Mizutani, Koji; Aoki, Akira; Takasaki, Aristeo Atsushi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Hayashi, Chie; Oda, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Isao
The purpose of this study was to compare periodontal tissue healing following flap surgery using an Er:YAG laser with that of conventional surgery. Bilateral premolars with experimentally induced periodontitis in six dogs were treated by periodontal flap surgery. Degranulation and root debridement in the furcation were performed using an Er:YAG laser or curet. At 3 months postsurgery, animals were sacrificed and decalcified specimens were prepared for histological and histometric analysis. Degranulation and root debridement were effectively performed with an Er:YAG laser without major thermal damage and significantly faster than with a curet. Histologically, the amount of newly formed bone was significantly greater in the laser group than in the curet group, although both groups showed similar amounts of cementum formation and connective tissue attachment. The Er:YAG laser irradiation can be safely and effectively utilized in periodontal flap surgery, and has the potential to promote new bone formation. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Zuhr, Otto; Rebele, Stephan F; Cheung, Stefani L; Hürzeler, Markus B
Diverse clinical advancements, together with some relevant technical innovations, have led to an increase in popularity of tunneling flap procedures in plastic periodontal and implant surgery in the recent past. This trend is further promoted by the fact that these techniques have lately been introduced to a considerably expanded range of indications. While originally described for the treatment of gingival recession-type defects, tunneling flap procedures may now be applied successfully in a variety of clinical situations in which augmentation of the soft tissues is indicated in the esthetic zone. Potential clinical scenarios include surgical thickening of thin buccal gingiva or peri-implant mucosa, alveolar ridge/socket preservation and implant second-stage surgery, as well as soft-tissue ridge augmentation or pontic site development. In this way, tunneling flap procedures developed from a technique, originally merely intended for surgical root coverage, into a capacious surgical conception in plastic periodontal and implant surgery. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview on tunneling flap procedures, to introduce the successive development of the approach along with underlying ideas on surgical wound healing and to present contemporary clinical scenarios in step-by-step photograph-illustrated sequences, which aim to provide clinicians with guidance to help them integrate tunneling flap procedures into their daily clinical routine. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Jae-Hong; Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won
The National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort and medical checkup data from 2002 to 2013 were used to evaluate the association between periodontal surgery for the treatment of periodontitis (PSTP) and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to a longitudinal retrospective database to assess the association between PSTP and VED while adjusting for the potential confounding effects of sociodemographic factors (age, household income, insurance status, health status, residence area, and smoking status) and comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, cerebral infarction, and myocardial infarction). Among the 7,148 PSTP within the 268,296 recruited subjects, the overall prevalence of VED in PSTP was 1.43% (n=102). The bivariate analysis showed that VED was significantly related to PSTP (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.06; P <0.001), and this was confirmed in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06-1.58; P =0.002). Subjects with a history of periodontal flap surgery had a significantly higher risk of VED, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Further studies are required to identify the key mechanisms underlying the association between severe periodontal disease and VED.
Purpose The National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort and medical checkup data from 2002 to 2013 were used to evaluate the association between periodontal surgery for the treatment of periodontitis (PSTP) and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED). Methods Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to a longitudinal retrospective database to assess the association between PSTP and VED while adjusting for the potential confounding effects of sociodemographic factors (age, household income, insurance status, health status, residence area, and smoking status) and comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, cerebral infarction, and myocardial infarction). Results Among the 7,148 PSTP within the 268,296 recruited subjects, the overall prevalence of VED in PSTP was 1.43% (n=102). The bivariate analysis showed that VED was significantly related to PSTP (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38–2.06; P<0.001), and this was confirmed in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.58; P=0.002). Conclusions Subjects with a history of periodontal flap surgery had a significantly higher risk of VED, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Further studies are required to identify the key mechanisms underlying the association between severe periodontal disease and VED. PMID:28462008
Bhardwaj, Ashu; Sultan, Nishat; Sawai, Madhuri; Jafri, Zeba
Moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis results in clinical loss of attachment, reduced width of attached gingiva (AG), periodontal pockets beyond mucogingival junction (MGJ), gingival recession, loss of alveolar bone, and decreased vestibular depth (VD). The encroachment of frenal and muscle attachments on marginal gingiva increases the rate of progression of periodontal pockets, prevents healing, and causes their recurrence after therapy. Loss of VD and AG associated with continuous progression of pocket formation and bone loss requires two-stage surgical procedures. In this article, one-stage surgical procedure is being described for the first time, to treat the periodontal pockets extending beyond the MGJ by periodontal flap surgery along with vestibular deepening with diode laser to increase the AG. One-step surgical technique is illustrated whereby pocket therapy with reconstruction of lost periodontal tissues can be done along with gingival augmentation by vestibular deepening. PMID:29238149
Whitehead, S P; Watts, T L
Keyes' method of non-surgical therapy was compared with modified Widman flap surgery in 9 patients with symmetrical periodontal disease. Following an initial oral hygiene programme, baseline measurements were recorded and paired contralateral areas were subjected randomly to the 2 techniques. 42 teeth receiving surgery were compared with 40 treated by Keyes' method. 6 sites per tooth were scored immediately prior to therapy and 3 months later, using a constant force probe with onlays. Consistent data were recorded for the 6 separate sites, which showed no baseline difference between treatments, slightly greater recession with surgery at 3 months, but no difference between treatments in probing depth and attachment levels. Mean data for individual patients showed similar consistency. Probing depth in deep sites was reduced slightly more with surgery, and there were no differences in bleeding on probing at 3 months. Both techniques gave marked improvements in health. Surprisingly, only 2 subjects preferred Keyes' technique of mechanical therapy, 6 preferred surgery, and 1 had no preference.
Kaner, Doğan; Bernimoulin, Jean-Pierre; Kleber, Bernd-Michael; Friedmann, Anton
Localized aggressive periodontitis is a distinct entity of periodontal disease and is characterized by deep vertical bony defects that typically affect the first molars and incisors of young patients. Therapy is usually aimed at reducing the pathogenic microflora through scaling and root planing and the administration of systemic antibiotics. However, conservative periodontal therapy may result in reparative wound healing with limited regeneration of the lost tissues. Periodontal surgery combined with enamel matrix derivative has been introduced as a method to promote regeneration of the lost periodontium and has been studied extensively in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. This case report describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient displaying severe localized aggressive periodontitis with documented disease progression. After initial therapy consisting of scaling and root planing and systemic administration of amoxicillin and metronidazole, the vertical defects were treated by minimally invasive access flaps combined with application of enamel matrix derivative. Clinical, microbiologic, and radiographic findings are reported for up to 1.5 years after initial therapy, indicating good efficacy of the therapeutic strategy and stability of the treatment outcome.
Bhardwaj, Ashu; Jafri, Zeba; Sultan, Nishat; Sawai, Madhuri; Daing, Anika
Background: Chronic periodontitis in lower anterior teeth results in rapidly progressive gingival recession (GR), loss of alveolar bone, decreased vestibular depth (VD) with consequential tooth mobility, and tooth loss. Treatment option for such cases in this esthetically important area of the oral cavity includes extraction followed by implants for which sufficient bone height and mucogingival complex are a prerequisite. Henceforth, an attempt was made to prolong the life of lower anterior teeth and postpone the need for implants by the treatment of chronic periodontitis with periodontal flap surgery followed by vestibular deepening in single surgical procedure. Materials and Methods: In this clinical, prospective study, conventional periodontal flap surgery was done on 74 sites in lower anterior teeth in 16 patients with attachment loss >5 mm due to chronic periodontitis. Vestibular deepening with diode laser at (wavelength - 810 nm, output power: 0.5–7 W, continuous wave, contact mode) was done after suturing the flap. All the clinical parameters: GR, pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), width of keratinized gingiva, width of attached gingiva, and VD were assessed preoperatively after Phase I therapy and 6 months postoperatively. Results: At all the 74 sites, there was highly significant gain in attached gingiva, keratinized gingiva, and VD (P ≤ 0.001). Highly significant reduction in PD (P ≤ 00.001), significant reduction in attachment loss (P ≤ 0.01) but no significant reduction in GR (P = 0.897) was observed. Conclusions: The combination of periodontal flap surgery with vestibular deepening with diode laser may be a suitable cost-effective treatment option to prolong the life of periodontally involved lower anterior teeth. The surgical technique can postpone the need for extraction of teeth along with all the intangible benefits of periodontal therapy. PMID:29456397
Lobo, Tanya Marguerite; Pol, Dilip Ganpat
Background: Lasers have several potential benefits such as antibacterial effect and stimulation of wound healing. In addition, hemostasis and delaying epithelial migration may facilitate the outcome of flap surgery. There is a minimal research and evidence currently available for the optimum method of use of a diode laser in flap surgery and its benefit and safety. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the adjunctive effect of diode laser irradiation in open flap debridement (OFD), while treating chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with generalized chronic moderate to severe periodontitis with pocket probing depth (PD) ≥5 mm post - Phase I therapy were selected for a split-mouth study. Flap surgery with adjunctive diode laser irradiation was performed in the test quadrant while routine OFD was done in the control quadrant. Clinical parameters including PD, clinical attachment level, gingival recession, plaque index, gingival index and tooth mobility were recorded at baseline, 3 months and 6 months following treatment. In addition, patients’ rating of procedural pain as well as the development of complications postoperatively was assessed. Results: All clinical parameters significantly improved after therapy without any statistically significant difference between the two groups for any of the parameters. The exception was a significantly greater reduction in gingival inflammation in the laser treated group. The laser treatment was acceptable to the patient and did not cause any complications. Conclusion: The diode laser can be safely and effectively used as an adjunct to the treatment of chronic periodontitis with the advantage of decreased gingival inflammation. PMID:25810592
Centty, I G; Blank, L W; Levy, B A; Romberg, E; Barnes, D M
Regeneration of mineralized and soft connective tissue components of the attachment apparatus is the main goal in the treatment of periodontal diseases. Often, apical migration of epithelium (long junctional epithelium) effectively prevents the formation of bone and connective tissue attachment after periodontal surgery. The purpose of the present study was to compare conventional periodontal surgery combined with carbon dioxide laser and conventional periodontal surgery alone with respect to epithelial elimination and degree of necrosis of mucoperiosteal flaps. After signing a consent form, five patients with at least two comparable bilateral periodontal defects needing pocket elimination surgery participated in this study. The investigators randomly divided each side into test and control sites. Each patient received oral hygiene instruction and initial therapy prior to surgery. At surgery, the test site received a sulcular incision and carbon dioxide laser de-epithelialization of the outer and inner aspects of the flap. The control group received reverse bevel incision only. The surgeon performed open flap debridement on all teeth. At the time of surgery, the surgeon did a biopsy of each site and submitted specimens for histologic evaluation. A matched pairs t-test was used to analyze the data. The results show significant differences between the carbon dioxide laser and reverse bevel incision with respect to sulcular (P < or = 0.025) and gingival (external) (P < or = 0.01) flap surface epithelial elimination and tissue necrosis (P < or = 0.005). These results should be replicated with a larger number of subjects. The carbon dioxide laser eliminated sulcular and gingival (external) epithelium without disturbing underlying connective tissue. This finding supports the concept that the carbon dioxide wavelength has little or no effect on tissues beyond the target. However, neither laser nor blade eliminated all the epithelium. Researchers observed chronic
Hürzeler, M B; Weng, D
The closure of surgical wounds in a layer-by-layer fashion, a common principle of plastic surgery, is applied in this article to the field of periodontal surgery with the introduction of a new flap design. The suggested technique is indicated with all periodontal procedures that aim for hard and soft tissue augmentation (guided bone regeneration, mucogingival surgery, or plastic periodontal surgery) where passive, tension-free wound closure is fundamental for wound healing and a successful functional and esthetic outcome. By means of a series of incisions, buccal and lingual flaps are split several times; this results in a double-partial thickness flap and a coronally positioned palatal sliding flap, respectively. Thus, several tissue layers are obtained and the passive advancement of flaps becomes possible for the coverage of augmented areas. Wound closure with microsurgical suture material is accomplished in a multilayer approach, which ensures adaptation and closure of the outer tissue layers without any tension. Two case reports demonstrate the new plastic periodontal approach.
... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...
Oringer, R J; Iacono, V J
Periodontal plastic procedures are performed to prevent or correct anatomical, developmental, traumatic, or plaque induced defects of the gingiva, alveolar mucosa, or bone. The majority of these procedures are performed in combination with restorative and/or orthodontic therapy with the primary goal of enhancing aesthetics. In this review some of the more prominent techniques currently available to address mucogingival deficiencies including pedicle grafts, free soft tissue grafts, and combination grafts are illustrated. In addition, potential complications associated with periodontal plastic procedures are discussed.
Sanchez-Conejo-Mir, J.; Bueno Montes, J.; Moreno Gimenez, J.C.
The bilobed flap is a simple reconstructive technique principally used to correct substantial defects in the facial region. The authors present their experience with this local flap in the difficult plantar area, with excellent short-term functional results. They describe the special characteristics of the bilobed flap in this zone, and comment on its indications and possible complications.
Sobouti, Farhad; Khatami, Maziar; Heydari, Mohaddase; Barati, Maryam
Treatment protocols with low-level Laser (also called ‘soft laser therapy) have been used in health care systems for more than three decades. Bearing in mind the suitable sub-cellular absorption and the cellular-vascular impacts, low-level laser may be a treatment of choice for soft tissues. Low-level lasers have played crucial and colorful roles in performing periodontal surgeries. Their anti-inflammatory and painless effects have been variously reported in in-vitro studies. In this present review article, searches have been made in Pub Med, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, focusing on the studies which included low-level lasers, flap-periodontal surgeries, gingivectomy, and periodontal graft. The present study has sought to review the cellular impacts of low-level lasers and its role on reducing pain and inflammation following soft tissue surgical treatments. PMID:25987968
Irokawa, Daisuke; Makino-Oi, Asako; Fujita, Takahisa; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Tomita, Sachiyo; Saito, Atsushi
Here we report a case of generalized aggressive periodontitis treated with periodontal therapy including adjunct antimicrobial therapy and periodontal surgery. The patient was a 22-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession. Baseline examination revealed generalized plaque deposition and gingival inflammation. Thirty-nine percent of the sites had a probing depth (PD) of 4-6 mm and 2% a PD of ≥7 mm; 63% exhibited bleeding on probing (BOP). Radiographic examination revealed vertical bone loss in the molars and horizontal bone loss in other teeth. Microbiological examination of subgingival plaque revealed the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Tannerella forsythia. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed as a measure of patient-reported outcome. Based on a clinical diagnosis of generalized aggressive periodontitis, initial periodontal therapy and adjunct antimicrobial therapy were implemented. After reducing inflammation and subgingival bacteria, open flap debridement was performed for teeth with a PD of ≥4 mm. Reevaluation showed no sites with a PD of ≥5 mm, a minimal level of BOP, and a marked reduction in the level of the targeted periodontal pathogens. The patient's oral health-related quality of life was slightly worsened during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). Implementation of adjunct antimicrobial therapy targeting periodontal pathogens and subsequent periodontal surgery resulted in improvement in periodontal and microbiological parameters. This improvement has been adequately maintained over a 2-year period. However, additional care is necessary to further improve the patient's oral health-related quality of life during SPT.
... vessels requires expertise in surgery through a microscope (microsurgery). An advantage to this type of breast reconstruction ... of your disease Require additional surgery to correct reconstructive problems What breast reconstruction won't do: Make ...
The main purposes of periodontal graft surgery include achieving root coverage, improving the clinical attachment level and keratinized tissue, and advancing the procedure of periodontal plastic surgery. Autogenous graft, such as subepithelial connective tissue graft-based procedure, provide the best outcomes for mean and complete root coverage, as well as increase in keratinized tissue. However, a disadvantage of the procedure is in the location of the operation itself: the additional surgical site (palate). Therefore, clinicians are always looking for graft substitutes. This article will discuss the evidence supporting the use of 1) acellular dermal matrix (ADM); 2) xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM); 3) recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF); 4) enamel matrix derivative (EMD); 5) guided tissue regeneration (GTR); 6) living cellular construct (LCC), all of which are used in conjunction with coronally advanced flaps as alternatives to autogenous donor tissue. The decision tree for treatments of Miller recession-type defects are also discussed.
Yang, Kai; Mu, Lan; Liu, Yan; Peng, Zhe; Li, Guangxue
To investigate the utility of indocyanine green angiography in flap reconstructive surgery and possibility of decrease the complications. Indocyanine green angiography was performed on 14 patients undergoing flap reconstructive surgery between February and December 2014 to evaluate the blood perfusion of the flap and to adjust the operation plan. Of 14 cases, 2 were male and 12 were female, aged 23-58 years (mean, 35.5 years); 11 flaps were used for breast reconstruction [including 3 free deep inferior epigastric antery perforator (DIEP) flaps, 4 pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps (TRAM), 2 pedicled TRAM and free TRAM, and 2 pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps and prosthesis], 1 pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for repairing chest wall defect, 1 pedicled profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap for upper leg defect, and 1 pedicled descending genicular artery perforator flap for knee defect. The size of the flaps ranged from 9 cm x 6 cm to 26 cm x 12 cm. A total of 32 indocyanine green angiography were performed. There was no adverse reactions to the infusion of indocyanine green. The surgery management was adjusted according to results of indocyanine green angiography findings in 5 of 14 cases. The distal part of flap were discarded because of poor perfusion in 3 cases (1 DIEP flap, 1 TRAM, and 1 PAP flap) and the other 2 cases (pedicled TRAM) needed additional free anastomosis to ensure sufficient blood supply (pedicled TRAM and free TRAM); the other flaps were harvested according to preoperative plan and repaired defect successfully. The mean follow-up was 5 months (range, 1-9 months). The other flaps survived without infection or fat necrosis except 1 PAP flap with distal necrosis. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography can provide real-time information of flap perfusion and then the operation plan can be adjusted in time to ensure the flap survival.
Sheth, Tejal; Shah, Shilpi; Shah, Mihir; Shah, Ekta
“Gummy smile” is a major concern for a large number of patients visiting the dentist. Esthetics has now become an integral part of periodontal treatment plan. This article presents a case of a gummy smile in which esthetic correction was achieved through periodontal plastic surgical procedure wherein a 10-12 mm of partial-thickness flap was dissected apical to mucogingival junction followed by approximation of the flaps. This novel technique gave excellent post-operative results with enormous patient satisfaction. This surgical chair-side procedure being one of its kinds with outstanding results is very rarely performed by Periodontists. Thus, a lot of clinical work and literature review with this surgical technique is required. To make it a routine surgical procedure this technique can be incorporated as a part of periodontal plastic surgery in the text. Hence, we have put forward experience of a case with critical analysis of the surgical technique including the limitations of the technique. PMID:24124310
Abitbol, T; Santi, E; Urbani, G
This article illustrates the potential benefits of regenerative periodontal therapy in mucogingival surgery and esthetic dental treatment. Cases are described in which the treatment of soft-tissue recessions and root exposures are treated with surgical procedures where both clinical soft-tissue augmentation and the regeneration of periodontal attachment are obtained. Cases are also presented to illustrate the clinical application of guided tissue regeneration. Resorbable and nonresorbable barriers are placed over the root surface and bone and covered by the overlying flap, which allows the selective repopulation of the lesion by progenitor cells and the inhibition of a long junctional epithelium. Emphasis is placed on regenerative procedures in soft-tissue augmentation, particularly with respect to rationales, techniques, and indications.
flaps were mosL vulnerable to necrosis . Sutures placed with minimal tension did not adversely affect blood perfusion of surgically replaced flaps. vi * C...perfusion change with narrow flaps most severely affected. In general, narrow thin flaps were most vulnerable to necrosis . Sutures placed with minimal...Day Narrow Pedicle ............. 75 B. Fluorescein Angiography of Envelope Flap Immediately Post Surgery and Necrosis of Marginal Third of Six
Acea Nebril, Benigno; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; García Novoa, Alejandra; Varela Lamas, Cristina
Local flaps are a group of surgical procedures that can solve the thoracic closure of large defects after breast cancer surgery with low morbidity. Its use in skin necrosis complications after conservative surgery or skin sparing mastectomies facilitates the initiation of adjuvant treatments and reduces delays in this patient group. This article describes the anatomical basis for the planning of thoracic and abdominal local flaps. Also, the application of these local flaps for closing large defects in the chest and selective flaps for skin coverage by necrosis in breast conserving surgery. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kaner, Doğan; Soudan, Mouaz; Zhao, Han; Gaßmann, Georg; Schönhauser, Anna; Friedmann, Anton
Early wound healing after periodontal surgery with or without enamel matrix derivative/biphasic calcium phosphate (EMD/BCP) was characterized in terms of soft tissue closure, changes of microcirculation, and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid/wound fluid (GCF/WF). Periodontal surgery was carried out in 30 patients (18 patients: application of EMD/BCP for regeneration of bony defects; 12 patients: surgical crown lengthening (SCL)). Healthy sites were observed as untreated controls. GCF/WF samples were collected during two post-surgical weeks. Flap microcirculation was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Soft tissue healing was evaluated after two weeks. GCF/WF levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-10 were determined using a multiplex immunoassay. Surgery caused similar reductions of flap microcirculation followed by recovery within two weeks in both EMD/BCP and SCL groups. GCF/WF and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were immediately increased after surgery, and returned only partially to baseline levels within the two-week observation period. Levels of IL-10 were temporarily reduced in all surgical sites. Flap dehiscence caused prolonged elevated levels of GCF/WF, IL-1β, and TNF-α. These findings show that periodontal surgery triggers an immediate inflammatory reaction corresponding to the early inflammatory phase of wound healing, and these inflammation measures are temporary in case of maintained closure of the flap. However, flap dehiscence causes prolonged inflammatory exudation from the periodontal wound. If the biological pre-conditions for periodontal wound healing are considered important for the clinical outcome, care should be taken to maintain primary closure of the flap.
Burkhardt, Rino; Lang, Niklaus P
To provide a narrative review of the current literature elaborating on fundamental principles of periodontal plastic surgical procedures. Based on a presumptive outline of the narrative review, MESH terms have been used to search the relevant literature electronically in the PubMed and Cochrane Collaboration databases. If possible, systematic reviews were included. The review is divided into three phases associated with periodontal plastic surgery: a) pre-operative phase, b) surgical procedures and c) post-surgical care. The surgical procedures were discussed in the light of a) flap design and preparation, b) flap mobilization and c) flap adaptation and stabilization. Pre-operative paradigms include the optimal plaque control and smoking counselling. Fundamental principles in surgical procedures address basic knowledge in anatomy and vascularity, leading to novel appropriate flap designs with papilla preservation. Flap mobilization based on releasing incisions can be performed up to 5 mm. Flap adaptation and stabilization depend on appropriate wound bed characteristics, undisturbed blood clot formation, revascularization and wound stability through adequate suturing. Delicate tissue handling and tension free wound closure represent prerequisites for optimal healing outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This manuscript aims to review periodontal plastic surgery for root coverage at single and multiple gingival recessions. Techniques are assessed based on biological principles, surgical procedures, prognosticative factors and expected clinical and esthetic outcomes. The use of coronally advanced flap, laterally sliding flap, free gingival graft, the tunnel grafting technique, barrier membranes, enamel matrix derivative, collagen matrix and acellular dermal matrix are evaluated. The clinical scenario and practical implications are analyzed according to a modern evidence-based approach. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bognár, Gábor; Novák, András; Ledniczky, György; István, Gábor
The results obtaining with breast reconstruction surgery are not always satisfactory for the patients. Reconstruction with pure latissimus dorsi flap is useful option and due to endoscopic harvest large scar on the back can be avoided. The skin sparing mastectomy and even the sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymphadenectomy can be performed using a single incision in the axilla. Also the immediate reconstruction with endoscopically assisted harvest of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap in selective cases can be done using the same incision. The patient reported high satisfaction with the aesthetic and functional results due to preservation the breast shape and the absence of any scarring on the back.
Sanz, Mariano; Simion, Massimo
The scope was to review the three main clinical indications in periodontal plastic surgical procedures. To review the fundamental principles in periodontal plastic surgery, the main surgical designs in flap surgery applied to the treatment of recessions, peri-implant soft tissue deficiencies and soft tissue ridge augmentation, as well as the surgical principles of using autologous connective tissue grafts and soft tissue substitutes. In the pre-operative phase, the key elements are the control of prognostic factors affecting the patient, namely oral hygiene, tobacco smoking cessation and systemic disease control. In the operative phase, the principles of flap design, mobilization, advancement, adaptation and stabilization. In the post-operative phase infection control, including effective oral hygiene measures, antiseptic treatment and other medications. In single recession defects, the most widely used flap technique is the coronally advanced flap and in specific clinical situations the laterally positioned flap. In multiple recession defects, the number of defects and their location and depth guide the surgical design, being one design with and the other without vertical releasing incisions. When flaps are used in combination with grafts the tunnel flap is also used extensively. The key elements are the donor site selection and harvesting technique, its tissue integration and volume stability. Given the current evidence, various clinical recommendations on the use of flaps and grafts are provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Knackstedt, Thomas; Lee, Kachiu; Jellinek, Nathaniel J
Bilobed and trilobed transposition flaps are versatile random pattern transposition flaps which reliably restore nasal symmetry, topography, light reflex, contour and are frequently used in cutaneous nasal reconstructive surgery. We wish to compare the characteristics of bilobed and trilobed flaps in cutaneous reconstructive surgery and to identify scenarios for their differential use. A retrospective chart review over 7 years of consecutive patients reconstructed with a bilobed or trilobed flap after Mohs micrographic surgery was performed. Statistical analysis of patient and surgery characteristics, anatomic distribution, postprocedural events and need for revisions after both flap types was conducted. One hundred eleven patients with bilobed flaps and 74 patients with trilobed flaps were identified. Bilobed flaps are significantly more frequently used on the inferior nasal dorsum and on the sidewall whereas trilobed flaps are significantly more frequently used on the nasal tip and infratip. No significant difference in postprocedural events (complications, erythema, trapdoor, etc) was noted between the two flap types. Bilobed and trilobed transposition flaps are versatile repairs for nasal reconstruction. Trilobed flaps may be used to repair defects in a more distal nasal location than bilobed flaps. Regardless of flap type, complications are rare.
Jiménez Gómez, Marta; Navarro-Sánchez, Antonio; Lima Sánchez, Jaime; Hernández Hernández, Juan Ramón
The principles of perineal reconstructive surgery comprise adequate filling of the defect along with stable and durable skin coverage, with a low morbidity rate. Two-flap perineal reconstruction is a simple, fast and reliable technique that uses a single donor site. This improves scar position with low morbidity. It is based in the use of 2flaps; one flap fills the defect with a «turn over» technique and the other is a rotation - advancement flap for skin coverage. A 52-year-old male diagnosed with Lynch syndrome who underwent laparoscopic abdominoperineal amputation for adenocarcinoma of the lower rectum and developed recurrence 2years later over the perineal scar that required radical resection and perineal reconstruction. The use of this approach facilitates perineal reconstruction and enables treatment of patients with large and complex defects in frequently irradiated tissues where wound dehiscence and infection are common. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Staubli, Noémie; Schmidt, Julia C; Buset, Sabrina L; Gutekunst, Claudia J; Rodriguez, Fabiola R; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Walter, Clemens
The objective is to compare the amount and content of publications regarding traditional or regenerative periodontal surgery in the years 1982/1983 and 2012/2013 in two leading periodontal journals of North America and Europe. The search was carried out in the Journal of Periodontology and Journal of Clinical Periodontology. Four reviewers screened the articles and allocated the topics with respect to periodontal surgery. The distribution of articles with respect to traditional or regenerative periodontal surgery was then compared between the journals and the respective time periods. Out of 1084 screened articles, 145 articles were included. Articles with periodontal surgery content amounted to 18% for the first time period and to 11% for the second time period. In the years 1982/1983, 7% of articles in the Journal of Periodontology and 8% in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology referred to traditional periodontal surgery, while 8% (Journal of Periodontology) and 5% (Journal of Clinical Periodontology) examined regenerative periodontal surgery. The distribution changed 30 years later, with 1% (Journal of Periodontology) and 3% (Journal of Clinical Periodontology) traditional periodontal surgery and 7% and 6% regenerative periodontal surgery content. While the clinical need for traditional periodontal surgery remained, research in this important field decreased. Publications rather tended to focus on adjunctive regenerative measures. Periodontal surgery with adjunctive regenerative measures is an established and well-documented clinical procedure. However, with respect to the dominance of horizontal bone loss in periodontally diseased patients, there is a need for ongoing research with focus on traditional periodontal surgery.
Farina, Roberto; Simonelli, Anna; Rizzi, Alessandro; Pramstraller, Mattia; Cucchi, Alessandro; Trombelli, Leonardo
This study aims to evaluate the early postoperative healing of papillary incision wounds and its association with (1) patient/site-related factors and technical (surgical) aspects as well as with (2) 6-month clinical outcomes following buccal single flap approach (SFA) in the treatment of intraosseous periodontal defects. Forty-three intraosseous defects in 35 patients were accessed with a buccal SFA alone or in combination with a reconstructive technology (graft, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), graft + EMD, or graft + membrane). Postoperative healing was evaluated at 2 weeks using the Early Wound-Healing Index (EHI). EHI ranged from score 1 (i.e., complete flap closure and optimal healing) to score 4 (i.e., loss of primary closure and partial tissue necrosis). SFA resulted in a complete wound closure at 2 weeks in the great majority of sites. A significantly more frequent presence of interdental contact point and interdental soft tissue crater, and narrower base of the interdental papilla were observed at sites with either EHI > 1 or EHI = 4 compared to sites with EHI = 1. No association between EHI and the 6-month clinical outcomes was observed. At 2 weeks, buccal SFA may result in highly predictable complete flap closure. Site-specific characteristics may influence the early postoperative healing of the papillary incision following SFA procedure. Two-week soft tissue healing, however, was not associated with the 6-month clinical outcomes.
Baytinger, V. F., E-mail: email@example.com; Kurochkina, O. S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Selianinov, K. V.
The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were nomore » differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.« less
Harrel, Stephen K; Wilson, Thomas G; Rivera-Hidalgo, Francisco
Minimally invasive periodontal procedures have been reported to produce excellent clinical results. Visualization during minimally invasive procedures has traditionally been obtained by the use of surgical telescopes, surgical microscopes, glass fibre endoscopes or a combination of these devices. All of these methods for visualization are less than fully satisfactory due to problems with access, magnification and blurred imaging. A videoscope for use with minimally invasive periodontal procedures has been developed to overcome some of the difficulties that exist with current visualization approaches. This videoscope incorporates a gas shielding technology that eliminates the problems of fogging and fouling of the optics of the videoscope that has previously prevented the successful application of endoscopic visualization to periodontal surgery. In addition, as part of the gas shielding technology the videoscope also includes a moveable retractor specifically adapted for minimally invasive surgery. The clinical use of the videoscope during minimally invasive periodontal surgery is demonstrated and discussed. The videoscope with gas shielding alleviates many of the difficulties associated with visualization during minimally invasive periodontal surgery. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Levy, Rustin M.; Giannobile, William V.; Feres, Magda; Haffajee, Anne D.; Smith, Claire; Socransky, Sigmund S.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the clinical and microbiologic effects of apically repositioned flap surgery. Eighteen patients with chronic periodontitis received initial preparation (IP) including scaling and root planing, followed at 3 months by apically repositioned flap surgery at sites with pocket depth > 4 mm. Subjects were monitored clinically and microbiologically at baseline, 3 months after IP, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postsurgery. Clinical assessments of plaque accumulation, gingival redness, suppuration, bleeding on probing, pocket depth, and attachment level were made at six sites per tooth. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from the mesial aspect of each tooth, and the presence and levels of 40 subgingival taxa were determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Significant reductions were seen in mean pocket depth and percentage of sites exhibiting gingival redness and bleeding on probing in both sites that received IP only and in sites receiving IP followed by surgery. Mean attachment level increased significantly for both sets of sites, but the increase was greater at the surgically treated sites. The total DNA probe counts were significantly reduced at sites in both treatment groups. At surgically treated sites, 19 of 40 taxa were significantly reduced posttherapy. At sites receiving IP only, 16 species were significantly reduced over time. While there were some reductions in mean counts after IP in this site group, the major reductions occurred after the surgical phase in these patients, even though these particular sites did not receive surgical therapy. The reduction in pocket depth by surgical means and the associated decrease in reservoirs of periodontal pathogens may be important in achieving sustained periodontal stability. PMID:12186343
Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Ho, Kun-Yen; Wang, Wen-Chen; Hu, Kai-Fang
The effect of periodontal surgery on patients' quality of life was investigated. Sixty patients received regenerative surgery or resective osseous surgery. Oral health-related quality of life and health-related quality of life instruments were used to assess the participants' quality of life before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Periodontal surgery can improve patients' quality of life by alleviating the physical pain and psychological discomfort. The scores were lower (more favorable) in the regenerative surgery group, and the functional limitations of the regenerative surgery group improved substantially compared with those of the resective osseous surgery group (P = 0.0421). The patients' oral health-related quality of life scores improved significantly after periodontal surgery. Clinicians can take advantage of the positive functional oral health-related quality of life impacts of regenerative surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Chen, Y-W; Lee, C-T; Hum, L; Chuang, S-K
The extraction of an impacted third molar violates the surrounding soft and bony tissues. The surgeon's access to the tooth, for which there are various surgical approaches, has an important impact on the periodontium of the adjacent second molar. The aim of this review was to analyze the relationships between the different flap techniques and postoperative periodontal outcomes for the mandibular second molars (LM2) adjacent to the impacted mandibular third molars (LM3). An electronic search of MEDLINE and other databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials fulfilling the eligibility criteria. To assess the impact of flap design on the periodontal condition, the weighted mean difference of the probing depth reduction (WDPDR) and the weighted mean difference of the clinical attachment level gain (WDCAG) at the distal surface of LM2 were used as the primary outcomes. The results showed that, overall, the different flap techniques had no significant impact on the probing depth reduction (WDPDR -0.14mm, 95% confidence interval -0.44 to 0.17), or on the clinical attachment level gain (WDCAG 0.05mm, 95% confidence interval -0.84 to 0.94). However, a subgroup analysis revealed that the Szmyd and paramarginal flap designs may be the most effective in reducing the probing depth in impacted LM3 extraction, and the envelope flap may be the least effective. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chabot, Joseph D; Patel, Chirag R; Hughes, Marion A; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H; Gardner, Paul A; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C
OBJECTIVE The vascularized nasoseptal flap (NSF) has become the workhorse for skull base reconstruction during endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) of the ventral skull base. Although infrequently reported, as with any vascularized flap the NSF may undergo ischemic necrosis and become a nidus for infection. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's experience with NSF was reviewed to determine the incidence of necrotic NSF in patients following EES and describe the clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, and risk factors associated with this complication. METHODS The electronic medical records of 1285 consecutive patients who underwent EES at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between January 2010 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. From this first group, a list of all patients in whom NSF was used for reconstruction was generated and further refined to determine if the patient returned to the operating room and the cause of this reexploration. Patients were included in the final analysis if they underwent endoscopic reexploration for suspected CSF leak or meningitis. Those patients who returned to the operating room for staged surgery or hematoma were excluded. Two neurosurgeons and a neuroradiologist, who were blinded to each other's results, assessed the MRI characteristics of the included patients. RESULTS In total, 601 patients underwent NSF reconstruction during the study period, and 49 patients met the criteria for inclusion in the final analysis. On endoscopic exploration, 8 patients had a necrotic, nonviable NSF, while 41 patients had a viable NSF with a CSF leak. The group of patients with a necrotic, nonviable NSF was then compared with the group with viable NSF. All 8 patients with a necrotic NSF had clinical and laboratory evidence indicative of meningitis compared with 9 of 41 patients with a viable NSF (p < 0.001). Four patients with necrotic flaps developed epidural empyema compared with 2 of 41 patients in the viable
Ottria, L; Luciani, F; Piva, P; Alagna, A M; Arcuri, C; Bartuli, F N
The purpose of the study was to analyze the healing of the deep and superficial lower first and second molars periodontium, after the surgical extraction of the contiguous impacted third molar, comparing 3 mucoperiosteal flap designs. 150 patients which had to undergo a impacted lower third molar surgery were enrolled in this study. They were checked from day 0 to day 90, in order to focus on the recovery quality of the soft tissues around the lower second molar, comparing 3 different flap designs. No intraoperatory incident happened. The complete recovery of the periodontium around the second molar has been shown in each patient after 90 days from surgery and each adverse reaction happened within the sixth week after surgery. Only 2 slight gengival recessions 0,5 mm have been find out. The impacted third molar surgery is an operation that, if rightly programmed and performed, is relatively safe. Besides, the correct handling and management of periodontium around the second molar and the choice of the flap type to be used support a correct recovery on the second molar periodontium, avoiding any long-term damage. This study wanted to analyze the healing of the deep and superficial lower second molar periodontium, after the impacted lower third molar surgery. In order to improve the surgical technique used for lower third molar germectomies, we wanted to compare 3 different kind of flap designs.
OTTRIA, L.; LUCIANI, F.; PIVA, P.; ALAGNA, A.M.; ARCURI, C.; BARTULI, F.N.
SUMMARY Aim The purpose of the study was to analyze the healing of the deep and superficial lower first and second molars periodontium, after the surgical extraction of the contiguous impacted third molar, comparing 3 mucoperiosteal flap designs. Materials and methods 150 patients which had to undergo a impacted lower third molar surgery were enrolled in this study. They were checked from day 0 to day 90, in order to focus on the recovery quality of the soft tissues around the lower second molar, comparing 3 different flap designs. Results No intraoperatory incident happened. The complete recovery of the periodontium around the second molar has been shown in each patient after 90 days from surgery and each adverse reaction happened within the sixth week after surgery. Only 2 slight gengival recessions 0,5 mm have been find out. Conclusions The impacted third molar surgery is an operation that, if rightly programmed and performed, is relatively safe. Besides, the correct handling and management of periodontium around the second molar and the choice of the flap type to be used support a correct recovery on the second molar periodontium, avoiding any long-term damage. Clinical significance This study wanted to analyze the healing of the deep and superficial lower second molar periodontium, after the impacted lower third molar surgery. In order to improve the surgical technique used for lower third molar germectomies, we wanted to compare 3 different kind of flap designs. PMID:29285329
Sakamoto, Yuki; Yanamoto, Souichi; Ota, Yoshihide; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide; Umeda, Masahiro
Myocutaneous flaps are often used to repair oral and maxillofacial defects after surgery for oral cancer; however, their volume decreases during the postoperative period. To facilitate treatment planning, the authors measured the extent of such postoperative flap volume loss and identified associated factors in patients who underwent oral reconstruction with myocutaneous flaps. The authors designed and performed a retrospective observational study of patients who underwent reconstructive procedures involving rectus abdominal myocutaneous (RAM) or pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flaps at Tokai University Hospital, Kobe University Hospital, or Nagasaki University Hospital from April 2009 through March 2013. Flap type and other clinical variables were examined as potential predictors of flap loss. The primary outcome was flap loss at 6 months postoperatively. Correlations between each potential predictor and the primary outcome were examined using multiple regression analysis. The subjects were 75 patients whose oral defects were reconstructed with RAM flaps (n = 57) or PMMC flaps (n = 18). RAM flaps exhibited a mean volume shrinkage of 22% at 6 months postoperatively, which was less than the 27.5% displayed by the PMMC flaps, but the difference was not important. Renal failure, previous surgery of the oral region, postoperative radiotherapy, and postoperative serum albumin level were found to be meaningful risk factors for postoperative flap volume loss. The results of this study suggest that larger flaps should be used in patients who possess these risk factors or are scheduled to undergo postoperative radiotherapy. Future studies should examine the utility of postoperative nutritional management for preventing flap volume loss. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cebrian-Carretero, José L.; Sobrino, José A.; Yu, Tomás; Burgueño-García, Miguel
The reconstruction of maxillomandibular defects secondary to oral cancer surgery, represent a great challenge for Maxillofacial surgeons. During the last decades the reconstructive surgery has experimented a big advance due to the development of the microsurgical techniques. At present, we are able to reconstruct complex defects using free flaps that provide both soft and bone tissue. Fibula, iliac crest and scapula free flaps have been the three classic options for the maxillomandibular reconstruction owing to the amount of bone that this flaps provide, allowing the posterior dental rehabilitation with implants. Today, our objective it is not only the aesthetic reconstruction, but also the functional reconstruction of the patients enhancing their life quality. Guided implant surgery in free flap reconstructed patients has become an essential tool, helping to define the exact position of the dental implant in the flap. In this way it is possible to look for the areas with better bone conditions, avoiding the osteosynthesis material used to fixate the flap with the native bone and deciding the best biomechanical option, in terms of number and situation of the implants, for the future dental prostheses. In summary, using the guided implant surgery, it is possible to design an exact and predictable dental implant rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer who are reconstructed with free microvascular flap, resulting in an optimal aesthetic and functional result. Key words:Oral cancer, mandibulectomy, maxillectomy, microvascular reconstruction, fibula flap, dental implant, guided surgery. PMID:25129241
Erdogan, Ozgür; Tatlı, Ufuk; Ustün, Yakup; Damlar, Ibrahim
The aim of this study was to compare the influence of triangular and envelope flaps on trismus, pain, and facial swelling after mandibular third molar surgery. Twenty healthy patients with bilateral, symmetrically impacted mandibular third molars were included in this double-blinded, prospective, cross-over, randomized study. The patients were operated with envelope flap on one side and triangular flap on the other side. Trismus was determined by measuring maximum interincisal opening, and facial swelling was evaluated using a tape measuring method. Pain was determined using visual analog scale (VAS) and recording the number of pain pills taken. The facial swelling measurements and VAS scores were lower in the envelope flap group compared to the triangular flap group. There was no significant difference between the two flap designs in operation time, maximum interincisal opening, and the number of analgesics taken. Envelope flap yields to less facial swelling and reduced VAS scores in comparison to triangular flap. There is no clinical difference in trismus between the two flap designs. Despite the higher VAS scores with triangular flap, no additional doses of analgesics were required in triangular flap.
Wang, Y Y; Zhang, H Q; Fan, S; Zhang, D M; Huang, Z Q; Chen, W L; Ye, J T; Li, J S
This study evaluated the accuracy of mandibular reconstruction and assessed clinical outcomes in both virtual planning and conventional surgery patients. ProPlan CMF surgical planning software was used preoperatively in the virtual planning group. In the virtual planning group, fibula flaps were harvested and osteotomized, and the mandibles were resected and reconstructed assisted by the prefabricated cutting guides and templates. The main outcome measures included the operative time, postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, facial appearance, and occlusal function. The ischemia time and total operation time were shorter in the virtual planning group than in the conventional surgery group. High precision with the use of the cutting guides and templates was found for both the fibula and mandible, and a good fit was noted among the pre-bent plate, mandible, and fibula segments in the virtual planning group. Postoperative CT scans also showed excellent mandibular contours of the fibula flaps in accordance with virtual plans in the virtual planning group. This study demonstrated that virtual surgical planning was able to achieve more accurate mandibular reconstruction than conventional surgery. The use of prefabricated cutting guides and plates makes fibula flap moulding and placement easier, minimizes the operating time, and improves clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leisser, Christoph; Hirnschall, Nino; Döller, Birgit; Varsits, Ralph; Ullrich, Marlies; Kefer, Katharina; Findl, Oliver
Classical or temporal internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap transposition with air or gas tamponade are current trends with the potential to improve surgical results, especially in cases with large macular holes. A prospective case series included patients with idiopathic macular holes or persistent macular holes after 23-G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and ILM peeling with gas tamponade. In all patients, 23-G PPV and ILM peeling with ILM flap transposition with gas tamponade and postoperative face-down position was performed. In 7 of 9 eyes, temporal ILM flap transposition combined with pedicle ILM flap could be successfully performed and macular holes were closed in all eyes after surgery. The remaining 2 eyes were converted to pedicle ILM flap transposition with macular hole closure after surgery. Three eyes were scheduled as pedicle ILM flap transposition due to previous ILM peeling. In 2 of these eyes, the macular hole could be closed with pedicle ILM flap transposition. In 3 eyes, free ILM flap transposition was performed and in 2 of these eyes macular hole could be closed after surgery, whereas in 1 eye a second surgery, performed as pedicle ILM flap transposition, was performed and led to successful macular hole closure. Use of ILM flaps in surgical repair of macular hole surgery is a new option of treatment with excellent results independent of the diameter of macular holes. For patients with persistent macular holes, pedicle ILM flap transposition or free ILM flap transposition are surgical options.
