITLE (hlde Secvfty Cof.kaftn) SPECTRA OF SURFACE WAVES (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOfRS) K. Watson 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME

  10. Nonlinear thermal surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1984-09-01

    It is shown that density profile modifications near a plasma surface can survive at moving localized spots because of the radiation pressure of leaking wave field fluctuations. The properties of these luminous surface cavitons are studied.

  11. Composite surface-plasmon-polariton waves guided by a thin metal layer sandwiched between a homogeneous isotropic dielectric material and a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-01-01

    Multiple p- and s-polarized compound surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves at a fixed frequency can be guided by a structure consisting of a metal layer sandwiched between a homogeneous isotropic dielectric (HID) material and a periodic multilayered isotropic dielectric (PMLID) material. For any thickness of the metal layer, at least one compound SPP wave must exist. It possesses the p-polarization state, and is strongly bound to the metal/HID interface when the metal thickness is large but to both metal/dielectric interfaces when the metal thickness is small. When the metal layer vanishes, this compound SPP wave transmutes into a Tamm wave. Additional compound SPP waves exist, depending on the thickness of the metal layer, the relative permittivity of the HID material, and the period and composition of the PMLID material. Some of these are p-polarized, the others are s-polarized. All of them differ in phase speed, attenuation rate, and field profile, even though all are excitable at the same frequency. The multiplicity and dependence of the number of compound SPP waves on the relative permittivity of the HID material when the metal layer is thin could be useful for optical sensing applications and intrachip plasmonic optical communication.

  12. Stratified and steady periodic water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Samuel

    This thesis considers two-dimensional stratified water waves propagating under the force of gravity over an impermeable at bed and with a free surface. In the absence of surface tension, it is proved that there exists of a global continuum of classical solutions that are periodic and traveling. These waves, moreover, can exhibit large density variation, speed, and amplitude. When the motion is assumed to be driven by capillarity on the surface and a gravitational force acting on the body of the fluid, it is shown that there exists global continua of such solutions. In both regimes, this is accomplished by first constructing a 1-parameter family of laminar flow solutions, then applying bifurcation theory methods to obtain local curves of small amplitude solutions branching from the laminar curve at an eigenvalue of the linearized problem. Each solution curve is then continued globally by means of a degree theoretic argument in the spirit of Rabinowitz. We also provide an alternate global bifurcation theorem via the analytic continuation method of Dancer. Finally, we consider the question of symmetry for two-dimensional stably stratified steady periodic gravity water waves with surface profiles monotonic between crests and troughs. We provide sufficient conditions under which such waves are necessarily symmetric. We do this by first exploiting some elliptic structure in the governing equations to show that, in certain size regimes, a maximum principle holds. This then forms the basis for a method of moving planes argument.

  13. Waves in active and passive periodic structures - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1976-01-01

    The theory and recent applications of waves in periodic structures are reviewed. Both the Floquet and coupled waves approach are analyzed in some detail. The theoretical part of the paper includes wave propagation in unbounded and bounded active or passive periodic media, wave scattering from periodic boundaries, source radiation (dipole, Cerenkov, transition, and Smith-Purcell) in periodic media, and pulse transmission through a periodic slab. The applications part covers the recent development in a variety of fields: distributed feedback oscillators, filters, mode converters, couplers, second-harmonic generators, deflectors, modulators, and transducers in the fields of integrated optics and integrated surface acoustics. Work on insect compound eyes, mechanical structures, ocean waves, pulse compressions, temperature waves, and cholesteric liquid crystals, and particles interaction with crystals is briefly reviewed, especially in the case of zeolite crystals and superlattices. Recent advances in fabrication techniques for very fine gratings are also covered.

  14. Periodic waves in fiber Bragg gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, K. W.; Merhasin, Ilya M.; Malomed, Boris A.; Nakkeeran, K.; Senthilnathan, K.; Wai, P. K. A.

    2008-02-15

    We construct two families of exact periodic solutions to the standard model of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with Kerr nonlinearity. The solutions are named ''sn'' and ''cn'' waves, according to the elliptic functions used in their analytical representation. The sn wave exists only inside the FBG's spectral bandgap, while waves of the cn type may only exist at negative frequencies ({omega}<0), both inside and outside the bandgap. In the long-wave limit, the sn and cn families recover, respectively, the ordinary gap solitons, and (unstable) antidark and dark solitons. Stability of the periodic solutions is checked by direct numerical simulations and, in the case of the sn family, also through the calculation of instability growth rates for small perturbations. Although, rigorously speaking, all periodic solutions are unstable, a subfamily of practically stable sn waves, with a sufficiently large spatial period and {omega}>0, is identified. However, the sn waves with {omega}<0, as well as all cn solutions, are strongly unstable.

  15. Shear surface waves in phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Kutsenko, A A; Shuvalov, A L

    2013-02-01

    The existence of shear horizontal (SH) surface waves in two-dimensional periodic phononic crystals with an asymmetric depth-dependent profile is theoretically reported. Examples of dispersion spectra with bandgaps for subsonic and supersonic SH surface waves are demonstrated. The link between the effective (quasistatic) speeds of the SH bulk and surface waves is established. Calculation and analysis is based on the integral form of a projector on the subspace of evanescent modes which means no need for their explicit finding. This method can be extended to the vector waves and the three-dimensional case.

  16. Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2017-04-01

    The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drives for diesel engines by capturing both their spatial periodicity and axial motion. The Method of Varying Amplitudes is employed in the analysis. It is shown that the compound wave traveling in the axially moving periodic string comprises many components with different frequencies and wavenumbers. This is in contrast to non-moving periodic structures, for which all components of the corresponding compound wave feature the same frequency. Due to this "multi-frequency" character of the wave motion, the conventional notion of frequency band-gaps appears to be not applicable for the moving periodic strings. Thus, for such structures, by frequency band-gaps it is proposed to understand frequency ranges in which the primary component of the compound wave attenuates. Such frequency band-gaps can be present for a moving periodic string, but only if its axial velocity is lower than the transverse wave speed, and, the higher the axial velocity, the narrower the frequency band-gaps. The revealed effects could be of potential importance for applications, e.g. they indicate that due to spatial inhomogeneity, oscillations of axially moving periodic chains always involve a multitude of frequencies.

  17. Magnetoacoustic nonlinear periodic (cnoidal) waves in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur-Rehman, Hafeez; Mahmood, S.; Hussain, S.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic nonlinear periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons are studied in magnetized electron-ion plasmas with inertial cold ions and warm electrons. Using the two fluid model, the dispersion relation of the magnetoacoustic waves is obtained in the linear limit and the wave dispersive effects appear through the electron inertial length. The well known reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation for magnetoacoustic waves in plasmas. The Sagdeev potential approach is used, and the cnoidal wave solution of magnetoacoustic waves is obtained under periodic boundary conditions. The analytical solution for magnetoacoustic solitons is also presented. The phase plane portraits are also plotted for magnetoacoustic solitons shown as a separatrix, and the cnoidal wave structure always lies within the separatrix. It is found that plasma beta, which depends on the plasma density, electron temperature, and magnetic field intensity, has a significant effect on the amplitude and phase of the cnoidal waves, while it also affects the width and amplitude of the magnetoacoustic soliton in plasmas. The numerical results are plotted within the plasma parameters for laboratory and space plasmas for illustration. It is found that only compressive magnetoacoustic nonlinear periodic wave and soliton structures are formed in magnetized plasmas.

  18. Propagation and excitation of multiple surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faryad, Muhammad

    Surface waves are the solutions of the frequency-domain Maxwell equations at the planar interface of two dissimilar materials. The time-averaged Poynting vector of a surface wave (i) has a significant component parallel to the interface and (ii) decays at sufficiently large distances normal to the interface. If one of the partnering materials is a metal and the other a dielectric, the surface waves are called surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves. If both partnering materials are dielectric, with at least one being periodically nonhomogeneous normal to the interface, the surface waves are called Tamm waves; and if that dielectric material is also anisotropic, the surface waves are called Dyakonov--Tamm waves. SPP waves also decays along the direction of propagation, whereas Tamm and Dyakonov--Tamm waves propagate with negligible losses. The propagation and excitation of multiple SPP waves guided by the interface of a metal with a periodically nonhomogeneous sculptured nematic thin film (SNTF), and the interface of a metal with a rugate filter were theoretically investigated. The SNTF is an anisotropic material with a permittivity dyadic that is periodically nonhomogeneous in the thickness direction. A rugate filter is also a periodically nonhomogeneous dielectric material; however, it is an isotropic material. Multiple SPP waves of the same frequency but with different polarization states, phase speeds, attenuation rates, and spatial field profiles were found to be guided by a metal/SNTF interface, a metal/rugate-filter interface, and a metal slab in the SNTF. Multiple Dyakonov--Tamm waves of the same frequency but different polarization states, phase speeds, and spatial field profiles were found to be guided by a structural defect in an SNTF, and by a dielectric slab in an SNTF. The characteristics of multiple SPP and Dyakonov--Tamm waves were established by the investigations on canonical boundary-value problems. The Turbadar-Kretschmann-Raether (TKR) and the

  19. Surface wave tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Vertically polarized shear wave velocity (VSV), determined primarily from fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, and the difference between the velocity of horizontally polarized shear waves (VSH) and VSV, therefore a measure of anisotropy, are shown.

  20. Surface waves affect frontogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Hamlington, Peter E.; Van Roekel, Luke P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of momentum, angular momentum, vorticity, and energy budgets of a submesoscale front undergoing frontogenesis driven by an upper-ocean, submesoscale eddy field in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The LES solves the wave-averaged, or Craik-Leibovich, equations in order to account for the Stokes forces that result from interactions between nonbreaking surface waves and currents, and resolves both submesoscale eddies and boundary layer turbulence down to 4.9 m × 4.9 m × 1.25 m grid scales. It is found that submesoscale frontogenesis differs from traditional frontogenesis theory due to four effects: Stokes forces, momentum and kinetic energy transfer from submesoscale eddies to frontal secondary circulations, resolved turbulent stresses, and unbalanced torque. In the energy, momentum, angular momentum, and vorticity budgets for the frontal overturning circulation, the Stokes shear force is a leading-order contributor, typically either the second or third largest source of frontal overturning. These effects violate hydrostatic and thermal wind balances during submesoscale frontogenesis. The effect of the Stokes shear force becomes stronger with increasing alignment of the front and Stokes shear and with a nondimensional scaling. The Stokes shear force and momentum transfer from submesoscale eddies significantly energize the frontal secondary circulation along with the buoyancy.

  1. Modelling seismic noise surface and body waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, L.; Stutzmann, E.; Capdeville, Y.; Farra, V.; Schimmel, M.; Ardhuin, F.; Mangeney, A.; Morelli, A.

    2013-12-01

    A proper knowledge of seismic noise sources is important to correctly extract properties of the Earth from seismic noise records. We present the theory for modeling both surface and body waves in the secondary microseism period band 3-10 s. We consider noise sources as vertical single forces at the ocean surface and we derive their amplitude from a realistic ocean wave model. We compute the site effect due to the bathymetry for both Rayleigh and body waves by using normal modes and ray theory. We show that it varies strongly with frequency and seismic wave type. We compute the amplitude of noise spectra by using normal mode summation and we show that the fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave is the dominant signal on noise spectra amplitude. For computing Rayleigh wave seismic spectra, we derive an attenuation model that enables to fit well the amplitudes of the noise vertical component whatever the station location in the secondary microseismic period band. Moreover, we estimate the energy amount of Love waves by modelling horizontal components with vertical force sources. The discrepancy between real and synthetic spectra on the horizontal components enables to estimate the amount of Love waves for which a different source mechanism is needed. The same theory is applied to study long period noise (T=20-500 s), considering noise sources as single forces generated by the interaction of ocean infragravity waves. We compute the Rayleigh wave site effect by using normal modes and we show that it is not frequency dependent.

  2. Surface gravity-wave lensing.

    PubMed

    Elandt, Ryan B; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-02-01

    Here we show that a nonlinear resonance between oceanic surface waves caused by small seabed features (the so-called Bragg resonance) can be utilized to create the equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface gravity waves. Such gravity wave lenses, which are merely small changes to the seafloor topography and therefore are surface noninvasive, can focus or defocus the energy of incident waves toward or away from any desired focal point. We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e., a wave group composed of a multitude of different-frequency waves), a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g., for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g., harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves in certain bodies of water.

  3. Influence of prestress and periodic corrugated boundary surfaces on Rayleigh waves in an orthotropic medium over a transversely isotropic dissipative semi-infinite substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shishir; Ahmed, Mostaid

    2017-01-01

    The paper environs the study of Rayleigh-type surface waves in an orthotropic crustal layer over a transversely isotropic dissipative semi-infinite medium under the effect of prestress and corrugated boundary surfaces. Separate displacement components for both media have been derived in order to characterize the dynamics of individual materials. Suitable boundary conditions have been employed upon the surface wave solutions of the elasto-dynamical equations that are taken into consideration in the light of corrugated boundary surfaces. From the real part of the sixth-order complex determinantal expression, we obtain the frequency equation for Rayleigh waves concerning the proposed earth model. Possible special cases have been envisaged and they fairly comply with the corresponding results for classical cases. Numerical computations have been performed in order to graphically demonstrate the role of the thickness of layer, prestress, corrugation parameters and dissipation on Rayleigh wave velocity. The study may be regarded as important due to its possible applications in delay line services and investigating deformation characteristics of solids as well as typical rock formations.

  4. On Irrotational Flows Beneath Periodic Traveling Equatorial Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirchmayr, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    We discuss some aspects of the velocity field and particle trajectories beneath periodic traveling equatorial surface waves over a flat bed in a flow with uniform underlying currents. The system under study consists of the governing equations for equatorial ocean waves within a non-inertial frame of reference, where Euler's equation of motion has to be suitably adjusted, in order to account for the influence of the earth's rotation.

  5. Surface acoustic wave microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-09-21

    The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next.

  6. Surface acoustic wave microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S.; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting, and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next. PMID:23900527

  7. Gravity Forcing Of Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, K. E.

    2005-12-01

    Surface waves in deep water are forced entirely by gravity at the air-sea interface when no other forces act tangent to the surface. Then according to Newton's second law, the fluid acceleration parallel to the surface must equal the component of gravity parallel to the surface. Between crest and trough the fluid accelerates; between trough and crest the fluid decelerates. By replacing Bernoulli's law, gravity forcing becomes the dynamic boundary condition needed to solve the mathematical problem of these waves. Irrotational waves with a sinusoidal profile satisfy the gravity forcing condition, with the usual dispersion relation, provided the slope is small compared to one, as is true also of the Stokes development. However, the exact wave shape can be calculated using the gravity forcing method in a way that is less complex and less time consuming than that of the Stokes perturbation expansion. To the second order the surface elevation is the same as the Stokes result; the third order calculation has not been made yet. Extensions of the gravity forcing method can easily be carried out for multiple wave trains, solitary waves and bores, waves in finite constant mean depths, and internal waves in a two-layer system. For shoaling surface waves gravity forcing provides a physical understanding of the progressive steepening often observed near shore.

  8. Identification for a Nonlinear Periodic Wave Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Morosanu, C.; Trenchea, C.

    2001-07-01

    This work is concerned with an approximation process for the identification of nonlinearities in the nonlinear periodic wave equation. It is based on the least-squares approach and on a splitting method. A numerical algorithm of gradient type and the numerical implementation are given.

  9. Heat waves and warm periods in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faško, Pavel; Bochníček, Oliver; Markovič, Ladislav; Švec, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The scenarios of climate change caused by human activity show that frequency of occurrence and extent of heat waves in the interior of Europe is increasing. Among the most exposed regions in this regard should the area of southeastern and eastern Austria and south-western Slovakia. The relatively faster increase in the number of heat waves in this area is related also to potential desertification in this region just east of the Alps, since during summer, weather fronts advancing from the west are consequently losing their original features and moderating influence. Summer weather patterns for this area should in the future more closely remind climate typical for some inland areas of southwestern, southern and southeastern Europe. A certain shift of climate zones from south to north should thus modify future climate and Slovakia. Despite the complex natural conditions the existing trends derived from results of meteorological measurements and observations are clear and they confirm warming of climate in this region. Observations and measurements in the recent years of the 21st century confirm, that heat waves are no longer rare phenomenon during summer, but are systematically appearing even in colder regions of northern Slovakia. What is very remarkable and will be necessary to pay more attention to, is the fact that these heat waves are expanding into previously unaffected areas, associated with the lack of rainfall and drought, on larger regional scale. In this study heat wave periods and individual heat events and days are statistically identified in the time series characteristics of air temperature at selected meteorological stations for the period from the mid-20th century until 2015, in case of available historical data even for longer period.

  10. Multichannel analysis of surface waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.

    1999-01-01

    The frequency-dependent properties of Rayleigh-type surface waves can be utilized for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface. Most surface-wave analysis relies on the accurate calculation of phase velocities for the horizontally traveling fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave acquired by stepping out a pair of receivers at intervals based on calculated ground roll wavelengths. Interference by coherent source-generated noise inhibits the reliability of shear-wave velocities determined through inversion of the whole wave field. Among these nonplanar, nonfundamental-mode Rayleigh waves (noise) are body waves, scattered and nonsource-generated surface waves, and higher-mode surface waves. The degree to which each of these types of noise contaminates the dispersion curve and, ultimately, the inverted shear-wave velocity profile is dependent on frequency as well as distance from the source. Multichannel recording permits effective identification and isolation of noise according to distinctive trace-to-trace coherency in arrival time and amplitude. An added advantage is the speed and redundancy of the measurement process. Decomposition of a multichannel record into a time variable-frequency format, similar to an uncorrelated Vibroseis record, permits analysis and display of each frequency component in a unique and continuous format. Coherent noise contamination can then be examined and its effects appraised in both frequency and offset space. Separation of frequency components permits real-time maximization of the S/N ratio during acquisition and subsequent processing steps. Linear separation of each ground roll frequency component allows calculation of phase velocities by simply measuring the linear slope of each frequency component. Breaks in coherent surface-wave arrivals, observable on the decomposed record, can be compensated for during acquisition and processing. Multichannel recording permits single-measurement surveying of a broad depth range, high levels of

  11. Waves in almost periodic particle chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazor, Y.; Steinberg, Ben Z.

    2014-07-01

    Almost periodic particle chains exhibit peculiar propagation properties that are not observed in perfectly periodic ones. Furthermore, since they inherently support nonnegligible long-range interactions and radiation through the surrounding free space, nearest-neighbor approximations cannot be invoked. Hence the governing operator is fundamentally different from that used in traditional analysis of almost periodic structures, e.g., Harper's model and almost Mathieu difference equations. We present a mathematical framework for the analysis of almost periodic particle chains, and study their electrodynamic properties. We show that they support guided modes that exhibit a complex interaction mechanism with the light cone. These modes possess a two-dimensional fractal-like structure in the frequency-wave number space, such that a modal phase velocity cannot be uniquely defined. However, a well-defined group velocity is revealed due to the fractal's inner structure.

  12. Regularity for steady periodic capillary water waves with vorticity.

    PubMed

    Henry, David

    2012-04-13

    In the following, we prove new regularity results for two-dimensional steady periodic capillary water waves with vorticity, in the absence of stagnation points. Firstly, we prove that if the vorticity function has a Hölder-continuous first derivative, then the free surface is a smooth curve and the streamlines beneath the surface will be real analytic. Furthermore, once we assume that the vorticity function is real analytic, it will follow that the wave surface profile is itself also analytic. A particular case of this result includes irrotational fluid flow where the vorticity is zero. The property of the streamlines being analytic allows us to gain physical insight into small-amplitude waves by justifying a power-series approach.

  13. Generation Of 3d Periodic Internal Wave Beams:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yuli D.; Vasiliev, Alexey Yu.

    We study generation of 2D and 3D periodic internal wave beams in continuously strat- ified viscous liquid basing on a complete set of governing equations and exact bound- ary conditions that is no-slip for velocity and attenuation of all disturbances at infinite distance from the source. The linearized governing equations are solved by an integral transform method. A total set of dispersion equation roots contains terms correspond- ing to internal waves and additional roots describing two kinds of periodic boundary layers. The first one is a viscous boundary layer and has an analogue that is a periodic or Stokes' layer in a homogeneous fluid. Its thickness is defined by a kinematic viscos- ity coefficient and a buoyancy frequency. The second one, that is an internal boundary layer, is a specific feature of stratified flows. Its thickness besides the Stokes' scale contains additional factor depending on relative wave frequency and geometry of the problem that is on the local slope of emitting surface and a direction of the waves propagation. We have constructed exact solutions of linear problems describing gen- eration of 2D waves by a strip and 3D by a rectangular with an arbitrary ratio of sides moving along or normally to a sloping plane. We also calculated the wave pattern gen- erated by a part of a vertical cylinder surface with different ratios of intrinsic scales that is of cylinder radius, thickness of the boundary layer and internal viscous scale. All solutions are regularly matched between themselves in limiting cases. The spatial decay of the waves depends on dimension and geometry of the problem. Non-linear generation of internal waves by the Stokes' boundary layer on a periodically rotating horizontal disk or by interacting boundary layers on an arbitrary moving strip is in- vestigated. We found conditions of generation of the main frequency and its second harmonic. In experiments periodic waves beams from different sources are visualised by the

  14. Solitary surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1982-06-01

    Surface solitons excited at the edge of a plasma sheet can propagate across the sheet along its surface and, depending on the parameters chosen, collide with surface solitons at the edge. The strong electric field created in such a collision may produce a spot of light. Attention is given to surface solitons on a semi-infinite plasma, using cold electron plasma equations. Because all characteristic times of the processes in question are much smaller than the inverse ion plasma frequency, the ions may be regarded as immobile. This situation is relevant to a plasma bounded by a dielectric which prevents distortion of the surface.

  15. Resonance wave pumping with surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmigniani, Remi; Gharib, Morteza; Violeau, Damien; Caltech-ENPC Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The valveless impedance pump enables the production or amplification of a flow without the use of integrated mobile parts, thus delaying possible failures. It is usually composed of fluid-filled flexible tubing, closed by solid tubes. The flexible tube is pinched at an off-centered position relative to the tube ends. This generates a complex wave dynamic that results in a pumping phenomenon. It has been previously reported that pinching at intrinsic resonance frequencies of the system results in a strong pulsating flow. A case of a free surface wave pump is investigated. The resonance wave pump is composed of a rectangular tank with a submerged plate separating the water into a free surface and a recirculation rectangular section connected through two openings at each end of the tank. A paddle placed at an off-center position above the submerged plate is controlled in a heaving motion with different frequencies and amplitudes. Similar to the case of valveless impedance pump, we observed that near resonance frequencies strong pulsating flow is generated with almost no oscillations. A linear theory is developed to pseudo-analytically evaluate these frequencies. In addition, larger scale applications were simulated using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic codes.

  16. Periodic envelopes of waves over non-uniform depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Girish K.; Bayram, Saziye; Henderson, Diane M.

    2016-04-01

    The envelope of narrow-banded, periodic, surface-gravity waves propagating in one dimension over water of finite, non-uniform depth may be modeled by the Djordjević and Redekopp ["On the development of packets of surface gravity waves moving over an uneven bottom," Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 29, 950-962 (1978)] equation (DRE). Here we find five approximate solutions of the DRE that are in the form of Jacobi-elliptic functions and discuss them within the framework of ocean swell. We find that in all cases, the maximum envelope-amplitude decreases/increases when the wave group propagates on water of decreasing/increasing depth. In the limit of the elliptic modulus approaching one, three of the solutions reduce to the envelope soliton solution. In the limit of the elliptic modulus approaching zero, two of the solutions reduce to an envelope-amplitude that is uniform in an appropriate reference frame.

  17. Topological charge pump by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zheng; Shi-Ping, Feng; Shi-Jie, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Quantized electron pumping by the surface acoustic wave across barriers created by a sequence of split metal gates is interpreted from the viewpoint of topology. The surface acoustic wave serves as a one-dimensional periodical potential whose energy spectrum possesses the Bloch band structure. The time-dependent phase plays the role of an adiabatic parameter of the Hamiltonian which induces a geometrical phase. The pumping currents are related to the Chern numbers of the filled bands below the Fermi energy. Based on this understanding, we predict a novel effect of quantized but non-monotonous current plateaus simultaneously pumped by two homodromous surface acoustic waves. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374036) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821403).

  18. Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented.

  19. Born scattering of long-period body waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalkolmo, Jörg; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2000-09-01

    The Born approximation is applied to the modelling of the propagation of deeply turning long-period body waves through heterogeneities in the lowermost mantle. We use an exact Green's function for a spherically symmetric earth model that also satisfies the appropriate boundary conditions at internal boundaries and the surface of the earth. The scattered displacement field is obtained by a numerical quadrature of the product of the Green's function, the exciting wavefield and structural perturbations. We study three examples: scattering of long-period P waves from a plume rising from the core-mantle boundary (CMB), generation of long-period precursors to PKIKP by strong, localized scatterers at the CMB, and propagation of core-diffracted P waves through large-scale heterogeneities in D''. The main results are as follows: (1) the signals scattered from a realistic plume are small with relative amplitudes of less than 2 per cent at a period of 20s, rendering plume detection a fairly difficult task; (2) strong heterogeneities at the CMB of appropriate size may produce observable long-period precursors to PKIKP in spite of the presence of a diffraction from the PKP-B caustic; (3) core-diffracted P waves (Pdiff) are sensitive to structure in D'' far off the geometrical ray path and also far beyond the entry and exit points of the ray into and out of D'' sensitivity kernels exhibit ring-shaped patterns of alternating sign reminiscent of Fresnel zones; (4) Pdiff also shows a non-negligible sensitivity to shear wave velocity in D'' (5) down to periods of 40s, the Born approximation is sufficiently accurate to allow waveform modelling of Pdiff through large-scale heterogeneities in D'' of up to 5 per cent.

  20. Frequency selective surfaces with multiple periodic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Jeffrey Alan

    A thorough computer design study using the method of Chen1,2,3 was undertaken for band-pass filters constructed from frequency selective surfaces (FSSs). The FSSs, modeled as thin, perfectly conducting surfaces with periodically arranged apertures, were designed to produce a transmission profile with a bandpass characteristic centered at 10.6 μm and to have various specified bandwidths. The effects of aperture shape and dimensions, configuration and periodicity of the aperture array, and presence of a dielectric substrate were examined in- depth. For comparison purposes, a complimentary array of metallic patches was also examined. The successful design (a thin, planar sheet of aluminum perforated with narrow rectangular apertures in a triangular array configuration on a thick zinc selenide substrate) provided a preliminary set of basic design rules for creating bandpass filters from FSSs. Dual resonance transmission profiles were generated by considering a FSS with a group of apertures as the periodic element. Chen's method1,2,3 was modified to work with periodic groups of up to four rectangular or circular shaped apertures (or metallic patches). Combinations of different length narrow slot apertures, combinations of square and narrow slot apertures, and variation of periodicity along alternating rows of narrow slot apertures, all produced a dual resonance transmission profile in the computer model. For the combination of different length narrow apertures, the dual resonance resulted from the natural resonance associated with the two different length narrow apertures, while for the combination of squares and narrow slots, an enhancement of the Wood's anomaly at the diffraction edge created the second resonance peak. Variation of the periodicity along alternating rows produced a dual resonance because each of the 'superimposed arrays' had a different periodicity. The presence of Wood's anomalies in the transmission profile was also examined. Finally, 'proof of

  1. Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2007-07-17

    A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.

  2. Surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collman, James P.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Zhang, Xumu; Herrmann, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device that responds to oxygen pressure was developed by coating a 158 MHz quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device with an oxygen binding agent. Two types of coatings were used. One type was prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer containing the axial ligand. A second type was prepared with an oxygen binding porphyrin solution containing excess axial ligand without a polymer matrix. In the polymer based coatings, the copolymer served to provide the axial ligand to the oxygen binding agent and as a coating matrix on the surface of the SAW device. The oxygen sensing SAW device has been shown to bind oxygen following a Langmuir isotherm and may be used to measure the equilibrium constant of the oxygen binding compound in the coating matrix.

  3. On the generation of internal wave modes by surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlander, Uwe; Kirschner, Ian; Maas, Christian; Zaussinger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Internal gravity waves play an important role in the ocean since they transport energy and momentum and the can lead to mixing when they break. Surface waves and internal gravity waves can interact. On the one hand, long internal waves imply a slow varying shear current that modifies the propagation of surface waves. Surface waves generated by the atmosphere can, on the other hand, excite internal waves by nonlinear interaction. Thereby a surface wave packet consisting of two close frequencies can resonate with a low frequency internal wave (Phillips, 1966). From a theoretical point of view, the latter has been studied intensively by using a 2-layer model, i.e. a surface layer with a strong density contrast and an internal layer with a comparable weak density contrast (Ball, 1964; Craig et al., 2010). In the present work we analyse the wave coupling for a continuously stratified fluid using a fully non-linear 2D numerical model (OpenFoam) and compare this with laboratory experiments (see Lewis et al. 1974). Surface wave modes are used as initial condition and the time development of the dominant surface and internal waves are studied by spectral and harmonic analysis. For the simple geometry of a box, the results are compared with analytical spectra of surface and gravity waves. Ball, F.K. 1964: Energy transfer between external and internal gravity waves. J. Fluid Mech. 19, 465. Craig, W., Guyenne, P., Sulem, C. 2010: Coupling between internal and surface waves. Natural Hazards 57, 617-642. Lewis, J.E., Lake, B.M., Ko, D.R.S 1974: On the interaction of internal waves and surfacr gravity waves, J. Fluid Mech. 63, 773-800. Phillips, O.M. 1966: The dynamics of the upper ocean, Cambridge University Press, 336pp.

  4. Solitary surface waves on a plasma cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1983-03-01

    By considering electrostatic surface waves propagating along a plasma cylinder, it is demonstrated that solitary variations in the cylinder radius may appear. The properties of these slow perturbations are determined by the surface wave intensities.

  5. Wave-wave interactions in the stratosphere - Observations during quiet and active wintertime periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. K.; Gille, J. C.; Lyjak, L. V.

    1984-01-01

    Smith (1983) has demonstrated that wave-wave interactions among planetary waves 1, 2, and 3 were important during the month of January 1979, a period characterized by extremely large wave 1 amplitudes in the stratosphere. In the present investigation, the same analysis is applied to the period November 1978 through March 1979 with the aim to determine the conditions under which wave-wave interactions were important. Attention is given to enstrophy budget calculations, the wave 1/wave 2 vacillation, a quantitative measure of wave-wave interactions, and examples of wave-wave interactions during several periods. It is found that the vacillation between waves 1 and 2 has no clear relationship to the tropopause forcing as represented by the 300 mb amplitude.

  6. Deterministic forward scatter from surface gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Deane, Grant B; Preisig, James C; Tindle, Chris T; Lavery, Andone; Stokes, M Dale

    2012-12-01

    Deterministic structures in sound reflected by gravity waves, such as focused arrivals and Doppler shifts, have implications for underwater acoustics and sonar, and the performance of underwater acoustic communications systems. A stationary phase analysis of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff scattering integral yields the trajectory of focused arrivals and their relationship to the curvature of the surface wave field. Deterministic effects along paths up to 70 water depths long are observed in shallow water measurements of surface-scattered sound at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory. The arrival time and amplitude of surface-scattered pulses are reconciled with model calculations using measurements of surface waves made with an upward-looking sonar mounted mid-way along the propagation path. The root mean square difference between the modeled and observed pulse arrival amplitude and delay, respectively, normalized by the maximum range of amplitudes and delays, is found to be 0.2 or less for the observation periods analyzed. Cross-correlation coefficients for modeled and observed pulse arrival delays varied from 0.83 to 0.16 depending on surface conditions. Cross-correlation coefficients for normalized pulse energy for the same conditions were small and varied from 0.16 to 0.06. In contrast, the modeled and observed pulse arrival delay and amplitude statistics were in good agreement.

  7. Traveling surface waves of moderate amplitude in shallow water

    PubMed Central

    Gasull, Armengol; Geyer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    We study traveling wave solutions of an equation for surface waves of moderate amplitude arising as a shallow water approximation of the Euler equations for inviscid, incompressible and homogeneous fluids. We obtain solitary waves of elevation and depression, including a family of solitary waves with compact support, where the amplitude may increase or decrease with respect to the wave speed. Our approach is based on techniques from dynamical systems and relies on a reformulation of the evolution equation as an autonomous Hamiltonian system which facilitates an explicit expression for bounded orbits in the phase plane to establish existence of the corresponding periodic and solitary traveling wave solutions. PMID:24895474

  8. Surface acoustic wave frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsko, A. B.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate opto-mechanical oscillation (OMO) and subsequent generation of acoustic wave frequency combs in monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators. The OMO is observed in resonators made of electro-optic (lithium tantalate), non-electro-optic birefringent (magnesium fluoride), and non-birefringent (calcium fluoride) materials. The phenomenon manifests itself as generation of optical harmonics separated by the eigenfrequency of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) mechanical mode of the same WGM resonator. We show that the light escaping the resonator and demodulated on a fast photodiode produces a spectrally pure radio frequency (RF) signal. For instance, we demonstrate generation of 200 MHz signals with instantaneous linewidth of 0.2 Hz.

  9. Determination of ocean surface wave shape from forward scattered sound.

    PubMed

    Walstead, Sean P; Deane, Grant B

    2016-08-01

    Forward scattered sound from the ocean surface is inverted for wave shape during three periods: low wind, mix of wind and swell, and stormy. Derived wave profiles are spatially limited to a Fresnel region at or near the nominal surface specular reflection point. In some cases, the surface wave profiles exhibit unrealistic temporal and spatial properties. To remedy this, the spatial gradient of inverted waves is constrained to a maximum slope of 0.88. Under this global constraint, only surface waves during low wind conditions result in a modeled surface multipath that accurately matches data. The power spectral density of the inverted surface wave field saturates around a frequency of 8 Hz while upward looking SONAR saturates at 1 Hz. Each shows a high frequency spectral slope of -4 that is in agreement with various empirical ocean wave spectra. The improved high frequency resolution provided by the scattering inversion indicates that it is possible to remotely gain information about high frequency components of ocean waves. The inability of the inversion algorithm to determine physically realistic surface waves in periods of high wind indicates that bubbles and out of plane scattering become important in those operating scenarios.

  10. GENERAL: Periodic folded waves for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Hua

    2009-08-01

    A general solution, including three arbitrary functions, is obtained for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave (MDWW) equation by means of the WTC truncation method. Introducing proper multiple valued functions and Jacobi elliptic functions in the seed solution, special types of periodic folded waves are derived. In the long wave limit these periodic folded wave patterns may degenerate into single localized folded solitary wave excitations. The interactions of the periodic folded waves and the degenerated single folded solitary waves are investigated graphically and found to be completely elastic.

  11. Global surface wave tomography using seismic hum.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kiwamu; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi

    2009-10-02

    The development of global surface wave tomography using earthquakes has been crucial to exploration of the dynamic status of Earth's deep. It is naturally believed that only large earthquakes can generate long-period seismic waves that penetrate deep enough into Earth for such exploration. The discovery of seismic hum, Earth's background free oscillations, which are randomly generated by oceanic and/or atmospheric disturbances, now provides an alternative approach. We present results of global upper-mantle seismic tomography using seismic hum and without referring to earthquakes. At periods of 100 to 400 seconds, the phase-velocity anomalies of Rayleigh waves are measured by modeling the observed cross-correlation functions between every pair of stations from among 54 globally distributed seismic stations. The anomalies are then inverted to obtain the three-dimensional S-wave velocity structure in the upper mantle. Our technique provides a new means for exploring the three-dimensional structure of the interior of terrestrial planets with an atmosphere and/or oceans, particularly Mars.

  12. Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Länge, Kerstin; Rapp, Bastian E; Rapp, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This review presents an overview of 20 years of worldwide development in the field of biosensors based on special types of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that permit the highly sensitive detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media (such as water or aqueous buffer solutions). 1987 saw the first approaches, which used either horizontally polarized shear waves (HPSW) in a delay line configuration on lithium tantalate (LiTaO(3)) substrates or SAW resonator structures on quartz or LiTaO(3) with periodic mass gratings. The latter are termed "surface transverse waves" (STW), and they have comparatively low attenuation values when operated in liquids. Later Love wave devices were developed, which used a film resonance effect to significantly reduce attenuation. All of these sensor approaches were accompanied by the development of appropriate sensing films. First attempts used simple layers of adsorbed antibodies. Later approaches used various types of covalently bound layers, for example those utilizing intermediate hydrogel layers. Recent approaches involve SAW biosensor devices inserted into compact systems with integrated fluidics for sample handling. To achieve this, the SAW biosensors can be embedded into micromachined polymer housings. Combining these two features will extend the system to create versatile biosensor arrays for generic lab use or for diagnostic purposes.

  13. Maximum Periodic Wave Runup on Smooth Slopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    parameters in Equation 1, Iribarren (1949) first noted the importance of the combination of wave steepness (H/L0) and structure slope (A) in one parameter...the Iribarren number (tan (A)/(H/Lo)1/2). Various researchers (Galvin (1972), Battjes (1974), Hunt (1959)) have noted the impor- tance of this...proportional to the Iribarren number under breaking wave conditions. Battjes (1974) provides a physical explanation for the relationship between runup and

  14. Peaked Periodic Wave Solutions to the Broer–Kaup Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Bi, Qin-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    By qualitative analysis method, a sufficient condition for the existence of peaked periodic wave solutions to the Broer–Kaup equation is given. Some exact explicit expressions of peaked periodic wave solutions are also presented. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11102076 and Natural Science Fund for Colleges and Universities in Jiangsu Province under Grant No. 15KJB110005

  15. Generation of 1D interference patterns of Bloch surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadomina, E. A.; Bezus, E. A.; Doskolovich, L. L.

    2016-09-01

    Interference patterns of Bloch surface waves with a period that is significantly less than the wavelength of incident radiation are formed using dielectric diffraction gratings located on the surface of photonic crystal. The simulation based on electromagnetic diffraction theory is used to demonstrate the possibility of high-quality interference patterns due to resonant enhancement of higher evanescent diffraction orders related to the excitation of the Bloch surface waves. The contrast of the interference patterns is close to unity, and the period is less than the period of the diffraction structure by an order of magnitude.

  16. Decaying surface waves in inhomogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begmatov, A.

    2016-11-01

    Two problems on plane decaying surface waves in an inhomogeneous medium are under consideration: the problem where the waves similar to Rayleigh waves propagate in an isotropic elastic half-space that borders with a layer of an ideal incompressible fluid and the problem where the waves similar to Love waves propagate in a semi-infinite saturated porous medium that borders with a layer of an isotropic elastic medium.

  17. Undulations from amplified low frequency surface waves

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, Antonin; Parentani, Renaud

    2014-04-15

    We study the linear scattering of gravity waves in longitudinal inhomogeneous stationary flows. When the flow becomes supercritical, it is known that counterflow propagating shallow waves are blocked and converted into deep waves. Here we show that in the zero-frequency limit, the reflected waves are amplified in such a way that the free surface develops an undulation, i.e., a zero-frequency wave of large amplitude with nodes located at specific places. This amplification involves negative energy waves and implies that flat surfaces are unstable against incoming perturbations of arbitrary small amplitude. The relation between this instability and black hole radiation (the Hawking effect) is established.

  18. Monitoring short-period internal waves in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimin, A. V.; Kozlov, I. E.; Atadzhanova, O. A.; Chapron, B.

    2016-12-01

    Widespread short-period internal wave (SPIW) activity in the White Sea has been revealed for the first time based on long-term (2009-2013) monitoring performed using satellite and in situ observations, and the statistical characteristics of these waves have been obtained. Two main regions where short-period waves constantly exist have been identified: the shelf area near the frontal zone at the boundary between the Basin and the Gorlo Strait and the shallow shelf area where the depths are about 30-50 m near Solovetskie Islands. Intense internal waves (IIWs), which are substantially nonlinear and are related to specific phases of a barotropic tide, are regularly observed near frontal zones. The wave height can reach half the sea depth and the wave periods vary from 7 to 18 min.

  19. SURFACE ALFVEN WAVES IN SOLAR FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, M.; Andries, J.; Soler, R.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Arregui, I.; Terradas, J.

    2012-07-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. Alfven waves and magneto-sonic waves are particular classes of MHD waves. These wave modes are clearly different and have pure properties in uniform plasmas of infinite extent only. Due to plasma non-uniformity, MHD waves have mixed properties and cannot be classified as pure Alfven or magneto-sonic waves. However, vorticity is a quantity unequivocally related to Alfven waves as compression is for magneto-sonic waves. Here, we investigate MHD waves superimposed on a one-dimensional non-uniform straight cylinder with constant magnetic field. For a piecewise constant density profile, we find that the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves have the same properties as surface Alfven waves at a true discontinuity in density. Contrary to the classic Alfven waves in a uniform plasma of infinite extent, vorticity is zero everywhere except at the cylinder boundary. If the discontinuity in density is replaced with a continuous variation of density, vorticity is spread out over the whole interval with non-uniform density. The fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves do not need compression to exist unlike the radial overtones. In thin magnetic cylinders, the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves with phase velocities between the internal and the external Alfven velocities can be considered as surface Alfven waves. On the contrary, the radial overtones can be related to fast-like magneto-sonic modes.

  20. Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. E.

    1978-01-01

    A number of 401.2 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were built and tested. The performance of these oscillators was evaluated for possible use as stable oscillators in communication systems. A short term frequency stability of better than 1 x 10 to the minus 9th power for one second was measured for the SAW oscillators. Long term frequency drift was measured and was found to be dependent on SAW design and packaging. Drift rates ranging from 15 ppm in twenty weeks to 2.5 ppm in twenty weeks were observed. Some further improvement was required. The temperature dependence of the saw oscillators was evaluated and it was concluded that some form of temperature compensation will be necessary to meet the requirements of some communication systems.

  1. Swimming Using Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel. PMID:23431358

  2. Swimming using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel.

  3. Shock waves in a long-period optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamova, M. S.; Zolotovskiĭ, I. O.; Sementsov, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    The possibility of forming a shock wave of the pulse envelope has been investigated in a long-period or Bragg optical fiber with a system of two unidirectional linearly coupled waves. It has been demonstrated that, in principle, the possibility exists of forming a shock wave in a nonlinear optical fiber not only at the trailing edge but also at the leading edge of the wave packet. The origin of the formation of a shock wave depends substantially on the initial conditions providing excitation of the optical fiber.

  4. Propagation of Lamb waves in an immersed periodically grooved plate: experimental detection of the scattered converted backward waves.

    PubMed

    Harhad, Nadia; El-Kettani, Mounsif Ech-Cherif; Djelouah, Hakim; Izbicki, Jean-Louis; Predoi, Mihai Valentin

    2014-03-01

    Guided waves propagation in immersed plates with irregular surfaces has potential application to detection and assessment of the extent, depth and pattern of the irregularity. The complexity of the problem, due to the large number of involved parameters, has limited the number of existing studies. The simplest case of irregularities of practical interest is the two-dimensional corrosion profile. Even this case is in general so complex, that one can extract several amplitude dominant periodic surfaces only by using a Fourier spectrum of the surface. Guided waves in plates, with one or both free surfaces having periodic perturbations of different shapes, have been presented in specialized literature. In this paper is studied the propagation of Lamb waves in an aluminum plate with a periodic grooved surface on only one side and immersed in water. The interaction between an incident Lamb wave and the grating gives rise to retro-converted waves. Preliminary numerical simulation by the finite element method is performed in order to obtain key parameters for the experiments. It is shown that retro-converted waves radiating into the water are detectable although their amplitudes are small. The phonon relation is verified for the leaky Lamb modes. The damping coefficients of the leaky Lamb modes in the grooved immersed plate are evaluated.

  5. Wave-Wave Interactions in the Stratosphere: Observations during Quiet and Active Wintertime Periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anne K.; Gille, John C.; Lyjak, Lawrence V.

    1984-02-01

    Using satellite data from the Nimbus 7 LIMS instrument, a previous study by Smith showed that interactions among planetary waves 1, 2 and 3 in the stratosphere were significant during January 1979. That month was characterized by an exceptionally large wave 1 amplitude in the stratosphere. The present study extends the analysis to the period November 1978-March 1979 to determine the conditions under which wave-wave interactions have a significant effect on variations in wave activity and on wave-mean flow interactions. A quantitative measure of how wave-wave interactions affect the wave activity of zonal waves 1 and 2 is obtained from the potential enstrophy budget.The results demonstrate that the relative importance of wave-wave versus wave-mean flow interactions depends on the magnitude of the eddy mean wind and potential vorticity relative to the zonal means. When the zonal mean wind is weak, a relatively small amplitude wave tends to behave nonlinearly, whereas when the mean wind is strong, only large amplitude waves are significantly nonlinear. In the 1978-79 winter, the zonal mean wind was weaker and wave-wave interactions were more important in middle and late winter than during November-December.Further evidence is presented that the vacillation between waves 1 and 2, which has been observed in the winter stratosphere of both hemispheres, is as strongly influenced by wave-wave interactions in the stratosphere as by variations in the forcing from the troposphere.

  6. Reflection of underwater sound from surface waves.

    PubMed

    Tindle, Chris T; Deane, Grant B; Preisig, James C

    2009-01-01

    A tank experiment has been conducted to measure reflection of underwater sound from surface waves. Reflection from a wave crest leads to focusing and caustics and results in rapid variation in the received waveform as the surface wave moves. Theoretical results from wavefront modeling show that interference of three surface reflected eigenrays for each wave crest produces complicated interference waveforms. There is good agreement between theory and experiment even on the shadow side of caustics where there are two surface reflected arrivals but only one eigenray.

  7. Characterization of Surface Cracks Using Rayleigh Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Masserey, B.; Mazza, E.

    2005-04-09

    The characterization of surface cracks in steel plates using surface acoustic waves is investigated. In the experiments Rayleigh wave is generated by a standard wedge technique and the surface displacement is measured pointwise by means of a heterodyne laser interferometer. The presence of a crack in the acoustic field leads to an amplitude increase due to the scattering of the surface wave at the defect. The time-of-flight method is extended to crack depth smaller than the wavelength by correlating the time delay of the transmitted wave with the defect depth. The method is shown to provide good results for defect depths down to 0.2 mm.

  8. Nonlinear Generation of Vorticity by Surface Waves.

    PubMed

    Filatov, S V; Parfenyev, V M; Vergeles, S S; Brazhnikov, M Yu; Levchenko, A A; Lebedev, V V

    2016-02-05

    We demonstrate that waves excited on a fluid surface produce local surface rotation owing to hydrodynamic nonlinearity. We examine theoretically the effect and obtain an explicit formula for the vertical vorticity in terms of the surface elevation. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements of surface motion in a cell with water where surface waves are excited by vertical and harmonic shaking the cell. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. We discuss physical consequences of the effect.

  9. Waves in periodic dissipative laminate metamaterial generated by plate impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Pedro Franco; Benson, David J.; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated numerically the nature of high amplitude stress waves generated by plate impact on Al/W viscoplastic laminates with different cell sizes. Weakly attenuating localized travelling waves, closely resembling solitary waves, quickly form near the impacted surface at relatively short duration of incoming pulse. They have properties similar to solitary solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries equation with the dispersive and nonlinear parameters connected to laminate properties. The peak temperature in the localized stress wave is dramatically different than the temperature corresponding to the shock wave at the same pressure, reflecting different paths of loading. Increase of the duration of the incoming pulse results in a train of solitary pulses or in oscillatory stationary shock like stress waves. The leading front of the shock like stress wave is closely described by the rising part of solitary stress wave.