Albert, Sebastien; Guedon, Charles; Halimi, Caroline; Cristofari, Jean Pierre; Barry, Beatrix
Surgeons conventionally use electrocautery dissection and surgical clip appliers to harvest free flaps. The ultrasonic Harmonic Scalpel is a new surgical instrument that provides high-quality dissection and hemostasis and minimizes tissue injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and advantages of the ultrasonic Harmonic Scalpel compared to conventional surgical instruments in free flap surgery. This prospective study included 20 patients who underwent head and neck reconstructive surgery between March 2009 and May 2010. A forearm free flap was used for reconstruction in 12 patients, and a fibular flap was used in 8 patients. In half of the patients, electrocautery and surgical clips were used for free flap harvesting (the EC group), and in the other half of the patients, ultrasonic dissection was performed using the Harmonic Scalpel (the HS group). The following parameters were significantly lower in the HS group compared to the EC group: the operative time of flap dissection (35% lower in the HS group), blood loss, number of surgical clips and cost of surgical materials. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the Harmonic Scalpel in forearm and fibular free flap dissections that may be extended to other free flaps. PMID:22693666
Izumi, Ken; Fujikawa, Masakazu; Tashima, Hiroki; Saito, Takuya; Sotsuka, Yohei; Tomita, Koichi; Hosokawa, Ko
Recent advances in perforator flap surgical techniques have allowed for safe and reliable autologous tissue transfer with minimal donor-site morbidity. Between April 2012 and January 2013, we performed immediate breast reconstruction using free medial circumflex femoral artery perforator (MCFAP) flaps in 15 patients after breast-conserving surgery. The flaps were harvested from patients in the lithotomy position, while a second surgical team simultaneously conducted tumour resection. Of the 15 procedures performed, three flaps were dissected as true perforator flaps, while 12 flaps were dissected as muscle-sparing perforator flaps. The mean flap weight was 138.5 g (range, 77-230 g) and the mean pedicle length was 5.7 cm (range, 3.0-9.0 cm). Recipient vessels for anastomosis were serratus branches in 10 patients, internal mammary vessels in three patients and thoracodorsal vessels in two patients. The mean duration of surgery was 6.74 h (range, 5.65-9.45 h). There were no major complications requiring surgical intervention. Researchers observed partial flap necrosis, which manifested as small firm lesions in two patients, as well as local wound infection and dehiscence in one patient, which resolved spontaneously. There were no instances of donor-site seroma formation or lymphoedema in any of the patients. An objective assessment of postoperative photographs showed that cosmetic results were mostly satisfactory. Donor-site scars along the medial groin crease were inconspicuous and readily concealed by clothing. Given its reliable vascularity and minimal donor-site morbidity, the free MCFAP flap can be a good alternative for partial breast reconstruction after breast-conserving surgery. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kinumatsu, Takashi; Umehara, Kazuhiro; Nagano, Kyosuke; Saito, Atsushi
We report a patient with severe chronic periodontitis requiring regenerative periodontal surgery and different types of prosthesis in the maxillary and mandibular regions. The patient was a 57-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of occlusal pain. An initial clinical examination revealed that 73% of sites had a probing depth of ≥4 mm, and 60% of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing. Radiographic examination revealed vertical bone defects in the molar region and widening of the periodontal ligament space around teeth #17 and 24. Initial periodontal therapy was implemented based on a clinical diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis. Surgical periodontal therapy was subsequently performed at selected sites. Periodontal regenerative therapy using enamel matrix derivative was performed on #14, 15, and 35-37. Tunnel preparation was performed on #46 as it had a 2-wall vertical bony defect and Degree 3 furcation involvement. Other sites with residual periodontal pockets were treated by modified Widman flap surgery. After a re-evaluation, functional rehabilitation was implemented with a removable maxillary partial denture and a fixed mandibular bridge. No further deterioration was observed in the periodontal condition of most of the teeth during a 2-year period of supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). The patient is currently still undergoing SPT and some minor problems remain. However, the results suggest that treatment and subsequent maintenance for severe periodontitis with traumatic occlusion can be successful as long as the appropriate periodontal and prosthodontic treatment is planned and careful SPT carried out.
Hanson, M; Patel, P M; Betz, C; Olson, S; Panizza, B; Wallwork, B
To assess nasal morbidity resulting from nasoseptal flap use in the repair of skull base defects in endoscopic anterior skull base surgery. Thirty-six patients awaiting endoscopic anterior skull base surgery were prospectively recruited. A nasoseptal flap was used for reconstruction in all cases. Patients were assessed pre-operatively and 90 days post-operatively via the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 questionnaire and visual analogue scales for nasal obstruction, pain, secretions and smell; endoscopic examination findings and mucociliary clearance times were also recorded. Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 questionnaire data and visual analogue scale scores for pain, smell and secretions showed no significant differences between pre- and post-operative outcomes, with visual analogue scale scores for nasal obstruction actually showing a significant improvement (p = 0.0007). A significant deterioration for both flap and non-flap sides was demonstrated post-operatively on endoscopic examination (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02 respectively). Whilst elevation of a nasoseptal flap in endoscopic surgery of the anterior skull base engendered significant clinical deterioration on examination post-operatively, quality of life outcomes showed that no such deterioration was subjectively experienced by the patient. In fact, there was significant nasal airway improvement following nasoseptal flap reconstruction.
Bianchi, Bernardo; Ferri, Andrea; Ferrari, Silvano; Copelli, Chiara; Sesenna, Enrico
group 4). Finally, when groups 3 and 4 were compared, the difference was not statistically significant (P = .3467). Partial parotidectomy is the real key point for improving esthetic results in benign parotid surgery. The evaluation of functional complications and the recurrence rate in this series of patients has confirmed that this technique can be safely used for parotid benign tumor resection. The use of a facelift incision alone led to a high statistically significant improvement in the esthetic outcome. When the facelift incision was used with reconstructive techniques, such as the sternocleidomastoid muscle flap or the superficial musculoaponeurotic system flap, the esthetic results improved further. Finally, no statistically significant difference resulted comparing the use of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and the sternocleidomastoid muscle flap. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Kaihua; Han, Yan; Guo, Shuzhong
To summarize and review the development and experience of anastomosis vascular pedicle free composite tissue flap. From July 1987 to March 2007, 321 patients with complete records were treated. Fourteen tissue flaps were applied for the repair of trauma or tumor excision defects of the body, and for organ reconstruction. Vascular crisis occurred in 20 patients within 48 hours postoperatively. Necrosis occurred at flap end in 6 patients. The total survival rate was 94.8%. The main experience was: (1) Training to grasp the basic micro-vascular anastomosis technique was very important starting up period for surgeons. The basic technique should be often practiced to ensure the safty of clinical application. (2) Restoring appearance and function were equally important in practice. (3) Utilizing the minimal invasive methods and decreasing the loss of function of donor site were important for improvement of reconstruction quality. The purpose was to achieve functional and esthetic restoration in the condition of lowest donor site scarification. The application of free composite tissue flap is important for the development of plastic surgery. There are extensive applications for free flap, especially for those critical patients. The application of free flap could decrease the mobility rate, shorten the treatment period, ease the pain of patients and improve the reconstruction effect. The experience of donor site selection, the strategy of poor recipient site condition, the advantages and disadvantages of muscle flap, the applications time, infections wound treatment and application, are helpful for the future application.
Microvascular reconstructive surgery in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom: The US military experience performing free flaps in a combat zone...usually must undergo reconstructive surgery in the combat zone. While the use of microvascular free-tissue transfer (free flaps) for traumatic... reconstruction iswell documented in the literature, various complicating factors exist when these intricate surgical procedures are performed in a theater of
Thiessen, Filip E; Andrades, Patricio; Blondeel, Philip N; Hamdi, Moustapha; Roche, Nathalie; Stillaert, Filip; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan
Musculocutaneous flaps have become the first choice in the surgical repair of pressure sores, but the indication for including muscle in the transferred flaps still remains poorly defined. This study compares outcomes after muscle and non-muscle flap coverage of pressure sores to investigate whether it is still necessary to incorporate muscle tissue as part of the surgical treatment of these ulcers. A retrospective revision of 94 consecutive patients with ischial or sacral pressure sores operated between 1996 and 2002 was performed. Depending on the inclusion of muscle into the flap, the patients were divided in two groups: musculocutaneous flap group and fasciocutaneous flap group. Charts were reviewed for patient characteristics, ulcer features and reconstructive information. Data between groups were compared with emphasis on early (haematoma or seroma, dehiscence, infections, necrosis and secondary procedures) and late (recurrence) postoperative complications. A total of 37 wounds were covered with muscle and 57 wounds covered without muscle tissue. The groups were comparable in relation to age, gender, ulcer characteristics and timing for surgery. There were no significant differences in early complications between the study groups. The mean follow-up period was 3.10 ± 1.8 years (range: 0.5 to 6.7). There were no statistical differences in ulcer recurrence between the groups. The type of flap used was not associated with postoperative morbidity or recurrence in the univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings of this clinical study indicate that the musculocutaneous flaps are as good as fasciocutaneous flaps in the reconstruction of pressure sores, and they question the long-standing dogma that muscle is needed in the repair of these ulcers. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cairo, Francesco; Nieri, Michele; Pagliaro, Umberto
The aim of this Systematic Review (SR) was to assess the clinical efficacy of periodontal plastic surgery procedures in the treatment of localized gingival recessions (Rec) with or without inter-dental clinical attachment loss (iCAL). Electronic and hand searches were performed to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on treatment of single gingival recessions with at least 6 months of follow-up. Primary outcome variable was complete root coverage (CRC). Secondary outcome variables were recession reduction (RecRed) and keratinized tissue (KT) gain. To evaluate treatment effect, Odds Ratios were combined for dichotomous data and mean differences in continuous data using a random-effect model. Fifty-one RCTs (53 articles) with a total of 1574 treated patients (1744 recessions) were included in this SR. Finally, 30 groups of comparisons were identified and a total of 80 meta-analyses were performed. Coronally Advanced Flap (CAF) was associated with higher probability of CRC and higher amount of RecRed than Semilunar Coronal Positioned Flap (SCPF). The combination CAF plus Connective Tissue Graft (CAF+CTG) or CAF plus Enamel Matrix Derivative (CAF+EMD) was more effective than CAF alone in terms of CRC and RecRed. The combination CAF plus Collagen Matrix (CAF+CM) achieved higher RecRed than CAF alone. In addition, CAF+CTG achieved CRC more frequently than CAF+EMD, SCPF, Free Gingival Graft (FGG) and Laterally Positioned Flap (LPS). CAF+CTG was also associated with higher RecRed than Barrier Membranes (CAF+GTR), CAF+EMD and CAF+CM. GTR was not able to improve the clinical efficacy of CAF. Studies adding Acellular Dermal Matrix (ADM) under CAF showed a large heterogeneity and not significant benefits compared with CAF alone. Multiple combinations, using more than a single graft/biomaterial under the flap, usually provide similar or less benefits than simpler, control procedures in term of root coverage outcomes. CAF procedures alone or with CTG, EMD are supported by
Taschieri, Silvio; Corbella, Stefano; Del Fabbro, Massimo
A healthy gingival condition after endodontic surgery may depend on adequate soft tissue management. The aim of this study was to compare 2 incision techniques, papilla base incision (PBI) and intrasulcular flap (IS), which are currently used in endodontic surgery. In the present nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, patients requiring endodontic surgery on a single tooth were enrolled. PBI was used in 1 group and IS was used in the other group. The primary outcomes were changes in periodontal probing depth, gingival recession, and height of the interproximal mesial and distal papillae. Outcome variables were assessed preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Between-group differences were evaluated through appropriate statistical analysis, with significance set at a P value equal to .05. Each group was composed of 12 patients and the 2 groups were comparable at baseline. Two weeks after surgery, papilla height decreased significantly in the IS group (2.05 and 1.80 mm at the mesial and distal aspects, respectively), whereas no significant decrease in papilla height was observed in the PBI group (0.10 and 0.20 mm). No statistically significant difference between groups was observed after 6 months. No significant difference between groups was found for gingival recession or probing depth at any follow-up time. Better soft tissue preservation in the early postoperative period was achieved using the PBI approach compared with the IS approach. The PBI can be recommended for endodontic surgical procedures involving esthetic regions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Galindo, Joanna; Fadlallah, Ali; Robinson, Steve; Chelala, Elias; Melki, Samir A
To evaluate risk factors leading to loss of epithelial flap integrity in laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK). Boston Eye Group, Brookline, Massachusetts, USA. Retrospective case study. This retrospective chart review was performed for LASEK surgeries that occurred between January 2009 and October 2013. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether epithelium preservation was correlated with age, sex, sphere, cylinder, spherical equivalent (SE), keratometry, and central corneal thickness (CCT). The study reviewed 1009 eyes of 509 patients with a mean age of 29.1 years ± 12.2 (SD). The mean preoperative spherical refraction was -4.7 ± 2.5 diopters (D), and the mean preoperative cylinder was -1.1 ± 0.8 D. The mean preoperative decimal corrected distance visual acuity was 1.01 ± 0.07. Single-sheet mobilization of the loosened epithelium flap was found in 72.3% of cases. Fragmented preservation events occurred in 17.6% of cases; the flap was discarded in 10.0% of cases. Epithelium preservation was significantly correlated with age (P = .048) but not with other parameters (P > .05 for sex, sphere, cylinder, SE, keratometry, CCT, and surgeon experience). Epithelial flap dissection was less likely to lead to a single epithelial sheet in patients older than 50 years than in younger patients (56.3% versus 74.9%). The mean postoperative decimal uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) at 3 months was 0.98 ± 0.08. There was no statistical difference in postoperative UDVA between the undiscarded flap group and discarded flap group (P = .128). Successful dissection of single-sheet epithelial flap diminished with age. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reddy, Chaitan; Pennington, David; Stern, Harvey
The achievement of patency of the microvascular anastomosis in free flap surgery is dependent on a number of factors, central to which is atraumatic handling of the vessel lumen, and intimal apposition. Initial laboratory studies demonstrating the superiority of the non-penetrating vascular closure staple (VCS - Anastoclip ®) were followed by our report in 1999 on a series of free flaps. There is still a paucity of data in the literature on the use of non-penetrating devices for microvascular anastomosis, and our review gives evidence to support the routine use of the VCS in microsurgical free flap surgery. We now report on its successful use over a thirteen year period in 819 free flap reconstructions. Our data indicates the VCS device to be as effective as sutured anastomoses in free tissue transfer surgery. There is also statistically significant data (Barnard's Exact Test) to demonstrate a higher vascular patency rate of the VCS device over sutured anastomoses when sub group analysis is performed. 'Take-back' revision rates were lower amongst flaps that employed VCS use. For arterial anastomoses, this equated to 3/654(0.05%) vs 4/170(2.4%) with hand-sewn anastomoses (p = 0.02). Similarly, for venous anastomoses the 'take-back' revision rate was 7/661(1.1%) vs 8/165(4.8%) with hand-sewn anastomoses (p = 0.003). Furthermore, the major advantage of the VCS is reduction in anastomosis time, from approximately 25 min per anastomosis for sutures to between five and 10 min for staples. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerr, Edward E; Jamshidi, Ali; Carrau, Ricardo L; Campbell, Raewyn G; Filho, Leo F Ditzel; Otto, Bradley A; Prevedello, Daniel M
Objectives The pedicled nasoseptal flap (NSF) has dramatically reduced postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage following endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) surgery. Although rare, its arterial supply may be damaged during harvest or may be preoperatively damaged for numerous reasons. Early recognition permits harvesting a contralateral flap before sacrificing its pedicle as part of the surgical exposure or use of an alternative flap. Design Technical feasibility study and case series. Setting Tertiary care university-associated medical center. Participants Five patients requiring an EEA with NSF reconstruction. Main Outcome Measures During NSF harvest, intravenous indocyanine green (IVICG) was administered, and a customized endoscopic system was used to visualize the emerging fluorescence. At the end of each case, just before final positioning of the NSF, additional IVICG was administered, and the custom endoscope was again introduced to evaluate fluorescence. Results In four patients, the entire NSF fluoresced brightly with IVICG on initial harvest and before final positioning. One patient showed heterogeneous fluorescence of the pedicle and distal parts of the NSF at both stages. All NSFs healed well without complication. Conclusion IVICG facilitates real-time evaluation NSF's arterial supply. This may provide early recognition of arterial compromise, allowing the harvest of alternate flaps or modification of surgery.
Economides, N G; Skoutakis, V A; Carter, C A; Smith, V H
Recurrence of pressure ulcers is a serious problem following myocutaneous flap surgery and can lead to prolonged and expensive hospitalization. One of the most important aspects of patient care after surgery is the monitoring of reduced pressure in the area of the flap. Usually reducing pressure requires an expensive high-tech support surface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a less expensive support surface. There were 12 patients involved in a clinical trial that lasted 14 days and compared the effectiveness of the ROHO dry-floatation mattress to that of the Clinitron bed. Findings indicated that post-operative patients were effectively treated on either support surface.
Pranckeviciene, Alma; Siudikiene, Jolanta; Ostrauskas, Rytas; Machiulskiene, Vita
The objective of this study was to evaluate impact of periodontal surgery on periodontal health and on glycaemia control of type 1 and type 2 (T1DM; T2DM) diabetics with severe periodontitis, during 12 months follow-up, in comparison with non-diabetic controls. A total of 23 T1DM and 10 T2DM patients with respective number of matched non-diabetics were examined prior to, and 3, 6 and 12 months after periodontal surgery. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reflected control of DM. Periodontal parameters were oral debris (DI-S), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Periodontal status in all diabetics improved after 3 months and remained so during follow-up: mean (SD) DI-S > 1 (T1DM 1.1(0.5)/0.9(0.7); T2DM 1.2(0.4)/0.8(0.4)), PPD >5 mm (T1DM 35.1(32.2)/5.1(7.8); T2DM 46.3(24.2)/13.0(10.9)), CAL ≥6 mm (T1DM 44.4(37.0)/24.52(27.2)); mean % BOP >50 % (T1DM 57.1(25.1)/22.8(20.8)), T2DM 59.4(20.8)/18.9(15.7)), p < 0.05. Mean HbA1c values decreased in T2DM patients after 3 months and remained stable during follow-up. No improvement of glycaemia control was observed in T1DM patients. Positive correlation between mean HbA1c and CAL changes was observed (r = 0.842, p < 0.05). Mean changes of periodontal parameters did not differ between diabetics and controls. Periodontal surgery improved significantly periodontal status of all patients and metabolic control of T2DM patients. Research findings concerning long-term effect of periodontal surgery among patients with diabetes mellitus are scarce. We found that surgical periodontal treatment positively affects periodontal health of all diabetics and improves metabolic control of type 2 DM. There is a positive correlation between clinical attachment loss and glycosylated haemoglobin levels.
Dorafshar, Amir H; Januszyk, Michael; Song, David H
Techniques for autologous breast reconstruction have evolved to minimize donor-site morbidity and reduce flap-specific complications. When available, the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap represents the optimal method to achieve the former. However, many microsurgeons have been reluctant to adopt this procedure due to technical challenges inherent to the surgery, as well as concerns with the intrinsic capacity of the superficial vessel system to adequately support this flap. This article sets forth a simple approach to the SIEA flap harvest and demonstrates that favorable results may be achieved even for small caliber vessels. A total of 46 patients underwent 53 SIEA breast reconstructions over a 6-year period using a modified approach for pedicle dissection and arterial inclusion criteria solely on the basis of presence of a palpable pulse. Average pedicle length harvested for all SIEA flaps was 6.07 cm; and mean arterial (0.96 mm) and venous (2.27 mm) diameters represent the lowest published values. Three flaps (5.7%) demonstrated fat necrosis or partial flap necrosis, with one (1.9%) complete flap loss. These results compare favorably with those of previous SIEA series employing diameter-based selection criteria, suggesting that the presence of a palpable arterial pulse may be sufficient to permit successful utilization of this flap. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers.
Alqahtani, Nabeeh A; Khaleelahmed, S; Desai, Farheen
Background: The extraction of third molars is associated with some clinical outcomes and periodontal problems. It is imperative to note that the type of incision used in the surgery for the removal of the impacted third molar is critical. The design of the flap influences the healing of the surgically created defect and damage to the distal periodontal area of the adjacent second molar. However, till date, there have been conflicting reports on the influence of different flap designs used for the surgical removal of impacted third molars. Aim: The present study aimed to comparatively evaluate the clinical outcomes and periodontal status of the adjacent second molar, when two different flap designs, namely, the envelope and the modified triangular flap designs were used. Materials and Methods: Sixty female patients with bilateral impacted third molars completed the study with envelope flap on one side and modified triangular flap design on the other side of the mandible for third molar removal. Clinical parameters including pain, dehiscence and swelling were assessed postoperatively and periodontal probing depth (PPD) on the distal aspect of adjacent second molar were assessed both pre- and post-operatively. Results: The results were assessed on 1, 3 and 8 days for pain using visual analog scale. The subjective perception of swelling was evaluated on 3, 7 and 15 days postoperatively in a similar manner. The results of the periodontal parameters were evaluated both preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively, with cautious exploration using a University of North Carolina (UNC)-15 periodontal probe. The statistically significant results for swelling and PPD were noted for the two flap groups using the Chi-square test (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study revealed that the modified triangular flap had lesser postoperative PPDs and dehiscence. The envelope flap was better when swelling was analyzed. The pain scores, though slightly higher for the modified triangular flap
Li, Shaowei; Chen, Xu; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Man; Yu, Zhouxing
To present a novel technique that using capsulorhexis flap to protect corneal endothelial cells during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. During the procedure, an isolated capsulorhexis flap was used to lift it up carefully by using OVD until the flap attached to the corneal inner layer. It kept steady during the phaco phase, and been removed by I/A tip after intraocular lens implantation. In our pilot study, the damage to the corneal endothelial cells from the phacoemulsification procedure were no more than the traditional phaco procedure, even femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery. Isolated capsulorhexis flap technique initiate a new approach to protect the endothelial cell. It is a simple technique with a short learning curve, but still need a further investigation to prove the protection of corneal endothelial cells.
Santos, Felipe Rychuv; Kamarowski, Stephanie Felice; Lopez, Camilo Andres Villabona; Storrer, Carmen Lucia Mueller; Neto, Alexandre Teixeira; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda
Periodontal surgery associated with prior waxing, mock-up, and the use of digital tools to design the smile is the current trend of reverse planning in periodontal plastic surgery. The objective of this study is to report a surgical resolution of the gummy smile using a prior esthetic design with the use of digital tools. A digital smile design and mock-up were used for performing gingival recontouring surgery. The relationship between the facial and dental measures and the incisal plane with the horizontal facial plane of reference were evaluated. The relative dental height x width was measured, and the dental contour drawing was inserted. Complementary lines are drawn such as the gingival zenith, joining lines of the gingival and incisal battlements. The periodontal esthetic was improved according to the established design digital smile pattern. These results demonstrate the importance of surgical techniques and are well accepted by patients and are easy to perform for the professional. When properly planned, they provide the desired expectations. Periodontal Surgical procedures associated with the design digital smile facilitate the communication between the patient and the professional. It is, therefore, essential to demonstrate the reverse planning of the smile and periodontal parameters with approval by the patient to solve the esthetic problem.
Alió, J L; El Bahrawy, M; Angelov, A; Ortiz, D; Yébana, P
To investigate the influence of creating a flap on the postoperative optical quality of the cornea in terms of predicted corneal curvature and Seidel aberrations after 2 modalities of femtosecond assisted corneal lenticule extraction laser for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism: The flapless procedure small incision lenticular extraction (SMILE) and the flap-based femtosecond lenticular extraction (FLEx). The study is a prospective consecutive non-randomised comparative interventional case series including 64 eyes with myopic or myopic astigmatism refractive errors. Patients were divided into 2 groups matched for age, sex and myopia. One group underwent SMILE treatment and the other underwent FLEx treatment. Seidel aberrations root-mean-square values were obtained with a 10mm aperture using the ATLAS 9000 topographer before surgery and 3 months after surgery. The relationship between the post-surgical corneal radius and the predicted sculpted radius were analysed in each group. The mean percentage change in the curvature radius was -2.03% in the FLEx group and -1.77% in the SMILE group (P=.655). The higher correlation for the SMILE group demonstrates a better predictability after the surgery. As regards corneal aberrations, the FLEx treatment showed a greater increase of higher order aberrations than SMILE treatment (P=.04). The mean refractive change in corneal curvature, which is indirectly related to the biomechanical response of the corneal surface after the lenticule cut and extraction, was similar after both treatments. However, the flap based FLEx procedure showed a greater degradation of the corneal optical quality in terms of induction of higher order aberrations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Britain, Steven K; Arx, Thomas von; Schenk, Robert K; Buser, Daniel; Nummikoski, Pirkka; Cochran, David L
Chronic periodontic-endodontic lesions are not uncommon in clinical practice and their regenerative capacity has long been questioned. However, there are no published studies investigating the application of guided tissue regeneration techniques in combination with endodontic surgery using an induced perio-endo defect model. This study evaluated the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcomes of three surgical procedures used to treat induced perio-endo lesions. Pulpal necrosis was induced in foxhounds along with surgical removal of radicular buccal bone. After 4 weeks, chronic lesions were clinically and radiographically assessed. Treatment surgery consisted of apicoectomy, root canal instrumentation, and retrofilling with mineral trioxide aggregate. Teeth were then assigned to one of the following treatment groups: open flap debridement only (OFD), OFD with bioabsorbable porcine-derived collagen membrane (BG), or OFD with BG and anorganic bovine bone matrix (BO/BG). Clinical parameters and standardized radiographs were assessed at defect creation; treatment surgery; and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Animals were sacrificed at 6 months and specimens prepared for histometric analysis. Clinical and radiographic conditions improved during the study period. Mean epithelial attachment was similar between all groups. Mean connective tissue attachment for groups OFD, BG, and BO/BG was 3.79 mm, 2.63 mm, and 1.75 mm, respectively, and mean radicular bone height was 2.16 mm, 3.24 mm, and 3.45 mm, respectively. Statistically significant increases in the amount of new cementum were observed in groups BG and BO/BG when compared with OFD (P <0.05). Treatment of combined induced perio-endo lesions using bioabsorbable collagen membranes alone or in combination with anorganic bovine bone matrix resulted in increased amounts of bone, periodontal ligament, and significant increases in the amount of new cementum when compared to open flap debridement in a canine model.
Suzuki, Eiichi; Aoki, Hideo; Tomita, Sachiyo; Saito, Atsushi
We report a case of an elderly patient with chronic periodontitis requiring periodontal surgery. An 86-year-old man presented to Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital with the chief complaint of tooth fracture in the anterior region and occlusal pain in the posterior region. Clinical examination revealed 47% of sites with a probing depth (PD) of ≥4 mm and 47% of sites with bleeding on probing. Radiographic examination revealed generalized moderate horizontal bone loss with localized vertical defects. A clinical diagnosis of moderate chronic periodontitis was made. The patient's oral health-related quality of life (QoL) was also assessed at the time of each periodontal assessment. Initial periodontal therapy was provided followed by periodontal surgery. Open flap debridement was performed at sites with a PD of ≥5 mm (teeth #15-17). Surgical crown lengthening with an apically positioned flap was performed on #11 and 13 to gain an adequate biological width for the subsequent crown restoration. After confirming the stability of the periodontal tissue, provisional restorations were replaced with final restorations. No further deterioration was observed in the periodontal condition during the subsequent 1-year period of supportive periodontal therapy. Oral health-related QoL was markedly improved by the periodontal therapy. This suggests that periodontal therapy plays an important role in improving and maintaining oral health-related QoL in elderly people.
Awtrey, Christopher S; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Disa, Joseph J; Ivy, Joseph J; Kauff, Noah D; Hummer, Amanda J; Barakat, Richard R
The aim of this study was to describe the feasibility and outcome of laparoscopic risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in patients with a history of breast cancer who previously had undergone a transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction. We performed a retrospective review of patients with a history of breast cancer who had undergone laparoscopic RRSO between February 1995 and April 2002. Patients who had undergone TRAM flap reconstructive surgery were compared with patients who had undergone laparoscopic RRSO without prior reconstructive surgery. We identified 102 patients with a history of breast cancer who were candidates for a laparoscopic RRSO during the study period. One hundred one of these patients underwent the procedure, including 10 patients with a history of TRAM flap breast reconstructive surgery. One patient did not undergo the procedure because she was noted to be hypotensive prior to the procedure from her bowel preparation. There were no differences between the groups with or without prior history of TRAM flap reconstruction with respect to body mass index, prior abdominal surgery, menopausal status, or preoperative ultrasound characteristics. Operatively, there was no difference between the groups with respect to estimated blood loss, hospital stay, and intraoperative and postoperative complication rates. The only noted difference between the two groups was the estimated operating time (TRAM group, 91 min; non-TRAM group, 70 min [P<0.01]). Laparoscopic RRSO is safe and feasible in patients who have undergone a prior TRAM flap reconstruction.
Taş, Süleyman; Benlier, Erol
Otoplasty procedures aim to reduce the concha-mastoid angle and recreate the antihelical fold. Here, we explained the modified postauricular fascial flap, described as a new way for recreating the antihelical fold, and reported the results of patients on whom this flap was used. The defined technique was used on 24 patients (10 females and 14 males; age, 6-27 years; mean, 16.7 years) between June 2009 and July 2012, a total of 48 procedures in total (bilateral). Follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years (mean, 1.5 years). At the preoperative and postoperative time points (1 and 12 months after surgery), all patients were measured for upper and middle helix-head distance and were photographed. The records were analyzed statistically using t test and analysis of variance. The procedure resulted in ears that were natural in appearance without any significant visible evidence of surgery. The operations resulted in no complications except 1 patient who developed a small skin ulcer on the left ear because of band pressure. When we compared the preoperative and postoperative upper and middle helix-head distance, there was a high significance statistically. To introduce modified postauricular fascial flap, we used a simple and safe procedure to recreate an antihelical fold. This procedure led to several benefits, including a natural-in-appearance antihelical fold, prevention of suture extrusion and granuloma, as well as minimized risk for recurrence due to neochondrogenesis. This method may be used as a standard procedure for treating prominent ears surgically.
Grossman, K.: Optimal dosage of chlorhexidine digluconate in chemical plaque control when applied with an oral irrigator. J. Clin. Periodont. 8:189- 202...appear to be associated with the use of chlorhexidine , antibiotics and sanguinarine " (Lobene, 1979; Southard, et al., 1984). Plaque organisms that...patient discomfort (Levin, 1980). To minimize the influence of bacteria, chlorhexidine is used during the immediate post- operative period following
He, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Yue-Liang; Wang, Yi; Mei, Liang-Bin; Jin, Tao; Xu, Yong-Qing
As a distal portion of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral system (LCFS), the role of the distal runoff vessel in anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap surgery has long been overlooked. Recently, however, the distal runoff vessel has been increasingly used in many aspects of ALT flap surgery, and it has exhibited superior properties in solving some difficult problems. Fourteen ALT flaps using the distal runoff vessel of the descending branch of the LCFS for extremity defects were retrospectively reviewed, and recent reports on using the distal runoff vessel were reviewed to determine the role of this vessel in ALT flap surgery. In our series, the distal runoff vessel was used as a flow-through pattern in 10 cases, as a recombined chimeric flap in 2 cases, and as a backup vessel for flap salvage in 2 cases. All of the ALT flaps completely survived. None of the donor sites presented with additional morbidity as a result of harvesting the distal runoff vessel. In the literature review, the following are 5 other options for using the distal runoff vessel: in interposition artery and vein grafts, as the pedicle of the reverse-flow ALT flap, as the recipient vessel, to avoid twisting, and as a monitoring method. The distal runoff vessel of the descending branch of the LCFS could be used for many aspects of the ALT flap surgery, and this vessel plays an irreplaceable role in some difficult reconstruction surgeries.
This report is to present the treatment procedure and clinical considerations of prosthodontic management of a patient who had undergone a partial mandibulectomy and fibular free flap surgery. A 59-year-old man with a squamous cell carcinoma received a partial mandibular resection. Microsurgical reconstruction with a fibular free flap surgery and implant-supported zirconia-fixed prosthesis produced by computer-aided manufacturing led to successful results for the oral rehabilitation of mandibular defects. The implant-supported zirconia-fixed prosthesis can be recommended for use in patients with mandibulectomy and fibular free flaps. Close cooperation between the surgeon and the prosthodontist is mandatory for the satisfaction of the patient.
Linard, Christine; Brachet, Michel; Strup-Perrot, Carine; L'homme, Bruno; Busson, Elodie; Squiban, Claire; Holler, Valerie; Bonneau, Michel; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Eric; Benderitter, Marc
Cutaneous radiation syndrome has severe long-term health consequences. Because it causes an unpredictable course of inflammatory waves, conventional surgical treatment is ineffective and often leads to a fibronecrotic process. Data about the long-term stability of healed wounds, with neither inflammation nor resumption of fibrosis, are lacking. In this study, we investigated the effect of injections of local autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs), combined with plastic surgery for skin necrosis, in a large-animal model. Three months after irradiation overexposure to the rump, minipigs were divided into three groups: one group treated by simple excision of the necrotic tissue, the second by vascularized-flap surgery, and the third by vascularized-flap surgery and local autologous BM-MSC injections. Three additional injections of the BM-MSCs were performed weekly for 3 weeks. The quality of cutaneous wound healing was examined 1 year post-treatment. The necrotic tissue excision induced a pathologic scar characterized by myofibroblasts, excessive collagen-1 deposits, and inadequate vascular density. The vascularized-flap surgery alone was accompanied by inadequate production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (decorin, fibronectin); the low col1/col3 ratio, associated with persistent inflammatory nodules, and the loss of vascularization both attested to continued immaturity of the ECM. BM-MSC therapy combined with vascularized-flap surgery provided mature wound healing characterized by a col1/col3 ratio and decorin and fibronectin expression that were all similar to that of nonirradiated skin, with no inflammation, and vascular stability. In this preclinical model, vascularized flap surgery successfully and lastingly remodeled irradiated skin only when combined with BM-MSC therapy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018. © 2018 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Alpha
Gutiérrez-Vela, María M.; Díaz-Haro, Ana; Berbel-Salvador, Sonia; Lucero-Sánchez, Aldo; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio
Objectics: The evolution of research activity during the last thirty years on regenerative periodontal surgery is studied. Results: A small number of authors are highly productive with more than 10 publications on the subject each. 79,6% of authors have only produced one article on the subject. The co-authorship average is of 2,68 authors per paper, with a collaboration between 2 and 6 authors. Main journals on the field of regenerative periodontal surgery are Journal of Periodontology and Journal of Clinical Periodontology, which are ranked 14th and 1st in their category according to the Journal Citations Reports. The most used language is English, followed by Japanese and Italian, Spanish occupying the eighth position. Conclusions: A significant increase on scientific literature is observed, similar to the one Dentistry has had. A reduced number of authors account for most production. In the same token, there is a scarce professionalization of researchers in this field, where most of the authors are occasional. On the other hand, there are two very specialized journals on this topic. Key words:Bibliometrics, scientometrics periodontal regeneration, surgical periodontal treatment, scientific literature, scopus, scientific output. PMID:24558535
Pietruska, Małgorzata; Skurska, Anna; Pietruski, Jan; Dolińska, Ewa; Arweiler, Nicole; Milewski, Robert; Duraj, Ewa; Sculean, Anton
The aim of this study has been to compare the clinical and radiographic outcome of periodontal intrabony defect treatment by open flap debridement alone or in combination with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute application. Thirty patients diagnosed with advanced periodontits were divided into two groups: the control group (OFD), in which an open flap debridement procedure was performed and the test group (OFD+NHA), in which defects were additionally filled with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute material. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket depth (PD), gingival recession (GR) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured prior to, then 6 and 12months following treatment. Radiographic depth and width of defects were also evaluated. There were no differences in any clinical and radiographic parameters between the examined groups prior to treatment. After treatment, BOP, GI, PD, CAL, radiographic depth and width parameter values improved statistically significantly in both groups. The PI value did not change, but the GR value increased significantly after treatment. There were no statistical differences in evaluated parameters between OFD and OFD+NHA groups 6 and 12months after treatment. Within the limits of the study, it can be concluded that the additional use of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute material after open flap procedure does not improve clinical and radiographic treatment outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ozben, Volkan; Aytac, Erman; Liu, Xiaobo; Ozuner, Gokhan
Whether creation of omental pedicle flap (OPF) to reinforce bowel anastomosis can reduce septic outcomes remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of this technique on anastomotic leak and septic complications after rectal cancer surgery. Patients who underwent rectal cancer surgery from 01/2008 to 12/2013 were identified and categorized into two groups based on OPF creation versus no-OPF creation. Clinical, operative characteristics and postoperative anastomotic leak and surgical site infections within 30 days after surgery were compared between the groups. There were 65 (14%) and 403 (86%) patients in OPF and no-OPF group, respectively. In multivariate analysis, OPF was not found to be associated with anastomotic leak (p = 0.35), organ/space infections (p = 0.99) and overall surgical site infections (p = 0.65). Three hundred and sixty eight (78.6%) patients underwent diversion. OPF did not reduce septic complications irrespective of the stoma status (p > 0.05). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of operative (p = 0.46) and non-operative management (p = 0.14). OPF neither reduced the incidence of anastomotic leak and surgical site infections nor had any impact on the management of anastomotic leak. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Yue; Zhang, Fang; Lyu, Xin; Yan, Zhimin; Hua, Hong; Peng, Xin
Relevant reports about oral candidiasis status and prevention measures after free flap surgery for the oral and maxillofacial region are limited. The present study explored oral candidiasis status after free flap surgery and its prevention through a prospective comparative study. One hundred four patients were randomized to a control group (n = 54) and an experimental group (n = 50). Compared with the control group, the experimental group was provided an additional 3% sodium bicarbonate saline solution for oral care after free flap surgery. The incidence of oral candidiasis was evaluated by objective examination (saliva culture and salivary pH measurement) and subjective evaluation (clinical signs of oral candidiasis) at admission and from postoperative days 1 to 14. The salivary pH values of the 2 groups were lower than the normal salivary pH, and postoperative salivary pH values were always lower than the active range of oral lysozymes in the control group. The salivary pH values of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group from postoperative days 6 to 14 (P < .05). The incidence of oral candidiasis was 13.0% in the control group, which was higher than that in the experimental group (2.0%; P < .05). In addition, advanced age, use of a free flap for the simultaneous repair of intraoral and paraoral defects, and a combination of 2 antibiotic types were risk factors for oral candidiasis. Oral candidiasis was common in patients after free flap reconstruction surgery, and the use of 3% sodium bicarbonate saline solution for oral care effectively prevented it. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vályi, Péter; Gorzó, István
The periodontal abscess is an acute destructive process in the periodontium resulting in localized collections of pus communicating with the oral cavity through the gingival sulcus or other periodontal sites and not arising from the tooth pulp. The prevalence of periodontal abscess is relatively high and it affects the prognosis of the tooth. Periodontal abscesses can develop on the base of persisting periodontitis but can also occur in the absence of periodontitis. The cause of the development of periodontal abscess originating from chronic periodontitis is the marginal closure of a periodontal pocket, or the pocket lumen might be too tight to drain the increased suppuration due to changes in the composition of subgingival microflora, alteration of bacterial virulence or host defenses. Diagnosis of a periodontal abscess is based on medical and dental history as well as oral examination (pocket depth, swelling, suppuration, mobility, sensibility of the tooth). The most prevalent group of bacteria: P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, B. forsythus, F. nucleatum and P. micros. Previous studies have suggested that the complete therapy of the periodontitis patients with acute periodontal abscess has to do in two stages: the first stage is the management of acute lesions, then the second stage is the appropriate comprehensive treatment of the original and/or residual lesions. The management of acute lesions includes establishing drainage via pocket lumen, subgingival scaling and root planing, curettage of the lining pocket epithelia and seriously inflamed connective tissue, compressing pocket wall to underlying tooth and periodontal support, and maintaining tissue contact. Some authors recommend the incision or to establish drainage and irrigation, or a flap surgery, or even extraction of hopeless teeth. We recommend the use of systemic antibiotics as a preventive measure of systemic disease or in case of systemic symptoms.
Oswal, Sheetal; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Sinha, Aditya; Manjunath, Shaurya
Aims and Objectives: (1) To evaluate the need of antibiotics in periodontal surgeries in reducing postsurgical infections and explore if antibiotics have any key role in reducing or eliminating inflammatory complications. (2) To establish the incidence of postoperative infections in relation to type of surgery and determine those factors, which may affect infection rates. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized double-blind cross over clinical study was carried out for a period of 1-year with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients included in the study for any periodontal surgery were randomly divided into three categories: Group A (prophylactic), Group B (therapeutic), and Group C (no antibiotics). Patients were followed up for 1-week after surgery on the day of suture removal and were evaluated for pain, swelling, fever, infection, delayed wound healing and any other significant findings. Appropriate statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the objectives and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: No infection was reported in any of 90 sites. Patients reported less pain and postoperative discomfort when prophylactic antibiotics were given. However, there were no statistical significant differences between the three groups. Summary and Conclusion: There was no postoperative infection reported in all the 90 sites operated in this study. The prevalence of postoperative infections following periodontal surgery is <1% and this low risk does not justify the routine use of systemic antimicrobials just to prevent infections. Use of prophylactic antibiotics may have role in prevention of inflammatory complication, but again not infection. PMID:25425817
Klem, Christopher; Sniezek, Joseph C; Moore, Brian; Davis, Michael R; Coppit, George; Schmalbach, Cecelia
Local nationals with complex wounds resulting from traumatic combat injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom usually must undergo reconstructive surgery in the combat zone. While the use of microvascular free-tissue transfer (free flaps) for traumatic reconstruction is well documented in the literature, various complicating factors exist when these intricate surgical procedures are performed in a theater of war. The microvascular experiences of six military surgeons deployed during a 30-month period between 2006 and 2011 in Iraq and Afghanistan were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-nine patients presented with complex traumatic wounds. Thirty-one free flaps were performed for the 29 patients. Location of tissue defects included the lower extremity (15), face/neck (8), upper extremity (6). Limb salvage was successful in all but one patient. Six of eight patients with head and neck wounds were tolerating oral intake at the time of discharge. There were three flap losses in 3 patients; two patients who experienced flap loss underwent a successful second free or regional flap. Minor complications occurred in six patients. Microvascular free tissue transfer for complex tissue defects in a combat zone is a critically important task and can improve quality of life for host-nation patients. Major US combat hospitals deployed to a war zone should include personnel who are trained and capable of performing these complex reconstructive procedures and who understand the many nuances of optimizing outcomes in this challenging environment.
Raut, Chetan Purushottam; Sethi, Kunal Sunder; Kohale, Bhagyashree; Mamajiwala, Alefiya; Warang, Ayushya
Postsurgical root sensitivity has always been an enigma to the periodontists. There is a plethora of evidence suggesting the presence of root sensitivity following periodontal flap surgical procedures. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare and evaluate the effect of low-power diode lasers with and without topical application of stannous fluoride (SnF 2 ) gel in the treatment of root sensitivity and also evaluate whether laser creates any placebo effect in the control group or not. Thirty patients participated in this study and 99 teeth were included. Root sensitivity was assessed for all groups with a Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). For each patient, the teeth were randomized into three groups. In the test Group I, sensitive teeth were treated with SnF 2 and diode laser. In the test Group II, sensitive teeth were irradiated with laser only. In the control group, no treatment was performed. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) score for VRS and Visual Analog Scale at baseline was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05) between the three groups. After 15 min, statistical significant difference was seen in test Group I and test Group II, although no difference was found in the control group. At 15 th day and 30 th day, the mean ± SD scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.05). Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that diode lasers alone and in combination with 0.4% SnF 2 was effective in the treatment of root sensitivity after access flap surgery.
MUNTEAN, MAXIMILIAN VLAD; MUNTEAN, VALENTIN; ARDELEAN, FILIP; GEORGESCU, ALEXANDRU
Flap monitoring technology has progressed alongside flap design. The highly variable vascular anatomy and the complexity associated with modern perforator flaps demands dynamic, real-time, intraoperative information about the vessel location, perfusion patterns and flap physiology. Although most surgeons still assess flap perfusion and viability based solely on clinical experience, studies have shown that results may be highly variable and often misleading. Poor judgment of intraoperative perfusion leads to major complications. Employing dynamic perfusion imaging during flap reconstruction has led to a reduced complication rate, lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and an overall better result. With the emergence of multiple systems capable of intraoperative flap evaluation, the purpose of this article is to review the two systems that have been widely accepted and are currently used by plastic surgeons: Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT). PMID:26609259
Bianchi, Andrea E; Bassetti, Achille
The aim of this paper was to describe a new surgical technique designed to preserve interdental tissue in guided tissue regeneration. This procedure was created to specifically regenerate wide intrabony defects in the esthetic zone. Fourteen subjects with an intraosseous defect in the maxillary incisor region took part in this clinical study. The defects were treated with bioresorbable membranes in combination with a bovine bone mineral graft. At baseline and at 12 months after surgery, the following clinical parameters were measured: full-mouth plaque scores, full-mouth bleeding scores, probing pocket depths, clinical attachment levels, and gingival recession. A significant gain in clinical attachment level (4.57 +/- 0.65 mm) and a reduction in probing depths (5.14 +/- 0.95 mm) were reported 12 months after surgery. The surgical technique allowed complete flap closure in every treated site, resulting in significant improvement of the clinical parameters; thus, it appeared especially appropriate for the treatment of wide defects in the esthetic zone.
Sifakis, Eftychios; Hellrung, Jeffrey; Teran, Joseph; Oliker, Aaron; Cutting, Court
One of the most fundamental challenges in plastic surgery is the alteration of the geometry and topology of the skin. The specific decisions made by the surgeon concerning the size and shape of the tissue to be removed and the subsequent closure of the resulting wound may have a dramatic affect on the quality of life for the patient after the procedure is completed. The plastic surgeon must look at the defect created as an organic puzzle, designing the optimal pattern to close the hole aesthetically and efficiently. In the past, such skills were the distillation of years of hands-on practice on live patients, while relevant reference material was limited to two-dimensional illustrations. Practicing this procedure on a personal computer  has been largely impractical to date, but recent technological advances may come to challenge this limitation. We present a comprehensive real-time virtual surgical environment, based on finite element modeling and simulation of tissue cutting and manipulation. Our system demonstrates the fundamental building blocks of plastic surgery procedures on a localized tissue flap, and provides a proof of concept for larger simulation systems usable in the authoring of complex procedures on elaborate subject geometry.
Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann
The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in the implant failure rates, postoperative infection, and marginal bone loss for patients being rehabilitated by dental implants being inserted by a flapless surgical procedure versus the open flap technique, against the alternative hypothesis of a difference. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in March 2014. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomized or not. The search strategy resulted in 23 publications. The I2 statistic was used to express the percentage of the total variation across studies due to heterogeneity. The inverse variance method was used for random-effects model or fixed-effects model, when indicated. The estimates of relative effect were expressed in risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) in millimeters. Sixteen studies were judged to be at high risk of bias, whereas two studies were considered of moderate risk of bias, and five studies of low risk of bias. The funnel plots indicated absence of publication bias for the three outcomes analyzed. The test for overall effect showed that the difference between the procedures (flapless vs. open flap surgery) significantly affect the implant failure rates (P = 0.03), with a RR of 1.75 (95% CI 1.07–2.86). However, a sensitivity analysis revealed differences when studies of high and low risk of bias were pooled separately. Thus, the results must be interpreted carefully. No apparent significant effects of flapless technique on the occurrence of postoperative infection (P = 0.96; RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.23–4.03) or on the marginal bone loss (P = 0.16; MD −0.07 mm, 95% CI −0.16–0.03) were observed. PMID:24950053
Eloy, Jean Anderson; Patel, Amit A; Shukla, Pratik A; Choudhry, Osamah J; Liu, James K
The vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flap (PNSF) represents a successful option for reconstruction of large skull base defects after expanded endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA). This vascularized flap can be harvested early or late in the operation depending on the anticipation of high-flow CSF leaks. Each harvesting technique (early vs. late) is associated with different advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we evaluate our experience with early harvesting of the PNSF for repair of large skull base defects after EEA. A retrospective review was performed at a tertiary care medical center on patients who underwent early PNSF harvesting during reconstruction of intraoperative high-flow CSF leaks after EEA between December 2008 and March 2012. Demographic data, repair materials, surgical approach, and incidence of PNSF usage were collected. Eighty-seven patients meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. In 86 procedures (98.9%), the PNSF harvested at the beginning of the operation was used. In 1 case (1.1%), the PNSF was not used because a high-flow intraoperative CSF leak was not encountered. This patient had recurrence of intradural disease 8months later, and the previously elevated PNSF was subsequent used after tumor resection. Based on our data, a high-flow CSF leak and need for a PNSF can be accurately anticipated in patients undergoing EEA for skull base lesions. Because of the advantages of early harvesting of the PNSF and the high preoperative predictive value of CSF leak anticipations, this technique represents a feasible harvesting practice for EEA surgeries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hao; Yu, Hong-bo; Yuan, Hao; Shen, Guo-fang; Wang, Xu-dong
Maxillectomy in childhood not only causes composite primary defects but also secondary malformation of the middle and lower face. In the case presented, we introduced computer-assisted planning and simulation of orthognathic surgery combined with fibular osteomyocutaneous flap reconstruction to correct complex craniofacial deformities. Virtual orthognathic surgery and maxillary reconstruction surgery were undertaken preoperatively. LeFort I osteotomy, with bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy and lower border ostectomy, was performed to correct malocclusion and facial asymmetry. Maxillary reconstruction was accomplished using a fibular osteomyocutaneous flap. The patient recovered uneventfully with an adequate aesthetic appearance on 3D computed tomography. Our experience indicates that orthognathic surgery combined with fibular osteomyocutaneous flap reconstruction can used to correct complex facial asymmetry and maxillary defects secondary to maxillectomy. Computer-assisted simulation enables precise execution of the reconstruction. It shortens the free flap ischemia time and reduces the risks associated with microsurgery.
Clinical features of surgical soft tissue wound healing in dentistry have been rarely discussed in the international literature. The aim of the present paper is to highlight both the main clinical findings of surgical wound healing, especially in periodontal and implant dentistry, and the wound healing monitoring procedures which should be followed. Wound inspection after careful food and plaque debridement is the essential part of wound healing monitoring. Periodontal and peri-implant probing should be performed only after tissue healing has been completed and not on a weekly basis in peri-implant tissue monitoring. Telephone follow-up and patient self-assessment scales can also be used the days following surgery to monitor the most common surgical complications such as pain, swelling, bleeding, and bruising. Wound healing monitoring is an important concern in all surgical procedures since it allows to identify signs or/and symptoms possibly related to surgical complications. PMID:28824306
Clinical features of surgical soft tissue wound healing in dentistry have been rarely discussed in the international literature. The aim of the present paper is to highlight both the main clinical findings of surgical wound healing, especially in periodontal and implant dentistry, and the wound healing monitoring procedures which should be followed. Wound inspection after careful food and plaque debridement is the essential part of wound healing monitoring. Periodontal and peri-implant probing should be performed only after tissue healing has been completed and not on a weekly basis in peri-implant tissue monitoring. Telephone follow-up and patient self-assessment scales can also be used the days following surgery to monitor the most common surgical complications such as pain, swelling, bleeding, and bruising. Wound healing monitoring is an important concern in all surgical procedures since it allows to identify signs or/and symptoms possibly related to surgical complications.
Goldie, Stephen J; Almasharqah, Riyadh; Fogg, Quentin A; Anderson, William
Reconstruction of the perineum is required following oncological resections. Plastic surgical techniques can be used to restore the aesthetics and function of the perineum. The gracilis myocutaneous flap provides a substantial skin paddle, with minimal donor site morbidity. The flap is pedicled on a perforator from the medial circumflex femoral artery, giving it limited reach across the perineum. Tunnelling the flap under the adductor longus muscle may free up more of the arterial pedicle, increasing its reach. On three female cadavers, bilateral gracilis flaps were raised in the standard surgical manner, giving six flaps in total. With the flaps pedicled across the perineum, the distance from the tip of each flap was measured to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). The flaps were then tunnelled under the adductor longus muscle. The distances to the ASIS were measured again. The average pedicle length was greater than 7 cm. Tunnelling the flap under the adductor longus muscle increased the reach by more than 4 cm on average. Cadaveric dissection has shown that tunnelling of the flap in a novel way increase its reach across the perineum. This additional flexibility improves its use clinically and is of benefit to plastic surgeons operating in perineal reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lam, D L; Mitsumori, L M; Neligan, P C; Warren, B H; Shuman, W P; Dubinsky, T J
Autologous breast reconstructive surgery with deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator flaps has become the mainstay for breast reconstructive surgery. CT angiography and three-dimensional image post processing can depict the number, size, course and location of the DIEA perforating arteries for the pre-operative selection of the best artery to use for the tissue flap. Knowledge of the location and selection of the optimal perforating artery shortens operative times and decreases patient morbidity.
Blanchard, Steven B; Almasri, Amjad; Gray, Jonathon L
A 43-year-old African American male initially presented for a dental evaluation of a recurrent swelling on the buccal aspect of tooth #12. His medical history was unremarkable except for a 20-pack year history of smoking. He was eventually diagnosed as having a necrotic pulp #12, and received root canal treatment. The patient's problem was unresolved, and he was subsequently referred for a periodontal evaluation with a presumptive diagnosis of a periodontal abscess. A flap was reflected from teeth #11 through #15. A buccal furcation invasion was discovered on #12. Shortly thereafter, three distinct roots with three grade III furcation invasions were located. The tooth was deemed untreatable, and was extracted. The thin buccal plate of the extraction socket was preserved using freeze-dried bone allograft to facilitate future prosthodontic replacement. Healing was uneventful. Periodontal open flap debridement surgery was provided for the remainder of the mouth, and the patient was placed on a 3-month recall program. Periodontitis associated with endodontic lesions are among the most daunting diagnostic and therapeutic challenges faced by periodontists. This is particularly true for maxillary premolars with multiple roots. The tooth in this case, once periodontally involved, had a very poor prognosis. The prognosis was further compromised by the pulpal involvement. Therapy consisted of extraction of the tooth to relieve the patient's discomfort and treating the adjacent teeth with periodontal open flap debridement surgery. A review of the literature pertinent to the diagnosis and management of periodontal-endodontic lesions is also presented.
Dort, Joseph C; Farwell, D Gregory; Findlay, Merran; Huber, Gerhard F; Kerr, Paul; Shea-Budgell, Melissa A; Simon, Christian; Uppington, Jeffrey; Zygun, David; Ljungqvist, Olle; Harris, Jeffrey
Head and neck cancers often require complex, labor-intensive surgeries, especially when free flap reconstruction is required. Enhanced recovery is important in this patient population but evidence-based protocols on perioperative care for this population are lacking. To provide a consensus-based protocol for optimal perioperative care of patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery with free flap reconstruction. Following endorsement by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society to develop this protocol, a systematic review was conducted for each topic. The PubMed and Cochrane databases were initially searched to identify relevant publications on head and neck cancer surgery from 1965 through April 2015. Consistent key words for each topic included "head and neck surgery," "pharyngectomy," "laryngectomy," "laryngopharyngectomy," "neck dissection," "parotid lymphadenectomy," "thyroidectomy," "oral cavity resection," "glossectomy," and "head and neck." The final selection of literature included meta-analyses and systematic reviews as well as randomized controlled trials where available. In the absence of high-level data, case series and nonrandomized studies in head and neck cancer surgery patients or randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews in non-head and neck cancer surgery patients, were considered. An international panel of experts in major head and neck cancer surgery and enhanced recovery after surgery reviewed and assessed the literature for quality and developed recommendations for each topic based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. All recommendations were graded following a consensus discussion among the expert panel. The literature search, including a hand search of reference lists, identified 215 relevant publications that were considered to be the best evidence for the topic areas. A total of 17 topic areas were identified for inclusion in the protocol for the perioperative
Deepa, D; Mehta, D. S.; Puri, Viren K.; Shetty, Sadashiva
Orthodontic treatment in adult patients is one of the most frequently encountered components involving multidisciplinary approaches. In the present report, a 28-year-old male patient was treated for localized chronic periodontitis with pocket formation, mobility, pathologic migration and malalignment of maxillary left lateral incisor tooth #22. The periodontal therapy included motivation, education and oral-hygiene instructions (O.H.I.), scaling and root planing and periodontal flap surgery. Subsequently on resolution of periodontal inflammation, orthodontic therapy was carried out using the orthodontic aligner for a period of 6 months. Post-treatment (3 years) results showed complete resolution of infrabony pocket with significant bone fill, reduced tooth mobility and complete alignment of the affected maxillary left lateral incisor, thus restoring the esthetics and function. PMID:21691554
Deepa, D; Mehta, D S; Puri, Viren K; Shetty, Sadashiva
Orthodontic treatment in adult patients is one of the most frequently encountered components involving multidisciplinary approaches. In the present report, a 28-year-old male patient was treated for localized chronic periodontitis with pocket formation, mobility, pathologic migration and malalignment of maxillary left lateral incisor tooth #22. The periodontal therapy included motivation, education and oral-hygiene instructions (O.H.I.), scaling and root planing and periodontal flap surgery. Subsequently on resolution of periodontal inflammation, orthodontic therapy was carried out using the orthodontic aligner for a period of 6 months. Post-treatment (3 years) results showed complete resolution of infrabony pocket with significant bone fill, reduced tooth mobility and complete alignment of the affected maxillary left lateral incisor, thus restoring the esthetics and function.
Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes. PMID:22368356
instru- ments, ultrasonic devices, air driven reciprocating hand- pieces, and air driven rotary handpieces (Schaffer, 1967). None of these techniques...system, the Prophy-Jet Mark IV C-100 , may be an alternative to conventional mechanical and chemical methods of detoxifying roots. The handpiece is...electric current and uses inlet air pressure of 65 to 100 p.s.i. and inlet water pressure of 25 to 60 p.s.i. The handpiece propels particles of the
Physiologic Enzyme ) Subepithelial Connective Tissue Autograft Food and Drug Administration Forced Expirato1y Volume in 1 Second Free Gingival...emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage" (Turk & Okifuji, 2010). Pain may be defined as acute or chronic based on time... potentially painful signals are lowered. Lowered thresholds can occur at the peripheral free nerve endings and centrally at neuronal synapses throughout
Shoukry, M; Ben Ali, L; Abdel Naby, M; Soliman, A
Forty mongrel dogs were used in this study for induction of periodontal disease by placing subgingival silk ligatures affecting maxillary and mandibular premolar teeth during a 12-month period. Experimental premolar teeth received monthly clinical, radiographic, and histometric/pathologic assessments. The results demonstrated significant increases in scores and values of periodontal disease parameters associated with variable degrees of alveolar bone loss. The experimental maxillary premolar teeth exhibited more severe and rapid rates of periodontal disease compared with mandibular premolar teeth. Histometric analysis showed significant reduction in free and attached gingiva of the experimental teeth. Histopathological examination of buccolingual sections from experimental premolar teeth showed the presence of rete pegs within the sulcular epithelium with acanthosis and erosive changes, widening of the periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone resorption. Various methods for periodontal repair were studied in 194 experimental premolar teeth exhibiting different degrees of periodontal disease. The treatment plan comprised non-surgical (teeth scaling, root planing, and oral hygiene) and surgical methods (closed gingival curettage, modified Widman flap, and reconstructive surgery using autogenous bone marrow graft and canine amniotic membrane). The initial non-surgical treatment resulted in a periodontal recovery rate of 37.6% and was found effective for treatment of early periodontal disease based on resolution of gingivitis and reduction of periodontal probing depths. Surgical treatment by closed gingival curettage to eliminate the diseased pocket lining resulted in a recovery rate of 48.8% and proved effective in substantially reducing deep periodontal pockets. Open root planing following flap elevation resulted in a recovery rate of 85.4% and was effective for deep and refractory periodontal pockets. Autogenous bone graft implantation combined with canine amniotic
de Sena, David P; Fabricio, Daniela D; Lopes, Maria Helena I; da Silva, Vinicius D
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a multimedia software application for mobile platforms to assist in the teaching and learning process of design and construction of a skin flap. Traditional training in surgery is based on learning by doing. Initially, the use of cadavers and animal models appeared to be a valid alternative for training. However, many conflicts with these training models prompted progression to synthetic and virtual reality models. Fifty volunteer fifth- and sixth-year medical students completed a pretest and were randomly allocated into two groups of 25 students each. The control group was exposed for 5 minutes to a standard text-based print article, while the test group used multimedia software describing how to fashion a rhomboid flap. Each group then performed a cutaneous flap on a training bench model while being evaluated by three blinded BSPS (Brazilian Society of Plastic Surgery) board-certified surgeons using the OSATS (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill) protocol and answered a post-test. The text-based group was then tested again using the software. The computer-assisted learning (CAL) group had superior performance as confirmed by checklist scores (p<0.002), overall global assessment (p = 0.017) and post-test results (p<0.001). All participants ranked the multimedia method as the best study tool. CAL learners exhibited better subjective and objective performance when fashioning rhomboid flaps as compared to those taught with standard print material. These findings indicate that students preferred to learn using the multimedia method.
... Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care; Pressure ulcer skin flap self-care; Burns skin flap self- ... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that DO NOT heal After ...
Comparison of applying particulate demineralized bone matrix (DBM), putty DBM and open flap debridement in periodontal horizontal bone defects. A 12-month longitudinal, multi-centre, triple-blind, split-mouth, randomized, controlled clinical study. Part 2 - evaluation of the interdental soft tissue.
Kaya, Y; Yalim, M; Bahçecitapar, M; Baloş, K
To date, there have been many studies clinically evaluating periodontal regenerative procedures by the help of routinely used hard and soft tissue parameters; however, these parameters are not capable of assessing interdental soft tissue located above the regenerative periodontal surgery area. The purpose of this study was to assess interproximal soft tissue changes following application of (i) particulate form demineralized bone matrix (DBM), (ii) putty form DBM and (ii) open flap debridement (OFD, control), using modified curtain technique in the treatment of interproximal suprabony (horizontal) defects located in anterior maxillary region, as previously reported. Twenty-five chronic periodontitis patients with 125 interproximal surgery sites (radiologically >or=4 mm horizontal bone defect) were also participate in this second stage of the triple-blind, split mouth, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Surgery sites were assessed by (i) plaque index (PI), (ii) gingival index (GI), (iii) the presence of interdental soft tissue clefts or craters and (iv) the loss of interdental papilla height by using papilla presence index (PPI), during the healing period. At the baseline and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the operations, these measurements were repeated. In all groups, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of soft tissue cleft and crater formation (P < 0.01), with increase in PI and GI scores at interdental soft tissue defect areas (P < 0.001), 3 months after the operations. There was also an increase in PPI scores after the operations in all treatment groups (P < 0.01). Three procedures affected the interproximal soft tissues similarly. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of all parameters (P > 0.05). Particulate DBM, putty DBM and OFD demostrated similar interproximal soft tissue changes especially increasing interproximal PI and GI scores in 3 months follow-up.
Jacombs, A S W; Rome, P; Harrison, J D; Solomon, M J
This study aimed to explore and quantify the selection process to guide the decision on closure type (myocutaneous flap repair (MFR) or primary closure) for people undergoing pelvic exenteration. This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database with review of hospital records for verification and capture of missing data. Associations between four risk factors (previous radiotherapy, previous abdominoperineal resection, need for total exenteration, need for sacrectomy) were assessed individually and collectively as predictors of closure type and wound complications. A total of 203 pelvic exenteration procedures were reviewed (75 primary and 122 recurrent cancers). Thirty-nine patients (19·2 per cent) had MFR and 164 (80·8 per cent) primary closure. Patients who had MFR were significantly more likely to exhibit each risk factor, confirming the selective decision process. MFR had higher rates of complications across all four risk factors, individually and combined. In the primary closure group, there was a significant correlation between the number of risk factors and the proportion of patients with a complication (r = 0·25, P = 0·008). In contrast, no such relationship was found for the MFR group (r = 0·01, P = 0·973). Among patients who had any complication, the primary closure group had significantly lower rates of any wound dehiscence (15 of 64 versus 17 of 28; P < 0·001) and total infection (16 of 64 versus 14 of 28; P = 0·019) compared with the MFR group. Rates of wound and septic complications after pelvic exenteration were low in patients with fewer than two risk factors who had a primary closure. MFR had significantly higher complication rates, and should be reserved for patients with two or more risk factors or extensive skin involvement. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wang, Yunji; Chai, Zhaowu; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Feng; Wang, Zhibiao; Song, Jinlin
This study was conducted to evaluate, with micro-computed tomography, the influence of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on wound-healing in periodontal tissues. Periodontal disease with Class II furcation involvement was surgically produced at the bilateral mandibular premolars in 8 adult male beagle dogs. Twenty-four teeth were randomly assigned among 4 groups (G): G1, periodontal flap surgery; G2, periodontal flap surgery+low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS); G3, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) surgery; G4, GTR surgery plus LIPUS. The affected area in the experimental group was exposed to LIPUS. At 6 and 8weeks, the X-ray images of regenerated teeth were referred to micro-CT scanning for 3-D measurement. Bone volume (BV), bone surface (BS), and number of trabeculae (Tb) in G2 and G4 were higher than in G1 and G3 (p<0.05). BV, BS, and Tb.N of the GTR+LIPUS group were higher than in the GTR group. BV, BS, and Tb.N of the LIPUS group were higher than in the periodontal flap surgery group. LIPUS irradiation increased the number, volume, and area of new alveolar bone trabeculae. LIPUS has the potential to promote the repair of periodontal tissue, and may work effectively if combined with GTR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Artiaco, Stefano; Bianchi, Pasquale; Boux, Elena; Tos, Pierluigi
The reconstruction of loss of substance due to trauma or oncological excision may have relevant functional and aesthetic implications. We report our experience in twenty-one cases of propeller flaps for the treatment of loss of substance of the upper and lower limbs. The etiology of defect was tumor excision in nine cases, trauma in seven cases, surgical wound complications in four cases, and chronic osteomyelitis in one case. Clinical results were favorable in most cases and eighteen flaps survived. We observed an overall complication rate of 33% with four cases of superficial epidermolysis that spontaneously healed and three cases of partial flap loss ranging from 10 to 50% that required surgical revision by means of skin graft (two cases) or ALT free flap (one case). Propeller flap harvesting requires great care and experience, and potential complications may occur even in expert hands. When indicated by the characteristic of the defect, these flaps can be a useful surgical option for the treatment of loss of substance of upper and lower limbs. PMID:25250327
Edmunds, L M; Rawlinson, A
Blood contamination of 16 surfaces in the dental surgery was investigated using the Kastle-Meyer test for haemoglobin, after three types of periodontal procedures had been performed on a total of 30 patients. The effect of cleaning surfaces contaminated by blood was investigated using the same test. Cleaning materials used in the dental surgery were tested to rule out the possibility of false positive outcomes and the sensitivity of the test was determined prior to the study. The results show a marked variation in the degree of contamination and efficacy of cleaning following treatment. Overall, root planing was associated with the most widespread and frequent blood contamination and gingival surgery the least. The surgery work surface, edge of the spittoon, aspirator tube and ultrasonic scaler handpiece into which the ultrasonic insert fits, were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. The work surface, dentist's pen, light switch and handle were cleaned most effectively. The least effectively cleaned surfaces were the water dispenser switch, aspirator tube, bracket table and ultrasonic scaler handpiece. Methods for reducing this potential source of cross-infection are discussed.
Chessin, David B; Hartley, John; Cohen, Alfred M; Mazumdar, Madhu; Cordeiro, Peter; Disa, Joseph; Mehrara, Babek; Minsky, Bruce D; Paty, Philip; Weiser, Martin; Wong, W Douglas; Guillem, Jose G
A major source of morbidity after abdominoperineal resection (APR) after external beam pelvic radiation is perineal wound complications, seen in up to 66% of cases. Our purpose was to determine the effect of rectus abdominus myocutaneous (RAM) flap reconstruction on perineal wound morbidity in this population. The study group consisted of 19 patients with anorectal cancer treated with external beam pelvic radiation followed by APR and RAM flap reconstruction of the perineum. A prospectively collected database was queried to identify a control group (n = 59) with anorectal cancer treated with similar radiation doses that subsequently underwent an APR without a RAM flap during the same time period. Comparison of percentages was performed with a two-sided Fisher's exact test, and comparison of means was performed with Wilcoxon's test. Perineal wound complications occurred in 3 (15.8%) of the RAM flap patients and 26 (44.1%) of the control patients (P = .03). The incidence of other complications was not different between groups (42.1% vs. 42.4%; P = .8). Despite an increased number of anal squamous tumors, an increased vaginectomy rate, increased use of intraoperative radiotherapy, and an increased proportion of cases with recurrent disease, the flap group had a significantly lower rate of perineal wound complications relative to the control group. Perineal closure with a RAM flap significantly decreases the incidence of perineal wound complications in patients undergoing external beam pelvic radiation and APR for anorectal neoplasia. Because other complications are not increased, RAM flap closure of the perineal wound should be strongly considered in this patient population.
Chang, Hyeyoon; Noh, Jiyoung; Lee, Jungwon; Kim, Sungtae; Koo, Ki-Tae; Kim, Tae-Il; Seol, Yang-Jo; Lee, Yong-Moo; Ku, Young; Rhyu, In-Chul
Pain from local anesthetic injection makes patients anxious when visiting a dental clinic. This study aims to determine differences in pain according to types of local anesthetizing methods and to identify the possible contributing factors (e.g., dental anxiety, stress, and sex). Thirty-one patients who underwent open-flap debridement in maxillary premolar and molar areas during treatment for chronic periodontitis were evaluated for this study. A randomized, split-mouth, single-masked clinical trial was implemented. The dental anxiety scale (DAS) and perceived stress scale (PSS) were administered before surgery. Two lidocaine ampules for each patient were used for local infiltration anesthesia (supraperiosteal injection). Injection pain was measured immediately after local infiltration anesthesia using the visual analog pain scale (VAS) questionnaire. Results from the questionnaire were used to assess degree of pain patients feel when a conventional local anesthetic technique (CNV) is used compared with a computer-controlled anesthetic delivery system (CNR). DAS and PSS did not correlate to injection pain. VAS scores were lower for CNR than for CNV regardless of the order in which anesthetic procedures were applied. VAS score did not differ significantly with sex. Pearson coefficient for correlation between VAS scores for the two procedures was 0.80, also indicating a strong correlation. Within the limitations of the present study, relief from injection pain is observed using CNR.
de Oliveira, Riza Rute; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Derchain, Sophie F M; Sarian, Luís Otávio
Mastectomy negatively affects scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics. Breast reconstructive methods such as the latissimus dorsi flap can result in anatomical modifications that may in theory further affect the shoulder apparatus. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction on the recovery of shoulder motion and other postsurgical problems during the first year after mastectomy. This was a prospective cohort study of 104 consecutive mastectomies (47 with immediate latissimus dorsi flaps). Shoulder range of motion was assessed before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Pain, tissue adhesion, scar enlargement, and web syndrome were assessed during follow-up. There was a 30 percent decrease of shoulder range of motion 1 month after surgery, with gradual recovery over time. However, mean abduction and flexion capacities did not reach baseline levels and were on average 5 to 10 percent lower than baseline, even after 1 year. Over time, the latissimus dorsi flap was not associated with restriction of flexion or abduction. Scar enlargement (at the first month, p = 0.009) and tissue adhesion (at month 12, p = 0.032) were significantly less common in the latissimus dorsi flap group. The authors' study clearly suggests that the additional anatomical manipulation required for the latissimus dorsi flap procedure does not further affect shoulder kinematics and is associated with a lower incidence of tissue adhesion. Therapeutic, II.
Moreno, Sandra; Parra, Beatriz; Botero, Javier E; Moreno, Freddy; Vásquez, Daniel; Fernández, Hugo; Alba, Sandra; Gallego, Sara; Castillo, Gilberto; Contreras, Adolfo
Periodontitis is an infectious disease that affects the support tissue of the teeth and it is associated with different systemic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Microbiological studies facilitate the detection of microorganisms from subgingival and cardiovascular samples. To describe the cultivable periodontal microbiota and the presence of microorganisms in heart valves from patients undergoing valve replacement surgery in a clinic in Cali. We analyzed 30 subgingival and valvular tissue samples by means of two-phase culture medium, supplemented blood agar and trypticase soy agar with antibiotics. Conventional PCR was performed on samples of valve tissue. The periodontal pathogens isolated from periodontal pockets were: Fusobacterium nucleatum (50%), Prevotella intermedia/ nigrescens (40%), Campylobacter rectus (40%), Eikenella corrodens (36.7%), Gram negative enteric bacilli (36.7%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (33.3%), and Eubacterium spp. (33.3%). The pathogens isolated from the aortic valve were Propionibacterium acnes (12%), Gram negative enteric bacilli (8%), Bacteroides merdae (4%), and Clostridium bifermentans (4%), and from the mitral valve we isolated P. acnes and Clostridium beijerinckii. Conventional PCR did not return positive results for oral pathogens and bacterial DNA was detected only in two samples. Periodontal microbiota of patients undergoing surgery for heart valve replacement consisted of species of Gram-negative bacteria that have been associated with infections in extraoral tissues. However, there is no evidence of the presence of periodontal pathogens in valve tissue, because even though there were valve and subgingival samples positive for Gram-negative enteric bacilli, it is not possible to maintain they corresponded to the same phylogenetic origin.
Iwanaga, Joe; Watanabe, Koichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Tabira, Yoko; Kitashima, Sadaharu; Kusukawa, Jingo; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi
Recent studies investigating accessory mental foramina using developments in diagnostic imaging have primarily defined the morphology of the foramina; however, few studies have described the structures passing through them. Additional clinical knowledge of the foramina is therefore required for preoperative diagnosis prior to surgery, including implant, periodontal and periapical surgery. In this study, we investigated the accessory mental foramina and the associated nerves and arteries in donated cadaveric mandibles using anatomical and radiological observation methods. We examined 63 mandibles with overlying soft tissue by cone-beam computed tomography and noted the existence of the accessory mental foramina. Mandibles with accessory mental foramina were subsequently analyzed. Additionally, the neurovascular bundles passing through these foramina were dissected using anatomical methods.The incidence of accessory mental foramina was 14.3%. The larger foramina tended to be located anteriorly or superiorly and proximal to the mental foramen, while the smaller foramina tended to be located posterosuperiorly and distal to the mental foramen. The mental foramen ipsilateral to the accessory mental foramen was smaller than the one contralateral to it. The comparatively distant and large accessory mental foramen included an artery.This study elucidated the relationship between accessory mental foramina and the associated nerves and arteries. We believe that the results will contribute to the clinical dentistry field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lee, Jae Jung; Lee, In Ho; Park, Keun Heung; Pak, Kang Yeun; Park, Sung Who; Byon, Ik Soo; Lee, Ji Eun
To compare vascular displacement in the macula after surgical closure of idiopathic macular hole (MH) after single-layered inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique and conventional ILM removal. This retrospective study included patients who underwent either vitrectomy and ILM removal only or vitrectomy with single-layered inverted ILM flap for idiopathic MH larger than 400 μm from 2012 to 2015. A customized program compared the positions of the retinal vessels in the macula between preoperative and postoperative photographs. En face images of 6 × 6 mm optical coherence tomography volume scans were registered to calculate the scale. Retinal vessel displacement was measured as a vector value by comparing its location in 16 sectors of a grid partitioned into eight sectors in two rings (inner, 2 to 4 mm; outer, 4 to 6 mm). The distance and angle of displacement were calculated as an average vector and were compared between the two groups for whole sectors, inner ring, outer ring, and for each sector. Twenty patients were included in the ILM flap group and 22 in the ILM removal group. There were no statistical differences between the groups for baseline characteristics. The average displacement in the ILM flap group and the ILM removal group was 56.6 μm at -3.4° and 64.9 μm at -2.7°, respectively, for the whole sectors (p = 0.900), 76.1 μm at -1.1° and 87.3 μm at -0.9° for the inner ring (p = 0.980), and 37.4 μm at -8.2° and 42.7 μm at -6.3° for the outer ring (p = 0.314). There was no statistical difference in the displacement of each of the sectors. Postoperative topographic changes showed no significant differences between the ILM flap and the ILM removal group for idiopathic MH. The single-layered ILM flap technique did not appear to cause additional displacement of the retinal vessels in the macula. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society
Melroy, Christopher T; Dubin, Marc G; Hardy, Stuart M; Senior, Brent A
The aim of this study was to compare three common methods (transillumination, plain radiographs, and computerized tomography [CT] image guidance) for estimating the position and extent of pneumatization of the frontal sinus in osteoplastic flap surgery. Axial CT scans and 6-ft Caldwell radiographs were performed on 10 cadaver heads. For each head, soft tissue overlying the frontal bone was raised and the anticipated position and extent of the frontal sinus at four points was marked using three common methods. The silhouette of the frontal sinus from the Caldwell plain radiograph was excised and placed in position. Four points at the periphery also were made using information obtained from a passive optically guided image-guided surgery device, and transillumination via a frontal trephination also was used to estimate sinus extent. The true sinus size was measured at each point and compared with experimental values. The use of CT image guidance generated the least difference between measured and actual values (mean = 1.91 mm; SEM = 0.29); this method was found statistically superior to Caldwell (p = 0.040) and transillumination (p = 0.007). Image guidance did not overestimate the size of the sinus (0/36) and was quicker than the Caldwell approach (8.5 versus 11.5 minutes). There was no learning curve appreciated with image guidance. Accurate and precise estimation of the position and extent of the frontal sinus is crucial when performing osteoplastic flap surgery. Use of CT image guidance was statistically superior to Caldwell and transillumination methods and proved to be safe, reproducible, economic, and easy to learn.
Hu, Kai-Fang; Ho, Ya-Ping; Ho, Kun-Yen; Wu, Yi-Min; Wang, Wen-Chen; Chou, Yu-Hsiang
Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) is a distinct type of periodontal disease associated with considerably more rapid periodontal tissue destruction than chronic periodontitis. This study presents the 5-year follow-up of a patient with GAgP. A 29-year-old man reported experiencing increasing gingival recession. He was treated using cause-related therapy, provisional splints, and flap surgery combined with allograft grafting and was followed up for 5 years. This case study shows that elimination of infectious microorganisms and meticulous long-term maintenance provide an effective treatment modality for aggressive periodontitis cases. This treatment modality can restore the masticatory function and provide the GAgP patient with improved quality of life.
Sabino, Jennifer M.; Slater, Julia; Valerio, Ian L.
Scope and Significance: Reconstruction of traumatic injuries requiring tissue transfer begins with aggressive resuscitation and stabilization. Systematic advances in acute casualty care at the point of injury have improved survival and allowed for increasingly complex treatment before definitive reconstruction at tertiary medical facilities outside the combat zone. As a result, the complexity of the limb salvage algorithm has increased over 14 years of combat activities in Iraq and Afghanistan. Problem: Severe poly-extremity trauma in combat casualties has led to a large number of extremity salvage cases. Advanced reconstructive techniques coupled with regenerative medicine applications have played a critical role in the restoration, recovery, and rehabilitation of functional limb salvage. Translational Relevance: The past 14 years of war trauma have increased our understanding of tissue transfer for extremity reconstruction in the treatment of combat casualties. Injury patterns, flap choice, and reconstruction timing are critical variables to consider for optimal outcomes. Clinical Relevance: Subacute reconstruction with specifically chosen flap tissue and donor site location based on individual injuries result in successful tissue transfer, even in critically injured patients. These considerations can be combined with regenerative therapies to optimize massive wound coverage and limb salvage form and function in previously active patients. Summary: Traditional soft tissue reconstruction is integral in the treatment of war extremity trauma. Pedicle and free flaps are a critically important part of the reconstructive ladder for salvaging extreme extremity injuries that are seen as a result of the current practice of war. PMID:27679751
Yu, Jea H; Nguyen, Chuck; Gallemore, Esmeralda; Gallemore, Ron P
Purpose . To report a new technique for anterior placement of tubes for glaucoma drainage devices to reduce the risk of tube erosions. Methods . Retrospective review of select cases of Ahmed Valve surgery combined with the novel method of a limbal-based scleral flap covered by a scleral patch graft to cover the tube at the entrance through the limbus. Intraoperative and postoperative illustrations are shown to highlight the method of tube placement. Results . In this retrospective case series, 3 patients are presented illustrating the technique. Two had neovascular glaucoma and one had primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). On average, intraocular pressure was reduced from 39 ± 14 mmHg to 15 ± 2 mmHg and the number of glaucoma medications was reduced from 4 ± 1 to 0. Preoperative and most recent visual acuities were hand-motion (HM) and HM, 20/60 and 20/50, and 20/70 and 20/30, respectively. Conclusion . The combination of a limbal-based scleral flap with scleral patch graft to cover the tube with glaucoma drainage devices may be an effective means to reduce erosion and protect against endophthalmitis.
Yang, Xudong; Li, Zhenzhen; Gao, Chunyan; Liu, Ruichang
To determine whether dexmedetomidine sedation in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) could decrease agitation and delirium after free flap surgery. Eighty patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group, dexmedetomidine was given at an hourly infusion rate of 0.5 μg/kg for 1 hour before the operation was completed and continued in the PACU at 0.2 to 0.7 μg/kg continuously until the next morning. In the control group, normal saline was given during the same periods. Patients in the 2 groups received sufentanil and midazolam for sedation and pain relief when necessary. Agitation was monitored with the Riker Sedation-Agitation Scale in the PACU and delirium was monitored with the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit for 5 days postoperatively. The overall incidence of agitation was similar between the 2 groups. However, when the influence of patient shifting was excluded, the incidence of agitation in the dexmedetomidine group was apparently lower than that in the control group (10.3 vs 30%; P = .029). No difference was found in the occurrence of delirium between the experimental and control groups (5.1 vs 12.5%; P = .432). Dexmedetomidine does not change the overall incidence of agitation after free flap surgery; however, it does decrease agitation after PACU admission. It does not prevent delirium within 5 days postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Naik, Archana R.; Ramesh, Alampalli V.; Dwarkanath, C. D.; Naik, Madhukeshwara S.; Chinnappa, A. B.
Background: Multiple approaches have been used to replace lost, damaged or diseased gingival tissues. Coronally advanced flap (CAF) and the use of guided tissue regeneration are among the successfully used surgical techniques to treat gingival recession. Platelet rich plasma (PRP), containing autologous growth factors, has been shown to promote soft-tissue healing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PRP in combination with CAF in the treatment of gingival recession. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 systemically healthy patients with buccal Miller's class I and class II gingival recession in cuspids or premolars participated in the study. CAF procedure was performed and PRP with collagen sponge was placed over the defect. Clinical parameters such as recession depth, recession width, surface area, width of keratinized gingival (KG), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth, plaque index and gingival index were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 months post-surgery. The percentage of root coverage was calculated. Results: The results of this study suggest that the CAF procedure provides a predictable and simple technique in the treatment of localized Class I and Class II gingival recession. The additional application of PRP does significantly increase the width of KG and gain in clinical attachment. Conclusion: CAF procedure is a predictable and simple technique in the treatment of gingival recession and the additional application of PRP does significantly increase the width of KG and gain in CAL. The long-term benefits following surgical treatment of such defects needs to be determined further. PMID:24049336
Raguse, Jan D; Czabanka, Marcus; Voss, Jan Oliver; Hartwig, Stefan; Vajkoczy, Peter; Voss, Pit; Doll, Christian
Stable coverage of complicated defects located between the craniocervical and cervicothoracic junction following wound healing disturbance after spinal surgery can be challenging. Especially in cases where devices are exposed, well-vascularized coverage is required to achieve stable wound conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of the lower trapezius island myocutaneous flap (LTIMF) as a possible treatment option. Four patients with a mean age of 68.8 years (ranging from 50 to 93 years) with wound healing disturbance following spinal surgery leading to defects of the dorsal neck/upper back refractory to conservative treatment and surgical debridement were included. All defects were reconstructed with a LTIMF based on the transverse cervical artery. Mean follow-up was 16.5 months (ranging from 5 to 30 months). No major flap failure occurred; minor complications in three patients including lateral superficial skin necrosis were easily handled. In all patients, excellent functional and aesthetic results were achieved. The lower trapezius island myocutaneous flap represents a reliable treatment option to cover complicated defects located between the craniocervical and cervicothoracic junction following wound disturbance after spinal surgery. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Nair, Manju Anathakrishnan; George, Roy
Context: The dental students experience a lot of stress, which increase when they perform their first surgical procedure. Yoga as an anxiolytic tool in anxiety reduction has been practiced over centuries in India. Aim: To assess the efficacy of yoga in reducing the state trait anxiety of dental students before their first periodontal surgery performance. Settings and Design: A randomized controlled study using a two-way split plot design (pre-post-test) was conducted in the department of periodontics, Pacific Dental College, Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred clinical dental students who were ready to perform their first periodontal surgery were selected. Students were randomly assigned to two groups and were given a 60-min session on stress reduction. Group A, yogic intervention group, were instructed to do yoga and their performances were monitored for a period of one week and Group B, control group, were given a lecture on stress reduction without any yoga instructions. The investigator who was unaware of the groups had taken the state trait anxiety score of the students three times a) before assigning them to each group, b) prior to the surgical procedure and c) immediately after the performance of surgery. Statistical Analysis Used: Analyses of variance (ANOVA) by SPSS V.16. Results: The statistical results showed a significant reduction in the VAS and state trait anxiety of Group A compared to Group B (ANOVA; P<0.001). Conclusions: This study concludes that Yogic breathing has a significant effect on the reduction of state trait anxiety level of dental students. PMID:22346066
Niemiec, Brook A
Periodontal disease is the most common disease in small animal patients. It not only creates severe localized infection, but it has been linked to numerous severe systemic maladies. Proper therapy of this disease process results in a significant increase in the overall health of the patient. The treatment of periodontal disease is currently evolving due to the acceptance of the specific plaque hypothesis of periodontal disease. These findings have led to the development of the "one-stage full-mouth disinfection" treatment as well as a vaccine against these organisms. However, the cornerstone of therapy is still meticulous plaque control. This control is achieved via a combination of regular dental prophylaxis and home care. With progressive disease, advanced periodontal surgery or extraction becomes necessary.
Friede, H; Lilja, J
Dentofacial morphology was evaluated in 94 adolescent or early adult patients born with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate. As well as lip closure, the primary treatment included vomer flap surgery and pushback palatal repair. Roentgencephalometric measurements as well as classification of the patients into different classes of dentofacial deformity indicated development of bimaxillary retrognathia with severe midfacial deficiency in about a quarter of the cases. Our results were similar to those reported by other teams who used similar surgical regimen.
Wei, Fu-Chan; Mardini, Samir
Free-tissue transfer has become the accepted standard for reconstruction of complex defects. With the growth of this field, anatomic studies and clinical work have added many flaps to the armamentarium of the microvascular surgeon. Further advancements and experience with techniques of perforator flap surgery have allowed for the harvest of flaps in a free-style manner, where a flap is harvested based only on the preoperative knowledge of Doppler signals present in a specific region. Between June of 2002 and September of 2003, 13 free-style free flaps were harvested from the region of the thigh. All patients presented with an oral or pharyngeal cancer and underwent resection and immediate reconstruction of these flaps. All flaps were cutaneous and were harvested in a suprafascial plane. The average size of the flaps was 108 cm2 (range, 36 to 187 cm2), and the average length of the vascular pedicle was 10 cm (range, 9 to 12 cm). All flaps were successful in achieving wound coverage and functional outcomes without any vascular compromise necessitating re-exploration. Free-style free flaps have become a clinical reality. The concepts and techniques used to harvest a free-style free flap will aid in dealing with anatomic variations that are encountered during conventional flap harvest. Future trends in flap selection will focus mainly on choosing tissue with appropriate texture, thickness, and pliability to match requirements at the recipient site while minimizing donor-site morbidity.
Singh Raswan, Uday; Singh Chhiber, Sarbjit; Ramzan, Altaf Umar
Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of one or more of the cranial sutures and can occur as part of a syndrome or as an isolated defect. Pansynostosis is a rare form of craniosynostosis that involves premature fusion of all the cranial sutures (coronal, sagittal, metopic, and occipital). Particularly in cases of late presentation, there are heightened clinical concerns, both functional and aesthetic. In untreated cases of pansynostosis and increased intracranial pressure, optic nerve damage progresses to optic atrophy and then blindness. Cranial vault reconstruction is the standard surgical treatment. We attempt to highlight the importance of modifying the osteotomies and reshaping of the cranial vault based on individual requirements in order to achieve the best possible result and to prevent catastrophic blood loss. We present a case of modified pi with triple-bonnet flap and fronto-orbital advancement, an individual modification of the techniques of cranial vault reconstruction, in a patient with pansynostosis with optic atrophy. The technical variation can be applied to any case of pansynostosis requiring cranial vault reconstruction. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Wermker, Kai; Lünenbürger, Henning; Joos, Ulrich; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Jung, Susanne
Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) can be caused by a variety of disorders. The most common cause of VPI is the association with cleft palate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different surgical techniques for cleft palate patients with VPI: (1) velopharyngoplasty with an inferiorly based posterior pharyngeal flap (VPP posterior, Schönborn-Rosenthal), and (2) combination of VPP posterior and push-back operation (Dorrance). 41 subjects (26 females, 15 males) with VPI were analysed. Hypernasality was judged subjectively and nasalance data were assessed objectively using the NasalView system preoperative and 6 months postoperative. Subjective analysis showed improved speech results regarding hypernasality for all OP-techniques with good results for VPP posterior and VPP posterior combined with push-back with success rates of 94.4% and 87.7%, respectively. Objective analysis showed a statistically significant reduction of nasalance for both VPP posterior and VPP posterior combined with push-back (p < 0.01). However, there were no statistically significant differences concerning measured nasalance values postoperatively between the VPP posterior and VPP posterior combined with push-back. Based on our findings, both VPP posterior and VPP posterior combined with push-back showed good results in correction of hypernasality in cleft patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Niimi, Yosuke; Mori, Satoko; Takeuchi, Masaki
Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a method for treating wound. However, there are no case reports using NPWT for treating congestion after arterialized venous flap. Therefore, this study reported favorable outcomes after using a single-use NPWT system for managing congestion. A 39-year-old man had his index finger caught by a press machine. The finger had a soft tissue defect at the ventral part. An arterialized venous flap taken from the right forearm was transplanted. Perfusion of the flap was favorable, but on postoperative day 5, congestion and the edema of the flap were found. Then, NPWT was initiated. The congestion and edema in the flap were improved without complications such as flap necrosis and wound infection. At 4 months postoperatively, the morphology of the finger was favorable. In this study, NPWT was speculated to force the deeper blood vessels within the flap to dilate with inducing drainage and the simultaneous reduction in excess blood flow to the cortical layer, resulting in the improvement of congestion. Negative pressure wound therapy was used for treating congestion after the transplantation of arterialized venous flap, and the wound was favorably managed. PMID:29270041
Li, Z; Liu, Y S; Ye, H Q; Liu, Y S; Hu, W J; Zhou, Y S
To explore a new method of whole-process digital esthetic prosthodontic rehabilitation combined with periodontic surgery for complicated anterior teeth esthetic defects accompanied by soft tissue morphology, to provide an alternative choice for solving this problem under the guidance of three-dimensional (3D) printing digital dental model and surgical guide, thus completing periodontic surgery and digital esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth. In this study, 12 patients with complicated esthetic problems accompanied by soft tissue morphology in their anterior teeth were included. The dentition and facial images were obtained by intra-oral scanning and three-dimensional (3D) facial scanning and then calibrated. Two esthetic designs and prosthodontic outcome predictions were created by computer aided design /computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software combined with digital photography, including consideration of white esthetics and comprehensive consideration of pink-white esthetics. The predictive design of prostheses and the facial appearances of the two designs were evaluated by the patients. If the patients chose the design of comprehensive consideration of pink-white esthetics, they would choose whether they would receive periodontic surgery before esthetic rehabilitation. The dentition design cast of those who chose periodontic surgery would be 3D printed for the guide of periodontic surgery accordingly. In light of the two digital designs based on intra-oral scanning, facing scanning and digital photography, the satisfaction rate of the patients was significantly higher for the comprehensive consideration of pink-white esthetic design (P<0.05) and more patients tended to choose priodontic surgery before esthetic rehabilitation. The 3D printed digital dental model and surgical guide provided significant instructions for periodontic surgery, and achieved success transfer from digital design to clinical application. The prostheses were fabricated by CAD
Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Hak Young; Han, Hyun Ho; Moon, Suk-Ho; Byeon, Jun Hee; Rhie, Jong Won; Ahn, Sang Tae; Oh, Deuk Young
Reduced tissue damage is a theoretical advantage of using an ultrasonic harmonic scalpel. We hypothesized that the harmonic scalpel would outperform electrocautery in deep inferior epigastric perforator flap surgery, possibly resulting in a shorter operative time and reduced postoperative drainage and pain. Between January and August 2015, 24 consecutive patients were assigned to immediate deep inferior epigastric perforator flap elevation (12 for bipolar electrocautery and 12 for harmonic scalpel). The main outcome variables were total operative time, flap elevation time (starting from the fascia incision), and drainage volume. We compared the number of perforators isolated and the Moon and Taylor classification of the pedicle. Data were tested for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test before analysis. Continuous variables were compared by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Data were analyzed using the statistical software SAS, version 9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Both groups were comparable with respect to clinical characteristics (mean age, body mass index, and flap weights). There was a statistically significant difference in the operative time between dissection with the harmonic scalpel and electrocautery (305.2 vs. 380.3 min, respectively, p = 0.002). The flap elevation time was reduced, particularly when using the harmonic scalpel where its usage seems crucial for dissecting deep inferior epigastric perforators (59.8 vs. 145.9 min, respectively, p < 0.0001). No statistical difference was observed in the drainage volume and length of hospital stay between the groups. We conclude that the harmonic scalpel may be more reliable and efficient as an alternative to electrocautery. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lam, Din; Carlson, Eric R
The temporal arterial system provides reliable vascular anatomy for the temporalis muscle flap and temporoparietal fascial flap that can support multiple reconstructive needs of the oral and maxillofacial region. The minimal donor site morbidity and ease of development of these flaps result in their predictable and successful transfer for reconstructive surgery of the oral and maxillofacial region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Dong; Wang, Wenzhang; Cai, Aibing; Han, Zhiyi; Li, Xiyuan; Ma, Jiagui
To analyze and summarize the clinical features and experience in surgical treatment of deep sternal infection (DSWI). This was a retrospective study. From January 2008 to December 2013, 189 patients with secondary DSWI after cardiac surgery underwent the pectoralis major muscle flap transposition in our department. There were 116 male and 73 female patients. The mean age was (54 ± 21) years, the body mass index was (26. 1 ± 1. 3) kg/m2. The incidence of postoperation DSWI were after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 93 patients, after other heart surgery plus CABG in 13 patients, after valve surgery in 47 patients, after thoracic aortic surgery in 16 patients, after congenital heart disease in 18 patients, and after cardiac injury in 2 patients. Clean patients' wound and extract secretions, clear the infection thoroughly by surgery and select antibiotics based on susceptibility results, and then repair the wound with appropriate muscle flap, place drain tube with negative pressure. Of all the 189 patients, 184 used isolate pectoralis, 1 used isolate rectus, and 4 used pectoralis plus rectus. The operative wounds of 179 patients were primary healing (94. 7%). Hospital discharge was postponed by 1 week for 7 patients, due to subcutaneous wound infection. Subcutaneous wound infection occurred again in 8 patients 1 week after hospital discharge, and their wounds healed after wound dressing. Nine patients (4. 7%) did not recover, due to residue of the sequestrum and costal chondritis, whom were later cured by undergoing a second treatment of debridement and pectoralis major muscle flap transposition. Eight patients died, in which 2 died of respiratory failure, 2 died of bacterial endocarditis with septicemia, 2 died of renal failure, 1 died of intraoperative bleeding leading to brain death and the 1 died of heart failure. The mortality rate was 4. 2% . The average length of postoperative hospital stay was (14 ± 5) days. The longest postoperative
Tonetti, Maurizio S; Jepsen, Søren
The scope of the discussions of this consensus report was to assess the strength of the scientific evidence and make clinical and research recommendations for surgical interventions to cover exposed root surfaces and enhance soft tissues at implants. Discussions were informed by three systematic reviews covering single recessions, multiple recessions and soft-tissue deficiencies at implants. The strength of the evidence was assessed using a modification in GRADE. The group also emphasized the need to report the experience of the surgeon and the performance of the control intervention (CONSORT guidelines for non-pharmacological treatment). A moderate strength of evidence supported the following statements for single (moderately deep, mostly maxillary) recessions without inter-dental attachment loss: (i) The addition of a connective tissue graft (CTG) improved outcomes of coronally advanced flaps (CAF). (ii) The addition of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) improved the outcomes of CAF. For multiple recessions, preliminary data indicate that flaps specifically designed to treat this condition are worthy of additional attention. Emerging data indicate that it is possible to obtain complete root coverage at sites with some inter-dental attachment loss. With regards to soft-tissue deficiencies at implants, several procedures are available, but great heterogeneity among studies does not allow drawing conclusions at this time. The group highlighted that periodontal plastic procedures are complex, technique-sensitive interventions that require advanced skills and expertise. At single recessions, the addition of autologous CTG or EMD under CAF improves complete root coverage and may be considered the procedure of choice at maxillary anterior and premolar teeth. The adjunctive benefit needs to be put in the context of increased morbidity of the donor area or increased cost. Additional research is needed to: (i) assess the role of alternatives to autologous soft-tissue grafting
Reinbold, C; Rausky, J; Binder, J-P; Revol, M
The identified risks of smoking with regard to operated tissues are so elevated that it is clearly dangerous to operate a smoker when the proposed intervention is neither vital nor urgent. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate a simple method of screening patients who smoke, with the evaluation carried out before agreeing to carry out free tissue transfer. The purpose of the testing was to hold the patient responsible for his actions and minimize smoking-related complications by cancelling or postponing the planned operation if the patient continued to smoke. Screening included use of a standardized questionnaire at the first consultation and detection of cotinine using a urine test strip 7 days before the scheduled surgery. Patients were informed that in the event of positive results, the operation would not take place. A six-week preoperative smoking cessation period was mandatory. Seventy-six patients were included in this study. Among them, 25 (32.9%) reported being former smokers and 11 (14.5%) admitted in the initial questionnaire to being active smokers. Six patients (7.9%), including one self-reported non-smoker, tested positive for cotinine, and their operations were cancelled. Screening using a questionnaire and cotinine detection appeared to constitute a simple, inexpensive, rapid and reliable test. It allowed us to refuse to operate 6 non-compliant patients and was thereby likely to diminish morbidity in the free tissue transfers carried out in our ward. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Leiggener, C; Messo, E; Thor, A; Zeilhofer, H-F; Hirsch, J-M
The free fibular flap is the standard procedure for reconstructing mandibular defects. The graft has to be contoured to fit the defect so preoperative planning is required. The systems used previously do not allow transfer of the surgical plan to the operation room in an optimal way. The authors present a method to bring the virtual plan to real time surgery using a rapid prototyping guide. Planning was conducted using the Surgicase CMF software simulating surgery on a workstation. The osteotomies were translated into a rapid prototyping guide, sterilised and applied during surgery on the fibula allowing for the osteotomies and osteosynthesis to be performed with intact circulation. During reconstruction the authors were able to choose the best site for the osteotomies regarding circulation and as a result increased the precision and speed of treatment.