  10. Thin Superconducting Film Characterization by Surface Acoustic Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 RECIPIENT’S CA ALOG NUMBER ~~AFOSR TR -0 8 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Thin Superconducting ...thin film superconductor surface acoustic waves I SAW electron phonon interaction superconducting energy gap electron mean free path vortex...electrical resistivity and the attenuation of surface ,e J -acoustic waves (SAW) were measured in the superconducting state of a L granular lead film

  11. Chaotic particle motion under linear surface waves.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Tomas; Hansen, Jonas Lundbek

    1996-12-01

    We investigate the motion of infinitesimal particles in the flow field inside the fluid under a traveling surface wave. It is shown that, even for two-dimensional waves, a superposition of two or more traveling harmonic waves is enough to generate chaotic particle motion, i.e., Lagrangian chaos. (c) 1996 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Diffracted and head waves associated with waves on nonseparable surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, Raymond L.

    1992-01-01

    A theory is presented for computing waves radiated from waves on a smooth surface. With the assumption that attention of the surface wave is due only to radiation and not to dissipation in the surface material, the radiation coefficient is derived in terms of the attenuation factor. The excitation coefficient is determined by the reciprocity condition. Formulas for the shape and the spreading of the radiated wave are derived, and some sample calculations are presented. An investigation of resonant phase matching for nonseparable surfaces is presented with a sample calculation. A discussion of how such calculations might be related to resonant frequencies of nonseparable thin shell structures is included. A description is given of nonseparable surfaces that can be modeled in the vector that facilitates use of the appropriate formulas of differential geometry.

  13. Symmetry of steady periodic water waves with vorticity.

    PubMed

    Mikyoung Hur, Vera

    2007-09-15

    The symmetry and monotonicity properties of steady periodic gravity water waves are established for arbitrary vorticities if the wave profile is monotone near the trough and every streamline attains a minimum below the trough. The proof uses the method of moving planes.

  14. Surface and guided waves on structured surfaces and inhomogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanco, Javier

    Surface and guided waves on structured surfaces and inhomogeneous media studies the propagation of waves in systems with spatially varying parameters. In the rainbow case (chapter 1), the dielectric constant changes with coordinates. In the cylinder case: boundary and the metal (chapter 2), it is a curved surface. Finally, in the last case (chapter 3), the dielectric constant changes in z-direction.

  15. High-frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Milton, Graeme W.; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-07-01

    We consider high-frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schrödinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector k and frequency ω1 plus a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector m and frequency ω2. We derive effective equations for the modulating functions, and then prove that there is no coupling in the effective equations between the two different waves both in the scalar and the system cases. To be precise, we prove that there is no coupling unless ω1=ω2 and (k -m )⊙Λ ∈2 π Zd, where Λ=(λ1λ2…λd) is the periodicity cell of the medium and for any two vectors a =(a1,a2,…,ad),b =(b1,b2,…,bd)∈Rd, the product a⊙b is defined to be the vector (a1b1,a2b2,…,adbd). This last condition forces the carrier waves to be equivalent Bloch waves meaning that the coupling constants in the system of effective equations vanish. We use two-scale analysis and some new weak-convergence type lemmas. The analysis is not at the same level of rigour as that of Allaire and co-workers who use two-scale convergence theory to treat the problem, but has the advantage of simplicity which will allow it to be easily extended to the case where there is degeneracy of the Bloch eigenvalue.

  16. High-frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media.

    PubMed

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Milton, Graeme W; Craster, Richard V

    2016-07-01

    We consider high-frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schrödinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω1 plus a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω2. We derive effective equations for the modulating functions, and then prove that there is no coupling in the effective equations between the two different waves both in the scalar and the system cases. To be precise, we prove that there is no coupling unless ω1=ω2 and [Formula: see text] where Λ=(λ1λ2…λ d ) is the periodicity cell of the medium and for any two vectors [Formula: see text] the product a⊙b is defined to be the vector (a1b1,a2b2,…,adbd ). This last condition forces the carrier waves to be equivalent Bloch waves meaning that the coupling constants in the system of effective equations vanish. We use two-scale analysis and some new weak-convergence type lemmas. The analysis is not at the same level of rigour as that of Allaire and co-workers who use two-scale convergence theory to treat the problem, but has the advantage of simplicity which will allow it to be easily extended to the case where there is degeneracy of the Bloch eigenvalue.

  17. Misidentification caused by leaky surface wave in high-frequency surface wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lingli; Xia, Jianghai; Pan, Yudi

    2014-12-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method analyses high-frequency surface waves to determine shear (S)-wave velocities of near-surface materials, which are usually unconsolidated and possess higher Poisson's ratios. One of key steps using the MASW method to obtain the near-surface S-wave velocities is to pick correct phase velocities in dispersive images. A high-frequency seismic survey conducted over near-surface materials with a higher Poisson's ratio will often result in data that contains non-geometric wave, which will raise an additional energy in the dispersion image. Failure to identify it may result in misidentification. In this paper, we have presented a description about leaky surface wave and the influence caused by the existence of leaky waves in a high-frequency seismic record. We first introduce leaky wave and non-geometric wave. Next, we use two synthetic tests to demonstrate that non-geometric wave is leaky wave and show the properties about leaky surface wave by eigenfunctions using Chen's algorithm. We show that misidentification may occur in picking the dispersion curves of normal Rayleigh wave modes because the leaky-wave energy normally connects energy of fundamental and/or higher modes. Meanwhile, we use a real-world example to demonstrate the influence of leaky wave. We also propose that muting and filtering should been applied to raw seismic records prior to generating dispersive images to prevent misidentifying leaky surface waves as modal surface waves by a real-world example. Finally, we use a three-layer model with a low-velocity half-space to illustrate that leaky surface waves appear on condition that the phase velocities are higher than maximum S-wave velocity of the earth model when solving the Rayleigh equation.

  18. Earthquake ground motion amplification for surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Daniel C.; Tsai, Victor C.

    2017-01-01

    Surface waves from earthquakes are known to cause strong damage, especially for larger structures such as skyscrapers and bridges. However, common practice in characterizing seismic hazard at a specific site considers the effect of near-surface geology on only vertically propagating body waves. Here we show that surface waves have a unique and different frequency-dependent response to known geologic structure and that this amplification can be analytically calculated in a manner similar to current hazard practices. Applying this framework to amplification in the Los Angeles Basin, we find that peak ground accelerations for certain large regional earthquakes are underpredicted if surface waves are not properly accounted for and that the frequency of strongest ground motion amplification can be significantly different. Including surface-wave amplification in hazards calculations is therefore essential for accurate predictions of strong ground motion for future San Andreas Fault ruptures.

  19. Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiberg, P.L.; Sherwood, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Near-bed wave orbital velocities and shear stresses are important parameters in many sediment-transport and hydrodynamic models of the coastal ocean, estuaries, and lakes. Simple methods for estimating bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave statistics such as significant wave height and peak period often are inaccurate except in very shallow water. This paper briefly reviews approaches for estimating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from near-bed velocity data, surface-wave spectra, and surface-wave parameters; MATLAB code for each approach is provided. Aspects of this problem have been discussed elsewhere. We add to this work by providing a method for using a general form of the parametric surface-wave spectrum to estimate bottom orbital velocity from significant wave height and peak period, investigating effects of spectral shape on bottom orbital velocity, comparing methods for calculating bottom orbital velocity against values determined from near-bed velocity measurements at two sites on the US east and west coasts, and considering the optimal representation of bottom orbital velocity for calculations of near-bed processes. Bottom orbital velocities calculated using near-bed velocity data, measured wave spectra, and parametric spectra for a site on the northern California shelf and one in the mid-Atlantic Bight compare quite well and are relatively insensitive to spectral shape except when bimodal waves are present with maximum energy at the higher-frequency peak. These conditions, which are most likely to occur at times when bottom orbital velocities are small, can be identified with our method as cases where the measured wave statistics are inconsistent with Donelan's modified form of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum. We define the 'effective' forcing for wave-driven, near-bed processes as the product of the magnitude of forcing times its probability of occurrence, and conclude that different bottom orbital velocity statistics

  20. Strong motion from surface waves in deep sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    It is widely recognized that long-period surface waves generated by conversion of body waves at the boundaries of deep sedimentary basins make an important contribution to strong ground motion. The factors controlling the amplitude of such motion, however, are not widely understood. A study of pseudovelocity response spectra of strong-motion records from the Los Angeles Basin shows that late-arriving surface waves with group velocities of about 1 km/sec dominate the ground motion for periods of 3 sec and longer. The rate of amplitude decay for these waves is less than for the body waves and depends significantly on period, with smaller decay for longer periods. The amplitude can be modeled by the equation log y = f(M, RE) + c + bRB where y is the pseudovelocity response, f(M, RE) is an attenuation relation based on a general strong-motion data set, M is moment magnitude, RE is the distance from the source to the edge of the basin, RB is the distance from the edge of the basin to the recording site, and b and c are parameters fit to the data. The equation gives values larger by as much as a factor of 3 than given by the attenuation relationships based on general strong-motion data sets for the same source-site distance. It is clear that surface waves need to be taken into account in the design of long-period structures in deep sedimentary basins. The ground-motion levels specified by the earthquake provisions of current building codes, in California at least, accommodate the long-period ground motions from basin-edge-generated surface waves for periods of 5 sec and less and earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 7.5 or less located more than 20 km outside the basin. There may be problems at longer periods and for earthquakes located closer to the basin edge. The results of this study suggest that anelastic attenuation may need to be included in attempts to model long-period motion in deep sedimentary basins. To obtain better data on surface waves in the future

  1. Shallow water sound propagation with surface waves.

    PubMed

    Tindle, Chris T; Deane, Grant B

    2005-05-01

    The theory of wavefront modeling in underwater acoustics is extended to allow rapid range dependence of the boundaries such as occurs in shallow water with surface waves. The theory allows for multiple reflections at surface and bottom as well as focusing and defocusing due to reflection from surface waves. The phase and amplitude of the field are calculated directly and used to model pulse propagation in the time domain. Pulse waveforms are obtained directly for all wavefront arrivals including both insonified and shadow regions near caustics. Calculated waveforms agree well with a reference solution and data obtained in a near-shore shallow water experiment with surface waves over a sloping bottom.

  2. Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.

  3. Analyzing periodic and random textured silicon thin film solar cells by Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Rahul; Jovanov, Vladislav; Hamraz, Saeed; Knipp, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast method was developed to determine the quantum efficiency and short circuit current of thin-film silicon solar cells prepared on periodically or randomly textured surfaces. The optics was studied for microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells with integrated periodic and random surface textures. Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) was used to investigate the behaviour of the solar cells. The analysis of the periodic and random textured substrates allows for deriving optimal surface textures. Furthermore, light trapping in periodic and randomly textured substrates will be compared. PMID:25112301

  4. Existence of solitary waves and periodic waves for a perturbed generalized BBM equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aiyong; Guo, Lina; Deng, Xijun

    2016-11-01

    The existence of solitary waves and periodic waves for a perturbed generalized BBM equation is established by using geometric singular perturbation theory. Attention goes to perturbations of the Hamiltonian vector field with an elliptic Hamiltonian of degree four, exhibiting a cuspidal loop. It is proven that the wave speed c0 (h) is decreasing on h ∈ [ 0 , 1 / 12 ] by analyzing the ratio of Abelian integrals. The upper and lower bounds of the limit wave speed are given. Moreover, the relation between the wave speed and the wavelength of traveling waves is obtained.

  5. Nonlinear standing waves on a periodic array of circular cylinders.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lijun; Lu, Ya Yan

    2015-08-10

    A periodic array of parallel and infinitely long dielectric circular cylinders surrounded by air can be regarded as a simple two-dimensional periodic waveguide. For linear cylinders, guided modes exist continuously below the lightline in various frequency intervals, but standing waves, which are special guided modes with a zero Bloch wavenumber, could exist above the lightline at a discrete set of frequencies. In this paper, we consider a periodic array of nonlinear circular cylinders with a Kerr nonlinearity, and show numerically that nonlinear standing waves exist continuously with the frequency and their amplitudes depend on the frequency. The amplitude-frequency relations are further investigated in a perturbation analysis.

  6. Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain

    2012-09-01

    Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  7. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.

  8. Ultrasonic geometrical characterization of periodically corrugated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingfei; Declercq, Nico F

    2013-04-01

    Accurate characterization of the characteristic dimensions of a periodically corrugated surface using ultrasonic imaging technique is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The possibility of accurately characterizing the characteristic dimensions is discussed. The condition for accurate characterization and the quantitative relationship between the accuracy and its determining parameters are given. The strategies to avoid diffraction effects instigated by the periodical nature of a corrugated surface are also discussed. Major causes of erroneous measurements are theoretically discussed and experimentally illustrated. A comparison is made between the presented results and the optical measurements, revealing acceptable agreement. This work realistically exposes the capability of the proposed ultrasonic technique to accurately characterize the lateral and vertical characteristic dimensions of corrugated surfaces. Both the general principles developed theoretically as well as the proposed practical techniques may serve as useful guidelines to peers.

  9. Surface Waves and Landau Resonant Heating in Unmagnetized Bounded Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Kevin

    2001-10-01

    Owing to the large areas and high plasma densities found in some recently developed devices [1], electrostatic theories of plasma resonances and surface wave [2-3] propagation in such devices are suspect as the size of the device is much larger than the free space wavelength associated with the peak plasma frequency. Accordingly, an electromagnetic model of surface wave propagation has been developed appropriate for large area plasmas. The predicted wave dispersion of the two models differs for extremely long wavelengths but is degenerate in devices small compared with wavelength. First principles particle-in-cell simulations using new techniques developed for the demanding simulation regime have been conducted which support these results. Given the slow wave character and boundary localized fields of surface waves, a periodic electrode may be used to resonantly excite a strong wave-particle interaction between surface waves and electrons. At saturation, the electron velocity distribution is enhanced above the phase velocity of the applied wave and suppressed below. The use of this technique (``Landau resonant heating'') to selectively heat the electron high energy tail to enhance electron-impact ionization is demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulation. [1] Matsumoto (Sumitomo Metal Industries). Private Communication. July 1999. [2] Nickel, Parker, Gould. Phys. Fluids. 7:1489. 1964. [3] Cooperberg. Phys. Plasmas. Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1998.

  10. Matter-wave exact periodic solutions in optical lattices with periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changfu; Zhu, Aijun

    2013-10-01

    Some special matter-wave periodic solutions for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with periodic potential in the multidimensional optical lattices, are obtained through restricting parameters and some balance conditions between the optical potentials and interaction energies. The results show that the same type of periodic solutions in the same dimension possesses the same norm but different phases and they are all bounded. Especially, the numerics shows that two class (2+1)-dimensional periodic solutions are stable.

  11. On the turbulence generated by the potential surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilov, A. Y.

    2012-11-01

    The turbulence (the random vortex motions) of the upper ocean is nourished by the energy and momentum of the surface waves (the potential motion). The statistical characteristics of the turbulence (turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, and Reynolds stresses) depend on the state of the ocean surface waves. This paper discusses the possibilities of generating this turbulence using the vortex instability of the potential surface waves. The vortex component of fluctuations of velocity field and possibly the interaction between both the vortex and potential motions cause the vertical transport of the momentum. The Reynolds tensor is a linear function of the correlation tensor of vortex field. The initial small vortex perturbations always exist in the upper ocean because of the molecular viscosity influences, especially near the free surface, and the fluctuations of the seawater density. The horizontal inhomogeneities of the seawater density produce the vortex field even if the initial vorticity was zero and the initial flow was the potential flow. The evolution of the small initial vortex disturbances in the velocity field of potential linear surface waves is reduced to a coupled set of linear ordinary differential equations of the first order with periodic coefficients. The solution of this problem shows that the small initial vortex perturbations of potential linear surface waves always grow. The initial small vortex perturbations interacting with the potential surface wave produce the small-scale turbulence (Novikov's turbulence) that finally causes the viscous dissipation of the potential surface wave. The wave-induced turbulence can be considered as developed turbulence with a well distinguishable range of the turbulent wave numberskwhere turbulence obeys the Kolmogorov's self-similarity law.

  12. The generalized Doppler effect for surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, G.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate energy exchanges through scales occurring when a surface wave reflects on a harmonically oscillating wall. We first experimentally evidence the creation of Doppler-shifted waves and measure their height as a function of the oscillation amplitude. Then, we theoretically compute the amplitudes of these new waves in the gravity regime. Both results show that even without bulk non-linearities, oscillating paddles in a fluid container lead to a complex wave energy spectrum competing with the one predicted by wave turbulence. To exemplify this point, we characterize a simple one-dimensional model consisting of a linear wave equation in an oscillating cavity with distinct injection and dissipation mechanisms. It displays features usually associated with non-linearities, as self-similarity in a spectral domain (the so-called inertial range), appearance of energy at larger and/or lower scales than the forcing one and creation of shock waves.

  13. Light scattering by surface acoustic waves on corrugated metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.M.; Grimsditch, M. ); Moretti, A.L.; Kaufman, R.G.; Hulse, G.R. ); Fullerton, E.; Schuller, I.K. )

    1990-03-15

    We report the results of a Brillouin-scattering study of corrugated Ag surfaces. The corrugation plays a dramatic role in the wave-vector--selection rules governing coupling to surface phonons, and this effect is substantially different when the effective wave vector of the surface corrugation is collinear or perpendicular to the scattering plane. In processes that involve the grating wave vector, we show that the coupling mechanism between light and phonons is governed by surface plasmons which introduce a new scattering interaction with unusual polarization features in the Brillouin-scattering process.

  14. Modulational instabilities of periodic traveling waves in deep water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, Benjamin F.

    2015-04-01

    The spectrum of periodic traveling waves in deep water is discussed. A multi-scale method is used, expanding the spectral data and the Bloch parameter in wave amplitude, to compute the size and location of modulated instabilities. The role of these instabilities in limiting the spectrum's analyticity is explained. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional instabilities are calculated. The asymptotic predictions are compared to numerical simulations.

  15. Free-surface wave-induced separation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.J.; Stern, F.

    1996-09-01

    Free-surface wave-induced separation is studied for a surface-piercing NACA 0024 foil over a range of Froude numbers (0, .2, .37, .55) through computational fluid dynamics of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and the continuity equations with the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, exact nonlinear kinematic and approximate dynamic free-surface boundary conditions, and a body/free-surface conforming grid. The flow conditions and uncertainty analysis are discussed. A topological rule for a surface-piercing body is derived and verified. Steady-flow results are presented and analyzed with regard to the wave and viscous flow and the nature of the separation.

  16. Reflections concerning triply-periodic minimal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Alan H

    2012-10-06

    In recent decades, there has been an explosion in the number and variety of embedded triply-periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) identified by mathematicians and materials scientists. Only the rare examples of low genus, however, are commonly invoked as shape templates in scientific applications. Exact analytic solutions are now known for many of the low genus examples. The more complex surfaces are readily defined with numerical tools such as Surface Evolver software or the Landau-Ginzburg model. Even though table-top versions of several TPMS have been placed within easy reach by rapid prototyping methods, the inherent complexity of many of these surfaces makes it challenging to grasp their structure. The problem of distinguishing TPMS, which is now acute because of the proliferation of examples, has been addressed by Lord & Mackay (Lord & Mackay 2003 Curr. Sci. 85, 346-362).

  17. Reflections concerning triply-periodic minimal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been an explosion in the number and variety of embedded triply-periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) identified by mathematicians and materials scientists. Only the rare examples of low genus, however, are commonly invoked as shape templates in scientific applications. Exact analytic solutions are now known for many of the low genus examples. The more complex surfaces are readily defined with numerical tools such as Surface Evolver software or the Landau–Ginzburg model. Even though table-top versions of several TPMS have been placed within easy reach by rapid prototyping methods, the inherent complexity of many of these surfaces makes it challenging to grasp their structure. The problem of distinguishing TPMS, which is now acute because of the proliferation of examples, has been addressed by Lord & Mackay (Lord & Mackay 2003 Curr. Sci. 85, 346–362). PMID:24098851

  18. Use of Surface Wave Reflections to Study Offshore Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, S.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Sekine, S.

    2008-12-01

    It is understood that a lateral discontinuity of crustal structure can act as a reflector of surface waves. The reflection coefficient for surface waves at a realistic discontinuity is usually small (<0.1) that the reflected waves are weak, thus difficult to observe among surface wave coda. However, with the high spatial resolution and sensitivity of the Hi-net seismic network, surface waves reflections are observed by tiltmeters and seismometers at the Chugoku and Kinki region of Japan during various major earthquakes, including the Miyagi-ken-oki (2003, Mw7.0), Tokachi-oki (2003, Mw8.3) and Ibaraki-ken-oki (2008, Mw6.8) earthquakes. The reflected wave train has a duration of about 100 seconds and a predominant period of about 30 second. This long period implied that the reflector is likely a velocity anomaly located in the lower crsut. Beamforming analyses demonstrate that a northwestward extension of the Kyushu-Palau ridge southeast to Kyushu is a possible candidate of such a velocity anomaly that acts as a reflector. As the ridge is subducting northwest together with the Philippine Sea plate underneath the Eurasia plate, the reflector is possibly a subducted ridge or sea mount. With the location of reflectors assumed, particle motions show that the reflections are mainly Love waves. We intend to conduct numerical simulations to further quantify the location and nature of the reflectors. This study shows that surface wave reflection is a potential tool to identify subducted structures by land-based observations, supplementary to the orthodox but expensive body wave method involving the use of ocean-bottom seismometers or marine geophysical surveys. This new prospect may benefit researches concerning the relation between seismicity and bathymetry, or the so-called buoyancy hypothesis.

  19. Generation of vortices by gravity waves on a water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, S. V.; Aliev, S. A.; Levchenko, A. A.; Khramov, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    The generation of a vortex motion on a water surface by gravity waves at frequencies of 3 and 4 Hz and wavelengths of 17 and 9.7 cm, respectively, has been studied experimentally. It has been shown that the results can be described by a model of the formation of a vorticity by nonlinear waves. It has been shown for the first time that the vorticity amplitude on a water surface depends on the phase difference between the waves propagating at an angle of 90° with respect to each other and with a period of 360°. A quadratic dependence of the surface vorticity amplitude on the angular amplitude of the waves has been observed. Transfer of the energy of the vortex motion from the pumping region to a larger scale has been discovered.

  20. Laser-induced periodic surface structures, modeling, experiments, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, G. R. B. E.; Skolski, J. Z. P.; Oboňa, J. Vincenc; Ocelík, V.; de Hosson, J. T. M.; Huis in't Veld, A. J.

    2014-03-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) consist of regular wavy surface structures, or ripples, with amplitudes and periodicity in the sub-micrometer range. A summary of experimentally observed LIPSSs is presented, as well as our model explaining their possible origin. Linearly polarized continuous wave (cw) or pulsed laser light, at normal incidence, can produce LIPSSs with a periodicity close to the laser wavelength, and direction orthogonal to the polarization on the surface of the material. Ripples with a periodicity (much) smaller than the laser wavelength develop when applying laser pulses with ultra-short durations in the femtosecond and picosecond regime. The direction of these ripples is either parallel or orthogonal to the polarization direction. Finally, when applying numerous pulses, structures with periodicity larger than the laser wavelength can form, which are referred to as "grooves". The physical origin of LIPSSs is still under debate. The strong correlation of the ripple periodicity to the laser wavelength, suggests that their formation can be explained by an electromagnetic approach. Recent results from a numerical electromagnetic model, predicting the spatially modulated absorbed laser energy, are discussed. This model can explain the origin of several characteristics of LIPSSs. Finally, applications of LIPSSs will be discussed.

  1. Understanding airglow signatures of short-period gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, Jonathan; Taylor, Michael J.; Pendleton, William R., Jr.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique

    Airglow imaging is a primary tool in the study of gravity waves at mesospheric and lower-thermospheric (MLT) altitudes, clearly revealing signatures of small-scale (<100 km) and short-period (<30 min) waves. Short-period waves are in particular able to carry significant momentum into the MLT [e.g., Fritts and Alexander, 2003, Rev. Geophys., 41(1)]. However, quantification of short-period wave fluxes and propagation characteristics is complicated by their susceptibility to refraction by ambient wind and thermal structure at airglow altitudes. These effects lead to vertical wavelengths that vary dramatically with altitude throughout the airglow layers, and reflection and ducting, which can prevent the accurate assessment of ampli-tude and vertical direction of propagation [e.g., Fritts, 2000, JGR, 105(D17), 22,355-22,360]. To investigate airglow signatures of short-period gravity waves, we utilize a two-dimensional nonlinear dynamics model coupled with OH Meinel band and OI 557.7 nm airglow photochem-istry models. Case studies where the ambient atmospheric structure significantly influences wave propagation are presented, for both ducted and reflected waves, and also for waves ap-proaching critical levels. Arising from Doppler shifts to higher and lower intrinsic frequencies, respectively, these effects contribute to significant variation of vertical wavelength throughout the airglow region, and may limit the altitude of propagation. Cancellation effects of vertically-integrated airglow volume emission rate perturbations are discussed, along with observable nonlinear features due to large amplitude [e.g., Huang et al., 2003, JGR, 108(A5), 1173], and effects of partial perturbations to airglow layers by vertically-confined waves [e.g., Snively et al., JGR, In Review, 2010]. In particular, it is demonstrated that high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of airglow intensity and brightness-weighted temperature, combined with detailed descriptions of ambient

  2. Polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Wilson, W. J.; Li, F. K.; Johnson, J. T.; Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results and theoretical calculations are presented to study the polarimetric emission from water surfaces with directional features. For our ground-based Ku-band radiometer measurements, a water pool was constructed on the roof of a building in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and a fiberglass surface with periodic corrugations in one direction was impressed on the top of the water surface to create a stationary water surface underneath it. It is observed that the measured Stokes parameters of corrugated fiberglass-covered water surfaces are functions of azimuth angles and agree very well with the theoretical calculations. The theory, after being verified by the experimental data, was then used to calculate the Stokes parameters of periodic surfaces without fiberglass surface layer and with rms height of the order of wind-generated water ripples. The magnitudes of the azimuthal variation of the calculated emissivities at horizontal and vertical polarizations corresponding to the first two Stokes parameters are found to be comparable to the values measured by airborne radiometers and SSM/I. In addition, the third Stokes parameter not shown in the literature is seen to have approximately twice the magnitude of the azimuth variation of either T(sub h) or T(sub v), which may make it more sensitive to the row direction, while less susceptive to noises because the atmospheric and system noises tend to be unpolarized and are expected to be cancelled out when the third Stokes parameter is derived as the difference of two or three power measurements, as indicated by another experiment carried out at a swimming pool with complicated surroundings. The results indicate that passive polarimetry is a potential technology in the remote sensing of ocean wind vector which is a crucial component in the understanding of global climate change. Issues related to the application of microwave passive polarimetry to ocean wind are also discussed.

  3. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  4. Propagation of SH waves in an infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric/piezomagnetic periodically layered structure.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Liu, Yu-Shan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, SH bulk/surface waves propagating in the corresponding infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric (PE)/piezomagnetic (PM) and PM/PE periodically layered composites are investigated by two methods, the stiffness matrix method and the transfer matrix method. For a semi-infinite PE/PM or PM/PE medium, the free surface is parallel to the layer interface. Both PE and PM materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic solids. Dispersion equations are derived by the stiffness/transfer matrix methods, respectively. The effects of electric-magnetic (ME) boundary conditions at the free surface and the layer thickness ratios on dispersion curves are considered in detail. Numerical examples show that the results calculated by the two methods are the same. The dispersion curves of SH surface waves are below the bulk bands or inside the frequency gaps. The ratio of the layer thickness has an important effect not only on the bulk bands but also on the dispersion curves of SH surface waves. Electric and magnetic boundary conditions, respectively, determine the dispersion curves of SH surface waves for the PE/PM and PM/PE semi-infinite structures. The band structures of SH bulk waves are consistent for the PE/PM and PM/PE structures, however, the dispersive behaviors of SH surface waves are indeed different for the two composites. The realization of the above-mentioned characteristics of SH waves will make it possible to design PE/PM acoustic wave devices with periodical structures and achieve the better performance.

  5. Development of Surface Wave Dispersion and Attenuation Maps and Improved Methods for Measuring Surface Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-30

    use a similar technique with a narrower kernel that they believe to be more representative of realistic surface waves. Spetzler et al. (2001, 2002...Nor and KNET. We measured surface wave spectral amplitudes from the calculations using the same techniques used to measure observed surface waves...The Born approximation techniques discussed in section 3 provide a straightforward, but approximate, way to incorporate scattering and diffraction

  6. On the wave length of smooth periodic traveling waves of the Camassa-Holm equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, A.; Villadelprat, J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave length λ of smooth periodic traveling wave solutions of the Camassa-Holm equation. The set of these solutions can be parametrized using the wave height a (or "peak-to-peak amplitude"). Our main result establishes monotonicity properties of the map a ⟼ λ (a), i.e., the wave length as a function of the wave height. We obtain the explicit bifurcation values, in terms of the parameters associated with the equation, which distinguish between the two possible qualitative behaviors of λ (a), namely monotonicity and unimodality. The key point is to relate λ (a) to the period function of a planar differential system with a quadratic-like first integral, and to apply a criterion which bounds the number of critical periods for this type of systems.

  7. On the wave length of smooth periodic traveling waves of the Camassa-Holm equation.

    PubMed

    Geyer, A; Villadelprat, J

    2015-09-15

    This paper is concerned with the wave length λ of smooth periodic traveling wave solutions of the Camassa-Holm equation. The set of these solutions can be parametrized using the wave height a (or "peak-to-peak amplitude"). Our main result establishes monotonicity properties of the map [Formula: see text], i.e., the wave length as a function of the wave height. We obtain the explicit bifurcation values, in terms of the parameters associated with the equation, which distinguish between the two possible qualitative behaviors of [Formula: see text], namely monotonicity and unimodality. The key point is to relate [Formula: see text] to the period function of a planar differential system with a quadratic-like first integral, and to apply a criterion which bounds the number of critical periods for this type of systems.

  8. Structure of the airflow above surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Marc; Veron, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Weather, climate and upper ocean patterns are controlled by the exchanges of momentum, heat, mass, and energy across the ocean surface. These fluxes are, in turn, influenced by the small-scale physics at the wavy air-sea interface. We present laboratory measurements of the fine-scale airflow structure above waves, achieved in over 15 different wind-wave conditions, with wave ages Cp/u* ranging from 1.4 to 66.7 (where Cp is the peak phase speed of the waves, and u* the air friction velocity). The experiments were performed in the large (42-m long) wind-wave-current tank at University of Delaware's Air-Sea Interaction laboratory (USA). A combined Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Induced Fluorescence system was specifically developed for this study, and provided two-dimensional airflow velocity measurement as low as 100 um above the air-water interface. Starting at very low wind speeds (U10~2m/s), we directly observe coherent turbulent structures within the buffer and logarithmic layers of the airflow above the air-water interface, whereby low horizontal velocity air is ejected away from the surface, and higher velocity fluid is swept downward. Wave phase coherent quadrant analysis shows that such turbulent momentum flux events are wave-phase dependent. Airflow separation events are directly observed over young wind waves (Cp/u*<3.7) and counted using measured vorticity and surface viscous stress criteria. Detached high spanwise vorticity layers cause intense wave-coherent turbulence downwind of wave crests, as shown by wave-phase averaging of turbulent momentum fluxes. Mean wave-coherent airflow motions and fluxes also show strong phase-locked patterns, including a sheltering effect, upwind of wave crests over old mechanically generated swells (Cp/u*=31.7), and downwind of crests over young wind waves (Cp/u*=3.7). Over slightly older wind waves (Cp/u* = 6.5), the measured wave-induced airflow perturbations are qualitatively consistent with linear critical layer

  9. Highly Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Elastic Woodpile Periodic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Li, F.; Chong, C.; Theocharis, G.; Yang, J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, we experimentally implement, numerically compute with, and theoretically analyze a configuration in the form of a single column woodpile periodic structure. Our main finding is that a Hertzian, locally resonant, woodpile lattice offers a test bed for the formation of genuinely traveling waves composed of a strongly localized solitary wave on top of a small amplitude oscillatory tail. This type of wave, called a nanopteron, is not only motivated theoretically and numerically, but is also visualized experimentally by means of a laser Doppler vibrometer. This system can also be useful for manipulating stress waves at will, for example, to achieve strong attenuation and modulation of high-amplitude impacts without relying on damping in the system.

  10. Frequency shift of the Bragg and Non-Bragg backscattering from periodic water wave.

    PubMed

    Wen, Biyang; Li, Ke

    2016-08-17

    Doppler effect is used to measure the relative speed of a moving target with respect to the radar, and is also used to interpret the frequency shift of the backscattering from the ocean wave according to the water-wave phase velocity. The widely known relationship between the Doppler shift and the water-wave phase velocity was deduced from the scattering measurements data collected from actual sea surface, and has not been verified under man-made conditions. Here we show that this ob- served frequency shift of the scattering data from the Bragg and Non-Bragg water wave is not the Doppler shift corresponding to the water-wave phase velocity as commonly believed, but is the water-wave frequency and its integral multiple frequency. The power spectrum of the backscatter from the periodic water wave consists of serials discrete peaks, which is equally spaced by water wave frequency. Only when the water-wave length is the integer multiples of the Bragg wave, and the radar range resolution is infinite, does the frequency shift of the backscattering mathematically equal the Doppler shift according to the water-wave phase velocity.

  11. Frequency shift of the Bragg and Non-Bragg backscattering from periodic water wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Biyang; Li, Ke

    2016-08-01

    Doppler effect is used to measure the relative speed of a moving target with respect to the radar, and is also used to interpret the frequency shift of the backscattering from the ocean wave according to the water-wave phase velocity. The widely known relationship between the Doppler shift and the water-wave phase velocity was deduced from the scattering measurements data collected from actual sea surface, and has not been verified under man-made conditions. Here we show that this ob- served frequency shift of the scattering data from the Bragg and Non-Bragg water wave is not the Doppler shift corresponding to the water-wave phase velocity as commonly believed, but is the water-wave frequency and its integral multiple frequency. The power spectrum of the backscatter from the periodic water wave consists of serials discrete peaks, which is equally spaced by water wave frequency. Only when the water-wave length is the integer multiples of the Bragg wave, and the radar range resolution is infinite, does the frequency shift of the backscattering mathematically equal the Doppler shift according to the water-wave phase velocity.

  12. The Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, S. R.; Oberholtzer, J. D.; Wright, C. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    SWADE was developed to study the dynamics of the wave field development in the open ocean with the following specific objectives: (1) to understand the development of the wave directional spectrum under various conditions; (2) to determine the effect of waves on the air/sea transfers of momentum, heat, and mass; (3) to determine breaking distributions as a function of sea state, wind, and boundary stability; and (4) to provide data and analyses for ERS-1 validation. The experiment is designed for the winter of 1990 to 1991. Four buoys will be deployed for 6 months starting October 1990 and ending March 1991. During that time period, three intensive periods of 2 weeks duration each will be selected for frequent aircraft flights for wave data collection to satisfy scientific studies, as well as ERS-1 validation needs.

  13. A mixed finite element/boundary element approach to simulate complex guided elastic wave periodic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballandras, S.; Lardat, R.; Wilm, M.; Pastureaud, Th.; Reinhardt, A.; Champavert, N.; Steichen, W.; Daniau, W.; Laude, V.; Armati, R.; Martin, G.

    2009-01-01

    The development of new surface acoustic wave devices exhibiting complicated electrode patterns or layered excitation transducers has been favored by an intense innovative activity in this area. For instance, devices exhibiting interdigital transducers covered by piezoelectric or dielectric layers have been fabricated and tested, but the design of such structures requires simulation tools capable to accurately take into account the actual shape of the wave guide elements. A modeling approach able to address complicated surface acoustic wave periodic structures (defined in the saggital plane) exhibiting any geometry then has been developed and implemented. It is based on the combination of a finite element analysis and a boundary element method. A first validation of the computation is reported by comparison with standard surface wave devices. Surface transverse wave resonators covered by amorphous silica have been built and consequently used for theory/experiment assessment. Also the case of recessed electrodes has been considered. The proposed model offers large opportunities for modeling any two-dimensional periodic elastic wave guide.

  14. Wave breaking and shock waves for a periodic shallow water equation.

    PubMed

    Escher, Joachim

    2007-09-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of a recently derived periodic shallow water equation. We discuss in detail the blow-up scenario of strong solutions and present several conditions on the initial profile, which ensure the occurrence of wave breaking. We also present a family of global weak solutions, which may be viewed as global periodic shock waves to the equation under discussion.

  15. Cross-correlation search for periodic gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Mukhopadhyay, Himan; Krishnan, Badri; Whelan, John T.

    2008-04-15

    In this paper we study the use of cross correlations between multiple gravitational wave (GW) data streams for detecting long-lived periodic signals. Cross-correlation searches between data from multiple detectors have traditionally been used to search for stochastic GW signals, but recently they have also been used in directed searches for periodic GWs. Here we further adapt the cross-correlation statistic for periodic GW searches by taking into account both the nonstationarity and the long-term-phase coherence of the signal. We study the statistical properties and sensitivity of this search and its relation to existing periodic wave searches, and describe the precise way in which the cross-correlation statistic interpolates between semicoherent and fully coherent methods. Depending on the maximum duration over which we wish to preserve phase coherence, the cross-correlation statistic can be tuned to go from a standard cross-correlation statistic using data from distinct detectors, to the semicoherent time-frequency methods with increasing coherent time baselines, and all the way to a full coherent search. This leads to a unified framework for studying periodic wave searches and can be used to make informed trade-offs between computational cost, sensitivity, and robustness against signal uncertainties.

  16. Ultrasonic Surface Wave Propagation and Interaction with Surface Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Dixon, S.; Edwards, R. S.; Jian, X.

    2007-03-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are non-contact ultrasonic transducers capable of generating wideband surface acoustic waves on metallic samples. We describe some lab based ultrasonic measurements using EMATs to generate wideband, low frequency (approximately 50-500kHz) ultrasonic surface waves on a number of samples including aluminum billets and sections of rail track that contain simulated defects. A stabilized Michelson interferometer has been used to measure accurately the absolute out-of-plane displacement of the ultrasonic waves generated on the sample, which propagate along the sample to interact with a simulated surface breaking defect. Transient finite element analysis has been used to model the ultrasonic wave propagation on the sample and the interaction of these waves with surface breaking defects. These simulations compare very favorably with the experimental results obtained using the Michelson interferometer to measure the out-of-plane displacement of the surface waves. We describe different approaches that can be used to determine the depth and presence of the crack. The non-contact nature of EMATs and the pitch-catch test geometry that we propose to use for testing make them especially suitable for online detection and depth gauging of surface breaking cracks at high inspection speeds.

  17. Wave Period and Coastal Bathymetry Estimations from Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilo, Celine; Melgani, Farid

    2016-08-01

    We present an approach for wave period and coastal water depth estimation. The approach based on wave observations, is entirely independent of ancillary data and can theoretically be applied to SAR or optical images. In order to demonstrate its feasibility we apply our method to more than 50 Sentinel-1A images of the Hawaiian Islands, well-known for its long waves. Six wave buoys are available to compare our results with in-situ measurements. The results on Sentinel-1A images show that half of the images were unsuitable for applying the method (no swell or wavelength too small to be captured by the SAR). On the other half, 78% of the estimated wave periods are in accordance with buoy measurements. In addition, we present preliminary results of the estimation of the coastal water depth on a Landsat-8 image (with characteristics close to Sentinel-2A). With a squared correlation coefficient of 0.7 for ground truth measurement, this approach reveals promising results for monitoring coastal bathymetry.

  18. Complex periodic non-diffracting beams generated by superposition of two identical periodic wave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuanmei; Wen, Zengrun; Zheng, Liren; Zhao, Lina

    2017-04-01

    A method has been proposed to generate complex periodic discrete non-diffracting beams (PDNBs) via superposition of two identical simple PDNBs at a particular angle. As for special cases, we studied the superposition of the two identical squares (;4+4;) and two hexagonal (;6+6;) periodic wave fields at specific angles, respectively, and obtained a series of interesting complex PDNBs. New PDNBs were also obtained by modulating the initial phase difference between adjacent interfering beams. In the experiment, a 4 f Fourier filter system and a phase-only spatial light modulator imprinting synthesis phase patterns of these PDNBs were used to produce desired wave fields.

  19. Terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on a semiconductor surface structured with periodic V-grooves.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Jadidi, Mohammad M; Murphy, Thomas E; Kumar, Gagan

    2013-03-25

    We demonstrate propagation of terahertz waves confined to a semiconductor surface that is periodically corrugated with V-shaped grooves. A one-dimensional array of V-grooves is fabricated on a highly-doped silicon surface, using anisotropic wet-etching of crystalline silicon, thereby forming a plasmonic waveguide. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy is used to characterize the propagation of waves near the corrugated surface. We observe that the grating structure creates resonant modes that are confined near the surface. The degree of confinement and frequency of the resonant mode is found to be related to the pitch and depth of the V-grooves. The surface modes are confirmed through both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Not only does the V-groove geometry represent a new and largely unexplored structure for supporting surface waves, but it also enables the practical fabrication of terahertz waveguides directly on semiconductor surfaces, without relying on reactive-ion etching or electroplating of sub-millimeter metallic surfaces.

  20. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmeier, Peter; Dóra, Balázs; Ziegler, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation is a powerful method to investigate two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. We show how SAW observables are influenced by coupling to the 2D massless Dirac electrons of graphene and argue that Landau oscillations in SAW propagation can be observed as function of gate voltage for constant field. Contrary to other transport measurements, the zero-field SAW propagation gives the wave-vector dependence of graphene conductivity for small wave numbers. We predict a crossover from Schrödinger to Dirac-like behavior as a function of gate voltage, with no attenuation in the latter for clean samples.

  1. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, Youngpak

    2015-09-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  2. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-01-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet–height and diameter– and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials. PMID:26354891

  3. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-09-10

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  4. Envelope solitons of acoustic plate modes and surface waves.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andreas P; Kovalev, Alexander S

    2003-06-01

    The problem of the existence of evelope solitons in elastic plates and at solid surfaces covered by an elastic film is revisited with special attention paid to nonlinear long-wave short-wave interactions. Using asymptotic expansions and multiple scales, conditions for the existence of envelope solitons are established and it is shown how their parameters can be expressed in terms of the elastic moduli and mass densities of the materials involved. In addition to homogeneous plates, weak periodic modulation of the plate's material parameters are also considered. In the case of wave propagation in an elastic plate, modulations of weakly nonlinear carrier waves are governed by a coupled system of partial differential equations consisting of evolution equations for the complex amplitude of the carrier wave (the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for envelope solitons and the Mills-Trullinger equations for gap solitons), and the wave equation for long-wavelength acoustic plate modes. In contrast to this situation, envelope solitons of surface acoustic waves in a layered structure are normally described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation alone. However, at higher orders of the carrier wave amplitude, the envelope soliton is found to be accompanied by a quasistatic long-wavelength strain field, which may be localized at the surface with penetration depth into the substrate of the order of the inverse amplitude or which may radiate energy into the bulk. A new set of modulation equations is derived for the resonant case of the carrier wave's group velocity being equal to the phase velocity of long-wavelength Rayleigh waves of the uncoated substrate.

  5. Waves in Periodic Dissipative Laminate Metamaterial Generated by Plate Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco Navarro, Pedro; Benson, David; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2015-06-01

    Waves generated by plate impact loading of Al/W laminates with different size of cell were investigated numerically depending on the impactor/cell mass ratio. The materials model took into account viscoplastic behavior of materials. It was observed that this mass ratio has a direct impact on the structure of stress pulses traveling through the composite. At the small impactor/cell mass ratio travelling waves closely resembling solitary waves were quickly formed near the impacted surface. They propagate as quasistationary weakly attenuating localized pulses. The properties of these pulses were satisfactory described based on a theoretical model using dispersive and nonlinear parameters of the materials similar to solitary solutions for the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV). The temperature at given pressure at the maximum is dramatically different then the temperature corresponding to the shock wave at the same pressure reflecting a different paths of loading. Increase of impactor/cell mass ratio results in the train of solitary like pulses which number increased with the increase of the impactor/cell mass ratio. At large impactor/cell mass ratio oscillatory stationary shock waves were formed. The leading front of these stationary shock waves was closely described by a solitary like pulse observed at small impactor/cell mass ratio. One of the authors (PFN) was supported by UCMexus Fellowship

  6. Brunt-Doppler ducting of small-period gravity waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.Y.; Tuan, T.F. )

    1988-09-01

    The variation of the Brunt period with height lends itself to a natural ducting and filtering mechanism for low-altitude short-period gravity waves. The authors investigate this mechanism in combination with Doppler ducting produced by the variation in horizontal winds. Both the frequency dispersion at fixed propagation direction and the direction dispersion at fixed frequency have been examined in a COSPAR background atmosphere with zonal and meridional winds. The results show that not only are the low-altitude short-period gravity waves ducted, but unlike the usual ducting mechanisms due to uneven structure and dissipation which produce only partially guided modes, this mechanism produces primarily guided modes in the absence of winds and a mixture of fully and partially guided modes with winds. The wind effects are very large on the higher modes and less significant on the few lowest modes, including the Lamb mode. Investigation of viscous dissipation, nonlinearity, and instability have shown that viscosity is unimportant for most altitudes of interest and that nonlinearity and instability can play a role for all but the lowest guided modes. They propose that simultaneous continuous observation of airglow at mesospheric and ionospheric altitudes be made to verify not only the low-altitude Brunt-Doppler ducting for short-period gravity waves, but also the vertical energy distribution of the medium- and large-scale TIDs.

  7. Continuous leaky-wave scanning using periodically modulated spoof plasmonic waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Gu Sheng; Ma, Hui Feng; Cai, Ben Geng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    The plasmonic waveguide made of uniform corrugated metallic strip can support and guide spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) with high confinements. Here, we propose periodically-modulated plasmonic waveguide composed of non-uniform corrugated metallic strip to convert SSPPs to radiating waves, in which the main beam of radiations can steer continuously as the frequency changes. To increase the radiation efficiency of the periodically-modulated plasmonic waveguide at the broadside, an asymmetrical plasmonic waveguide is further presented to reduce the reflections and realize continuous leaky-wave scanning. Both numerical simulations and experimental results show that the radiation efficiency can be improved greatly and the main beam of leaky-wave radiations can steer from the backward quadrant to the forward quadrant, passing through the broadside direction, which generally is difficult to be realized by the common leaky-wave antennas. PMID:27404740

  8. Eikonal tomography for earthquake data: surface wave azimuthal anisotropy in the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Ritzwoller, M.; Lin, F.