Kaplan, Mehmet; Ozcan, Onder; Bilgic, Ethem; Kaplan, Elif Tugce; Kaplan, Tugba; Kaplan, Fatma Cigdem
The Limberg flap (LF) procedure is widely performed for the treatment of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus (SPS); however, recurrences continues to be observed. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between LF designs and the risk of SPS recurrence. Sixty-one cases with recurrent disease (study group) and 194 controls, with a minimum of 5 recurrence-free years following surgery (control group), were included in the study. LF reconstructions performed in each group were classified as off-midline closure (OMC) and non-OMC types. Subsequently, the 2 groups were analyzed. After adjustment for all variables, non-OMC types showed the most prominent correlation with recurrence, followed by interrupted suturing type, family history of SPS, smoking, prolonged healing time, and younger age. The best cut-off value for the critical distance from the midline was found to be 11 mm (with 72% sensitivity and 95% specificity for recurrence). We recommend OMC modifications, with the flap tailored to create a safe margin of at least 2 cm between the flap borders and the midline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PATARO, André Luiz; CORTELLI, Sheila Cavalca; ABREU, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; CORTELLI, José Roberto; FRANCO, Gilson Cesar Nobre; AQUINO, Davi Romeiro; COTA, Luis Otavio Miranda; COSTA, Fernando Oliveira
ABSTRACT Objectives This cross-sectional study compared the frequency of oral periodontopathogens and H. pylori in the mouths and stomachs of obese individuals with or without periodontitis submitted to bariatric surgery. Material and Methods One hundred and fifty-four men and women aged 18-65 were conveniently distributed into four groups. Two groups were composed of individuals who underwent bariatric surgery with (BP) (n=40) and without (BNP) (n=39) periodontitis and two obese control groups with (CP) (n=35) and without (CNP) (n=40) periodontitis. The oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, and Helicobacter pylori were detected by a polymerase chain reaction technique using saliva, tongue and stomach biopsy samples. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that periodontopathogens were highly frequent in the mouth (up to 91.4%). In the bariatric surgically treated group, orally, P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia were more frequent in periodontitis, while C. rectus was more frequent in non-periodontitis subjects. Stomach biopsies also revealed the high frequency of five oral species in both candidates for bariatric surgery (91.6%) and the bariatric (83.3%) groups. H. pylori was frequently detected in the mouth (50.0%) and stomach (83.3%). In the stomach, oral species and H. pylori appeared in lower frequency in the bariatric group. Conclusions Obese individuals showed high frequencies of periodontopathogens and H. pylori in their mouths and stomachs. Bariatric surgery showed an inverse microbial effect on oral and stomach environments by revealing higher oral and lower stomach bacterial frequencies. PMID:27383704
Kim, Nam Ryang; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung
Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic granulomatous disease that presents as a slowly progressive, indolent, indurated infiltration with multiple abscesses, fistulas, and sinuses. The purpose of this article is to report on a case of actinomycosis with clinical findings similar to periodontitis. A 46-year-old female presented with recurrent throbbing pain on the right first and second molar of the mandible three weeks after root planing. Exploratory flap surgery was performed, and the bluish-gray tissue fragment found in the interproximal area between the two molars was sent for histopathology. The diagnosis from the biopsy was actinomycosis. The clinical and radiographic manifestations of this case were clinically indistinguishable from periodontitis. The patient did not report any symptoms, and she is scheduled for a follow-up visit. The present study has identified periodontitis-mimicking actinomycosis. Actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases with periodontal pain and inflammation that do not respond to nonsurgical treatment for periodontitis. More routine submissions of tissue removed from the oral cavity for biopsies may be beneficial for differential diagnosis.
Buda, Alessandro; Confalonieri, Pier Luigi; Rovati, Luca Carlo Vittorio; Fruscio, Robert; Giuliani, Daniela; Signorelli, Mauro; Dell'Anna, Tiziana; Pirovano, Cecilia; Milani, Rodolfo
To evaluate the efficacy of tunneled lotus petal flap in terms of anatomical and cosmetic results in patients who underwent vulvoperineal reconstruction for vulvar malignancy. Between March 2010 and July 2011, 22 women underwent vulvoperineal reconstruction using tunneled lotus petal flap for primary or recurrent disease at San Gerardo Hospital, Monza. In 16 cases, lotus flaps were bilateral, whereas in 6 cases, they were monolateral. The median age was 72 years (range, 53-87 years). The mean operating time was 85 minutes. The mean length of follow-up was 10 months (range, 2-16 months). Postoperative complications occurred in 2 patients, including one case of partial flap necrosis and one case of donor site breakdown. Tunneled lotus petal flap is safe, easy and fast to perform, has a low rate of complications, and good functional and cosmetic results. This technique represents an optimal solution for plastic reconstruction in case of primary or recurrent vulvar disease, or in case of introital stenosis after primary inadequate closure.
Zhang, Pu-Sheng; Wang, Li-Kun; Luo, Yun-Feng; Shi, Fu-Jun; He, Lin-Yun; Zeng, Cheng-Bing; Zhang, Yu; Fang, Chi-Hua
To study the value of 3D visualization technique in breast-preserving surgery for breast cancer with immediate breast reconstruction using laparoscopically harvested pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap. From January, 2015 to May, 2016, 30 patients with breast cancer underwent breast-preserving surgery with immediate breast reconstruction using pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap. The CT data of the arterial phase and venous phase were collected preoperatively and imported into the self-developed medical image 3D visualization system for image segmentation and 3D reconstruction. The 3D models were imported into the simulation surgery platform for virtual surgery to prepare for subsequent surgeries. The cosmetic outcomes of the patients were evaluated 6 months after the surgery. Another 18 patients with breast cancer who underwent laparoscopic latissimus dorsi muscle breast reconstruction without using 3D visualization technique from January to December, 2014 served as the control group. The data of the operative time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative appearance of the breasts were analyzed. The reconstructed 3D model clearly displayed the anatomical structures of the breast, armpit, latissimus dorsi muscle and vessels and their anatomical relationship in all the 30 cases. Immediate breast reconstruction was performed successfully in all the cases with median operation time of 226 min (range, 210 to 420 min), a median blood loss of 95 mL (range, 73 to 132 mL). Evaluation of the appearance of the breast showed excellent results in 22 cases, good appearance in 6 cases and acceptable appearance in 2 cases. In the control group, the median operation time was 283 min (range, 256 to 313 min) and the median blood loss was 107 mL (range, 79 to 147 mL) with excellent appearance of the breasts in 10 cases, good appearance in 4 cases and acceptable appearance in 4 cases. 3D reconstruction technique can clearly display the morphology of the latissimus dorsi and
Biniraj, K. R.; Sagir, Mohammed; Sunil, M. M.; Janardhanan, Mahija
A case describing perio-restorative management of an accidental trauma in the mid portion of root on an upper left canine tooth following an ostectomy surgery is presented here. The traumatized root area was undergoing fast resorption and a chronic periodontal abscess had developed in relation to the lesion. The article illustrates the clinical and radiographic photo series of a periodontal flap surgery done to gain access into a subgingival region for the placement of Glass ionomer restoration on the root and its periodic follow up. The clinical condition of the area suggests 8 mm clinical attachment gain over the restoration and the review radiographs at definite intervals up to 18 months revealed evidence of consistent bone regeneration around the restoration. The article also highlights the various other possibilities, where this restorative material can be effectively used in conjunction with periodontal surgical procedures. PMID:23162344
Introduction. Gingival recession is an apical shift of the gingival margin with exposure of the root surface. This migration of the marginal tissue leads to esthetic concerns, dentin hypersensitivity, root caries, and cervical wear. It is, paradoxically, a common finding in patients with a high standard of oral hygiene, as well as in periodontally untreated populations with poor oral hygiene. Changing the topography of the marginal soft tissue in order to facilitate plaque control is a common indication for root coverage procedures and forms a major aspect of periodontal plastic surgeries. The regeneration of a new connective tissue attachment to denuded root surface is by allowing the selective coronal regrowth of periodontal ligament cells while excluding the gingival tissues from the root during wound healing by means of a barrier membrane. Case Presentation. This case reports a two-stage surgical technique for treatment of Miller's class III defect using free gingival autograft and type I absorbable collagen membrane (BioMend®, Zimmer Dental, USA)§. Conclusions. The 6-month follow-up of the case showed a significant increase in attached gingiva suggesting it as a predictable alternative in the treatment of Millers class III defects. PMID:27525131
Kuo, Pao-Jen; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Chang, Shu-Shya; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Tai, Hsueh-Ling; Peng, Shu-Hui; Lin, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua
Background The aim of this study was to develop an effective surgical site infection (SSI) prediction model in patients receiving free-flap reconstruction after surgery for head and neck cancer using artificial neural network (ANN), and to compare its predictive power with that of conventional logistic regression (LR). Materials and methods There were 1,836 patients with 1,854 free-flap reconstructions and 438 postoperative SSIs in the dataset for analysis. They were randomly assigned tin ratio of 7:3 into a training set and a test set. Based on comprehensive characteristics of patients and diseases in the absence or presence of operative data, prediction of SSI was performed at two time points (pre-operatively and post-operatively) with a feed-forward ANN and the LR models. In addition to the calculated accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, the predictive performance of ANN and LR were assessed based on area under the curve (AUC) measures of receiver operator characteristic curves and Brier score. Results ANN had a significantly higher AUC (0.892) of post-operative prediction and AUC (0.808) of pre-operative prediction than LR (both P<0.0001). In addition, there was significant higher AUC of post-operative prediction than pre-operative prediction by ANN (p<0.0001). With the highest AUC and the lowest Brier score (0.090), the post-operative prediction by ANN had the highest overall predictive performance. Conclusion The post-operative prediction by ANN had the highest overall performance in predicting SSI after free-flap reconstruction in patients receiving surgery for head and neck cancer. PMID:29568393
Kuo, Pao-Jen; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Chang, Shu-Shya; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Tai, Hsueh-Ling; Peng, Shu-Hui; Lin, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua
The aim of this study was to develop an effective surgical site infection (SSI) prediction model in patients receiving free-flap reconstruction after surgery for head and neck cancer using artificial neural network (ANN), and to compare its predictive power with that of conventional logistic regression (LR). There were 1,836 patients with 1,854 free-flap reconstructions and 438 postoperative SSIs in the dataset for analysis. They were randomly assigned tin ratio of 7:3 into a training set and a test set. Based on comprehensive characteristics of patients and diseases in the absence or presence of operative data, prediction of SSI was performed at two time points (pre-operatively and post-operatively) with a feed-forward ANN and the LR models. In addition to the calculated accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, the predictive performance of ANN and LR were assessed based on area under the curve (AUC) measures of receiver operator characteristic curves and Brier score. ANN had a significantly higher AUC (0.892) of post-operative prediction and AUC (0.808) of pre-operative prediction than LR (both P <0.0001). In addition, there was significant higher AUC of post-operative prediction than pre-operative prediction by ANN (p<0.0001). With the highest AUC and the lowest Brier score (0.090), the post-operative prediction by ANN had the highest overall predictive performance. The post-operative prediction by ANN had the highest overall performance in predicting SSI after free-flap reconstruction in patients receiving surgery for head and neck cancer.
Jung, U-W; Chang, Y-Y; Um, Y-J; Kim, C-S; Cho, K-S; Choi, S-H
This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a surgically created interproximal periodontal defect in dogs. Surgery was performed in the interproximal area between the maxillary second and third premolars in two beagle dogs. Following an incision and reflection of the gingival flap, a 3-mm wide and 5-mm high defect was prepared surgically at the interproximal area. A thorough root planing was performed and the flap was coronally positioned and sutured. The contra-lateral area was served as the control with no surgical intervention. After 8 weeks of healing, the animals were killed and the defect was analysed histometrically and radiographically. The interproximal periodontal defect resembled a naturally occurring defect and mimicked a clinical situation. After healing, the defect showed limited bone (0.89±0.02mm) and cementum regeneration (1.50± 0.48mm). Within the limitations of this pilot study, the interproximal periodontal defect showed limited bone and cementum regeneration. Thus, it can be considered as a standardized, reproducible defect model for testing new biomaterials. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Hajizadeh, Hila; Majidinia, Sara; Moeintaghavi, Amir; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh
Objectives This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluated the ability of a desensitizing agent and a self-etch adhesive on cervical dentin sensitivity (CDS) after periodontal surgery. Materials and Methods Ninety hypersensitive teeth of 13 subjects were included in the study. After periodontal surgery, the teeth of each posterior sextant treated with one of the following materials: G1: Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray Dental), G2: Gluma Desensitizer (Heraeus Kulzer), and G3: placebo (water). The sensitivity was assessed using evaporative stimuli before treatment (baseline, T0), 1 day after treatment (T1), after 1 week (T2), and after 1 month (T3) according to visual analog scale (VAS). Results Following the treatment, all the 3 groups showed significant reduction of CDS in T1 compared to T0. Reduction of CDS between T1 and T2 was observed only in G1 but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 in this group. Although we observed a significant difference in T3 compared to T1 and T2 in G2 and G3, comparison of treatment groups in each assessment time showed a significant difference only in T3. According to paired comparison, this was due to the difference between G2 and G3. Conclusions Dentin sensitivity following periodontal surgery will decrease spontaneously over time, but treating the sensitive teeth with Gluma Desensitizer and Clearfil S3 Bond can have some benefits. PMID:28808633
Kim, Grace G.; Hang, Anna X.; Mitchell, Candace; Zanation, Adam M.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks most commonly arise during or after skull base surgery, although they occasionally present spontaneously. Recent advances in the repair of CSF leaks have enabled endoscopic endonasal surgery to become the preferred option for management of skull base pathology. Small defects (<1cm) can be repaired by multilayered free grafts. For large defects (>3cm), pedicled vascular flaps are the repair method of choice, resulting in much lower rates of postoperative CSF leaks. The pedicled nasoseptal flap (NSF) constitutes the primary reconstructive option for the vast majority of skull base defects. It has a large area of potential coverage and high rates of success. However, preoperative planning is required to avoid sacrificing the NSF during resection. In cases where the NSF is unavailable, often due to tumor involvement of the septum or previous resection removing or compromising the flap, other flaps may be considered. These flaps include intranasal options—inferior turbinate (IT) or middle turbinate (MT) flaps—as well as regional pedicled flaps: pericranial flap (PCF), temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF), or palatal flap (PF). More recently, novel alternatives such as the pedicled facial buccinator flap (FAB) and the pedicled occipital galeopericranial flap (OGP) have been added to the arsenal of options for skull base reconstruction. Characteristics of and appropriate uses for each flap are described. PMID:23257554
Tobón-Arroyave, S I; Domínguez-Mejía, J S; Flórez-Moreno, G A
To describe the usefulness of periosteal grafts as barriers for bone regeneration in periradicular surgery when advanced periodontal breakdown occurs. The treatment of advanced periodontal breakdown as a result of an associated endodontic lesion constitutes a multifaceted challenge to the clinician. If the source of the irritation cannot be removed by orthograde endodontic treatment, nonsurgical and surgical endodontic/periodontal intervention may be required. Two cases with suppurative chronic apical periodontitis with apicomarginal communication are described. Clinical and radiological evaluations were completed immediately prior to surgery, a week later and every 2 months after surgery for 10 months. Both patients were treated using split-thickness flaps and lateral displacement of the periosteum prior to suturing, in order to close the communication between the oral and the periapical surroundings. A remission of the clinical signs and symptoms, and successful healing in the short-term were achieved in these cases. Periapical and periodontal lesions are closely related through pathways of communication. Disruption of the cortical plate and the presence of dentoalveolar sinus tracts can have a deleterious effect on the regeneration process after periradicular surgery. The adoption of supplementary periodontal surgical techniques may help to solve some of the difficulties in the healing process in periradicular surgery. Periosteal grafts have been shown to have the potential to stimulate bone formation when used as a graft material.
De la Flor-Martínez, Maria; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena; Piattelli, Adriano; Cobo, Manuel Jesus; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique
The study of classic papers permits analysis of the past, present, and future of a specific area of knowledge. This type of analysis is becoming more frequent and more sophisticated. Our objective was to use the H-classics method, based on the h-index, to analyze classic papers in Implant Dentistry, Periodontics, and Oral Surgery (ID, P, and OS). First, an electronic search of documents related to ID, P, and OS was conducted in journals indexed in Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2014 within the category 'Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine'. Second, Web of Knowledge databases were searched using Mesh terms related to ID, P, and OS. Finally, the H-classics method was applied to select the classic articles in these disciplines, collecting data on associated research areas, document type, country, institutions, and authors. Of 267,611 documents related to ID, P, and OS retrieved from JCR journals (2014), 248 were selected as H-classics. They were published in 35 journals between 1953 and 2009, most frequently in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (18.95%), the Journal of Periodontology (18.54%), International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants (9.27%), and Clinical Oral Implant Research (6.04%). These classic articles derived from the USA in 49.59% of cases and from Europe in 47.58%, while the most frequent host institution was the University of Gothenburg (17.74%) and the most frequent authors were J. Lindhe (10.48%) and S. Socransky (8.06%). The H-classics approach offers an objective method to identify core knowledge in clinical disciplines such as ID, P, and OS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Atieh, M A; Alsabeeha, N; Tawse-Smith, A; Payne, A G T
Several clinical trials describe the effectiveness of xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) as an alternative option to surgical mucogingival procedures for the treatment of marginal tissue recession and augmentation of insufficient zones of keratinized tissue (KT). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical and patient-centred outcomes of XCM compared to other mucogingival procedures. Applying guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta analyses statement, randomized controlled trials were searched for in electronic databases and complemented by hand searching. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool and data were analysed using statistical software. A total of 645 studies were identified, of which, six trials were included with 487 mucogingival defects in 170 participants. Overall meta-analysis showed that connective tissue graft (CTG) in conjunction with the coronally advanced flap (CAF) had a significantly higher percentage of complete/mean root coverage and mean recession reduction than XCM. Insufficient evidence was found to determine any significant differences in width of KT between XCM and CTG. The XCM had a significantly higher mean root coverage, recession reduction and gain in KT compared to CAF alone. No significant differences in patient's aesthetic satisfaction were found between XCM and CTG, except for postoperative morbidity in favour of XCM. Operating time was significantly reduced with the use of XCM compared with CTG but not with CAF alone. There is no evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of XCM in achieving greater root coverage, recession reduction and gain in KT compared to CTG plus CAF. Superior short-term results in treating root coverage compared with CAF alone are possible. There is limited evidence that XCM may improve aesthetic satisfaction, reduce postoperative morbidity and shorten the operating time. Further long
Wagner, Ryan D; Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Buchanan, Edward P; Khechoyan, David Y
The majority of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome suffer from velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) commonly present with a large central velopharyngeal gap in the setting of poor velar and pharyngeal wall motion. The posterior pharyngeal flap is considered the most effective technique to treat VPI in this complex patient group. This study aims to critically evaluate success rates of surgical management of VPI in 22qDS patients and discuss options for management of a failed posterior pharyngeal flap (PPF) with persistent VPI. A systematic review was performed through MEDLINE and Scopus to examine the outcomes of PPF surgery to treat VPI in patients with 22qDS. Complications were defined as persistent VPI, hyponasal speech, and obstructive sleep apnea. To demonstrate an approach to management, the authors outline a recent patient with a failed PPF in this patient population at the authors' institution. The authors comprehensively reviewed 58 articles, 13 of which contained relevant information with extractable data. Of the 159 patients with 22qDS who underwent PPF to treat VPI, successful outcomes were reported in 135 patients (80%; range: 0%-100%). Complications were reported in 14% of patients, with need for revision operations in 3%. Surgical management of VPI in patients with 22qDS is challenging, with variable success rates reported in the literature. If unsuccessful, the surgeon faces additional challenges with the revision surgery including a scarred PPF donor site, distorted palatal recipient site, and further medialization of internal carotid arteries. Surgical revision of a failed PPF requires meticulous preoperative planning and technical execution.
Djordjevic, M L; Bizic, M; Stanojevic, D; Bumbasirevic, M; Kojovic, V; Majstorovic, M; Acimovic, M; Pandey, S; Perovic, S V
To develop a technique for urethral reconstruction using a combined labia minora flap and buccal mucosa graft. Urethral lengthening is the most difficult part in female transsexuals and poses many challenges. From April 2005 to February 2008, 38 patients (aged 19-53 years) underwent single-stage metoidioplasty. The technique starts with clitoral lengthening and straightening by division of both clitoral ligaments dorsally and the short urethral plate ventrally. The buccal mucosa graft is quilted to the ventral side of the corpora cavernosa between the native orifice and the tip of the glans. The labia minora flap is dissected from its inner surface to form the ventral aspect of the neourethra. All suture lines are covered by the well-vascularized subcutaneous tissue originating from the labia minora. The labia majora are joined in the midline and 2 silicone testicular implants are inserted to create the scrotum. The neophallus is covered with the remaining clitoral and labial skin. The median follow-up was 22 months (range 11-42). The median neophallic length was 5.6 cm (range 4-9.2). The total length of the neourethra was 9.4-14.2 cm (median 10.8). Voiding while standing was reported by all 38 patients, and temporary dribbling and spraying were noted by 12. Two fistulas and one urethral erosion resulted from the testicular implant and required secondary revision. A combined buccal mucosa graft and labia minora flap present a good choice for urethral reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals, with minimal postoperative complications.
Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter
The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7–12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation. PMID:28232940
Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter; Vág, János
The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7-12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation.
Aldelaimi, Tahrir N; Khalil, Afrah A
Reconstruction of the head and neck is a challenge for otolarygology surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons as well as plastic surgeons. Defects caused by the resection and/or trauma should be closed with flaps which match in color, texture and hair bearing characteristics with the face. Deltopectoral flap is a one such flap from chest and neck skin mainly used to cover the facial defects. This study report a patient presenting with tragic Road Traffic Accident (RTA) admitted to maxillofacial surgery department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Anbar province, Iraq. An incision, medially based, was done and deltopectoral fascio-cutaneous flap was used for surgical exposure and closure of defects after RTA. There was no major complication. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Deltopectoral flap is an excellent alternative for the reconstruction of head and neck. Harvesting and application of the flap is rapid and safe. Only a single incision is sufficient for dissection and flap elevation.
Patel, Rajiv M; Baker, Paul
Crown lengthening surgery aims to increase the amount of supragingival tooth tissue by resection of the soft and/or hard tissues to enable otherwise unrestorable teeth to be restored by increasing the retention and resistance forms of the teeth. Restoration of the worn dentition may require significant prosthodontic knowledge and skill. A prosthodontist should be involved from the beginning of the management of the patient. A number of key stages should be considered for correct management. Although the periodontist may guide the prosthodontist with regards to what may or may not be possible surgically, the overall treatment plan should be prosthodontically driven. Clinical Relevance: Toothwear of the anterior dentition provides a unique challenge to restore not only function but also to manage the aesthetic demands of the patient. To ensure that the correct outcome is reached, clinicians should be familiar with the normal anatomical proportions and relationships to enable planning and treatment to take place.
Treatment of localized gingival recession using the free rotated papilla autograft combined with coronally advanced flap by conventional (macrosurgery) and surgery under magnification (microsurgical) technique: A comparative clinical study
Pandey, Suraj; Mehta, D. S.
Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the conventional (macro-surgical) and microsurgical approach in performing the free rotated papilla autograft combined with coronally advanced flap surgery in treatment of localized gingival recession. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 sites from 10 systemically healthy patients were selected for the study. The selected sites were randomly divided into experimental site A and experimental site B by using the spilt mouth design. Conventional (macro-surgical) approach for site A and micro-surgery for site B was applied in performing the free rotated papilla autograft combined with coronally advanced flap. Recession depth (RD), recession width (RW) clinical attachment level (CAL.) and width of keratinized tissue (WKT.) were recorded at baseline, 3 months and 6 months post-operatively. Results: Both (macro- and microsurgery) groups showed significant clinical improvement in all the parameters (RD, RW, CAL and WKT). However, on comparing both the groups, these parameters did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Both the surgical procedures were equally effective in treatment of localized gingival recession by the free rotated papilla autograft technique combined with coronally advanced flap. However, surgery under magnification (microsurgery) may be clinically better than conventional surgery in terms of less post-operative pain and discomfort experienced by patients at the microsurgical site. PMID:24554888
Faris, Callum; van der Eerden, Paul; Vuyk, Hade
This study clarifies the pedicle geometry and vascular supply of a midline forehead flap for nasal reconstruction. It reports on the vascular reliability of this flap and its ability to reduce hair transposition to the nose, a major complicating factor of previous forehead flap designs. To compare the vascular reliability of 3 different pedicle designs of the forehead flap in nasal reconstruction (classic paramedian, glabellar paramedian, and central artery flap design) and evaluate hair transposition rates and aesthetic results. Retrospective analysis of patient data and outcomes retrieved from computer files generated at the time of surgery, supplemented by data from the patient medical records and photographic documentation, from a tertiary referral nasal reconstructive practice, within a secondary-care hospital setting. The study population included all consecutive patients over a 19-year period who underwent primary forehead flap repair of nasal defects, with more than 3 months of postoperative follow-up and photographic documentation. Three sequential forehead flap patterns were used (classic paramedian flap, glabella flap, and central artery flap) for nasal reconstruction over the study duration. Data collected included patient characteristics, method of repair, complications, functional outcome, and patient satisfaction score. For cosmetic outcome, photographic documentation was scored by a medical juror. No forehead flap had vascular compromise in the first stage. Partial flap necrosis was reported in subsequent stages in 4 patients (1%), with no statistical difference in the rate of vascular compromise between the 3 flap designs. Hair transposition to the nose was lower in the central artery forehead flap (7%) compared with the classic paramedian (23%) and glabellar paramedian (13%) flaps (P < .05). Photographic evaluation in 227 patients showed that brow position (98%) and color match (83%) were good in the majority of the patients. In this series
Kotschy, Peter; Laky, Markus
This patient presented with generalized severe chronic periodontitis. Conventional periodontal therapy would have left her compromised esthetically and anatomically, with growing interdental "black triangles." This prompted the authors to try to reconstruct the maxillary alveolar bone that had been lost in the previous three decades because of untreated periodontitis. To maintain the level and quality of the gingival margin, open flap surgery was performed in the maxilla soon after scaling and root planing. To gain access to the roots and bone surfaces, a flap was raised by intrasulcular incisions and the modified and simplified papilla preservation technique. After debridement, the root surfaces were conditioned and enamel matrix proteins were applied. Bovine bone mineral was placed in the infrabony defects and supracrestally (buccally, lingually, and interdentally) to help regenerate the lost alveolar bone. In addition, the defects around the maxillary anterior teeth were covered with a membrane. To prevent shrinkage of the gingiva, suspensory sutures were placed on the right central incisor and both left incisors so that the anterior flap would be positioned approximately 3 mm coronally. After surgery, the patient was advised to apply 1% chlorhexidine gel twice a day and to avoid brushing the surgical site for 4 weeks. Professional maintenance care was administered twice a week for 2 months and the patient was instructed to maintain a liquid diet for 4 weeks. The treatment outcome was evaluated clinically and radiographically at regular intervals for 5 years postsurgically. Periodontal conditions were stable and fulfilled the patient's desire to eliminate the pockets without compromising esthetics, particularly in the maxillary anterior.
Hummelink, S; Verhulst, Arico C; Maal, Thomas J J; Hoogeveen, Yvonne L; Schultze Kool, Leo J; Ulrich, Dietmar J O
Determining the ideal volume of the harvested flap to achieve symmetry in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstructions is complex. With preoperative imaging techniques such as 3D stereophotogrammetry and computed tomography angiography (CTA) available nowadays, we can combine information to preoperatively plan the optimal flap volume to be harvested. In this proof-of-concept, we investigated whether projection of a virtual flap planning onto the patient's abdomen using a projection method could result in harvesting the correct flap volume. In six patients (n = 9 breasts), 3D stereophotogrammetry and CTA data were combined from which a virtual flap planning was created comprising perforator locations, blood vessel trajectory and flap size. All projected perforators were verified with Doppler ultrasound. Intraoperative flap measurements were collected to validate the determined flap delineation volume. The measured breast volume using 3D stereophotogrammetry was 578 ± 127 cc; on CTA images, 527 ± 106 cc flap volumes were planned. The nine harvested flaps weighed 533 ± 109 g resulting in a planned versus harvested flap mean difference of 5 ± 27 g (flap density 1.0 g/ml). In 41 out of 42 projected perforator locations, a Doppler signal was audible. This proof-of-concept shows in small numbers that flap volumes can be included into a virtual DIEP flap planning, and transferring the virtual planning to the patient through a projection method results in harvesting approximately the same volume during surgery. In our opinion, this innovative approach is the first step in consequently achieving symmetric breast volumes in DIEP flap breast reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quillot, M; Lodde, J P; Pegorier, O; Reynaud, J P; Cormerais, A
The authors propose a modification of the classical design of island flaps for cover of pressure sores, applied to gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata muscles: the hatchet flap. 31 flaps have been used including 13 gluteus maximus superior flaps for sacral pressure sores, 9 gluteal inferior flaps for ischial pressure sores and 9 tensor fascia lata flaps for trochanteric pressure sores. A small partial necrosis and two cases of sepsis were observed in this series, but did not require surgical revision. The authors emphasize the value of this modification of the classical flap design, which preserves an even better musculocutaneous capital in these patients, who are often already multi-operated. The very rapid recovery of patients supports the authors' application of hatchet flaps to the surgery of pressure sores, and suggests the extension to other musculocutaneous flaps in the future.
Hu, Shenlin; Shang, Wei; Yue, Haitao; Chen, Ruini; Dong, Zheng; Hu, Jinhua; Mao, Zhao; Yang, Jian
To evaluate the DEC1 expression of periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis. 20 non-smoking patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled. Periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue samples from healthy subjects were collected during teeth extraction for orthodontic reason or the third molar extraction. The parallel samples from patients with chronic periodontitis were obtained during periodontal flap operations or teeth extraction as part of periodontal treatment. The DEC1 expression and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of both the periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue were determined by Western blot, Immunohistochemistry and ALP Detection Kit. The DEC1 expression of periodontal ligament tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis decreased significantly along with the decreased ALP activity. On the contrary, the DEC1 expression of gingival tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis increased significantly. Further study found that the DEC1 expression of gingival tissue increased mainly in the suprabasal layer of gingival epithelial cells but decreased in the gingival connective tissue of the patients with chronic periodontitis. The DEC1 expression decreases in the periodontal ligament tissue which is related to the osteogenic capacity, whereas the DEC1 expression increases in the suprabasal layer of gingival epithelial cells which are involved in immune inflammatory response in the patients with chronic periodontitis. The findings provide a new target to explore the pathology and the therapy of periodontitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramesh, Asha; Ravi, Sheethalan; Kaarthikeyan, Gurumoorthy
Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) is a debilitating form of the disease and it results in deteriorating effects on the esthetic and functional aspects of the oral cavity. This case report describes the comprehensive rehabilitation of GAP patient using dental implants. The treatment planning involved thorough scaling and root planning (SRP) with oral hygiene instructions. The patient was motivated to adhere to a strict oral hygiene regimen following which periodontal flap surgery employing guided tissue regeneration and bone grafts was performed. Bacterial culture for anaerobic microorganisms was done using a gas pack pre- and postperiodontal treatment to confirm the effectiveness of the periodontal treatment regimen and also to proceed with dental implant placement. The rigorous maintenance program ensured the stability of the periodontium following which immediate placement of dental implants in the maxillary and mandibular anterior region was done. The fixed metal-ceramic prosthesis was fabricated in a step-by-step process and the patient was recalled on a periodic basis over a 3-year follow-up duration. This case is a testimonial to the postperiodontal treatment long-term stability with excellent patient cooperation and strict maintenance protocol. PMID:29398863
LoPiccolo, Matteo C
The rotation flap is a classic method of tissue rearrangement. It is a simple yet effective tool for recruiting tissue from areas of laxity and redirecting vectors of tension to reconstruct wounds not amenable to primary closure. This article presents the basic design principles and specific applications of the rotation flap in dermatologic surgery. A Medline search of articles describing rotation flaps published prior to April 1, 2015 was performed, and several prominent texts in dermatologic surgery were reviewed. Information gathered from the above sources is combined with the clinical experience of the author and editors to present surgeons with a guide for planning and executing various rotation flaps. Mastering the technique of the rotation flap will allow a surgeon to repair a wide variety of cutaneous defects.
Cardaropoli, Daniele; Re, Stefania; Corrente, Giuseppe; Abundo, Roberto
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of a combined orthodontic-periodontic treatment in determining the reconstruction of midline papilla lost following periodontitis. Twenty-eight patients, with infrabony defect and extrusion of one maxillary central incisor, were treated. At baseline, all patients presented opening of the interdental diastema and loss of the papilla. At 7-10 days after open-flap surgery, the intrusive movement started. For each patient, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and papilla presence index (PI) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment and after 1 year. PI was also evaluated independently in patients with narrow or wide periodontal biotype (NPB-WPB). All parameters showed statistical improvement between the initial and final measurements, and showed no changes at follow-up time. The mean residual PPD was 2.50 mm, with a decrease of 4.29 mm, while the mean CAL gain was 5.93 mm. Twenty-three out of 28 patients improved the PI score at the end of therapy. No statistical difference was recorded in PI values between groups NPB and WPB. The presented clinical protocol resulted in the improvement of all parameters examined. At the end of orthodontic treatment, a predictable reconstruction of the interdental papilla was reported, both in patients with thin or wide gingiva. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.
Rajpal, Jaisika; Gupta, Krishna K.; Srivastava, Ruchi; Arora, Aakash
Gingival recession along with reduced width of attached gingiva and inadequate vestibular depth is a very common finding. Multiple techniques have been developed to obtain predictable root coverage and to increase the width of attached gingiva. Usually, the width of gingiva is first increased and then the second surgery is caried out for root coverage. The newer methods of root coverage are needed, not only to reconstruct the lost periodontal tissues but also to increase predictability, reduce the number of surgical sites, reduce the number of surgeries and improve patient comfort. Hence, this paper describes a single stage technique for increasing the width of attached gingiva and root coverage by using the periosteal pedicle flap. PMID:23869140
Primary radical ablative surgery and fibula free-flap reconstruction for T4 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with mandibular invasion: oncologic and functional results and their predictive factors.
Camuzard, Olivier; Dassonville, Olivier; Ettaiche, Marc; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Poissonnet, Gilles; Berguiga, Riadh; Leysalle, Axel; Benezery, Karen; Peyrade, Frédéric; Saada, Esma; Hechema, Raphael; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Demard, François; Santini, José; Bozec, Alexandre
The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical outcomes and to determine their predictive factors in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) invading the mandibular bone (T4) who underwent primary radical surgery and fibula free-flap reconstruction. Between 2001 and 2013, all patients who underwent primary surgery and mandibular fibula free-flap reconstruction for OCSCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. Predictive factors of oncologic and functional outcomes were assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. 77 patients (55 men and 22 women, mean age 62 ± 10.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Free-flap failure and local and general complication rates were 9, 31, and 22 %, respectively. In multivariate analysis, ASA score (p = 0.002), pathologic N-stage (p = 0.01), and close surgical margins (p = 0.03) were independent predictors of overall survival. Six months after therapy, oral diet, speech intelligibility, and mouth opening functions were normal or slightly impaired in, respectively, 79, 88, and 83 % of patients. 6.5 % of patients remaining dependent on enteral nutrition 6 months after therapy. With acceptable postoperative outcomes and satisfactory oncologic and functional results, segmental mandibulectomy with fibula free-flap reconstruction should be considered the gold standard primary treatment for patients with OCSCC invading mandible bone. Oncologic outcomes are dependent on three main factors: ASA score, pathologic N-stage, and surgical margin status.
Jacob, Anila; Janam, Presanthila; Babu Vijayamma, Janki Mohan
Bacterial pathogens in dental plaque are necessary for the development of periodontitis but this etiology alone does not explain all its clinicopathologic features. Researchers have proven the role of certain viruses like herpes virus in periodontal disease which implies that other viral agents like human papilloma virus may also be involved. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients with human papilloma virus (HPV-16) in marginal periodontium by analyzing DNA from the gingival tissue sample and to understand its association with periodontitis. 102 systemically healthy patients between the age group of 15 and 70 years reporting to the Department of Periodontology who required surgical intervention (flap surgery for patients with periodontitis and crown lengthening for healthy patients) with internal bevel gingivectomy were selected. After scaling and root planning, gingival tissue was collected during the respective surgical procedure. DNA was isolated and amplified using specific primers for HPV-16 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified products were checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. No HPV DNA was detected in the 102 samples analyzed. Marginal periodontium does not contain HPV in this study population and hence there was no association between HPV and periodontitis.
Change in reimbursement and costs in German oncological head and neck surgery over the last decade: ablative tongue cancer surgery and reconstruction with split-thickness skin graft vs. microvascular radial forearm flap.
Hoefert, Sebastian; Lotter, Oliver
Defects after ablative tongue cancer surgery can be reconstructed by split-thickness skin grafts or free microvascular flaps. The different surgical options may influence costs, reimbursement, and therefore possible profits. Our goal was to analyze the development of these parameters for different procedures in head and neck reconstruction in Germany over the last decade. After tumor resection and neck dissection of tongue cancer, three different scenarios were chosen to calculate costs, reimbursement, length of stay (LoS), and profits. Two options considered were reconstruction by split-thickness skin graft with (option Ia) and without (option Ib) tracheotomy. In addition, we analyzed microvascular reconstruction with radial forearm flap (option II). Furthermore, unsatisfactory results after options Ia and Ib may make secondary tongue plastic with split-thickness skin grafting necessary (option I+). The calculations were performed considering the German Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) system and compared to the specific DRG cost data of 250 German reference hospitals. The overall average length of stay (aLoS) declined from 16.7 to 12.8 days with a reduction in every option. Until 2011, all options showed similar accumulated DRG reimbursement. From 2012 onwards, earnings almost doubled for option II due to changes in the DRG allocation. As was expected, the highest costs were observed in option II. Profits (reimbursement minus costs) were also highest for option II (mean 2052 €, maximum 3630 Euros in 2015) followed by options Ia (765 €) and Ib/I+ (681 €). Average profits over time would be 17 to 19% higher if adjusted for inflation. We showed the development of the DRG allocation of two commonly used methods of reconstruction after ablative tongue cancer surgery and the associated LoS, reimbursement, costs, and profits. As expected, the highest values were found for microvascular reconstruction. Microvascular reconstruction may also be the primary choice of
George, Rinku K.; Krishnamurthy, Arvind
Reconstructive microsurgery for oral and maxillofacial (OMF) defects is considered as a niche specialty and is performed regularly only in a handful of centers. Till recently the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) was considered to be the benchmark for OMF reconstruction. This philosophy is changing fast with rapid advancement in reconstructive microsurgery. Due to improvement in instrumentation and the development of finer techniques of flap harvesting we can positively state that microsurgery has come of age. Better techniques, microscopes and micro instruments enable us to do things previously unimaginable. Supramicrosurgery and ultrathin flaps are a testimony to this. Years of innovation in reconstructive microsurgery have given us a reasonably good number of very excellent flaps. Tremendous work has been put into producing some exceptionally brilliant research articles, sometimes contradicting each other. This has led to the need for clarity in some areas in this field. This article will review some controversies in reconstructive microsurgery and analyze some of the most common microvascular free flaps (MFF) used in OMF reconstruction. It aims to buttress the fact that three flaps-the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) and fibula are the ones most expedient in the surgeon's arsenal, since they can cater to almost all sizeable defects we come across after ablative surgery in the OMF region. They can thus aptly be titled as the workhorses of OMF reconstruction with regard to free flaps. PMID:23662264
Aimetti, Mario; Ferrarotti, Francesco; Bergandi, Loredana; Saksing, Laura; Parducci, Francesca; Romano, Federica
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early inflammatory response following osseous resective surgery (ORS) with Piezosurgery compared to commonly used diamond burs. A sample was selected of 24 bilateral posterior sextants requiring ORS in 12 chronic periodontitis patients in a split-mouth design. In 12 sextants, bone recontouring was performed using a piezoelectric device. In the contralateral sextants, rotary instruments were used. Sextants treated with Piezosurgery obtained similar 12-month clinical results but lower postsurgical gene expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a well-known proinflammatory cytokine, and lower patient morbidity compared with sextants treated with rotary instruments. In spite of the longer surgical time, the use of Piezosurgery for ORS seems to promote more favorable wound healing compared with rotary instruments, as the lower pain and the low levels of IL-1β mRNA at the surgical sites suggest a milder underlying inflammatory response.
Yadav, Vikender Singh; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhatia, Anu; Yadav, Renu
The use of magnification to perform various procedures in medical and dental field, particularly endodontics has long been recognized. Unfortunately, its application in periodontics is not widely popularized. The objective of this article is to emphasize the application of microsurgical principles in various periodontal surgical procedures and to reinforce the incorporation of microscope into periodontal practice. The most recent periodontal journals were reviewed and a search of databases such as PubMed or Medline and Google Scholar was conducted for relevant material from published literature up to 2017. Medical Subject Headings words looked for were “periodontal microsurgery” and “minimally invasive periodontal surgery.” The available literature, specifically to periodontal surgical procedures was analyzed and compiled. The analysis indicates that incorporation of magnification in periodontal practice is associated with improved visual acuity, ergonomic benefits, decreased patient morbidity, rapid healing, and enhanced patient acceptance. PMID:29568165
Combined periodontal and restorative approach to the treatment of gingival recessions with noncarious cervical lesions: a case treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and compomer restorations.