    2008-12-01

    In principle, seismic anisotropy provides powerful constraints on the deformation of crust and upper mantle. In recent years, numerous models of azimuthal anisotropy from surface wave studies have been interpreted to explain lithospheric and asthenospheric dynamics. The frequency dependence of the azimuthal anisotropy of surface waves yields information on both the lateral and vertical distributions of anisotropy. However, there is a trade-off between azimuthal anisotropy and isotropic wave speeds in traditional surface wave tomography based on large matrix inversions, which typically involve regulation, damping and smoothing. The trade-off potentially biases the direction and amplitude of azimuthal anisotropy. To overcome this problem, we use a new method of surface wave tomography based on the Eikonal equation to obtain surface wave azimuthal anisotropy. The Eikonal equation states that the gradient of a phase travel time surface constrains both the local phase speed and the direction of wave propagation when the amplitudes of seismic waves vary smoothly. In the western US, we have collected surface waves from more than 200 regional and teleseismic earthquakes with magnitudes larger than 5.0, which are recorded on the Earthscope/USArray Transportable Array (TA). We construct phase travel time surfaces for Rayleigh waves following each earthquake. We find that the variations of surface wave amplitudes are smooth compared to those of surface wave phases, which justifies applying the Eikonal equation in surface wave tomography. For each geographic location, we measure azimuthally dependent phase speed based on the phase travel time surface from each earthquake. Assembling results from all earthquakes, we statistically estimate isotropic phase speeds, azimuthal anisotropy, and their uncertainties at periods from 25 to 100 sec across the entire western US. Surface waves at these periods are mainly sensitive to a depth range from the crust to ~150 km. The resulting

  9. Polarization controlled directional excitation of Bloch surface waves (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevich, Tatiana; Boyer, Philippe; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter; Grosjean, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are electromagnetic surface waves which can be excited at the interface between periodic dielectric multilayer and a surrounding medium. In comparison with surface plasmon polaritons these surface states perform high quality factor due to low loss characteristics of dielectric materials and can be exited both by TE and TM polarized light. A platform consisting of periodic stacks of alternative SiO2 and Si3N4 layers is designed and fabricated to work at the wavelength of 1.55 µm. The platform has an application in sensing and in integrated optics domain. A standard way of BSW excitation is coupling via Kretschmann configuration, but in this work we investigate a grating coupling of BSWs. Grating parameters are analytically and numerically optimized by RCWA and FDTD methods in order to obtain the best coupling conditions. The light is launched orthogonally to the surface of the photonic crystal and the grating. Due to a special grating configuration we demonstrate directionality of the BSW propagation depending on polarization of the incident light. The structure was experimentally realized on the surface of the photonic crystal by FIB milling. Experimental results are in a good agreement with a theory. The investigated configuration can be successfully used as a BSW launcher in on-chip all-optical integrated systems and work as a surface wave switch or modulator.

  10. Co-periodic stability of periodic waves in some Hamiltonian PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzoni-Gavage, S.; Mietka, C.; Rodrigues, L. M.

    2016-10-01

    The stability of periodic traveling wave solutions to dispersive PDEs with respect to ‘arbitrary’ perturbations is still widely open. The focus is put here on stability with respect to perturbations of the same period as the wave, for KdV-like systems of one-dimensional Hamiltonian PDEs. Stability criteria are derived and investigated first in a general abstract framework, and then applied to three basic examples that are very closely related, and ubiquitous in mathematical physics, namely, a quasilinear version of the generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation (qKdV), and the Euler-Korteweg system in both Eulerian coordinates (EKE) and in mass Lagrangian coordinates (EKL). Those criteria consist of a necessary condition for spectral stability, and of a sufficient condition for orbital stability. Both are expressed in terms of a single function, the abbreviated action integral along the orbits of waves in the phase plane, which is the counterpart of the solitary waves moment of instability introduced by Boussinesq. Regarding solitary waves, the celebrated Grillakis-Shatah-Strauss stability criteria amount to looking for the sign of the second derivative of the moment of instability with respect to the wave speed. For periodic waves, the most striking results obtained here can be summarized as: an odd value for the difference between N—the size of the PDE system—and the negative signature of the Hessian of the action implies spectral instability, whereas a negative signature of the same Hessian being equal to N implies orbital stability. Since these stability criteria are merely encoded by the negative signature of matrices, they can at least be checked numerically. Various numerical experiments are presented, which clearly discriminate between stable cases and unstable cases for (qKdV), (EKE) and (EKL).

  11. Dynamics of mechanical waves in periodic grapheme nanoribbon assemblies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We simulate the natural frequencies and the acoustic wave propagation characteristics of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of the type (8,0) and (0,8) using an equivalent atomistic-continuum FE model previously developed by some of the authors, where the C-C bonds thickness and average equilibrium lengths during the dynamic loading are identified through the minimisation of the system Hamiltonian. A molecular mechanics model based on the UFF potential is used to benchmark the hybrid FE models developed. The acoustic wave dispersion characteristics of the GNRs are simulated using a Floquet-based wave technique used to predict the pass-stop bands of periodic mechanical structures. We show that the thickness and equilibrium lengths do depend on the specific vibration and dispersion mode considered, and that they are in general different from the classical constant values used in open literature (0.34 nm for thickness and 0.142 nm for equilibrium length). We also show the dependence of the wave dispersion characteristics versus the aspect ratio and edge configurations of the nanoribbons, with widening band-gaps that depend on the chirality of the configurations. The thickness, average equilibrium length and edge type have to be taken into account when nanoribbons are used to design nano-oscillators and novel types of mass sensors based on periodic arrangements of nanostructures. PACS 62.23.Kn · 62.25.Fg · 62.25.Jk PMID:21711495

  12. Local field enhancement on metallic periodic surface structures produced by femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ionin, Andrei A; Kudryashov, Sergei I; Ligachev, A E; Makarov, Sergei V; Mel'nik, N N; Rudenko, A A; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Khmelnitskii, R A

    2013-04-30

    Periodic surface structures on aluminium are produced by femtosecond laser pulses for efficient excitation of surface electromagnetic waves using a strong objective (NA = 0.5). The local electromagnetic field enhancement on the structures is measured using the technique of surface-enhanced Raman scattering from pyridine molecules. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  13. Acoustic Bloch Wave Propagation in a Periodic Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-24

    electrical conductivity. In the quantum theory, the electron is represented by De Broglie/ Schr ~ dinger matter waves which propagate in an electrical conductor...waveguide loaded with a periodic array of rigid spheres. They based their approach on the Webster horn equation and compared the results of a strained...governing equations , we simply use the dissi- pative equations in the limit as the heat conductivity and viscosity approach zero. In such a limit the

  14. Existence, Uniqueness and Asymptotic Stability of Time Periodic Traveling Waves for a Periodic Lotka-Volterra Competition System with Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui

    2011-06-01

    We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c(*) such that for each wave speed c ≤ c(*), there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c < c(*) are asymptotically stable in certain sense. In addition, we establish the nonexistence of time periodic traveling waves for nonzero speed c > c(*).

  15. Existence, Uniqueness and Asymptotic Stability of Time Periodic Traveling Waves for a Periodic Lotka-Volterra Competition System with Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui

    2011-01-01

    We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c* such that for each wave speed c ≤ c*, there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c < c* are asymptotically stable in certain sense. In addition, we establish the nonexistence of time periodic traveling waves for nonzero speed c > c*. PMID:21572575

  16. Viscoelastic love-type surface waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.

  17. Madden Julian Oscillation impacts on global ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Durrant, Tom H.; Hemer, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the impact of the tropical Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global ocean wind waves using 30 years of wave data from a wave model hindcast that is forced with high resolution surface winds from the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. We concentrate on the boreal winter season when the MJO has its greatest amplitude and is potentially a source of predictable wave impacts at intra-seasonal lead times. Statistically significant anomalies in significant wave height (Hs), peak wave period (Tp) and zonal wave energy flux (CgE) are found to covary with the intra-seasonal variation of surface zonal wind induced by the MJO as it traverses eastward from the western tropical Indian Ocean to the eastern tropical Pacific. Tp varies generally out of phase with Hs over the life cycle of the MJO, indicating that these MJO-wave anomalies are locally wind-generated rather than remotely generated by ocean swell. Pronounced Hs anomalies develop on the northwest shelf of Australia, where the MJO is known to influence sea level and surface temperatures, and in the western Caribbean Sea and Guatemalan-Panama Seas with enhanced wave anomalies apparent in the vicinity of the Tehuantepec and Papagayo gaps. Significant wave anomalies are also detected in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans in connection with the MJO teleconnection to the extratropics via atmospheric wave propagation. The impact in the north Atlantic stems from induction of the high phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) about 1 week after MJO convection traverses the Indian Ocean, and the low phase of the NAO about one week after suppressed convection traverses the Indian Ocean. Strong positive Hs anomalies maximize on the Northern European coast in the positive NAO phase and vice versa for the negative NAO phase. The MJO also influences the occurrence of daily low (below the 5th percentile) and high (above the 95th percentile) wave conditions across the tropics and in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

  18. Modelling Ocean Surface Waves in Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosekova, Lucia; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Coward, Andrew; Bertino, Laurent; Williams, Timothy; Nurser, George A. J.

    2015-04-01

    In the Polar Oceans, the surface ocean waves break up sea ice cover and create the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ), an area between the sea-ice free ocean and pack ice characterized by highly fragmented ice. This band of sea ice cover is undergoing dramatic changes due to sea ice retreat, with up to a 39% widening in the Arctic Ocean reported over the last three decades and projections predicting a continuing increase. The surface waves, sea ice and ocean interact in the MIZ through multiple complex feedbacks and processes which are not accounted for in any of the present-day climate models. To address this issue, we present a model development which implements surface ocean wave effects in the global Ocean General Circulation Model NEMO, coupled to the CICE sea ice model. Our implementation takes into account a number of physical processes specific to the MIZ dynamics. Incoming surface waves are attenuated due to reflection and energy dissipation induced by the presence of ice cover, which is in turn fragmented in response to external stresses. This process generates a distribution of floe sizes and impacts the dynamics of sea ice by the means of combined rheology that takes into account floe collisions and allows for a more realistic representation of the MIZ. We present results from the NEMO OGCM at 1 degree resolution with a wave-ice interaction module described above. The module introduces two new diagnostics previously unavailable in GCM's: surface wave spectra in sea ice covered areas, and floe size distribution due to wave-induced fragmentation. We discuss the impact of these processes on the ocean and sea ice state, including ocean circulation, mixing, stratification and the role of the MIZ in the ocean variability. The model predictions for the floe sizes in the summer Arctic Ocean range from 60 m in the inner MIZ to a few tens of meters near the open ocean, which agrees with estimates from the satellites. The extent of the MIZ throughout the year is also in

  19. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film

    SciTech Connect

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula

    2015-09-14

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.

  20. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Irzhak, Dmitry; Insepov, Zinetula

    2015-09-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.

  1. Gas sensing with surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. J.; Schweizer, K. S.; Ricco, A. J.; Zipperian, T. E.

    1985-03-01

    The use of a ZnO-on-Si surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator as a gas sensor is discussed. In particular, the sensitivity of the device to organic vapors is examined. The planar nature of the SAW device, in which the acoustic energy is confined to within roughly one acoustic wavelength of the surface, makes the device extremely sensitive to surface perturbations. This characteristic has been exploited in the construction of SAW gas sensors in which the surface wave propagation characteristics are altered by species adsorbed from the ambient gas. The porous nature of the sputtered ZnO film, in conjunction with the microbalance capability of the SAW device, gives the sensor the ability to distinguish molecules on the basis of both size and mass.

  2. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  3. Radial wave crystals: radially periodic structures from anisotropic metamaterials for engineering acoustic or electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2009-08-07

    We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.

  4. Interior impedance wedge diffraction with surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    The exact impedance wedge solution is evaluated asymptotically using the method of steepest descents for plane wave illumination at normal incidence. Uniform but different impedances on each face are considered for both soft and hard polarizations. The asymptotic solution isolates the incident, singly reflected, multiply reflected, diffracted, and surface wave fields. Multiply reflected fields of any order are permitted. The multiply reflected fields from the exact solution are written as ratios of auxiliary Maliuzhinets functions, whereas a geometrical analysis gives the reflected fields as products of reflection coefficients. These two representations are shown to be identical in magnitude, phase and the angular range over which they exist. The diffracted field includes four Fresnel transition functions as in the perfect conductor case, and the expressions for the appropriate discontinuities at the shadow boundaries are presented. The surface wave exists over a finite angular range and only for certain surface impedances. A surface wave transition field is included to retain continuity. Computations are presented for interior wedge diffractions although the formulation is valid for both exterior and interior wedges.

  5. Anatomy of a Periodically Driven p-Wave Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Erhai

    2016-10-01

    The topological properties of periodically driven many-body systems often have no static analogs and defy a simple description based on the effective Hamiltonian. To explore the emergent edge modes in driven p-wave superconductors in two dimensions, we analysed a toy model of Kitaev chains (one-dimensional spinless p-wave superconductors with Majorana edge states) coupled by time-periodic hopping. We showed that with proper driving, the coupled Kitaev chains can turn into a fully gapped superconductor, which is analogous to the px+ipy state but has two, rather than one, chiral edge modes. A different driving protocol turns it into a gapless superconductor with isolated point nodes and completely flat edge states at quasienergy ω=0 or π/T, with T as the driving period. The time evolution operator U(kx, ky, t) of the toy model is computed exactly to yield the phase bands. And the "topological singularities" of the phase bands are exhausted and compared to those of a periodically driven Hofstadter model, which features counter-propagating chiral edge modes. These examples demonstrate the unique edge states in driven superconducting systems and suggest driving as a potentially fruitful route to engineer new topological superconductors.

  6. Multiple-frequency surface acoustic wave devices as sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Martin, Stephen J.

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a multiple-frequency acoustic wave (MUFAW) device on ST-cut quartz with nominal surface acoustic wave (SAW) center frequencies of 16, 40, 100, and 250 MHz. The four frequencies are obtained by patterning four sets of input and output interdigital transducers of differing periodicities on a single substrate. Such a device allows the frequency dependence of AW sensor perturbations to be examined, aiding in the elucidation of the operative interaction mechanism(s). Initial measurements of the SAW response to the vacuum deposition of a thin nickel film show the expected frequency dependence of mass sensitivity in addition to the expected frequency independence of the magnitude of the acoustoelectric effect. By measuring changes in both wave velocity and attenuation at multiple frequencies, extrinsic perturbations such as temperature and pressure changes are readily differentiated from one another and from changes in surface mass.

  7. Mechanical Surface Waves Accompany Action Potential Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machta, Benjamin; El Hady, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    The action potential (AP) is the basic mechanism by which information is transmitted along neuronal axons. Although the excitable nature of axons is understood to be primarily electrical, many experimental studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane co-propagates with the electrical signal. While the experimental evidence for co-propagating mechanical waves is diverse and compelling, there is no consensus for their physical underpinnings. We present a model in which these mechanical displacements arise from the driving of mechanical surface waves, in which potential energy is stored in elastic deformations of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is stored in the movement of the axoplasmic fluid. In our model these surface waves are driven by the traveling wave of electrical depolarization that characterizes the AP, altering the electrostatic forces across the membrane as it passes. Our model allows us to predict the shape of the displacement that should accompany any traveling wave of voltage, including the well-characterized AP. We expect our model to serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs in neurobiology. See Arxiv/1407.7600

  8. High resolution surface wave dispersion studies in China

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.E.; Patton, H.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory regional calibration project is actively assembling a database of surface-wave dispersion information for China and surrounding areas. As part of the effort to characterize surface wave dispersion in China, we integrate prior long period results from the University of Colorado with our shorter period dispersion measurements in a high resolution survey of key monitoring areas. Focusing on western China initially, we employ broadband data recorded on CDSN stations, and regional events (m{sub b} 4 and above). Our approach is twofold, employing path specific calibration of key stations and well-recorded reference events, and tomographic inference to provide group velocity curves for regions with sparse station distribution and little seismic activity. Initial dispersion studies at Chinese stations WMQ and LZH show substantial azimuthal variation in dispersion, reinforcing the need for careful determination of source regions for path-specific calibration.

  9. Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi

    2014-05-07

    A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.

  10. An idealised experimental model of ocean surface wave transmission by an ice floe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennetts, L. G.; Alberello, A.; Meylan, M. H.; Cavaliere, C.; Babanin, A. V.; Toffoli, A.

    2015-12-01

    An experimental model of transmission of ocean waves by an ice floe is presented. Thin plastic plates with different material properties and thicknesses are used to model the floe. Regular incident waves with different periods and steepnesses are used, ranging from gently-sloping to storm-like conditions. A wave gauge is used to measure the water surface elevation in the lee of the floe. The depth of wave overwash on the floe is measured by a gauge in the centre of the floe's upper surface. Results show transmitted waves are regular for gently-sloping incident waves but irregular for storm-like incident waves. The proportion of the incident wave transmitted is shown to decrease as incident wave steepness increases, and to be at its minimum for an incident wavelength equal to the floe length. Further, a trend is noted for transmission to decrease as the mean wave height in the overwash region increases.

  11. Modelling of quasi-periodic oscillations with wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpar, M. A.; Yilmaz, A.

    1997-08-01

    Model dispersion relations are introduced to explore power spectra of the normal-branch (NB) and horizontal-branch (HB) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs; for reviews see Van der Klis (1989)[ARA&A, 27, 517], (1992) [Proc. of NATO ASI X-Ray Binaries and Recycled Pulsars, eds. E.P.J. Van den Heuvel & S.A. Rappaport, Kluwer, Dordrecht], (1995)[Proc. of NATO ASI The Lives of the Neutron Stars, eds. M.A. Alpar, Ümit Kiziloğlu, & J. van Paradijs, Kluwer, Dordrecht]) of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in terms of wave packets and to illustrate the presence of frequency bands around the Kepler and beat frequencies. For the NB QPOs wave packets of sound waves in a thick middle disk state, with frequencies determined by the rotation frequency, have wavelengths comparable to the size of the middle disk. For Z-sources on the HB, the wave packets result from disturbances in the inner disk induced by the neutron star magnetic field which rotates at the beat frequency with respect to the inner disk. For both the NB and the HB QPOs, we construct simple model dispersion relations, and show that the QPO peaks in the observed power spectra correspond to reasonable wavelengths and system parameters. The kilohertz QPOs, which were discovered after the original version of this paper was submitted, are also discussed as a possible realization of the Kepler and beat frequency bands. Problems of integrating the kHz and HB QPOs in a disk model are briefly noted. It is tentatively suggested that supersonic and wave propagation regions of the inner disk have complementary functions for the origin of kHz and HB QPOs respectively.

  12. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  13. Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Two Dimensionally Periodic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tian-Lin

    1985-12-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in two dimensionally periodic structure is systematically investigated, to provide the basic theory for two dimensionally modulated dielectric waveguide. A canonical two dimensionally periodic medium of infinite extent, whose dielectic constant varies sinusoidally in two orthogonal directions, is first examined. The charact solutions are represented exactly by a double Fourier series which is known as the Floquet solution. The harmonic amplitudes of the Floquet solution are determined by a five-term recurrence relation in the vector form, properly taking into account the hybrid-mode nature of the propagation problem. The five-term recurrence relation is then treated by different approaches so that clear physical pictures and practical numerical methods can be obtained. The characteristic solutions for two dimensionally periodic medium are then applied to the boundary-value problem of multi-layer dielectric waveguides containing a finite layer of periodic medium. As an example, the guidance problems are analysed and the numerical analysis of the dispersion characteristics are then carried out. Besides the canonical medium as a model, more general two dimensionally periodic medium are also discussed.

  14. Long-Period ULF Wave Activity in the Cusp Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Belakhovsky, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare simultaneous observations of long-period ULF wave activity from the Svalbard/IMAGE and Greenland fluxgate magnetometer profiles covering the expected cusp geomagnetic latitudes. Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL) and narrow-band Pc5 waves are found to be a ubiquitous element of ULF activity in the dayside high-latitude region. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of the return signal of the SuperDARN radar covering the Svalbard archipelago, predictions of empirical cusp models, and augmented whenever possible by DMSP identification of magnetospheric boundary domains. The meridional spatial structure of IPCL/Pc5 pulsation spectral power has been found to have a localized latitudinal peak, but not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. Possible mechanisms and their relevance to observational data are discussed. The occurrence of IPCL and Pc5 waves in the dayside boundary layers is a challenge to modelers, because so far their mechanism has not been firmly identified.

  15. Breaking Waves on the Ocean Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendeman, Michael S.

    equilibrium range waves and normalizing by the wave directional spread. Meanwhile, correlation of W with turbulent dissipation measurements is significantly worse, which may be due to uncertainty in the measurements or bias related to micro-breaking waves. Finally, phase-resolved, three-dimensional, measurements of the whitecaps were made from a new ship-based stereo video system. Comparison with concurrent buoy measurements indicate that the stereo data accurately reproduces the wave statistics, including the frequency spectra. The whitecaps are characterized by transient and spatially localized regions of extreme surface gradients, rather than large crest-to-trough steepnesses. It was found that whitecaps were around 10 times more likely to have extreme slopes, and 50% of the observed extreme surface slopes were in the vicinity of the breaking waves. The maximum whitecap slopes show good agreement with the Stokes 120 degree limiting crest geometry, and the whitecap crest loses much of its maximum steepness shortly after the onset of breaking. The whitecap phase speeds are consistently less than the linear or weakly nonlinear predicted phase speed, which indicate the effect of narrow-band wave groups, despite the broad-band wave spectra.

  16. Coherence in ultrafast laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Li, Chen; Faure, Nicolas; Cheng, Guanghua; Stoian, Razvan

    2015-11-01

    Ultrafast laser irradiation can trigger anisotropically structured nanoscaled gratinglike arrangements of matter, the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs). We demonstrate here that the formation of LIPSS is intrinsically related to the coherence of the laser field. Employing several test materials that allow large optical excursions, we observe the effect of randomizing spatial phase in generating finite domains of ripples. Using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain methods, we evaluate energy deposition patterns below a material's rough surface and show that modulated pattern, i.e., a spatially ordered electromagnetic solution, results from the coherent superposition of waves. By separating the field scattered from a surface rough topography from the total field, the inhomogeneous energy absorption problem is reduced to a simple interference equation. We further distinguish the contribution of the scattered near field and scattered far field on various types of inhomogeneous energy absorption features. It is found that the inhomogeneous energy absorption which could trigger the low-spatial-frequency LIPSSs (LSFLs) and high-spatial-frequency LIPSSs (HSFLs) of periodicity Λ >λ /Re(n ˜) are due to coherent superposition between the scattered far field (propagation) and the refracted field, while HSFLs of Λ <λ /Re(n ˜) are triggered by coherent superposition between the scattered near field (evanescent) and the refracted field. This is a general scenario that involves a topography-induced scattering phenomenon and stationary evanescent fields, being applied to two model case materials that exhibit large optical excursions upon excitation (W, Si) and nonplasmonic to plasmonic transitions. We indicate the occurrence of a general light interference phenomenon that does not necessarily involve wavelike surface plasmonic excitation. Finally, we discuss the role of interference field and scattered field on the enhancement of LIPSSs by

  17. Surface Wave Dynamics in the Coastal Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    heights, rip currents etc), coastal management, and help mitigate pollution hazards for humans (recreation) and coastal ecosystems . TRANSITIONS...1 Surface Wave Dynamics in the Coastal Zone Gerbrant Ph. van Vledder Department of Civil engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of...will be applicable in the coastal zone from deep water up to and including the surf zone. Our efforts will focus on analyzing high quality datasets to

  18. Wireless Multiplexed Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Sensor is a new technology for obtaining multiple, real-time measurements under extreme environmental conditions. This project plans to develop a wireless multiplexed sensor system that uses SAW sensors, with no batteries or semiconductors, that are passive and rugged, can operate down to cryogenic temperatures and up to hundreds of degrees C, and can be used to sense a wide variety of parameters over reasonable distances (meters).

  19. Ultrafast microfluidics using surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that surface acoustic waves (SAWs), nanometer amplitude Rayleigh waves driven at megahertz order frequencies propagating on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate, offer a powerful method for driving a host of extremely fast microfluidic actuation and micro∕bioparticle manipulation schemes. We show that sessile drops can be translated rapidly on planar substrates or fluid can be pumped through microchannels at 1–10 cm∕s velocities, which are typically one to two orders quicker than that afforded by current microfluidic technologies. Through symmetry-breaking, azimuthal recirculation can be induced within the drop to drive strong inertial microcentrifugation for micromixing and particle concentration or separation. Similar micromixing strategies can be induced in the same microchannel in which fluid is pumped with the SAW by merely changing the SAW frequency to rapidly switch the uniform through-flow into a chaotic oscillatory flow by exploiting superpositioning of the irradiated sound waves from the sidewalls of the microchannel. If the flow is sufficiently quiescent, the nodes of the transverse standing wave that arises across the microchannel also allow for particle aggregation, and hence, sorting on nodal lines. In addition, the SAW also facilitates other microfluidic capabilities. For example, capillary waves excited at the free surface of a sessile drop by the SAW underneath it can be exploited for micro∕nanoparticle collection and sorting at nodal points or lines at low powers. At higher powers, the large accelerations off the substrate surface as the SAW propagates across drives rapid destabilization of the drop free surface giving rise to inertial liquid jets that persist over 1–2 cm in length or atomization of the entire drop to produce 1–10 μm monodispersed aerosol droplets, which can be exploited for ink-jet printing, mass spectrometry interfacing, or pulmonary drug delivery. The atomization of polymer∕protein solutions

  20. Ring waveguide resonator on surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, S. V.; Martin, G.; Weihnacht, M.

    2007-04-01

    A simple regular electrode structure for surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is proposed. The structure consists of an interdigital transducer in the form of a ring placed on the Z cut of a hexagonal piezoelectric crystal. Finite thickness electrodes produce the known slowing effect for a SAW in comparison with this SAW on a free surface. The closed "slow" electrode region with the "fast" surrounding region forms an open waveguide resonator structure with the acoustic field concentrated in the electrode region. If the radius of the structure is large enough for a given wavelength, an acceptable level of radiation losses can be reached. The electrical admittance of such resonator does not have sidelobes.

  1. Anomalous shear wave delays and surface wave velocities at Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, R.G.; Boore, D.M.

    1982-04-10

    To investigate the effects of a geothermal area on the propagation of intermediate-period (1--30 s) teleseismic body waves and surface waves, a specially designed portable seismograph system was operated in Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming. Travel time residuals, relative to a station outside the caldera, of up to 2 s for compressional phases are in agreement with short-period residuals for P phases measured by other investigators. Travel time delays for shear arrivals in the intermediate-period band range from 2 to 9 s and decrease with increasing dT/d..delta... Measured Rayleigh wave phase velocities are extremely low, ranging from 3.2 km/s at 27-s period to 2.0 km/s at 7-s period; the estimated uncertainty associated with these values is 15%. We propose a model for compressional and shear velocities and Poisson's ratio beneath the Yellowstone caldera which fits the teleseismic body and surface wave data: it consists of a highly anomalous crust with an average shear velocity of 3.0 km/s overlying an upper mantle with average velocity of 4.1 km/s. The high average value of Poisson's ratio in the crust (0.34) suggests the presence of fluids there; Poisson's ratio in the mantle between 40 and approximately 200 km is more nearly normal (0.29) than in the crust. A discrepancy between normal values of Poisson's ratio in the crust calculated from short-period data and high values calculated from teleseismic data can be resolved by postulating a viscoelastic crustal model with frequency-dependent shear velocity and attenuation.

  2. Megaquakes, prograde surface waves and urban evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, C.; Castaños, H.

    2013-05-01

    Cities grow according to evolutionary principles. They move away from soft-ground conditions and avoid vulnerable types of structures. A megaquake generates prograde surface waves that produce unexpected damage in modern buildings. The examples (Figs. 1 and 2) were taken from the 1985 Mexico City and the 2010 Concepción, Chile megaquakes. About 400 structures built under supervision according to modern building codes were destroyed in the Mexican earthquake. All were sited on soft ground. A Rayleigh wave will cause surface particles to move as ellipses in a vertical plane. Building codes assume that this motion will be retrograde as on a homogeneous elastic halfspace, but soft soils are intermediate materials between a solid and a liquid. When Poisson's ratio tends to ν→0.5 the particle motion turns prograde as it would on a homogeneous fluid halfspace. Building codes assume that the tilt of the ground is not in phase with the acceleration but we show that structures on soft ground tilt into the direction of the horizontal ground acceleration. The combined effect of gravity and acceleration may destabilize a structure when it is in resonance with its eigenfrequency. Castaños, H. and C. Lomnitz, 2013. Charles Darwin and the 1835 Chile earthquake. Seismol. Res. Lett., 84, 19-23. Lomnitz, C., 1990. Mexico 1985: the case for gravity waves. Geophys. J. Int., 102, 569-572. Malischewsky, P.G. et al., 2008. The domain of existence of prograde Rayleigh-wave particle motion. Wave Motion 45, 556-564.; Figure 1 1985 Mexico megaquake--overturned 15-story apartment building in Mexico City ; Figure 2 2010 Chile megaquake Overturned 15-story R-C apartment building in Concepción

  3. Illusions and Cloaks for Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, T. M.; Valiente-Kroon, J. A.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Hao, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Ever since the inception of Transformation Optics (TO), new and exciting ideas have been proposed in the field of electromagnetics and the theory has been modified to work in such fields as acoustics and thermodynamics. The most well-known application of this theory is to cloaking, but another equally intriguing application of TO is the idea of an illusion device. Here, we propose a general method to transform electromagnetic waves between two arbitrary surfaces. This allows a flat surface to reproduce the scattering behaviour of a curved surface and vice versa, thereby giving rise to perfect optical illusion and cloaking devices, respectively. The performance of the proposed devices is simulated using thin effective media with engineered material properties. The scattering of the curved surface is shown to be reproduced by its flat analogue (for illusions) and vice versa for cloaks.

  4. Illusions and Cloaks for Surface Waves

    PubMed Central

    McManus, T. M.; Valiente-Kroon, J. A.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Hao, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the inception of Transformation Optics (TO), new and exciting ideas have been proposed in the field of electromagnetics and the theory has been modified to work in such fields as acoustics and thermodynamics. The most well-known application of this theory is to cloaking, but another equally intriguing application of TO is the idea of an illusion device. Here, we propose a general method to transform electromagnetic waves between two arbitrary surfaces. This allows a flat surface to reproduce the scattering behaviour of a curved surface and vice versa, thereby giving rise to perfect optical illusion and cloaking devices, respectively. The performance of the proposed devices is simulated using thin effective media with engineered material properties. The scattering of the curved surface is shown to be reproduced by its flat analogue (for illusions) and vice versa for cloaks. PMID:25145953

  5. Surface acoustic wave microsensors and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galipeau, David W.; Story, Patrick R.; Vetelino, Kevin A.; Mileham, R. D.

    1997-06-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been studied for the last twenty years as highly sensitive yet relatively inexpensive microsensors for applications ranging from gas and biological sensing to thin film and surface characterization. This wide range of applications is due to SAW microsensors high sensitivity to several physical parameters including mass, conductivity, permittivity, stress, temperature and electric fields. Their low cost results from the use of standard batch microelectronic fabrication techniques for their manufacture. In this work several SAW sensing applications are described. These include: gas detection; thin film polymer characterization; dew-point measurements; surface energy measurements; and as a method to measure surface cleanliness. Experimental results are presented along with comparisons to other measurement techniques.

  6. Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shulin; He, Qiong; Xiao, Shiyi; Xu, Qin; Li, Xin; Zhou, Lei

    2012-04-01

    The arbitrary control of electromagnetic waves is a key aim of photonic research. Although, for example, the control of freely propagating waves (PWs) and surface waves (SWs) has separately become possible using transformation optics and metamaterials, a bridge linking both propagation types has not yet been found. Such a device has particular relevance given the many schemes of controlling electromagnetic waves at surfaces and interfaces, leading to trapped rainbows, lensing, beam bending, deflection, and even anomalous reflection/refraction. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that a specific gradient-index meta-surface can convert a PW to a SW with nearly 100% efficiency. Distinct from conventional devices such as prism or grating couplers, the momentum mismatch between PW and SW is compensated by the reflection-phase gradient of the meta-surface, and a nearly perfect PW-SW conversion can happen for any incidence angle larger than a critical value. Experiments in the microwave region, including both far-field and near-field characterizations, are in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations. Our findings may pave the way for many applications, including high-efficiency surface plasmon couplers, anti-reflection surfaces, light absorbers, and so on.

  7. Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shulin; He, Qiong; Xiao, Shiyi; Xu, Qin; Li, Xin; Zhou, Lei

    2012-05-01

    The arbitrary control of electromagnetic waves is a key aim of photonic research. Although, for example, the control of freely propagating waves (PWs; refs , , , , , ) and surface waves (SWs; refs , , , ) has separately become possible using transformation optics and metamaterials, a bridge linking both propagation types has not yet been found. Such a device has particular relevance given the many schemes of controlling electromagnetic waves at surfaces and interfaces, leading to trapped rainbows, lensing, beam bending, deflection, and even anomalous reflection/refraction. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that a specific gradient-index meta-surface can convert a PW to a SW with nearly 100% efficiency. Distinct from conventional devices such as prism or grating couplers, the momentum mismatch between PW and SW is compensated by the reflection-phase gradient of the meta-surface, and a nearly perfect PW-SW conversion can happen for any incidence angle larger than a critical value. Experiments in the microwave region, including both far-field and near-field characterizations, are in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations. Our findings may pave the way for many applications, including high-efficiency surface plasmon couplers, anti-reflection surfaces, light absorbers, and so on.

  8. Demonstration of sawtooth period control with EC waves in KSTAR plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Jeong, J. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Joung, M.; ...

    2015-03-12

    The sawtooth period control in tokamak is important issue in recent years because the sawtooth crash can trigger TM/NTM instabilities and drive plasmas unstable. The control of sawtooth period by the modification of local current profile near the q=1 surface using ECCD has been demonstrated in a number of tokamaks [1, 2] including KSTAR. As a result, developing techniques to control the sawtooth period as a way of controlling the onset of NTM has been an important area of research in recent years [3]. In 2012 KSTAR plasma campaign, the sawtooth period control is carried out by the different depositionmore » position of EC waves across the q=1 surface. The sawtooth period is shortened by on-axis co-ECCD (destabilization), and the stabilization of the sawtooth is also observed by off-axis co-ECCD at outside q=1 surface. In 2013 KSTAR plasma campaign, the sawtooth locking experiment with periodic forcing of 170 GHz EC wave is carried out to control the sawtooth period. The optimal target position which lengthens the sawtooth period is investigated by performing a scan of EC beam deposition position nearby q=1 surface at the toroidal magnetic field of 2.9 T and plasma current of 0.7 MA. The sawtooth locking by the modulated EC beam is successfully demonstrated as in [3-5] with the scan of modulation-frequency and duty-ratio at the low beta (βN~0.5) plasma. In this paper, the sawteeth behavior by the location of EC beam and the preliminary result of the sawtooth locking experiments in KSTAR will be presented.« less

  9. Demonstration of sawtooth period control with EC waves in KSTAR plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, J. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Joung, M.; Kim, D.; Goodman, T. P.; Sauter, O.; Sakamoto, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Oda, Y.; Kwak, J. G.; Namkung, W.; Cho, M. H.; Park, H.; Hosea, J.; Ellis, R.

    2015-03-12

    The sawtooth period control in tokamak is important issue in recent years because the sawtooth crash can trigger TM/NTM instabilities and drive plasmas unstable. The control of sawtooth period by the modification of local current profile near the q=1 surface using ECCD has been demonstrated in a number of tokamaks [1, 2] including KSTAR. As a result, developing techniques to control the sawtooth period as a way of controlling the onset of NTM has been an important area of research in recent years [3]. In 2012 KSTAR plasma campaign, the sawtooth period control is carried out by the different deposition position of EC waves across the q=1 surface. The sawtooth period is shortened by on-axis co-ECCD (destabilization), and the stabilization of the sawtooth is also observed by off-axis co-ECCD at outside q=1 surface. In 2013 KSTAR plasma campaign, the sawtooth locking experiment with periodic forcing of 170 GHz EC wave is carried out to control the sawtooth period. The optimal target position which lengthens the sawtooth period is investigated by performing a scan of EC beam deposition position nearby q=1 surface at the toroidal magnetic field of 2.9 T and plasma current of 0.7 MA. The sawtooth locking by the modulated EC beam is successfully demonstrated as in [3-5] with the scan of modulation-frequency and duty-ratio at the low beta (βN~0.5) plasma. In this paper, the sawteeth behavior by the location of EC beam and the preliminary result of the sawtooth locking experiments in KSTAR will be presented.

  10. Surface wave phase velocities from 2-D surface wave tomography studies in the Anatolian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Kutlu, Yusuf; Erduran, Murat; Çakır, Özcan; Vinnik, Lev; Kosarev, Grigoriy; Oreshin, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    We study the Rayleigh and Love surface wave fundamental mode propagation beneath the Anatolian plate. To examine the inter-station phase velocities a two-station method is used along with the Multiple Filter Technique (MFT) in the Computer Programs in Seismology (Herrmann and Ammon, 2004). The near-station waveform is deconvolved from the far-station waveform removing the propagation effects between the source and the station. This method requires that the near and far stations are aligned with the epicentre on a great circle path. The azimuthal difference of the earthquake to the two-stations and the azimuthal difference between the earthquake and the station are restricted to be smaller than 5o. We selected 3378 teleseismic events (Mw >= 5.7) recorded by 394 broadband local stations with high signal-to-noise ratio within the years 1999-2013. Corrected for the instrument response suitable seismogram pairs are analyzed with the two-station method yielding a collection of phase velocity curves in various period ranges (mainly in the range 25-185 sec). Diffraction from lateral heterogeneities, multipathing, interference of Rayleigh and Love waves can alter the dispersion measurements. In order to obtain quality measurements, we select only smooth portions of the phase velocity curves, remove outliers and average over many measurements. We discard these average phase velocity curves suspected of suffering from phase wrapping errors by comparing them with a reference Earth model (IASP91 by Kennett and Engdahl, 1991). The outlined analysis procedure yields 3035 Rayleigh and 1637 Love individual phase velocity curves. To obtain Rayleigh and Love wave travel times for a given region we performed 2-D tomographic inversion for which the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) code developed by N. Rawlinson at the Australian National University was utilized. This software package is based on the multistage fast marching method by Rawlinson and Sambridge (2004a, 2004b). The

  11. Third Stokes parameter emission from a periodic water surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. T.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.; Staelin, D. H.; Oneill, K.; Lohanick, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment in which the third Stokes parameter thermal emission from a periodic water surface was measured is documented. This parameter is shown to be related to the direction of periodicity of the periodic surface and to approach brightnesses of up to 30 K at X band for the surface used in the experiment. The surface actually analyzed was a 'two-layer' periodic surface; the theory of thermal emission from such a surface is derived and the theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements. These results further the idea of using the third Stokes parameter emission as an indicator of wind direction over the ocean.

  12. Highly Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Elastic Woodpile Periodic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-03

    attenuated over time (again, we briefly discuss the relevant features in Supple- mental Material [41]). We now explore this nanopteronic waveform more...formation of genuinely traveling waves composed of a strongly-localized solitary wave on top of a small amplitude oscillatory tail. This type of wave...manipulat- ing highly nonlinear stress waves at will, including high wave attenuation and spontaneous formation of novel traveling waves after an impact

  13. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.

    2016-01-01

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3–50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging. PMID:27640998

  14. Calculations of the heights, periods, profile parameters, and energy spectra of wind waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korneva, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sea wave behavior calculations require the precalculation of wave elements as well as consideration of the spectral functions of ocean wave formation. The spectrum of the random wave process is largely determined by the distribution of energy in the actual wind waves observed on the surface of the sea as expressed in statistical and spectral characteristics of the sea swell.

  15. Lamb waves in phononic crystal slabs: truncated plane parallels to the axis of periodicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiujiu; Xia, Yunjia; Han, Xu; Zhang, Hongbo

    2012-09-01

    A theoretical study is presented on the propagation properties of Lamb wave modes in phononic crystal slabs consisting of a row or more of parallel square cylinders placed periodically in the host material. The surfaces of the slabs are parallel to the axis of periodicity. The dispersion curves of Lamb wave modes are calculated based on the supercell method. The finite element method is employed to calculate the band structures and the transmission power spectra, which are in good agreement with the results by the supercell method. We also have found that the dispersion curves of Lamb waves are strongly dependent on the crystal termination, which is the position of the cut plane through the square cylinders. There exist complete or incomplete (truncated) layers of square cylinders with the change of the crystal termination. The influence of the crystal termination on the band gaps of Lamb wave modes is analyzed by numerical simulations. The variation of the crystal termination leads to obvious changes in the dispersion curves of the Lamb waves and the widths of the band gaps.

  16. Lithospheric structure of South China Sea from surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Xue, M.; Le, K.; Yang, T.

    2011-12-01

    The South China Sea is one of the marginal seas of the West Pacific where the Eurasian Plate, Philippine Sea Plate, Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate interact. In this study we give a 3D shear wave velocity structure of South China Sea using surface wave tomographic methods. We use earthquakes distributed on the periphery of the South China Sea and collect the earthquake data from 48 stations (IRIS stations, CDSN stations and four stations deployed in Vietnam by Tongji University) with rays up to ~ 3000. We first calculate the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode for Rayleigh waves with periods from 14 sec to 130 sec using the multiple filter technique. After getting the dispersion curve between each station-to-source pair, we conduct an inversion to get group velocity at each grid point in the rectangular region of 14° s - 34° N and 86° E - 134° E with different grid spacing of 2° × 2° and 1° × 1°. This process is done by the fast marching method as the forward step and then subspace inversion step followed. When we get the group velocity of each grid point for corresponding periods, we can extract a dispersion curve for that point. Through the surface wave inversion which uses Knopoff's calculation method for layered medium as the forward step and the damped least square method as the inversion step followed, we can get an iterative model which carries the information of shear wave velocity and layer depth for each grid point. Finally we put all the shear wave velocity structures of all points together to obtain the three-dimensional shear wave structures. With checkboard tests indicating good resolution, we find that higher group velocities persistently show up in South China Sea Basin, West Philippine Sea Basin, and Celebes Sea Basin from periods of 20 sec to 60 sec, which reflect structures down to 20 - 60 km deep. Similar high shear velocity features also show up in depth slices from 30 km to 60 km. These high shear velocity

  17. Surface acoustic wave microsensors and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galipeau, David W.; Story, Patrick R.; Vetelino, Kevin A.; Mileham, Russell D.

    1997-12-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been studied for the last twenty years as highly sensitive yet relatively inexpensive microsensors for applications ranging from temperature and stress to gas and biological sensing. This wide range of applications is due to the SAW microsensors' high sensitivity to several physical parameters including mass, temperature, stress, and conductivity. Their low cost results from the use of standard batch microelectronic fabrication techniques for their manufacture. In this paper several chemical sensing applications for SAW devices are described. These include: gas detection; thin-film polymer characterization; dew-point measurements; surface energy measurements; and as a method to measure surface cleanliness. Experimental results are presented along with comparisons to other measurement techniques.

  18. Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

  19. Synoptic Kelvin type perturbation waves over Congo basin over the period 1979-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclaire, Zebaze; Lenouo, André; Tchawoua, Clément; Janicot, Serge

    2015-08-01

    The synoptic structure and inter-annual variability of Kelvin waves over the Congo basin from 1979 to 2010 are explored using outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data. Composite method shows that high values of synoptic Kelvin wave (SKW) index are located over Congo basin during March-June where the convective active phase favours the formation of convective synoptic systems. Mean composite SKWs structure shows that these waves propagate faster over land surface and dissipate with suppressed phase. Because convective instability is smaller, these waves cannot grow in Congo basin. High correlation between SKWs and precipitation time series occurs when the Kelvin waves lead the precipitation time series by about 4 days. The analysis of 32 years datasets (1979-2010) also shows that in some particular year, strong SKWs propagation exists with periods centred around 5 days. Otherwise, results show marked inter-annual variability of Kelvin wave activity over Congo basin associated with divergence and low level westerly trade winds.

  20. Broadband surface-wave transformation cloak

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Su; Xu, Hongyi; Gao, Hanhong; Jiang, Yuyu; Yu, Faxin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Sun, Handong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-06-08

    Guiding surface electromagnetic waves around disorder without disturbing the wave amplitude or phase is in great demand for modern photonic and plasmonic devices, but is fundamentally difficult to realize because light momentum must be conserved in a scattering event. A partial realization has been achieved by exploiting topological electromagnetic surface states, but this approach is limited to narrow-band light transmission and subject to phase disturbances in the presence of disorder. Recent advances in transformation optics apply principles of general relativity to curve the space for light, allowing one to match the momentum and phase of light around any disorder as if that disorder were not there. This feature has been exploited in the development of invisibility cloaks. An ideal invisibility cloak, however, would require the phase velocity of light being guided around the cloaked object to exceed the vacuum speed of light—a feat potentially achievable only over an extremely narrow band. In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally show that the bottlenecks encountered in previous studies can be overcome. We introduce a class of cloaks capable of remarkable broadband surface electromagnetic waves guidance around ultrasharp corners and bumps with no perceptible changes in amplitude and phase. These cloaks consist of specifically designed nonmagnetic metamaterials and achieve nearly ideal transmission efficiency over a broadband frequency range from 0+ to 6 GHz. Finally, this work provides strong support for the application of transformation optics to plasmonic circuits and could pave the way toward high-performance, large-scale integrated photonic circuits.

  1. Broadband surface-wave transformation cloak

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Su; Xu, Hongyi; Gao, Hanhong; ...

    2015-06-08

    Guiding surface electromagnetic waves around disorder without disturbing the wave amplitude or phase is in great demand for modern photonic and plasmonic devices, but is fundamentally difficult to realize because light momentum must be conserved in a scattering event. A partial realization has been achieved by exploiting topological electromagnetic surface states, but this approach is limited to narrow-band light transmission and subject to phase disturbances in the presence of disorder. Recent advances in transformation optics apply principles of general relativity to curve the space for light, allowing one to match the momentum and phase of light around any disorder asmore » if that disorder were not there. This feature has been exploited in the development of invisibility cloaks. An ideal invisibility cloak, however, would require the phase velocity of light being guided around the cloaked object to exceed the vacuum speed of light—a feat potentially achievable only over an extremely narrow band. In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally show that the bottlenecks encountered in previous studies can be overcome. We introduce a class of cloaks capable of remarkable broadband surface electromagnetic waves guidance around ultrasharp corners and bumps with no perceptible changes in amplitude and phase. These cloaks consist of specifically designed nonmagnetic metamaterials and achieve nearly ideal transmission efficiency over a broadband frequency range from 0+ to 6 GHz. Finally, this work provides strong support for the application of transformation optics to plasmonic circuits and could pave the way toward high-performance, large-scale integrated photonic circuits.« less

  2. Scattered surface wave energy in the seismic coda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeng, Y.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many important contributions that Aki has made to seismology pertains to the origin of coda waves (Aki, 1969; Aki and Chouet, 1975). In this paper, I revisit Aki's original idea of the role of scattered surface waves in the seismic coda. Based on the radiative transfer theory, I developed a new set of scattered wave energy equations by including scattered surface waves and body wave to surface wave scattering conversions. The work is an extended study of Zeng et al. (1991), Zeng (1993) and Sato (1994a) on multiple isotropic-scattering, and may shed new insight into the seismic coda wave interpretation. The scattering equations are solved numerically by first discretizing the model at regular grids and then solving the linear integral equations iteratively. The results show that scattered wave energy can be well approximated by body-wave to body wave scattering at earlier arrival times and short distances. At long distances from the source, scattered surface waves dominate scattered body waves at surface stations. Since surface waves are 2-D propagating waves, their scattered energies should in theory follow a common decay curve. The observed common decay trends on seismic coda of local earthquake recordings particular at long lapse times suggest that perhaps later seismic codas are dominated by scattered surface waves. When efficient body wave to surface wave conversion mechanisms are present in the shallow crustal layers, such as soft sediment layers, the scattered surface waves dominate the seismic coda at even early arrival times for shallow sources and at later arrival times for deeper events.

  3. Surface-Acoustic-Wave Piezoelectric Microbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuan, Raymond L.; Bowers, William D.

    1992-01-01

    Improved piezoelectric microbalances developed for use in measuring masses of volcanic, aerosol, and other small particles suspended in air. Sensitive microbalance used to analyze airborne particles in real time in environments as diverse as clean rooms or upper atmosphere. Surface-acoustic-wave resonator includes input and output sets of interdigitated electrodes and two passive conductive patterns acting as reflectors. Mechanical energy travels both ways out from middle and reflected back toward middle. Microbalance and associated circuitry fit in small package. Circuit draws only 80 mA at 5 V. Sensitivity more than 400 times that of bulk piezoelectric microbalance.

  4. Absorption of surface acoustic waves by graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Xu, W.

    2011-06-01

    We present a theoretical study on interactions of electrons in graphene with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). We find that owing to momentum and energy conservation laws, the electronic transition accompanied by the SAW absorption cannot be achieved via inter-band transition channels in graphene. For graphene, strong absorption of SAWs can be observed in a wide frequency range up to terahertz at room temperature. The intensity of SAW absorption by graphene depends strongly on temperature and can be adjusted by changing the carrier density. This study is relevant to the exploration of the acoustic properties of graphene and to the application of graphene as frequency-tunable SAW devices.

  5. Surface Acoustic Wave Atomizer and Electrostatic Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Yutaka

    A new methodology for fabricating thin film or micro patters of organic/bio material using surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer and electrostatic deposition is proposed and characteristics of atomization techniques are discussed in terms of drop size and atomization speed. Various types of SAW atomizer are compared with electrospray and conventional ultrasonic atomizers. It has been proved that SAW atomizers generate drops as small as electrospray and have very fast atomization speed. This technique is applied to fabrication of micro patterns of proteins. According to the result of immunoassay, the specific activity of immunoglobulin was preserved after deposition process.

  6. Surface acoustic wave atomizer and electrostatic deposition.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology for fabricating thin film or micro patters of organic/bio material using surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer and electrostatic deposition is proposed and characteristics of atomization techniques are discussed in terms of drop size and atomization speed. Various types of SAW atomizer are compared with electrospray and conventional ultrasonic atomizers. It has been proved that SAW atomizers generate drops as small as electrospray and have very fast atomization speed. This technique is applied to fabrication of micro patterns of proteins. According to the result of immunoassay, the specific activity of immunoglobulin was preserved after deposition process.

  7. Observation of quasi-periodic solar radio bursts associated with propagating fast-mode waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Zimovets, I. V.; White, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: Radio emission observations from the Learmonth and Bruny Island radio spectrographs are analysed to determine the nature of a train of discrete, periodic radio "sparks" (finite-bandwidth, short-duration isolated radio features) which precede a type II burst. We analyse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging from SDO/AIA at multiple wavelengths and identify a series of quasi-periodic rapidly-propagating enhancements, which we interpret as a fast wave train, and link these to the detected radio features. Methods: The speeds and positions of the periodic rapidly propagating fast waves and the coronal mass ejection (CME) were recorded using running-difference images and time-distance analysis. From the frequency of the radio sparks the local electron density at the emission location was estimated for each. Using an empirical model for the scaling of density in the corona, the calculated electron density was used to obtain the height above the surface at which the emission occurs, and the propagation velocity of the emission location. Results: The period of the radio sparks, δtr = 1.78 ± 0.04 min, matches the period of the fast wave train observed at 171 Å, δtEUV = 1.7 ± 0.2 min. The inferred speed of the emission location of the radio sparks, 630 km s-1, is comparable to the measured speed of the CME leading edge, 500 km s-1, and the speeds derived from the drifting of the type II lanes. The calculated height of the radio emission (obtained from the density) matches the observed location of the CME leading edge. From the above evidence we propose that the radio sparks are caused by the quasi-periodic fast waves, and the emission is generated as they catch up and interact with the leading edge of the CME. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Solitary Water Waves of Large Amplitude Generated by Surface Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Miles H.

    2015-11-01

    We consider exact nonlinear solitary water waves on a shear flow with an arbitrary distribution of vorticity. Ignoring surface tension, we impose a non-constant pressure on the free surface. Starting from a uniform shear flow with a flat free surface and a supercritical wave speed, we vary the surface pressure and use a continuation argument to construct a global connected set of symmetric solitary waves. This set includes waves of depression whose profiles increase monotonically from a central trough where the surface pressure is at its lowest, as well as waves of elevation whose profiles decrease monotonically from a central crest where the surface pressure is at its highest. There may also be two waves in this connected set with identical surface pressure, only one of which is a wave of depression.

  9. Pointwise asymptotic behavior of modulated periodic reaction-diffusion waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Soyeun

    By working with the periodic resolvent kernel and the Bloch-decomposition, we establish pointwise bounds for the Green function of the linearized equation associated with spatially periodic traveling waves of a system of reaction-diffusion equations. With our linearized estimates together with a nonlinear iteration scheme developed by Johnson-Zumbrun, we obtain Lp-behavior (p⩾1) of a nonlinear solution to a perturbation equation of a reaction-diffusion equation with respect to initial data in L1∩H2 recovering and slightly sharpening results obtained by Schneider using weighted energy and renormalization techniques. We obtain also pointwise nonlinear estimates with respect to two different initial perturbations |u0|⩽E0e/M, |⩽E0 and |u0|⩽E0(1, r>2, |⩽E0 respectively, E0>0 sufficiently small and M>1 sufficiently large, showing that behavior is that of a heat kernel. These pointwise bounds have not been obtained elsewhere, and do not appear to be accessible by previous techniques.

  10. Periodic Folded Wave Patterns for (2+1)-Dimensional Higher-Order Broer Kaup Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Hua

    2008-10-01

    A general solution including three arbitrary functions is obtained for the (2+1)-dimensional higher-order Broer Kaup equation by means of WTC truncation method. Introducing proper multiple valued functions and Jacobi elliptic functions in the seed solution, special types of periodic folded waves are derived. In long wave limit these periodic folded wave patterns may degenerate into single localized folded solitary wave excitations. The interactions of the periodic folded waves and their degenerated single folded solitary waves are investigated graphically and are found to be completely elastic.

  11. Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Technique Using Periodic Patterns for Low RCS Patch Array Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Yeon-Gwan; Shin, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an electromagnetic wave absorbing technique to reduce a radar cross-section (RCS) of a patch array antenna without compromising their antenna performance. The technique is based on periodic patterns, which is made of resistive materials. The 2×2 patch array antenna with a resonance frequency of 3.0 GHz was designed and fabricated. To reduce the RCS of the patch array antenna, the periodic patterns using a square patch element were proposed and applied to the surface between the four antenna patches. The printed lossy periodic patterns have radar absorbing performance at 12.0 GHz frequency. The measured results show that the lossy periodic patterns have no significant effect on the antenna radiation performance. On the other hand, the RCS is reduced by more than 98% compared to the conventional antenna at the target frequency.

  12. Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingnan

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity ϵ, magnetic permeability μ are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective μ < 1 or even μ < 0. Varactor based

  13. QUASI-PERIODIC FAST-MODE WAVE TRAINS WITHIN A GLOBAL EUV WAVE AND SEQUENTIAL TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS DETECTED BY SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Ofman, Leon

    2012-07-01

    We present the first unambiguous detection of quasi-periodic wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances {approx}> R{sub Sun }/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 km s{sup -1} decelerating to {approx}650 km s{sup -1}. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by {approx}50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.

  14. Quasi-periodic Fast-mode Wave Trains within a Global EUV Wave and Sequential Transverse Oscillations Detected by SDO/AIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2012-07-01

    We present the first unambiguous detection of quasi-periodic wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances >~ R ⊙/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 km s-1 decelerating to ~650 km s-1. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by ~50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.

  15. Quasi-periodic Fast-mode Wave Trains Within a Global EUV Wave and Sequential Transverse Oscillations Detected by SDO-AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon; Nitta, Nariaki; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first unambiguous detection of quasi-periodic wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances greater than approximately solar radius/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 kilometers per second decelerating to approximately 650 kilometers per second. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by approximately 50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.

  16. Acceleration of solitary ion-acoustic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, L.; Gradov, O. M.

    1991-10-01

    We consider the interaction between long-wavelength ion-acoustic and electron-plasma surface waves on a semi-infinite plasma. It then turns out that an ion-acoustic solitary wave can be accelerated when the amplitude of the electron-plasma surface wave varies in time.

  17. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of {sup 4}He nanodroplets on surfaces: {sup 4}He/graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Castells, María Pilar de; Stoll, Hermann; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Causà, Mauro; Voloshina, Elena; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Pi, Martí

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He–surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on {sup 4}He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of {sup 4}He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the {sup 4}He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  18. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of ⁴He nanodroplets on surfaces: ⁴He/graphene.

    PubMed

    de Lara-Castells, María Pilar; Stoll, Hermann; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Causà, Mauro; Voloshina, Elena; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O; Pi, Martí

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He-surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on (4)He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of (4)He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the (4)He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  19. Nozzleless Spray Cooling Using Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Kar Man; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming Kwang

    2015-11-01

    Due to its reliability and portability, surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomization is an attractive approach for the generation of monodispersed microdroplets in microfluidics devices. Here, we present a nozzleless spray cooling technique via SAW atomization with key advantage of downward scalability by simply increasing the excitation frequency. With generation of micron size droplets through surface destabilization using SAW, the clogging issues commonly encountered by spraying nozzle can be neutralized. Using deionised water, cooling is improved when the atomization rate is increased and the position of the device is optimized such that the atomized droplets can be easily seeded into the upstream of the flow circulation. Cooling is further improved with the use of nanofluids; a suspension of nanoparticles in water. By increasing nanoparticle mass concentration from 1% to 3%, cooling is enhanced due to the deposition and formation of nanoparticle clusters on heated surface and eventually increase the surface area. However, further increase the concentration to 10% reduces the cooling efficiency due to drastic increase in viscosity μ that leads to lower atomization rate which scales as ṁ ~μ - 1 / 2 .

  20. Surface wave holography on designing subwavelength metallic structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Fu, Jin-Xin; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2011-11-21

    We report a method in the framework of surface wave holography to manipulate the electromagnetic wave on the metallic surface for realizing complicated electromagnetic wave transport functionalities in three-dimensional (3D) space. The method allows for direct determination of the metallic surface structure morphology for a given transport functionality, by means of writing desirable object information on the metallic surface via interference with a reference surface wave. We have employed the analytical approach to design and build metallic surface structures that realize arbitrary single-point focusing, arbitrary single-direction beam collimation, and simultaneous two-point focusing of electromagnetic wave in 3D space. Good agreement between numerical simulations and microwave experimental measurements has been found and confirms the power of the method in conceptually understanding and exploiting the surface electromagnetic wave on subwavelength metal structures.

  1. Identification of surface wave higher modes using a methodology based on seismic noise and coda waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivet, Diane; Campillo, Michel; Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco; Shapiro, Nikolaï M.; Singh, Shri Krishna

    2015-11-01

    Dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves is performed to assess the velocity of complex structures such as sedimentary basins. At short periods several modes of the Rayleigh waves are often exited. To perform a reliable inversion of the velocity structure an identification of these modes is thus required. We propose a novel method to identify the modes of surface waves. We use the spectral ratio of the ground velocity for the horizontal components over the vertical component (H/V) measured on seismic coda. We then compare the observed values with the theoretical H/V ratio for velocity models deduced from surface wave dispersion when assuming a particular mode. We first invert the Rayleigh wave measurements retrieved from ambient noise cross-correlation with the assumptions that (1) the fundamental mode and (2) the first overtone are excited. Then we use these different velocity models to predict theoretical spectral ratios of the ground velocity for the horizontal components over the vertical component (H/V). These H/V ratios are computed under the hypothesis of equipartition of a diffuse field in a layered medium. Finally we discriminate between fundamental and higher modes by comparing the theoretical H/V ratio with the H/V ratio measured on seismic coda. In an application, we reconstruct Rayleigh waves from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at seven broad-band stations in the Valley of Mexico. For paths within the soft quaternary sediments basin, the maximum energy is observed at velocities higher than expected for the fundamental mode. We identify that the dominant mode is the first higher mode, which suggests the importance of higher modes as the main vectors of energy in such complex structures.

  2. Dispersion of Lamb waves under a periodic metal grating in aluminum nitride plates.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Natalya F

    2014-09-01

    Dispersion of Lamb waves propagating in AlN plates with a periodic Al grating on the top surface and an Al electrode on the bottom surface is investigated using the numerical technique SDA-FEM-SDA, which combines finite element modeling (FEM) analysis of the electrode region with spectral-domain analysis (SDA) of the adjacent multi-layered half-spaces. Characteristics of zero-order and higher-order Lamb waves are presented as functions of plate thickness and spectral frequency, which varies in the first Brillouin zone. The structures of typical Lamb waves are examined via visualization of the instantaneous displacement fields in the AlN plate confined between the grating and the bottom electrode. The mechanism of building hybrid modes, which arise from intermode coupling between the counter-propagating Lamb waves of different symmetry and order, is illustrated by two examples of modes propagating with wavelengths λ = 3p and λ = 4p, where p is the pitch of the grating.

  3. Developing a Short-Period, Fundamental-Mode Rayleigh-Wave Attenuation Model for Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    We are developing a 2D, short-period (12 - 22 s), fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave attenuation model for Asia. This model can be used to invert for a 3D attenuation model of the Earth's crust and upper mantle as well as to implement more accurate path corrections in regional surface-wave magnitude calculations. The prerequisite for developing a reliable Rayleigh-wave attenuation model is the availability of accurate fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave amplitude measurements. Fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave amplitudes could be contaminated by a variety of sources such as multipathing, focusing and defocusing, body wave, higher-mode surface wave, and other noise sources. These contaminations must be reduced to the largest extent possible. To achieve this, we designed a procedure by taking advantage of certain Rayleigh-wave characteristics, such as dispersion and elliptical particle motion, for accurate amplitude measurements. We first analyze the dispersion of the surface-wave data using a spectrogram. Based on the characteristics of the data dispersion, we design a phase-matched filter by using either a manually picked dispersion curve, or a group-velocity-model predicted dispersion curve, or the dispersion of the data, and apply the filter to the seismogram. Intelligent filtering of the seismogram and windowing of the resulting cross-correlation based on the spectrogram analysis and the comparison between the phase-match filtered data spectrum, the raw-data spectrum and the theoretical source spectrum effectively reduces amplitude contaminations and results in reliable amplitude measurements in many cases. We implemented these measuring techniques in a graphic-user-interface tool called Surface Wave Amplitude Measurement Tool (SWAMTOOL). Using the tool, we collected and processed waveform data for 200 earthquakes occurring throughout 2003-2006 inside and around Eurasia. The records from 135 broadband stations were used. After obtaining the Rayleigh-wave amplitude

  4. Transverse instability of periodic and generalized solitary waves for a fifth-order KP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haragus, Mariana; Wahlén, Erik

    2017-02-01

    We consider a fifth-order Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation which arises as a two-dimensional model in the classical water-wave problem. This equation possesses a family of generalized line solitary waves which decay exponentially to periodic waves at infinity. We prove that these solitary waves are transversely spectrally unstable and that this instability is induced by the transverse instability of the periodic tails. We rely upon a detailed spectral analysis of some suitably chosen linear operators.

  5. Skin characteristics by laser generated surface waves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhihong; L'Etang, Adèle

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a study into the suitability of using laser generated surface acoustic waves for the characterisation of skin properties without causing any damage to the skin thermally or by mechanical disruption. Using commercial Finite Element Code ANSYS, the effects of laser wavelength, laser beam radius and laser rise time on generation of laser generated ultrasonic waves in a 3-layered elastic isotropic model of human skin were studied. The FE model is an example of a sequential coupled field analysis where the thermal and mechanical analyses are treated separately. The heating of the skin model due to the short laser pulse is simulated by a dynamic thermal analysis with the laser pulse modeled as volumetric heat generation and the results from this analysis subsequently applied as a load in the mechanical analysis where the out-of-plane displacement histories are analyzed. The technique described in this paper also involves measuring the propagation velocity of SAWs, which are directly related to the material properties, and thickness of layers, this is done over a wide frequency range in order to obtain maximum information regarding the material under test.

  6. Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Shrinivas G.

    1991-03-01

    The use of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device to measure the rate of gas flow is described. A SAW oscillator heated to a suitable temperature above ambient is placed in the path of a flowing gas. Convective cooling caused by the gas flow results in a change in the oscillator frequency. A 73-MHz oscillator fabricated on 128 deg rotated Y-cut lithium niobate substrate and heated to 55 C above ambient shows a frequency variation greater than 142 kHz for flow-rate variation from 0 to 1000 cu cm/min. The output of the sensor can be calibrated to provide a measurement of volume flow rate, pressure differential across channel ports, or mass flow rate. High sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and direct digital output are among the attractive features of this sensor. Theoretical expressions for the sensitivity and response time of the sensor are derived. It is shown that by using ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating in thin membranes, a flow sensor with faster response than a SAW sensor can be realized.

  7. New Hybridized Surface Wave Approach for Geotechnical Modeling of Shear Wave Velocity at Strong Motion Recording Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayen, R.; Carkin, B.; Minasian, D.

    2006-12-01

    Strong motion recording (SMR) networks often have little or no shear wave velocity measurements at stations where characterization of site amplification and site period effects is needed. Using the active Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) method, and passive H/V microtremor method we have investigated nearly two hundred SMR sites in California, Alaska, Japan, Australia, China and Taiwan. We are conducting these studies, in part, to develop a new hybridized method of site characterization that utilizes a parallel array of harmonic-wave sources for active-source SASW, and a single long period seismometer for passive-source microtremor measurement. Surface wave methods excel in their ability to non-invasively and rapidly characterize the variation of ground stiffness properties with depth below the surface. These methods are lightweight, inexpensive to deploy, and time-efficient. They have been shown to produce accurate and deep soil stiffness profiles. By placing and wiring shakers in a large parallel circuit, either side-by-side on the ground or in a trailer-mounted array, a strong in-phase harmonic wave can be produced. The effect of arraying many sources in parallel is to increase the amplitude of waves received at far-away spaced seismometers at low frequencies so as to extend the longest wavelengths of the captured dispersion curve. The USGS system for profiling uses this concept by arraying between two and eight electro-mechanical harmonic-wave shakers. With large parallel arrays of vibrators, a dynamic force in excess of 1000 lb can be produced to vibrate the ground and produce surface waves. We adjust the harmonic wave through a swept-sine procedure to profile surface wave dispersion down to a frequency of 1 Hz and out to surface wave-wavelengths of 200-1000 meters, depending on the site stiffness. The parallel-array SASW procedure is augmented using H/V microtremor data collected with the active source turned off. Passive array microtremor data

  8. Standing surface acoustic wave based cell coculture.

    PubMed

    Li, Sixing; Guo, Feng; Chen, Yuchao; Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Wang, Lin; Cameron, Craig E; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-10-07

    Precise reconstruction of heterotypic cell-cell interactions in vitro requires the coculture of different cell types in a highly controlled manner. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell coculture platform. In our approach, different types of cells are patterned sequentially in the SSAW field to form an organized cell coculture. To validate our platform, we demonstrate a coculture of epithelial cancer cells and endothelial cells. Real-time monitoring of cell migration dynamics reveals increased cancer cell mobility when cancer cells are cocultured with endothelial cells. Our SSAW-based cell coculture platform has the advantages of contactless cell manipulation, high biocompatibility, high controllability, simplicity, and minimal interference of the cellular microenvironment. The SSAW technique demonstrated here can be a valuable analytical tool for various biological studies involving heterotypic cell-cell interactions.

  9. Standing Surface Acoustic Wave Based Cell Coculture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Precise reconstruction of heterotypic cell–cell interactions in vitro requires the coculture of different cell types in a highly controlled manner. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell coculture platform. In our approach, different types of cells are patterned sequentially in the SSAW field to form an organized cell coculture. To validate our platform, we demonstrate a coculture of epithelial cancer cells and endothelial cells. Real-time monitoring of cell migration dynamics reveals increased cancer cell mobility when cancer cells are cocultured with endothelial cells. Our SSAW-based cell coculture platform has the advantages of contactless cell manipulation, high biocompatibility, high controllability, simplicity, and minimal interference of the cellular microenvironment. The SSAW technique demonstrated here can be a valuable analytical tool for various biological studies involving heterotypic cell–cell interactions. PMID:25232648

  10. Impacts of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu

    2017-03-01

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the impact of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS). The "business-as-usual" climate scenario known as Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 is considered in this study. Changes in the ocean surface gravity waves over the study region for the period 1979-2100 are examined based on 3 hourly ocean waves simulated by the third-generation ocean wave model known as WAVEWATCHIII. The wave model is driven by surface winds and ice conditions produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4). The whole study period is divided into the present (1979-2008), near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) periods to quantify possible future changes of ocean waves over the ECS. In comparison with the present ocean wave conditions, the time-mean significant wave heights (H s ) are expected to increase over most of the ECS in the near future and decrease over this region in the far future period. The time-means of the annual 5% largest H s are projected to increase over the ECS in both near and far future periods due mainly to the changes in surface winds. The future changes in the time-means of the annual 5% largest H s and 10-m wind speeds are projected to be twice as strong as the changes in annual means. An analysis of inverse wave ages suggests that the occurrence of wind seas is projected to increase over the southern Labrador and central Newfoundland Shelves in the near future period, and occurrence of swells is projected to increase over other areas of the ECS in both the near and far future periods.

  11. The radiation of surface wave energy: Implications for volcanic tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, M. M.; Denolle, M.; Lyons, J. J.; Nakahara, H.

    2015-12-01

    The seismic energy radiated by active volcanism is one common measurement of eruption size. For example, the magnitudes of individual earthquakes in volcano-tectonic (VT) swarms can be summed and expressed in terms of cumulative magnitude, energy, or moment release. However, discrepancies exist in current practice when treating the radiated energy of volcano seismicity dominated by surface waves. This has implications for volcanic tremor, since eruption tremor typically originates at shallow depth and is made up of surface waves. In the absence of a method to compute surface wave energy, estimates of eruption energy partitioning between acoustic and seismic waves typically assume seismic energy is composed of body waves. Furthermore, without the proper treatment of surface wave energy, it is unclear how much volcanic tremor contributes to the overall seismic energy budget during volcanic unrest. To address this issue, we derive, from first principles, the expression of surface wave radiated energy. In contrast with body waves, the surface wave energy equation is naturally expressed in the frequency domain instead of the time domain. We validate our result by reproducing an analytical solution for the radiated power of a vertical force source acting on a free surface. We further show that the surface wave energy equation leads to an explicit relationship between energy and the imaginary part of the surface wave Green's tensor at the source location, a fundamental property recognized within the field of seismic interferometry. With the new surface wave energy equation, we make clear connections to reduced displacement and propose an improved formula for the calculation of surface wave reduced displacement involving integration over the frequency band of tremor. As an alternative to reduced displacement, we show that reduced particle velocity squared is also a valid physical measure of tremor size, one based on seismic energy rate instead of seismic moment rate. These

  12. Orbital stability of periodic waves in the class of reduced Ostrovsky equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Edward R.; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2016-09-01

    Periodic travelling waves are considered in the class of reduced Ostrovsky equations that describe low-frequency internal waves in the presence of rotation. The reduced Ostrovsky equations with either quadratic or cubic nonlinearities can be transformed to integrable equations of the Klein-Gordon type by means of a change of coordinates. By using the conserved momentum and energy as well as an additional conserved quantity due to integrability, we prove that small-amplitude periodic waves are orbitally stable with respect to subharmonic perturbations, with period equal to an integer multiple of the period of the wave. The proof is based on construction of a Lyapunov functional, which is convex at the periodic wave and is conserved in the time evolution. We also show numerically that convexity of the Lyapunov functional holds for periodic waves of arbitrary amplitudes.

  13. Frequency and wavelength prediction of ultrasonic induced liquid surface waves.

    PubMed

    Mahravan, Ehsan; Naderan, Hamid; Damangir, Ebrahim

    2016-12-01

    A theoretical investigation of parametric excitation of liquid free surface by a high frequency sound wave is preformed, using potential flow theory. Pressure and velocity distributions, resembling the sound wave, are applied to the free surface of the liquid. It is found that for impinging wave two distinct capillary frequencies will be excited: One of them is the same as the frequency of the sound wave, and the other is equal to the natural frequency corresponding to a wavenumber equal to the horizontal wavenumber of the sound wave. When the wave propagates in vertical direction, mathematical formulation leads to an equation, which has resonance frequency equal to half of the excitation frequency. This can explain an important contradiction between the frequency and the wavelength of capillary waves in the two cases of normal and inclined interaction of the sound wave and the free surface of the liquid.

  14. Constructing Quasi-Periodic Wave Solutions of Differential-Difference Equation by Hirota Bilinear Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi

    2016-12-01

    In the present paper, based on the Riemann theta function, the Hirota bilinear method is extended to directly construct a kind of quasi-periodic wave solution of a new integrable differential-difference equation. The asymptotic property of the quasi-periodic wave solution is analyzed in detail. It will be shown that quasi-periodic wave solution converge to the soliton solutions under certain conditions and small amplitude limit.

  15. Controlling Spin-Density Wave Periodicity in Thin Cr1-x Vx Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupin, Oleg; Rotenberg, Eli; Kevan, S. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chromium is an itinerant antiferromagnet with a spin-density wave (SDW) ground state driven by a nesting of Fermi surface sheets around the Gamma and H points of the Brillouin zone. Periodicity of the SDW plays an important role in mediating magnetic interactions in magnetic multilayer structures providing a giant magnetoresistance effect and potentially interesting for application in spintronic devices. Therefore control of SDW in thin chromium films is of the high importance. It requires a detailed understanding of phenomena related to stabilization of SDW. We used angle-resolved photoemission to characterize spin-density wave and Fermi surface topology in thin Cr1-x Vx films as a function of the film thickness, temperature, composition and hydrogen surface coverage. A key feature of our results is the ability to control the magnetic structure of thin films of Cr with an external perturbation: balancing the surface energetic interactions favored commensurate state of SDW vs. the energy associated with Fermi surface topology stabilizing SDW incommensurate phase in the bulk.

  16. Characteristics of offshore extreme wind-waves detected by surface drifters with a low-cost GPS wave sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Kosei

    Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, mo-mentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious dis-asters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal re-gions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and di-rection sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by

  17. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit.

  18. Rail Defect Detection Using Ultrasonic Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R. S.; Jian, X.; Fan, Y.; Dixon, S.

    2006-03-01

    Current testing of the rail network is limited in terms of both speed of testing and accuracy of detecting surface defects such as gauge corner cracking. By using ultrasonic surface waves generated and detected in a pitch-catch manner we can detect such defects with a much higher accuracy. We use electro-magnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to generate and detect the ultrasound. These have the advantage of being non-contact and require no couplant. It is not sufficient to merely detect the presence of a defect; hence accurate calibration of the system is required. We present measurements on calibration samples giving the response of the system to defects of different depths. Further experiments have been performed on rail samples containing real and manufactured defects, both longitudinal and transverse. Using the change in signal amplitude and frequency content we are able to give a depth and position for these defects, and these are compared with more established measurement methods. An enhancement of the signal when the receive EMAT is close to the defect is also discussed.

  19. Reconstruction of arbitrary surface wave fields by refraction global method in a wave tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Heynert; Ludu, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    We use a new photographic procedure and design to construct reliable system for measurement and analysis of various surface water waves in a wave tank, including rogue and tsunami-like waves. The image of a grid placed at the bottom of the tank (3 feet maximum depth) is deformed by the surface waves and recorded on one or two cameras placed above the water. The measurement of the height and slope of the surface waves is determined by inverse refraction calculations plus the calibration information at four grouped points from capacitive level gauges. This research was supported by ERAU INTERNAL STUDENT RESEARCH AWARD.

  20. Investigation on Periodically Surface-Corrugated Long-Period Gratings Inscribed on Photonic Crystal Fibers.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Geun

    2017-12-01

    Transmission characteristics of periodically surface-corrugated long-period gratings (LPGs) inscribed on photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) using a wet-etching technique were experimentally investigated. A conventional wet method was implemented to periodically engrave the silica cladding region of the PCFs resulting in the periodic surface corrugation in the PCF. After applying the external strain to the PCF with the periodic surface micro-ridges, periodic modulation of refractive index based on the photoelastic effect is induced resulting in the formation of the PCF-based LPG. Increasing the applied strain successfully improves the extinction ratio of the resonant peak of the PCF-based LPG without the resonant wavelength shift. We also measured the transmission characteristics of the PCF-based LPG with variations in temperature and ambient index.

  1. Self-focusing of ion-acoustic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, L.; Gradov, O. M.

    1996-06-01

    An electrostatic ion-acoustic surface wave propagating along the boundary of a semi-infinite plasma is considered. It is shown that a nonlinear Schrödinger equation can describe the development of the wave amplitude. The self-focusing length of a wave beam is estimated.

  2. A new algorithm for three-dimensional joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data and its application to the Southern California plate boundary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.

  3. Analytical Solution of Thermal Wave Models on Skin Tissue Under Arbitrary Periodic Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazlali, R.; Ahmadikia, H.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and understanding the heat transfer in biological tissues is important in medical thermal therapeutic applications. The biothermomechanics of skin involves interdisciplinary features, such as bioheat transfer, biomechanics, and burn damage. The hyperbolic thermal wave model of bioheat transfer and the parabolic Pennes bioheat transfer equations with blood perfusion and metabolic heat generation are applied for the skin tissue as a finite and semi-infinite domain when the skin surface temperature is suddenly exposed to a source of an arbitrary periodic temperature. These equations are solved analytically by Laplace transform methods. The thermal wave model results indicate that a non-Fourier model has predicted the thermal behavior correctly, compared to that of previous experiments. The results of the thermal wave model show that when the first thermal wave moves from the first boundary, the temperature profiles for finite and semi-infinite domains of skin become separated for these phenomena; the discrepancy between these profiles is negligible. The accuracy of the obtained results is validated through comparisons with existing numerical results. The results demonstrate that the non-Fourier model is significant in describing the thermal behavior of skin tissue.

  4. Broadband attenuation of Lamb waves through a periodic array of thin rectangular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Pennec, Yan; Marchal, Rémi; Bonello, Bernard; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2014-10-01

    We study theoretically subwavelength physical phenomena, such as resonant transmission and broadband sound shielding for Lamb waves propagating in an acoustic metamaterial made of a thin plate drilled with one or two row(s) of rectangular holes. The resonances and antiresonances of periodically arranged rectangular junctions separated by holes are investigated as a function of the geometrical parameters of the junctions. With one and two row(s) of holes, high frequency specific features in the transmission coefficient are explained in terms of a coupling of incident waves with both Fabry-Perot oscillations inside the junctions and induced surface acoustic waves between the homogeneous part of the plate and the row of holes. With two rows of holes, low frequency peaks and dips appear in the transmission spectrum. The choice of the distance between the two rows of holes allows the realization of a broadband low frequency acoustic shielding with attenuation over 99% for symmetric waves in a wide low frequency range and over 90% for antisymmetric ones. The origin of the transmission gap is discussed in terms of localized modes of the "H" element made by the junctions, connecting the two homogeneous parts of the plate.

  5. Role of surface electromagnetic waves in metamaterial absorbers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chen; Cardin, Andrew; Koirala, Machhindra; Liu, Xianliang; Tyler, Talmage; West, Kevin G; Bingham, Christopher M; Starr, Tatiana; Starr, Anthony F; Jokerst, Nan M; Padilla, Willie J

    2016-03-21

    Metamaterial absorbers have been demonstrated across much of the electromagnetic spectrum and exhibit both broad and narrow-band absorption for normally incident radiation. Absorption diminishes for increasing angles of incidence and transverse electric polarization falls off much more rapidly than transverse magnetic. We unambiguously demonstrate that broad-angle TM behavior cannot be associated with periodicity, but rather is due to coupling with a surface electromagnetic mode that is both supported by, and well described via the effective optical constants of the metamaterial where we achieve a resonant wavelength that is 19.1 times larger than the unit cell. Experimental results are supported by simulations and we highlight the potential to modify the angular response of absorbers by tailoring the surface wave.

  6. From plane waves to local Gaussians for the simulation of correlated periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, George H.; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Grüneis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    We present a simple, robust, and black-box approach to the implementation and use of local, periodic, atom-centered Gaussian basis functions within a plane wave code, in a computationally efficient manner. The procedure outlined is based on the representation of the Gaussians within a finite bandwidth by their underlying plane wave coefficients. The core region is handled within the projected augment wave framework, by pseudizing the Gaussian functions within a cutoff radius around each nucleus, smoothing the functions so that they are faithfully represented by a plane wave basis with only moderate kinetic energy cutoff. To mitigate the effects of the basis set superposition error and incompleteness at the mean-field level introduced by the Gaussian basis, we also propose a hybrid approach, whereby the complete occupied space is first converged within a large plane wave basis, and the Gaussian basis used to construct a complementary virtual space for the application of correlated methods. We demonstrate that these pseudized Gaussians yield compact and systematically improvable spaces with an accuracy comparable to their non-pseudized Gaussian counterparts. A key advantage of the described method is its ability to efficiently capture and describe electronic correlation effects of weakly bound and low-dimensional systems, where plane waves are not sufficiently compact or able to be truncated without unphysical artifacts. We investigate the accuracy of the pseudized Gaussians for the water dimer interaction, neon solid, and water adsorption on a LiH surface, at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory.

  7. Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong; Wu, Zhengwei; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-07-15

    Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.

  8. Investigation of surface wave amplitudes in 3-D velocity and 3-D Q models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2010-12-01

    It has been long recognized that seismic amplitudes depend on both wave speed structures and anelasticity (Q) structures. However, the effects of lateral heterogeneities in wave speed and Q structures on seismic amplitudes has not been well understood. We investigate the effects of 3-D wave speed and 3-D anelasticity (Q) structures on surface-wave amplitudes based upon wave propagation simulations of twelve globally-distributed earthquakes and 801 stations in Earth models with and without lateral heterogeneities in wave speed and anelasticity using a Spectral Element Method (SEM). Our tomographic-like 3-D Q models are converted from a velocity model S20RTS using a set of reasonable mineralogical parameters, assuming lateral perturbations in both velocity and Q are due to temperature perturbations. Surface-wave amplitude variations of SEM seismograms are measured in the period range of 50--200 s using boxcar taper, cosine taper and Slepian multi-tapers. We calculate ray-theoretical predictions of surface-wave amplitude perturbations due to elastic focusing, attenuation, and anelastic focusing which respectively depend upon the second spatial derivative (''roughness'') of perturbations in phase velocity, 1/Q, and the roughness of perturbations in 1/Q. Both numerical experiments and theoretical calculations show that (1) for short-period (~ 50 s) surface waves, the effects of amplitude attenuation due to 3-D Q structures are comparable with elastic focusing effects due to 3-D wave speed structures; and (2) for long-period (> 100 s) surface waves, the effects of attenuation become much weaker than elastic focusing; and (3) elastic focusing effects are correlated with anelastic focusing at all periods due to the correlation between velocity and Q models; and (4) amplitude perturbations are depend on measurement techniques and therefore cannot be directly compared with ray-theoretical predictions because ray theory does not account for the effects of measurement

  9. Surface Seiches and Internal Kelvin Waves Observed Off Zadar (East Adriatic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibić, I.; Orlić, M.

    1999-01-01

    Two campaigns, comprising the measurements of temperature, salinity, currents and sea level, were performed in the Zadar and Pašman Channels during summer 1994. Basic dynamics, including tidal, wind-driven and residual circulation, are briefly considered here, but the paper concentrates on the surface seiche and internal Kelvin wave analyses and modelling. Surface seiches are found to be excited by strong meteorological disturbances in the late summer of 1994, with a period of approximately 2·2 h and a sea-level and current amplitude of approximately 10 cm and 9 cm s -1, respectively. Internal Kelvin waves, having a period of approximately 4 days and maximum surface currents of approximately 8 cm s -1, appeared during July 1994. The energy loss at the head of the basin, occurring due to the basin bathymetry, is analytically modelled by imposing the radiation condition there, both for the surface seiches and internal Kelvin waves, while the nodal line is enforced at the basin mouth. The modelled periods of surface seiches and internal Kelvin waves are 2·1 h and 94 h, respectively. The currents and sea levels agree fairly well with the observed values. Furthermore, the Defant numerical procedure, which allows for a variable basin bathymetry, gives slightly lower periods (1·9 h for the surface seiches and 91 h for the internal Kelvin waves) and moves the maximum current amplitudes towards the head of the basin in agreement with the observations.

  10. Analysis of wave propagation in periodic 3D waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Christoph; Bischoff, Stefan; Gaul, Lothar

    2013-11-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a growing research field in the realm of civil engineering. SHM concepts are implemented using integrated sensors and actuators to evaluate the state of a structure. Within this work, wave-based techniques are addressed. Dispersion effects for propagating waves in waveguides of different materials are analyzed for various different cross-sections. Since analytical theory is limited, a general approach based on the Waveguide Finite Element Method is applied. Numerical results are verified experimentally.

  11. Anti-plane transverse waves propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, A-Li; Yan, Dong-Jia; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, anti-plane transverse wave propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures is studied. The localization factor is introduced to characterize the wave propagation behavior. The transfer matrix method based on the nonlocal piezoelectricity continuum theory is used to calculate the localization factor. Additionally, the stiffness matrix method is applied to compute the wave transmission spectra. A cut-off frequency is found, beyond which the elastic waves cannot propagate through the periodic structure. The size effect or the influence of the ratio of the internal to external characteristic lengths on the cut-off frequency and the wave propagation behavior are investigated and discussed.

  12. Freely decaying weak turbulence for sea surface gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Onorato, M; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Resio, D; Pushkarev, A; Zakharov, V E; Brandini, C

    2002-09-30

    We study the long-time evolution of deep-water ocean surface waves in order to better understand the behavior of the nonlinear interaction processes that need to be accurately predicted in numerical models of wind-generated ocean surface waves. Of particular interest are those nonlinear interactions which are predicted by weak turbulence theory to result in a wave energy spectrum of the form of [k](-2.5). We numerically implement the primitive Euler equations for surface waves and demonstrate agreement between weak turbulence theory and the numerical results.

  13. Surface topography measurements for pilot-wave hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, Adam; Harris, Daniel; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Bush, John

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of our attempt to refine the surface Schlieren technique originally developed by Moisy et al. (2009, 2012) to resolve the surface topography associated with capillary wave fields. Our technique is applied to infer the wave field that accompanies millimetric droplets self-propeling on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath. Apart from a shadow region on the order of the drop's cross-sectional area, the waves are resolved to a micron scale, allowing for quantitative comparison with existing theoretical models of the wave field. The technique is used to yield insight into the interaction between walking droplets and submerged barriers. Thanks to the NSF.

  14. Visualization of Bloch surface waves and directional propagation effects on one-dimensional photonic crystal substrate.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Ju; Lin, I-Sheng

    2016-07-11

    This paper reports a novel approach to the direct observation of Bloch surface waves, wherein a layer of fluorescent material is deposited directly on the surface of a semi-infinite periodic layered cell. A set of surface nano-gratings is used to couple pumping light to Bloch surface waves, while the sample is rotated until the pumping light meets the quasi-phase matching conditions. This study investigated the directional propagation of waves on stripe and circular one-dimensional grating structures by analyzing the dispersion relationship of the first two eigen modes. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme in visualizing Bloch surface waves, which could be extended to a variety of other devices.

  15. Electromagnetic wave propagation in quasi-periodic photonic circuits.

    PubMed

    El Boudouti, E H; Hassouani, Y El; Aynaou, H; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Akjouj, A; Velasco, V R

    2007-06-20

    We study theoretically and experimentally the properties of quasiperiodic one-dimensional serial loop structures made of segments and loops arranged according to a Fibonacci sequence (FS). Two systems are considered. (i) By inserting the FS horizontally between two waveguides, we give experimental evidence of the scaling behaviour of the amplitude and the phase of the transmission coefficient. (ii) By grafting the FS vertically along a guide, we obtain from the maxima of the transmission coefficient the eigenmodes of the finite structure (assuming the vanishing of the magnetic field at the boundaries of the FS). We show that these two systems (i) and (ii) exhibit the property of self-similarity of order three at certain frequencies where the quasiperiodicity is most effective. In addition, because of the different boundary conditions imposed on the ends of the FS, we show that horizontal and vertical structures give different information on the localization of the different modes inside the FS. Finally, we show that the eigenmodes of the finite FS coincide exactly with the surface modes of two semi-infinite superlattices obtained by the cleavage of an infinite superlattice formed by a periodic repetition of a given FS.

  16. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Kendal W; Qin, Shengyong; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Li, An-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along 110 crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

  17. Leaky-Wave Radiations by Modulating Surface Impedance on Subwavelength Corrugated Metal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ben Geng; Li, Yun Bo; Ma, Hui Feng; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) subwavelength corrugated metal structures has been described to support spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Here we demonstrate that a periodically modulated 1D subwavelength corrugated metal structure can convert spoof SPPs to propagating waves. The structure is fed at the center through a slit with a connected waveguide on the input side. The subwavelength corrugated metal structure on the output surface is regarded as metasurface and modulated periodically to realize the leaky-wave radiation at the broadside. The surface impedance of the corrugated metal structure is modulated by using cosine function and triangle-wave function, respectively, to reach the radiation effect. Full wave simulations and measuremental results are presented to validate the proposed design. PMID:27035269

  18. Leaky-Wave Radiations by Modulating Surface Impedance on Subwavelength Corrugated Metal Structures.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ben Geng; Li, Yun Bo; Ma, Hui Feng; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) subwavelength corrugated metal structures has been described to support spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Here we demonstrate that a periodically modulated 1D subwavelength corrugated metal structure can convert spoof SPPs to propagating waves. The structure is fed at the center through a slit with a connected waveguide on the input side. The subwavelength corrugated metal structure on the output surface is regarded as metasurface and modulated periodically to realize the leaky-wave radiation at the broadside. The surface impedance of the corrugated metal structure is modulated by using cosine function and triangle-wave function, respectively, to reach the radiation effect. Full wave simulations and measuremental results are presented to validate the proposed design.

  19. Surface Wave Processes on the Shelf and Beach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    community model under sponsorship of the National Ocean Partnership Program (PI: J. Kirby). REFERENCES Herbers, T. H. C., and M. C. Burton, Nonlinear...backscatter and aerosol generation. While surface wave spectra in the open ocean evolve slowly over distances of O(100-1000 km), wave properties on...IMPACT/APPLICATIONS Results of this project have provided unique new insights in the statistical properties of ocean surface waves in shallow water and a

  20. Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Eliot F.; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals—as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work—we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems. PMID:28361922

  1. Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Eliot F; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T

    2017-03-31

    Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals-as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work-we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems.

  2. Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren

    2016-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  3. Ambient noise surface wave tomography of the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghi, Ali Asghar; Rezapour, Mehdi; Korn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Ambient noise tomography is used to retrieve Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity variations in the period range of 8-40 s based on the vertical component of cross-correlation functions from permanent broad-band and mid-band seismometers across the Iranian Plateau. The iterative, non-linear inversion method of fast marching surface tomography (FMST) is employed to produce 2-D group and phase velocity maps. Shear wave velocities are also estimated using a linear least-square method. Unlike most previous largescale tomographic results, our group, phase and shear wave velocity estimations, emphasize low velocity crustal structure (up to 50 km depth) beneath Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt (ZFTB) and Sanandaj-Sirjan metaphormic Zone (SSZ). The suture zone resulting from the subduction of the Arabian plate under the Central Iran is inferred along the boundary of SSZ and Urmieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA). The velocity patterns show the main sedimentary basins, and reveal lateral velocity changes indicating the crustal thickening beneath ZFTB, SSZ and Lut Desert (LD), and the crustal thinning beneath Kavir Desert (KD) and UDMA are well inferred. A prominent low velocity is persistent in the whole crust beneath the central part of Alborz mountain range with high topography, and we suggest that it is likely due to elevated crustal temperatures within thin lithosphere.

  4. Laser-induced periodic surface structures: Fingerprints of light localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolski, J. Z. P.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Obona, J. V.; Ocelik, V.; Huis in't Veld, A. J.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2012-02-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to study the inhomogeneous absorption of linearly polarized laser radiation below a rough surface. The results are first analyzed in the frequency domain and compared to the efficacy factor theory of Sipe and coworkers. Both approaches show that the absorbed energy shows a periodic nature, not only in the direction orthogonal to the laser polarization, but also in the direction parallel to it. It is shown that the periodicity is not always close to the laser wavelength for the perpendicular direction. In the parallel direction, the periodicity is about λ/Re(ñ), with ñ being the complex refractive index of the medium. The space-domain FDTD results show a periodicity in the inhomogeneous energy absorption similar to the periodicity of the low- and high-spatial-frequency laser-induced periodic surface structures depending on the material's excitation.

  5. Do tidal or swing waves roughen planetary surfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    Surfaces of the terrestrial planets and their moons are far from being smooth. They are warped by several wavelengths and show a remarkable regularity: their roughness increases with the solar distance. Thus, if for Mercury the surface relief range does not exceed several km, for Mars it is already about 30 km. Earth's range is 20 km, Venus' one 14 km. Recently it was shown that this row of ranges reflects ratios of the tectonic granules radii of terrestrial planets [1, 2]. These radii related to unity of reduced planetary globes (in a geometrical model all planets are represented by even circles [2]) are as follows: Mercury πR/16, Venus πR/6, Earth πR/4, Mars πR/2. It means that in the great planetary circles (equators) there are 32, 12, 8, and 4 tectonic granules (now they all are mapped by remote methods) and their numbers are inversely proportional to the orbital frequencies of the planets: higher frequency - smaller granule, and, vice versa, lower frequency - larger granule. In this planetary law is a firm confirmation of the main conceptual point of the wave planetology: "Orbits make structures" [3]. But how this happens? A basic reason lies in the keplerian elliptical orbits implying periodical changes of planetary bodies accelerations. Periodical slowing down and speeding up produce inertia-gravity waves warping any celestial body. In rotating bodies this wave warping is divided in four directions: two orthogonal and two diagonal. An interference of these directions produces tectonic blocks of three kinds: uplifting, subsiding, and neutral. Sizes and amplitudes of the blocks (granules) depend on the warping wavelengths and increase with the solar distance. Thus, a relief-forming potential and the actual relief range observed on the planets increase in this direction [1, 2, 4]. But the tidal forces diminish in this direction. That is why they cannot be a reason for the relief-forming potential. Having in mind a swinging action of planetary orbits on

  6. Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-25

    We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk.

  7. Electromagnetic scattering and depolarization across rough surfaces: Full wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, Ezekiel; Huang, Guorong; Lee, Bom Son

    1995-05-01

    Full wave solutions are derived for vertically and horizontally polarized waves diffusely scattered across an interface that is two-dimensionally rough separating two different propagating media. Since the normal to the rough surface is not restricted to the reference plane of incidence, the waves are depolarized upon scattering; and the single scattered radiation fields are expressed as integrals of a surface element transmission scattering matrix that also accounts for coupling between the vertically and horizontally polarized waves. The integrations are over the rough surface area as well as the complete two-dimensional wave spectra of the radiation fields. The full wave solutions satisfy the duality and reciprocity relationships in electromagnetic theory, and the surface element scattering matrix is invariant to coordinate transformations. It is shown that in the high-frequency limit the full wave solutions reduce to the physical optics solutions, while in the low-frequency limit (for small mean square heights and slopes) the full wave solutions reduce to Rice's (1951) small perturbation solutions. Thus, the full wave solution accounts for specular point scattering as well as diffuse, Bragg-type scattering in a unified, self-consistent manner. It is therefore not necessary to use hybrid, perturbation and physical optics approaches (based on two-scale models of composite surfaces with large and small roughness scales) to determine the like- and cross-polarized fields scattered across the rough surface.

  8. LLNL Identification Program: Regional Body-Wave Correction Surfaces and Surface-Wave Tomography Models to Improve Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.; Rodgers, A.J.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Mayeda, K.M.; Sicherman, A.; Harris, D.B.