Efeoğlu, Ahmet; Hanzade, Mete; Sari, Esra; Alpay, Hande; Karakaş, Ozan; Koray, Fatma
Treatment of gingival recessions has become one of the most challenging procedures in periodontal plastic surgery. Various surgical options with predictable outcomes are available, but in cases with cervical lesions or restorations, optimal functional and esthetic results may require the combination of periodontal and restorative procedures. In this case report, one patient treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and a coronally positioned flap in combination with compomer cervical restorations is presented. Clinical parameters were recorded immediately prior to surgery and after 12 months. Postoperatively, significant root coverage, reductions in probing depths, and gains in clinical attachment were observed. The final clinical results, esthetics, color match, and tissue contours were acceptable to both the patient and clinicians.
Tenekeci, Goktekin; Basterzi, Yavuz; Unal, Sakir; Sari, Alper; Demir, Yavuz; Bagdatoglu, Celal; Tasdelen, Bahar
Bilateral rotation flaps are considered the workhorse flaps in reconstruction of myelomeningocele defects. Since the introduction of perforator flaps in the field of reconstructive surgery, perforator flaps have been used increasingly in the reconstruction of various soft tissue defects all over the body because of their appreciated advantages. The aim of this study was to compare the complications and surgical outcomes between bilateral rotation flaps and dorsal intercostal artery perforator (DICAP) flaps in the soft tissue reconstruction of myelomeningocele defects. Between January 2005-February 2017, we studied 47 patients who underwent reconstruction of myelomeningocele defects. Patient demographics, operative data, and postoperative data were reviewed retrospectively and are included in the study. We found no statistically significant differences in patient demographics and surgical complications between these two groups; this may be due to small sample size. With regard to complications-partial flap necrosis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, necessity for reoperation, and wound infection-DICAP propeller flaps were clinically superior to rotation flaps. Partial flap necrosis was associated with CSF leakage and wound infection, and CSF leakage was associated with wound dehiscence. Although surgical outcomes obtained with DICAP propeller flaps were clinically superior to those obtained with rotation flaps, there was no statistically significant difference between the two patient groups. A well-designed comparative study with adequate sample size is needed. Nonetheless, we suggest using DICAP propeller flaps for reconstruction of large myelomeningocele defects.
Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie
Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20(th) century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics.
Nyman, S; Westfelt, E; Sarhed, G; Karring, T
This clinical trial was undertaken to examine whether root debridement in the treatment of periodontal disease must include the removal of the exposed cementum in order to achieve periodontal health. The study included 11 adult patients with moderate to advanced periodontal disease. In a split-mouth design, the dentition of each patient was by random selection divided into test- and control quadrants comprising the incisors, canines and premolars. Following a baseline examination, all patients were given a case presentation and a detailed instruction in self-performed oral hygiene measures. The patients were then subjected to periodontal surgery. Following reverse bevel incisions, buccal and lingual mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated and all granulation tissue was removed. In 2 jaw quadrants (control quadrants) in each patient, the denuded root surfaces were carefully scaled and planed in order to remove soft and hard deposits as well as all cementum, using hand instruments and flame-formed diamond stones. In the contralateral quadrants (test quadrants) the roots were not scaled and planed but soft microbial deposits were removed by polishing the root surfaces with the but soft microbial deposits were removed by polishing the root surfaces with the use of rubber cups, interdental rubber tips and a polishing paste. Calculus in the test quadrants was removed by the use of a curette, but precaution was taken to avoid the removal of cementum. The flaps were repositioned to their original level and sutured. The patients were following active treatment enrolled in a supervised maintenance care program including "professional tooth cleaning" once every 2 weeks for a 3-month period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Windisch, Péter; Szendroi-Kiss, Dóra; Horváth, Attila; Suba, Zsuzsanna; Gera, István; Sculean, Anton
Treatment of intrabony periodontal defects with a combination of a natural bone mineral (NBM) and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been shown to promote periodontal regeneration in intrabony defects. In certain clinical situations, the teeth presenting intrabony defects are located at close vicinity of the resorbed alveolar ridge. In these particular cases, it is of clinical interest to simultaneously reconstruct both the intrabony periodontal defect and the resorbed alveolar ridge, thus allowing insertion of endosseous dental implants. The aim of the present study was to present the clinical and histological results obtained with a new surgical technique designed to simultaneously reconstruct the intrabony defect and the adjacently located resorbed alveolar ridge. Eight patients with chronic advanced periodontitis displaying intrabony defects located in the close vicinity of resorbed alveolar ridges were consecutively enrolled in the study. After local anesthesia, mucoperiosteal flaps were raised, the granulation tissue removed, and the roots meticulously scaled and planed. A subepithelial connective tissue graft was harvested from the palate and sutured to the oral flap. The intrabony defect and the adjacent alveolar ridge were filled with a NBM and subsequently covered with a bioresorbable collagen membrane (GTR). At 11-20 months (mean, 13.9+/-3.9 months) after surgery, implants were placed, core biopsies retrieved, and histologically evaluated. Mean pocket depth reduction measured 3.8+/-1.7 mm and mean clinical attachment level gain 4.3+/-2.2 mm, respectively. Reentry revealed in all cases a complete fill of the intrabony component and a mean additional vertical hard tissue gain of 1.8+/-1.8 mm. The histologic evaluation indicated that most NBM particles were surrounded by bone. Mean new bone and mean graft area measured 17.8+/-2.8% and 32.1+/-8.3%, respectively. Within their limits, the present findings indicate that the described surgical approach may be
Lin, Chin-Ta; Chen, Shih-Yi; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Chang, Shun-Cheng
Despite advances in reconstruction techniques, pressure sores continue to present a challenge to the plastic surgeon. The parasacral perforator flap is a reliable flap that preserves the entire contralateral side as a future donor site. On the ipsilateral side, the gluteal muscle itself is preserved and all flaps based on the inferior gluteal artery are still possible. We present our experience of using parasacral perforator flaps in reconstructing sacral defects. Between August 2004 and January 2013, 19 patients with sacral defects were included in this study. All the patients had undergone surgical reconstruction of sacral defects with a parasacral perforator flap. The patients' sex, age, cause of sacral defect, flap size, flap type, numbers of perforators used, rotation angle, postoperative complications, and hospital stay were recorded. There were 19 parasacral perforator flaps in this series. All flaps survived uneventfully except for 1 parasacral perforator flap, which failed because of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. The overall flap survival rate was 95% (18/19). The mean follow-up period was 17.3 months (range, 2-24 months). The average length of hospital stay was 20.7 days (range, 9-48 days). No flap surgery-related mortality was found. Also, there was no recurrence of sacral pressure sores or infected pilonidal cysts during the follow-up period. Perforator-based flaps have become popular in modern reconstructive surgery because of low donor-site morbidity and good preservation of muscle. Parasacral perforator flaps are durable and reliable in reconstructing sacral defects. We recommend the parasacral perforator flap as a good choice for reconstructing sacral defects.
Golbin, Denis A.; Lasunin, Nikolay V.; Cherekaev, Vasily A.; Polev, Georgiy A.
Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a buccal fat pad for endoscopic skull base defect reconstruction. Design Descriptive anatomical study with an illustrative case presentation. Setting Anatomical study was performed on 12 fresh human cadaver specimens with injected arteries (24 sides). Internal carotid artery was exposed in the coronal plane via the endoscopic transpterygoid approach. The pedicled buccal fat pad was used for reconstruction. Participants: 12 human cadaver head specimens; one patient operated using the proposed technique. Main outcome measures: Proximity of the buccal fat pad flap to the defect, compliance of the flap, comfort and safety of harvesting procedure, and compatibility with the Hadad–Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. Results: Harvesting procedure was performed using anterior transmaxillary corridor. The pedicled buccal fat pad flap can be used to pack the sphenoid sinus or cover the internal carotid artery from cavernous to upper parapharyngeal segment. Conclusion The buccal fat pad can be safely harvested through the same approach without external incisions and is compliant enough to conform to the skull base defect. The proposed pedicled flap can replace free abdominal fat in central skull base reconstruction. The volume of the buccal fat pad allows obliteration of the sphenoid sinus or upper parapharyngeal space. PMID:28180047
The instep island flap is safe and useful. It is based on branches of the posterior tibial artery and can be a musculocutaneous or a direct fasciocutaneous island flap. Sensory branches of the digital nerves may be transposed with the flap. There is a wide arc of transposition and the flap has survived even in very difficult circumstances.
Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Chai, Jung-Kiu; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Kim, Chong-Kwan
Autogenous bone grafts and bone biomaterials are being used as part of protocols aiming at reconstruction of periodontal defects. There is a limited biologic information on the effect of such materials on periodontal healing, in particular aberrant healing events that may prevent their general use. The objective of this study was, using histological techniques, to evaluate periodontal healing with focus on root resorption and ankylosis following implantation of autogenous bone and a coral-derived biomaterial into intra-bony defects in dogs. One-wall intra-bony periodontal defects were surgically created at the distal aspect of the second and the mesial aspect of the fourth mandibular premolars in either right or left jaw quadrants in four Beagle dogs. Each animal received particulated autogenous bone and the resorbable calcium carbonate biomaterial into discrete one-wall intra-bony defects. The mucoperiosteal flaps were positioned and sutured to their pre-surgery position. The animals were euthanized 8 weeks post-surgery when block sections of the defect sites were collected and prepared for qualitative histological analysis. There were no significant differences in periodontal healing between sites receiving autograft bone and the coral-derived biomaterial. A well-organized periodontal ligament bridging new bone and cementum regeneration was observed extending coronal to a notch prepared to delineate the apical extent of the defect. Osteoid and bone with enclosed osteocytes were formed onto the surface of both autograft and coral particles. Although small resorption pits were evident in most teeth, importantly none of the biomaterials provoked marked root resorption. Ankylosis was not observed. Particulated autogenous bone and the coral-derived biomaterial may be implanted into periodontal defects without significant healing aberrations such as root resorption and ankylosis. The histopathological evaluation suggests that the autogenous bone graft has a limited
Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun; Lee, Won Jai
Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores.
Horváth, Attila; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Windisch, Péter; Lukács, László; Gera, István; Sculean, Anton
The aim of the study was to clinically and histologically evaluate the healing of human intrabony defects treated with open flap surgery (OFD) and application of a new, resorbable, fully synthetic, unsintered, nanocrystalline, phase-pure hydroxyapatite (nano-HA). Six patients, each of them displaying very advanced intrabony defects around teeth scheduled for extraction due to advanced chronic periodontitis and further prosthodontic considerations, were included in the study. Following local anaesthesia, mucoperiosteal flaps were reflected; the granulation tissue was removed, and the roots were meticulously debrided by hand and ultrasonic instruments. A notch was placed at the most apical extent of the calculus present on the root surface or at the most apical part of the defect (if no calculus was present) in order to serve as a reference for the histological evaluation. Following defect fill with nano-HA, the flaps were sutured by means of mattress sutures to allow primary intention healing. At 7 months after regenerative surgery, the teeth were extracted together with some of their surrounding soft and hard tissues and processed for histological analysis. The postoperative healing was uneventful in all cases. At 7 months following surgery, mean PPD reduction and mean CAL gain measured 4.0 ± 0.8 and 2.5 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. The histological analysis revealed a healing predominantly characterized by epithelial downgrowth. Limited formation of new cementum with inserting connective tissue fibers and bone regeneration occurred in three out of the six biopsies (i.e. 0-0.86 and 0-1.33 mm, respectively). Complete resorption of the nano-HA was found in four out of the six biopsies. A few remnants of the graft particles (either surrounded by newly formed mineralized tissue or encapsulated in connective tissue) were found in two out of the six biopsies. Within their limits, the present results indicate that nano-HA has limited potential to promote periodontal
Kim, Youn Hwan; Kim, Sang Wha; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Chang Yeon
Tensor fascia lata (TFL) musculocutaneous flaps often require a donor site graft when harvesting a large flap. However, a major drawback is that it also sacrifices the muscle. To overcome this disadvantage, we designed a TFL perforator-based island flap that was harvested from a site near the defect and involved transposition within 90 degrees without full isolation of the pedicles. We performed procedures on 17 musculocutaneous flaps and 23 perforator-based island flaps, and compared the outcomes of these surgeries. The overall complication rate was 27.5% (11 regions). There were 7 complications related to the musculocutaneous flaps and 4 complications related to the perforator flaps. Although there were no statistical differences between those groups, lower complication rates were associated with procedures involving perforator flaps. The TFL perforator procedure is a simple and fast operation that avoids sacrificing muscle. This decreases complication rates compared to true perforator flap techniques that require dissection around the perforator or pedicle.
Needleman, I G; Worthington, H V; Giedrys-Leeper, E; Tucker, R J
Conventional treatment of destructive periodontal (gum) disease arrests the disease but does not usually regain the bone support or connective tissue lost in the disease process. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a surgical procedure that specifically aims to regenerate the periodontal tissues when the disease is advanced and could overcome some of the limitations of conventional therapy. To assess the efficacy of GTR in the treatment of periodontal infra-bony defects measured against conventional surgery (open flap debridement (OFD)) and factors affecting outcomes. We conducted an electronic search of the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to April 2004. Handsearching included Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontal Research and bibliographies of all relevant papers and review articles up to April 2004. In addition, we contacted experts/groups/companies involved in surgical research to find other trials or unpublished material or to clarify ambiguous or missing data and posted requests for data on two periodontal electronic discussion groups. Randomised, controlled trials (RCTs) of at least 12 months duration comparing guided tissue regeneration (with or without graft materials) with open flap debridement for the treatment of periodontal infra-bony defects. Furcation involvements and studies specifically treating aggressive periodontitis were excluded. Screening of possible studies and data extraction was conducted independently. The methodological quality of studies was assessed in duplicate using individual components and agreement determined by Kappa scores. Methodological quality was used in sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the conclusions. The Cochrane Oral Health Group statistical guidelines were followed and the results expressed as mean differences (MD and 95% CI) for continuous outcomes and risk ratios (RR and 95% CI) for dichotomous outcomes calculated using
The usefulness of laser for oral hard tissue procedure such as caries treatment, impacted teeth extraction, periodontal therapy, peri-implantitis management, sinus lifting is reported by several Authors . Conventionally, mechanical rotary instruments and hand instruments are employed for bone surgery. Rotary instruments have better accessibility and cutting efficiency, but there is a risk of excessive heating of bone tissue and caution must be exercised to avoid the bur becoming entangled with surrounding soft tissues and the reflected flap. The main clinical advantages of the lasers are represented by minimal patient discomfort, good recovery with decreased or absent post-operative pain. In the last ten years are described in the international literature great advantages of Laser Surgery and Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) performed with different wavelength in addition to traditional surgical techniques to improve bone and soft tissue healing and for pain and infection control.
Werdin, Frank; Haug, Daniel M; Amr, Amro; Schoeller, Thomas
In cases were the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (DIEP flap) is not available and unilateral transverse myocutaneous gracilis flap (TMG flap) is not sufficient for breast reconstruction, we perform double TMG flaps as a reconstructive method. In this report, we present our results of the use of double TMG free-flap-transfer for unilateral breast reconstruction. Between August 2004 and June 2012 we performed 58 TMG flaps in 29 patients for unilateral breast reconstruction. Patient data were analyzed and operative outcome (operation time, complication rate and aesthetic results) were investigated. Aesthetic outcome was evaluated retrospectively via photo documentation by an independent plastic surgeon. The results were classified in;unsatisfactory, satisfactory, good and very good. The average operating time was 6 hours 55 minutes (295 - 650 minutes). Of 58 TMG flaps, 57 (98.3%) were successful. Thrombosis occurred in seven (12%) cases (1 arterial, 6 venous). Flap salvage was successful in six cases and flap failure occurred in one (1.7%) case. The results of 25 patients were graded as good and very good. Three patients showed satisfying and one patient unsatisfying results. Double TMG flaps in unilateral breast reconstruction could lead to good operative results. This method further expands the range of options with autologous tissue in reconstructive breast surgery. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:539-545, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Qingfeng; Zan, Tao; Gu, Bin; Liu, Kai; Shen, Guoxiong; Xie, Yun; Weng, Rui
Resurfacing of facial massive soft tissue defect is a formidable challenge because of the unique character of the region and the limitation of well-matched donor site. In this report, we introduce a technique for using the prefabricated cervicothoracic skin flap for facial resurfacing, in an attempt to meet the principle of flap selection in face reconstructive surgery for matching the color and texture, large dimension, and thinner thickness (MLT) of the recipient. Eleven patients with massive facial scars underwent resurfacing procedures with prefabricated cervicothoracic flaps. The vasculature of the lateral thigh fascial flap, including the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex vessels and the surrounding muscle fascia, was used as the vascular carrier, and the pedicles of the fascial flap were anastomosed to either the superior thyroid or facial vessels in flap prefabrication. A tissue expander was placed beneath the fascial flap to enlarge the size and reduce the thickness of the flap. The average size of the harvested fascia flap was 6.5 x 11.7 cm. After a mean interval of 21.5 weeks, the expanders were filled to a mean volume of 1,685 ml. The sizes of the prefabricated skin flaps ranged from 12 x 15 cm to 15 x 32 cm. The prefabricated skin flaps were then transferred to the recipient site as pedicled flaps for facial resurfacing. All facial soft tissue defects were successfully covered by the flaps. The donor sites were primarily closed and healed without complications. Although varied degrees of venous congestion were developed after flap transfers, the marginal necrosis only occurred in two cases. The results in follow-up showed most resurfaced faces restored natural contour and regained emotional expression. MLT is the principle for flap selection in resurfacing of the massive facial soft tissue defect. Our experience in this series of patients demonstrated that the prefabricated cervicothoracic skin flap could be a reliable alternative
Niemiec, Brook A
Periodontal disease is the most commonly diagnosed problem in small animal veterinary medicine. In the vast majority of cases, however, there are little to no outward clinical signs of the disease process, and, therefore, therapy often comes very late in the disease course. Consequently, periodontal disease is also the most undertreated animal health problem. In addition, unchecked periodontal disease has numerous dire consequences both locally and systemically. These consequences are detailed in the article and should be utilized to educate clients and encourage compliance of therapeutic recommendations. The local consequences include oronasal fistulas, class II perio-endo lesions, pathologic fractures, ocular problems, osteomyelitis, and an increased incidence of oral cancer. Systemic diseases linked to periodontal disease include: renal, hepatic, pulmonary, and cardiac diseases; osteoporosis, adverse pregnancy effects, and diabetes mellitus. Before the discussion of consequences, this article covers the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, followed by clinical features and diagnostic tests.
Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul
Endodontic and periodontal microsurgery has surpassed the success rates for traditional endodontic and periodontal surgical procedures. Excellent healing results are being attributed to both the techniques, when employed, for isolated endodontic or periodontal defects. Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques. The prevention of epithelial downgrowth and regeneration of periodontal cementum, fiber, and bone seals the fate of these cases. Achieving primary closure with submergence of grafts has a positive effect on GTR outcome. New techniques of periodontal microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla preserving flaps with passive internal mattress suturing, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and conditioning has also shown to be beneficial for GTR. Endodontic microsurgery for the combined lesion has not integrated these advances yet. These advances, along with a recently suggested treatment strategy, are ushering in the level next in management of the combined lesions. This article offers an overview of the combined lesion, the disease, its classification, treatment strategy, regenerative tools, microsurgical recommendations, and outcome studies. PMID:25506135
Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul
Endodontic and periodontal microsurgery has surpassed the success rates for traditional endodontic and periodontal surgical procedures. Excellent healing results are being attributed to both the techniques, when employed, for isolated endodontic or periodontal defects. Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques. The prevention of epithelial downgrowth and regeneration of periodontal cementum, fiber, and bone seals the fate of these cases. Achieving primary closure with submergence of grafts has a positive effect on GTR outcome. New techniques of periodontal microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla preserving flaps with passive internal mattress suturing, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and conditioning has also shown to be beneficial for GTR. Endodontic microsurgery for the combined lesion has not integrated these advances yet. These advances, along with a recently suggested treatment strategy, are ushering in the level next in management of the combined lesions. This article offers an overview of the combined lesion, the disease, its classification, treatment strategy, regenerative tools, microsurgical recommendations, and outcome studies.
Bach, Georg; Neckel, Claus P.
Numerous groups have recommended the use of the diode laser to decontaminate infected root and implant surfaces. The aim of this study was to show the outcome after laser assisted and conventional therapy of periimplantitis and periodontitis administering approved treatment protocols. Between 1994 and 1999 a total of 50 patients with periimplantitis (20) and periodontitis (30) were treated in two groups each. Clinical, microbiological and radiographic evaluation was performed before and 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after treatment. In addition to the conventional treatment protocol, flap surgery, the tooth or implant surface was decontaminated with a 810 nm diode laser using 1 Watt output for 20 sec (CW mode). All accessible surfaces were decontaminated at the follow up dates. In the periimplantitis group recurrence of the marker bacteria was higher and faster over time for the conventionally operated patients. Also the clinical and radiographic reevaluation showed significantly better results. The laser group of the periodontitis patients also showed significantly better outcome in terms of clinical evaluation, microbiological counts, radiographic evaluation and tooth loss. In comparison to other long term studies our results for the conventional therapy were adequate, the laser assisted therapy brought up significantly better and reproducible results.
Cavalcanti, Jacqueline V J; Barry, Sabrina L; Lanz, Otto I; Barnes, Katherine; Coutin, Julia V
The purpose of this retrospective study was to report the outcomes of 19 dogs and 1 cat undergoing reverse saphenous conduit flap between 1999 and 2016. Reverse saphenous conduit flap was used to treat traumatic wounds and wounds resulting from tumor excision in the hind limb; the majority of cases had medial shearing injuries. All animals had complete flap survival. In five animals (20%), minor donor site dehiscence occurred, which did not require surgery. Other postoperative complications included signs of severe venous congestion in one dog. Reverse saphenous conduit flap is a useful technique to repair skin defects of the distal hind limb.
Singh, Preetinder; Suresh, D. K.
Aim: Clinical evaluation of efficacy of rhPDGF-BB plus beta tricalcium phosphate (GEM 21S®) along with a collagen membrane in root coverage using a coronally advanced flap. Materials and Methods: This human case series evaluated the clinical outcome of rhPDGF-BB with beta-tricalcium phosphate (GEM 21S®) and a collagen membrane in the treatment of recession defects using a coronally advanced flap. Patients were followed postoperatively, and healing was evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months, with recession depth as the primary outcome measure. Results: This pioneer case series revealed a favorable tissue response to GEM 21S® and collagen membrane from both clinical and esthetic point of view in regenerative periodontal surgery. PMID:23493720
Effects of two different post-surgical protocols including either 0.05 % chlorhexidine herbal extract or 0.1 % chlorhexidine on post-surgical plaque control, early wound healing and patient acceptance following standard periodontal surgery and implant placement.
Laugisch, Oliver; Ramseier, Christoph A; Salvi, Giovanni E; Hägi, Tobias T; Bürgin, Walter; Eick, Sigrun; Sculean, Anton
The aim of this study was to compare early wound healing, tooth staining and patient acceptance with two different post-surgical maintenance protocols. Forty patients scheduled for flap surgery to treat periodontal pockets or accommodate dental implants were randomly assigned to receive the following two different post-surgical maintenance protocols: (a) 2 weeks rinsing with a 0.05 % chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX)/herbal extract combination (test) or (b) a 0.1 % CHX solution (control). Early wound healing was evaluated clinically and immunologically. Tooth staining and patient acceptance were assessed by means of visual analogue scale (VAS). Both groups presented with comparable wound healing profiles. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two protocols regarding early wound healing and plaque index (p > 0.05). However, in the control group, statistically significantly more patients felt discomfort due to tooth staining (p = 0.0467). Compared with patients from the test group, patients in the control group reported statistically significant more irritation of taste at week 1 (p = 0.0359) and at week 2 (p = 0.0042). The present findings indicate that the two CHX protocols resulted in comparable healing and inhibition of plaque formation. Tooth staining and subjective discomfort related to irritation of taste were more frequent in the control group. A post-operative protocol including 0.05 % CHX/herbal extract may have the potential to improve patient compliance during post-operative maintenance.
... already are in the process of dissecting the dynamics of these bacterial communities. This research may give ... shed from chronic periodontal infections enter the circulatory system and may contribute to diseases of the heart ...
Barca, Ece; Cifcibasi, Emine; Cintan, Serdar
Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases with a mixed microbial aetiology and marked inflammatory response leading to destruction of underlying tissue. Periodontal therapy aims to eliminate pathogens associated with the disease and attain periodontal health. Periodontitis is generally treated by nonsurgical mechanical debridement and regular periodontal maintenance care. Periodontal surgery may be indicated for some patients to improve access to the root surface; however, mechanical debridement alone may not be helpful in all cases. In such cases, adjunctive systemic antibiotic therapy remains the treatment of choice. It can reach microorganisms at the base of the deep periodontal pockets and furcation areas via serum, and also affects organisms residing within gingival epithelium and connective tissue. This review aims to provide an update on clinical issues regarding when and how to prescribe systemic antibiotics in periodontal therapy. The points discussed are the mode of antibiotic action, susceptible periodontal pathogens, antibiotic dosage, antibiotic use in treatment of periodontal disease, and mechanism of bacterial resistance to each antibiotic. PMID:28955547
Weum, Sven; de Weerd, Louis; Klein, Steven; Hage, J Joris
Treatment of soft tissue defects caused by trauma, tumour surgery or pressure sores is a challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Although contour and function may be restored by tissue transposition, traditional methods often cause significant donor site morbidity. This article describes how increased understanding of vascular anatomy has led to the development of new techniques. The article is based on textbooks of plastic surgery, selected articles and own clinical experience. Pedicled and free perforator flaps represent the latest development in surgical treatment of soft tissue defects. The use of perforator flaps can considerably reduce the disadvantages that are associated with other surgical methods. The use of perforator flaps demands microsurgical skills, but has many advantages. Reliable vascular supply and a good aesthetical result can be combined with minimal donor site morbidity. In many cases this technique may even give sensibility to the reconstructed area.
Kinane, Denis F; Stathopoulou, Panagiota G; Papapanou, Panos N
Periodontal diseases comprise a wide range of inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting structures of the teeth (the gingiva, bone and periodontal ligament), which could lead to tooth loss and contribute to systemic inflammation. Chronic periodontitis predominantly affects adults, but aggressive periodontitis may occasionally occur in children. Periodontal disease initiation and propagation is through a dysbiosis of the commensal oral microbiota (dental plaque), which then interacts with the immune defences of the host, leading to inflammation and disease. This pathophysiological situation persists through bouts of activity and quiescence, until the affected tooth is extracted or the microbial biofilm is therapeutically removed and the inflammation subsides. The severity of the periodontal disease depends on environmental and host risk factors, both modifiable (for example, smoking) and non-modifiable (for example, genetic susceptibility). Prevention is achieved with daily self-performed oral hygiene and professional removal of the microbial biofilm on a quarterly or bi-annual basis. New treatment modalities that are actively explored include antimicrobial therapy, host modulation therapy, laser therapy and tissue engineering for tissue repair and regeneration.
Shilpa, Kanathur; Divya, Gorur; Budamakuntla, Leelavathy; Lakshmi, Dammaningala Venkataramaiah
Scalp surgeries are some of the surgeries frequently performed in dermatosurgery department. These surgical procedures may leave large defects, especially when performed for malignant condition in which wide margin has to be excised. Such large defects are difficult to close primarily when reconstruction with local flap is essential. Here we report a case of epithelioid angiosarcoma of the scalp in a 24-year-old man where excision and reconstruction were performed using triple rotation flap.
Ono, Shimpei; Sebastin, Sandeep J; Yazaki, Naoya; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Chung, Kevin C
A propeller flap is an island flap that moves from one orientation to another by rotating around its vascular axis. The vascular axis is stationary, and flap movement is achieved by revolving on this axis. Early propeller flaps relied on a thick, subcutaneous pedicle to maintain vascularity, and this limited the flap rotation to 90°. With increasing awareness of the location and the vascular territory perfused by cutaneous perforators, it is now possible to design propeller flaps based on a single perforator, so-called "perforator-based propeller flaps." These flaps permit flap rotation up to 180°. We present the results of upper limb soft tissue reconstruction using perforator-based propeller flaps. We constructed a treatment strategy based on the location of the soft tissue defect and the perforator anatomy for expedient wound coverage in 1 stage. All perforator-based propeller flaps derived from 3 institutions that were used for upper limb soft tissue reconstruction were retrospectively analyzed. The parameters studied included the size and location of the defect, the perforator that was used, the size and shape of the flap, the direction (ie, clockwise or counter-clockwise) of flap rotation, the degree of twisting of the perforator, the management of the donor site (ie, linear closure or skin grafting), and flap survival (recorded as the percentage of the flap area that survived). Twelve perforator-based propeller flaps were used to reconstruct upper limb soft tissue defects in 12 patients. Six different perforators were used as vascular pedicles. The donor defects of 11 flaps could be closed primarily. One flap was partially lost in a patient with electrical burns. Perforator-based propeller flaps provide a reliable option for covering small- to medium-size upper limb soft tissue defects. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pons, Gemma; Masia, Jaume; Sanchez-Porro, Lídia; Larrañaga, Jose; Clavero, Juan Angel
One of the main steps in perforator flap surgery is to identify the dominant perforator. Using multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) for the preoperative planning of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEAP) flap surgery, we identified a perforator with a large caliber, an excellent location in the middle abdominal region, and a totally extramuscular trajectory in a significant number of patients. We describe the frequency of this perforator and determine its characteristics. We conducted a retrospective study of 482 patients who underwent 526 DIEAP flaps for breast reconstruction from October 2003 to October 2011. Mean age at surgery was 51.3 years old. A preoperative MDCT of abdominal vascularization was performed in all patients. MDCT identified a dominant perforator with a paramuscular course in 12.4% of abdominal walls. In all cases, it was located in the midline and emerged directly from the deep inferior epigastric system. Its mean caliber was 1.9 mm. The flap was harvested based on this perforator in all these patients, and mean harvest time was 51 minutes. The characteristics of this perforator made dissection easier and reduced morbidity at the donor site. There were no flap losses and the only complications were minor. We located a paramuscular perforator in 12.4% of patients undergoing breast reconstruction with abdominal perforator flaps. Its morphological features and extramuscular course make it the perforator of choice in DIEAP flap surgery.
Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie
Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20th century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics. PMID:23066266
Liu, Hin-Lun; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Wei, William Ignace
Although pectoralis major flap (PM flap) has been used as the workhorse flap in head and neck reconstruction, its use in head and neck defects seems to fall out of favour in the era of free tissue transfer. The aim of this review is to find out the role of PM flap in modern head and neck surgery. Medical records of patients who underwent PM flap reconstruction for head and neck defect in our division were reviewed. The age, gender, flap type, indication and complication rate were described. Between January 1998 and December 2008, 202 PM flaps were used for head and neck reconstruction in 192 patients. In the early study period (1998-June 2003), out of the 119 PM flap reconstructions, 106 (89%) were performed for immediate reconstruction after resection of head and neck tumour, while 10 (8%) were performed as salvage procedures for complication after tumour resection e.g. failure of free flap, pharyngocutaneous fistula. In the late study period (July 2003-2008), out of the 83 PM flap reconstructions, 58 (70%) were performed for immediate reconstruction, while 24 (29%) were performed as salvage procedures. For immediate reconstruction after tumour extirpation, 51 flaps (48%) were performed for reconstruction of the tongue in the early study period, while only 14 (24%) were performed in the late study period. The number of PM flap used for immediate reconstruction for other head and neck defects remained relatively static throughout the two study periods. Over the study period, there were 10 (5%) cases of partial flap necrosis and 2 (1%) total flap loss, making the overall flap necrosis rate 6%. In the era of free tissue transfer, the role of PM flap in head and neck surgery has shifted from immediate reconstruction to salvage operation. However, PM flap still has an unique role in the repair of certain head and neck defects.
Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Almas, Khalid
Periodontal health is influenced by a number of factors such as oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic factors, systemic health, and nutrition. Many studies have observed that a balanced diet has an essential role in maintaining periodontal health. Additionally, the influences of nutritional supplements and dietary components have been known to affect healing after periodontal surgery. Studies have attempted to find a correlation between tooth loss, periodontal health, and nutrition. Moreover, bone formation and periodontal regeneration are also affected by numerous vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the currently available data on diet and maintenance of periodontal health and periodontal healing. The effects of nutritional intervention studies to improve the quality of life and well-being of patients with periodontal disease have been discussed. PMID:27589794
Buerger, Friedhelm R.
Since intensive efforts ofprophylaxis including fluoridisation, better oral hygiene, eating ofless sugar containing foods, reduced the risk ofcaries and the problems ofcaries lesions significantly. But, especially beginning at the age of3O years more than 80 % ofthe population in almost every nation shows signs of periodontal defects. This you can call an epidemic disease. Because people get older and expect a lot concerning their outlook, their esthetic, their phonetic, they have great expectations towards their natural dentition and keep their own teeth. This is a great challenge to periodontal prophylaxis and periodontal therapy. According to the progress ofthe disease different therapies are indicated. Starting with oral hygiene instructions to establish better oral hygiene with all the modem technologies ofmicrobiological investigations, pharmaceutical therapy, physiotherapy, low level laser treatment, periodontal-surgery, like curettage, deepscaling and rootplaning but also more sophisticated teatmentplans with gingivoplasty, gingivectomy, flap-procedures and mucogingival surgeiy including bone fillings, regenerativ technics the whole spectrum oftreatment options has widely expanded during the last years.
Tomita, Sachiyo; Uekusa, Tomomi; Hosono, Meiko; Kigure, Takashi; Sugito, Hiroki; Saito, Atsushi
We report a case of severe chronic periodontitis treated and longitudinally maintained by a periodontist and dental hygienists. The patient was a 45-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of gingival bleeding and tooth mobility. An initial examination revealed generalized gingival inflammation and subgingival calculus in the premolar and molar regions. Premature contact was observed in #14 and 45. Clinical examination revealed 42% of sites with a probing depth (PD) of ≥4 mm and 44% of sites with bleeding on probing. Radiographic examination revealed vertical bone resorption in #35, 36, and 45, and horizontal bone resorption in other regions. Based on a clinical diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis, initial periodontal therapy consisting of plaque control, scaling and root planing, and removal of an ill-fitting prosthesis was performed. Following suppression of inflammation, occlusal adjustment of premature contact sites was performed. Open flap debridement was performed for teeth with a PD of ≥5 mm. After confirming the stability of the periodontal tissue, final prostheses were placed on #16, 35-37, and 46. Following re-evaluation, the patient was placed on supportive periodontal therapy. It has been 11 years since the patient's first visit, and the periodontal conditions have remained stable. Meticulous periodontal care maintained over a number of years by a periodontist and dental hygienist have yielded a clinically favorable outcome.
Bajwa, Neha; Au, Joshua; Jarrahy, Reza; Sung, Shijun; Fishbein, Michael C.; Riopelle, David; Ennis, Daniel B.; Aghaloo, Tara; St. John, Maie A.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.
Accurate and early prediction of tissue viability is the most significant determinant of tissue flap survival in reconstructive surgery. Perturbation in tissue water content (TWC) is a generic component of the tissue response to such surgeries, and, therefore, may be an important diagnostic target for assessing the extent of flap viability in vivo. We have previously shown that reflective terahertz (THz) imaging, a non-ionizing technique, can generate spatially resolved maps of TWC in superficial soft tissues, such as cornea and wounds, on the order of minutes. Herein, we report the first in vivo pilot study to investigate the utility of reflective THz TWC imaging for early assessment of skin flap viability. We obtained longitudinal visible and reflective THz imagery comparing 3 bipedicled flaps (i.e. survival model) and 3 fully excised flaps (i.e. failure model) in the dorsal skin of rats over a postoperative period of 7 days. While visual differences between both models manifested 48 hr after surgery, statistically significant (p < 0.05, independent t-test) local differences in TWC contrast were evident in THz flap image sets as early as 24 hr. Excised flaps, histologically confirmed as necrotic, demonstrated a significant, yet localized, reduction in TWC in the flap region compared to non-traumatized skin. In contrast, bipedicled flaps, histologically verified as viable, displayed mostly uniform, unperturbed TWC across the flap tissue. These results indicate the practical potential of THz TWC sensing to accurately predict flap failure 24 hours earlier than clinical examination. PMID:28101431
Bajwa, Neha; Sung, Shijun; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary
This paper explores the utility of reflective THz imaging to assess the viability of surgical flaps. Flap surgery is a technique where tissue is harvested from a donor site and moved to a recipient while keeping the blood supply intact. This technique is common in head and neck tumor resection surgery where the reconstruction of complex and sensitive anatomic structures is routine following the resection of large and/or invasive tumors. Successful flap surgery results in tissue that is sufficiently perfused with both blood and extracellular water. If insufficient fluid levels are maintained, the flap tissue becomes necrotic and must be excised immediately to prevent infection developing and spreading to the surrounding areas. The goal of this work is to investigate the hydration of surgical flaps and correlate image features to successful graft outcomes. Advancement flaps were created on the abdomens of rat models. One rat model was labeled control and care was taken to ensure a successful flap outcome. The flap on the second rat was compromised with restricted blood flow and allowed to fail. The flaps of both rats were imaged once a day over the course of a week at which point the compromised flap had begun to show signs of necrosis. Significant differences in tissue water content were observed between rats over the experimental period. The results suggest that THz imaging may enable early assessment of flap viability.
Shin, Daniel; Hamada, Yusuke; John, Vanchit
Currently, the protocol for treating periodontitis follows a standardized and straightforward algorithm: 1) review and reinforce oral hygiene; 2) perform scaling and root planing; 3) proceed to periodontal surgery if the disease process has not been arrested; then 4) enroll the patient in a customized periodontal maintenance recall program to maintain the health of the reduced periodontium. Multiple longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the aforementioned treatment regimen can arrest the progression of periodontitis and can increase the likelihood of tooth retention and periodontal stability.
Castellarin, M; Demitri, V; Politi, M
The aim of this paper is to propose a single stage global treatment of endodontic, periapical and periodontal lesions in a lateral maxillary incisor with dens invaginatus. A 24 year-old woman presenting a lateral maxillary incisor with dens invaginatus in association with periapica1 and periodontal lesions underwent simultaneous surgical, endodontic and periodontal regenerative procedures. At 2, 6, 12, 18 months follow-up the radiographic healing appeared to be improved and the periapical lesion healed completely 1 year after surgical intervention. Surgery in association with endodontic and periodontal procedures represents the treatment of choice to maximize long term prognosis in cases of dens invaginatus with chronic periapical and periodontal lesions.
Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun
Background Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. Results All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. Conclusions The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores. PMID:25075362
Komiya-Ito, Akiyo; Tomita, Sachiyo; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yoshihiro; Tsunoda, Masatake; Saito, Atsushi
We report a case involving a 12-year follow-up after treatment for chronic periodontitis with furcation involvement. A 54-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of hypersensitivity. Clinical examination at the first visit revealed 15% of sites with a probing depth ≥4 mm and 35% of sites with bleeding on probing. Initial periodontal therapy was implemented based on a clinical diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis. Surgical periodontal therapy was subsequently performed at selected sites. For #44, regenerative periodontal therapy using enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain(®)) was selected. For #16, which exhibited a 2- to 3-wall vertical bony defect and class III (mesio-distal) furcation involvement, bone graft was scheduled. Other sites with residual periodontal pockets were treated by open flap debridement. For #37, with a gutter-shaped root, odontoplasty was performed. After reevaluation, the patient was placed on supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). During 12 years of SPT, the periodontal condition remained uneventful in most of the teeth. However, bone resorption was observed in the distal aspect of #37, making the prognosis poor. This indicates the need to continuously monitor risk factors, including inflammation and traumatic occlusion, during SPT. Although some problems still remain, severe periodontitis with furcation involvement was successfully maintained longitudinally with an adequate level of patient compliance and careful SPT.
Innocenti, M; Cardin-Langlois, E; Menichini, G; Baldrighi, C
Soft tissue defects involving the anterior aspect of the knee are a frequent finding in a number of pathological conditions. The aim of this article is to describe a new pedicled flap consisting of a conventional medial gastrocnaemius muscle flap associated with a propeller flap based on a perforator of the medial sural artery. Five males ranging in age between 26 and 72 years underwent a reconstruction of the soft tissue of the knee by means of the described procedure. Three patients sustained complex tissue loss subsequent to high-energy trauma; two losses were due to septic complications after elective knee surgery. Four flaps survived allowing adequate proximal tibial metaphysis and patella coverage. One patient underwent early above-the-knee amputation due to life-threatening septicaemia. The described chimaera flap consists of a medial gastrocnaemius flap with a skin paddle that is elevated on a perforator of the medial sural artery and then rotated according to the propeller flaps' principles. It provides effective coverage of large soft tissue defects of the knee. In the authors' experience, the propeller flap portion proved to be particularly useful to cover the patella, while the muscle flap was used to cover the proximal metaphysis of the tibia and fill the dead space if present. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jakubietz, Rafael G; Nickel, Aljoscha; Neshkova, Iva; Schmidt, Karsten; Gilbert, Fabian; Meffert, Rainer H; Jakubietz, Michael G
Propeller flaps require torsion of the vascular pedicle of up to 180 degrees. Contrary to free flaps, where the relevance of an intact vascular pedicle has been documented, little is known regarding twisted pedicles of propeller flaps. As secondary surgeries requiring undermining of the flap are common in the extremities, knowledge regarding the necessity to protect the pedicle is relevant. The aim of this study was a long-term evaluation of the patency of vascular pedicle of propeller flaps. In a retrospective clinical study, 22 patients who underwent soft-tissue reconstruction with a propeller flap were evaluated after 43 months. A Doppler probe was used to locate and evaluate the patency of the vascular pedicle of the flap. The flaps were used in the lower extremity in 19 cases, on the trunk in 3 cases. All flaps had healed. In all patients, an intact vascular pedicle could be found. Flap size, source vessel, or infection could therefore not be linked to an increased risk of pedicle loss. The vascular pedicle of propeller flaps remains patent in the long term. This allows reelevation and undermining of the flap. We therefore recommend protecting the pedicle in all secondary cases to prevent later flap loss.
Tseng, C C; Harn, W M; Chen, Y H; Huang, C C; Yuan, K; Huang, P H
Clinicians often have difficulty in the diagnosis and treatment of the combined endodontal and periodontal (endo-perio) lesion. A case of an endo-perio true-combined lesion on a maxillary premolar was first treated with conventional endodontic therapy. Periodontal surgery was then completed, which included scaling and root planing and apical curettage on the tooth. The facial bony defect was then filled with a decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft mixed with tetracycline powder. A non-resorbable Teflon membrane was then used to cover the bone material and the periodontal flap sutured over this. This combined treatment resulted in minimal probing depth (2 mm), maximal clinical attachment gain (8 mm), as well as radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain. This case report demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the guided tissue regeneration technique combined with osseous grafting, will restore health and function to a tooth with severe attachment loss caused by an endo-perio lesion.
Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Okumura, Masahiro; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Fujinaga, Toru
Enamel matrix protein (EMP) was applied for regeneration of periodontal tissue in 2 dogs with spontaneous periodontal disease. Case 1 had bony resorption around the root and root apex of the maxillary fourth premolars. Case 2 had vertical resorption of bone between the mandibular first and second molars. A flap was formed in the buccal gingiva, and EMP was applied onto the surface of the exposed root. One or 4 months postoperatively, increased bone level and clinical attachment were recognized. EMP was therefore suggested to be effective to induce regeneration of periodontal tissues in the cases with periodontal disease.
Sood, Rachita; Easow, Jeena M.; Konopka, Geoffrey; Panthaki, Zubin J.
Background: Surgeons employ the latissimus dorsi flap (LDF) for reconstruction of a large variety of breast cancer surgery defects, including quadrantectomy, lumpectomy, modified radical mastectomy, and others. The LDF may be used in delayed or immediate reconstruction, in combination with tissue expanders for a staged reconstruction, with implant-based immediate reconstruction, or alone as an autogenous flap. Methods: The authors discuss the historical uses and more recent developments in the LDF. More recent advancements, including the “scarless” approach and augmentation with the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, are discussed. Results: The LDF is a reliable means for soft tissue coverage providing form and function during breast reconstruction with acceptable perioperative and long-term morbidities. Conclusions: When there is a paucity of tissue, the LDF can provide tissue volume in autologous reconstruction, as well as a reliable vascular pedicle for implant-based reconstruction as in the setting of irradiated tissue. PMID:29334788
Periodontal Diseases; Periodontitis; Aggressive Periodontitis; Immunologic Disease; Microbial Disease; Periodontal Pocket; Inflammation; Inflammation Gum; Dysbiosis; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis; Generalized Chronic Periodontitis; Chronic Periodontitis
Cairo, Francesco; Carnevale, Gianfranco; Buti, Jacopo; Nieri, Michele; Mervelt, Jana; Tonelli, Paolo; Pagavino, Gabriella; Tonetti, Maurizio
The aim of this study was to assess soft-tissue re-growth following Fibre Retention Osseous Resective Surgery (FibReORS) or Osseous Resective Surgery (ORS) over a 12-month healing period. Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis showing persistent periodontal pockets at posterior natural teeth after cause-related therapy were enroled. Periodontal pockets were associated with infrabony defect ≤3 mm; 15 patients were randomly assigned to FibReORS (test group) and 15 to ORS (control group). Measurements were performed by a blind and calibrated examiner. Soft-tissue rebound after flap suture was monitored by changes in gingival recession at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12- month follow-up. Multilevel analysis considering patient, site, and time levels was performed. Greater osseous resection during surgery and higher post surgical gingival recession was observed in the ORS group. The mean amount of soft-tissue rebound following surgery was 2.5 mm for ORS-treated sites and 2.2 mm for FibReORS-treated sites. Approximately 90% of the coronal re-growth was detectable after 6 months for both procedures. The interaction between ORS and time of observation showed a higher soft-tissue rebound after 12 months (p = 0.0233) for ORS-treated sites. Both procedures showed a similar coronal soft-tissue re-growth with a significant higher recession reduction for ORS-treated sites. Significant clinical stability of the gingival margin is obtained 6 months after surgery for both procedures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhuo, Qinqiang; Li, Shirong; Wu, Julong; Wang, Zhenxiang; Yang, Dongyun; Tao, Ling
To investigate the clinical application of the scrotal flap on penis lengthening. One hundred and fifty-two patients were operated using the scrotal flap from July 1998 to January 2008 at the Department of Plastic and Aesthetic, Surgery Southwest Hospital, Chongqing, China. The procedure consisted of designing a positive sign shaped incision 1.5cm above the root of the penis, dissect and release the superficial suspensory ligament and part of the deep suspensory ligament, then cover the elongated cavernosum with proper scrotal flap. Six-month to 5-year follow-up showed that all patients were satisfied with the good contour and function of the penis. The operation was successful. The method of using scrotal flap on penis lengthening has the following advantages: simple operation, reliable blood supply of the flap, one-stage operation, and satisfactory postoperative results. It is a preferable operation technique for penis lengthening.
Han, Ba Leun; Choi, Hwan Jun
Sequential flap coverage might be required for recurrent defects, but reusing a flap as a donor site has seldom been reported. The concept of a "free-style flap" has been developed, and it allows reconstructive surgeons to raise flaps with various designs reliably, even at sites of previous flap surgery. This article presents the concept of free-style recycling of a tensor fascia lata flap into a perforator-based flap separated in 2 planes in a patient with a recurrent bilateral trochanteric defect. If a reliable perforator is preserved and identified within the tissues by computed tomography angiography or a Doppler device, a new perforator flap can be designed and raised at the previous flap site.
Kapadia, Janak Anil; Bhedasgoankar, Surekha Y.; Bhandari, Saurabh Dilip
The purpose of this article is to limelight the benefit of periodontal microsurgery in the surgical disciplines. It reviews the benefits and potential applications of magnification and microsurgery in the specialty of periodontics and a case report on microsurgical approach for free gingival graft surgery in the treatment of gingival recession. The increased demand for mucogingival esthetics has required the optimization of periodontal procedures. Microsurgery is a minimally invasive technique that is performed with the surgical microscope and adapted instruments and suture materials. Although this hardware and knowledge of various operations are necessary to achieve patient esthetic expectations, clinicians must be willing to undergo an extended period of systematic training to become familiar with novel operating procedures and instruments. This article describes the application of the surgical microscope to provide enhanced perioplastic treatment. PMID:24554892
Shimoe, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro; Shiomi, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Fusanori; Takashiba, Shogo
Multiple risk factor syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity associated epidemiologically with insulin resistance. This report describes the clinical course of a patient suffering from severe periodontitis with multiple risk factor syndrome, and discusses the association between periodontal infection and systemic health. The patient had a history of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension for over 10 years. At baseline, her hemoglobin A1 c was 8.1%. However, she had no diabetic complications except periodontitis. The IgG antibody titers against Porphyromonas gingivalis FDC 381 and SU63 were elevated above the mean of healthy subjects +2 standard deviations. Intensive periodontal treatment, including periodontal surgery, was performed to reduce periodontal infection and bacteremia. Her systemic and periodontal conditions were evaluated longitudinally for 10 years. Following periodontal treatment, antibody titers against Porphyromonas gingivalis and hemoglobin A1c values were significantly improved. The other clinical data and medication for her systemic condition also remained stable during supportive periodontal therapy. However, she developed myocardial infarction, and showed continuous deterioration of hemoglobin A1 c level and periodontitis. The long-term clustering of risk factors, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and periodontitis, are associated with the development of myocardial infarction. Treatment of systemic conditions in combination with comprehensive periodontal treatment is important in management of patients with multiple risk factor syndrome.
Background: Microvascular reconstruction for oncologic defects is a challenging and rewarding endeavor, and successful outcomes are dependent on a multitude of factors. This study represents lessons learned from a personal prospective experience with 100 consecutive free flaps. Methods: All patients’ medical records were reviewed for demographics, operative notes, and complications. Results: Overall 100 flaps were performed in 84 consecutive patients for reconstruction of breast, head and neck, trunk, and extremity defects. Nineteen patients underwent free flap breast reconstruction with 10 patients undergoing bilateral reconstruction and 2 patients receiving a bipedicle flap for reconstruction of a unilateral breast defect. Sixty-five free flaps were performed in 61 patients with 3 patients receiving 2 free flaps for reconstruction of extensive head and neck defects and 1 patient who required a second flap for partial flap loss. Trunk and extremity reconstruction was less common with 2 free flaps performed in each group. Overall, 19 patients (22.6%) developed complications and 14 required a return to the operating room. There were no flap losses in this cohort. Thorough preoperative evaluation and workup, meticulous surgical technique and intraoperative planning, and diligent postoperative monitoring and prompt intervention are critical for flap success. Conclusions: As a young plastic surgeon embarking in reconstructive plastic surgery at an academic institution, the challenges and dilemmas presented in the first year of practice have been daunting but also represent opportunities for learning and improvement. Skills and knowledge acquired from time, experience, and mentors are invaluable in optimizing outcomes in microvascular free flap reconstruction. PMID:25289221
Ono, Shimpei; Chung, Kevin C; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Ogawa, Rei; Takami, Yoshihiro; Hyakusoku, Hiko
The propeller flap is defined as (1) being island-shaped, (2) having an axis that includes the perforators, and (3) having the ability to be rotated around an axis. The advantage of the propeller flap is that it is a pedicle flap that can be applied to cover defects located at the distal ends of the extremities. The specific aims of the authors' study were (1) to evaluate the usefulness of multidetector-row computed tomography in the planning of propeller flaps and (2) to present a clinical case series of propeller flap reconstructions that were planned preoperatively using multidetector-row computed tomography. The authors retrospectively analyzed all cases between April of 2007 and April of 2010 at Nippon Medical School Hospital in Tokyo, where multidetector-row computed tomography was used preoperatively to plan surgical reconstructions using propeller flaps. Thirteen patients underwent 16 flaps using the propeller flap technique. The perforators were identified accurately by multidetector-row computed tomography preoperatively in all cases. This is the first report describing the application of multidetector-row computed tomography in the planning of propeller flaps. Multidetector-row computed tomography is superior to other imaging methods because it demonstrates more precisely the perforator's position and subcutaneous course using high-resolution three-dimensional images. By using multidetector-row computed tomography to preoperatively identify a flap's perforators, the surgeon can better plan the flap design to efficiently conduct the flap surgery.
Powell, Charles A; Mealey, Brian L; Deas, David E; McDonnell, Howard T; Moritz, Alan J
Of the various adverse outcomes that may be encountered following periodontal surgery, the risk of infection stands at the forefront of concern to the surgeon, since infection can lead to morbidity and poor healing outcomes. This paper describes a large-scale retrospective study of multiple surgical modalities in a diverse periodontal practice undertaken to explore the prevalence of clinical infections post-surgically and the relationship between diverse treatment variables and infection rates. A retrospective review of all available periodontal surgical records of patients treated in the Department of Periodontics at Wilford Hall Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas, was conducted. The sample comprised 395 patients and included 1,053 fully documented surgical procedures. Surgical techniques reviewed included osseous resective surgery, flap curettage, distal wedge procedures, gingivectomy, root resection, guided tissue regeneration, dental implant surgery, epithelialized free soft tissue autografts, subepithelial connective tissue autografts, coronally positioned flaps, sinus augmentations, and ridge preservation or augmentation procedures. Infection was defined as increasing and progressive swelling with the presence of suppuration. The impact of various treatment variables was examined including the use of bone grafts, membranes, soft tissue grafts, post-surgical chlorhexidine rinses, systemic antibiotics, and dressings. Results were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's chi-square test. Of the 1,053 surgical procedures evaluated in this study, there were a total of 22 infections for an overall prevalence of 2.09%. Patients who received antibiotics as part of the surgical protocol (pre- and/ or post-surgically) developed eight infections in 281 procedures (2.85%) compared to 14 infections in 772 procedures (1.81%) where antibiotics were not used. Procedures in which chlorhexidine was used during post-surgical care had a lower infection rate (17
Reddy, Aileni Amarender; Kumar, P. Anoop; Sailaja, Sistla; Chakravarthy, Yshs
Soft tissue deficiencies and defects around dental implants have been observed frequently. Soft-tissue defects after implant procedures originate from the process of modelling of periimplant mucosa and often cause aesthetic disharmony, food debris accumulation and soft tissue shrinkage. Periimplant mucogingival surgery focuses on creating an optimum band of keratinized tissue resulting in soft tissue architecture similar to the gingiva around natural teeth. A 23-year-old male reported to the Department of Periodontology with a complaint of gum soreness, foul smell and food accumulation at a site where a 3.75 x 11.5mm implant was placed previously. On clinical examination, fenestration of tissue above the cover screw was observed and there appeared to be a keratinized tissue of 1mm surrounding the implant. The case was managed by use of a rotated double-pedicle flap during second-stage implant surgery to correct the soft-tissue fenestration defect and to obtain a keratinized periimplant soft tissue. A periosteal bed was prepared by giving a horizontal incision at the mucogingival junction to a depth of 4 mm. Two split-thickness keratinized pedicles were dissected from the mesial and distal interproximal tissues near the implant. After rotation, both the pedicles were sutured to each other mid-buccally and the pedicles were rigidly immobilized with sutures. At 1 month, there was a 3mm band of stable and firm keratinized tissue over the underlying tissues. The procedure resulted in an aesthetic improvement due to enhanced soft tissue architecture and optimum integration between the peri-implant soft tissue and the final prosthesis. PMID:26816998
Zhang, Bin; Yan, Dangui; Zhang, Yabing; Zhang, Xiwei; Wan, Hanfeng
To evaluate the efficacy of pedicled supraclavicular artery island flaps for head and neck reconstruction. Reconstructive surgeries for head and neck oncologic defects were performed with the pedicled supraclavicular artery island flaps in 10 patients from May 2013 to December 2014 and the cases were review. Among them, 6 were performed for hypopharyngeal cancer, 2 for oral tongue cancer, 1 for oral base cancer and 1 for cervical esophageal cancer. The size of the flaps was measured in (5-8) cm × (6-12) cm. Seven flaps survived, one flap failured and two flaps had partial necrosis. Donor sites were closed primarily without morbidity. The pedicled supraclavicular artery island flap is an easy harvesting and reliable for head and neck reconstruction, especially suitable for otolaryngo-head and neck surgeon and maxillofacial surgeon in the local hospital.
Yang, Heping; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Haidi; Yang, Shuxiong; Wang, Jun; Hu, Dawang
To compare the effectiveness of complex defects repair between using chimeric anterolateral thigh flap and series-wound flaps after resection of oral and maxillofacial cancer. After resection of oral and maxillofacial cancer, defect was repaired with chimeric anterolateral thigh flap in 39 patients between January 2011 and July 2014 (chimeric anterolateral thigh flap group); and defect was repaired with series-wound flaps in 35 patients between January 2009 and December 2010 (series-wound flaps group). There was no significant difference in gender, age, duration of disease, tumor type, tumor staging, defect location, and defect area between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The operation time, flap harvesting and microvascular anastomosis time, stomach tube extraction time, and oral feeding time were recorded and compared between 2 groups, and postoperative complications were observed; the effectiveness was evaluated according to clinical efficacy evaluation table of bone and soft tissue defects reconstruction surgery in oral and maxillofacial region. Vascular crisis occurred in 2 cases of chimeric anterolateral thigh flap group, and 4 cases of series-wound flaps group. Partial necrosis appeared at distal end of a series-wound flaps, and oral fistula and infection developed in 3 series-wound flaps. The other flaps and the grafted skin at donor site survived; wounds at recipient site healed by first intention. The operation time, stomach tube extraction time, and oral feeding time of chimeric anterolateral thigh flap group were significantly shorter than those of series-wound flaps group (P < 0.05), while the flap harvesting and microvascular anastomosis time was significantly longer than that of series-wound flaps group (P < 0.05). The patients were followed up 1-5 years (mean, 2.5 years). At 3 months after operation, the appearance, patients' satisfaction, working conditions, oral closure function, chew, language performance, and swallowing scores of the chimeric anterolateral
Orhan, Erkan; Erol, Yağmur Reyyan; Deren, Orgun; Altun, Serdar; Erdoğan, Bülent
Flaps are often used in repairing tissue defects and partial or full flap loss is still an important morbidity cause. Several techniques have been tried to increase flap circulation but none of these could replace the delay technique. Our goal in this study is to show the efficacy of liposuction in delay of dorsal rat cutaneous flaps and improvement in flap survival. Twenty-four Wistar rats were used. The rats in group 1 received 9 × 3-sized caudally-based random pattern skin flaps. In group 2, liposuction was done under the tissue island spotted as the flap and after 14 days, standard flap surgery was done. In group 3, surgical delay was done and after 14 days, standard flap surgery was done. In group 4, liposuction was done under the tissue island spotted as the flap and standard flap surgery was done right after the liposuction. The rate of necrotic tissue in group 3 (surgical delay; mean % 13.7) was less than the rate in group 2 (liposuction delay; mean % 15.1), although the difference was not statistically significant. The necrosis rates in group 3 (surgical delay) and group 2 (liposuction delay) were less than the rates in both group 1 (only flap; mean % 41.5) and group 4 (liposuction flap; mean % 40.0) and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Liposuction can be an alternative to surgical delay as a less invasive method in the clinic. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Kim, Sang Hun; Shin, Ho Seong; Lee, Sang Hwan
Free flaps are a common treatment option for head and neck reconstruction in plastic reconstructive surgery, and monitoring of the free flap is the most important factor for flap survival. In this study, the authors performed real-time free flap monitoring based on an implanted Doppler system and "internet of things" (IoT)/wireless Wi-Fi, which is a convenient, accurate, and efficient approach for surgeons to monitor a free flap. Implanted Doppler signals were checked continuously until the patient was discharged by the surgeon and residents using their own cellular phone or personal computer. If the surgeon decided that a revision procedure or exploration was required, the authors checked the consumed time (positive signal-to-operating room time) from the first notification when the flap's status was questioned to the determination for revision surgery according to a chart review. To compare the efficacy of real-time monitoring, the authors paired the same number of free flaps performed by the same surgeon and monitored the flaps using conventional methods such as a physical examination. The total survival rate was greater in the real-time monitoring group (94.7% versus 89.5%). The average time for the real-time monitoring group was shorter than that for the conventional group (65 minutes versus 86 minutes). Based on this study, real-time free flap monitoring using IoT technology is a method that surgeon and reconstruction team can monitor simultaneously at any time in any situation.
Andersen, Kari M; Selvig, Knut A; Leknes, Knut N
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by uncertainty in etiology and pathogenesis occasionally with manifestations in oral mucous membranes. This report reviews the literature on Crohn's disease and presents a patient with Crohn's disease on continuous anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive medication who showed adverse healing response following surgical treatment of gingival recession type defects. A 28-year-old male in generally good health apart from his bowel disease requested treatment of multiple maxillary gingival recessions due to esthetic concerns and root sensitivity. Following oral hygiene instruction, 3 coronally advanced flap procedures were performed in the maxillary anterior region to cover the defects. In 2 of the surgical areas, the exposed root surfaces were treated by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with enamel matrix derivative (EMD) before coronally positioning the buccal flap. Postoperatively, chlorhexidine gluconate was used for oral hygiene control. The first surgical procedure, performed as a coronally advanced flap, showed delayed and altered healing. Two weeks postoperatively, the flapped tissue remained intensely red and swollen. In the following 2 surgical sites where EDTA and EMD were applied the healing was uneventful. Differences in immediate tissue response, however, did not influence the 3-month treatment outcome with respect to root coverage. Patients with Crohn's disease on recommended systemic medications may show a delayed and altered wound healing indicating that periodontal surgery must be closely monitored. Treatment planning should take into account the potential wound healing promoting effects of enamel matrix derivative as well as adverse healing effects of chlorhexidine gluconate administration.
Sowa, Yoshihiro; Itsukage, Sizu; Sakaguchi, Kouichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Numajiri, Toshiaki
The C-V flap for nipple reconstruction is now one of standard surgical techniques. But decreased projection is still a problem. In recent years, it has been suggested that projection can be more easily maintained when raising of the C-flap is performed with a split thickness dermis. In this study, we examined whether decrease of projection can be prevented by raising of a C-flap with a split dermis rather than with full dermis. A total of 49 consecutive patients who underwent reconstruction of a nipple using the C-V flap technique were enrolled. The patients included 22 who underwent surgery using a C-flap with a full thickness dermis (Group F), and 27 who underwent surgery with raising of a flap with a split thickness dermis (Group S). The size of the reconstructed nipple was measured at 2 weeks, 6 months and 1 year postoperatively for comparison between Groups F and S. Partial necrosis of the C-flap end occurred in 4 subjects in only Group S. The decrease in projection after 1 year postoperatively in Group S was significantly lower than that in Group F. In contrast, the teat base size in Group F tended to be greater than that in Group S, suggesting a tendency for an expanded base using a flap with a full dermis. Our results indicated that it is recommended to use a C-flap with a split dermis for cases with high projection of the nipple on the contralateral side.
A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.
Edstrom, Lee; Szymanski, Karen; Schmidt, Scott; Bevivino, Jack; Zienowicz, Richard; Stark, Jennifer; Taylor, Helena O.; Podda, Silvio; Liu, Paul
Background: Surgical treatment of pressure ulcers is challenging for high recurrence rates. Deepithelialized flaps have been used previously with the aim to eliminate shearing forces and the cone of pressure (COP) effect. The goal of this study is to adopt a standardized protocol and evaluate if 2 different flap techniques affect outcomes. Methods: The novel COP flap is illustrated. Twenty patients were prospectively treated with flap coverage over a 36-month period. According to the flap type, patients were assigned to 2 groups: group 1 with 11 patients treated with the COP flap and group 2 with 9 patients treated with conventional flap without anchoring technique. We adopted a standardized protocol of debridement, tissue cultures, and negative-pressure wound therapy. Rotation fasciocutaneous flaps were used for both groups and mean follow-up was 19 months. The COP flap is a large deepithelialized rotation flap inset with transcutaneous nonabsorbable bolster sutures. The 2 groups were comparable for demographics and ulcer location and size (P < 0.05). Five patients showed positive cultures and were treated with antibiotics and negative-pressure therapy before surgery. Results: Recurrence rates were 12% in the COP flap group and 60% in the conventional flap coverage group (P < 0.001). Results were compared at 16-month follow-up. Conclusions: The COP flap significantly reduces recurrences and eliminates shearing forces, suture ripping, and tension on superficial soft-tissue layers. The technique can be applied to both ischial and sacral pressure sores. The flap provides padding over bony prominence without jeopardizing flap vascularity. PMID:28458961
Panse, Nikhil; Sahasrabudhe, Parag
The introduction of perforator flaps by Koshima et al. was met with much animosity in the plastic surgery fraternity. The safety concerns of these flaps following the intentional twist of the perforators have prevented widespread adoption of this technique. Use of perforator based propeller flaps in the lower extremity is gradually on the rise, but their use in upper extremity reconstruction is infrequently reported, especially in the Indian subcontinent. We present a retrospective series of 63 free style perforator flaps used for soft tissue reconstruction of the upper extremity from November 2008 to June 2013. Flaps were performed by a single surgeon for various locations and indications over the upper extremity. Patient demographics, surgical indication, defect features, complications and clinical outcome are evaluated and presented as an uncontrolled case series. 63 free style perforator based propeller flaps were used for soft tissue reconstruction of 62 patients for the upper extremity from November 2008 to June 2013. Of the 63 flaps, 31 flaps were performed for trauma, 30 for post burn sequel, and two for post snake bite defects. We encountered flap necrosis in 8 flaps, of which there was complete necrosis in 4 flaps, and partial necrosis in four flaps. Of these 8 flaps, 7 needed a secondary procedure, and one healed secondarily. Although we had a failure rate of 12-13%, most of our failures were in the early part of the series indicative of a learning curve associated with the flap. Free style perforator based propeller flaps are a reliable option for coverage of small to moderate sized defects. Therapeutic IV.
Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Jin; Qiang, Li; Rui, Yongjun; Xue, Mingyu
The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap plays an essential part in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, repair of the anterolateral donor site has not been the focus of the clinicians.To assess the clinical value and feasibility of using a modified anteromedial thigh (AMT) perforator flap for repairing the ALT free flap donor site.In this retrospective study, 16 ALT flaps were transferred to resurface large soft-tissue defects (ranged from 7 × 5 to 13 × 8 cm) in the foot or hand from June 2012 to March 2013. The donor sites were repaired with an advancement flap pedicled with an AMT perforator. Sensation within the advancement flap, return-to-work (RTW) time, the aesthetic appearance of the donor sites, and functional recovery were measured.All 15 flaps survived completely without necrosis. One flap developed partial necrosis in the tip but healed with dressing changes after 1 week. The medain follow-up period was 3.5 months (range, 3-6 months). The average median time was 9.5 weeks (range 8-13 weeks). There was no numbness of the advancement flap. Additionally, there was no specific complication at both the recipient and donor sites. Thigh quadriceps muscle strength and activities of the knee were normal. All patients were satisfied with the aesthetic outcome postoperatively at the 3-month to 6-month follow-up.The modified advancement flap pedicled with an AMT perforator is an ideal option for repairing the anterolateral donor site.
Bottino, Marco C; Thomas, Vinoy
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting nearly 50% of adults in the United States. If left untreated, it can lead to the destruction of both soft and mineralized tissues that constitute the periodontium. Clinical management, including but not limited to flap debridement and/or curettage, as well as regenerative-based strategies with periodontal membranes associated or not with grafting materials, has been used with distinct levels of success. Unquestionably, no single implantable biomaterial can consistently guide the coordinated growth and development of multiple tissue types, especially in very large periodontal defects. With the global aging population, it is extremely important to find novel biomaterials, particularly bioactive membranes and/or scaffolds, for guided tissue (GTR) and bone regeneration (GBR) to aid in the reestablishment of the health and function of distinct periodontal tissues. This chapter offers an update on the evolution of biomaterials (i.e. membranes and bioactive scaffolds) as well as material-based strategies applied in periodontal regeneration. The authors start by providing a brief summary of the histological characteristics and functions of the periodontium and its main pathological condition, namely periodontitis. Next, a review of commercially available GTR/GBR membranes is given, followed by a critical appraisal of the most recent advances in the development of bioactive materials that enhance the chance for clinical success of periodontal tissue regeneration. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Nabers, C L; Stalker, W H; Esparza, D; Naylor, B; Canales, S
Of 1535 treated recall patients surveyed over an average time of 12.9 years since treatment was completed, 1371 had lost no teeth from periodontal disease. The total number of teeth lost was 444, with the average tooth loss for the 1535 patients being 0.29. In the three full arch splinted cases, the loss rate was 14.67 teeth per patient. Patients treated without any excisional or flap surgical procedures made up 26.5% of those surveyed, whereas 73.5% had required various surgical procedures. No attempt was made to compare different pocket therapy procedures. Although many patients developed recurrent periodontal problems during recall, only 15.9% of the 1535 patients required surgical retreatment. Teeth that were originally given a doubtful prognosis often were responsible for recurrent problems and sometimes required extraction.
Kim, Hoon; Ryu, Wan Cheol; Yoon, Chi Sun; Kim, Kyu Nam
Abstract Effective obliteration of dead space after reconstructive surgery facilitates a good cosmetic outcome and prevention of delayed wound healing and recurrent infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a keystone-designed buried de-epithelialized (KBD) flap for the obliteration of small to moderately sized surgical dead spaces. We reviewed the medical records of patients who received a KBD flap following removal of a mass or debridement of necrotic tissue from September 2015 to February 2016. The diagnosis, site, dead space dimensions, flap width, drain data, complications, and follow-up duration were recorded. Twenty-eight KBD flaps were evaluated, including 9 cases of fat necrosis, 7 cases of epidermal cyst, and 12 cases of lipoma. Dead space dimensions ranged from 2 × 1.5 × 1 cm to 10 × 5 × 3 cm, with a mean depth of 2.01 cm. Flap sizes ranged from 2.5 × 1 cm to 11 × 3 cm, with a mean flap width of 2.01 cm. No postoperative complications, such as seroma or hematoma, occurred. The cosmetic results were favorable, and all patients were satisfied with their final outcomes. The KBD flap is useful for the obliteration of small to moderately sized surgical dead spaces both spatially and physiologically and shows excellent cosmetic outcomes. PMID:28538418
Shah, Deepika N; Melki, Samir
Femtosecond-assisted laser in-situ keratomileusis flaps have revolutionized refractive surgery since their introduction. Although these lasers are exceedingly safe, complications still do occur. This review focuses specifically on examining the literature and evidence for flap complications during femtosecond-assisted laser in-situ keratomileusis as well as their management.
Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren
The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction.
Zucchelli, Giovanni; Sharma, Praveen; Mounssif, Ilham
Periodontal plastic surgery comprises an increasing part of clinical periodontology. Clinical trials have traditionally used professionals to judge esthetic outcome, and few studies have addressed patient needs and requests (true end points). Development of universally accepted and validated methods for professional esthetic assessment, together with standardized questionnaires for patient-perceived outcome, may help to provide better insights into the true needs and benefits of periodontal and implant-associated plastic surgery. In this volume of Periodontology 2000, experienced researchers and clinicians from different subdisciplines of periodontology evaluate: treatment of gingival recession with or without papilla elevation; clinical crown lengthening in the natural dentition and in prosthodontic preparative treatment; periodontal regeneration around natural teeth; and soft-tissue augmentation in edentulous areas. Similarly, experts in different areas of implant science address esthetic outcomes with single and multiple implant rehabilitation, alveolar ridge preservation, implant positioning and immediate implant placement in the esthetic zone. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Functional and morphologic changes occurring during the revascularization of pedicle flaps have been investigated in the skin of pigs. The skin flaps, 16 cm long by 4 cm wide, were based on a row of segmental vessels arising from the internal mammary artery. Comparative measurements were made in flapped and normal skin. The inherent blood supply in the pedicle of the flap was unable to maintain the whole of the flap in a viable state. Flap viability was ascertained at surgery by the use of the intravital dye Disulphine blue. Injections of the dye after surgery gave a less accuratemore » prediction of viability than when dye was injected prior to surgery. Revascularization between the flap and surrounding skin was evident 3 to 4 days postoperatively at the distal, most hypoxic part of the viable flap. The whole flap had a collateral vascular supply 7 to 10 days after surgery. Isotope clearance studies showed that the greatest functional changes occurred in the distal third of the viable flap, where, after initially slowing, the clearance rate became faster than in normal skin (day 5). Potassium extraction studies indicated similar changes. However, an increase in the red-cell volume on day 1 suggested that vascular shunting was occurring. The results of the morphologic studies indicated a correlation between the number of blood vessels per unit area, the thickness of the dermis, and the recorded functional changes. Seven days after surgery, when isotope clearance rates were very rapid, there was a significant increase in the vascular density and dermal thickness.« less
Yang, Hai Jing
Aim This study examined the predictors of loss to follow-up in long-term supportive periodontal therapy in patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods A total of 280 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis in a tertiary care hospital in China were investigated and followed over the course of study. Questionnaires on clinical and demographic characteristics, self-efficacy for oral self-care and dental fear at baseline were completed. Participants were followed to determine whether they could adhere to long-term supportive periodontal therapy. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical and demographic characteristics, self-efficacy for oral self-care, dental fear and loss to follow-up in long-term supportive periodontal therapy. Results The loss to follow-up in long-term supportive periodontal therapy was significantly associated with age [adjusted OR = 1.042, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.012–1.074, p = 0.006], severe periodontitis [adjusted OR = 4.892, 95%CI: 2.280–10.499, p<0.001], periodontal surgery [adjusted OR = 11.334, 95% CI: 2.235–57.472, p = 0.003], and middle and low-scoring of self-efficacy scale for self-care groups. The adjusted ORs of loss to follow-up for the middle- (54–59) and low-scoring groups (15–53) were 71.899 (95%CI: 23.926–216.062, p<0.001) and 4.800 (95% CI: 2.263–10.182, p<0.001), respectively, compared with the high-scoring SESS group (60–75). Conclusion Age, severity of periodontitis, periodontal surgery and the level of self-efficacy for self-care may be effective predictors of loss to follow-up in long-term supportive periodontal therapy in patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:29420586
Wilkman, T; Husso, A; Lassus, P
This study compared the three most used composite flaps in maxillofacial reconstructions in our institute. Between 2000 and 2012, a total of 163 patients with mandibular, maxillary, and orbital defects received either scapular, fibular, or iliac crest osseal reconstructions in Helsinki University Hospital, Departments of Plastic Surgery and Maxillofacial Surgery. Data regarding the patient demographics, complications, and outcomes were analyzed. There were 92 deep circumflex iliac artery flaps (56%), followed by 42 scapular (26%) and 29 fibular flaps (18%). The rate of flap loss was the highest in the deep circumflex iliac artery group (p = 0.001). Reconstructions using fibula were fastest (p = 0.001) and had lowest perioperative blood loss (p = 0.013). There were no significant differences in the number of early or late complications between the flaps, but donor site complications were more severe in deep circumflex iliac artery. Osteotomies as well as dental implants were safely performed in all flaps with equal results. All three flaps of this study can be performed with awareness of the deep circumflex iliac artery flap being the least reliable alternative. The knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of several osseal-free flap alternatives is beneficial in selecting the best suitable method for each individual patient requiring maxillofacial osseal reconstruction.
Ni, Song; Zhu, Yiming; Li, Dezhi; Liu, Jie; An, Changming; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shaoyan
To discuss the management of vascular crisis of free flaps after reconstruction of head and neck defects caused by tumor resection. A total of 259 cases of free flap reconstruction performed in the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from 2010 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed, including 89 cases of anterolateral thigh flaps, 48 cases of radial forearm flaps, 46 free fibula flaps, 5 cases of inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps, 5 cases of free latissimus dorsi flaps, one case of lateral arm flap, and one case of medial femoral flap. The surveillance frequency of free flaps was q1h on post-operative day (POD) 1, q2h on POD 2 and 3, and q4h after POD 3. Vascular crises were reviewed for analysis. The incidence rate of vascular crisis was 8.1% (21/259), with 15 males and 6 females. The average age was 54.8 years old (17-68), and the average time of vascular crisis was 100.8 h post-operation (3-432). There were 7 cases of free jejunum flaps and 14 dermal free flaps. Seven of these 21 cases with vascular crisis were rescued by surgery. The success rate of salvage surgery within 72 hours from the primary operation was 54.5% (6/11), significantly higher than that of salvage surgery performed later than 72 hours from primary operation (10.0%, 1/10, P=0.043). There were 14 cases of flap necrosis, two of which died of local infection. Early detection of vascular crisis can effectively improve the success rate of salvage, so as to avoid the serious consequences caused by free flap necrosis.
Moon, I S; Chai, J K; Cho, K S; Wikesjö, U M; Kim, C K
This study evaluates periodontal repair and biomaterial reaction following implantation of a polyglactin mesh with or without porous resorbable calcium carbonate (RCC) or porous replamineform hydroxyapatite (RHA) in conjunction with reconstructive surgery. Ligature- and surgically-induced interproximal periodontal defects of left and right mandibular premolar teeth in 7 dogs were used. Bilaterally, mesial defects of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th premolar teeth were treated with polyglactin mesh, polyglactin mesh and RHA, or polyglactin mesh and RCC, respectively. The polyglactin mesh, shaped according to the contour of the defect, was adapted to the experimental teeth; its coronal margin positioned immediately apical to the cemento-enamel junction. Gingival flap margins were adapted and sutured to cover the polyglactin mesh completely. Clinical healing was generally uneventful. The dogs were sacrificed to provide block sections for histologic evaluation at 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, 32 and 56 weeks following wound closure. Generally, cementum regeneration was observed beginning at week 6 in all groups. Bone regeneration was observed from week 3 in polyglactin mesh-treated groups, and from week 6 in polyglactin mesh+RCC or polyglactin mesh+RHA treated groups. Bone regeneration appeared enhanced in polyglactin mesh+RCC or polyglactin mesh+RHA treated defects at week 12 and 26, with little difference between the three experimental conditions at week 56. Polyglactin mesh degradation was observed at week 3 and appeared complete at week 12. The RHA did not appear to resorb, while the RCC was gradually replaced by bone from week 3. Within limitations of the study conditions, periodontal regeneration was observed following implantation of a polyglactin mesh with or without RCC or RHA in conjunction with reconstructive surgery. As a conclusion, there seems to be no significant difference in periodontal regeneration after 12 months of healing between the group treated with the membrane only
Kelahmetoglu, Osman; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Yagmur, Caglayan; Sommeling, Casper E; Keles, Musa K; Tayfur, Volkan; Simsek, Tekin; Demirtas, Yener; Guneren, Ethem
We present a new surgical modification to allow propeller perforator flaps to cover pressure sores at various locations. We used a propeller perforator flap concept based on the detection of newly formed perforator vessels located 1 cm from the wound margin and stimulated by the chronic inflammation process. Between January 2009 and January 2017, 33 wound edge-based propeller perforator flaps were used to cover pressure sores at various locations in 28 patients. In four cases more than one flap was used on the same patient. The patients comprised 18 males and 10 females with a mean age of 41·25 (range, 16-70) years. All patients underwent follow-up for 0-12 months. The mean follow-up duration was 5·03 months. Venous congestion was observed in three flaps that were rotated by 180° (9·1%). However, there was a significant difference between flaps rotated by 90° and 180° according to the complication rate (P = 0·034). Out of 33 flaps, 29 flaps healed uneventfully. Patients were able to sit and lie on their flaps three weeks after surgery. In our study, we were able to obtain satisfying final results using these novel flaps. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shi, Cheng-li; Wang, Xian-cheng
Reconstruction of lower face defects or deformity often presents as a challenge for plastic surgeons. Many methods, including skin graft, tissue expander, or free flap are introduced. Submental artery perforator flaps have been used in the reconstruction of defects or deformities of the lower face. Between August 2006 and December 2008, 22 patients with lower face defects or deformity underwent reconstruction with pedicled submental artery perforator flaps. Their age ranged between 14 and 36 years. The perforator arteries were detected and labeled with a hand-held Doppler flowmeter. The size of flaps ranged from 4 × 6 to 6 × 7 cm, and the designed flaps included the perforator artery. All the flaps survived well, except 1 flap which resulted in partial necrosis in distal region and healed after conservative therapy. No other complication occurred with satisfactory aesthetic appearance of the donor site. The submental artery perforator flap is a thin and reliable flap with robust blood supply. This flap can reduce donor-site morbidity significantly and is a good choice for reconstructive surgery of lower face.
Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Sørensen, Jens Ahm
Oral and extremity defect reconstruction can often require a flap that is thin, and traditionally, the radial forearm free flap has been used, however, this has significant donor site morbidity. Over the last decade, the medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap has emerged as a possible alternative with lower donor site morbidity. We present our experiences and review the literature regarding this promising but challenging flap. The study was a retrospective case series in a university hospital setting. All patients who had a MSAP flap performed at our institution were included until March 2015, and their data was retrieved from electronic patient records. In total, ten patients were reconstructed with a MSAP flap for floor of mouth (eight) and lower extremity (two) defect reconstruction. The median flap dimensions were as follows: 10 cm (range 7-14 cm), width 5 cm (range 3.5-8 cm), thickness 5 mm (range 4-8 mm), and pedicle length 10 cm (range 8-12 cm). In one case, the procedure was abandoned because of very small perforators and another flap was used. In two cases, late onset of venous congestion occurred which could not be salvaged. There were no donor site complaints. The MSAP flap is an ideal flap when a thin free flap is needed with lower donor site morbidity than alternative solutions. There seems to be a higher rate of late onset of venous thrombosis compared with more established flaps. Therefore, this flap should be monitored more closely for venous problems and we recommend performing two venous anastomoses when using this flap. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
Hai, Heng-lin; Shen, Chuan-an; Chai, Jia-ke; Li, Hua-tao
To explore the clinical effect of transplantation of the long head of biceps femoris muscle flap in combination with semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap for repair of pressure sores over ischial tuberosity. Eight patients with 10 deep pressure sores over ischial tuberosity were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital to the PLA General Hospital and the 98th Hospital of PLA from April 2004 to June 2010. The wounds measured from 2 cm × 2 cm to 6 cm × 4 cm were covered with the long head of biceps femoris muscle flap and semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap (ranged from 10 cm × 6 cm to 13 cm × 8 cm). The condition of flaps was observed and followed up for a long time. All flaps survived. Nine wounds healed by first intention. Subcutaneous accumulation of fluids occurred in one wound with formation of a sinus at drainage site, and it healed after dressing change for 25 days. Patients were followed up for 7 to 34 months. Sore recurred in one patient 9 months after surgery, and it was successfully repaired with the same flap for the second time. Flaps in the other 7 patients appeared satisfactory with soft texture and without ulceration. This combined flap is easy in formation and transfer, and it causes little side injury with good resistance against pressure. It is a new method for repair of pressure sore over sacral region.
Ranjbari, Ardeshir; Gholami, Gholam Ali; Amid, Reza; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Youssefi, Navid; Mehdizadeh, Amir Reza; Aghaloo, Maryam
Statement of the Problem Gingival recession has been considered as the most challenging issue in the field of periodontal plastic surgery. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of root coverage procedures by using partial thickness double pedicle graft and compare it with full thickness double pedicle graft. Materials and Method Eight patients, aged 15 to 58 years including 6 females and 2 males with 20 paired (mirror image) defects with class I and II gingival recession were randomly assigned into two groups. Clinical parameters such as recession depth, recession width, clinical attachment level, probing depth, and width of keratinized tissue were measured at the baseline and 6 months post-surgery. A mucosal double papillary flap was elevated and the respective root was thoroughly planed. The connective tissue graft was harvested from the palate, and then adapted over the root. The pedicle flap was secured over the connective tissue graft and sutured. The surgical technique was similar in the control group except for the prepared double pedicle graft which was full thickness. Results The mean root coverage was 88.14% (2.83 mm) in the test group and 85.7% (2.75 mm) in the control group. No statistical differences were found in the mean reduction of vertical recession, width of recession, or probing depth between the test and control groups. In both procedures, the width of keratinized tissue increased after three months and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant in this respect. Conclusion Connective tissue with partial and full thickness double pedicle grafts can be successfully used for treatment of marginal gingival recession. PMID:27602394
Reddy, Vineela Katam; Parthasarathy, Harinath; Lochana, Priya
Purpose: Dental implants though a successful treatment modality there exists controversies regarding the relationship between the adequacy of the keratinized gingiva (KG) and peri-implant health. The presence of an adequate amount of peri-implant KG reduces gingival inflammation and hence soft-tissue augmentation should be frequently considered. Among the various periodontal plastic surgical procedures, the apically displaced flap increases the width of keratinized tissue with reduced patient morbidity. The current study aims at evaluating the esthetic improvement in KG around dental implants applying apically positioned flap (APF) technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 endosseous dental implants were placed in eight systemically healthy patients. APF surgery was performed at the implant site on the buccal aspect either at the time of implant placement (one stage surgical protocol) or during the implant recovery stage (two stage surgical protocols) for increasing the width of KG and reviewed until 12 weeks post-operatively. The width of KG was evaluated at baseline and at the end of 12 weeks after surgery. Paired t-test was performed to evaluate the changes in the width of KG at baseline and at 12 weeks post-operatively. In addition, soft-tissue esthetic outcome was assessed by using visual analog scale (VAS). Results: The mean width of KG at baseline was 1.47 mm and 12 weeks post-operatively was 5.42 mm. The gain in KG from baseline was 3.95 mm with the P value of 0.000, which was highly statistically significant. The assessment of esthetic outcome using VAS gave an average score of 7.1 indicating good esthetics. Conclusion: The technique of APF yielded a significant improvement in keratinized tissue, which is both functionally and esthetically acceptable. PMID:24124297
Zhang, Yu; Chen, Yue-Guo; Xia, Ying-Jie; Qi, Hong
To compare tear cytokines and clinical outcomes between off-flap and on-flap epi-LASIK eyes and explore the possible mechanism for the clinical differences. This double-masked, randomized study enrolled 18 myopic patients who underwent off-flap epi-LASIK with mitomycin C (MMC) in 1 eye and on-flap epi-LASIK with MMC in the contralateral eye. Tears were collected from each eye preoperatively and 2 hours, 1 day, and 5 days postoperatively. Concentrations of multiple tear cytokines were measured by a multiplex immunobead assay. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), refraction, haze scores, pain scores, and percentage of corneal epithelial healing were evaluated. Compared with the on-flap group, the off-flap group had outcomes of better UDVA and higher percentages of epithelial healing at 5 days after surgery (P<.001) and lower levels of haze at 1 month after surgery (P=.049). Preoperatively, no significant differences were noted in the release rate of all tear cytokines between groups. At 2 hours postoperatively, the release rate of tear basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the off-flap group were significantly lower than those in the on-flap group (P=.011, .017, .048, and .041, respectively). Off-flap epi-LASIK with MMC offers faster corneal epithelial healing and visual recovery, and temporary less haze than on-flap epi-LASIK with MMC. The lower tear levels of bFGF, PDGF-BB, IL-8, and TNF-α in the offflap group 2 hours after surgery may suggest a possible mechanism for the clinical differences. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Radentz, William H.; Caffesse, Raul G.
A survey of 58 dental school periodontics departments revealed the frequency of predoctoral dental students performing surgery, the frequency of specific procedures, the degree of participation or performance of students, incidence of preclinical surgical laboratories in the curricula, and materials and anesthesia used. A wide range in…
Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)
A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.
Amin, Ayman; Rifaat, Mohammed; Civantos, Francisco; Weed, Donald; Abu-Sedira, Mohammed; Bassiouny, Mahmoud
Free-tissue transfer has revolutionized skull-base surgery by expanding the ability to perform cranial base resection and by improving the quality of reconstruction. The anterolateral thigh flap has come recently into use in the field of head and neck reconstruction. Its role in craniofacial and midface reconstruction has not been specifically defined. This study involved a total of 18 patients who were treated over a 5-year period from 1998 to 2003. Seventeen patients had locally advanced head and neck cancer, requiring craniofacial resection, and one patient had a complicated gun shot wound of the forehead. Thirteen patients were treated at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt, and five patients at the University of Miami, Florida. The patients presented with defects of the anterior skull base (5), lateral skull base (3), scalp and calvarium (3), and the midface (7). The anterolateral thigh flap was used as a myocutaneous flap in 11 cases and as a perforator fasciocutaneous flap in seven cases. Musculocutaneous perforators supplied the majority of flaps (17/18). Total flap survival occurred in 17 cases; one patient developed complete flap necrosis. The most commonly used recipient vessels were the facial vessels and the external jugular vein. Major complications included one case with meningitis; the patient died after failure of treatment. Another patient died 6 weeks postoperatively from pulmonary embolism. One patient developed CSF leak that stopped spontaneously. In addition, two patients developed minor wound dehiscence that healed spontaneously. The donor-site wound healed without problems except in two cases. One patient had an incomplete take of the skin graft; the other developed wound infection and superficial sloughing. Both wounds healed spontaneously. In addition to the feasibility of simultaneous flap harvesting with tumor resection, the flap's advantage in skull base reconstruction is its reliable blood supply, which can provide
Velez-Montoya, Raul; Ramirez-Estudillo, J Abel; Sjoholm-Gomez de Liano, Carl; Bejar-Cornejo, Francisco; Sanchez-Ramos, Jorge; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Morales-Canton, Virgilio; Hernandez-Da Mota, Sergio E
To assess closure rate after a single surgery of large macular holes and their visual recovery in the short term with three different surgical techniques. Prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial. We included treatment-naïve patients with diagnosis of large macular hole (minimum diameter of > 400 µm). All patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological examination. Before surgery, the patients were randomized into three groups: group A: conventional internal limiting membrane peeling, group B: inverted-flap technique and group C: free-flap technique. All study measurements were repeated within the period of 1 and 3 months after surgery. Continuous variables were assessed with a Kruskal-Wallis test, change in visual acuity was assessed with analysis of variance for repeated measurements with a Bonferroni correction for statistical significance. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (group A: 12, group B: 12, group C: 14). The closure rate was in group A and B: 91.6%; 95% CI 61.52-99.79%. In group C: 85.71%; 95% CI 57.19-98.22%. There were no differences in the macular hole closure rate between groups ( p = 0.85). All groups improved ≈ 0.2 logMAR, but only group B reached statistical significance ( p < 0.007). Despite all techniques displayed a trend toward visual improvement, the inverted-flap technique seems to induce a faster and more significant recovery in the short term.
Hitier, Marine; Cracowski, Jean-Luc; Hamou, Cynthia; Righini, Christian; Bettega, Georges
We evaluated the feasibility and the tolerance of repeated fluorescent indocyanine green angiography in free flap monitoring, and determined the intraoperative predictive values of flap vitality. The free flap failure rate has been significantly reduced, but free flap loss still occurs and remains a costly disaster. Repeated clinical examinations are commonly used for flap monitoring, but they can be unreliable because of their subjectivity. Laser-induced fluorescence of indocyanine green is a new method for assessing tissue perfusion. 20 patients undergoing microsurgical reconstruction were monitored by indocyanine green fluorescence angiography, intraoperatively, and during 4 days after surgery, with 18 injections. Monitoring was made by clinical examination, and then compared to angiographic findings. The vascular complication rate was 15% (3/20) with 2 cases of venous thrombosis and one case of partial necrosis of the flap skin paddle. Both cases of venous thrombosis were salvaged by secondary surgery. There was no total flap loss. ICG angiography allowed detecting each intra and postoperative complication, earlier than clinical examination. The mean per-operative intensity of fluorescence was significantly lower in flaps with vascular complications (23.8 GL/ms; p = 0.008). The postoperative slope (p = 0.02) and amplitude (p = 0.03) of the fluorescent signal were both significantly lower than for uncomplicated flaps, before surgical revision. These 2 parameters came back to normal values after secondary surgery. There was no adverse effect of ICG despite the repeated injections. ICG angiography is a feasible and safe technique for the detection of free flap vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bhat, G Subraya; Singh, Vishal; Bhat, K Mahalinga
We report an unusual case of recurrent periodontal abscess in a 31-year-old male electrician due to his habit of using his teeth as a tool for stripping electrical wires. The patient was not aware of the consequences of this habit. Clinically, there was presence of moderate depth of periodontal pocket around the tooth and, radiographically, there was a vertical defect mesial to the involved teeth. The patient was educated about the consequences of his habit and surgical treatment was undertaken. A papilla preservation flap with regenerative periodontal surgical procedure was done, orthodontic and restorative treatment was planned at the follow-up. This case highlights the importance of eliciting a proper and complete personal history, including occupational details. In our patient these details helped us correlate the destruction of the periodontium to the unusual etiology.