    2001-07-27

    LLNL identification research is focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. The goal is to reduce the variance within the population of each type of event, while increasing the separation between the explosions and the other event types. We address this problem for both broad categories of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves. First, we map out the effects of propagation and source size in advance so that they can be accounted for and removed from observed events. This can dramatically reduce the population variance. Second, we try to optimize the measurement process to improve the separation between population types. For body waves we focus on the identification power of the short-period regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg, which can often be detected down to very small magnitudes. Many studies have shown that particular ratios of these phases, such as 6-to 8-Hz Pn/Lg, can effectively discriminate between closely located explosions and earthquakes. To extend this discrimination power over broad areas, we use our revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC2) procedure. This joint source and path model fits the observed spectra and removes magnitude and distance trends from the data. The MDAC residuals are kriged to provide full 2-D path corrections by phase and frequency band. The MDAC residuals allow the exploration of all possible ratios and multivariate combinations of ratios for their discrimination power. We also make use of the MDAC spectra and the noise spectra to determine the expected detectability of each phase and use that to optimize the multivariate discriminants as a function of location. We quantify the discrimination power using the misidentified event trade-off curves and an equi-probable measure. We evaluate the correction surfaces using a cross-validation technique. The result is an end-to-end validation and discrimination

  9. Detection, location, and analysis of earthquakes using seismic surface waves (Beno Gutenberg Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekström, Göran

    2015-04-01

    For shallow sources, Love and Rayleigh waves are the largest seismic phases recorded at teleseismic distances. The utility of these waves for earthquake characterization was traditionally limited to magnitude estimation, since geographically variable dispersion makes it difficult to determine useful travel-time information from the waveforms. Path delays due to heterogeneity of several tens of seconds are typical for waves at 50 sec period, and these delays must be accounted for with precision and accuracy in order to extract propagation-phase and source-phase information. Advances in tomographic mapping of global surface-wave phase velocities, and continuous growth and improvements of seismographic networks around the world, now make possible new applications of surface waves for earthquake monitoring and analysis. Through continuous back propagation of the long-period seismic wave field recorded by globally distributed stations, nearly all shallow earthquakes greater than M=5 can be detected and located with a precision of 25 km. Some of the detected events do not appear in standard earthquake catalogs and correspond to non-tectonic earthquakes, including landslides, glacier calving, and volcanic events. With the improved ability to predict complex propagation effects of surface waves across a heterogeneous Earth, moment-tensor and force representations of seismic sources can be routinely determined for all earthquakes greater than M=5 by waveform fitting of surface waves. A current area of progress in the use of surface waves for earthquake studies is the determination of precise relative locations of remote seismicity by systematic cross correlation and analysis of surface waves generated by neighboring sources. Preliminary results indicate that a location precision of 5 km may be achievable in many areas of the world.

  10. Multichannel analysis of surface waves to map bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Richard D.; Xia, Jianghai; Park, Choon B.; Ivanov, Julian M.

    1999-01-01

    High velocity gradients within the shear wave velocity field consistent with drill confirmed bedrock are considered diagnostic of the bedrock surface and were used to map the top of bedrock on all four lines connected at this site. Calculating the shear wave velocity field from surface wave arrivals was accomplished with a high degree of accuracy regardless of cultural noise. Improved resolution on the surface of the bedrock provides insight into the texture of bedrock and permits identification and appraisal of short wavelength variations in the bedrock surface.

  11. Tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuchao; Ding, Xiaoyun; Steven Lin, Sz-Chin; Yang, Shikuan; Huang, Po-Hsun; Nama, Nitesh; Zhao, Yanhui; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Guo, Feng; Wang, Wei; Gu, Yeyi; Mallouk, Thomas E; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-04-23

    Patterning of nanowires in a controllable, tunable manner is important for the fabrication of functional nanodevices. Here we present a simple approach for tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). This technique allows for the construction of large-scale nanowire arrays with well-controlled patterning geometry and spacing within 5 s. In this approach, SSAWs were generated by interdigital transducers, which induced a periodic alternating current (ac) electric field on the piezoelectric substrate and consequently patterned metallic nanowires in suspension. The patterns could be deposited onto the substrate after the liquid evaporated. By controlling the distribution of the SSAW field, metallic nanowires were assembled into different patterns including parallel and perpendicular arrays. The spacing of the nanowire arrays could be tuned by controlling the frequency of the surface acoustic waves. Additionally, we observed 3D spark-shaped nanowire patterns in the SSAW field. The SSAW-based nanowire-patterning technique presented here possesses several advantages over alternative patterning approaches, including high versatility, tunability, and efficiency, making it promising for device applications.

  12. Backscatter from a periodic rough surface at near grazing incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominek, A. K.; Shamansky, H. T.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of periodic surface roughness on the radar cross section (RCS) was studied. The surface roughness was formed by a small sinusoidal variation in a planar surface. RCS measurements were obtained for two different sinusoidal variations near grazing incidence for both principle polarizations. Significant grating lobes were observed in the measurements which directly correspond to the roughness characteristics. A physical optics solution was generated and compared to the measurements with reasonable agreement.

  13. Solitary Surface Waves at a Plasma Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    A new equation describing the behaviour of strongly nonlinear waves localized near the boundary of a semi-infinite plasma is deduced. This equation has solitary wave solutions that can be found numerically. Various limiting cases are treated analytically in the present paper.

  14. Regional Body-Wave Corrections and Surface-Wave Tomography Models to Improve Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Rodgers, A J; Meyeda, K M; Sicherman, A

    2003-07-18

    Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. The goal is to reduce the variance within the population of each type of event, while increasing the separation between the explosions and the other event types. We address this problem for both broad categories of seismic waves, body waves, and surface waves. First, we map out the effects of propagation and source size in advance so that they can be accounted for and removed from observed events. This can dramatically reduce the population variance. Second, we try to optimize the measurement process to improve the separation between population types. For body waves we focus on the identification power of the short-period regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg, and coda that can often be detected down to very small magnitudes. It is now well established that particular ratios of these phases, such as 6- to 8-Hz Pn/Lg, can effectively discriminate between closely located explosions and earthquakes. To extend this discrimination power over broad areas, we developed a revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC2) procedure (Walter and Taylor, 2002). This joint source and path model fits the observed spectra and removes magnitude and distance trends from the data. It allows for the possibility of variable apparent stress scaling in earthquakes, an unresolved issue that is the subject of investigation under separate funding. The MDACZ procedure makes use of the extremely stable coda estimates of Mw for source magnitude and can also use independent Q tomography to help reduce trade-offs in fitting spectra. We can then apply the kriging operation to the MDAC2 residuals to provide full 2-D path corrections by phase and frequency band. These corrections allow the exploration of all possible ratios and

  15. Fast and Efficient Approach in Surface Wave Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanli, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Fast and Efficient Approach in Surface Wave Analysis Ali Ismet KANLI Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 34320, Avcilar Campus, Istanbul-Turkey, E-mail: kanli@istanbul.edu.tr Abstract: A two-step surface wave analysis method is proposed including both the MASW (Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves) and Micro-tremor based techniques. This is an integrated approach and the MASW survey data are gathered to obtain the shear wave velocity-depth information up to at least 30 meters by using a special type active seismic source called as SR-II or Kangaroo. In the second step, the microtremor data which are based on surface waves from seismic noise at each site are used to determine the shear-wave velocity-depth profiles. In the second step of the process, the multichannel analysis of surface waves data are given as constraints in the microtremor inversion process. This proposed algorithm allows us to calculate shear wave velocity-depth information with all geotechnical parameters from near surface to bedrock depths very fast and efficiently.

  16. An asymptotic theory for waves guided by diffraction gratings or along microstructured surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Antonakakis, T.; Craster, R. V.; Guenneau, S.; Skelton, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    An effective surface equation, that encapsulates the detail of a microstructure, is developed to model microstructured surfaces. The equations deduced accurately reproduce a key feature of surface wave phenomena, created by periodic geometry, that are commonly called Rayleigh–Bloch waves, but which also go under other names, for example, spoof surface plasmon polaritons in photonics. Several illustrative examples are considered and it is shown that the theory extends to similar waves that propagate along gratings. Line source excitation is considered, and an implicit long-scale wavelength is identified and compared with full numerical simulations. We also investigate non-periodic situations where a long-scale geometrical variation in the structure is introduced and show that localized defect states emerge which the asymptotic theory explains. PMID:24399920

  17. Boundary Waves on the Ice Surface Created by Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, K.; Izumi, N.; Yokokawa, M.; Yamada, T.; de Lima, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of periodic boundary waves, e.g. antidunes and cyclic steps (Parker & Izumi 2000) has been known to be caused by instabilities between flow and bed (e.g. Engelund 1970), and are observed not only on river beds or ocean floors but also on ice surfaces, such as the surface of glaciers and underside of river ice (Carey 1966). In addition, owing to recent advancements of remote sensing technology, it has been found that the surfaces of the polar ice caps on Mars as well as on the Earth have step-like formations (Smith & Holt 2010) which are assumed to be boundary waves, because they are generated perpendicularly to the direction of the currents. These currents acting on the polar ice caps are density airflow, i.e. katabatic wind (Howard et al 2000). The comprehension of the formation process of the Martian polar ice caps may reveal climate changes which have occurred on Mars. Although the formation of boundary waves on river beds or ocean floors has been studied by a number of researchers, there are few works on their formation on ice surfaces. Yokokawa et al (2013) suggested that the temperature distribution of the ambient air, fluid and ice is a factor which determines the direction of migration of boundary waves formed on ice surfaces through their experiments. In this study, we propose a mathematical model in order to describe the formation process of the boundary waves and the direction of their migration. We consider that a liquid is flowing through a flume filled with a flat ice layer on the bottom. The flow is assumed to be turbulent and its temperature is assumed to merge with the ambient temperature at the flow surface and with the melting point of ice at the bottom (ice surface). The ice surface evolution is dependent on the unbalance between the interfacial heat flux of the liquid and ice, and we employ the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation, the continuity equation, heat transfer equations for the liquid and ice, and a heat balance

  18. Tunable hybrid surface waves supported by a graphene layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorsh, I. V.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Belov, P. A.; Kivshar, Yu. S.

    2013-05-01

    We study electromagnetic waves localized near the surface of a semi-infinite dielectric medium covered by a graphene layer in the presence of a strong external magnetic field. We demonstrate that a novel type of hybrid TE-TM polarized surface plasmons can propagate along the graphene layer. We analyze the effect of the Hall conductivity on the polarization properties of these hybrid surface waves and suggest a possibility to tune the graphene plasmons by the external magnetic field.

  19. Spectral stability of periodic waves in the generalized reduced Ostrovsky equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Anna; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2017-02-01

    We consider stability of periodic travelling waves in the generalized reduced Ostrovsky equation with respect to co-periodic perturbations. Compared to the recent literature, we give a simple argument that proves spectral stability of all smooth periodic travelling waves independent of the nonlinearity power. The argument is based on the energy convexity and does not use coordinate transformations of the reduced Ostrovsky equations to the semi-linear equations of the Klein-Gordon type.

  20. Compact HE11 to surface wave converters for high power waveguide dummy loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doane, John L.

    1993-02-01

    The HE11 mode in corrugated circular waveguide can be converted to the EH11 mode (surface wave) by a short, smooth-waveguide phase shift section followed by a short corrugation depth taper. Low-power measurements at 110 GHz in 1.25 in. aluminum waveguide demonstrated approximately 99% conversion with the proper phase shift length. As expected, the conversion efficiency versus length of the phase shifter varied periodically with the period of the TE11 to TM11 beat wavelength. Since the EH11 surface wave is highly attenuated, this type of converter can be used effectively in a compact high-power dummy load.

  1. Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport

    2004-05-13

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.

  2. Upper Mantle Structure beneath Afar: inferences from surface waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J.; Debayle, E.; Lepine, J.; Leveque, J.; Cara, M.; Ataley, A.; Sholan, J.

    2001-12-01

    The Afar hotspot is related to one of the most important plume from a geodynamic point of view. It has been advocated to be the surface expression of the South-West African Superswell. Below the lithosphere, the Afar plume might feed other hotspots in central Africa (Hadiouche et al., 1989; Ebinger & Sleep, 1998). The processes of interaction between crust, lithosphere and plume are not well understood. In order to gain insight into the scientific issue, we have performed a surface-wave tomography covering the Horn of Africa. A data set of 1404 paths for Rayleigh waves and 473 paths for Love waves was selected in the period range 45-200s. They were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment, in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. Other data come from the broadband stations deployed in Ethiopia and Yemen in the framework of the French INSU program ``Horn of Africa''. The results presented here come from a path average phase velocities obtained with a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al., 2000). The local phase velocity distribution and the azimuthal anisotropy were simultaneously retrieved by using the tomographic technique of Montagner (1986). A correction of the data is applied according to the crustal structure of the 3SMAC model (Nataf & Ricard, 1996). We find low velocities down to 200 km depth beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, Afars, the Ethiopian Plateau and southern Arabia. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. The anisotropy beneath Afar seems to be complex, but enables to map the flow pattern at the interface lithosphere-asthenosphere. The results presented here are complementary to those obtained by Debayle et al. (2001) at upper-mantle transition zone depths using waveform inversion of higher Rayle igh modes.

  3. Extremely Fast Numerical Integration of Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    1) is a natural two-space-dimension extension of the KdV equation . The periodic KP solutions include directional spreading in the wave field: y η...of the nonlinear preprocessor in the new approach for obtaining numerical solutions to nonlinear wave equations . I will now do so, but without many...analytical study and extremely fast numerical integration of the extended nonlinear Schroedinger equation for fully three dimensional wave motion

  4. How ocean waves rock the Earth: Two mechanisms explain microseisms with periods 3 to 300 s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gualtieri, Lucia; Stutzmann, Eléonore

    2015-02-01

    Microseismic activity, recorded everywhere on Earth, is largely due to ocean waves. Recent progress has clearly identified sources of microseisms in the most energetic band, with periods from 3 to 10 s. In contrast, the generation of longer-period microseisms has been strongly debated. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain seismic wave generation: a primary mechanism, by which ocean waves propagating over bottom slopes generate seismic waves, and a secondary mechanism which relies on the nonlinear interaction of ocean waves. Here we show that the primary mechanism explains the average power, frequency distribution, and most of the variability in signals recorded by vertical seismometers, for seismic periods ranging from 13 to 300 s. The secondary mechanism only explains seismic motions with periods shorter than 13 s. Our results build on a quantitative numerical model that gives access to time-varying maps of seismic noise sources.

  5. Hyperbolic crystallography of two-periodic surfaces and associated structures.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Hyde, Stephen T

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the families of the simplest, two-periodic constant mean curvature surfaces, the genus-two HCB and SQL surfaces, and their isometries. All the discrete groups that contain the translations of the genus-two surfaces embedded in Euclidean three-space modulo the translation lattice are derived and enumerated. Using this information, the subgroup lattice graphs are constructed, which contain all of the group-subgroup relations of the aforementioned quotient groups. The resulting groups represent the two-dimensional representations of subperiodic layer groups with square and hexagonal supergroups, allowing exhaustive enumeration of tilings and associated patterns on these surfaces. Two examples are given: a two-periodic [3,7]-tiling with hyperbolic orbifold symbol {\\sf {2223}} and a {\\sf {22222}} surface decoration.

  6. Coronal quasi-periodic fast-propagating magnetosonic waves observed by SDO/AIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuandeng

    Coronal quasi-periodic fast-propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves are scare in previous studies due to the relative low temporal and spatial resolution of past telescopes. Recently, they are detected by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Here, two cases of QFP waves are presented. The analysis results indicate that QFP waves are tightly associated with the associated flares. It is indicate that QFP waves and the associated flares are possibly driven by the same physic process such as quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection process in producing flares.

  7. Wave turbulence in a two-layer fluid: Coupling between free surface and interface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issenmann, Bruno; Laroche, Claude; Falcon, Eric

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally study gravity-capillary wave turbulence on the interface between two immiscible fluids of close density with free upper surface. We locally measure the wave height at the interface between both fluids by means of a highly sensitive laser Doppler vibrometer. We show that the inertial range of the capillary wave turbulence regime is significantly extended when the upper fluid depth is increased: The crossover frequency between the gravity and capillary wave turbulence regimes is found to decrease whereas the dissipative cut-off frequency of the spectrum is found to increase. We explain these observations by the progressive decoupling between waves propagating at the interface and the ones at the free surface, using the full dispersion relation of gravity-capillary waves in a two-layer fluid of finite depths. The cut-off evolution is due to the disappearance of parasitic capillaries responsible for the main wave dissipation for a single fluid.

  8. An experimental study of wave coupling in gravity surface wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubourg, Quentin; Sommeria, Joel; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Weak turbulence is a theoretical framework aimed at describing wave turbulence (in the weakly nonlinear limit) i.e. a statistical state involving a large number of nonlinearly coupled waves. For gravity waves at the surface of water, it provides a phenomenology that may describe the formation of the spectrum of the ocean surface. Analytical predictions of the spectra are made based on the fact that energy transfer occurs through 4-wave coupling. By using an advanced stereoscopic imaging technique, we measure in time the deformation of the water surface. We obtain a state of wave turbulence by using two small wedge wavemakers in a 13-m diameter wavetank. We then use high order correlator (bi- and tri-coherence) in order to get evidence of the active wave coupling present in our system as used successfully for gravity-capillary wave turbulence. At odds with the weak turbulence theory we observe 3-wave interaction involving 2 quasi linear wave and a bound wave whose frequency lies on the first harmonics of the linear dispersion relation. We do not observe 4-wave coupling within the accuracy of our measurement. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 647018-WATU).

  9. Surface Wave Dynamics in the Coastal Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    scale is such that a 4 / 3k  - tail would appear as a horizontal line. Long wave generation in the coastal zone The SWASH model has been...applied to simulate long -wave generation at the FRF, Duck , NC. The computational results were compared with observations and show reasonably agreement with...Sarawak Shell Bhd, 50450 KUL-DWO, Malaysia e: Kevin.ewans@shell.com Award Number: N00014-12-1-0534 http://www.swan.tudelft.nl LONG -TERM

  10. Wideband Scattering Diffusion by using Diffraction of Periodic Surfaces and Optimized Unit Cell Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Filippo; Monorchio, Agostino; Manara, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    A methodology to obtain wideband scattering diffusion based on periodic artificial surfaces is presented. The proposed surfaces provide scattering towards multiple propagation directions across an extremely wide frequency band. They comprise unit cells with an optimized geometry and arranged in a periodic lattice characterized by a repetition period larger than one wavelength which induces the excitation of multiple Floquet harmonics. The geometry of the elementary unit cell is optimized in order to minimize the reflection coefficient of the fundamental Floquet harmonic over a wide frequency band. The optimization of FSS geometry is performed through a genetic algorithm in conjunction with periodic Method of Moments. The design method is verified through full-wave simulations and measurements. The proposed solution guarantees very good performance in terms of bandwidth-thickness ratio and removes the need of a high-resolution printing process. PMID:27181841

  11. Wideband Scattering Diffusion by using Diffraction of Periodic Surfaces and Optimized Unit Cell Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Filippo; Monorchio, Agostino; Manara, Giuliano

    2016-05-01

    A methodology to obtain wideband scattering diffusion based on periodic artificial surfaces is presented. The proposed surfaces provide scattering towards multiple propagation directions across an extremely wide frequency band. They comprise unit cells with an optimized geometry and arranged in a periodic lattice characterized by a repetition period larger than one wavelength which induces the excitation of multiple Floquet harmonics. The geometry of the elementary unit cell is optimized in order to minimize the reflection coefficient of the fundamental Floquet harmonic over a wide frequency band. The optimization of FSS geometry is performed through a genetic algorithm in conjunction with periodic Method of Moments. The design method is verified through full-wave simulations and measurements. The proposed solution guarantees very good performance in terms of bandwidth-thickness ratio and removes the need of a high-resolution printing process.

  12. Surface Wave Cloak from Graded Refractive Index Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    La Spada, L.; McManus, T. M.; Dyke, A.; Haq, S.; Zhang, L.; Cheng, Q.; Hao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been re-emerged on the possibility to manipulate surface waves, in particular, towards the THz and optical regime. Both concepts of Transformation Optics (TO) and metamaterials have been regarded as one of key enablers for such applications in applied electromagnetics. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a dielectric surface wave cloak from engineered gradient index materials to illustrate the possibility of using nanocomposites to control surface wave propagation through advanced additive manufacturing. The device is designed analytically and validated through numerical simulations and measurements, showing good agreement and performance as an effective surface wave cloak. The underlying design approach has much wider applications, which span from microwave to optics for the control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and radiation of nanoantennas. PMID:27416815

  13. Surface Wave Cloak from Graded Refractive Index Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spada, L.; McManus, T. M.; Dyke, A.; Haq, S.; Zhang, L.; Cheng, Q.; Hao, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been re-emerged on the possibility to manipulate surface waves, in particular, towards the THz and optical regime. Both concepts of Transformation Optics (TO) and metamaterials have been regarded as one of key enablers for such applications in applied electromagnetics. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a dielectric surface wave cloak from engineered gradient index materials to illustrate the possibility of using nanocomposites to control surface wave propagation through advanced additive manufacturing. The device is designed analytically and validated through numerical simulations and measurements, showing good agreement and performance as an effective surface wave cloak. The underlying design approach has much wider applications, which span from microwave to optics for the control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and radiation of nanoantennas.

  14. Spatial characteristics of ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmrich, Johannes; Thomson, Jim; Rogers, W. Erick; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Lehner, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    The spatial variability of open ocean wave fields on scales of O (10km) is assessed from four different data sources: TerraSAR-X SAR imagery, four drifting SWIFT buoys, a moored waverider buoy, and WAVEWATCH III Ⓡ model runs. Two examples from the open north-east Pacific, comprising of a pure wind sea and a mixed sea with swell, are given. Wave parameters attained from observations have a natural variability, which decreases with increasing record length or acquisition area. The retrieval of dominant wave scales from point observations and model output are inherently different to dominant scales retrieved from spatial observations. This can lead to significant differences in the dominant steepness associated with a given wave field. These uncertainties have to be taken into account when models are assessed against observations or when new wave retrieval algorithms from spatial or temporal data are tested. However, there is evidence of abrupt changes in wave field characteristics that are larger than the expected methodological uncertainties.

  15. Engineered surface Bloch waves in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuanjiang; Guo, Jun; Dai, Xiaoyu; Wen, Shuangchun; Tang, Dingyuan

    2014-02-10

    A kind of tunable hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) based on the graphene-dielectric layered structure at near-infrared frequencies is presented, and the engineered surface Bloch waves between graphene-based HMM and isotropic medium are investigated. Our calculations demonstrate that the frequency and frequency range of surface Bloch waves existence can be tuned by varying the Fermi energy of graphene sheets via electrostatic biasing. Moreover, we show that the frequency range of surface Bloch waves existence can be broadened by decreasing the thickness of the dielectric in the graphene-dielectric layered structure or by increasing the layer number of graphene sheets.

  16. Unveiling Quasiperiodicity through Nonlinear Wave Mixing in Periodic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Bahabad, Alon; Arie, Ady; Voloch, Noa; Bruner, Ariel; Eger, David

    2007-05-18

    Quasiperiodicity is the concept of order without translation symmetry. The discovery of quasiperiodic order in natural materials transformed the way scientists examine and define ordered structure. We show and verify experimentally that quasiperiodicity can be observed by scattering processes from a periodic structure, provided the interaction area is of finite width. This is made through a momentum conservation condition, physically realizing a geometrical method used to model quasiperiodic structures by projecting a periodic structure of a higher dimension.

  17. Ocean wave properties, and implications for seismic noise from 1 to 300 s period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Herbers, Thomas; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Obrebski, Mathias; Gualtieri, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    The Longuet-Higgins and Hasselman theory of seismic and acoustic noise generation has been expanded recently from Rayleigh waves only to body waves, including a strong seismic source reduction for ocean waves in finite water depth, which is very important for periods larger than 30 s (Ardhuin and Herbers 2013). In spite of uncertainties of seismic propagation effects, the theory is very well verified for periods 2 to 10 s. This verification required the improvement of directional wave properties represented in numerical wave models, in particular due to coastal reflection. Efforts are still required to improve the variability of shoreline reflection coefficients. We are now expanding the direct modeling of wave-generated noise towards lower and higher frequencies. At high frequencies, the variability of modeled directional properties are poorly represented, as revealed by new measurements of wave spectra. This results in a poor performance of the direct model compared to ocean bottom acoustic data, and will require an upgrade of wave generation and dissipation parameterizations. For longer periods, the theory for wave propagating over varying water depths (Hasselmann 1963) provides good order of magnitude for the vertical motion recorded from 10 to 300 s. However, some uncertainties remain due to imperfect knowldge of bottom topography and ocean wave coherence properties.

  18. Ozone pollution during heat wave periods over last 15 years in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.; Jefimow, M.

    2012-04-01

    Periods characterized with the high ozone concentrations are usually associated with very high air temperature and antycyclonic conditions or meridional circulation. A 15-year (1997 - 2011) maximum daily temperature records from GSOD NOAA archive was analyzed for 20 stations in Central Europe. For each year the number of days with the maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and 30oC was calculated. For years with a positive anomaly of the number of the hot days the data were analyzed to identify exact dates and the duration of such events. This allows classification of the high temperature period as "heat waves" (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 30oC lasting at least 3 consecutive days) and hot weather periods (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and high daily average temperature). These two types of high temperature are usually associated with different air masses inflow - subtropical from the south or transformed polar from westerly directions. This indicates also the differences in contribution of transboundary transport of ozone and its precursors. For selected high temperature episodes the ozone pollution was assessed based on AirBase (1997-2009) and national database (2010-2011). The analysis covered the 8-hour running average and daily maximum concentration of ozone near the surface. Also, the contribution to the SOMO35 index during selected episodes will be calculated as a diagnostic for adverse health effects. Since the two analyzed types of hot weather periods have different origin in terms of synoptic scale situation, an attempt will be made to answer whether there are differences in the intensity of ozone episodes during selected hot weather periods. The outcome from the study will be useful for the interpretation of modelling results for air quality in future climate.

  19. Ocean Surface Wave Optical Roughness: Innovative Polarization Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    whitecap breaking waves. * Prof. Michael L . Banner, School of Mathematics, The University of NSW, Sydney, Australia Dr. Bertrand Chapron...of microsacle breaking waves from infrared imagery using a PIV algorithm. Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1961-1969. Phillips, O. M., Posner, F. L ., and... Hansen , J. P. 2001 High resolution radar measurements of the speed distribution of breaking events in wind-generated ocean waves: surface impulse

  20. Ocean Surface Wave Optical Roughness - Innovative Measurement and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    and whitecap breaking waves. * Prof. Michael L . Banner, School of Mathematics, The University of NSW, Sydney, Australia Dr. Bertrand Chapron...microsacle breaking waves from infrared imagery using a PIV algorithm. Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1961-1969. Phillips, O. M., Posner, F. L ., and... Hansen , J. P. 2001 High resolution radar measurements of the speed distribution of breaking events in wind-generated ocean waves: surface impulse and

  1. Predominant Periods and Shear Wave Velocity an indicator for Sediment Thickness, Caracas, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocabado, V.; Schmitz, M.

    2013-05-01

    Within the Caracas seismic microzoning project, carried out by Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS), more than 1500 single measurements of ambient noise have been done since mid-90's in order to determinate fundamental periods of soil. In this work we show the result of these single stations applying H/V analysis, with period values between 0.2s and 2.4s, we propose a new relationship to estimate sediment thickness from period values, including the effect of the surface sediment layers, considering the values of shear-wave velocities for the first 30 m (Vs30) and the Vs value of the sedimentary layer, just above bedrock. The results indicate that this relationship generates more accurate estimates of sediment thickness comparing with depth values from other geophysical methods; this relationship was calibrated with information from 4 depth boreholes in Caracas, obtaining accurate depth values. The main objective of this new relationship is consider local information of soils in other cities, for local relationships between periods and sediment thickness, to generate accurate sediment thickness estimates from environmental noise measurements within seismic microzoning projects in Venezuela's most important cities.

  2. Isolated true surface wave in a radiative band on a surface of a stressed auxetic.

    PubMed

    Trzupek, D; Zieliński, P

    2009-08-14

    We demonstrate that a surface resonance (pseudosurface wave) may transform into a true surface wave, i.e., acquire an infinite lifetime, at a single isolated point within a bulk band (radiative region) in a model of a stressed auxetic material. In contrast with the secluded supersonic elastic surface waves, the one found here does not belong to a dispersion line of true surface waves. Therefore we propose to call it an isolated true surface wave (ITSW). The ITSW manifests itself by a deltalike peak in the local density of states and by anomalies in reflection coefficients. The phenomenon may be useful in redirecting energy and/or information from the bulk to the surface in devices supporting guided acoustic waves.

  3. Low-loss unidirectional transducer for high frequency surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, S. V.; Martin, G.; Schmidt, H.; Wall, B.

    2011-10-01

    A multi-track unidirectional transducer for surface acoustic wave devices is presented. This transducer consists of periodic cells containing in each of the multiple tracks, only two electrodes and two gaps with quarter period width. So the structure has maximal possible dimensions of its elements for a cell period equal to one wavelength. In spite of current technological limitations this permits to implement unidirectional transducers in GHz range. In contrast to known structures with active tracks only, the structure contains alternating both active transducer tracks and passive reflector tracks with different apertures comparable to surface acoustic wave (SAW) wavelength. The tracks strongly interact due to diffraction of waves excited by such electrode structure on a piezoelectric substrate. A structure analysis by means of finite element method shows that complete unidirectionality can be reached. First experimental results are given.

  4. Full-wave model and numerical study of electromagnetic plane wave scattering by multilayered, fiber-based periodic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Y.; Lesselier, D.; Zhong, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The present work aims at building up a full-wave computational model of electromagnetic nondestructive testing of composite materials produced by stacking up dielectric slabs one over the other. In each such dielectric slab, a periodic array of infinite cylindrical fibers is embedded. Electromagnetic scattering of such a multilayered, fiber-based periodic composite is investigated here for an obliquely incident plane wave, the plane of incidence of which differs from the plane orthogonal to the fibers' axes. Full-wave field representations are given first by multipole and plane wave expansions. Mode matching at boundaries between layers then yields the propagating matrices, which are applied to connect reflection and transmission coefficients of the longitudinal field components. Power reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained from time-averaged Poynting vectors. Numerical experiments with comparisons with known results illustrate the accuracy of the model proposed.

  5. Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in a graphene-based Bragg grating

    PubMed Central

    Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; Zeng, Shuwen; Shang, Jingzhi; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yu, Ting

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the fabrication of a graphene-based Bragg grating (one-dimensional photonic crystal) and experimentally demonstrate the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in the periodic structure using prism coupling technique. Surface electromagnetic waves are non-radiative electromagnetic modes that appear on the surface of semi-infinite 1D photonic crystal. In order to fabricate the graphene-based Bragg grating, alternating layers of high (graphene) and low (PMMA) refractive index materials have been used. The reflectivity plot shows a deepest, narrow dip after total internal reflection angle corresponds to the surface electromagnetic mode propagating at the Bragg grating/air boundary. The proposed graphene based Bragg grating can find a variety of potential surface electromagnetic wave applications such as sensors, fluorescence emission enhancement, modulators, etc. PMID:23071901

  6. Application of surface acoustic wave devices to radio telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strasilla, U.

    1983-01-01

    Three experimental Surface Acoustic Wave Resonators (SAWR) are developed and evaluated. A desired center frequency is obtained by correct spacing of the Inter-Digital Transducers (IDT). Transmitting and receiving IDT's must be close for adequate coupling and a sufficient number of reflectors are required to create a high quality standing wave. A review of oscillator theory is given and current technology evaluated.

  7. Solitary surface waves on a magnetized plasma cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.; Sünder, D.

    1985-02-01

    We analyse high-frequency electrostatic solitary surface waves that propagate along a plasma cylinder in the presence of a constant axial magnetic field. The width of such a solitary wave, which is found to be inversely proportional to its amplitude, is expressed as a function of the magnitude of the external magnetic field.

  8. Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. Z.; Causon, D. M.; Mingham, C. G.; Qian, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT) to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC) device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water). The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.

  9. A Multiscale Nested Modeling Framework to Simulate the Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    being centimeter scale, surface mixed layer processes arising from the combined actions of tides, winds and mesoscale currents. Issues related to...the internal wave field and how it impacts the surface waves. APPROACH We are focusing on the problem of modification of the wind -wave field...does the wind -wave field evolve in the presence of surface currents driven by ISWs? 3) How does the surface gravity wave field above ISWs modify the

  10. Excitation and propagation of shear-horizontal-type surface and bulk acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, K Y; Yamaguchi, M

    2001-09-01

    This paper reviews the basic properties of shear-horizontal (SH)-type surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and bulk acoustic waves (BAWs). As one of the simplest cases, the structure supporting Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu waves is considered, and their excitation and propagation are discussed from various view points. First, the formalism based on the complex integral theory is presented, where the surface is assumed to be covered with an infinitesimally thin metallic film, and it is shown how the excitation and propagation of SH-type waves are affected by the surface perturbation. Then, the analysis is extended to a periodic grating structure, and the behavior of SH-type SAWs under the grating structure is discussed. Finally, the origin of the leaky nature is explained.

  11. Surface wave acoustics of granular packing under gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno; Bonneau, Lenaic

    2009-06-18

    Due to the non-linearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound in granular matter increases with pressure. For a packing under gravity and in the presence of a free surface, bulk acoustic waves cannot propagate due to the inherent refraction toward the surface (the mirage effect). Thus, only modes corresponding to surface waves (Raleigh-Hertz modes) are able to propagate the acoustic signal. First, based on a non-linear elasticity model, we describe the main features associated to these surface waves. We show that under gravity, a granular packing is from the acoustic propagation point of view an index gradient waveguide that selects modes of two distinct families i.e. the sagittal and transverse waves localized in the vicinity of the free surface. A striking feature of these surface waves is the multi-modal propagation: for both transverse and sagittal waves, we show the existence of a infinite but discrete series of propagating modes. In each case, we determine the mode shape and and the corresponding dispersion relation. In the case of a finite size system, a geometric waveguide is superimposed to the index gradient wave guide. In this later case, the dispersion relations are modified by the appearance of a cut-off frequency that scales with depth. The second part is devoted to an experimental study of surface waves propagating in a granular packing confined in a long channel. This set-up allows to tune a monomodal emission by taking advantage of the geometric waveguide features combined with properly designed emitters. For both sagittal and transverses waves, we were able to isolate a single mode (the fundamental one) and to plot the dispersion relation. This measurements agree well with the Hertzian scaling law as predicted by meanfield models. Furthermore, it allows us to determine quantitatively relations on the elastic moduli. However, we observe that our data yield a shear modulus abnormally weak when compared to several meanfield predictions.

  12. A new method to estimate wave height of specified return period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liping; Xu, Xin; Liu, Guilin; Chen, Baiyu; Chen, Zhengshou

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to estimate the wave height of a specific return period based on the Hurst rule and a self-affine fractal formula. A detailed description of our proposed model is presented in this paper. We use the proposed model to analyze wave height data recorded along the coast of Chaolian Island from 1963 to 1989. The results show that the performance of our proposed model in estimating design wave heights is superior to traditional models.

  13. Air-ground interface: Surface waves, surface impedance and acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Gilles; Embleton, Tony

    1990-01-01

    In atmospheric acoustics, the subject of surface waves has been an area of discussion for many years. The existence of an acoustic surface wave is now well established theoretically. The mathematical solution for spherical wave propagation above an impedance boundary includes the possibility of a contribution that possesses all the standard properties for a surface wave. Surface waves exist when the surface is sufficiently porous, relative to its acoustical resistance, that it can influence the airborne particle velocity near the surface and reduce the phase velocity of sound waves in air at the surface. This traps some of the sound energy in the air to remain near the surface as it propagates. Above porous grounds, the existence of surface waves has eluded direct experimental confirmation (pulse experiments have failed to show a separate arrival expected from the reduced phase speed) and indirect evidence for its existence has appeared contradictory. The experimental evidence for the existence of an acoustical surface wave above porous boundaries is reviewed. Recent measurements including pulse experiments are also described. A few years ago the acoustic impedance of a grass-covered surface was measured in the frequency range 30 to 300 Hz. Here, further measurements on the same site are discussed. These measurements include core samples, a shallow refractive survey to determine the seismic velocities, and measurements of the acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient.

  14. Nonlinear Cylindrical Waves on a Plane Plasma Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.

    2004-01-01

    By means of the cold electron plasma equations, it is shown that surface soliton solutions can exist in the azimuthally symmetric case at the boundary of semi-infinite plasmas for both standing and running waves.

  15. Surface wave propagation in thin silver films under residual stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njeh, Anuar; Wieder, Thomas; Schneider, D.; Fuess, Hartmut; Ben Ghozlen, M. H.

    Investigations using surface acoustic waves provide information on the elastic properties of thin films. Residual stresses change the phase velocity of the surface waves. We have calculated phase velocity and dispersion of surface waves in thin silver films with a strong [111]-fibre texture. A non-linear description of surface waves propagating along the [110]-direction of the substrate has been developed on the basis of an acoustoelastic theory, taking into account residual stresses. The relative change delta_v/v of the velocity v was found to be lin-ear for large excitation frequencies. The dispersion curves were measured using a photoa-coustic method. For sputtered polycrystalline thin silver films we found good agreement be-tween the experimental and calculated dispersion curves for frequencies up to 225 MHz.

  16. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E

    2005-03-21

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  17. Localized Electromagnetic Waves: Interactions with Surfaces and Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Nicholas R.

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves with nanostructures is an important area of research for signal processing devices, magnetic data storage, biosensors and a variety of other applications. In this work, we present analytic and numerical calculations for oscillating electric and magnetic fields coupling with excitations in magnetic materials as well as metallic and dielectric materials, near their resonance frequencies. One of the problems with the miniaturization of signal processing components is that there is a cutoff frequency associated with the transverse electric (TE) mode in waveguides. However, it is usually the TE mode which is used to achieve nonreciprocity for devices such as isolators. As a first step to circumvent this problem we looked at the absorption of electromagnetic waves in an antiferromagnet and a ferrite when the incident wave is at an arbitrary angle with respect to the magnetization direction. We calculated reflectivity and attenuated total reflectivity and found absorption and nonreciprocity, asymmetric behavior for waves traveling in opposite directions, for a broad range of propagation angles. Subsequently we also performed calculations for a transverse magnetic mode in a waveguide. The wave was allowed to propagate at an arbitrary angle with respect to the magnetization direction of the ferrite in the waveguide. We again found nonreciprocity for a wide range of angles. Our results show that this system could be used as an on-chip isolator with isolation values over 75 dB/cm in the 50 GHz range. We explored another signal processing device operating in the GHz range: a nonlinear phase shifter. Using Fe as the magnetic material allows the phase shifter to operate over a wide frequency and power range. We found a differential phase shift of greater than 50° over 3 cm for this device. The theoretical results compared well with experimental measurements. Finally, we study surface plasmon polaritons propagating along a metallic

  18. New Travelling Solitary Wave and Periodic Solutions of the Generalized Kawahara Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Huaitang; Yin Huicheng

    2007-09-06

    A simple elliptic equation method is used for constructing exact trevelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations(PDEs) in a unified way. With the aid of Maple, more new travelling solitary wave and periodic solutions are obtained for the generalized Kawahara equation.

  19. Estimation of Sea Surface Wave Spectra Using Acoustic Tomography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    develops a new technique for estimating quasi- homogeneous and quasi-stationary sea surface wave frequency-direction spectra using acoustic tomog...problems for the homogeneous and quasi- homogeneous frequency-direction spectrum are introduced. The theory is ap- plied tosynthetic data which simulate...thesis introduces a technique that estimates the quasi-stationary and quasi- homogeneous sea surface wave frequency-direction spectrum from the spectra of

  20. The Development of Nonlinear Surface and Internal Wave Groups.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    propagating in groups in near-shore regions. In these regions strong coastal currents, enhanced density gradients from river outflow and from greater influence ...D-A122 103 THE DEVELOPMENT OF NONLINERR SURFACE AND INTERNAL WAVE 1/4 GROUPS (U) WOODS H4OLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION MA T K~ CHERESKIN NOV 82 WHOI...TECHNOLOGY * PROGRAM IN op GOCEANOGRAPHY II!AND OCEAN ENGINEERING -0 DOCTORAL DISSERTATION THE DEVELOPMENT OF NONLINEAR SURFACE AND INTERNAL WAVE GROUPS BY

  1. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  2. Measurement of waves in flows across a surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing wave flow across a surface wherein at least two pressure levels are sensed and combined to provide a representation of waves within the flow. In the preferred embodiment holes bored through the aircraft surface at an interval of one-half the wavelength of the flow being measured introduce pressure perturbations into a cavity so they may acoustically interfere. The interfering waveform is sensed by at least one microphone disposed in the cavity.

  3. Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples.

    PubMed

    Xia, H; Maimbourg, T; Punzmann, H; Shats, M

    2012-09-14

    We report new experimental results which suggest that the generation of extreme wave events in the Faraday surface ripples is related to the increase in the horizontal mobility of oscillating solitons (oscillons). The analysis of the oscillon trajectories in a horizontal plane shows that at higher vertical acceleration, oscillons move chaotically, merge and form enclosed areas on the water surface. The probability of the formation of such craters, which precede large wave events, increases with the increase in horizontal mobility.

  4. Tensorial Minkowski functionals of triply periodic minimal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mickel, Walter; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.; Mecke, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the formation and properties of a complex spatial structure relies on robust quantitative tools to characterize morphology. A systematic approach to the characterization of average properties of anisotropic complex interfacial geometries is provided by integral geometry which furnishes a family of morphological descriptors known as tensorial Minkowski functionals. These functionals are curvature-weighted integrals of tensor products of position vectors and surface normal vectors over the interfacial surface. We here demonstrate their use by application to non-cubic triply periodic minimal surface model geometries, whose Weierstrass parametrizations allow for accurate numerical computation of the Minkowski tensors. PMID:24098847

  5. Ultrasonic guided waves on a periodical grating: Coupled modes in the first Brillouin zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morvan, Bruno; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Leduc, Damien; Izbicki, Jean-Louis

    2007-06-01

    The propagation of Lamb waves in a plate with an engraved periodic grating is addressed in this article. Mode conversions and reflections are analyzed. In the first part the conversion modes are explained by the existence of a resonance condition between the Lamb-wave wavenumbers and the fundamental and harmonic spatial periods of the grating. These phenomena are experimentally and numerically highlighted for a metallic waveguide with a rectangular grating. The second part focuses on the pseudo-Lamb wave dispersion curves in a periodic waveguide. The periodicity implies that the Lamb waves dispersion curves fold back at the edge of the Brillouin zone. Several stop bands appear: classical band gaps at the boundary of the Brillouin zone and mini-stop-bands inside the Brillouin zone. For the ministop band, dispersion curves cross and a possible coupling occurs between the modes. Finally, conversions or the existence of gaps are linked with the Power Spectral Density of the grating profile.

  6. Finite element analysis of true and pseudo surface acoustic waves in one-dimensional phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Graczykowski, B. Alzina, F.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-14

    In this paper, we report a theoretical investigation of surface acoustic waves propagating in one-dimensional phononic crystal. Using finite element method eigenfrequency and frequency response studies, we develop two model geometries suitable to distinguish true and pseudo (or leaky) surface acoustic waves and determine their propagation through finite size phononic crystals, respectively. The novelty of the first model comes from the application of a surface-like criterion and, additionally, functional damping domain. Exemplary calculated band diagrams show sorted branches of true and pseudo surface acoustic waves and their quantified surface confinement. The second model gives a complementary study of transmission, reflection, and surface-to-bulk losses of Rayleigh surface waves in the case of a phononic crystal with a finite number of periods. Here, we demonstrate that a non-zero transmission within non-radiative band gaps can be carried via leaky modes originating from the coupling of local resonances with propagating waves in the substrate. Finally, we show that the transmission, reflection, and surface-to-bulk losses can be effectively optimised by tuning the geometrical properties of a stripe.

  7. Ambient Noise Cross-correlation Surface Wave Tomography of the Continental United States and Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensen, G. D.; McCoy, C.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Shapiro, N. M.

    2006-12-01

    The recent development of surface wave tomography based on ambient noise cross-correlations has provided good results on regional scales and relatively short periods less than 40 seconds. This technique however is viable at longer periods and on the continental scale. We present dispersion maps from ambient noise cross- correlation surface-wave tomography for the continental United States and Alaska between 10 and 60 seconds period. Using up to 2 years of data from over 250 permanent and temporary stations obtained from the IRIS DMC and the Canadian National Seismic Network we compute cross-correlations for all station pairs. An automated dispersion analysis technique is applied to obtain Rayleigh wave group and phase speed curves and unacceptable measurements are removed. Dispersion curves from over 12,500 paths are retained in the continental US and about 1,000 cross-correlation and earthquake paths result in Alaska. We obtain isotropic Rayleigh wave group and phase speed maps on a one half degree grid using a damped ray theoretical inversion. Compared to previous teleseismic earthquake techniques, the short period maps provide better resolution of smaller scale features, especially those in the crust. The improved path coverage also enhances resolution at longer periods compared to previous maps with better delineation of tectonic provinces. In Alaska, limited station coverage and earthquake distribution confine the results to the south-central part of the state. Preliminary azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh wave tomography maps are also presented together with an assessment of their robustness.

  8. Experimental investigation of three-wave interactions of capillary surface-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, Michael; Cazaubiel, Annette; Deike, Luc; Jamin, Timothee; Falcon, Eric

    2014-11-01

    We report experiments studying the non-linear interaction between two crossing wave-trains of gravity-capillary surface waves generated in a closed laboratory tank. Using a capacitive wave gauge and Diffusive Light Photography method, we detect a third wave of smaller amplitude whose frequency and wavenumber are in agreement with the weakly non-linear triadic resonance interaction mechanism. By performing experiments in stationary and transient regimes and taking into account the viscous dissipation, we estimate directly the growth rate of the resonant mode in comparison with theory. These results confirm at least qualitatively and extend earlier experimental results obtained only for unidirectional wave train. Finally we discuss relevance of three-wave interaction mechanisms in recent experiment studying capillary wave turbulence.

  9. Laser-induced periodic surface structuring of biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Susana; Rebollar, Esther; Oujja, Mohamed; Martín, Margarita; Castillejo, Marta

    2013-03-01

    We report here on a systematic study about the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on biopolymers. Self-standing films of the biopolymers chitosan, starch and the blend of chitosan with the synthetic polymer poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), PVP, were irradiated in air with linearly polarized laser beams at 193, 213 and 266 nm, with pulse durations in the range of 6-17 ns. The laser-induced periodic surface structures were topographically characterized by atomic force microscopy and the chemical modifications induced by laser irradiation were inspected via Raman spectroscopy. Formation of LIPSS parallel to the laser polarization direction, with periods similar to the laser wavelength, was observed at efficiently absorbed wavelengths in the case of the amorphous biopolymer chitosan and its blend with PVP, while formation of LIPSS is prevented in the crystalline starch biopolymer.

  10. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on niobium by femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, A.; Dias, A.; Gomez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S. M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2014-05-07

    The surface morphology of a Niobium sample, irradiated in air by a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 800 nm and pulse duration of 100 fs, was examined. The period of the micro/nanostructures, parallel and perpendicularly oriented to the linearly polarized fs-laser beam, was studied by means of 2D Fast Fourier Transform analysis. The observed Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) were classified as Low Spatial Frequency LIPSS (periods about 600 nm) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS, showing a periodicity around 300 nm, both of them perpendicularly oriented to the polarization of the incident laser wave. Moreover, parallel high spatial frequency LIPSS were observed with periods around 100 nm located at the peripheral areas of the laser fingerprint and overwritten on the perpendicular periodic gratings. The results indicate that this method of micro/nanostructuring allows controlling the Niobium grating period by the number of pulses applied, so the scan speed and not the fluence is the key parameter of control. A discussion on the mechanism of the surface topology evolution was also introduced.