Vantomme, M; Viard, R; Aimard, R; Vincent, P-L; Comparin, J-P; Voulliaume, D
The ischiatric pressure sore is a common pathology in rehabilitated spinal cord injured people, despite careful prevention. Medical treatment by discharge and directed healing is not always sufficient and surgery using local musculocutaneous flaps is often essential. Unfortunately, recidivism is frequent and the availability of local flaps is limited. The scrotal flap is an excellent complement to classic flaps, gluteal flaps or hamstrings. It can be used alone or in addition to another musculocutaneous flap, in first or second intention. The scrotal flap is a musculocutaneous flap, using the Dartos, the platys muscle of the scrotum. It is richly vascularized, extensible and resistant. Its great plasticity makes it adaptable to any form of loss of substance, with an arc of rotation that can reach the anal margin. It can also be desepidermized and buried to fill a deep defect. Ten cases of scrotal flaps and their different indications are reviewed: some are used in first intention, others in addition to musculocutaneous flaps. The removal of a scrotal flap is fast and extremely easy. The simple closure of the donor site allows the sampling of half of the scrotum due to the great local laxity. The scrotal flaps achieved quickly healed, as well as the donor sites. Only one recurrence was observed after an inappropriate treatment of underlying osteitis. No complications have occurred. The scrotal musculocutaneous flap, reliable, resistant, quick and easy to remove is an excellent means of coverage of the perineal region. It can be used for the treatment of any loss of perineal substance in humans, but remains particularly useful for the treatment of ischial or perineal pressure sores. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Park, Sung Woo; Oh, Tae Suk; Eom, Jin Sup; Sun, Yoon Chi; Suh, Hyun Suk; Hong, Joon Pio
The reconstruction of the posterior trunk remains to be a challenge as defects can be extensive, with deep dead space, and fixation devices exposed. Our goal was to achieve a tension-free closure for complex defects on the posterior trunk. From August 2006 to May 2013, 18 cases were reconstructed with multiple flaps combining perforator(s) and local skin flaps. The reconstructions were performed using freestyle approach. Starting with propeller flap(s) in single or multilobed design and sequentially in conjunction with adjacent random pattern flaps such as fitting puzzle. All defects achieved tensionless primary closure. The final appearance resembled a jigsaw puzzle-like appearance. The average size of defect was 139.6 cm(2) (range, 36-345 cm(2)). A total of 26 perforator flaps were used in addition to 19 random pattern flaps for 18 cases. In all cases, a single perforator was used for each propeller flap. The defect and the donor site all achieved tension-free closure. The reconstruction was 100% successful without flap loss. One case of late infection was noted at 12 months after surgery. Using multiple lobe designed propeller flaps in conjunction with random pattern flaps in a freestyle approach, resembling putting a jigsaw puzzle together, we can achieve a tension-free closure by distributing the tension to multiple flaps, supplying sufficient volume to obliterate dead space, and have reliable vascularity as the flaps do not need to be oversized. This can be a viable approach to reconstruct extensive defects on the posterior trunk. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Mallet, Cindy; Ilharreborde, Brice; Jehanno, Pascal; Litzelmann, Estelle; Valenti, Philippe; Mazda, Keyvan; Penneçot, Georges-François; Fitoussi, Franck
Many commissural reconstruction techniques have been described for the treatment of syndactyly. This study is the first to compare long-term results of 2 commissural dorsal flap procedures (T-flap and omega-flap). Fifty-nine web-spaces in 39 patients, operated on between 1991 and 2008, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-six T-flap and 23 omega-flap procedures were performed using full-thickness skin graft in every case for digital resurfacing. Factors that could affect the long-term outcome were collected, including development of web-creep, clinodactyly, and flexion contracture. Patients were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 5 years and 8 months. Preoperative complexity of syndactyly influenced the development of clinodactyly and flexion contracture. Among the patients who developed clinodactyly, 96% had surgery for complex syndactyly. No difference was found between the 2 flap methods concerning digital deformation and mobility. However, web-creep occurred more frequently after T-flap than after omega-flap procedures (17% vs. 5%). The combination of either dorsal commissural T-flaps or omega-flaps with full-thickness graft to resurface digits is a reliable technique for the treatment of syndactyly with satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. Long-term results are not influenced by the type of flap. Nevertheless, the omega-flap technique, using 2 triangular lateral-palmar flaps, avoids use of skin graft to cover lateral-palmar aspects of the new commissure, consequently reducing the incidence of web-creep. In cases of syndactyly, the primary prognostic factor is whether the patient has simple or complex syndactyly. In complex syndactyly, the risk of long-term unfavorable results is higher. When complex complicated syndactyly is involved, postoperative complication rates increase. Level III.
Martins, Sérgio H L; Novaes, Arthur B; Taba, Mario; Palioto, Daniela B; Messora, Michel R; Reino, Danilo M; Souza, Sérgio L S
This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the effects of an adjunctive single application of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in Surgical Periodontal Treatment (ST) in patients with severe chronic periodontitis (SCP). In a split-mouth design, 20 patients with SCP were treated with aPDT+ST (Test Group, TG) or ST only (Control Group, CG). aPDT was applied in a single episode, using a diode laser and a phenothiazine photosensitizer. All patients were monitored until 90 days after surgical therapy. Levels of 40 subgingival species were measured by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization at baseline, 60 and 150 days. Clinical and microbiological parameters were evaluated. In deep periodontal pockets depth (PPD ≥5 mm), Test Group presented a significantly higher decrease in PPD than Control Group at 90 days after surgical therapy (p < .05). Test Group also demonstrated significantly less periodontal pathogens of red complex (Treponema denticola) (p < .05). A single episode of aPDT used in adjunct to open flap debridement of the root surface in the surgical treatment of SCP: i) significantly improved clinical periodontal parameters; ii) eliminates periodontal pathogens of the red complex more effectively (NCT02734784). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pauchet, D; Pigot, J-L; Chabolle, F; Bach, C-A
Free fibula transplant is routinely used for mandibular reconstruction in head and neck cancer. Dental rehabilitation, the objective of mandibular reconstruction, requires the use of dental implants as supports for fixed or removable dentures. Positioning of fibular bone grafts and implants determines implant osseointegration and the possibilities of dental rehabilitation. Prefabrication of a fibula free flap with dental implants prior to harvesting as a free flap can promote implant osseointegration. The position of the implants must then be precisely planned. Virtual surgery and computer-assisted design and prefabrication techniques are used to plan the reconstruction and then reproduce this planning by means of tailored fibula and mandible cutting guides, thereby ensuring correct positioning of fibular bone fragments and implants. The prefabricated fibula free flap technique requires two surgical procedures (prefabrication and flap transfer) and precise preoperative planning. Prefabricated fibula free flap with dental implants, by improving the quality of osseointegration of the implants before flap transfer, extends the possibilities of prosthetic rehabilitation in complex secondary mandibular reconstructions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lee, Seung Yup; Pakela, Julia M.; Hedrick, Taylor L.; Vishwanath, Karthik; Helton, Michael C.; Chung, Yooree; Kolodziejski, Noah J.; Stapels, Christopher J.; McAdams, Daniel R.; Fernandez, Daniel E.; Christian, James F.; O'Reilly, Jameson; Farkas, Dana; Ward, Brent B.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Mycek, Mary-Ann
In reconstructive surgery, tissue perfusion/vessel patency is critical to the success of microvascular free tissue flaps. Early detection of flap failure secondary to compromise of vascular perfusion would significantly increase the chances of flap salvage. We have developed a compact, clinically-compatible monitoring system to enable automated, minimally-invasive, continuous, and quantitative assessment of flap viability/perfusion. We tested the system's continuous monitoring capability during extended non-recovery surgery using an in vivo porcine free flap model. Initial results indicated that the system could assess flap viability/perfusion in a quantitative and continuous manner. With proven performance, the compact form constructed with cost-effective components would make this system suitable for clinical translation.
Papapanou, Panos N.; Sedaghatfar, Michael H.; Demmer, Ryan T.; Wolf, Dana L.; Yang, Jun; Roth, Georg A.; Celenti, Romanita; Belusko, Paul B.; Lalla, Evanthia; Pavlidis, Paul
Aims We investigated the effects of periodontal therapy on gene expression of peripheral blood monocytes. Methods Fifteen patients with periodontitis gave blood samples at four time points: 1 week before periodontal treatment (#1), at treatment initiation (baseline, #2), 6-week (#3) and 10-week post-baseline (#4). At baseline and 10 weeks, periodontal status was recorded and subgingival plaque samples were obtained. Periodontal therapy (periodontal surgery and extractions without adjunctive antibiotics) was completed within 6 weeks. At each time point, serum concentrations of 19 biomarkers were determined. Peripheral blood monocytes were purified, RNA was extracted, reverse-transcribed, labelled and hybridized with AffymetrixU133Plus2.0 chips. Expression profiles were analysed using linear random-effects models. Further analysis of gene ontology terms summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in a subset of patients. Results Treatment resulted in a substantial improvement in clinical periodontal status and reduction in the levels of several periodontal pathogens. Expression profiling over time revealed more than 11,000 probe sets differentially expressed at a false discovery rate of <0.05. Approximately 1/3 of the patients showed substantial changes in expression in genes relevant to innate immunity, apoptosis and cell signalling. Conclusions The data suggest that periodontal therapy may alter monocytic gene expression in a manner consistent with a systemic anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:17716309
Chung, Jae-Hyun; You, Hi-Jin; Kim, Hyon-Surk; Lee, Byung-Il; Park, Seung-Ha; Yoon, Eul-Sik
A robotic surgery technique of harvesting the latissimus dorsi muscle flap has technical advantages over endoscopic harvest and cosmetic advantages over the open technique. The authors introduce a new transaxillary gasless technique using an articulated long retractor for robot assisted latissimus dorsi flap harvest. Twelve robot assisted latissimus dorsi muscle flaps were harvested: 3 cases of delayed reconstruction following tissue expander insertion or breast conserving surgery; 4 cases of immediate reconstruction following nipple-sparing mastectomy; and 5 cases of chest wall deformity correction in patients with Poland syndrome. A specially designed articulated long retractor was used to maintain adequate working space and enable latissimus dorsi muscle dissection without gas insufflation. Twelve muscle flaps were successfully harvested in 12 patients without converting to an open technique. The mean docking time was 54.6 min, and the mean operative time and robotic time were 400.4 min and 85.8 min, respectively. There were no donor site complications or flap problems. Average follow-up was 15.7 months. All patients were satisfied with their esthetic results, especially the absence of visible scars. The novel robot assisted latissimus dorsi harvest technique is a safe alternative to the conventional method. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Leatherbarrow, Brian; Watson, Adam; Wilcsek, Geoffrey
To describe the use and outcomes of a versatile surgical technique in the reconstruction of deep soft tissue and bony defects of the medial canthus. A retrospective review of consecutive cases requiring reconstruction of medial canthal defects involving loss of periosteum or bone by a median forehead pericranial flap and full-thickness skin grafting in a tertiary referral hospital setting. Two techniques were used: an open technique, using a midline forehead incision; and an endoscopic technique, using 2 incisions behind the hairline. Twenty-one cases were identified: 19 open and 2 endoscopic. The average length of follow-up was 13 months (range, 6-50 months). Ten cases required additional oculoplastic procedures including local periosteal flaps and mucous membrane grafts. Two cases (10%) had complete flap failure; one of these was caused by infection. Five (24%) had partial (< 50%) skin graft necrosis. Two cases (10%) have required further surgery. Our experience shows the pericranial flap to be versatile, robust, and easy to manipulate, offering advantages over alternative techniques when used for the repair of deep medial canthal defects. It is a valuable reconstructive technique that can yield good cosmetic and functional results.
Ruan, Hongjiang; Cai, Peihua; Fan, Cunyi; Chai, Yimin; Liu, Shenghe
To investigate the operative technique and clinical results of repairing the soft tissue defects of knee with antegrade extended peroneal artery perforator flap. From October 2007 to January 2008, 3 patients (2 men and 1 woman) with the soft tissue defects of knee were treated, with the ages of 18, 31 and 42 years, respectively. The first case sustained femur and pelvis fractures and soft tissue defect over his right popliteal fossa, which were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and debridement of knee joint 2 weeks ago. The second case was necrosis of skin 3 weeks after ORIF for fracture of tibial plateau. The third case suffered from open fracture of tibial plateau and soft tissue defect, which were treated with external fixation and debridement 3 weeks ago. The defect sizes were 16 cm x 9 cm, 11 cm x 6 cm and 14 cm x 7 cm. The flap was raised by dividing the peroneal artery and veins distally and elevating them proximally, which covered for the defects of knee. The flaps were designed with the size of 18 cm x 10 cm, 12 cm 7 cm and 15 cm x 8 cm. The pure vascular pedicle of the flap was 10 cm to 17 cm in length, including the peroneal vessels and one or two perforator branches. The donor site is covered by a split thickness skin graft. All flaps survived after surgery. The donor sites healed by first intention and the skin grafts survived. After following up for 6, 8 and 11 months, the appearance and function of the flaps were all satisfactory. Based on the modified HSS knee performance system, post-operative knee functional outcomes of three patients were excellent. The antegrade extended peroneal artery perforator flap supplied by a pure vascular pedicle can be a good alternative for reconstruction of knee. The flap, with a long and thin pure vascular pedicle, could provide good texture and contour matching the recipient area.
Grant, Michael D
One of the most challenging procedures in breast surgery is the skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM). Various techniques and incisions have evolved that characterize this procedure; however, what is common in all of them is the smaller the incision, the more difficult it is to develop the skin flaps. A procedure was developed that incorporates the use of liposuction cannulas (without suction) to create the skin flaps. The technique and results are described in this manuscript. From October of 2012 to April 2014, 289 mastectomies (171 patients) were performed using the CAFE procedure on women of all shapes and sizes. Postoperatively, no problems were experienced with flap viability using this technique. The main difference in side effects between the CAFE technique and other standard techniques for developing flaps in SSMs was more bruising than normal, but this resolved rapidly. The results for use of this technique were consistently impressive. The learning curve for this procedure is very short, especially for those who perform SSMs using sharp technique (scissors). Residents and fellows became proficient with the CAFE technique in a relatively short amount of time. Plastic surgeons were pleased with the cosmetic outcomes of their reconstructions that follow this type of mastectomy. Patients were extremely satisfied with their reconstructions as well. Incorporating the use of liposuction cannulas (without suction) makes the creation of flaps for SSM a relatively simple and rapid method. It is especially useful to assist in developing skin flaps with even the smallest of skin incisions.
Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas
The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Rajak, Saul N; Huilgol, Shyamala C; Murakami, Masahiro; Selva, Dinesh
Propeller flaps are island flaps that reach the recipient site through an axial rotation. The flap has a subcutaneous pedicle on which it pivots, thereby resembling a helicopter propeller. We present our series of propeller flaps for the reconstruction of large eyelid defects. This is a retrospective review of the clinical case notes of eight patients that underwent tumour excision with reconstruction with a cutaneous propeller flap supplied by a non-perforator orbicularis pedicle between July and December 2016. Propeller flaps were used in the reconstruction of five lower lid defects (size range 19 × 5 mm to 25 × 8 mm), one medial canthus defect (13 mm diameter), one complete upper lid defect (42 × 19 mm diameter) and one lid sparing extenteration defect. The flaps were recruited from nasolabial, lateral canthal, temple or medial upper cheek skin. Post-operatively one case had 'trapdooring' which required flap revision at 4 months and one had persistent oedema that settled without intervention. The reconstruction of large eyelid defects is challenging in part because of the paucity of locally available skin. Propeller flaps are a paradigm shift in periocular reconstruction in which the subcutaneous pedicle enables the recruitment of large and highly mobile skin flaps from a wide area of regional tissue.
Wolf, Alvit; Hod, Yair; Buckman, Gila; Stein, Nili; Geyer, Orna
To compare the efficacy of an autoscleral free-flap graft versus an autoscleral rotational flap graft in Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) surgery. Medical records (2005 to 2012) of 51 consecutive patients (51 eyes) who underwent AGV surgery with the use of either an autoscleral free-flap graft or an autoscleral rotational flap graft to cover the external tube at the limbus were retrieved for review. The main outcome measure was the incidence of tube exposure associated with each surgical approach. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (27 eyes) received a free-flap graft and 24 consecutive patients (24 eyes) received a rotational flap graft. The mean follow-up time was 55.6 ± 18.3 months for the former and 24.2± 5 .0 months for the latter (P<0.0001). Two patients in the free-flap group (8.9%) developed tube exposure at 24 and 55 months postoperatively compared with none of the patients in the rotational flap group. Graft thinning without evidence of conjunctival erosion was observed in 15 patients (55%) in the free-flap group and in 7 patients (29.1%) in the rotational flap group. The use of an autoscleral rotational flap graft is an efficacious technique for primary tube patch grafting in routine AGV surgery, and yielded better results than an autoscleral free-flap graft. Its main advantages over donor graft material are availability and lower cost.
K T, Ramesha; J, Vijay; M, Shankarappa
Cover flaps are needed in management of any bodily defect involving bone, tendon, nerve & vessels. The major objective of a plastic surgeon, facing a complex soft-tissue defect, is to replace "like with like" tissues at minimal donor site "cost" and with maximal accuracy & efficacy. To study the "Propeller Flaps" utility in reconstructive surgeries, evaluate its planning and complications involving donor site morbidity. The prospective study was conducted on 15 cases (11 males/4 females) of propeller flaps during the period of two years (2010-12) in Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI), Karnataka, India. The propeller flaps were performed in cases with defects due to any cause. Cases with Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD). Flaps were performed and details recorded. Overall results revealed problem resolution in 87% cases (13 cases). Comprehensive description of each flap type and its related cases are given in the table. It has been categorically found that there were 2 flap partial losses. Partial necrosis has been reported in heavy-smoker patients. This current study clearly justifies that careful application, optimal designing & judicious scientific application of local perforator flaps for lower-limb wounds including rest of the body is successful in many aspects providing high-quality reconstruction ensuring minimal morbidity. It is cost-effective as well as time-saving.
Schonauer, Fabrizio; Marlino, Sergio; Turrà, Francesco; Graziano, Pasquale; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni
Superficial ulnar artery is a rare finding but shows significant surgical implications. Its thinness and pliability make this flap an excellent solution for soft tissue reconstruction, especially in the head and neck region. We hereby report a successful free superficial ulnar artery perforator forearm flap transfer for tongue reconstruction. A 64-year-old man presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left tongue underwent a wide resection of the tumor, left radical neck dissection, and reconstruction of the tongue and the left tonsillar pillar with the mentioned flap. No complications were observed postoperatively. The flap survived completely; no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up was detected. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap has shown to be a safe alternative to other free tissue flaps in specific forearm anatomic conditions.
Kirstilä, V; Sewón, L; Laine, J
The periodontal status and treatment of three teenagers in a Finnish family with familial neutropenia is described. The mother was also diagnosed with neutropenia. At initial examination, the 15-year-old male and the 10-year-old female had severe periodontitis, whereas the 13-year-old male had oral ulcerations but no significant periodontal disease. The two siblings with periodontitis were treated and followed approximately 5 years. It was concluded that periodontal therapy including scaling, surgery, and use of antimicrobial agents can be successful in patients with familial neutropenia, and that such patients are not necessarily candidates for full mouth extraction. The role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in which was used in the treatment of these patients remains to be established.
Dean, Nichole R; Rosenthal, Eben L; Morgan, Bruce A; Magnuson, J Scott; Carroll, William R
We sought to determine the safety and utility of Harmonic Scalpel-assisted free-flap harvesting as an alternative to a combined electrocautery and surgical clip technique. The medical records of 103 patients undergoing radial forearm free-flap reconstruction (105 free flaps) for head and neck surgical defects between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. The use of bipolar electrocautery and surgical clips for division of small perforating vessels (n = 53) was compared to ultrasonic energy (Harmonic Scalpel; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) (n = 52) free-tissue harvesting techniques. Flap-harvesting time was reduced with the use of the Harmonic Scalpel when compared with electrocautery and surgical clip harvest (31.4 vs. 36.9 minutes, respectively; p = 0.06). Two patients who underwent flap harvest with electrocautery and surgical clips developed postoperative donor site hematomas, whereas no donor site complications were noted in the Harmonic Scalpel group. Recipient site complication rates for infection, fistula, and hematoma were similar for both harvesting techniques (p = 0.77). Two flap failures occurred in the clip-assisted radial forearm free-flap harvest group, and none in the Harmonic Scalpel group. Median length of hospitalization was significantly reduced for patients who underwent free-flap harvest with the Harmonic Scalpel when compared with the other technique (7 vs. 8 days; p = 0.01). The Harmonic Scalpel is safe, and its use is feasible for radial forearm free-flap harvest.
Schein, Ophir; Westreich, Melvyn; Shalom, Avshalom
Studies have focused on enhancing flap viability using superoxide dismutase (SOD), but only a few used SOD from human origin, and most gave the compound systemically. We evaluated the ability of SOD to improve random skin flap survival using human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Hr-CuZnSOD) in variable doses, injected intradermally into the flap. Seventy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Cephalic random pattern flaps were elevated on their backs and intradermal injections of different dosages of Hr-CuZnSOD were given 15 minutes before surgery. Flap survival was evaluated by fluorescein fluorescence. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test statistical analyses were performed. Flap survival in all treated groups was significantly better than in the controls. The beneficial effect of HR-CuZnSOD on flap survival is attained when it is given intradermally into the flap tissue. Theoretically, Hr-CuZnSOD delivered with local anesthetics used in flap elevation may be a valuable clinical tool. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
La Padula, Simone; Abbate, Vincenzo; Di Monta, Gianluca; Schonauer, Fabrizio
Nasal tip reconstruction can be very challenging. It requires close attention to skin texture, colour and thickness matching, with the respect of the nasal aesthetic units and symmetry. Flaps are usually preferred to skin grafts where possible. Based on different donor areas, various flaps have been described for reconstruction of this region. Here we present a new V-Y myocutaneous island flap based on the levator alae nasi muscle (LAN muscle) blood supply. This flap may represent an alternative to the nasalis myocutaneous sliding V-Y flap previously described by Rybka. As its pivot point it is located more cranially than the nasalis flap, and it can advance more medially than the Rybka flap, with the possibility of covering larger defects of the nasal tip area, up to 1.8 cm in diameter. Over the past 5 years, 24 patients received nasal tip reconstruction with this flap following the resection of basal cell carcinomas. Good tip projection was maintained, and the aesthetic outcome was satisfactory, with well healed scars. We recommend this technique as an alternative to other flaps for nasal tip defects, especially if paramedian. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kang, Jin Seok; Choi, Hwan Jun; Tak, Min Sung
Free flaps are still the gold standard for large defects of the lower limb, but propeller perforator flaps have become a simpler and faster alternative to free flaps because of some advantages such as reliable vascular pedicle, wide mobilization and rotation, great freedom in design, low donor site morbidity, and easy harvest with no requirement for anastomosis. But when the vessels show insufficient findings in preoperative evaluation using a Doppler probe or the vessel is injured, the surgeon should avoid performing free flap surgery to prevent flap failure and should select a propeller perforator flap as an alternative method on the condition that more than one perforator is intact. In this study, we report reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the heel with a pedicled propeller flap in postfasciotomy and popliteal artery revascularization state by making an incision on the central portion above the Achilles tendon, which can be covered by the posterior tibial artery perforator or the peroneal artery perforator based flaps. In conclusion, we showed that although the popliteal artery was injured, the soft tissue defect can be reconstructed using a perforator propeller flap if intact distal flow in the anastomosis site was confirmed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rastogi, Pavitra Kumar; Lal, Nand; Garg, Nimit; Anand, Vishal; Singhal, Rameshwari
Localised gingival recessions continue to represent an important aesthetic condition requiring treatment in periodontics. Various techniques have been tried to treat exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics with high percentage of success and minimal discomfort. Root biomodification is done to improve the predictability of these procedures. This clinical report describes periodontal plastic procedure involving subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique and root biomodification with CO2 laser for the management of gingival recession. PMID:22778454
Cochran, D L; Oh, T-J; Mills, M P; Clem, D S; McClain, P K; Schallhorn, R A; McGuire, M K; Scheyer, E T; Giannobile, W V; Reddy, M S; Abou-Arraj, R V; Vassilopoulos, P J; Genco, R J; Geurs, N C; Takemura, A
Biological mediators have been used to enhance periodontal regeneration. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of 3 doses of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) when combined with a β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold carrier placed in vertical infrabony periodontal defects in adult patients. In this double-blinded, dose-verification, externally monitored clinical study, 88 patients who required surgical intervention to treat a qualifying infrabony periodontal defect were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment groups-β-TCP alone (control) and 0.1% recombinant human FGF-2 (rh-FGF-2), 0.3% rh-FGF-2, and 0.4% rh-FGF-2 with β-TCP-following scaling and root planing of the tooth prior to a surgical appointment. Flap surgery was performed with EDTA conditioning of the root prior to device implantation. There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographics and baseline characteristics among the 4 treatment groups. When a composite outcome of gain in clinical attachment of 1.5 mm was used with a linear bone growth of 2.5 mm, a dose response pattern detected a plateau in the 0.3% and 0.4% rh-FGF-2/β-TCP groups with significant improvements over control and 0.1% rh-FGF-2/β-TCP groups. The success rate at 6 mo was 71% in the 2 higher-concentration groups, as compared with 45% in the control and lowest treatment groups. Percentage bone fill in the 2 higher-concentration groups was 75% and 71%, compared with 63% and 61% in the control and lowest treatment group. No increases in specific antibody to rh-FGF-2 were detected, and no serious adverse events related to the products were reported. The results from this multicenter trial demonstrated that the treatment of infrabony vertical periodontal defects can be enhanced with the addition of rh-FGF-2/β-TCP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01728844). © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.
Dorsch, R. G.
The Lewis Research Center cold-flow model externally blown flap (EBF) noise research test program is summarized. Both engine under-the-wing and over-the-wing EBF wing section configurations were studied. Ten large scale and nineteen small scale EBF models were tested. A limited number of forward airspeed effect and flap noise suppression tests were also run. The key results and conclusions drawn from the flap noise tests are summarized and discussed.
Barnhill, D R; Hoskins, W J; Metz, P
Primary closure of vulvar excisions is usually satisfactory in the anterior vulva, where the skin is mobile. In the posterior and posterolateral areas, however, closure often must be accomplished under tension with resulting wound breakdown and scar formation that can be disfiguring and cause dyspareunia. The rhomboid skin flap was described as early as 1946. Initially described for closure of facial defects, the technique has found application in the closure of a variety of traumatic and surgical defects. The authors present eight patients who underwent closure of vulvar defects using single or multiple rhomboid flaps. The applicability of the procedure to vulvar surgery is discussed and the technique is described.
Heimer, Sina; Schaefer, Amelia; Mueller, Wolf; Lass, Ulrike; Gebhard, Martha M; Germann, Günter; Leimer, Uwe; Köllensperger, Eva; Reichenberger, Matthias A
Review of the literature regarding rodent experimental flap models reveals fundamental differences in applied surgical procedures. Although some authors isolate the flap from its wound bed, others do not. This study was planned to investigate to what extent the insertion of a silicone sheet affects physiological wound healing in experimental flap surgery. An extended epigastric adipocutaneous flap (6 × 10 cm) was raised in 16 male Lewis rats. In the control group (group C), flaps were immediately inset without any intervention. In the experimental group (group M), a silicone sheet barrier was placed between the flap and the wound bed. Mean flap survival area and flap perfusion were evaluated. Microvessel density was visualized by immunohistochemistry, and semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction addressed differential gene expression. All animals were investigated on postoperative day 5. Flap survival area and flap perfusion were found to be similar. Immunohistochemistry, however, demonstrated a significantly increased number of CD31-positive small vessels in group C. The insertion of the silicone sheet barrier (group M) was accompanied by a significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory genes and a suppression of proangiogenic genes. Our results show that although the silicone membrane has no influence on the surgical outcome in terms of flap survival and perfusion, it does lead to significant molecular alterations in pathways involved in physiological wound healing. These alterations are artificially induced by the foreign body material and conceal the true driving forces of the healing process. As the latter might include relevant therapeutic targets to ameliorate surgical results, we regard wound bed isolation as a dispensable procedure in the study of rodent flap models.
Zheng, Yan; Zhou, Yuehua; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Qian; Zhai, Changbin; Wang, Yonghua
To compare flap morphology created by the WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser and the VisuMax femtosecond laser, assessing the uniformity, accuracy, and predictability of flap creation. A total of 400 eyes had corneal flaps created with the WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser (200 eyes) or the VisuMax femtosecond laser (200 eyes). The desired flap thickness was 110 μm. At 1 week postoperatively, all eyes were evaluated with RTVue Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Dimensions of the flaps were tested for their regularity, uniformity, accuracy, and predictability comparison. One week after surgery, the central flap thickness and the mean flap thickness of the FS200 group were 105.4 ± 3.4 μm and 105.7 ± 2.6 μm, respectively. They were both thinner than those of the VisuMax group, which were 110.8 ± 3.9 μm and 111.3 ± 2.3 μm, respectively. The mean deviation between the achieved and attempted flap thickness of the FS200 group (5.2 ± 1.9 μm) was greater than that of the VisuMax group (3.2 ± 1.8 μm). Flap thickness measurements at 36 points in both groups were close to the intended thickness. Morphology of the flaps in the 0-, 45-, 90-, and 135-degree lines created by the FS200 femtosecond laser and VisuMax femtosecond laser were uniform and regular. Flap dimensions created by the WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser and VisuMax femtosecond laser were uniform and regular. Although the flap thickness created by the FS200 was less than that created by the VisuMax, measurements of both femtosecond lasers were close to the intended thickness.
Gabbay, Joubin S; Eby, Joseph B; Kulber, David A
The transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is ideal for postmastectomy reconstruction but is tenuous in morbidly obese patients. Because of their relatively high incidence of postoperative complications, morbidly obese patients are often not considered candidates for autogenous reconstruction. The midabdominal TRAM flap has a more favorable anatomy and may represent an alternative technique in this patient population. The records of 18 morbidly obese patients who underwent postmastectomy reconstruction using a mid-abdominal TRAM flap from 1998 through 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. The mid-abdominal TRAM flap territory includes more of the supraumbilical region than the traditional TRAM flap, corresponding to an area with more abundant musculocutaneous perforators and greater dependence on the superior epigastric vascular system. All patients underwent unipedicled mid-abdominal TRAM flap surgery. Four patients with previous subumbilical midline incisions had a delay procedure with ligation of the inferior epigastric vessels. Complications investigated were flap necrosis greater than 10 percent or sufficient to require surgical revision, abdominal donor-site breakdown, seroma formation, umbilical necrosis, abdominal wall bulging or hernia, deep vein thrombosis, infected mesh, surgical revisions, fat necrosis, and extended hospital stay. At a mean follow-up time of 15.6 months (range, 12 to 24 months), three patients had postoperative complications requiring surgical revision. Two of these patients had previous midline abdominal incisions. One patient had both partial flap necrosis and a donor-site complication. The second patient had partial flap necrosis, and the third had an abdominal donor-site complication. No occurrences of abdominal wall hernia, total flap loss, deep vein thrombosis, infected mesh, extensive surgical revision, or extended hospitalization were noted in this series. The mid-abdominal TRAM flap represents an alternative method
Dorsch, R. G.; Kreim, W. J.; Olsen, W. A.
Noise data were obtained with a large externally blown flap model. A fan-jet engine exhaust was simulated by a 1/2-scale bypass nozzle supplied by pressurized air. The nozzle was pylon mounted on a wing section having a double-slotted flap for lift augmentation. Noise radiation patterns and spectra were obtained for nozzle exhaust velocities between 400 and 1150 ft/sec. The blown flap noise data are in good agreement with previous small model results extrapolated to test conditions by Strouhal scaling. The results indicate that blown flap noise must be suppressed to meet STOL aircraft noise goals.
Abdelfatah, Mohamed AbdelRahman
Dropping a skull flap on the floor is an uncommon and avoidable mistake in the neurosurgical operating theater. This study retrospectively reviewed all incidents of dropped skull flaps in Ain-Shams University hospitals during a 10-year period to show how to manage this problem and its outcome. Thirty-one incidents of dropped skull flaps occurred from January 2004 to January 2014 out of more than 10,000 craniotomies. Follow-up period varied from 20 to 44 months. The bone flap was dropped while elevating the bone (n = 16), while drilling the bone on the operating table (n = 5), and during insertion of the bone flap (n = 10). Treatment included re-insertion of the skull flap after soaking it in povidone iodine and antibiotic solution (n = 17) or after autoclaving (n = 11), or discarding the skull flap and replacing it with a mesh cranioplasty in the same operation (n = 3). No bone or wound infection was noted during the follow-up period. Management of dropped skull flap is its prevention. Replacement of the skull flap, after decontamination, is an option that avoids the expense and time of cranioplasty.
Legré, R; Boghossian, V; Servant, J M; Magalon, G; Bureau, H
Since Tanzini, the latissimus dorsi muscle flap has been widely used in plastic surgery. Based on the experience of two plastic surgery units, we decided to try to define the sequelae of this operation. In order to simplify our analysis we only considered free flaps. Out study is based on 42 patients (26 pure muscular flaps and 16 musculo-cutaneous flaps). The sequelae were analysed in terms of aesthetic and functional criteria. The aesthetic sequelae appeared to be minima in the case of pure muscular flaps, but more severe in the case of musculo-cutaneous flaps. Functional sequelae in the shoulder were observed on muscle testing in 30% of cases, although there were no repercussions on sport or work activities. Analysis of spinal posture demonstrated a modification in the frontal plane in 40% of cases although this could not be clearly attributed to the donor site. On the basis of this study, we can conclude that the latissimus dorsi flap retains an important place in the therapeutic arsenal of plastic surgery due to its reliability and its minor cicatricial and functional sequelae at the donor site.
Bigdeli, Amir Khosrow; Gazyakan, Emre; Schmidt, Volker Juergen; Hernekamp, Frederick Jochen; Harhaus, Leila; Henzler, Thomas; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Hirche, Christoph
Near-infrared indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-NIR-VA) has been introduced for free-flap surgery and may provide intraoperative flap designing as well as postoperative monitoring. Nevertheless, the technique has not been established in clinical routine because of controversy over benefits. Improved technical features of the novel Visionsense ICG-NIR-VA surgery system are promising to revisit the field of application. It features a unique real-time fusion image of simultaneous NIR and white light visualization, with highlighted perfusion, including a color-coded perfusion flow scale for optimized anatomical understanding. In a feasibility study, the Visionsense ICG-NIR-VA system was applied during 10 free-flap surgeries in 8 patients at our center. Indications included anterior lateral thigh (ALT) flap (n = 4), latissimus dorsi muscle flap (n = 1), tensor fascia latae flap (n = 1), and two bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps (n = 4). The system was used intraoperatively and postoperatively to investigate its impact on surgical decision making and to observe perfusion patterns correlated to clinical monitoring. Visionsense ICG-NIR-VA aided assessing free-flap design and perfusion patterns in all cases and correlated with clinical observations. Additional interventions were performed in 2 cases (22%). One venous anastomosis was revised, and 1 flap was redesigned. Indicated by ICG-NIR-VA, 1 ALT flap developed partial flap necrosis (11%). The Visionsense ICG-NIR-VA system allowed a virtual view of flap perfusion anatomy by fusion imaging in real-time. The system improved decision making for flap design and surgical decisions. Clinical and ICG-NIR-VA parameters correlated. Its future implementation may aid in improving outcomes for free-flap surgery, but additional experience is needed to define its final role. © The Author(s) 2015.
Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Tae Suk; Koh, Kyung S; Jeong, Woo Shik
Although the perforator free flap is now a standard choice for head and neck reconstruction, problems such as microvascular complications, insufficient volume support for the defect, and fistula formation occur. We revisited a de-epithelialized concept for superficial circumflex iliac artery and anterolateral thigh perforator free flap to overcome these problems. We applied the de-epithelized perforator free flaps in 35 cases among 761 microsurgical head and neck reconstructions and investigated flap characteristics (length gain of pedicle, flap size, and volumetric analysis) and outcomes (flap failure, partial flap necrosis, hematoma, infection, and fistula). Satisfactory results were achieved regarding flap survival, volumetric compensation, and fistula formation. Flaps were transferred successfully in all patients, although 1 patient underwent revisional operation due to venous congestion. Transferred flap volume was significantly higher than the resected tumor volume (p < 0.01), which suggests volume augmentation in the destroyed neck envelope and a protective role against adjuvant radiation. Minor dehiscence and bleeding were seen in two cases, and no other complications were identified. The de-epithelialization concept for perforator free flap is helpful to overcome obstacles related to traditional free flaps in terms of flap survival and volumetric augmentation in head and neck reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stiles, Jean; Townsend, Wendy; Willis, Michelle; Moore, Phillip A; Smith, Eric
Orbital exenteration accompanied by wide eyelid excision in the cat and dog may leave a defect that cannot be closed in a primary fashion. This report describes the use of a caudal auricular axial pattern flap to effect closure following orbital exenteration in three cats and one dog. The most common complication was distal flap necrosis, which necessitated a second surgery in two patients.
Shi, Pengju; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhao, Gang; Li, Zhigang; Zhao, Shaoping; Zhang, Tieshan
To investigate the effectiveness of dorsalis pedis flap series-parallel big toe nail composite tissue flap in the repairment of hand skin of degloving injury with tumb defect. Between March 2009 and June 2013, 8 cases of hand degloving injury with thumb defect caused by machine twisting were treated. There were 7 males and 1 female with the mean age of 36 years (range, 26-48 years). Injury located at the left hand in 3 cases and at the right hand in 5 cases. The time from injury to hospitalization was 1.5-4.0 hours (mean, 2.5 hours). The defect area was 8 cm x 6 cm to 15 cm x 1 cm. The thumb defect was rated as degree I in 5 cases and as degree II in 3 cases. The contralateral dorsal skin flap (9 cm x 7 cm to 10 cm x 8 cm) combined with ipsilateral big toe nail composite tissue flap (2.5 cm x 1.8 cm to 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm) was used, including 3 parallel anastomosis flaps and 5 series anastomosis flaps. The donor site of the dorsal flap was repaired with thick skin grafts, the stumps wound was covered with tongue flap at the shank side of big toe. Vascular crisis occurred in 1 big toe nail composite tissue flap, margin necrosis occurred in 2 dorsalis pedis flap; the other flaps survived, and primary healing of wound was obtained. The grafted skin at dorsal donor site all survived, skin of hallux toe stump had no necrosis. Eight cases were followed up 4-20 months (mean, 15.5 months). All flaps had soft texture and satisfactory appearance; the cutaneous sensory recovery time was 4-7 months (mean, 5 months). At 4 months after operation, the two-point discrimination of the thumb pulp was 8-10 mm (mean, 9 mm), and the two-point discrimination of dorsal skin flap was 7-9 mm (mean, 8.5 mm). According to Society of Hand Surgery standard for the evaluation of upper part of the function, the results were excellent in 4 cases, good in 3 cases, and fair in 1 case. The donor foot had normal function. Dorsalis pedis flap series-parallel big toe nail composite tissue flap is an ideal
Nualart Grollmus, Zacy Carola; Morales Chávez, Mariana Carolina; Silvestre Donat, Francisco Javier
A number of systemic disorders increase patient susceptibility to periodontal disease, which moreover evolves more rapidly and more aggressively. The underlying factors are mainly related to alterations in immune, endocrine and connective tissue status. These alterations are associated with different pathologies and syndromes that generate periodontal disease either as a primary manifestation or by aggravating a pre-existing condition attributable to local factors. This is where the role of bacterial plaque is subject to debate. In the presence of qualitative or quantitative cellular immune alterations, periodontal disease may manifest early on a severe localized or generalized basis--in some cases related to the presence of plaque and/or specific bacteria (severe congenital neutropenia or infantile genetic agranulocytosis, Chediak-Higiashi syndrome, Down syndrome and Papillon-Lefévre syndrome). In the presence of humoral immune alterations, periodontal damage may result indirectly as a consequence of alterations in other systems. In connective tissue disorders, bacterial plaque and alterations of the periodontal tissues increase patient susceptibility to gingival inflammation and alveolar resorption (Marfan syndrome and Ehler-Danlos syndrome). The management of periodontal disease focuses on the control of infection and bacterial plaque by means of mechanical and chemical methods. Periodontal surgery and even extraction of the most seriously affected teeth have also been suggested. There are variable degrees of consensus regarding the background systemic disorder, as in the case of Chediak-Higiashi syndrome, where antibiotic treatment proves ineffective; in severe congenital neutropenia or infantile genetic agranulocytosis, where antibiotic prophylaxis is suggested; and in Papillon-Lefévre syndrome, where an established treatment protocol is available.
Gupta, G; Mansi, B
Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics. PMID:22574088
Gupta, G; Mansi, B
Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.
Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.
A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.
Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.
Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smokingmore » in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.« less
This position paper addresses the role of systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periodontal disease. Topical antibiotic therapy is not discussed here. The paper was prepared by the Research, Science and Therapy Committee of the American Academy of Periodontology. The document consists of three sections: 1) concept of antibiotic periodontal therapy; 2) efficacy of antibiotic periodontal therapy; and 3) practical aspects of antibiotic periodontal therapy. The conclusions drawn in this paper represent the position of the American Academy of Periodontology and are intended for the information of the dental profession.
Zhao, Donghong; Ma, Xinrong; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Baozhen
This study explored the feasibility and clinical efficacy of expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma. From March 2000 to April 2011, 13 cases of facial cicatrices left by radiotherapy of hemangioma have been treated with implantation surgery of facial skin dilator under local anesthesia. After water flood expansion for 1-2 months, resection of facial scar was performed, and wound repairing with expansion flap transfer was done. Thirteen patients were followed up from 5 months to 3 years. All patients tolerated flap transfer well; no contracture occurred during the facial expansion flap transfer. The incision scar was not obvious, and its color and texture were identical to surrounding skin. In conclusion, the use of expanded flap transfer to repair the facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma is advantageous due to its simplicity, flexibility, and large area of repairing. This method does not affect the subsequent facial appearance.
Spindler, N; Langer, S
Objective: Sternal bone and soft tissue debridement after osteomyelitis of the sternum with simultaneous defect coverage using a vascular pedicle latissimus dorsi flap. Indication: Profound sternal wound healing disorders may be covered with various flap grafts. The latissimus dorsi flap provides a fast, sufficient and reliable option to cover sternal defects. If the bone and soft tissue debridement has been very radical, coverage may be performed in a one-stage procedure. Method: The individual surgical steps for sternal debridement with simultaneous defect coverage using a vascular pedicle latissimus dorsi flap are shown. Conclusion: The radicality of debridement is crucial to treatment success and allows debridement and flap graft coverage to be performed at the same time. If two surgeons work simultaneously, the duration of surgery may be significantly reduced. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Zhou, Yefang; Li, Yusheng; Mao, Ling; Peng, Hao
Successful transplantation of avulsed teeth is to restore the attachment and regenerate the periodontal support. Different strategies have been applied in treatment from modification of teeth storage, antibiotic usage to peridontium tissue replacement. We developed a novel periodontal ligament cell-sheet delivery system to apply on delayed replanted teeth in promoting periodontal healing in a canine model. Autologous periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were isolated from extracted premolars of beagle dog. The cell-sheets were fabricated using normal culture dish after stimulation of extracellular matrix formation. Teeth were surgically extracted and attached soft tissues were removed. After root canal treatment, the root of teeth were wrapped by the PDL cell-sheets and replanted back to prior socket accordingly whilst teeth without cell sheets as a control. Eight weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified specimens were prepared. Regeneration of periodontal tissue was evaluated through histology assay. Multi-layered PDL cell-sheet could be attached on tooth root and most cells on sheet-tooth constructs were viable before replantation. Minimum clinical signs of inflammation were observed in experiment. PDL cell-sheets group show significant higher occurrence of favourable healing (88.4%) than control group with low healing (5.3%). Periodontal ligament and cememtum tissue regeneration was observed in the experimental group, and the regenerated tissues showed high collagen type III, type I and fibronectin expression. The periodontal ligament cell-sheets fabricated through normal cell culture dish has a potential for regeneration of periodontal ligament and may become a novel therapy for avulsed teeth replantation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mann, Robert J; Neaman, Keith C; Armstrong, Shannon D; Ebner, Ben; Bajnrauh, Robert; Naum, Steven
Velopharyngeal dysfunction has been treated with either a pharyngeal flap or sphincteroplasty with varying degrees of success. Both of these entities have their own series of problems, with sleep apnea and nasal mucous flow disruptions at the forefront. The purpose of this study was to review the senior author's (R.J.M.) experience performing the double-opposing buccal flap for palatal lengthening. All patients who were treated with double-opposing buccal flaps between October of 1994 and July of 2007 were reviewed. These patients presented with varying degrees of velopharyngeal dysfunction showing some degree of velar movement at the time of surgery. Preoperative and postoperative speech results were reviewed for comparison. Twenty-seven patients underwent palatal lengthening, with an average length of follow-up of 58 months. Distal flap necrosis occurred in two patients. The level of intelligibility (65.4 percent versus 95.5 percent) and resonance (moderately hypernasal versus normal resonance) improved significantly postoperatively (p < 0.0001). Only one patient required the addition of a pharyngeal flap for persistent velopharyngeal dysfunction, and there were no postoperative issues with sleep apnea. The double-opposing buccal flap is an effective technique for lengthening the palate, improving speech, and decreasing the risks of postoperative sleep apnea. All patients experienced a dramatic improvement in their resonance and intelligibility. This technique appears most effective in patients with intact velar movement who demonstrate a small to moderate posterior velar gap. The double-opposing buccal flap is a useful means of treating velopharyngeal dysfunction, thus serving as an adjunct when improving pharyngeal closure.