  11. Polarization controlled directional propagation of Bloch surface wave.

    PubMed

    Kovalevich, Tatiana; Boyer, Philippe; Suarez, Miguel; Salut, Roland; Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Grosjean, Thierry

    2017-03-06

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are recently developing alternative to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Due to dramatically enhanced propagation distance and strong field confinement these surface states can be successfully used in on-chip all-optical integrated devices of increased complexity. In this work we propose a highly miniaturized grating based BSW coupler which is gathering launching and directional switching functionalities in a single element. This device allows to control with polarization the propagation direction of Bloch surface waves at subwavelength scale, thus impacting a large panel of domains such as optical circuitry, function design, quantum optics, etc.

  12. Acoustomicrofluidic application of quasi-shear surface waves.

    PubMed

    Darinskii, A N; Weihnacht, M; Schmidt, H

    2017-02-20

    The paper analyzes the possibility of using predominantly boundary polarized surface acoustic waves for actuating fluidic effects in microchannels fabricated inside containers made of PDMS. The aim is to remove a shortcoming peculiar to conventionally utilized predominantly vertically polarized waves. Such waves strongly attenuate while they propagate under container side walls because of the leakage into them. Due to a specific feature of PDMS - extremely small shear elastic modulus - losses of boundary polarized modes should be far smaller. The amplitude of vertical mechanical displacements can be increased right inside the channel owing to the scattering of acoustic fields. As an example, the predominantly vertically polarized surface wave on 128YX LiNbO3 is compared with the quasi-shear leaky wave on 64YX LiNbO3. Our computations predict that, given the electric power supplied to the launching transducer, the quasi-shear wave will drive the fluid more efficiently than the surface wave on 128YX LiNbO3 when the container wall thickness is larger than 25-30 wavelengths, if there are no additional scatterers inside the channel. In the presence of a scatterer, such as a thin gold strip, the quasi-shear wave can be more efficient when the wall thickness exceeds 10-15 wavelengths.

  13. Stratification and Dissipation Effects in Running 2D Surface and Internal Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistovich, A. V.; Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    Problem of 2D gravity wave propagation inside and along a free surface of a deep viscous stratified fluid is analyzed analytically basing on set of fundamental governing equations that are continuity and Navier-Stokes neglecting by compressibility effects. Conventional boundary conditions taking into account solid films on the free surface where used. In a limit of clean fluid surface the set is transformed into partial differential equation of the fourth order for a stream function. The sense of applied approximations is discussed. In infinitesimal limit the equation is split on independent sub-equations with characteristic dispersion relations describing propagating independent surface and internal waves. Waves are supplemented by fine flow components. Relations between amplitude of regular waves and singular perturbed components corresponding of a fine structure are derived and discussed. Expressions for vorticity and rate of baroclinic generation of vorticity are presented. Waves of finite amplitudes are investigated in the limit of non-viscous fluid. Two kinds of the running surface wave forms for different values of the wave steepness were calculated and discussed. New approximate non-linear equations was solved and a set of solutions for stratified and homogeneous fluids describing running waves of small finite and large steepness of the waves are constructed. Received expressions for drift velocity are transferred into well-known Stokes solutions in limit of small steepness. Calculations of running periodic internal waves are compared with data of laboratory experiments performed on USU "HPC IPMech RAS" under support of Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Goscontract No. 16.518.11.7059. Extrapolation results of calculations on the environmental conditions are speculated.

  14. Coupling of Surface and Internal Gravity Waves: A Hamiltonian Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    which w^ shall use is the somewhat unrealistic, but convenient, thin thermocline model: N(z) = 0, except near z = -D, -D+6 f N2(z)dz = g 5p/po...L) = C, -L ~*1 ~ (51) we satisfy the resonance condition between the internal wave and adjacent pairs of surface waves. In this case , a...modes as listed in Column II of Table II to represent the ocean environment. In this case , in addition to the surface waves having the equilibrium

  15. Drag reduction characteristics of small amplitude rigid surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, A. M., Jr.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of reducing drag by using rigid, wavy surfaces is investigated both analytically and experimentally. Although pressure drag for rigid sine-wave surfaces can be predicted empirically, viscous drag for even shallow waves was poorly predicted by state-of-the-art turbulent boundary layer calculation procedures. Calculations for the effects of geometric and fluid variables on total wave drag are presented under the philosophy that trends will be nearly correct even though levels are probably incorrect. Experiments by the present authors indicate that a total drag reduction with wavy walls is possible.

  16. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  17. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Branch, Darren W

    2014-03-11

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  18. Diffraction correction for precision surface acoustic wave velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz M., Alberto; Nagy, Peter B.

    2002-09-01

    Surface wave dispersion measurements can be used to nondestructively characterize shot-peened, laser shock-peened, burnished, and otherwise surface-treated specimens. In recent years, there have been numerous efforts to separate the contribution of surface roughness from those of near-surface material variations, such as residual stress, texture, and increased dislocation density. As the accuracy of the dispersion measurements was gradually increased using state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic scanning and sophisticated digital signal processing methods, it was recognized that a perceivable dispersive effect, similar to the one found on rough shot-peened specimens, is exhibited by untreated smooth surfaces as well. This dispersion effect is on the order of 0.1%, that is significantly higher than the experimental error associated with the measurements and comparable to the expected velocity change produced by near-surface compressive residual stresses in metals below their yield point. This paper demonstrates that the cause of this apparent dispersion is the diffraction of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) as it travels over the surface of the specimen. The results suggest that a diffraction correction may be introduced to increase the accuracy of surface wave dispersion measurements. A simple diffraction correction model was developed for surface waves and this correction was subsequently validated by laser-interferometric velocity measurements on aluminum specimens. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  19. Surface and downhole shear wave seismic methods for thick soil site investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, J.A.; Benjumea, B.; Harris, J.B.; Miller, R.D.; Pullan, S.E.; Burns, R.A.; Good, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Shear wave velocity-depth information is required for predicting the ground motion response to earthquakes in areas where significant soil cover exists over firm bedrock. Rather than estimating this critical parameter, it can be reliably measured using a suite of surface (non-invasive) and downhole (invasive) seismic methods. Shear wave velocities from surface measurements can be obtained using SH refraction techniques. Array lengths as large as 1000 m and depth of penetration to 250 m have been achieved in some areas. High resolution shear wave reflection techniques utilizing the common midpoint method can delineate the overburden-bedrock surface as well as reflecting boundaries within the overburden. Reflection data can also be used to obtain direct estimates of fundamental site periods from shear wave reflections without the requirement of measuring average shear wave velocity and total thickness of unconsolidated overburden above the bedrock surface. Accurate measurements of vertical shear wave velocities can be obtained using a seismic cone penetrometer in soft sediments, or with a well-locked geophone array in a borehole. Examples from thick soil sites in Canada demonstrate the type of shear wave velocity information that can be obtained with these geophysical techniques, and show how these data can be used to provide a first look at predicted ground motion response for thick soil sites. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocity by inversion of Rayleigh waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The shear-wave (S-wave) velocity of near-surface materials (soil, rocks, pavement) and its effect on seismic-wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many groundwater, engineering, and environmental studies. Rayleigh-wave phase velocity of a layered-earth model is a function of frequency and four groups of earth properties: P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and thickness of layers. Analysis of the Jacobian matrix provides a measure of dispersion-curve sensitivity to earth properties. S-wave velocities are the dominant influence on a dispersion curve in a high-frequency range (>5 Hz) followed by layer thickness. An iterative solution technique to the weighted equation proved very effective in the high-frequency range when using the Levenberg-Marquardt and singular-value decomposition techniques. Convergence of the weighted solution is guaranteed through selection of the damping factor using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Synthetic examples demonstrated calculation efficiency and stability of inverse procedures. We verify our method using borehole S-wave velocity measurements.Iterative solutions to the weighted equation by the Levenberg-Marquardt and singular-value decomposition techniques are derived to estimate near-surface shear-wave velocity. Synthetic and real examples demonstrate the calculation efficiency and stability of the inverse procedure. The inverse results of the real example are verified by borehole S-wave velocity measurements.

  1. Experimental study of spatiotemporally localized surface gravity water waves.

    PubMed

    Chabchoub, A; Akhmediev, N; Hoffmann, N P

    2012-07-01

    We present experimental results on the study of spatiotemporally localized surface wave events on deep water that can be modeled using the Peregrine breather solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. These are often considered as prototypes of oceanic rogue waves that can focus wave energy into a single wave packet. For small steepness values of the carrier gravity waves the Peregrine breathers are relatively wide, thus providing an excellent agreement between the theory and experimental results. For larger steepnesses the focusing leads to temporally and spatially shorter events. Nevertheless, agreement between measurements and the Peregrine breather theory remains reasonably good, with discrepancies of modulation gradients and spatiotemporal symmetries being tolerable. Lifetimes and travel distances of the spatiotemporally localized wave events determined from the experiment are in good agreement with the theory.

  2. Nodal surface approximations to the P, G, D and I-WP triply periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandy, Paul J. F.; Bardhan, Sonny; Mackay, Alan L.; Klinowski, Jacek

    2001-03-01

    The cubic P, G, D and I-WP triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) may be closely approximated using periodic nodal surfaces (PNS) with few Fourier terms, thus enabling easy generation of TPMS for use in various chemical and physical applications. The accuracy of such approximations is quantitatively discussed and represented visually using a colour coding.

  3. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, E.S.

    1980-05-09

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  4. Omnidirectional surface wave cloak using an isotropic homogeneous dielectric coating

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.; Quevedo-Teruel, O.; Sambles, J. R.; Hibbins, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The field of transformation optics owes a lot of its fame to the concept of cloaking. While some experimental progress has been made towards free-space cloaking in three dimensions, the material properties required are inherently extremely difficult to achieve. The approximations that then have to be made to allow fabrication produce unsatisfactory device performance. In contrast, when surface wave systems are the focus, it has been shown that a route distinct from those used to design free-space cloaks can be taken. This results in very simple solutions that take advantage of the ability to incorporate surface curvature. Here, we provide a demonstration in the microwave regime of cloaking a bump in a surface. The distortion of the shape of the surface wave fronts due to the curvature is corrected with a suitable refractive index profile. The surface wave cloak is fabricated from a metallic backed homogeneous dielectric waveguide of varying thickness, and exhibits omnidirectional operation. PMID:27492929

  5. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Edward S.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  6. Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle is anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45?? incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia mega-thrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction, ????? 0.2). However, documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, is associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (?? ~ 0.6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.

  7. Experimental study of breaking and energy dissipation in surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Le Gal, Patrice; Le Bars, Michael

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study of the evolution of monochromatic waves produced by a parabolic wave maker. Because of the parabolic shape of the wave front, the waves exhibit spatial focusing and their amplitude dramatically increases over distances of a few wavelengths. Unlike linear waves, the amplitude of the free surface deformation cannot exceed a certain threshold and when this happens the waves break. In order to give a criterion for the appearance of breaking, we calculate the steepness defined as ɛ = H/ λ (where H is the wave height and λ their wavelength) for waves of frequencies in the range 4-10 Hz. We found that wave breaking develops when ɛ attains approximately a value of 0.10. We also evaluate the lost of energy carried by the waves during their breaking by a detailed and accurate measurement of their amplitude using an optical Fourier transform profilometry. G. Ruiz Chavarria acknowledges DGAPA-UNAM by support under Project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  8. Triply periodic minimal surfaces decorated with curved graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrones, Humbeto; Mackay, Alan L.

    1993-05-01

    Hypothetical negatively curved structures derived from graphite are described, in which all carbon atoms rest on triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS). The D minimal surface was calculated using the Weierstrass representation. By applying the Bonnet transformation to the D surface, the gyroid and P surfaces were constructed. Curvatures, densities, lattice parameters and energies have been calculated for all structures. The absolute value of the maximum Gaussian curvature is smaller than that for C 60 fullerene. A new periodic graphite net with the same topology as the I-WP minimal surface, using 5-, 6- and 8-membered rings is found possible. The stability of 11 negatively curved graphitic structures has been determined using Tersoff's three-body potential. All the structures described are more stable than C 60,mainly because the 120° bond angles in ordinary graphite are almost preserved in the 7- and 8-membered carbon rings. The way is now open to explore the decoration of minimal surfaces with further arrangements of atoms of different elements.

  9. Direct inversion of surface wave dispersion for three-dimensional shallow crustal structure based on ray tracing: methodology and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongjian; Yao, Huajian; Zhang, Haijiang; Huang, Yu-Chih; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2015-06-01

    We propose a method to invert surface wave dispersion data directly for 3-D variations of shear wave speed, that is, without the intermediate step of phase or group velocity maps, using frequency-dependent ray tracing and a wavelet-based sparsity-constrained tomographic inversion. A fast marching method is used to compute, at each period, surface wave traveltimes and ray paths between sources and receivers. This avoids the assumption of great-circle propagation that is used in most surface wave tomographic studies, but which is not appropriate in complex media. To simplify the problem we consider quasi-stratified media with smoothly varying seismic properties. We represent the 3-D shear wave speed model by means of 1-D profiles beneath grid points, which are determined from all dispersion data simultaneously using a wavelet-based sparsity-constrained tomographic method. The wavelet coefficients of the wave speed model are estimated with an iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm, and upon iteration the surface wave ray paths and the data sensitivity matrix are updated using the newly obtained wave speed model. To demonstrate its feasibility, we apply the method to determine the 3-D shallow crustal shear wave speed variations in the Taipei basin of Taiwan using short period interstation Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion measurements extracted from the ambient noise cross-correlation method. The results are consistent with previous studies and reveal strong shallow crustal heterogeneity that correlates with surface geology.

  10. Research into surface wave phenomena in sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, G. L.; Isenberg, J.; Ma, F.; Richardson, E.

    1981-12-01

    This study is a continuation of an engineering seismology research effort prompted by the sensitivity of guidance sets in Minuteman Wing V to distant earthquakes. An earlier report considers the probable cause of anomalous patterns of seismic alarms triggered by two North American earthquakes. This report extends the previous study by examining the propagation of surface waves from the 1975 Pocatello Valley, Idaho earthquake sequence across Wyoming to Wing V. In addition, the more general question of surface wave phenomena in sedimentary basins is addressed, particularly the effect of laterally inhomogeneous (dipping) basin-bedrock interfaces. Findings indicate that fundamental and first overtone surface waves are significantly modified by the travel path. In contrast, higher modes are relatively unchanged by the travel path, and affect Wing V in much the same way as body waves considered in the previous study.

  11. Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.; Hunter, J.A.; Harris, J.B.; Ivanov, J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent field tests illustrate the accuracy and consistency of calculating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). S-wave velocity profiles (S-wave velocity vs. depth) derived from MASW compared favorably to direct borehole measurements at sites in Kansas, British Columbia, and Wyoming. Effects of changing the total number of recording channels, sampling interval, source offset, and receiver spacing on the inverted S-wave velocity were studied at a test site in Lawrence, Kansas. On the average, the difference between MASW calculated Vs and borehole measured Vs in eight wells along the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada was less than 15%. One of the eight wells was a blind test well with the calculated overall difference between MASW and borehole measurements less than 9%. No systematic differences were observed in derived Vs values from any of the eight test sites. Surface wave analysis performed on surface data from Wyoming provided S-wave velocities in near-surface materials. Velocity profiles from MASW were confirmed by measurements based on suspension log analysis. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Time and space analysis of turbulence of gravity surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordant, Nicolas; Aubourg, Quentin; Viboud, Samuel; Sommeria, Joel

    2016-11-01

    Wave turbulence is a statistical state made of a very large number of nonlinearly interacting waves. The Weak Turbulence Theory was developed to describe such a situation in the weakly nonlinear regime. Although, oceanic data tend to be compatible with the theory, laboratory data fail to fulfill the theoretical predictions. A space-time resolved measurement of the waves have proven to be especially fruitful to identify the mechanism at play in turbulence of gravity-capillary waves. We developed an image processing algorithm to measure the motion of the surface of water with both space and time resolution. We first seed the surface with slightly buoyant polystyrene particles and use 3 cameras to reconstruct the surface. Our stereoscopic algorithm is coupled to PIV so that to obtain both the surface deformation and the velocity of the water surface. Such a coupling is shown to improve the sensitivity of the measurement by one order of magnitude. We use this technique to probe the existence of weakly nonlinear turbulence excited by two small wedge wavemakers in a 13-m diameter wave flume. We observe a truly weakly nonlinear regime of isotropic wave turbulence. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement No 647018-WATU).

  13. Shear wave velocity structure in North America from large-scale waveform inversions of surface waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alsina, D.; Woodward, R.L.; Snieder, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A two-step nonlinear and linear inversion is carried out to map the lateral heterogeneity beneath North America using surface wave data. The lateral resolution for most areas of the model is of the order of several hundred kilometers. The most obvious feature in the tomographic images is the rapid transition between low velocities in the technically active region west of the Rocky Mountains and high velocities in the stable central and eastern shield of North America. The model also reveals smaller-scale heterogeneous velocity structures. A high-velocity anomaly is imaged beneath the state of Washington that could be explained as the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Cascades. A large low-velocity structure extends along the coast from the Mendocino to the Rivera triple junction and to the continental interior across the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Its shape changes notably with depth. This anomaly largely coincides with the part of the margin where no lithosphere is consumed since the subduction has been replaced by a transform fault. Evidence for a discontinuous subduction of the Cocos plate along the Middle American Trench is found. In central Mexico a transition is visible from low velocities across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) to high velocities beneath the Yucatan Peninsula. Two elongated low-velocity anomalies beneath the Yellowstone Plateau and the eastern Snake River Plain volcanic system and beneath central Mexico and the TMVB seem to be associated with magmatism and partial melting. Another low-velocity feature is seen at depths of approximately 200 km beneath Florida and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The inversion technique used is based on a linear surface wave scattering theory, which gives tomographic images of the relative phase velocity perturbations in four period bands ranging from 40 to 150 s. In order to find a smooth reference model a nonlinear inversion based on ray theory is first performed. After

  14. Strong resonances on periodic arrays of cylinders and optical bistability with weak incident waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lijun; Lu, Ya Yan

    2017-02-01

    A one-dimensional periodic array of circular dielectric cylinders surrounded by air is a simple structure on which guided modes above the light line, also called bound states in the continuum (BICs), may exist. Recent studies reveal that such an array supports not only antisymmetric standing waves which are symmetry-protected BICs, but also propagating Bloch BICs and symmetric standing waves. Near a BIC, there is a family of resonant modes (depending on the Bloch wave number β ) with arbitrarily large quality factors. Using a perturbation method, we show that the quality factor of the resonant mode typically depends on β like 1 /(β-β*) 2 , where β* is the Bloch wave number of the BIC, but near a symmetric standing wave (β*=0 ) , the quality factor blows up like 1 /β4 . This indicates that strong resonances can be more easily induced near a symmetric standing wave. As an application, we numerically study optical bistability for the periodic array assuming the cylinders have a Kerr nonlinearity. With the nonlinear effects enhanced by the resonances, it is possible to have optical bistability for weak incident waves. The numerical results confirm that the weakest incident wave for optical bistability is realized through the resonances near the symmetric standing waves.

  15. Surface waves in the western Taiwan coastal plain from an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Tang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Van Ness, Burbach; Jackson, C.R.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lin, Q.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of Taiwan during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the WCP because it marks a distinct lateral contrast in seismic wave velocities in the upper few kilometers of the surface. For many records from stations within the WCP, body waves and surface waves separate well in both the time domain and the period domain. Long-period (e.g., >2 sec) ground motions in the plain are dominated by surface waves. Significant prograde Rayleigh wave particle motions were observed in the WCP. The observed peak ground velocities are about 3-5 times larger than standard predictions in the central and western part of the plain. Observed response spectra at 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec at the center of the plain can be 15 times larger than standard predictions and 10 times larger than the predictions of Joyner (2000) based on surface wave data from the Los Angeles basin. The strong surface waves were probably generated at the boundary of the WCP and then propagated toward the west, largely along radial directions relative to the epicenter. The geometry of the boundary may have had a slight effect on propagation directions of surface waves. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves are estimated using the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique and are refined with phase matched filtering (PMF). Group velocities of fundamental mode surface waves range from about 0.7 km/sec to 1.5 km/sec for the phases at periods from 3 sec to 10 sec. One important observation from this study is that the strongest surface waves were recorded in the center of the plain. The specific location of the strongest motions depends largely on the period of surface waves rather than on specific site conditions or

  16. Detection of heat wave using Kalpana-1 VHRR land surface temperature product over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dhiraj; Pandya, Mehul R.; Pathak, Vishal N.; Darji, Nikunj P.; Trivedi, Himanshu J.

    2016-05-01

    Heat Waves can have notable impacts on human mortality, ecosystem, economics and energy supply. The effect of heat wave is much more intense during summer than the other seasons. During the period of April to June, spells of very hot weather occur over certain regions of India and global warming scenario may result in further increases of such temperature anomalies and corresponding heat waves conditions. In this paper, satellite observations have been used to detect the heat wave conditions prevailing over India for the period of May-June 2015. The Kalpana-1 VHRR derived land surface temperature (LST) products have been used in the analysis to detect the heat wave affected regions over India. Results from the analysis shows the detection of heat wave affected pixels over Indian land mass. It can be seen that during the study period the parts of the west India, Indo-gangetic plane, Telangana and part of Vidarbh was under severe heat wave conditions which is also confirmed with Automatic Weather Station (AWS) air temperature observations.

  17. Propagation of thickness shear waves in a periodically corrugated quartz crystal plate and its application exploration in acoustic wave filters.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Cheng, Li

    2017-02-07

    The propagation of thickness shear waves in a periodically corrugated quartz crystal plate is investigated in the present paper using a power series expansion technique. In the proposed simulation model, an equivalent continuity of shear stress moment is introduced as an approximation to handle sectional interfaces with abrupt thickness changes. The Bloch theory is applied to simulate the band structures for three different thickness variation patterns. It is shown that the power series expansion method exhibits good convergence and accuracy, in agreement with results by finite element method (FEM). A broad stop band can be obtained in the power transmission spectra owing to the trapped thickness shear modes excited by the thickness variation, whose physical mechanism is totally different from the well-known Bragg scattering effect and is insensitive to the structural periodicity. Based on the observed energy trapping phenomenon, an acoustic wave filter is proposed in a quartz plate with sectional decreasing thickness, which inhibits wave propagation in different regions.

  18. Metamaterial Huygens' surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Carl; Grbic, Anthony

    2013-05-10

    Huygens' principle is a well-known concept in electromagnetics that dates back to 1690. Here, it is applied to develop designer surfaces that provide extreme control of electromagnetic wave fronts across electrically thin layers. These reflectionless surfaces, referred to as metamaterial Huygens' surfaces, provide new beam shaping, steering, and focusing capabilities. The metamaterial Huygens' surfaces are realized with two-dimensional arrays of polarizable particles that provide both electric and magnetic polarization currents to generate prescribed wave fronts. A straightforward design methodology is demonstrated and applied to develop a beam-refracting surface and a Gaussian-to-Bessel beam transformer. Metamaterial Huygens' surfaces could find a wide range of applications over the entire electromagnetic spectrum including single-surface lenses, polarization controlling devices, stealth technologies, and perfect absorbers.

  19. Experimental classification of surface waves in optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvietcovich, Fernando; Yao, Jianing; Rolland, Jannick P.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2016-03-01

    Various types of waves are produced when a harmonic force is applied to a semi-infinite half space elastic medium. In particular, surface waves are perturbations with transverse and longitudinal components of displacement that propagate in the boundary region at the surface of the elastic solid. Shear wave speed estimation is the standard for characterizing elastic properties of tissue in elastography; however, the penetration depth of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is typically measured in millimeters constraining the measurement region of interest to be near the surface. Plane harmonic Rayleigh waves propagate in solid-vacuum interfaces while Scholte waves exist in solid-fluid interfaces. Theoretically, for an elastic solid with a Poisson's ratio close to 0.5, the ratio of the Rayleigh to shear wave speed is 95%, and 84% for the Scholte to shear wave. Our study demonstrates the evidence of Rayleigh waves propagating in the solid-air boundary of tissue-mimicking elastic phantoms. Sinusoidal tone-bursts of 400Hz and 1000 Hz were excited over the phantom by using a piezoelectric actuator. The wave propagation was detected with a phase-sensitive OCT system, and its speed was measured by tracking the most prominent peak of the tone in time and space. Similarly, this same experiment was repeated with a water interface. In order to obtain the shear wave speed in the material, mechanical compression tests were conducted in samples of the same phantom. A 93.9% Rayleigh-shear and 82.4% Scholte-Shear speed ratio were measured during experiments which are in agreement with theoretical results.

  20. Optical sensing of analytes in aqueous solutions with a multiple surface-plasmon-polariton-wave platform

    PubMed Central

    Swiontek, Stephen E.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-01-01

    The commonly used optical sensor based on surface plasmon-polariton wave phenomenon can sense just one chemical, because only one SPP wave can be guided by the interface of a metal and a dielectric material contained in the sensor. Multiple analytes could be detected and/or the sensing reliability for a single analyte could be enhanced, if multiple SPP-wave modes could be excited on a single metal/dielectric interface. For that to happen, the partnering dielectric material must be periodically non-homogeneous. Using a chiral sculptured thin film (CSTF) as that material in a SPP-wave platform, we show that the angular locations of multiple SPP-wave modes shift when the void regions of the CSTF are infiltrated with a fluid. The sensitivities realized in the proof-of-concept experiments are comparable to state-of-research values. PMID:23474988

  1. On the initiation of surface waves by turbulent shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, M. A. C.; Belcher, S. E.

    2006-02-01

    An analytical model is developed for the initial stage of surface wave generation at an air-water interface by a turbulent shear flow in either the air or in the water. The model treats the problem of wave growth departing from a flat interface and is relevant for small waves whose forcing is dominated by turbulent pressure fluctuations. The wave growth is predicted using the linearised and inviscid equations of motion, essentially following Phillips [Phillips, O.M., 1957. On the generation of waves by turbulent wind. J. Fluid Mech. 2, 417-445], but the pressure fluctuations that generate the waves are treated as unsteady and related to the turbulent velocity field using the rapid-distortion treatment of Durbin [Durbin, P.A., 1978. Rapid distortion theory of turbulent flows. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge]. This model, which assumes a constant mean shear rate Γ, can be viewed as the simplest representation of an oceanic or atmospheric boundary layer. For turbulent flows in the air and in the water producing pressure fluctuations of similar magnitude, the waves generated by turbulence in the water are found to be considerably steeper than those generated by turbulence in the air. For resonant waves, this is shown to be due to the shorter decorrelation time of turbulent pressure in the air (estimated as ∝ 1/ Γ), because of the higher shear rate existing in the air flow, and due to the smaller length scale of the turbulence in the water. Non-resonant waves generated by turbulence in the water, although being somewhat gentler, are still steeper than resonant waves generated by turbulence in the air. Hence, it is suggested that turbulence in the water may have a more important role than previously thought in the initiation of the surface waves that are subsequently amplified by feedback instability mechanisms.

  2. Universal self-amplification channel for surface plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hai-Yao; Wakabayashi, Katsunori; Lam, Chi-Hang

    2017-01-01

    We present a theory of surface plasma waves (SPWs) in metals with arbitrary electronic collision rate τ-1. We show that there exists a universal intrinsic amplification channel for these waves, subsequent to the interplay between ballistic motions and the metal surface. We evaluate the corresponding amplification rate γ0, which turns out to be a sizable fraction of the SPW frequency ωs. We also find that the value of ωs depends on surface scattering properties, in contrast with the conventional theory.

  3. Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) - Active and passive methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Ivanov, J.

    2007-01-01

    The conventional seismic approaches for near-surface investigation have usually been either high-resolution reflection or refraction surveys that deal with a depth range of a few tens to hundreds meters. Seismic signals from these surveys consist of wavelets with frequencies higher than 50 Hz. The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method deals with surface waves in the lower frequencies (e.g., 1-30 Hz) and uses a much shallower depth range of investigation (e.g., a few to a few tens of meters). ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  4. Band gaps and localization of surface water waves over large-scale sand waves with random fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Yan; Shao, Hao; Zhong, Yaozhao; Zhang, Sai; Zhao, Zongxi

    2012-06-01

    Band structure and wave localization are investigated for sea surface water waves over large-scale sand wave topography. Sand wave height, sand wave width, water depth, and water width between adjacent sand waves have significant impact on band gaps. Random fluctuations of sand wave height, sand wave width, and water depth induce water wave localization. However, random water width produces a perfect transmission tunnel of water waves at a certain frequency so that localization does not occur no matter how large a disorder level is applied. Together with theoretical results, the field experimental observations in the Taiwan Bank suggest band gap and wave localization as the physical mechanism of sea surface water wave propagating over natural large-scale sand waves.

  5. Experiments on seismic metamaterials: molding surface waves.

    PubMed

    Brûlé, S; Javelaud, E H; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S

    2014-04-04

    Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations.

  6. Body and Surface wave tomography for the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P- and S-waves and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. The data for this study come from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the SANDSN data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). For the P-wave model 3416 ray paths from P- and PKP-waves and 1602 ray paths from S- and SKS-waves for the S-wave model were used. For the Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography, we included data from the Ethiopian Broadband Seismic Experiment and obtained the maximum 1606 rays with the best coverage between periods of 44 and 140 s. The body and surface wave models yield consistent results, although the surface wave tomography shows poor horizontal resolution. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the northeastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield is separated structure from the low velocity zone beneath the northeastern edge of the Arabian Shield and dips to the south in the body wave models. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. The origin of the low velocity anomaly beneath the northeastern part of the Shield is uncertain.

  7. Experimental study of three-wave interactions among capillary-gravity surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haudin, Florence; Cazaubiel, Annette; Deike, Luc; Jamin, Timothée; Falcon, Eric; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In propagating wave systems, three- or four-wave resonant interactions constitute a classical nonlinear mechanism exchanging energy between the different scales. Here we investigate three-wave interactions for gravity-capillary surface waves in a closed laboratory tank. We generate two crossing wave trains and we study their interaction. Using two optical methods, a local one (laser doppler vibrometry) and a spatiotemporal one (diffusive light photography), a third wave of smaller amplitude is detected, verifying the three-wave resonance conditions in frequency and in wave number. Furthermore, by focusing on the stationary regime and by taking into account viscous dissipation, we directly estimate the growth rate of the resonant mode. The latter is then compared to the predictions of the weakly nonlinear triadic resonance interaction theory. The obtained results confirm qualitatively and extend previous experimental results obtained only for collinear wave trains. Finally, we discuss the relevance of three-wave interaction mechanisms in recent experiments studying gravity-capillary turbulence.

  8. Multi-wave interaction theory for wind-generated surface gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1992-01-01

    Consistently employing the assumption of localness of wave-wave interactions in the wavenumber space, the Kolmogorov treatment of the energy cascade is applied to the case of wind-generated surface gravity waves. The effective number v of resonantly interacting wave harmonics is not limited to four but is found as a solution of a coupled system of equations expressing: (i) the dependence of the spectrum shape on the degree of the wave nonlinearity, and (ii) the continuity of the wave action flux through the spectrum given a continuous positive input from wind. The latter is specified in a Miles-type fashion, and a simple scaling relationship based on the concept of the turnover time is derived in place of the kinetic equation. The mathematical problem is reduced to an ordinary differential equation of first order. The exponent in the 'power law' for the spectral density of the wave potential energy and the effective number of resonantly interacting wave harmonics are found as functions of the wave frequency and of external factors of wind-wave interaction. The solution is close to the Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum at low frequencies and low wind input while approaching the Phillips spectrum at high frequencies and sufficiently high wind.

  9. Periodic wave, breather wave and travelling wave solutions of a (2 + 1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation in fluids or plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-Qiang; Gao, Yi-Tian; Jia, Shu-Liang; Huang, Qian-Min; Lan, Zhong-Zhou

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a (2 + 1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is investigated, which has been presented as a model for the shallow water wave in fluids or the electrostatic wave potential in plasmas. By virtue of the binary Bell polynomials, the bilinear form of this equation is obtained. With the aid of the bilinear form, N -soliton solutions are obtained by the Hirota method, periodic wave solutions are constructed via the Riemann theta function, and breather wave solutions are obtained according to the extended homoclinic test approach. Travelling waves are constructed by the polynomial expansion method as well. Then, the relations between soliton solutions and periodic wave solutions are strictly established, which implies the asymptotic behaviors of the periodic waves under a limited procedure. Furthermore, we obtain some new solutions of this equation by the standard extended homoclinic test approach. Finally, we give a generalized form of this equation, and find that similar analytical solutions can be obtained from the generalized equation with arbitrary coefficients.

  10. 2D instabilities of surface gravity waves on a linear shear current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francius, Marc; Kharif, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Periodic 2D surface water waves propagating steadily on a rotational current have been studied by many authors (see [1] and references therein). Although the recent important theoretical developments have confirmed that periodic waves can exist over flows with arbitrary vorticity, their stability and their nonlinear evolution have not been much studied extensively so far. In fact, even in the rather simple case of uniform vorticity (linear shear), few papers have been published on the effect of a vertical shear current on the side-band instability of a uniform wave train over finite depth. In most of these studies [2-5], asymptotic expansions and multiple scales method have been used to obtain envelope evolution equations, which allow eventually to formulate a condition of (linear) instability to long modulational perturbations. It is noted here that this instability is often referred in the literature as the Benjamin-Feir or modulational instability. In the present study, we consider the linear stability of finite amplitude two-dimensional, periodic water waves propagating steadily on the free surface of a fluid with constant vorticity and finite depth. First, the steadily propagating surface waves are computed with steepness up to very close to the highest, using a Fourier series expansions and a collocation method, which constitutes a simple extension of Fenton's method [6] to the cases with a linear shear current. Then, the linear stability of these permanent waves to infinitesimal 2D perturbations is developed from the fully nonlinear equations in the framework of normal modes analysis. This linear stability analysis is an extension of [7] to the case of waves in the presence of a linear shear current and permits the determination of the dominant instability as a function of depth and vorticity for a given steepness. The numerical results are used to assess the accuracy of the vor-NLS equation derived in [5] for the characteristics of modulational

  11. Observations of Quasi-Periodic Whistler Mode Waves by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodarsky, George; Wilkinson, Darrelle; Kurth, William; Kletzing, Craig; Santolik, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    Observed in Earth's inner magnetosphere, quasi-periodic whistler mode emissions (QP) are electromagnetic waves in the frequency range from a few hundred Hz to a few kHz that exhibit a periodic modulation (typically a few minutes) of their wave intensity. These waves were first detected at high latitude ground stations, but more recently have been observed by a number of spacecraft, including the twin Van Allen Probes. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument simultaneously measures the vector wave magnetic field and electric field, allowing wave propagation parameters, such as wave normal angle and Poynting vector, to be obtained. Almost four years of Van Allen Probes data have been examined and a statistical survey of the occurrence and properties of the QP emissions has been performed. The QP emissions were found to have periods ranging from 1 to 16 minutes with events lasting from less than 1 hour up to 6 hours. Some events were detected on successive orbits and a number of events were simultaneously detected by both spacecraft, even during large spacecraft separations, providing an opportunity to investigate the source and propagation properties of these waves.

  12. Mode competition and selection in overmoded surface wave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangqiang; Wang, Jianguo; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Dongyang; Li, Shuang

    2016-05-01

    The overmoded surface wave oscillator (SWO) is one of the promising devices to generate high-power millimeter and subterahertz waves for its merits of high efficiency and easy fabrication. But the employed slow wave structure with large diameter may introduce mode competition as the adverse effects. Therefore, the mode competition and selection in the overmoded surface wave oscillator are investigated in detail in this paper. By using the theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulation, the potential transverse mode and axial mode competition is pointed out, and the physical mechanisms and methods for mode selection are investigated. At last, the results are verified in the design of a 0.14 THz overmoded SWO without mode competition, which can generate the output power up to 70 MW at the frequency of 146.3 GHz with conversion efficiency almost 20% when beam voltage and current are, respectively, about 313 kV and 1.13 kA.

  13. Artificial ocean upwelling utilizing the energy of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Artificial upwelling can bring cold water from below the thermocline to the sea surface. Vershinsky, Pshenichnyy, and Soloviev (1987) developed a prototype device, utilizing the energy of surface waves to create an upward flow of water in the tube. This is a wave-inertia pump consisting of a vertical tube, a valve, and a buoy to keep the device afloat. An outlet valve at the top of the unit synchronizes the operation of the device with surface waves and prevents back-splashing. A single device with a 100 m long and 1.2 m diameter tube is able to produce up to 1 m3s-1 flow of deep water to the surface. With a 10 oC temperature difference over 100 m depth, the negative heat supply rate to the sea surface is 42 MW, which is equivalent to a 42 Wm-2 heat flux, if distributed over 1 km2 area. Such flux is comparable to the average net air-sea flux. A system of artificial upwelling devices can cool down the sea surface, modify climate on a regional scale and possibly help mitigate hurricanes. The cold water brought from a deeper layer, however, has a larger density than the surface water and therefore has a tendency to sink back down. In this work, the efficiency of wave-inertia pumps and climatic consequences are estimated for different environmental conditions using a computational fluid dynamics model.

  14. Features of Propagation of the Acoustic-Gravity Waves Generated by High-Power Periodic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogor, L. F.; Frolov, V. L.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of the bandpass filtering of temporal variations of the Doppler frequency shift of radio signals from a vertical-sounding Doppler radar located near the city of Kharkov when the ionosphere was heated by high-power periodic (with 10 and 15-min periods) radiation from the Sura facility. The filtering was done in the ranges of periods that are close to the acoustic cutoff period and the Brunt—Väisälä period (4-6, 8-12, and 13-17 min). Oscillations with periods of 4-6 min and amplitudes of 50-100 mHz were not recorded in fact. Oscillations with periods of 8-12 and 13-17 min and amplitudes of 60-100 mHz were detected in almost all the sessions. In the former and the latter oscillations, the time of delay with respect to the heater switch-on was close to 100 min and about 40-50 min, respectively. These values correspond to group propagation velocities of about 160 and 320-400 m/s. The Doppler shift oscillations were caused by the acoustic-gravity waves which led to periodic variations in the electron number density with a relative amplitude of about 0.1-1.0%. It was demonstrated that the acoustic-gravity waves were not recorded when the effective power of the Sura facility was equal to 50 MW and they were confidently observed when the effective power was increased up to 130 MW. It is shown that the period of the wave processes was determined by the period of the heating-pause cycles, and the duration of the wave trains did not depend on the duration of the series of heating-pause cycles. The data suggest that the generation mechanism of recorded wave disturbances is different from the mechanism proposed in 1970-1990.

  15. Bloch-like surface waves in Fibonacci quasi-crystals and Thue-Morse aperiodic dielectric multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koju, Vijay; Robertson, William M.

    2016-09-01

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) in periodic dielectric multilayer structures with surface defect have been extensively studied. However, it has recently been recognized that quasi-crystals and aperiodic dielectric multilayers also support Bloch-like surface waves (BLSWs). In this work, we numerically show the existence of BLSWs in Fibonacci quasi-crystals and Thue-Morse aperiodic dielectric multilayers using the prism coupling technique. We compare the surface field enhancement and penetration depth of BLSWs in these structures with that of BSWs in their periodic counterparts.

  16. Upper Mantle Structure Beneath The Arabian Peninsula From body and Surface Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P- and S-waves and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. The data came from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). The P- and S wave models were inverted from 401 earthquakes resulting in 3416 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals, and 1602 ray paths with S- and SKS-wave arrivals came from 201 earthquakes, respectively. The P and S wave models yield consistent results. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the mid-eastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield does not extend north of 21°N and dips to south. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. Surface wave tomography is being performed using fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities measured across the SANDSN. Preliminary phase velocity maps will be provided and compared to the body wave tomographic results.

  17. Probing Acoustic Nonlinearity by Mixing Surface Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, David Howard; Telschow, Kenneth Louis

    2000-07-01

    Measurement methods aimed at determining material properties through nonlinear wave propagation are sensitive to artifacts caused by background nonlinearities inherent in the ultrasonic generation and detection methods. The focus of this paper is to describe our investigation of nonlinear mixing of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) as a means to decrease sensitivity to background nonlinearity and increase spatial sensitivity to acoustic nonlinearity induced by material microstructure.

  18. Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.

    1998-01-09

    The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.

  19. Gravitational waves from surface inhomogeneities of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Sushan; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Sarkar, Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Surface asymmetries of accreting neutron stars are investigated for their mass quadrupole moment content. Though the amplitude of the gravitational waves from such asymmetries seems to be beyond the limit of detectability of the present generation of detectors, it appears that rapidly rotating neutron stars with strong magnetic fields residing in high-mass x-ray binaries would be worth considering for a targeted search for continuous gravitational waves with the next generation of instruments.

  20. Mapping the Moho with seismic surface waves: A review, resolution analysis, and recommended inversion strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Adam, Joanne M.-C.; Meier, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The strong sensitivity of seismic surface waves to the Moho is evident from a mere visual inspection of their dispersion curves or waveforms. Rayleigh and Love waves have been used to study the Earth's crust since the early days of modern seismology. Yet, strong trade-offs between the Moho depth and crustal and mantle structure in surface-wave inversions prompted doubts regarding their capacity to resolve the Moho. Here, we review surface-wave studies of the Moho, with a focus on early work, and then use model-space mapping to establish the waves' sensitivity to the Moho depth and the resolution of their inversion for it. If seismic wavespeeds within the crust and upper mantle are known, then Moho-depth variations of a few kilometres produce large (> 1%) perturbations in phase velocities. However, in inversions of surface-wave data with no a priori information (wavespeeds not known), strong Moho-depth/shear-speed trade-offs will mask ~ 90% of the Moho-depth signal, with remaining phase-velocity perturbations ~ 0.1% only. In order to resolve the Moho with surface waves alone, errors in the data must thus be small (up to ~ 0.2% for resolving continental Moho). With larger errors, Moho-depth resolution is not warranted and depends on error distribution with period. An effective strategy for the inversion of surface-wave data alone for the Moho depth is to, first, constrain the crustal and upper-mantle structure by inversion in a broad period range and then determine the Moho depth in inversion in a narrow period range most sensitive to it, with the first-step results used as reference. Prior information on crustal and mantle structure reduces the trade-offs and thus enables resolving the Moho depth with noisier data; such information should be used whenever available. Joint analysis or inversion of surface-wave and other data (receiver functions, topography, gravity) can reduce uncertainties further and facilitate Moho mapping.

  1. High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

  2. Ambient Noise and Surface Wave Dissipation in the Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-21

    9 Ckq0 s I I follows hm the rlgi-hanmd nru A third coordinate system based on the wire wave gauge array was also defined such that the army x-axis...their research followed up in the literatum As we mentioned in our review, the research in wave and ambient noie relationship is relatively sparse. We...I AD-A279 650 AM’BIET NOISE AND SURFACE WAVE DISSIPATION IN THE OCEAN Q) I by S.tais C. Feliardo S. in C invl I Wagm Claude, 1985 Unhiaity of the

  3. Abandoned Mine Detection in Western Pennsylvania Using Surface Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abandoned mines throughout the Appalachian region of the United States have been recognized as problematic. Resource extraction from these mines has long ceased and few, if any, documents pertaining to these operations exist. Over time support structures internal to the mines may collapse and lead to subsidence, potentially damaging surface structures. A non-invasive, surface deployed seismic method to detect undisclosed, abandoned near-surface mines would be beneficial as a first step to remediation. The use of seismic surface waves to analyze the upper several tens of meters of the subsurface has become an important technique for near-surface investigations and may provide a method for detection of near-surface, abandoned mine shafts. While there are many undocumented abandoned mines throughout the Appalachians one known example exists within Butler County, Pennsylvania. Although little is known about the overall operation there is limited documentation which provides information as to the location of the mine tunnels. Currently there is no recognized surface subsidence associated with the mine however documents indicate that the abandoned mining operations have an estimated depth ranging from twenty to fifty feet. To assist with acquisition a seismic land streamer was constructed. Use of a land streamer increases the speed, ease and efficiency required to perform a seismic survey. Additionally the land streamer allows for the acquisition of seismic surface waves which were analyzed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. Data were acquired by conducting multiple, adjacent surveys perpendicular to the suspected location of abandoned mine tunnels. Throughout the survey area to a depth of approximately 15 meters, shear wave velocities range between approximately 200-1200 m/s. Based upon shear wave velocity changes within the profile anomalies have been identified corresponding to the contrast between the suspected mined, and unmined, areas.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Floating Bodies in Extreme Free Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng Zheng; Causon, Derek; Mingham, Clive; Qiang, Ling

    2010-05-01

    A task of the EPSRC funded research project 'Extreme Wave loading on Offshore Wave Energy Devices: a Hierarchical Team Approach' is to investigate the survivability of two wave energy converter (WEC) devices Pelamis and the Manchester Bobber using different CFD approaches. Both devices float on the water surface, generating the electricity from the motion of the waves. In this paper, we describe developments of the AMAZON-SC 3D numerical wave tank (NWT) to study extreme wave loading of a fixed or floating (in Heave motion) structure. The extreme wave formulation as an inlet condition is due to Dalzell (1999) and Ning et. al. (2009) in which a first or second-order Stokes focused wave can be prescribed. The AMAZON-SC 3D code (see e.g. Hu et al. (2009)) uses a cell centred finite volume method of the Godunov-type for the space discretization of the Euler and Navier Stokes equations. The computational domain includes both air and water regions with the air/water boundary captured as a discontinuity in the density field thereby admitting the break up and recombination of the free surface. Temporal discretisation uses the artificial compressibility method and a dual time stepping strategy to maintain a divergence free velocity field. Cartesian cut cells are used to provide a fully boundary-fitted gridding capability on an regular background Cartesian grid. Solid objects are cut out of the background mesh leaving a set of irregularly shaped cells fitted to the boundary. The advantages of the cut cell approach have been outlined previously by Causon et al. (2000, 2001) including its flexibility for dealing with complex geometries whether stationary or in relative motion. The field grid does not need to be recomputed globally or even locally for moving body cases; all that is necessary is to update the local cut cell data at the body contour for as long as the motion continues. The handing of numerical wave paddles and device motion in a NWT is therefore straightforward

  5. Effect of thickness disorder on the performance of photonic crystal surface wave sensors.

    PubMed

    Anopchenko, Aleksei; Occhicone, Agostino; Rizzo, Riccardo; Sinibaldi, Alberto; Figliozzi, Giovanni; Danz, Norbert; Munzert, Peter; Michelotti, Francesco

    2016-04-04

    We investigated experimentally and numerically the robustness of optical sensors based on Bloch waves at the surface of periodic one-dimensional photonic crystals. The distributions of sensor characteristics caused by the fabrication uncertainties in dielectric layer thicknesses have been analyzed and robustness criteria have been set forth and discussed. We show that the performance of the surface wave sensors is sufficiently robust with respect to the changes of the photonic crystal layer thicknesses. Layer thickness optimization of the photonic crystal, carried out to achieve low limit of detection, leads to an improvement of the robustness of the surface wave sensors that is attributed to Bloch states lying deeper in the photonic band gap.

  6. Multimode Rayleigh wave profiling by hybrid surface and borehole methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shibin; Ashlock, Jeramy C.

    2014-05-01

    To improve the accuracy of shallow seismic shear wave velocity profiling, we propose a minimally invasive hybrid surface-and-borehole method that enhances the detection of higher modes of Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The new method combines techniques from the multichannel analysis of surface waves and multichannel simulation with one receiver (MSOR) methods to record components of Rayleigh wave motion at the surface as well as at shallow depths within the soil mass. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated through computational and experimental studies. We show that individual modes of Rayleigh waves can exhibit different dominant depths at which their motion is most significant. This is demonstrated through a numerical study of eigenvectors of layered soil profiles via the stiffness matrix method, and confirmed by a finite element simulation of the apparent dispersion trends recorded at shallow depths using MSOR. Upon superimposing dispersion data recorded via the receivers at various depths, the resulting multimode dispersion data is used in a multi-objective inverse analysis, for which the difference between experimental and theoretical dispersive phase-velocity spectra are minimized for multiple modes simultaneously. In the numerical study, we demonstrate that the resulting inverted profiles and theoretical dispersion data have improved accuracy relative to single-mode inversion. Preliminary field tests are performed using the new hybrid method, and the results are shown to support the conclusions of the numerical study and confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique. Although the use of multiple modes in surface wave testing is not new, the proposed hybrid method can provide more accurate and complete multimodal dispersion data than achieved with surface-only Rayleigh wave methods. As a result, errors because of misidentification or partial measurement of higher modes may be minimized, thus reducing statistical uncertainty in the

  7. Travelling-wave solutions bifurcating from relative periodic orbits in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Subhandu; Cossu, Carlo; Rincon, François

    2016-06-01

    Travelling-wave solutions are shown to bifurcate from relative periodic orbits in plane Poiseuille flow at Re = 2000 in a saddle-node infinite-period bifurcation. These solutions consist in self-sustaining sinuous quasi-streamwise streaks and quasi-streamwise vortices located in the bulk of the flow. The lower branch travelling-wave solutions evolve into spanwise localized states when the spanwise size Lz of the domain in which they are computed is increased. On the contrary, the upper branch of travelling-wave solutions develops multiple streaks when Lz is increased. Upper-branch travelling-wave solutions can be continued into coherent solutions to the filtered equations used in large-eddy simulations where they represent turbulent coherent large-scale motions.

  8. Enhanced sensitive love wave surface acoustic wave sensor designed for immunoassay formats.

    PubMed

    Puiu, Mihaela; Gurban, Ana-Maria; Rotariu, Lucian; Brajnicov, Simona; Viespe, Cristian; Bala, Camelia

    2015-05-05

    We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW) immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporated in portable devices, suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications.

  9. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; ...

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensormore » with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.« less

  10. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.

  11. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors: Fabrication and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Malone, Vanessa

    2012-02-01

    We report on the development of harsh-environment surface acoustic wave sensors for wired and wireless operation. Surface acoustic wave devices with an interdigitated transducer emitter and multiple reflectors were fabricated on langasite substrates. Both wired and wireless temperature sensing was demonstrated using radar-mode (pulse) detection. Temperature resolution of better than ±0.5°C was achieved between 200°C and 600°C. Oxygen sensing was achieved by depositing a layer of ZnO on the propagation path. Although the ZnO layer caused additional attenuation of the surface wave, oxygen sensing was accomplished at temperatures up to 700°C. The results indicate that langasite SAW devices are a potential solution for harsh-environment gas and temperature sensing.

  12. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-01-01

    Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity. PMID:23708273

  13. Bidirectional surface wave splitters excited by a cylindrical wire.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong Jin; Jiang, Quan; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-03-14

    Bidirectional surface wave splitters excited by a cylindrical wire in the microwave frequency have been proposed and fabricated. Compared to the bidirectional subwavelength-slit splitter, the novelty of the proposed structure is the coupling mechanism from the cylindrical wire to the surface gratings. By designing the grating structures with different depths and the feeding wire, electromagnetic waves at the designed frequencies will be confined and guided in the predetermined opposite directions. The finite integral time-domain method is used to model the splitters. Experimental results are presented in the microwave frequencies to verify the new structure, which have very good agreements to the simulated results. Based on the same coupling mechanism, a bidirectional surface wave splitter excited by a cylindrical wire in the terahertz (THz) frequencies is further been proposed and modeled. The simulation results demonstrate the validity of the THz splitter.

  14. Wave drag due to generation of capillary-gravity surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghelea, Teodor; Steinberg, Victor

    2002-11-01

    The onset of the wave resistance via the generation of capillary-gravity waves by a small object moving with a velocity V is investigated experimentally. Due to the existence of a minimum phase velocity Vc for surface waves, the problem is similar to the generation of rotons in superfluid helium near their minimum. In both cases, waves or rotons are produced at V>Vc due to Cherenkov radiation. We find that the transition to the wave drag state is continuous: in the vicinity of the bifurcation the wave resistance force is proportional to (V-Vc) for various fluids. This observation contradicts the theory of Raphaël and de Gennes. We also find that the reduced wave drag force for different fluids and different ball size may be scaled in such a way that all the data collapse on a single curve. The capillary-gravity wave pattern and the shape of the wave-generating region are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Good agreement between the theory and the experimental data is found in this case.

  15. Bulk and surface acoustic waves in solid-fluid Fibonacci layered materials.

    PubMed

    Quotane, I; El Boudouti, E H; Djafari-Rouhani, B; El Hassouani, Y; Velasco, V R

    2015-08-01

    We study theoretically the propagation and localization of acoustic waves in quasi-periodic structures made of solid and fluid layers arranged according to a Fibonacci sequence. We consider two types of structures: either a given Fibonacci sequence or a periodic repetition of a given sequence called Fibonacci superlattice. Various properties of these systems such as: the scaling law and the self-similarity of the transmission spectra or the power law behavior of the measure of the energy spectrum have been highlighted for waves of sagittal polarization in normal and oblique incidence. In addition to the allowed modes which propagate along the system, we study surface modes induced by the surface of the Fibonacci superlattice. In comparison with solid-solid layered structures, the solid-fluid systems exhibit transmission zeros which can break the self-similarity behavior in the transmission spectra for a given sequence or induce additional gaps other than Bragg gaps in a periodic structure.

  16. Graphene as a high impedance surface for ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrigo, Martino; Dragoman, Mircea; Constanzo, Alessandra; Dragoman, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    The metals are regularly used as reflectors of electromagnetic fields emitted by antennas ranging from microwaves up to THz. To enhance the reflection and thus the gain of the antenna, metallic high impedance surfaces (HIS) are used. HIS is a planar array of continuous metallic periodic cell surfaces able to suppress surface waves, which cause multipath interference and backward radiation in a narrow bandwidth near the cell resonance. Also, the image currents are reduced, and therefore the antenna can be placed near the HIS. We demonstrate that graphene is acting as a HIS surface in a very large bandwidth, from microwave to THz, suppressing the radiation leakages better than a metal.

  17. Graphene as a high impedance surface for ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrigo, Martino; Costanzo, Alessandra; Dragoman, Mircea; Dragoman, Daniela

    2013-11-14

    The metals are regularly used as reflectors of electromagnetic fields emitted by antennas ranging from microwaves up to THz. To enhance the reflection and thus the gain of the antenna, metallic high impedance surfaces (HIS) are used. HIS is a planar array of continuous metallic periodic cell surfaces able to suppress surface waves, which cause multipath interference and backward radiation in a narrow bandwidth near the cell resonance. Also, the image currents are reduced, and therefore the antenna can be placed near the HIS. We demonstrate that graphene is acting as a HIS surface in a very large bandwidth, from microwave to THz, suppressing the radiation leakages better than a metal.

  18. Multichannel analysis of surface wave method with the autojuggie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, G.; Steeples, D.W.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Spikes, K.T.; Ralston, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The shear (S)-wave velocity of near-surface materials and its effect on seismic-wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many engineering, environmental, and groundwater studies. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method provides a robust, efficient, and accurate tool to observe near-surface S-wave velocity. A recently developed device used to place large numbers of closely spaced geophones simultaneously and automatically (the 'autojuggie') is shown here to be applicable to the collection of MASW data. In order to demonstrate the use of the autojuggie in the MASW method, we compared high-frequency surface-wave data acquired from conventionally planted geophones (control line) to data collected in parallel with the automatically planted geophones attached to steel bars (test line). The results demonstrate that the autojuggie can be applied in the MASW method. Implementation of the autojuggie in very shallow MASW surveys could drastically reduce the time required and costs incurred in such surveys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Engineered metabarrier as shield from seismic surface waves.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Antonio; Krödel, Sebastian; Marzani, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-12-20

    Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by burying sub-wavelength resonant structures under the soil surface. Each resonant structure consists of a cylindrical mass suspended by elastomeric springs within a concrete case and can be tuned to the resonance frequency of interest. The design allows controlling seismic waves with wavelengths from 10-to-100 m with meter-sized resonant structures. We develop an analytical model based on effective medium theory able to capture the mode conversion mechanism. The model is used to guide the design of metabarriers for varying soil conditions and validated using finite-element simulations. We investigate the shielding performance of a metabarrier in a scaled experimental model and demonstrate that surface ground motion can be reduced up to 50% in frequency regions below 10 Hz, relevant for the protection of buildings and civil infrastructures.

  20. Engineered metabarrier as shield from seismic surface waves

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Antonio; Krödel, Sebastian; Marzani, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by burying sub-wavelength resonant structures under the soil surface. Each resonant structure consists of a cylindrical mass suspended by elastomeric springs within a concrete case and can be tuned to the resonance frequency of interest. The design allows controlling seismic waves with wavelengths from 10-to-100 m with meter-sized resonant structures. We develop an analytical model based on effective medium theory able to capture the mode conversion mechanism. The model is used to guide the design of metabarriers for varying soil conditions and validated using finite-element simulations. We investigate the shielding performance of a metabarrier in a scaled experimental model and demonstrate that surface ground motion can be reduced up to 50% in frequency regions below 10 Hz, relevant for the protection of buildings and civil infrastructures. PMID:27996051

  1. Engineered metabarrier as shield from seismic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Antonio; Krödel, Sebastian; Marzani, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-12-01

    Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by burying sub-wavelength resonant structures under the soil surface. Each resonant structure consists of a cylindrical mass suspended by elastomeric springs within a concrete case and can be tuned to the resonance frequency of interest. The design allows controlling seismic waves with wavelengths from 10-to-100 m with meter-sized resonant structures. We develop an analytical model based on effective medium theory able to capture the mode conversion mechanism. The model is used to guide the design of metabarriers for varying soil conditions and validated using finite-element simulations. We investigate the shielding performance of a metabarrier in a scaled experimental model and demonstrate that surface ground motion can be reduced up to 50% in frequency regions below 10 Hz, relevant for the protection of buildings and civil infrastructures.

  2. Traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duanmu, M.; Whitaker, N.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Vainchtein, A.; Rubin, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by earlier studies of artificial perceptions of light called phosphenes, we analyze traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators modeling this phenomenon. We examine the discrete model problem in its co-traveling frame and systematically obtain the corresponding traveling waves in one spatial dimension. Direct numerical simulations as well as linear stability analysis are employed to reveal the parameter regions where the traveling waves are stable, and these waves are, in turn, connected to the standing waves analyzed in earlier work. We also consider a two-dimensional extension of the model and demonstrate the robust evolution and stability of planar fronts. Our simulations also suggest the radial fronts tend to either annihilate or expand and flatten out, depending on the phase value inside and the parameter regime. Finally, we observe that solutions that initially feature two symmetric fronts with bulged centers evolve in qualitative agreement with experimental observations of phosphenes.

  3. Traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Duanmu, M.; Whitaker, N.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Vainchtein, A.; Rubin, J. E.

    2016-02-27

    Artificial perceptions of light called phosphenes were motivated by earlier studies. We analyze traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators modeling this phenomenon. We examine the discrete model problem in its co-traveling frame and systematically obtain the corresponding traveling waves in one spatial dimension. Direct numerical simulations as well as linear stability analysis are employed to reveal the parameter regions where the traveling waves are stable, and these waves are, in turn, connected to the standing waves analyzed in earlier work. We also consider a two-dimensional extension of the model and demonstrate the robust evolution and stability of planar fronts. Moreover, our simulations also suggest the radial fronts tend to either annihilate or expand and flatten out, depending on the phase value inside and the parameter regime. Finally, we observe that solutions that initially feature two symmetric fronts with bulged centers evolve in qualitative agreement with experimental observations of phosphenes.

  4. Electron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave propagating across a magnetic field in periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buts, V. A.; Ognivenko, V. V.

    1990-05-01

    The possibility of the acceleration of charged particles captured by an electromagnetic wave propagating across a constant magnetic field in periodic slow-wave structures is demonstrated. A plane waveguide with perfectly conducting walls is examined as an example of an electrodynamic structure in which such an acceleration mechanism is possible. The acceleration rate is determined, and the stability of captured particle motion is investigated.

  5. Periodic waves in the lower thermosphere observed by OI630 nm airglow images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino, I.; Medeiros, A. F.; Vadas, S. L.; Wrasse, C. M.; Takahashi, H.; Buriti, R. A.; Leite, D.; Filgueira, S.; Bageston, J. V.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Gobbi, D.

    2016-02-01

    Periodic wave structures in the thermosphere have been observed at São João do Cariri (geographic coordinates: 36.5° W, 7.4° S; geomagnetic coordinates based on IGRF model to 2015: 35.8° E, 0.48° N) from September 2000 to November 2010 using OI630.0 nm airglow images. During this period, which corresponds to almost one solar cycle, characteristics of 98 waves were studied. Similarities between the characteristics of these events and observations at other places around the world were noted, primarily the spectral parameters. The observed periods were mostly found between 10 and 35 min; horizontal wavelengths ranged from 100 to 200 km, and phase speed from 30 to 180 m s-1. These parameters indicated that some of the waves, presented here, are slightly faster than those observed previously at low and middle latitudes (Indonesia, Carib and Japan), indicating that the characteristics of these waves may change at different places. Most of observed waves have appeared during magnetically quiet nights, and the occurrence of those waves followed the solar activity. Another important characteristic is the quasi-monochromatic periodicity that distinguish them from the single-front medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) that have been observed previously over the Brazilian region. Moreover, most of the observed waves did not present a phase front parallel to the northeast-southwest direction, which is predicted by the Perkins instability process. It strongly suggests that most of these waves must have had different generation mechanisms from the Perkins instability, which have been pointed out as being a very important mechanism for the generation of MSTIDs in the lower thermosphere.

  6. Sensitivity of surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipiak, Jerzy; Zubko, Konrad

    2001-08-01

    The SAW devices are widely used as filters, delay lines, resonators and gas sensors. It is possible to use it as mechanical force. The paper describes sensitivity of acceleration sensor based on SAW using the Rayleigh wave propagation. Since characteristic of acceleration SAW sensors are largely determined by piezoelectric materials, it is very important to select substrate with required characteristics. Researches and numerical modeling based on simply sensor model include piezoelectric beam with unilateral free end. An aggregated mass is connected to the one. The dimension and aggregated mass are various. In this case a buckling stress and sensitivity are changed. Sensitivity in main and perpendicular axis are compare for three sensor based on SiO2, LiNbO3, Li2B4O7. Influences of phase velocity, electro-mechanical coupling constant and density on sensitivity are investigated. Some mechanical parameters of the substrates in dynamic work mode are researched using sensor model and Rayleigh model of vibrations without vibration damping. The model is useful because it simply determines dependencies between sensor parameters and substrate parameters. Differences between measured and evaluated quantities are less than 5 percent. Researches based on sensor modes, which fulfilled mechanical specifications similarly to aircraft navigation.

  7. Constrain the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the equatorial Eastern Pacific Rise from ambient noise and earthquake surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C.; Yao, H.; Gouedard, P.; Collins, J. A.; McGuire, J. J.; van der Hilst, R.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we combine ambient noise and earthquake surface waves to jointly constrain the crust and upper mantle shear velocity structure beneath the equatorial eastern Pacific Rise using data from ocean bottom seismometers deployed in 2008. We measure the inter-station Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode in the period band 2 - 30 s and the first higher mode in the period band 3 - 7 s from vertical component ambient noise cross-correlation functions. We also determine the inter-station phase velocity dispersion curves in the period band 20 - 100 s from an earthquake-based surface-wave two-station method. The average dispersion data from both ambient noise and earthquake surface waves are used to determine the average shear velocity structure in the crust and upper mantle using a global searching Neighborhood algorithm. Our results reveal a pronounced low velocity zone in the upper mantle with the shear wave speed as slow as 3.85 km/s beneath the equatorial eastern Pacific Rise, possibly caused by a combination of high temperature and the presence of partial melt beneath the mid-ocean ridges. We will also measure Love wave dispersion curves from transverse component ambient noise cross-correlation functions and earthquake surface waves. Together with Rayleigh-wave dispersion measurements, we will determine the radial anisotropy to constrain the deformation of the crust and upper mantle beneath the equatorial eastern Pacific Rise.

  8. "Zipper-like" periodic magnetosonic waves: Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and magnetospheric multiscale observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Wygant, J.; Breneman, A.; Thaller, S.; Funsten, H. O.; Mitchell, D. G.; Manweiler, J. W.; Torbert, R. B.; Le Contel, O.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Andriopoulou, M.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-02-01

    An interesting form of "zipper-like" magnetosonic waves consisting of two bands of interleaved periodic rising-tone spectra was newly observed by the Van Allen Probes, the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) missions. The two discrete bands are distinct in frequency and intensity; however, they maintain the same periodicity which varies in space and time, suggesting that they possibly originate from one single source intrinsically. In one event, the zipper-like magnetosonic waves exhibit the same periodicity as a constant-frequency magnetosonic wave and an electrostatic emission, but the modulation comes from neither density fluctuations nor ULF waves. A statistical survey based on 3.5 years of multisatellite observations shows that zipper-like magnetosonic waves mainly occur on the dawnside to noonside, in a frequency range between 10 fcp and fLHR. The zipper-like magnetosonic waves may provide a new clue to nonlinear excitation or modulation process, while its cause still remains to be fully understood.

  9. Virtual instrument for the diagnosis of surface wave discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Carabano, O.; Ballesteros, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.

    2006-10-15

    This article presents an experimental system that controls the automatic measuring procedure for the electromagnetic and optical diagnosis of a surface wave discharge by using a LABVIEW virtual instrument. The system also processes the measured data to determine some parameters that characterize the plasma, based on previously developed techniques. The structure of the system is implemented in such a way that permits the diagnosis of the surface wave discharges in both continuous and pulsed modes. The system has been tested and validated in a cylindrical discharge but it can be used to carry out measurement in a coaxial configuration too.

  10. Surface Wave Metrology for Copper/Low-k Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostein, M.; Maznev, A. A.; Mazurenko, A.; Tower, J.

    2005-09-01

    We review recent advances in the application of laser-induced surface acoustic wave metrology to issues in copper/low-k interconnect development and manufacturing. We illustrate how the metrology technique can be used to measure copper thickness uniformity on a range of features from solid pads to arrays of lines, focusing on specific processing issues in copper electrochemical deposition (ECD) and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). In addition, we review recent developments in surface wave metrology for the characterization of low-k dielectric elastic modulus, including the ability to measure within-wafer uniformity of elastic modulus and to characterize porous, anisotropic films.

  11. Surface Wave Metrology for Copper/Low-k Interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Gostein, M.; Maznev, A.A.; Mazurenko, A.; Tower, J.

    2005-09-09

    We review recent advances in the application of laser-induced surface acoustic wave metrology to issues in copper/low-k interconnect development and manufacturing. We illustrate how the metrology technique can be used to measure copper thickness uniformity on a range of features from solid pads to arrays of lines, focusing on specific processing issues in copper electrochemical deposition (ECD) and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). In addition, we review recent developments in surface wave metrology for the characterization of low-k dielectric elastic modulus, including the ability to measure within-wafer uniformity of elastic modulus and to characterize porous, anisotropic films.

  12. Body and Surface Wave Modeling of Observed Seismic Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-31

    COVERED Body and Surface Wave Modeling of Observed Seismic Events 1’ 6. PERFOkMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) David...Short Title of Work: Body and Surface Wave Modeling of Observed Seismic Events The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the...synthetics generated with the Cogniard do-Hoop technique, P-SV modes, and DWFE codes. For a ten layered crust upper mantle model with a V bandwidth of 0-10

  13. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    PubMed Central

    Konopsky, Valery N.; Karakouz, Tanya; Alieva, Elena V.; Vicario, Chiara; Sekatskii, Sergey K.; Dietler, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS/PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately. PMID:23429517

  14. Surface acoustic wave/silicon monolithic sensor/processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.; Nouhi, A.; Kilmer, R.; Fathimulla, M. A.; Mehter, E.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for sputter deposition of piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) is described. An argon-ion milling system was converted to sputter zinc oxide films in an oxygen atmosphere using a pure zinc oxide target. Piezoelectric films were grown on silicon dioxide and silicon dioxide overlayed with gold. The sputtered films were evaluated using surface acoustic wave measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and resistivity measurements. The effect of the sputtering conditions on the film quality and the result of post-deposition annealing are discussed. The application of these films to the generation of surface acoustic waves is also discussed.

  15. Experimental study of a compact P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator with three periods slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Liang; Qian Baoliang; Ge Xingjun; Zhang Xiaoping; Jin Zhenxing

    2012-08-15

    A compact P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator with three periods slow wave structure was investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that the frequency of the P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator is 897 MHz and the microwave power is 1.47 GW with an efficiency of about 32% in the case in which the diode voltage is 572 kV, the beam current is 8.0 kA, and the guide magnetic field is about 0.86 T. In addition, the device can generate a 3.14 GW microwave radiation as the guide magnetic field increases to 1.2 T at the diode voltage of 997 kV and the beam current of 15.3 kA. The experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained earlier by numerical simulations.

  16. The stress-induced surface wave velocity variations in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalvier, Agustin; Bittner, James; Evani, Sai Kalyan; Popovics, John S.

    2017-02-01

    This investigation studies the behavior of surface wave velocity in concrete specimens subjected to low levels of compressive and tensile stress in beams from applied flexural loads. Beam specimen is loaded in a 4-point-load bending configuration, generating uniaxial compression and tension stress fields at the top and bottom surfaces of the beam, respectively. Surface waves are generated through contactless air-coupled transducers and received through contact accelerometers. Results show a clear distinction in responses from compression and tension zones, where velocity increases in the former and decreases in the latter, with increasing load levels. These trends agree with existing acoustoelastic literature. Surface wave velocity tends to decrease more under tension than it tends to increase under compression, for equal load levels. It is observed that even at low stress levels, surface wave velocity is affected by acoustoelastic effects, coupled with plastic effects (stress-induced damage). The acoustoelastic effect is isolated by means of considering the Kaiser effect and by experimentally mitigating the viscoelastic effects of concrete. Results of this ongoing investigation contribute to the overall knowledge of the acoustoelastic behavior of concrete. Applications of this knowledge may include structural health monitoring of members under flexural loads, improved high order modelling of materials, and validation of results seen in dynamic acoustoelasticity testing.

  17. Theory of optical wave coupling in the presence of magnetostatic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wang; Guo-jun, Wen; Ying-shi, Cai

    1994-11-01

    The general expression of magneto-optical permittivity tensor including the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects is derived and the coupled wave equations for the optical modes propagating in an arbitrary direction with respect to the magnetostatic surface wave are obtained. The optical multimode coupled wave equations will reduce to the bi-mode ones in the phase-matching conditions. The behaviors of four types of important optical bi-mode coupling are discussed and some new results are obtained. In the limits of α = 0 and π/2, all results obtained reduce to those reported in the literature.

  18. Model-data comparisons of moments of nonbreaking shoaling surface gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elgar, Steve; Freilich, M. H.; Guza, R. T.

    1990-01-01

    The predictions of linear and nonlinear (Boussinesq) shoaling wave models for nonbreaking unidirectional surface gravity waves are compared to field observations, with particular emphasis on quantities that may be important for cross-shore sediment transport. The extensive data sets were obtained on two natural beaches, span water depths between 1 and 10 m, and include incident wave power spectra with narrow, broad, and bimodal shapes. Significant wave heights varied between approximately 30 and 100 cm, and peak periods between approximately 8 and 18 s. The evolution of total variances of sea surface elevation, cross-shore velocity, and horizontal acceleration is modeled at least qualitatively well by both linear and nonlinear theories. Only the nonlinear theory predicts the increasingly asymmetric sea surface elevations and horizontal velocities (pitched-forward wave shapes) and the weaker variation of skewness (difference between crest and trough profiles) which are observed to occur during shoaling. The nonlinear theory also models qualitatively well the large skewed accelerations which occur during the passage of asymmetric waves.

  19. Elastic guided waves in plates with surface roughness. II. Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lobkis, O.I.; Chimenti, D.E.

    1997-07-01

    In this artice are reported fundamental experimental measurements on guided waves in plates with surface roughness; the experimental data are critically compared to theoretical calculations presented in Part I. All experiments, in either immersion or contact coupling mode, are modeled by the theory developed in I that exploits the phase-screen approximation. In this theory the effect of the rough surface on the received signal, on a local scale, is assumed to be restricted to the signal phase. The comparisons between experiment and predictions show good agreement in most regimes, despite the rather simplifying approximations contained in the calculation. The model is shown to fail only when the guided wave vector is close to a branch point, that is when the guided wave phase velocity approaches the compressional or shear wavespeeds of the plate. Near these values the internal partial waves comprising the guided wave strike the surfaces at grazing incidence or are evanescent, and a simple phase-screen model cannot account for this behavior. Elsewhere in the guided wave spectrum, agreement is quite good. Of practical significance is the finding that the rough-surface damping contrast can be maximized by configuring the experimental conditions to measure just below and well above the compressional critical angle. Aluminum samples, prepared by indenting or sandblasting and independently profiled to determine rms roughness, are measured in immersion and in contact transduction, the latter with wedge couplers and line sources. The influence of the roughness in immersion experiments is strongly affected by whether the upper or lower plate surface is rough, but only in the interaction zone between specular and nonspecular reflection components. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  20. Periodic optical rogue waves (PORWs) in parity-time (PT) symmetric Bragg-grating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Samit Kumar; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we present an analytical investigation of traveling wave solution in a nonlinear Bragg grating structure with the core of the optical fiber having PT-symmetric refractive index distribution. Under the approximation of weak-nonlinearity and above the PT-threshold region, the existence of highly intense, well-localized periodic train of pulses has been explored for the backward-propagating wave for some suitable choice of the parameter values of the system. The result of the present study might be useful in practical purpose in generating high-power, periodic optical pulses.

  1. Propagation of matter-wave solitons in periodic and random nonlinear potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullaev, Fatkhulla Kh.; Garnier, Josselin

    2005-12-15

    We study the motion of bright matter-wave solitons in nonlinear potentials, produced by periodic or random spatial variations of the atomic scattering length. We obtain analytical results for the soliton motion, the radiation of matter wave, and the radiative soliton decay in such configurations of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The stable regimes of propagation are analyzed. The results are in remarkable agreement with the numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with periodic or random spatial variations of the mean field interactions.

  2. Efficiency improvement of THz overmoded surface wave oscillator by circular spoof surface plasmon polaritons coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    The terahertz surface wave oscillator (SWO) faces the problem of the low energy conversion efficiency due to the fact that working mode is the surface wave but the output mode is the volume wave, and it is very difficult to extract the terahertz wave efficiently. In the meantime, the possibility of the RF breakdown increases as a result of the intense electric field on the surface of slow wave structures (SWSs). To overcome these problems, the field distribution in the SWSs of the 0.147 THz relativistic SWO is analyzed in this paper, and the results indicate that the electric field distribution in the SWSs is similar to that in spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs). In order to improve the energy conversion efficiency of the SWO, we propose to adopt the circular SSPP coupler with tapered gratings at the end of the uniform SWSs, which is implemented to smoothly bridge the surface wave and guided wave. Second, the SWO with the coupler is simulated using particle-in-cell code UNIPIC. The simulation results indicate that the output terahertz power enhances 52% after the SSPP coupler is used. More importantly, the numerical results demonstrate that the intensity of the electric field decreases 25% on the corrugation surface of the SWSs, so the RF breakdown can be avoided in the terahertz relativistic SWO.

  3. Surface properties of solids and surface acoustic waves: Application to chemical sensors and layer characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, V. V.

    1995-09-01

    A general phenomenological approach is given for the description of mechanical surface properties of solids and their influence on surface acoustic wave propogation. Surface properties under consideration may be changes of the stress distribution in subsurface atomic layers, the presence of adsorbed gas molecules, surface degradation as a result of impacts from an aggressive environment, damage due to mechanical manufacturing or polishing, deposition of thin films or liquid layers, surface corrugations, etc. If the characteristic thickness of the affected layers is much less than the wavelengths of the propagating surface waves, then the effects of all these irregularities can be described by means of non-classical boundary conditions incorporating the integral surface parameters such as surface tension, surface moduli of elasticity and surface mass density. The effect of surface properties on the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves is analysed in comparison with the results of traditional approaches, in particular with Auld's energy perturbation method. One of the important implications of the above-mentioned boudnary conditions is that they are adequate for the description of the effect of rarely distributed adsorbed atoms or molecules. This allows, in particular, to obtain a rigorous theoretical description of chemical sensors using surface acoustic waves and to derive analytical expressions for their sensitivity.

  4. Short-period mesospheric gravity waves and their sources at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Dhvanit; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Ebihara, Yusuke; Weatherwax, Allan T.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2017-01-01

    The sourcing locations and mechanisms for short-period, upward-propagating gravity waves at high polar latitudes remain largely unknown. Using all-sky imager data from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, we determine the spatial and temporal characteristics of 94 observed small-scale waves in 3 austral winter months in 2003 and 2004. These data, together with background atmospheres from synoptic and/or climatological empirical models, are used to model gravity wave propagation from the polar mesosphere to each wave's source using a ray-tracing model. Our results provide a compelling case that a significant proportion of the observed waves are launched in several discrete layers in the tropopause and/or stratosphere. Analyses of synoptic geopotentials and temperatures indicate that wave formation is a result of baroclinic instability processes in the stratosphere and the interaction of planetary waves with the background wind fields in the tropopause. These results are significant for defining the influences of the polar vortex on the production of these small-scale, upward-propagating gravity waves at the highest polar latitudes.

  5. Theoretical and numerical investigation of HF elastic wave propagation in two-dimensional periodic beam lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, B.; Tian, B. Y.; Aubry, D.

    2013-12-01

    The elastic wave propagation phenomena in two-dimensional periodic beam lattices are studied by using the Bloch wave transform. The numerical modeling is applied to the hexagonal and the rectangular beam lattices, in which, both the in-plane (with respect to the lattice plane) and out-of-plane waves are considered. The dispersion relations are obtained by calculating the Bloch eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes. The frequency bandgaps are observed and the influence of the elastic and geometric properties of the primitive cell on the bandgaps is studied. By analyzing the phase and the group velocities of the Bloch wave modes, the anisotropic behaviors and the dispersive characteristics of the hexagonal beam lattice with respect to the wave propagation are highlighted in high frequency domains. One important result presented herein is the comparison between the first Bloch wave modes to the membrane and bending/transverse shear wave modes of the classical equivalent homogenized orthotropic plate model of the hexagonal beam lattice. It is shown that, in low frequency ranges, the homogenized plate model can correctly represent both the in-plane and out-of-plane dynamic behaviors of the beam lattice, its frequency validity domain can be precisely evaluated thanks to the Bloch modal analysis. As another important and original result, we have highlighted the existence of the retropropagating Bloch wave modes with a negative group velocity, and of the corresponding "retro-propagating" frequency bands.

  6. Locating earthquakes with surface waves and centroid moment tensor estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shengji; Zhan, Zhongwen; Tan, Ying; Ni, Sidao; Helmberger, Don

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, P wave arrival times have been used to locate regional earthquakes. In contrast, the travel times of surface waves dependent on source excitation and the source parameters and depth must be determined independently. Thus surface wave path delays need to be known before such data can be used for location. These delays can be estimated from previous earthquakes using the cut-and-paste technique, Ambient Seismic Noise tomography, and from 3D models. Taking the Chino Hills event as an example, we show consistency of path corrections for (>10 s) Love and Rayleigh waves to within about 1 s obtained from these methods. We then use these empirically derived delay maps to determine centroid locations of 138 Southern California moderate-sized (3.5 > Mw> 5.7) earthquakes using surface waves alone. It appears that these methods are capable of locating the main zone of rupture within a few (˜3) km accuracy relative to Southern California Seismic Network locations with 5 stations that are well distributed in azimuth. We also address the timing accuracy required to resolve non-double-couple source parameters which trades-off with location with less than a km error required for a 10% Compensated Linear Vector Dipole resolution.

  7. Swimming droplets driven by a surface wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebata, Hiroyuki; Sano, Masaki

    2015-02-01

    Self-propelling motion is ubiquitous for soft active objects such as crawling cells, active filaments, and liquid droplets moving on surfaces. Deformation and energy dissipation are required for self-propulsion of both living and non-living matter. From the perspective of physics, searching for universal laws of self-propelled motions in a dissipative environment is worthwhile, regardless of the objects' details. In this article, we propose a simple experimental system that demonstrates spontaneous migration of a droplet under uniform mechanical agitation. As we vary control parameters, spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs sequentially, and cascades of bifurcations of the motion arise. Equations describing deformable particles and hydrodynamic simulations successfully describe all of the observed motions. This system should enable us to improve our understanding of spontaneous motions of self-propelled objects.

  8. Observability of surface currents in p-wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakurskiy, S. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu; Golubov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    A general approach is formulated to describe spontaneous surface current distribution in a chiral p-wave superconductor. We use the quasiclassical Eilenberger formalism in the Ricatti parametrization to describe various types of the superconductor surface, including arbitrary roughness and metallic behavior of the surface layer. We calculate angle resolved distributions of the spontaneous surface currents and formulate the conditions of their observability. We argue that local measurements of these currents by muon spin rotation technique may provide an information on the underlying pairing symmetry in the bulk superconductor.

  9. KAM Tori for 1D Nonlinear Wave Equationswith Periodic Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chierchia, Luigi; You, Jiangong

    In this paper, one-dimensional (1D) nonlinear wave equations with periodic boundary conditions are considered; V is a periodic smooth or analytic function and the nonlinearity f is an analytic function vanishing together with its derivative at u≡0. It is proved that for ``most'' potentials V(x), the above equation admits small-amplitude periodic or quasi-periodic solutions corresponding to finite dimensional invariant tori for an associated infinite dimensional dynamical system. The proof is based on an infinite dimensional KAM theorem which allows for multiple normal frequencies.

  10. Water depth and surface current retrievals from airborne optical measurements of surface gravity wave dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, J. P.; Piotrowski, C. C.; Williams, J. Z.

    2001-08-01

    Visible images of nearshore ocean waves obtained from an aircraft have been utilized to estimate the surface currents and water depth below the waves. A digital framing camera was mounted in a motion-stabilized turret and used to obtain temporal sequences of high-quality optical images of shoaling ocean waves. Data on the position and attitude of the camera/turret were used to map the image data to a rectilinear coordinate system at the level of the surface, effectively separating the spatial and temporal modulations due to the waves. The resulting three-dimensional (3-D) space-time data sets were Fourier transformed to obtain frequency-wave number spectra of these modulations. These spectra contain information on the propagation characteristics of the waves, such as their wavelengths and frequencies, and their directions and speeds of propagation. The water depth and current vector have been estimated by choosing these parameters so that a "best" fit is obtained between the theoretical dispersion relation for linear gravity waves and these 3-D wave spectra. Image data sets were acquired during the Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) along the quasi-linear coastline in the vicinity of the Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility (FRF) near Duck on the North Carolina Outer Banks. Summary wave parameters and bathymetry and current retrievals are typically within 10% of contemporaneous in situ measurements, though outliers occur.

  11. Guided Bloch surface wave resonance for biosensor designs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiu-Bao; Liu, Lan-Jun; Lu, Hai; Li, Hai-Dong; Wang, Zhi-Guo

    2016-05-01

    A guided Bloch surface wave resonance (GBR) configuration is introduced for label-free biosensing. The GBR is realized by coupling the first-order diffraction of a subwavelength grating with the Bloch surface wave at the interface between a 1D photonic crystal slab and bio-solution. In addition to sustaining the Bloch surface mode, the photonic crystal provides the design freedom of simultaneously increasing the quality and decreasing the sideband transmissions of the resonance spectrum. The low sideband and high-quality features along with the large sensitivity rising from the strong overlap between the Bloch surface mode and the bio-solution make the GBR suitable for the design of biosensors. Biosensors with a high figure of merit are realized by the compact configurations.

  12. Analysis of Rayleigh wave interactions for surface crack characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, M. H.; Fan, Y.; Edwards, R. S.

    2012-05-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) have been used in pitch-catch mode for a better characterization of surface cracks in metals. The system, which combines the measurement of Rayleigh wave velocity in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, has been used to understand the interaction of Rayleigh waves with inclined surface cracks. This shows a stronger and more prominent enhancement pattern when compared to the enhancement caused by cracks which are normal to the surface. In addition, measurements in the far-field are combined with the near-field enhancement measurement, with a view to characterize the cracks. An algorithm for characterizing surface cracks is presented. A finite element method model has been computed to simulate the experiment, and the cause of the prominent enhancement in the inclined cracks is explained.

  13. A Fast and Reliable Method for Surface Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmin, M. P.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Levshin, A. L.

    - We describe a method to invert regional or global scale surface-wave group or phase-velocity measurements to estimate 2-D models of the distribution and strength of isotropic and azimuthally anisotropic velocity variations. Such maps have at least two purposes in monitoring the nuclear Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT): (1) They can be used as data to estimate the shear velocity of the crust and uppermost mantle and topography on internal interfaces which are important in event location, and (2) they can be used to estimate surface-wave travel-time correction surfaces to be used in phase-matched filters designed to extract low signal-to-noise surface-wave packets.The purpose of this paper is to describe one useful path through the large number of options available in an inversion of surface-wave data. Our method appears to provide robust and reliable dispersion maps on both global and regional scales. The technique we describe has a number of features that have motivated its development and commend its use: (1) It is developed in a spherical geometry; (2) the region of inference is defined by an arbitrary simple closed curve so that the method works equally well on local, regional, or global scales; (3) spatial smoothness and model amplitude constraints can be applied simultaneously; (4) the selection of model regularization and the smoothing parameters is highly flexible which allows for the assessment of the effect of variations in these parameters; (5) the method allows for the simultaneous estimation of spatial resolution and amplitude bias of the images; and (6) the method optionally allows for the estimation of azimuthal anisotropy.We present examples of the application of this technique to observed surface-wave group and phase velocities globally and regionally across Eurasia and Antarctica.

  14. Applications of surface acoustic and shallow bulk acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Colin K.

    1989-10-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) device coverage includes delay lines and filters operating at selected frequencies in the range from about 10 MHz to 11 GHz; modeling with single-crystal piezoelectrics and layered structures; resonators and low-loss filters; comb filters and multiplexers; antenna duplexers; harmonic devices; chirp filters for pulse compression; coding with fixed and programmable transversal filters; Barker and quadraphase coding; adaptive filters; acoustic and acoustoelectric convolvers and correlators for radar, spread spectrum, and packet radio; acoustooptic processors for Bragg modulation and spectrum analysis; real-time Fourier-transform and cepstrum processors for radar and sonar; compressive receivers; Nyquist filters for microwave digital radio; clock-recovery filters for fiber communications; fixed-, tunable-, and multimode oscillators and frequency synthesizers; acoustic charge transport; and other SAW devices for signal processing on gallium arsenide. Shallow bulk acoustic wave device applications include gigahertz delay lines, surface-transverse-wave resonators employing energy-trapping gratings, and oscillators with enhanced performance and capability.

  15. New Biosensor Using Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, Jun; Matsui, Yoshikazu; Shiokawa, Showko

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes a new biosensor to detect an enzyme reaction in liquid using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices fabricated on 36°-rotated Y-cut, X-propagating LiTaO3. The sensing wave on the substrate is a predominantly shear-horizontal-mode SAW (SH-SAW) and is affected by a strong acoustoelectric interaction between the piezoelectric potential and electrical properties of the materials in the adjacent liquid. As an example of an electrical property, pH change associated with an enzyme reaction leads to measurable perturbation in the wave-propagation characteristic. Taking advantage of this phenomenon we realized a SAW biosensor which consists of an immobilized urease membrane on the surface. Also, highly sensitive detection for the urea solution was obtained in our preliminary experiments.

  16. Individually Identifiable Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors, Tags and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor); Solie, Leland P. (Inventor); Tucker, Dana Y. G. (Inventor); Hines, Andrew T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A surface-launched acoustic wave sensor tag system for remotely sensing and/or providing identification information using sets of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor tag devices is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include coding and other diversity techniques to produce groups of sensors that interact minimally, reducing or alleviating code collision problems typical of prior art coded SAW sensors and tags, and specific device embodiments of said coded SAW sensor tags and systems. These sensor/tag devices operate in a system which consists of one or more uniquely identifiable sensor/tag devices and a wireless interrogator. The sensor device incorporates an antenna for receiving incident RF energy and re-radiating the tag identification information and the sensor measured parameter(s). Since there is no power source in or connected to the sensor, it is a passive sensor. The device is wirelessly interrogated by the interrogator.

  17. Langasite surface acoustic wave gas sensors: modeling and verification

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Zheng,; Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.

    2013-03-01

    We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.

  18. Attenuation of 7 GHz surface acoustic waves on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongyao; Cahill, David G.

    2016-09-01

    We measured the attenuation of GHz frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on the Si (001) surface using an optical pump-probe technique at temperatures between 300 and 600 K. SAWs are generated and detected by a 700 nm Al grating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. The grating for SAW generation is separated from the grating for SAW detection by ≈150 μ m . The amplitude of SAWs is attenuated by coupling to bulk waves created by the Al grating, diffraction due to the finite size of the source, and the intrinsic relaxational Akhiezer damping of elastic waves in Si. Thermal phonon relaxation time and Grüneisen parameters are fitted using temperature-dependent measurement. The f Q product of a hypothetical micromechanical oscillator limited by Akhiezer damping at this frequency is ˜3 ×1013 Hz.

  19. Surface wave excitations and backflow effect over dense polymer brushes

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Sofia; Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Sciortino, Francesco; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2016-01-01

    Polymer brushes are being increasingly used to tailor surface physicochemistry for diverse applications such as wetting, adhesion of biological objects, implantable devices and much more. Here we perform Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations to study the behaviour of dense polymer brushes under flow in a slit-pore channel. We discover that the system displays flow inversion at the brush interface for several disconnected ranges of the imposed flow. We associate such phenomenon to collective polymer dynamics: a wave propagating on the brush surface. The relation between the wavelength, the amplitude and the propagation speed of the flow-generated wave is consistent with the solution of the Stokes equations when an imposed traveling wave is assumed as the boundary condition (the famous Taylor’s swimmer). PMID:26975329

  20. Drops subjected to surface acoustic waves: flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Philippe; Baudoin, Michael; Bou Matar, Olivier; Dynamique Des Systèmes Hors Equilibre Team; Aiman-Films Team

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasonic acoustic waves of frequency beyond the MHz are known to induce streaming flow in fluids that can be suitable to perform elementary operations in microfluidics systems. One of the currently appealing geometry is that of a sessile drop subjected to surface acoustic waves (SAW). Such Rayleigh waves produce non-trival actuation in the drop leading to internal flow, drop displacement, free-surface oscillations and atomization. We recently carried out experiments and numerical simulations that allowed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms that couple acoustic propagation and fluid actuation. We varied the frequency and amplitude of actuation, as well as the properties of the fluid, and we measured the effects of these parameters on the dynamics of the flow. We compared these results to finite-elements numerical simulations.

  1. SAW devices based on novel surface wave excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Therrien, Joel; Dai, Lian

    2015-03-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices have applications in radio frequency and microwave filtering as well as highly sensitive sensors. Current SAW design employs the use of an array of electrode pairs, referred to as Inter-Digitated Transducers (IDTs) for creating and receiving surface waves on piezoelectric substrates. The pitch of the electrode pairs along with the properties of the substrate determine the operating frequency. The number of electrode pairs determine the bandwidth of the emitted waves. We will present a novel configuration that eliminates the need for the IDTs and replaces with with a single circular electrode located inside a larger ground ring. This configuration induces drumhead modes. We will show that the resonant frequencies follow the zeros of Bessel functions of the first kind. Applications in RF filtering and mass sensing will be presented.

  2. Optimizing surface acoustic wave sensors for trace chemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, G.C.; Kottenstette, R.J.; Heller, E.J.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes several recent advances for fabricating coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for applications requiring trace chemical detection. Specifically, we have demonstrated that high surface area microporous oxides can provide 100-fold improvements in SAW sensor responses compared with more typical polymeric coatings. In addition, we fabricated GaAs SAW devices with frequencies up to 500 MHz to provide greater sensitivity and an ideal substrate for integration with high-frequency electronics.

  3. Investigation of the photodetached electronic wave packet dynamics in a magnetic field near a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaohang; Wang, Dehua; Cheng, Shaohao

    2017-01-01

    The electronic wave packet dynamics photodetached from H- ion in a magnetic field near an elastic surface has been studied by using the time-dependent perturbation theory combined with the semiclassical closed orbit theory for the first time. Firstly, we put forward an analytic formula for calculating the autocorrelation function of this system. Then we calculate and analyze the autocorrelation function in great detail. It is demonstrated that the quantum wave packet revival phenomenon is significant when the laser pulse width is far less than the period of the detached electron's closed orbit. As the pulse width is close to the period of the detached electron's closed orbit, the quantum wave packet revival phenomenon becomes weakened. When the laser pulse width is bigger than the period of the closed orbit of the detached electron, the adjacent revival peaks in the autocorrelation function begin to merge and the quantum revival phenomenon disappears. In addition, the magnetic field strength can also affect the autocorrelation function of this system. As the magnetic field strength is relatively small, the quantum wave packet revival phenomenon is weak. With the increase of the magnetic field strength, the number of the reviving peaks in the autocorrelation function becomes increased and the quantum wave packet revival phenomenon becomes significant. Therefore, we can control the quantum wave packet revival in the autocorrelation function of this system by changing the laser pulse width and the external magnetic field strength. This study can guide the future experimental research on the wave packet dynamics of atoms or ions in the external fields or surfaces.

  4. Surface waves generated by charged particle bunch moving along the edge of semi-infinite planar wire grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobev, Viktor V.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V.; Galyamin, Sergey N.

    2017-04-01

    Surface waves generated by a charged-particle bunch at the semi-infinite planar periodic wire structure are analyzed. It is supposed that the bunch moves parallel to the edge of the structure. The influence of the grid is described by the averaged boundary conditions. The analytical results are given for a general case, which takes into account the finite period and wires radius. It is shown that the surface waves excited by the bunch propagate along wires with the speed of light in vacuum. The number and the structure of these surface waves depend on relative location of the bunch path and the grid. One type of wave is always excited, but its magnitude decreases with distance from the bunch path to the structure edge. If the bunch projection falls on the half-plane occupied by wires, then additionally three surface waves are generated: two of them are equivalent to ones excited by the bunch moving along infinite wire grid and another one represents the surface wave reflected from the edge. The analysis of the surface waves shows that their structure allows for determination of the length of the bunch. Typical numerical results are presented.

  5. Quantitative photography of intermittency in surface wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.; Budakian, R.; Putterman, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    At high amplitudes of excitation surface waves on water distribute their energy according to a Kolmogorov type of turbulent power spectrum. We have used diffusing light photography to measure the power spectrum and to quantify the presence of large structures in the turbulent state.

  6. Amplification of nonlinear surface waves in an inhomogeneous transition layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodin, G.; Gradov, O. M.

    1991-12-01

    A plasma with a boundary transition layer of variable depth in the presence of a powerful electromagnetic field is considered. It is shown that a displacement of the boundary will grow, and will propagate as a nonlinear surface wave in the direction in which the depth of the transition layer decreases.

  7. Multi-objective analysis of body and surface waves from the Market Rasen (UK) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyburn, Ross; Fox, Ben

    2010-04-01

    The 2008 February 27 Market Rasen (UK) earthquake (mb 4.5) is used to show how earthquake source parameters can be estimated using a multi-objective optimization approach to the joint inversion of teleseismic body wave and regional surface wave observations. To estimate the source depth, short-period teleseismic seismograms are interpreted in terms of P and the depth phases pP and sP using the F-statistic and its associated probability theory. Results of this analysis are inconclusive as two possible source depths are identified. To identify our preferred depth, a method of estimating source depth and mechanism by modelling surface wave amplitude spectra is applied to data recorded at regional distances. A source depth of 22km is found to be consistent with the observed body and surface waves. Upper and lower amplitude bounds and polarities are then placed on the phases interpreted as P, pP and sP for a source depth of 22km. The Gaussian relative amplitude method is used to calculate a likelihood for all possible orientations of the double-couple source. A multi-objective optimization approach can then used to compare these likelihoods with calculated misfits between observed and synthetic surface wave amplitude spectra for all orientations of the double-couple source. Our preferred focal mechanism (φs = 205°, δ = 50° and λ = 15°) is found by normalizing and summing both misfits to find the focal mechanism with the lowest combined misfit. Synthetic body wave seismograms, surface wave amplitude spectra and seismograms are in good agreement with the observed data for our preferred focal mechanism and depth.

  8. Dynamics of periodic mechanical structures containing bistable elastic elements: From elastic to solitary wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Neel; Daraio, Chiara; Kochmann, Dennis M.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a periodic chain of bistable elements consisting of masses connected by elastic springs whose constraint arrangement gives rise to a large-deformation snap-through instability. We show that the resulting negative-stiffness effect produces three different regimes of (linear and nonlinear) wave propagation in the periodic medium, depending on the wave amplitude. At small amplitudes, linear elastic waves experience dispersion that is controllable by the geometry and by the level of precompression. At moderate to large amplitudes, solitary waves arise in the weakly and strongly nonlinear regime. For each case, we present closed-form analytical solutions and we confirm our theoretical findings by specific numerical examples. The precompression reveals a class of wave propagation for a partially positive and negative potential. The presented results highlight opportunities in the design of mechanical metamaterials based on negative-stiffness elements, which go beyond current concepts primarily based on linear elastic wave propagation. Our findings shed light on the rich effective dynamics achievable by nonlinear small-scale instabilities in solids and structures.

  9. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hoehm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krueger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2012-07-01

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on two different silica polymorphs (single-crystalline synthetic quartz and commercial fused silica glass) upon irradiation in air with multiple linearly polarized single- and double-fs-laser pulse sequences ({tau} = 150 fs pulse duration, {lambda} = 800 nm center wavelength, temporal pulse separation {Delta}t < 40 ps) is studied experimentally and theoretically. Two distinct types of fs-LIPSS [so-called low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL) and high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL)] with different spatial periods and orientations were identified. Their appearance was characterized with respect to the experimental parameters peak laser fluence and number of laser pulses per spot. Additionally, the 'dynamics' of the LIPSS formation was addressed in complementary double-fs-pulse experiments with varying delays, revealing a characteristic change of the LSFL periods. The experimental results are interpreted on the basis of a Sipe-Drude model considering the carrier dependence of the optical properties of fs-laser excited silica. This new approach provides an explanation of the LSFL orientation parallel to the laser beam polarisation in silica - as opposed to the behaviour of most other materials.

  10. Effect of earthquakes on ambient noise surface wave tomography in upper-mantle studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanovskaya, Tatiana; Koroleva, Tatiana; Lyskova, Eugenia

    2016-05-01

    Application of the ambient noise surface wave tomography method (ANT) for determination of the upper-mantle structure requires data on long-periodic noise (T > 40 s). The ANT technique implies that noise sources are distributed almost uniformly over the surface. This is practically true for short-periodic noise, however, it is not so in the case of long periods. In this paper we show that the main contribution to noise at long periods is caused by signals from earthquakes. In some cases, they may strongly distort noise cross-correlation. This leads to an incorrect determination of surface wave velocity dispersion curves. To minimize such a distortion we propose two means: (1) to use records of noise for the periods when there is no clustering of earthquakes, such as aftershocks of strong events; (2) to stack cross-correlation functions for a period of at least three years in order to achieve sufficient uniformity of earthquake locations. Validity of this approach is demonstrated by ANT results for Europe. Tomographic reconstruction of Rayleigh wave group velocities for 10-100 s measured along interstation paths was carried out in a central part of Western Europe where resolving power of the data was the highest. Locally averaged dispersion curves were inverted to vertical S-wave velocity sections in this area. The results correspond closely to known features of the structure of the region, namely: strong difference of the crust and upper-mantle structure at the opposite sides from the Tornquist-Teisseyre Line down to ˜ 250 km, penetration of high-velocity material of East European Platform lithosphere under Carpathians, as well as penetration of low-velocity asthenospheric layer from the Carpathian region towards the northeast.

  11. Near-field imaging of biperiodic surfaces for elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peijun; Wang, Yuliang; Zhao, Yue

    2016-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the direct and inverse scattering of elastic waves by biperiodic surfaces in three dimensions. The surface is assumed to be a small and smooth perturbation of a rigid plane. Given a time-harmonic plane incident wave, the direct problem is to determine the displacement field of the elastic wave for a given surface; the inverse problem is to reconstruct the surface from the measured displacement field. The direct problem is shown to have a unique weak solution by studying its variational formulation. Moreover, an analytic solution is deduced by using the transformed field expansion method and the convergence is established for the power series solution. A local uniqueness is proved for the inverse problem. An explicit reconstruction formula is obtained and implemented by using the fast Fourier transform. The error estimate is derived for the reconstructed surface function, and it provides an insight on the trade-off among resolution, accuracy, and stability of the solution for the inverse problem. Numerical results show that the method is effective to reconstruct biperiodic scattering surfaces with subwavelength resolution.

  12. Generation of periodic waves by landscape features in cyclic predator-prey systems.

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, J A; Lambin, X; Thomas, C J; Sherratt, T N

    2002-01-01

    The vast majority of models for spatial dynamics of natural populations assume a homogeneous physical environment. However, in practice, dispersing organisms may encounter landscape features that significantly inhibit their movement. We use mathematical modelling to investigate the effect of such landscape features on cyclic predator-prey populations. We show that when appropriate boundary conditions are applied at the edge of the obstacle, a pattern of periodic travelling waves develops, moving out and away from the obstacle. Depending on the assumptions of the model, these waves can take the form of roughly circular 'target patterns' or spirals. This is, to our knowledge, a new mechanism for periodic-wave generation in ecological systems and our results suggest that it may apply quite generally not only to cyclic predator-prey interactions, but also to populations that oscillate for other reasons. In particular, we suggest that it may provide an explanation for the observed pattern of travelling waves in the densities of field voles (Microtus agrestis) in Kielder Forest (Scotland-England border) and of red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) on Kerloch Moor (northeast Scotland), which in both cases move orthogonally to any large-scale obstacles to movement. Moreover, given that such obstacles to movement are the rule rather than the exception in real-world environments, our results suggest that complex spatio-temporal patterns such as periodic travelling waves are likely to be much more common in the natural world than has previously been assumed. PMID:11886619

  13. Generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by surface gravity waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J.N.; Mehta, A.J.; Dean, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    A generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by linear surface gravity waves over a series of layered hydrogeologic units is developed by adapting a previous solution for a hydrogeologic unit with an infinite thickness (Case I) to a unit with a finite thickness (Case II) and to a dual-unit system (Case III). The model compares favorably with laboratory observations. The amplitude of wave-forced benthic water flux is shown to be directly proportional to the amplitude of the wave, the permeability of the hydrogeologic unit, and the wave number and inversely proportional to the kinematic viscosity of water. A dimensionless amplitude parameter is introduced and shown to reach a maximum where the product of water depth and the wave number is 1.2. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a benthic water discharge flux to a marine water body. The Case I model estimates an 11.5-cm/d SGD forced by a wave with a 1 s period and 5-cm amplitude in water that is 0.5-m deep. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.3-m-thick hydrogeologic unit, with a no-flow bottom boundary, the Case II model estimates a 9.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.2-m-thick hydrogeologic unit over an infinitely thick, more permeable unit, the Case III quasi-confined model estimates a 15.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. The quasi-confined model has benthic constituent flux implications in coral reef, karst, and clastic regions. Waves may undermine tracer and seepage meter estimates of SGD at some locations. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Two-surface wave decay: Controlling power transfer in plasma-surface interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Akimov, Yu. A.; Ostrikov, K.; Azarenkov, N. A.

    2007-08-15

    Controlled interaction of high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation with plasma-exposed solid surfaces is a major challenge in applications spanning from electron beam accelerators in microwave electronics to pulsed laser ablation-assisted synthesis of nanomaterials. It is shown that the efficiency of such interaction can be potentially improved via an additional channel of wave power dissipation due to nonlinear excitation of two counterpropagating surface waves, resonant excitations of the plasma-solid system.

  15. Computing unstable periodic waves at the interface of two inviscid fluids in uniform vertical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Lawrence K.; Chen, Michael J.; Trenham, Claire E.

    2007-01-01

    Periodic waves at the interface of two immiscible fluids are considered. Each fluid is inviscid and incompressible, and is moving vertically with constant speed. The upper fluid is more dense than the lower one, and the interface between them is thus unstable to small perturbations. A linearized solution, valid for waves of small amplitude, is reviewed and a novel numerical method is presented for computing waves of moderate amplitude. The technique uses a Fourier-Galerkin approach, and converts the governing equations into a system of ordinary differential equations for the Fourier coefficients. It is then shown how the method may be modified to allow for the evolution of overhanging waves, using a novel time-dependent arclength formulation.

  16. Investigation into mass loading sensitivity of sezawa wave mode-based surface acoustic wave sensors.

    PubMed

    Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Islam, Md Shabiul; Ali, Sawal Hamid; Parthiban, R; Ramakrishnan, N

    2013-02-06

    In this work mass loading sensitivity of a Sezawa wave mode based surface acoustic wave (SAW) device is investigated through finite element method (FEM) simulation and the prospects of these devices to function as highly sensitive SAW sensors is reported. A ZnO/Si layered SAW resonator is considered for the simulation study. Initially the occurrence of Sezawa wave mode and displacement amplitude of the Rayleigh and Sezawa wave mode is studied for lower ZnO film thickness. Further, a thin film made of an arbitrary material is coated over the ZnO surface and the resonance frequency shift caused by mass loading of the film is estimated. It was observed that Sezawa wave mode shows significant sensitivity to change in mass loading and has higher sensitivity (eight times higher) than Rayleigh wave mode for the same device configuration. Further, the mass loading sensitivity was observed to be greater for a low ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio. Accordingly, highly sensitive SAW sensors can be developed by coating a sensing medium over a layered SAW device and operating at Sezawa mode resonance frequency. The sensitivity can be increased by tuning the ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio.

  17. Pioneer 9 plasma wave and solar plasma measurements for the August 1972 storm period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Wolfe, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar disturbances of August 1972 produced large-scale solar wind perturbations that were detected by the Pioneer 9 plasma probe, electric field detector, and magnetometer for an extended time period commencing early on August 3. During this ten-day interval the interplanetary plasma parameters at r approximately equal 0.8 AU varied over unusually wide ranges, so that the conditions for generation of high and low VLF wave levels could be identified fairly readily. It is demonstrated that no measurable signals were detected in the broadband electric field channel (sensitive to waves with f greater than or equal to 100 Hz in the spacecraft frame of reference) unless the proton density was high enough to yield a proton plasma frequency with f greater than or about equal to 100 Hz. The analysis suggests that waves related to ion acoustic oscillations were detected throughout the extended storm period.

  18. Studies of nanosecond pulse surface ionization wave discharges over solid and liquid dielectric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrishchev, Vitaly; Leonov, Sergey; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2014-12-01

    Surface ionization wave discharges generated by high-voltage nanosecond pulses, propagating over a planar quartz surface and over liquid surfaces (distilled water and 1-butanol) have been studied in a rectangular cross section test cell. The discharge was initiated using a custom-made, alternating polarity, high-voltage nanosecond pulse plasma generator, operated at a pulse repetition rate of 100-500 Hz, with a pulse peak voltage and current of 10-15 kV and 7-20 A, respectively, a pulse FWHM of ˜100 ns, and a coupled pulse energy of 2-9 mJ/pulse. Wave speed was measured using a capacitive probe. ICCD camera images demonstrated that the ionization wave propagated predominantly over the quartz wall or over the liquid surface adjacent to the grounded waveguide placed along the bottom wall of the test cell. Under all experimental conditions tested, the surface plasma ‘sheet’ was diffuse and fairly uniform, both for positive and negative polarities. The parameters of ionization wave discharge propagating over distilled water and 1-butanol surfaces were close to those of the discharge over a quartz wall. No perturbation of the liquid surface by the discharge was detected. In most cases, the positive polarity surface ionization wave propagated at a higher speed and over a longer distance compared to the negative polarity wave. For all three sets of experiments (surface ionization wave discharge over quartz, water and 1-butanol), wave speed and travel distance decreased with pressure. Diffuse, highly reproducible surface ionization wave discharge was also observed over the liquid butanol-saturated butanol vapor interface, as well as over the distilled water-saturated water vapor interface, without buffer gas flow. No significant difference was detected between surface ionization discharges sustained using single-polarity (positive or negative), or alternating polarity high-voltage pulses. Plasma emission images yielded preliminary evidence of charge removal from the

  19. Changes in heat waves indices in Romania over the period 1961-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Piticar, Adrian; Ciupertea, Antoniu-Flavius; Roşca, Cristina Florina

    2016-11-01

    In the last two decades many climate change studies have focused on extreme temperatures as they have a significant impact on environment and society. Among the weather events generated by extreme temperatures, heat waves are some of the most harmful. The main objective of this study was to detect and analyze changes in heat waves in Romania based on daily observation data (maximum and minimum temperature) over the extended summer period (May-Sept) using a set of 10 indices and to explore the spatial patterns of changes. Heat wave data series were derived from daily maximum and minimum temperature data sets recorded in 29 weather stations across Romania over a 55-year period (1961-2015). In this study, the threshold chosen was the 90th percentile calculated based on a 15-day window centered on each calendar day, and for three baseline periods (1961-1990, 1971-2000, and 1981-2010). Two heat wave definitions were considered: at least three consecutive days when maximum temperature exceeds 90th percentile, and at least three consecutive days when minimum temperature exceeds 90th percentile. For each of them, five variables were calculated: amplitude, magnitude, number of events, duration, and frequency. Finally, 10 indices resulted for further analysis. The main results are: most of the indices have statistically significant increasing trends; only one index for one weather station indicated statistically significant decreasing trend; the changes are more intense in case of heat waves detected based on maximum temperature compared to those obtained for heat waves identified based on minimum temperature; western and central regions of Romania are the most exposed to increasing heat waves.

  20. A three dimensional Dirichlet-to-Neumann map for surface waves over topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachbin, Andre; Andrade, David

    2016-11-01

    We consider three dimensional surface water waves in the potential theory regime. The bottom topography can have a quite general profile. In the case of linear waves the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator is formulated in a matrix decomposition form. Computational simulations illustrate the performance of the method. Two dimensional periodic bottom variations are considered in both the Bragg resonance regime as well as the rapidly varying (homogenized) regime. In the three-dimensional case we use the Luneburg lens-shaped submerged mound, which promotes the focusing of the underlying rays. FAPERJ Cientistas do Nosso Estado Grant 102917/2011 and ANP/PRH-32.

  1. Beat-wave Photoinjector for Generating Periodic Electron Bunches at THz Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.-C.; Chen, C.-H.; Lau, W.-K.

    2009-01-22

    A laser beat wave is proposed to induce density modulated electron emission from a photocathode and is thereby used to generate a periodically bunched electron beam from a photocathode electron accelerator. This technique does not introduce additional energy spread or emittance to the electron beam. We also present a laser system for this purpose with a tunable beat frequency up to 40 THz.

  2. Surface wave propagation in non-ideal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B. P.; Dwivedi, C. B.

    2015-03-01

    The properties of surface waves in a partially ionized, compressible magnetized plasma slab are investigated in this work. The waves are affected by the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects which causes finite drift of the magnetic field in the medium. When the magnetic field drift is ignored, the characteristics of the wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma fluid is similar to the fully ionized ideal MHD except now the propagation properties depend on the fractional ionization as well as on the compressibility of the medium. The phase velocity of the sausage and kink waves increases marginally (by a few per cent) due to the compressibility of the medium in both ideal as well as Hall-diffusion-dominated regimes. However, unlike ideal regime, only waves below certain cut-off frequency can propagate in the medium in Hall dominated regime. This cut-off for a thin slab has a weak dependence on the plasma beta whereas for thick slab no such dependence exists. More importantly, since the cut-off is introduced by the Hall diffusion, the fractional ionization of the medium is more important than the plasma compressibility in determining such a cut-off. Therefore, for both compressible as well incompressible medium, the surface modes of shorter wavelength are permitted with increasing ionization in the medium. We discuss the relevance of these results in the context of solar photosphere-chromosphere.

  3. A 0.14 THz relativistic coaxial overmoded surface wave oscillator with metamaterial slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Weijie; Wang, Jianguo Chen, Zaigao; Cai, Libing; Wang, Yue; Wang, Guangqiang; Qiao, Hailiang

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a new kind of device for generating the high power terahertz wave by using a coaxial overmoded surface wave oscillator with metamaterial slow wave structure (SWS). A metallic metamaterial SWS is used to avoid the damage of the device driven by a high-voltage electron beam pulse. The overmoded structure is adopted to make it much easy to fabricate and assemble the whole device. The coaxial structure is used to suppress the mode competition in the overmoded device. Parameters of an electron beam and geometric structure are provided. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that the high power terahertz wave at the frequency of 0.14 THz is generated with the output power 255 MW and conversion efficiency about 21.3%.

  4. Wind effects on the modulational instability of surface gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, Maura; Kasparian, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    The modulational instability is a fundamental mechanism for nonlinear exchanges of energy between carrier and sideband waves. It is one of the processes at the origin of rogue-wave formation in deep-water. Since the wind is the energy source in surface wave propagation, accurate modelling of the wind is critical for understanding rogue-wave phenomenon. We describe how different forcing terms, due to different modelling of the wind action, affect the band of positive gain of the modulational instability. In particular, we consider the wind-forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation obtained in the potential flow framework when the Miles growth rate is of the order of the wave steepness [1]. In this case, the form of the wind-forcing terms gives rise to the enhancement of the modulational instability and to a band of positive gain with infinite width [2]. This regime is characterised by the fact that the ratio between wave momentum and norm is not a constant of motion [2], in contrast to what happens in the standard case where the Miles growth rate is of the order of the steepness squared. References [1] M. Brunetti, N. Marchiando, N. Berti, J. Kasparian, 2014, Phys. Lett. A, 378, 1025-1030 [2] M. Brunetti, J. Kasparian, 2014, Phys. Lett. A, 378, 3626-3630

  5. Remote laser generation of narrow-band surface waves through optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Di Scalea, F L; Berndt, T P; Spicer, J B; Djordjevic, B B

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of a fiberoptic bundle for flexible, compact, remote, and noncontact laser generation of surface ultrasonic waves in materials. The bundle is able to deliver Nd:YAG pulsed light with a 60% delivery efficiency up to an average energy of 55 mJ/pulse for a pulse duration on the order of 10 ns and a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz without signs of fiber damage. Details of the bundle construction and surface preparation are given, and pulsed light delivery tests performed with single tapered fibers are discussed. The high-power light delivery capabilities of the bundle are demonstrated for the generation of narrow-band surface waves in a Carbon/PEEK composite laminate by a spatial modulation technique that employs a periodic transmission mask. Single laser pulse ultrasonic tonebursts are clearly detectable using a small aperture piezoelectric transducer while ensuring thermoelastic generation conditions. The theory of narrow-band generation of surface acoustic waves is improved by accounting for the strength nonuniformity of the illumination sources. In addition, the effect of the number of illumination sources on the bandwidth of the generated surface wave is assessed experimentally, and excellent agreement is shown with the theoretical results predicted by the improved model.

  6. Impact of density information on Rayleigh surface wave inversion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Julian; Tsoflias, Georgios; Miller, Richard D.; Peterie, Shelby; Morton, Sarah; Xia, Jianghai

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the impact of density on the estimation of inverted shear-wave velocity (Vs) using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method. We considered the forward modeling theory, evaluated model sensitivity, and tested the effect of density information on the inversion of seismic data acquired in the Arctic. Theoretical review, numerical modeling and inversion of modeled and real data indicated that the density ratios between layers, not the actual density values, impact the determination of surface-wave phase velocities. Application on real data compared surface-wave inversion results using: a) constant density, the most common approach in practice, b) indirect density estimates derived from refraction compressional-wave velocity observations, and c) from direct density measurements in a borehole. The use of indirect density estimates reduced the final shear-wave velocity (Vs) results typically by 6-7% and the use of densities from a borehole reduced the final Vs estimates by 10-11% compared to those from assumed constant density. In addition to the improved absolute Vs accuracy, the resulting overall Vs changes were unevenly distributed laterally when viewed on a 2-D section leading to an overall Vs model structure that was more representative of the subsurface environment. It was observed that the use of constant density instead of increasing density with depth not only can lead to Vs overestimation but it can also create inaccurate model structures, such as a low-velocity layer. Thus, optimal Vs estimations can be best achieved using field estimates of subsurface density ratios.

  7. Complex-periodic spiral waves in confluent cardiac cell cultures induced by localized inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong-min; Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Kyoung J.

    2005-07-01

    Spatiotemporal wave activities in excitable heart tissues have long been the subject of numerous studies because they underlie different forms of cardiac arrhythmias. In particular, understanding the dynamics and the instabilities of spiral waves have become very important because they can cause reentrant tachycardia and their subsequent transitions to fibrillation. Although many aspects of cardiac spiral waves have been investigated through experiments and model simulations, their complex properties are far from well understood. Here, we show that intriguing complex-periodic (such as period-2, period-3, period-4, or aperiodic) spiral wave states can arise in monolayer tissues of cardiac cell culture in vitro, and demonstrate that these different dynamic states can coexist with abrupt and spontaneous transitions among them without any change in system parameters; in other words, the medium supports multistability. Based on extensive image data analysis, we have confirmed that these spiral waves are driven by their tips tracing complex orbits whose unusual, meandering shapes are formed by delicate interplay between localized conduction blocks and nonlinear properties of the culture medium. Author contributions: S.-m.H. and K.J.L. designed research; S.-m.H. and T.Y.K. performed research; S.-m.H. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; S.-m.H., T.Y.K., and K.J.L. analyzed data; and S.-m.H. and K.J.L. wrote the paper.This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office.Abbreviations: IBI, interbeat interval; P-n, period-n.

  8. Ring discretization of the wave spectrum for sea surface simulation.

    PubMed

    Varela, Jose Miguel; Guedes Soares, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Although interactive computer-generated ocean scenes based on real wave spectra are impressively realistic, they usually don't exhibit the original sea state's statistical properties. This might be unacceptable for applications in which the sea surface height field's correctness is important, such as 3D ship simulators for training professionals. Researchers have developed a discretization of the wave spectrum that obtains a sea state statistically more equivalent to the original. This method can also improve the scene's visual realism and real-time performance.

  9. Left-handed interfaces for electromagnetic surface waves.

    PubMed

    Kats, A V; Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, V A; Nori, Franco

    2007-02-16

    We show that surface electromagnetic waves (SEMWs) propagating along two-dimensional (2D) interfaces separating different metamaterials can behave analogously to 3D electromagnetic waves in either usual or left-handed media, depending on the permeabilities and/or permittivities of the two materials forming the interface. We derive the conditions when SEMWs carry energy opposite to the phase velocity. In analogy to three-dimensional (3D) left-handed media, we derive both an anomalous Cherenkov emission and a reversed Doppler effect. We also predict a negative refraction at the boundary between two different interfaces, which can be useful for perfect 2D lensing.

  10. High lateral resolution exploration using surface waves from noise records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez-García, Francisco José Yokoi, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    Determination of the shear-wave velocity structure at shallow depths is a constant necessity in engineering or environmental projects. Given the sensitivity of Rayleigh waves to shear-wave velocity, subsoil structure exploration using surface waves is frequently used. Methods such as the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) or multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) determine phase velocity dispersion from surface waves generated by an active source recorded on a line of geophones. Using MASW, it is important that the receiver array be as long as possible to increase the precision at low frequencies. However, this implies that possible lateral variations are discarded. Hayashi and Suzuki (2004) proposed a different way of stacking shot gathers to increase lateral resolution. They combined strategies used in MASW with the common mid-point (CMP) summation currently used in reflection seismology. In their common mid-point with cross-correlation method (CMPCC), they cross-correlate traces sharing CMP locations before determining phase velocity dispersion. Another recent approach to subsoil structure exploration is based on seismic interferometry. It has been shown that cross-correlation of a diffuse field, such as seismic noise, allows the estimation of the Green's Function between two receivers. Thus, a virtual-source seismic section may be constructed from the cross-correlation of seismic noise records obtained in a line of receivers. In this paper, we use the seismic interferometry method to process seismic noise records obtained in seismic refraction lines of 24 geophones, and analyse the results using CMPCC to increase the lateral resolution of the results. Cross-correlation of the noise records allows reconstructing seismic sections with virtual sources at each receiver location. The Rayleigh wave component of the Green's Functions is obtained with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Using CMPCC analysis of the virtual-source seismic lines, we are able to

  11. Evaluation of multilayered pavement structures from measurements of surface waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryden, N.; Lowe, M.J.S.; Cawley, P.; Park, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    A method is presented for evaluating the thickness and stiffness of multilayered pavement structures from guided waves measured at the surface. Data is collected with a light hammer as the source and an accelerometer as receiver, generating a synthetic receiver array. The top layer properties are evaluated with a Lamb wave analysis. Multiple layers are evaluated by matching a theoretical phase velocity spectrum to the measured spectrum. So far the method has been applied to the testing of pavements, but it may also be applicable in other fields such as ultrasonic testing of coated materials. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Analysis of long-period seismic waves excited by the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens - A terrestrial monopole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanamori, H.; Given, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, excited long-period seismic waves, and high-quality digital seismograms were recorded. The present investigation is concerned with the results of detailed analyses of Rayleigh and Love waves excited by this eruption. Since the elastic response of the earth is very accurately known, it is possible to retrieve the source parameters of this unique event from observations at far-field. It is shown that the source can be represented by a nearly horizontal single force. The conducted analysis is concerned with only long-period characteristics of the source. The short-period behavior of the source is difficult to determine from surface waves because the available knowledge of the earth's response is less accurate than at long periods.

  13. A surface-acoustic-wave-based cantilever bio-sensor.

    PubMed

    De Simoni, Giorgio; Signore, Giovanni; Agostini, Matteo; Beltram, Fabio; Piazza, Vincenzo

    2015-06-15

    A scalable surface-acoustic-wave- (SAW-) based cantilevered device for portable bio-chemical sensing applications is presented. Even in the current, proof-of-principle implementation this architecture is shown to outperform commercial quartz-crystal microbalances in terms of sensitivity. Adhesion of analytes on a functionalized surface of the cantilever shifts the resonant frequency of a SAW-generating transducer due to the stress-induced variation of the speed of surface acoustic modes. We discuss the relevance of this approach for diagnostics applications based on miniaturized devices.

  14. Long-period surface structure stabilized by Fermi surface nesting: Cu (001) - (√(20)×√(20)) R26.6°-In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, T.; Yeom, H. W.; Rotenberg, E.; Krenzer, B.; Kevan, S. D.; Okuyama, H.; Nishijima, M.; Aruga, T.

    2006-02-01

    We have studied the atomic and electronic structure of the Cu(001)-(20×20)R26.6°-In surface, which undergoes a reversible transition to a p(2×2) phase at high temperature. Low temperature scanning-tunneling microscopy indicates a p(2×2) structure modulated at the (20×20) periodicity. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy shows a surface resonance exhibiting gap opening and backfolding along a (20×20) zone boundary. We suggest that the (20×20) structure is stabilized due to the Fermi surface nesting accompanying a surface charge density wave.

  15. Three-dimensional finite difference viscoelastic wave modelling including surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestholm, Stig

    1999-12-01

    I have undertaken 3-D finite difference (FD) modelling of seismic scattering fromfree-surface topography. Exact free-surface boundary conditions for arbitrary 3-D topographies have been derived for the particle velocities. The boundary conditions are combined with a velocity-stress formulation of the full viscoelastic wave equations. A curved grid represents the physical medium and its upper boundary represents the free-surface topography. The wave equations are numerically discretized by an eighth-order FD method on a staggered grid in space, and a leap-frog technique and the Crank-Nicholson method in time. I simulate scattering from teleseismic P waves by using plane incident wave fronts and real topography from a 60 x 60 km area that includes the NORESS array of seismic receiver stations in southeastern Norway. Synthetic snapshots and seismograms of the wavefield show clear conversion from P to Rg (short-period fundamental-mode Rayleigh) waves in areas of rough topography, which is consistent with numerous observations. By parallelization on fast supercomputers, it is possible to model higher frequencies and/or larger areas than before.

  16. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  17. Surface waves at the interface between a dielectric and a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimistov, A. I.; Lyashko, E. I.

    2016-10-01

    Surface waves that propagate along the interface between an isotropic linear or nonlinear (of the Kerr type) dielectric and a topological insulator have been studied theoretically. A dispersion relation for surface waves, which are represented by superpositions of TE and TM waves, has been obtained. This hybridization occurs because, upon passage through the interface, the polarization of a surface wave changes, which is caused by an induced surface current (which is transverse to the electric field vector of the wave). The surface current of this kind is characteristic of topological insulators. Expressions for the energy flux transferred by a surface wave have been given.

  18. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  19. Surface wave dynamics in orbital shaken cylindrical containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reclari, M.; Dreyer, M.; Tissot, S.; Obreschkow, D.; Wurm, F. M.; Farhat, M.

    2014-05-01

    Be it to aerate a glass of wine before tasting, to accelerate a chemical reaction, or to cultivate cells in suspension, the "swirling" (or orbital shaking) of a container ensures good mixing and gas exchange in an efficient and simple way. Despite being used in a large range of applications this intuitive motion is far from being understood and presents a richness of patterns and behaviors which has not yet been reported. The present research charts the evolution of the waves with the operating parameters identifying a large variety of patterns, ranging from single and multiple crested waves to breaking waves. Free surface and velocity fields measurements are compared to a potential sloshing model, highlighting the existence of various flow regimes. Our research assesses the importance of the modal response of the shaken liquids, laying the foundations for a rigorous mixing optimization of the orbital agitation in its applications.

  20. Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud.

    PubMed

    Berné, Olivier; Marcelino, Núria; Cernicharo, José

    2010-08-19

    Massive stars influence their parental molecular cloud, and it has long been suspected that the development of hydrodynamical instabilities can compress or fragment the cloud. Identifying such instabilities has proved difficult. It has been suggested that elongated structures (such as the 'pillars of creation') and other shapes arise because of instabilities, but alternative explanations are available. One key signature of an instability is a wave-like structure in the gas, which has hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of 'waves' at the surface of the Orion molecular cloud near where massive stars are forming. The waves seem to be a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that arises during the expansion of the nebula as gas heated and ionized by massive stars is blown over pre-existing molecular gas.

  1. Utilization of high-frequency Rayleigh waves in near-surface geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.; Ivanov, J.; Tian, G.; Chen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities can be derived from inverting the dispersive phase velocity of the surface. The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) is one technique for inverting high-frequency Rayleigh waves. The process includes acquisition of high-frequency broad-band Rayleigh waves, efficient and accurate algorithms designed to extract Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves from Rayleigh waves, and stable and efficient inversion algorithms to obtain near-surface S-wave velocity profiles. MASW estimates S-wave velocity from multichannel vertical compoent data and consists of data acquisition, dispersion-curve picking, and inversion.

  2. Bohm potential effect on the propagation of electrostatic surface wave in semi-bounded quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2017-02-01

    High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.

  3. Laboratory investigation and direct numerical simulation of wind effect on steep surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil; Druzhinin, Oleg; Ermakova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    particles 20 μm in diameter were injected into the airflow. The images of the illuminated particles were photographed with a digital CCD video camera at a rate of 1000 frames per second. For the each given parameters of wind and waves, a statistical ensemble of 30 movies with duration from 200 to 600 ms was obtained. Individual flow realizations manifested the typical features of flow separation, while the average vector velocity fields obtained by the phase averaging of the individual vector fields were smooth and slightly asymmetrical, with the minimum of the horizontal velocity near the water surface shifted to the leeward side of the wave profile, but do not demonstrate the features of flow separation. The wave-induced pressure perturbations, averaged over the turbulent fluctuations, were retrieved from the measured velocity fields, using the Reynolds equations. It ensures sufficient accuracy for study of the dependence of the wave increment on the wave amplitude. The dependences of the wave growth rate on the wave steepness are weakly decreasing, serving as indirect proof of the non-separated character of flow over waves. Also direct numerical simulation of the airflow over finite amplitude periodic surface wave was performed. In the experiments the primitive 3-dimensional fluid mechanics equations were solved in the airflow over curved water boundary for the following parameters: the Reynolds number Re=15000, the wave steepness ka=0-0.2, the parameter c/u*=0-10 (where u* is the friction velocity and c is the wave celerity). Similar to the physical experiment the instant realizations of the velocity field demonstrate flow separation at the crests of the waves, but the ensemble averaged velocity fields had typical structures similar to those excising in shear flows near critical levels, where the phase velocity of the disturbance coincides with the flow velocity. The wind growth rate determined by the ensemble averaged wave-induced pressure component in phase of the

  4. FROM THE CURRENT LITERATURE: Laser excitation of surface acoustic waves: a new direction in opto-acoustic spectroscopy of a solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabutov, Aleksander A.

    1985-11-01

    Studies in thermo-optic excitation of surface acoustic waves are reviewed. The excitation of periodic and pulse signals is discussed, using nonmoving and moving beams. Most attention is paid to application of this effect for purposes of opto-acoustic spectroscopy of a solid. The possibilities and promises of using opto-acoustic spectroscopy (OAS) employing surface acoustic waves (SAW) are analyzed

  5. Surface Acoustic Waves Enhance Neutrophil Killing of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Loike, John D.; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm2, significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria. PMID:23936303

  6. Analysis of fundamental and higher mode surface waves from noise correlation near Eastern Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H.; Gouedard, P.; Gerstoft, P.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    Noise cross-correlation has been used to recover surface wave Green’s functions between receivers. However, most noise cross-correlation studies are restricted to land seismic stations and few studies have observed higher-mode surface waves. We apply noise cross-correlation on three-component broadband data recorded by 30 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) around the Gofar/Discovery/Quebrada transform faults on the Eastern Pacific Rise. On the vertical component, the cross-correlation functions (CFs) reveal clear Rayleigh wave propagation between each station pair for both the fundamental mode in the 2-30s period band and the first-higher mode in the 2-10 s band. However, on the radial component CFs, the first-higher mode Rayleigh waves dominate within 2-10s band and the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves appear mainly in 10-20s band. On the transverse component CFs, Love waves are observed within 2-10s band. The directionality of CFs is different for the fundamental mode and the first higher-mode surface waves, and is also frequency dependent. This infers different mechanisms for each mode, probably due to ocean wave activities and ocean bottom scattering. The dispersion characteristics of the vertical component CFs are analyzed using the time-frequency analysis for group velocities and a time-variable filter technique for phase velocities. We obtain inter-station dispersion curves within 2-30s period for the fundamental mode and within 2-8s period for the first higher-mode. These dispersion curves are averaged over station pairs and used to invert for the 1-D shear wavespeed structure in the crust and uppermost mantle in the study region. The obtained 1-D velocity model shows very low shear wavespeed in the uppermost mantle (4.25 and 4.0 km/s within 10-25 km and 25-45 km depth ranges, respectively), consistent with the local geology with hot upper mantle material upwelling to the surface through the ridges of the Eastern Pacific Rise.

  7. Approximations in seismic interferometry and their effects on surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimman, W. P.; Trampert, J.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate common approximations and assumptions in seismic interferometry. The interferometric equation, valid for the full elastic wavefield, gives the Green's function between two arbitrary points by cross-correlating signals recorded at each point. The relation is exact, even for complicated lossless media, provided the signals are generated on a closed surface surrounding the two points and are from both unidirectional point-forces and deformation-rate-tensor sources. A necessary approximation to the exact interferometric equation is the use of signals from point-force sources only. Even in simple layered media, the Green's function retrieval can then be imperfect, especially for waves other than fundamental mode surface waves. We show that this is due to cross terms between different modes that occur even if a full source boundary is present. When sources are located at the free surface only, a realistic scenario for ambient noise, the cross terms can overwhelm the higher mode surface waves. Sources then need to be very far away, or organized in a band rather than a surrounding surface to overcome this cross-term problem. If sources are correlated, convergence of higher modes is very hard to achieve. In our examples of simultaneously acting sources, the phase of the higher modes only converges correctly towards the true solution if sources are acting in the stationary phase regions. This offers an explanation for some recent body wave observations, where only interstation paths in-line with the prevailing source direction were considered. The phase error resulting from incomplete distributions around the stationary phase region generally leads to an error smaller than 1 per cent for realistic applications.

  8. Determining the Conformation of an Adsorbed Br-PEG-Peptide by Long Period X-ray Standing Wave Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Crot, Carrie A.; Wu, Chunping; Schlossman, Mark L.; Trainor, Thomas P.; Eng, Peter J.; Hanley, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Long period x-ray standing wave fluorescence (XSW) and x-ray reflectivity techniques are employed to probe the conformation of a Br-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-peptide adsorbate at the hydrated interface of a polystyrene substrate. The Br atom on this Br-PEG-peptide construct serves as a marker atom allowing determination by XSW of its position and distribution with respect to the adsorption surface with angstrom resolution. Adsorption occurs on native or ion beam modified polystyrene films that are spin coated onto a Si substrate and display either nonpolar or polar surfaces, respectively. A compact, oriented monolayer of Br-PEG-peptide can be formed with the peptide end adsorbed onto the polar surface and the PEG end terminating with the Br tag extending into the aqueous phase. The 108 – 141 Å distance of the Br atom from the polystyrene surface in this oriented monolayer is similar to the estimated ~150 Å length of the extended Br-PEG-peptide. This Br-polystyrene distance depends upon adsorption time and surface properties prior to adsorption. Incomplete multilayers form on the polar surface after sufficient adsorption time elapses. By contrast, adsorption onto the nonpolar surface is submonolayer, patchy, and highly disordered with an isotropic Br distribution. Overall, this combination of x-ray surface scattering techniques with a novel sample preparation strategy has several advantages as a real space probe of adsorbed or covalently bound biomolecules at the liquid-solid interface. PMID:16089398

  9. A high-power subterahertz surface wave oscillator with separated overmoded slow wave structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Dong-Yang; Li, Shuang

    2016-12-01

    A megawatt-level subterahertz surface wave oscillator (SWO) is proposed to obtain high conversion efficiency by using separated overmoded slow wave structures (SWSs). Aiming at the repetitive operation and practical applications, the device driven by electron beam with modest energy and current is theoretically analyzed and verified. Then, the functions of the two SWS sections and the effect of the drift tube are investigated by using a particle-in-cell code to reveal how the proposed device achieves high efficiency. The mode analysis of the beam-wave interaction region in the device is also carried out, and the results indicate that multi-modes participate in the premodulation of the electron beam in the first SWS section, while the TM01 mode surface wave is successfully and dominantly excited and amplified in the second SWS section. Finally, a typical simulation result demonstrates that at a beam energy of 313 keV, beam current of 1.13 kA, and guiding magnetic field of above 3.5 T, a high-power subterahertz wave is obtained with an output power of about 70 MW at frequency 146.3 GHz, corresponding to the conversion efficiency of 20%. Compared with the results of the previous subterahertz overmoded SWOs with integral SWS and similar beam parameters, the efficiency increases almost 50% in the proposed device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61231003).

  10. The comparison between the synthetic aperture radar imageries and the surface truth of ocean waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiao, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    Ocean waves measured offshore of Marineland, Florida, by the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are compared with the surface truth data. The Fourier transform of SAR imageries are taken and the corrections of the wave directions and wave lengths due to the relative velocities between SAR and waves are considered. Favorable comparisons are obtained for the peak frequencies, wave directions, and directional distributions. However, the one-dimensional SAR spectra are quite different from the surface truth wave height spectra.

  11. A compact P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator with only three periods slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Liang; Qian Baoliang; Ge Xingjun

    2011-10-15

    A compact P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator (BWO) with only three periods slow wave structure (SWS) is investigated both theoretically and numerically. The characteristics of the coaxial SWS are analyzed when the SWS is changed from the structure with only outer conductor ripple to the structure with both inner and outer conductor ripples. It is found that the existence of the inner conductor ripple can reduce the period length of coaxial SWS to maintain the same operating frequency of the BWO and can largely increase the temporal growth rate and the spatial growth rate of the device. Then, the effects of SWS period numbers on the generation of the microwave in the P-band relativistic BWO are studied by PIC simulations. The results show that three periods SWS cannot only make the device more compact but also has a wide region of single-frequency operation and relatively large efficiency and output power in a wide range of the diode voltage. Typical simulation results show that, with a 585 kV and 7.85 kA electron beam guided by a 0.8 T solenoidal field, the microwave of 1.65 GW is generated at the frequency of 900 MHz, and the interaction efficiency is about 36%. Compared with the conventional P-band coaxial relativistic BWO with five periods SWS, the axial length of the SWS is reduced by about one half, which is only 38.4 cm, and the saturation time of the microwave signal is reduced by about 10 ns.

  12. Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Wu, Tsung-Tsong

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we present a study on the existence of Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu piezoelectric surface acoustic waves in a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal (zinc oxide, ZnO, and cadmium-sulfide, CdS) using the plane wave expansion method. In the configuration of ZnO (100)/CdS(100) phononic crystal, the calculated results show that this type of surface waves has higher acoustic wave velocities, high electromechanical coupling coefficients, and larger band gap width than those of the Rayleigh surface waves and pseudosurface waves. In addition, we find that the folded modes of the Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface waves have higher coupling coefficients.

  13. SURFACE WAVES IN SOLAR GRANULATION OBSERVED WITH SUNRISE

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.; Franz, M.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.

    2010-11-10

    Solar oscillations are expected to be excited by turbulent flows in the intergranular lanes near the solar surface. Time series recorded by the IMaX instrument on board the SUNRISE observatory reveal solar oscillations at high spatial resolution, which allow the study of the properties of oscillations with short wavelengths. We analyze two time series with synchronous recordings of Doppler velocity and continuum intensity images with durations of 32 minutes and 23 minutes, respectively, recorded close to the disk center of the Sun to study the propagation and excitation of solar acoustic oscillations. In the Doppler velocity data, both the standing acoustic waves and the short-lived, high-degree running waves are visible. The standing waves are visible as temporary enhancements of the amplitudes of the large-scale velocity field due to the stochastic superposition of the acoustic waves. We focus on the high-degree small-scale waves by suitable filtering in the Fourier domain. Investigating the propagation and excitation of f- and p {sub 1}-modes with wavenumbers k>1.4 Mm{sup -1}, we also find that exploding granules contribute to the excitation of solar p-modes in addition to the contribution of intergranular lanes.

  14. Turbulence-particle interactions under surface gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paskyabi, Mostafa Bakhoday

    2016-11-01

    The dispersion and transport of single inertial particles through an oscillatory turbulent aquatic environment are examined numerically by a Lagrangian particle tracking model using a series of idealised test cases. The turbulent mixing is incorporated into the Lagrangian model by the means of a stochastic scheme in which the inhomogeneous turbulent quantities are governed by a one-dimensional k- ɛ turbulence closure scheme. This vertical mixing model is further modified to include the effects of surface gravity waves including Coriolis-Stokes forcing, wave breaking, and Langmuir circulations. To simplify the complex interactions between the deterministic and the stochastic phases of flow, we assume a time-invariant turbulent flow field and exclude the hydrodynamic biases due to the effects of ambient mean current. The numerical results show that the inertial particles acquire perturbed oscillations traced out as time-varying sinking/rising orbits in the vicinity of the sea surface under linear and cnoidal waves and acquire a non-looping single arc superimposed with the high-frequency fluctuations beneath the nonlinear solitary waves. Furthermore, we briefly summarise some recipes through the course of this paper on the implementation of the stochastic particle tracking models to realistically describe the drift and suspension of inertial particles throughout the water column.

  15. Phase-matched four wave mixing and quantum beam splitting of matter waves in a periodic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hilligsoee, Karen Marie; Moelmer, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    We show that the dispersion properties imposed by an external periodic potential ensure both energy and quasimomentum conservation such that correlated pairs of atoms can be generated by four wave mixing from a Bose-Einstein condensate moving in an optical lattice potential. In our numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, a condensate with initial quasimomentum k{sub 0} is transferred almost completely (>95%) into a pair of correlated atomic components with quasimomenta k{sub 1} and k{sub 2}, if the system is seeded with a smaller number of atoms with the appropriate quasimomentum k{sub 1}.

  16. Particle current on flexible surfaces excited by harmonic waves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neeta; DasGupta, Anirvan

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a study on the directed particle current on flexible surfaces excited by a harmonic wave is reported. The proposed theory considers three different models for the kinematics of the surface, namely the Euler-Bernoulli, Timoshenko, and Rayleigh surface wave models. The particle-surface interaction terms in the theory incorporate Coulomb friction and inelastic collision between the particle and the surface. Three possible phases of motion, namely sticking, sliding, and jumping, are considered, and the phase transition boundaries are estimated analytically for a general surface model. The effect of various parameters on the particle current and certain statistical features of the particle motion are then studied numerically. Remarkably, the particle current spectra exhibit, in addition to resonance modes, antiresonance and secondary resonance modes and transversal zero crossings. These features have interesting implications for the particle dynamics in terms of dynamic jamming states and particle eddies, which are pointed out. Under certain restricted conditions, averaging calculations are also performed and compared with the corresponding numerical simulations.

  17. Surface and volume waves in ferrodielectric-magnetically active material structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, L. D.; Sementsov, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of surface waves along the interface between a ferrodielectric and a material that represents an array of amorphous ferromagnetic microwires has been studied. The dispersion characteristic of a magnetically controlled TE wave has been obtained, and frequency intervals have been found in which surface or localized, partially localized, and volume waves may exist. It has been shown that a TM wave in the given structure cannot be a surface wave.

  18. Surface wave and linear operating mode of a plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Bogachev, N. N. Bogdankevich, I. L.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Rukhadze, A. A.

    2015-10-15

    The relation between the propagation conditions of a surface electromagnetic wave along a finiteradius plasma cylinder and the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna is investigated. The solution to the dispersion relation for a surface wave propagating along a finite-radius plasma cylinder is analyzed for weakly and strongly collisional plasmas. Computer simulations of an asymmetrical plasma dipole antenna are performed using the KARAT code, wherein the dielectric properties of plasma are described in terms of the Drude model. The plasma parameters corresponding to the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna are determined. It is demonstrated that the characteristics of the plasma antenna in this mode are close to those of an analogous metal antenna.

  19. Nonlinear mixing of laser generated narrowband Rayleigh surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakre, Chaitanya; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2017-02-01

    This research presents the nonlinear mixing technique of two co-directionally travelling Rayleigh surface waves generated and detected using laser ultrasonics. The optical generation of Rayleigh waves on the specimen is obtained by shadow mask method. In conventional nonlinear measurements, the inherently small higher harmonics are greatly influenced by the nonlinearities caused by coupling variabilities and surface roughness between the transducer and specimen interface. The proposed technique is completely contactless and it should be possible to eliminate this problem. Moreover, the nonlinear mixing phenomenon yields not only the second harmonics, but also the sum and difference frequency components, which can be used to measure the acoustic nonlinearity of the specimen. In this paper, we will be addressing the experimental configurations for this technique. The proposed technique is validated experimentally on Aluminum 7075 alloy specimen.

  20. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.