Kesler, Gavriel; Koren, Rumelia; Kesler, Anat; Kristt, Don; Gal, Rivka
Recent technological advances lead to an increase in the options for the treatment of the periodontal diseases. Lasers utilized for gingival soft tissue resurfacing mainly for esthetics purposes, require careful histopathological evaluation of the effects on tissue. Up to date no comparative clinical or histological studies have been performed, aiming at demonstration of the effects of laser irradiation on connective tissue, especially its most important component -- the collagen fibers. The alteration in the structures of this tissue plays the most important role in the healing process. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of Erbium: YAG - Kesler's hand piece on gingival tissue. This handpiece is designed for gingival resurfacing, in cases of 'Gummy smile' and gingival pigmentation. The following irradiation parameters were used: energy per pulse -- 500 mJ, repetition rate 10 pps, spot size 3 mm. Gingival biopsies specimens of 10 patients, 6 with 'Gummy smile' and 4 with gingival pigmentation were examined before laser treatment, and at 7 and 14 days after laser treatment. The tissues were fixed in LNRS, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned into 5 micrometer thickness, dewaxed in xylol and stained with H&E and Picrosirius Red (PSR). The sections were examined by polarization microscopy. PSR is a collagen stain that differentiates collagen fiber density by the range of colors from green through yellow to red, and/or fiber size. This was utilized in the present study to evaluate the hypothesis that Erbium -- YAG (Er: YAG) laser energy is capable of remodeling the collagen fibers in the gingival connective tissue through a photothermal process. We found a significant difference between the structures of collagen fibers at the first week and at 14 days post treatment. In the normal gingiva the predominant polarization colors were in the red-orange range, signifying tightly packed, mature collagen. During the first postoperative week, collagen
Gümüş, Nazım; Odemiş, Yusuf; Yılmaz, Sarper; Tuncer, Ersin
Flap necrosis still is a challenging problem in reconstructive surgery that results in irreversible tissue loss. This study evaluated the effect of topically applied minoxidil on angiogenesis and survival of a caudally based dorsal rat skin flap. For this study, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight each. A caudally based dorsal skin flap with the dimensions of 9 × 3 cm was raised. After elevation of the flaps, they were sutured back into their initial positions. In group 1 (control group), 1 ml of isotonic saline was applied topically to the flaps of all the animals for 14 days. In group 2, minoxidil solution was spread uniformly over the flap surface for 7 days after the flap elevation. In group 3, minoxidil solution was applied topically to the flap surface during a 14-day period. On day 7 after the flap elevation, the rats were killed. The average area of flap survival was determined for each rat. Subdermal vascular architecture and angiogenesis were evaluated under a light microscope after two full-thickness skin biopsy specimens had been obtained from the midline of the flaps. The lowest flap survival rate was observed in group 1, and no difference was observed between groups 1 and 2. Compared with groups 1 and 2, group 3 had a significantly increased percentage of flap survival (P < 0.05). Intense and moderate angiogenesis also was observed respectively at the proximal and distal areas of the flaps in group 3. The results of this experiment seem to show that the early effect of minoxidil is vasodilation and that prolonged use before flap elevation leads to angiogenesis, increasing flap viability. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Elgendy, Enas Ahmed; Abo Shady, Tamer Elamer
Background: Nano-sized ceramics may represent a promising class of bone graft substitutes due to their improved osseointegrative properties. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NcHA) binds to bone and stimulate bone healing by stimulation of osteoblast activity. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), an intimate assembly of cytokines, glycan chains, and structural glycoproteins enmeshed within a slowly polymerized fibrin network, has the potential to accelerate soft and hard tissue healing. The present study aims to explore the clinical and radiographical outcome of NcHA bone graft with or without PRF, in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects. Materials and Methods: In a split-mouth study design, 20 patients having two almost identical intrabony defects with clinical probing depth of at least 6 mm were selected for the study. Selected sites were randomly divided into two groups. In Group I, mucoperiosteal flap elevation followed by the placement of NcHA was done. In Group II, mucoperiosteal flap elevation, followed by the placement of NcHA with PRF was done. Clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded at baseline and at 6-month postoperatively. Results: Both treatment groups showed a significant probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction, clinical attachment gain, increase bone density 6-month after surgery compared with baseline. However, there was a significantly greater PPD reduction and clinical attachment gain when PRF was added to NcHA. Conclusion: The NcHA bone graft in combination with PRF demonstrated clinical advantages beyond that achieved by the NcHA alone. PMID:25810595
Bittencourt, Rogério de Castro; Biondo-Simões, Maria de Lourdes Pessole; Paula, Josué Brunginski de; Martynetz, Juliano; Groth, Anne
To evaluate the influence of minoxidil, a well known vasodilator, on ischemic flap necrosis prevention in rats. Ventral cutaneous flaps, measuring 8x4 cm, were designed in 20 Wistar rats based on the right cranial epigastric artery. In the experiment group, 50 mg/kg/day of minoxidil sulfate was administered by orogastric tube and the same amount of saline solution was administered to the control group. Such procedure was initiated 24 h before surgery and kept once a day through the 7th postoperative day. Microcirculation was evaluated with laser fluxometry 24 h before surgical procedure, at immediate postoperative and at the 7th postoperative day. Flap necrosis area was evaluated by 2 methods: planimetry and weight/paper ratio. A significant flow increase in distal and medial extremity at M1 (medial point 1) (p=0.0484) was observed in the experiment group. There was significant difference in flap necrosis prevention in the experiment group (p=0.0433), although after necrosis took place there was no significant difference in necrosis size. (p=0.1051 and p=0.2799). Minoxidil sulfate is effective in avoiding necrosis in ischemic flaps, but after necrosis is present there is no difference in survival area between experimental and control groups.
Özalp, Burhan; Aydınol, Mustafa
Perforator-based propeller flaps provide adequate soft tissue coverage for leg reconstruction. The aim of this study was to assess the versatility and reliability of the use of propeller flaps for leg reconstruction in pediatric patients. Seven male pediatric patients ranging in age from 2 to 13 years with a mean age of 6.7 underwent perforator-based propeller flap surgery over a four-year period. The defects resulted from burn injuries (n = 4) and traffic accidents (n = 3). The injuries were located on the ankles of four patients and on the knee, anterior lower tibia, and foot dorsum of the other three patients, respectively. The flap sizes ranged from 5 × 3 to 10 × 6 cm with a mean flap size of 7.6 × 4.3 cm. Flap harvesting time ranged from 38 to 56 m with a mean of 46 m. The rotation degree range of the flaps was from 90° to 180°. The propeller flaps were based on the posterior tibial artery (n = 4), anterior tibial artery (n = 2), and the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery (n = 1). All flaps survived completely without surgical complication; however, one patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome two days post-surgery and died within four days. Perforator-based propeller flap reconstruction is a safe, reliable, and versatile method for lower extremities in pediatric patients; however, it requires meticulous surgical dissection and extreme patience during the surgical procedure. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ju, Jihui; Li, Lei; Zhou, Rong; Hou, Ruixing
To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (stage I) combined with iliac bone flap (stage II) in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the lower extremity. Clinical data of 18 patients undergoing latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in combination with iliac bone flap grafting were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 2 patients developed chronic osteomyelitis of the lower segment of the femur, 4 were diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis of the tibial plateau, and 12 with chronic osteomyelitis of the lower segment of the tibia. All the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps survived in 18 patients. After the corresponding surgery, primary wound healing was achieved in 11 patients, and delayed wound healing was obtained in 7 cases. All wounds were completely healed with postoperative 2 months. Following the iliac bone flap grafting, primary would healing was accomplished in all cases. All dorsal window chambers survived. The bone defects were properly restored within 4-12 postoperative months. Functional training was performed after removal of the internal and external fixators. Postoperative follow-up was endured from 6 months to 10 years. All patients were satisfied with the bone healing and flap texture without the incidence of osteomyelitis and sinus tract. No contraction was observed in the grafting area of 2 patients receiving latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap grafting. Residual linear scars were noted in the dorsal and iliac donor sites. Combined usage of stage I latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and stage II iliac bone flap grafting is an efficacious and safe surgical technique in clinical practice.
Before attempting to construct a human-powered aircraft, the aviator will first try to post himself theoretically on the possible method of operating the flapping wings. This report will present a graphic and mathematical method, which renders it possible to determine the power required, so far as it can be done on the basis of the wing dimensions. We will first consider the form of the flight path through the air. The simplest form is probably the curve of ordinary wave motion. After finding the flight curve, we must next determine the change in the angle of attack while passing through the different phases of the wave.
Unal, Cigdem; Ozdemir, Jale; Yirmibesoglu, Oktay; Yucel, Ergin; Agir, Hakan
Reconstructive surgery for ischial pressure sore defects presents a challenge because of high rates of recurrence. The aim of this study was to describe the use of inferior gluteal artery (IGA) and posterior thigh perforators in management of ischial pressure sores with limited donor sites. Between September 2005 and 2009, 11 patients (9 male, 2 female) with ischial sores were operated by using IGA and posterior thigh perforator flaps. The data of patients included age, sex, cause of paraplegia, flap size, perforator of flap, previous surgeries, recurrences, complications, and postoperative follow-up. Nine IGA and 5 posterior thigh perforator flaps were used. Six patients presented with recurrent lesions, 5 patients were operated for sacral and contralateral ischial pressure sores previously. In 2 patients, IGA and posterior thigh perforator flaps were used in combination. Patients were followed for an average of 34.3 months. In 2 recurrent cases, readvancement of IGA perforator flap and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap were treatment of choice. Treatment of patients with recurrent lesions or multiple pressure sores is challenging because of limited available flap donor sites. In this study, posterior thigh perforator flaps were preferred in patients in whom the previous donor site was the gluteal region. IGA perforator flaps were the treatment of choice in patients for whom posterior thigh region was previously used. Alternately, preserved perforators of previous conventional myocutaneous flaps enabled us to use these perforators in recurrences.
Moreno-Artero, E; Redondo, P
A large number of flaps, particularly rotation and transposition flaps, have been described for the closure of skin defects left by oncologic surgery of the nose. The logarithmic spiral flap is a variant of the rotation flap. We present a series of 15 patients with different types of skin tumor on the nose. The skin defect resulting from excision of the tumor by micrographic surgery was reconstructed using various forms of the logarithmic spiral flap. There are 3 essential aspects to flap design: commencement of the pedicle at the upper or lower border of the wound, a width of the distal end of the flap equal to the vertical diameter of the defect, and a progressive increase in the radius of the spiral from the distal end of the flap to its base. The cosmetic and functional results of surgical reconstruction were satisfactory, and no patient required additional treatment to improve scar appearance. The logarithmic spiral flap is useful for the closure of circular or oval defects situated on the lateral surface of the nose and nasal ala. The flap initiates at one of the borders of the wound as a pedicle with a radius that increases progressively to create a spiral. We propose the logarithmic spiral flap as an excellent option for the closure of circular or oval defects of the nose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Sisti, Andrea; D'Aniello, Carlo; Fortezza, Leonardo; Tassinari, Juri; Cuomo, Roberto; Grimaldi, Luca; Nisi, Giuseppe
Since their introduction in 1991, propeller flaps are increasingly used as a surgical approach to loss of substance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications and to verify the outcomes and the complication rates using this reconstructing technique through a literature review. A search on PubMed was performed using "propeller flap", "fasciocutaneous flap", "local flap" or "pedicled flap" as key words. We selected clinical studies using propeller flaps as a reconstructing technique. We found 119 studies from 1991 to 2015. Overall, 1,315 propeller flaps were reported in 1,242 patients. Most frequent indications included loss of substance following tumor excision, repair of trauma-induced injuries, burn scar contractures, pressure sores and chronic infections. Complications were observed in 281/1242 patients (22.6%) occurring more frequently in the lower limbs (31.8%). Partial flap necrosis and venous congestion were the most frequent complications. The complications' rate was significantly higher in infants (<10 years old) and in the older population (>70 years old) but there was not a significant difference between the sexes. Trend of complication rate has not improved during the last years. Propeller flaps showed a great success rate with low morbidity, quick recovery, good aesthetic outcomes and reduced cost. The quality and volume of the transferred soft tissue, the scar orientation and the possibility of direct donor site closure should be considered in order to avoid complications. Indications for propeller flaps are small- or medium-sized defects located in a well-vascularized area with healthy surrounding tissues. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Barger, James; Siow, Matthew; Kader, Michael; Phillips, Katherine; Fatterpekar, Girish; Kleinberg, David; Zagzag, David; Sen, Chandranath; Golfinos, John G.; Lebowitz, Richard; Placantonakis, Dimitris G.
Background: While effective for the repair of large skull base defects, the Hadad-Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap increases operative time and can result in a several-week period of postoperative crusting during re-mucosalization of the denuded nasal septum. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma resection is generally not associated with large dural defects and high-flow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks requiring extensive reconstruction. Here, we present the posterior nasoseptal flap as a novel technique for closure of skull defects following endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas. This flap is raised in all surgeries during the transnasal exposure using septal mucoperiosteum that would otherwise be discarded during the posterior septectomy performed in binostril approaches. Methods: We present a retrospective, consecutive case series of 43 patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma followed by posterior nasoseptal flap placement and closure. Main outcome measures were extent of resection and postoperative CSF leak. Results: The mean extent of resection was 97.16 ± 1.03%. Radiographic measurement showed flap length to be adequate. While a defect in the diaphragma sellae and CSF leak were identified in 21 patients during surgery, postoperative CSF leak occurred in only one patient. Conclusions: The posterior nasoseptal flap provides adequate coverage of the surgical defect and is nearly always successful in preventing postoperative CSF leak following endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas. The flap is raised from mucoperiosteum lining the posterior nasal septum, which is otherwise resected during posterior septectomy. Because the anterior septal cartilage is not denuded, raising such flaps avoids the postoperative morbidity associated with the larger Hadad-Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. PMID:29527390
Talamo, Jonathan H; Meltzer, Jeremy; Gardner, John
To compare flap thickness reproducibility of the femtosecond laser and two mechanical microkeratomes. Flap thickness for all eyes was measured as the difference between the preoperative (day of surgery) full corneal thickness and post-flap creation central stromal bed thickness using ultrasonic pachymetry. Flap thickness values produced by three different microkeratome systems were compared for accuracy and reproducibility. For 99 flaps created using the IntraLase FS laser with an intended thickness of 110 microm, the mean achieved thickness was 119 +/- 12 microm (range: 82 to 149 microm). In 100 eyes treated with the Moria LSK-1 microkeratome with an intended flap thickness of 160 microm, the mean achieved thickness was 130 +/- 19 microm (range: 71 to 186 microm). In 135 eyes treated with the Moria M2 microkeratome with an intended flap thickness of 130 microm, mean thickness was 142 +/- 24 microm (range: 84 to 203 microm). The standard deviation and range of corneal flap thickness created with the IntraLase FS laser was significantly smaller than either mechanical microkeratome (P < .0001). When compared to two commonly used mechanical microkeratomes, mean achieved flap thickness was more reproducible with the IntraLase FS laser, reducing the comparative risk of overly thick flaps.
Herle, Pradyumna; Shukla, Lipi; Morrison, Wayne A; Shayan, Ramin
There is a general consensus among reconstructive surgeons that preoperative radiotherapy is associated with a higher risk of flap failure and complications in head and neck surgery. Opinion is also divided regarding the effects of radiation dose on free flap outcomes and timing of preoperative radiation to minimize adverse outcomes. Our meta-analysis will attempt to address these issues. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in concordance to PRISMA protocol. Data were combined using STATA 12 and Open Meta-Analyst software programmes. Twenty-four studies were included comparing 2842 flaps performed in irradiated fields and 3491 flaps performed in non-irradiated fields. Meta-analysis yielded statistically significant risk ratios for flap failure (RR 1.48, P = 0.004), complications (RR 1.84, P < 0.001), reoperation (RR 2.06, P < 0.001) and fistula (RR 2.05, P < 0.001). Mean radiation dose demonstrated a trend towards increased risk of flap failure, but this was not statistically significant. On subgroup analysis, flaps with >60 Gy radiation had a non-statistically significant higher risk of flap failure (RR 1.61, P = 0.145). Preoperative radiation is associated with a statistically significant increased risk of flap complications, failure and fistula. Preoperative radiation in excess of 60 Gy after radiotherapy represents a potential risk factor for increased flap loss and should be avoided where possible. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Şen, Hilmi; Oruç, Melike; Işik, Veysel Murat; Sadiç, Murat; Sayar, Hamide; Çitil, Rana; Korkmaz, Meliha; Koçer, Uğur
Necrosis of random pattern flaps caused by inadequate blood flow, especially in the distal part of the flap is one of the biggest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Various agents have been used to prevent flap ischemia. In this study, we used omeprazole, which is a potent inhibitor of gastric acidity to increase flap viability. In this study, 35 Wistar-Albino type rats which were divided into 5 equal groups were used. Random-pattern dorsal skin flaps were raised in all groups at seventh day of the study. Group 1 was accepted as control group, and the rats in this group was only given distilled water intraperitoneally for 14 days. Group 2 and group 3 received 10 and 40 mg/kg omeprazole daily for 14 days, respectively. Group 4 and group 5 were given distilled water for the first 7 days and then after the operations they received 10 and 40 mg/kg omeprazole daily for 7 days, respectively. Survival rates of the flaps were examined seventh day after elevation of the flaps by digital imaging and scintigraphy. After assessment of the amount of necrosis, number of vascular structures were counted histopathologically. Percentage of flap necrosis was found to be less in all omeprazole received groups. On digital imaging, percentages of flap necrosis in the study groups were statistically significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the study groups (P > 0.05).In the histopathologic specimens, it was detected that the mean number of vessels in proximal (a) and distal (c) portions of the flap in the study groups showed a significant increase when compared with the control group (P < 0.01 for groups 2, 4 and 5, and P < 0.05 for group 3). In conclusion, possible clinical usage of medications increasing gastrin during flap surgeries can be thought as a positive contributor. In this sense, this study showed that parenteral administration of omeprazole in skin flap surgery increases flap viability possibly by
Obregón, L; Ruiz-Castilla, M; Binimelis, M M; Guinot, A; García, V; Puig, O; Barret, J P
Lumbar hernia is an unusual complication of the latissimus dorsi flap. Traditionally, it has always been repaired using open-surgery techniques. We present the first description of laparoscopic surgery to treat a non-complicated superior lumbar hernia resulting from the creation of an enlarged latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction following left modified radical mastectomy. The laparoscopic approach substantially reduced the risks associated with open surgery, shortened length of hospital stay and time to recovery and obtained better cosmetic results. Laparoscopic surgery may be considered as a feasible therapeutic option for non-complicated superior lumbar hernias secondary to a latissimus dorsi muscle flap. Therapeutic, V. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sa, Young Jo; Kim, Young Du; Kim, Chi Kyung; Park, Jong Kyung; Moon, Seok Whan
A 53-year-old male developed cervical esophageal stenosis after esophageal bypass surgery using a right colon conduit. The esophageal bypass surgery was performed to treat multiple esophageal strictures resulting from corrosive ingestion three years prior to presentation. Although the patient underwent several endoscopic stricture dilatations after surgery, he continued to suffer from recurrent esophageal stenosis. We planned cervical patch esophagoplasty with a pedicled skin flap of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. Postoperative recovery was successful, and the patient could eat a solid meal without difficulty and has been well for 18 mo. SCM flap esophagoplasty is an easier and safer method of managing complicated and recurrent cervical esophageal strictures than other operations.
Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei
There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.
Assessment of the periodontium has relied exclusively on a variety of physical measurements (e.g., attachment level, probing depth, bone loss, mobility, recession, degree of inflammation, etc.) in relation to various case definitions of periodontal disease. Periodontal health was often an afterthought and was simply defined as the absence of the signs and symptoms of a periodontal disease. Accordingly, these strict and sometimes disparate definitions of periodontal disease have resulted in an idealistic requirement of a pristine periodontium for periodontal health, which makes us all diseased in one way or another. Furthermore, the consequence of not having a realistic definition of health has resulted in potentially questionable recommendations. The aim of this manuscript was to assess the biological, environmental, sociological, economic, educational and psychological relationships that are germane to constructing a paradigm that defines periodontal health using a modified wellness model. The paradigm includes four cardinal characteristics, i.e., 1) a functional dentition, 2) the painless function of a dentition, 3) the stability of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and 4) the psychological and social well-being of the individual. Finally, strategies and policies that advocate periodontal health were appraised. I'm not sick but I'm not well, and it's a sin to live so well. Flagpole Sitta, Harvey Danger PMID:26390888
Azouz, Solomon M; Castel, Nikki A; Vijayasekaran, Aparna; Rebecca, Alanna M; Lettieri, Salvatore C
Early soft-tissue coverage is critical for treating traumatic open lower-extremity wounds. As free-flap reconstruction evolves, injuries once thought to be nonreconstructable are being salvaged. Free-tissue transfer is imperative when there is extensive dead space or exposure of vital structures such as bone, tendon, nerves, or blood vessels. We describe 2 cases of lower-extremity crush injuries salvaged with the quad flap. This novel flap consists of parascapular, scapular, serratus, and latissimus dorsi free flaps in combination on one pedicle. This flap provides the large amount of soft-tissue coverage necessary to cover substantial defects from skin degloving, tibia and fibula fractures, and soft-tissue loss. In case 1, a 51-year-old woman was struck by an automobile and sustained bilateral tibia and fibula fractures, a crush degloving injury of the left leg, and a right forefoot traumatic amputation. She underwent reconstruction with a contralateral quad free flap. In case 2, a 53-year-old man sustained a right tibia plateau fracture with large soft-tissue defects from a motorcycle accident. He had a crush degloving injury of the entire anterolateral compartment over the distal and lower third of the right leg. The large soft-tissue defect was reconstructed with a contralateral quad flap. In both cases, the donor site was closed primarily and without early flap failures. There was one surgical complication, an abscess in case 2; the patient was taken back to the operating room for débridement of necrotic tissue. There have been no long-term complications in either case. Both patients achieved adequate soft-tissue coverage, avoided amputation, and had satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes. With appropriate surgical technique and patient selection, the quad-flap technique is promising for reconstructing the lower extremity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ebrahiem, Ahmed Ali; Manas, Raj Kumar
Background: Reconstruction of soft-tissue defects in lower third of leg, ankle, and foot has been a challenge and reconstructive surgeons have been trying to innovate different flaps. To solve this issue, we propose a distally based sural artery peroneus flap (DBSPF) in which we include superficial portion of the peroneus brevis muscle and its blood supply with the peroneal artery distally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and its usefulness over conventional distal sural artery flap or other local options available. Methods: This is a case series of 20 patients that include a DBSPF that was done for defects around ankle, distal leg, and foot caused by trauma or tumor ablation within the period of June 2013 to March 2015 in Kasralainy Hospital, Cairo. All cases were evaluated according to flap vascularity, distal reach of flap, aesthetic outcome, and donor-site morbidity. Results: All flaps survived. One flap developed venous congestion that subsided spontaneously with limb elevation. The flap dimension ranged from 42 cm to 442 cm2, and it reached the midfoot easily. The pivot point was kept as low as 2–6 cm from lateral malleolus according to location of perforators. The ankle stability was maintained, and the desired aesthetic outcome was achieved. Conclusions: The DBSPF is an addition to the armamentarium in plastic surgery for defects around ankle, distal leg, and foot. It is an easy and swift procedure as compared with complex microsurgical reconstruction. PMID:28507850
Rozen, Warren M; Chubb, Daniel; Ashton, Mark W; Webster, Howard R
The use of advanced imaging technologies such as computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has opened the door to the analysis of microvascular anatomy not previously demonstrable with prior imaging techniques. While CTA has been used to evaluate the vascular anatomy of donor body regions in the planning of harvest of tissue for free flap transfer, the use of CTA to evaluate tissues after tissue transplantation has not been demonstrated. The current study aimed to explore whether vascular anatomy was able to highlight CTA within transferred flaps. The arterial and venous anatomy of a transferred deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator (DIEP) flap was explored postoperatively with the use of CTA. Intra-flap vasculature was mapped and recorded qualitatively. Postoperative CTA is able to highlight the vascular pedicle of a transferred free flap, highlight the course of individual perforators supplying the flap, and map the zones of lesser perfusion by the source pedicle. The current study has demonstrated that CTA may be of value in identifying vascular anatomy within transferred tissue, as a guide to evaluate flap perfusion and planning further surgery involving the flap. © Springer-Verlag 2011
Marsh, D; Sabbagh, W; Gault, D
Cryptotia is a congenital ear deformity in which the upper pole appears buried beneath mastoid skin. Here we describe our method of cryptotia correction which we have used to good effect with minimal complications. 20 patients and 24 ears were operated on. All surgery was performed by the senior authors WS and DG. Patient age range was 4-19 years and mean follow up was 2.1 years. We use a superiorly based V-shaped flap raised from the post-auricular skin. Following ear release, the flap is rotated into the defect and donor site closed directly. Our technique ensures all scars are hidden behind the ear, there are no skin grafts required. All patients had a satisfactory release of cryptotia, there were no cases of partial or total flap failure, none of wound dehiscence and no patients required revisional surgery. The post-auricular flap is a simple technique, retaining the depth of the auriculotemporal sulcus, providing a good skin colour match without the need for skin grafting and without distorting the hair line. Our results are comparable or superior to those seen with other techniques previously described. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Shu; Liang, Weizhong; Song, Kexin; Wang, Youbin
Facial keloids commonly occur in young patients. Multiple keloid masses often converge into a large lesion on the face, representing a significant obstacle to keloid mass excision and reconstruction. We describe a new surgical method that excises the keloid mass and resurfaces the wound by saving the keloid skin as a skin flap during facial keloid treatment. Forty-five patients with facial keloids were treated in our department between January 2013 and January 2016. Multiple incisions were made along the facial esthetic line on the keloid mass. The keloid skin was dissected and elevated as a skin flap with one or two pedicles. The scar tissue in the keloid was then removed through the incision. The wound was covered with the preserved keloid skin flap and closed without tension. Radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen were applied after surgery. Patients underwent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after surgery. Of the 45 total patients, 32 patients were cured and seven patients were partially cured. The efficacy rate was 88.9%, and 38 patients (84.4%) were satisfied with the esthetic result. We describe an efficacious and esthetically satisfactory surgical method for managing facial keloids by preserving the keloid skin as a skin flap. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Wadia, Reena; Ide, Mark
Diagnosing and managing periodontal emergencies is a common part of general dental practice. This article summarises the presentation, aetiology and management of the key periodontal emergencies, including gingival abscess, periodontal abscess, peri-coronitis/peri-coronal abscess, perio-endo lesion/ abscess, necrotising gingivitis and periodontitis, acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, acute physical/chemical/thermal injury and subgingival root fracture.
Zavarella, Matthew M; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Claman, Lewis J; Tatakis, Dimitris N
The central and peripheral nervous systems participate in several local physiological and pathological processes. There is experimental evidence that the inflammatory, local immune, and wound healing responses of a tissue can be modulated by its innervation. The aim of this clinical report is to present a case of unilateral severe periodontitis associated with ipsilateral surgical resection of the fifth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves and to discuss the possible contribution of the nervous system to periodontal pathogenesis. A 39-year-old female patient with a history of a cerebrovascular accident caused by a right pontine arteriovenous malformation and destruction of the right fifth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves was diagnosed with severe chronic periodontitis affecting only the right maxillary and mandibular quadrants. The patient's oral hygiene was similar for right and left sides of the mouth. Percentages of tooth surfaces carrying dental plaque were 41% and 36% for right and left sides, respectively. Non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy was performed, and the patient was placed on a regular periodontal maintenance schedule. Healing following initial periodontal therapy and osseous periodontal surgery occurred without complications. Follow-up clinical findings at 1 year revealed stable periodontal health. This case report suggests that periodontal innervation may contribute to the regulation of local processes involved in periodontitis pathogenesis. It also suggests that periodontal therapy can be performed successfully at sites and in patients affected by paralysis.
Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.
Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.
Zhang, Dongmei; Lin, Li; Tang, Xiaoling; Li, Chen; Liu, Jingbo; Wang, Hongyang; Pan, Yaping
Multidisciplinary therapy is essential in dental practice to achieve optimized outcomes. The present case report describes the application of periodontal surgery with a five-year follow-up in a patient with malocclusion and chronic periodontitis. In the presence of periodontal inflammation, orthodontic therapy may result in further periodontal breakdown due to plaque accumulation. In order to prevent this progression, scaling and root planning with a periodontal endoscope was applied, and continuous clinical monitoring and risk assessment was performed every 3 months using a Florida Probe. This combined treatment supports the long-term maintenance of periodontal conditions, functional occlusion and harmony of the facial profile.
Candiani, P; Campiglio, G L; Ceresoli, A; Zanetti, G; Colombo, F; Canclini, L; Austoni, E
This paper describes the case of a recurrent post-partum urethrovaginal fistula. The extent of the vaginal tissues loss and the perilesional scarring made the direct closure of the defect non practicable. After suturing the urethra, the anterior vaginal wall was reconstructed with an island bulbocavernous musculocutaneous flap raised from the left labium majus. Nineteen months after surgery the flap healed well without peri urethral suffusion.
He, Yue; Zhu, Han Guang; Zhang, Zhi Yuan; He, Jie; Sader, Robert
A total maxillectomy always causes composite defects of maxilla, zygomatic bone, orbital floor or rim, and palatal and nasal mucosa lining. This leads to significant functional and cosmetic consequences after ablative surgery. The purpose of this clinical study was to preliminarily 3-dimensionally reconstruct the defect of total maxillectomy with sufficient bone support and soft tissue lining. Three-dimensional model simulation technique and free fibula osteomyocutaneous flap flow-through from radial forearm flap were used to reconstruct a total maxillectomy defect for a 21-year-old female patient. Preoperatively, the 3-dimensional (3D) simulated resin models of skeleton and fibula were used to design the osteotomies and bone segment replacement. At surgery, a 22-cm-length free fibula was divided into 4 segments to make 1 maxilla skeletal framework in the schedule of the preoperative model surgical planning with a radial forearm flap flow-through for the free fibula flap with skin paddle to repair the palatal and nasal region. Free fibula and radial forearm flap were alive, and the patient was satisfied with the results both esthetically and functionally after dental rehabilitation which was carried out 6 months after surgery. This preliminarily clinical study and case demonstrated that: the fibula osteomyocutaneous flap is an ideal donor site in 3D total maxillectomy defect reconstruction, because of its thickness, length, and bone uniformity which makes ideal support for dental rehabilitation; the flow-through forearm radial flap not only serves as the vascular bridge to midface reconstruction, but also provides sufficient soft tissue cover for the intraoral defect; and the 3D model simulation and preoperative surgical planning are effective methods to refine reconstruction surgery, shorten the surgical time, and predict the outcome after operation.
The Effect of Systemic Delivery of Aminoguanidine versus Doxycycline on the Resorptive Phase of Alveolar Bone Following modified Widman Flap in Diabetic Rats: A Histopathological and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study.
Tella, E; Aldahlawi, S; Eldeeb, A; El Gazaerly, H
Aminoguanidine (guanylhydrazinehydrochloride) is a drug that prevents many of the classical systemic complications of diabetes including diabetic osteopenia through its inhibitory activity on the accumulation of advanced glycation end -products (AGEs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of aminoguanidine versus doxycycline in reducing alveolar bone resorption following mucoperiosteal flap in diabetic rats, using the conventional histopathology and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Twenty-seven male albino rats were used in this study. Periodontal defects were induced experimentally on lower anterior teeth. All rats were subjected to induction of diabetes, by IV injection of the pancreatic B-cells toxin alloxan monohydrate. After eight weeks following the establishment of periodontal defects in all rats, the ligation was removed and 3 rats were scarified as negative control (group 1). The remaining animals were divided into three group based on treatment applied following mucoperiosteal flap surgery. Group 2 received saline treatment only, group 3 received doxycycline periostat (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks, and group 4 received aminoguanidine (7.3 mmol/kg) for 3 weeks. The fasting glucose level was measured weekly post operatively. After 21 days all rats were sacrificed. Three anterior parts of the mandible of each group was prepared for histopathological examination and two parts were prepared for SEM. Aminoguanidine treated group (group 4) showed statistically significant increased new bone formation, higher number of osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts number, resorptive lacunae and existing inflammatory cell infiltration as compared to positive control group (group 2) (P<0.05). Doxycycline was also effective in reducing bone loss as documental by histopathological study. The present study showed that aminoguanidine was significantly effective in reducing alveolar bone loss and can modify the detrimental effects of diabetes in
Canapp, S O; Mann, F A; Henry, C J; Lattimer, J C
A latissimus dorsi muscle flap was used to reconstruct a proximal scapular defect in a cat after excision of a fibrosarcoma that had recurred after eight surgeries, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. To obtain appropriate surgical margins, infraspinatus and supraspinatus myectomy and scapular spinous ostectomy were performed. The latissimus dorsi muscle flap was rotated into the defect and anchored to four holes placed in the cranial border of the scapula. The cat showed no lameness at 6, 21, 42, and 147 days after surgery. The latissimus dorsi muscle flap was successful for proximal scapular reconstruction in this cat.
Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Ajami, Marjan; Reyhanfard, Hamed; Asadi, Yasin; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Rashighi Firoozabadi, Mehdi; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Habibi, Esmaeil; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza
Despite all modern surgical techniques, skin flap that is considered as the main method in most reconstructive surgeries puts the skin tissue at danger of necrosis and apoptosis derived from ischemia. Therefore, finding a treatment for decreasing the apoptosis derived from flap ischemia will be useful in clinic. In present study, we evaluated the effect of azelaic acid 20% and finasteride on expression of BCL-2 and bax proteins after the skin flap surgery. For this purpose, 21 rats were entered in three groups including control, azelaic acid 20% and finasteride, all experienced skin flap surgery and then flap tissue was assessed for determining the expression of proteins in 5 slices prepared from each rat that were graded between - to +++ scales. Both azelaic acid and finasteride increased the expression of BCL-2 protein (p < 0.05) and decrease the expression of bax protein (p < 0.05). These results suggested an antiapoptotic role for finasteride and azelaic acid in preserving the flap after the ischemia reperfusion insult.
Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Ajami, Marjan; Reyhanfard, Hamed; Asadi, Yasin; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Rashighi Firoozabadi, Mehdi; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Habibi, Esmaeil; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza
Despite all modern surgical techniques, skin flap that is considered as the main method in most reconstructive surgeries puts the skin tissue at danger of necrosis and apoptosis derived from ischemia. Therefore, finding a treatment for decreasing the apoptosis derived from flap ischemia will be useful in clinic. In present study, we evaluated the effect of azelaic acid 20% and finasteride on expression of BCL-2 and bax proteins after the skin flap surgery. For this purpose, 21 rats were entered in three groups including control, azelaic acid 20% and finasteride, all experienced skin flap surgery and then flap tissue was assessed for determining the expression of proteins in 5 slices prepared from each rat that were graded between – to +++ scales. Both azelaic acid and finasteride increased the expression of BCL-2 protein (p < 0.05) and decrease the expression of bax protein (p < 0.05). These results suggested an antiapoptotic role for finasteride and azelaic acid in preserving the flap after the ischemia reperfusion insult. PMID:24250563
Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)
A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.
Lester, S; Pratschke, K
A 2-year-old, neutered male domestic short hair cat presented with a large mass involving the right upper lip and underlying gingiva. A previous attempt at mass excision had failed, and the histopathological diagnosis was reported to be a fibrosarcoma. The cat was otherwise in good health.A central hemimaxillectomy was performed with extensive soft-tissue dissection and maxillofacial reconstruction achieved using an axial pattern flap based on the superficial temporal artery. This is the first reported clinical case of the use of the superficial temporal artery axial pattern flap in the cat. Histopathology identified a periodontal fibromatous epulis.
To create a deep web, a flap must be designed to have a high elongation effect in one direction along the mid-lateral line of the finger and also to have a shortening effect in the other direction, crossing at a right angle to the mid-lateral line. The dancing girl flap is a modification of a four-flap Z-plasty with two additional Z-plasties. It has a high elongation effect in one direction (>550%) and a shortening effect in the other direction at a right angle (<33%), creating a deep, U-shaped surface. This new flap can be used to release severe scar contracture with a web, and is most suitable for incomplete syndactyly with webs as high as the proximal interphalangeal joint.
Chen, Fa-Ming; Gao, Li-Na; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Dong, Guang-Ying; Lu, Hong; Chu, Qing; Xu, Jie; Yu, Yang; Wu, Rui-Xin; Yin, Yuan; Shi, Songtao; Jin, Yan
Periodontitis, which progressively destroys tooth-supporting structures, is one of the most widespread infectious diseases and the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Evidence from preclinical trials and small-scale pilot clinical studies indicates that stem cells derived from periodontal ligament tissues are a promising therapy for the regeneration of lost/damaged periodontal tissue. This study assessed the safety and feasibility of using autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) as an adjuvant to grafting materials in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) to treat periodontal intrabony defects. Our data provide primary clinical evidence for the efficacy of cell transplantation in regenerative dentistry. We conducted a single-center, randomized trial that used autologous PDLSCs in combination with bovine-derived bone mineral materials to treat periodontal intrabony defects. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned to either the Cell group (treatment with GTR and PDLSC sheets in combination with Bio-oss(®)) or the Control group (treatment with GTR and Bio-oss(®) without stem cells). During a 12-month follow-up study, we evaluated the frequency and extent of adverse events. For the assessment of treatment efficacy, the primary outcome was based on the magnitude of alveolar bone regeneration following the surgical procedure. A total of 30 periodontitis patients aged 18 to 65 years (48 testing teeth with periodontal intrabony defects) who satisfied our inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the Cell group or the Control group. A total of 21 teeth were treated in the Control group and 20 teeth were treated in the Cell group. All patients received surgery and a clinical evaluation. No clinical safety problems that could be attributed to the investigational PDLSCs were identified. Each group showed a significant increase in the alveolar bone height (decrease in the bone-defect depth) over time (p < 0.001). However
Ghezzi, Carlo; Virzì, Mauro; Schupbach, Peter; Broccaioli, Alessandro; Simion, Massimo
The aim of this case report is to histologically evaluate periapical healing after combined endodontic-periodontic treatment. A maxillary left central incisor was treated with conventional endodontic therapy, followed by periodontal surgery. The facial bony defect was filled with a mixture of autologous bone and Bio-Oss. A resorbable membrane was used. Histology showed the presence of new cementum, ligament, and bone around the apex of the treated tooth. This finding was clinically associated with minimal residual probing depth and maximum attachment gain. This histologic report demonstrates the possibility of true regeneration in a case of severe periodontal attachment loss resulting from an endodontic-periodontic lesion.
Bagheri, Reza; Tashnizi, Mohammad Abbasi; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Salehi, Maryam; Rajabnejad, Ata'ollah; Safa, Mohsen Hatami Ghale; Vejdani, Mohammad
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic results and safety of pectoralis major muscle turnover flaps in the treatment of mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures. Data regarding 33 patients with post-CABG deep sternal wound infections (DSWIs) who underwent pectoralis major muscle turnover flap procedures in the Emam Reza and Ghaem Hospitals of Mashhad, Iran were reviewed in this study. For each patient, age, sex, hospital stay duration, remission, recurrence, and associated morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Of the 2,447 CABG procedures that were carried out during the time period encompassed by our study, DSWIs occurred in 61 patients (2.5%). Of these 61 patients, 33 patients (nine females [27.3%] and 24 males [72.7%]) with an average age of 63±4.54 years underwent pectoralis major muscle turnover flap placement. Symptoms of infection mainly occurred within the first 10 days after surgery (mean, 10.24±13.62 days). The most common risk factor for DSWIs was obesity (n=16, 48.4%) followed by diabetes mellitus (n=13, 39.4%). Bilateral and unilateral pectoralis major muscle turnover flaps were performed in 20 patients (60.6%) and 13 patients (39.4%), respectively. Complete remission was achieved in 25 patients (75.7%), with no recurrence in the follow-up period. Four patients (12.1%) needed reoperation. The mean hospitalization time was 11.69±6.516 days. Four patients (12.1%) died during the course of the study: three due to the postoperative complication of respiratory failure and one due to pulmonary thromboembolism. Pectoralis major muscle turnover flaps are an optimal technique in the treatment of post-CABG mediastinitis. In addition to leading to favorable therapeutic results, this flap is associated with minimal morbidity and mortality, as well as a short hospitalization time.
Azadgoli, Beina; Leland, Hyuma A; Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Russin, Jonathan J; Carey, Joseph N
Extracranial-intracranial bypass is indicated in ischemic disease such as moyamoya, certain intracranial aneurysms, and other complex neurovascular diseases. In this article, we present our series of local and flow-through flaps for cerebral revascularization as an additional tool to provide direct and indirect revascularization and/or soft tissue coverage. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed identifying nine patients. Ten direct arterial bypass procedures with nine indirect revascularization and/or soft tissue reconstruction were performed. Indications for arterial bypass included intracranial aneurysm ( n = 2) and moyamoya disease ( n = 8). Indications for soft tissue transfer included infected cranioplasty (one) and indirect cerebral revascularization (eight). Four flow-through flaps and five pedicled flaps were used including a flow-through radial forearm fasciocutaneous flap (one), flow-through radial forearm fascial flaps (three), and pedicled temporoparietal fascial (TPF) flaps with distal end anastomosis (five). The superficial temporal vessels (seven) and facial vessels (two) were used as the vascular inflow. Arterial bypass was established into the middle cerebral artery (six) and anterior communicating artery (three). There were no intraoperative complications. All flaps survived with no donor-site complications. In one case of flow-through TPF flap, the direct graft failed, but the indirect flap remained vascularized. Local and flow-through flaps can improve combined direct and indirect revascularization and provide soft tissue reconstruction. Minimal morbidity has been encountered in early outcomes though long-term results remain under investigation for these combined neurosurgery and plastic surgery procedures. The level of evidence is IV. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Slump, Jelena; Hofer, Stefan O P; Ferguson, Peter C; Wunder, Jay S; Griffin, Anthony M; Hoekstra, Harald J; Bastiaannet, Esther; O'Neill, Anne C
Flap reconstruction plays an essential role in the surgical management of extremity soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS) for many patients. But flaps increase the duration and complexity of the surgery and their contribution to overall morbidity is unclear. This study directly compares the complication rates in patients with ESTS undergoing either flap reconstruction or primary wound closure and explores contributing factors. Eight hundred and ninety-seven patients who underwent ESTS resection followed by primary closure (631) or flap reconstruction (266) were included in this study. Data on patient, tumour and treatment variables and post-operative medical and surgical complications were collected. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of complications. Post-operative complications occurred in 33% of patients. Flap patients were significantly older, had more advanced disease and were more likely to require neoadjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy. There was no significant difference in complication rates following flap reconstruction compared to primary closure on multivariate analysis (38 vs 30.9% OR 1.12, CI 0.77-1.64, p = 0.53). Pre-operative radiation and distal lower extremity tumour location were significant risk factors in patients who underwent primary wound closure but not in those who had flap reconstruction. Patients with comorbidities, increased BMI and systemic disease were at increased risk of complications following flap reconstruction. Flap reconstruction is not associated with increased post-operative complications following ESTS resection. Flaps may mitigate the effects of some risk factors in selected patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
acute shortening and angulation of the tibia and rotational muscle flap coverage and split thickness skin grafting of the soft tissue defect...is also amenable to split-thickness skin grafting after tissue incorporation.11 In addition to donor site morbidity, free tissue transfer is dependent...necessary soft tissue coverage. In the second stage, after the flap has adequately set and overlying skin graft has full adherence, a Taylor Spatial
Surgical treatment of gingival recession defects aims at obtaining soft tissue coverage of exposed root surfaces and/or augmentation of gingival tissue dimensions. A variety of protocols have been developed to manage these clinical problems. Since one goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the lost attachment apparatus of the tooth, full restoration of defect should be accomplished following mucogingival procedures. This implies regeneration of all periodontal structures, including formation of new cementum with inserting connective tissue fibers, alveolar bone regeneration and recreation of a functional and aesthetic morphology of the mucogingival complex. Animal and human histological studies have shown that healing at gingiva-root interface following pedicle flaps or free soft tissue grafts generally includes a long junctional epithelium with varying amounts of a new connective tissue attachment in the most apical aspect of the covered root surface. Limited bone regeneration has been observed. Adjunctive use of root conditioning agents and cell excluding, wound-stabilizing devices may amplify regenerative outcomes. Changes in the amount of keratinized tissue, which can significantly affect the aesthetic outcome of treatment, have been shown to depend on the interactions among various tissues involved in the healing process and the selected surgical procedure.
Levi, Paul A; Kim, David M; Harsfield, Scott L; Jacobson, Erica R
Regardless of advances in diagnosis and treatment during the past 40 years, the overall 5-year survival rates for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cancers have only slightly improved and remain around 50%. Thus, the early diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma by health care providers are essential in achieving a good prognosis. We report a case of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that presented as a benign endodontic-periodontic lesion with a 7-mm periodontal pocket on tooth #15 in a 40-year-old, non-smoking woman. The subsequent management of the case is also discussed. The study was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Our patient was seen for a comprehensive periodontal examination including a periodontal charting, occlusal analysis, study casts, electronic pulp test for tooth #15, and complete mouth periapical radiographs. As there was a periapical radiolucency, an endodontic consultation was obtained. A periodontal flap surgical procedure was performed on teeth #13 to #15, and as there was bone erosion into the maxillary sinus, a biopsy of the soft tissue was submitted to the local hospital for histological analysis. The biopsied lesion was diagnosed as invasive, moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with focal spindle and clear cell differentiation (grade II to III of IV). Bone invasion was also identified. The treatment of the carcinoma involved a hemimaxillectomy with the removal of the maxillary left posterior teeth. The patient remained free of tumor for 5 years after the initial presentation. Patient education and periodic oral cancer examinations by dental professionals are necessary to reduce diagnostic delay and improve prognosis. This case report emphasizes the important role of dental professionals, especially periodontists and endodontists, of being aware that squamous cell carcinoma may manifest itself clinically and/or radiographically as a common periodontal or endodontic lesion.
Tan, Qian; Zhou, Hong-Reng; Wang, Shu-Qin; Zheng, Dong-Feng; Xu, Peng; Wu, Jie; Ge, Hua-Qiang; Lin, Yue; Yan, Xin
To investigate the aesthetic effect of wound repair with flaps. One thousand nine hundred and ninety-six patients with 2082 wounds hospitalized from January 2004 to December 2011. These wounds included 503 deep burn wounds, 268 pressure sores, 392 soft tissue defects caused by trauma, 479 soft tissue defects due to resection of skin cancer and mole removal, 314 soft tissue defects caused by scar excision, and 126 other wounds. Wound area ranged from 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm to 30.0 cm x 22.0 cm. Sliding flaps, expanded flaps, pedicle flaps, and free flaps were used to repair the wounds in accordance with the principle and timing of wound repair with flaps. Five flaps showed venous congestion within 48 hours post-operation, 2 flaps of them improved after local massage. One flap survived after local heparin wet packing and venous bloodletting. One flap survived after emergency surgical embolectomy and bridging with saphenous vein graft. One flap showed partial necrosis and healed after skin grafting. The other flaps survived well. One thousand three hundred and twenty-one patients were followed up for 3 months to 2 years, and flaps of them were satisfactory in shape, color, and elasticity, similar to that of normal skin. Some patients underwent scar revision later with good results. Application of suitable flaps in wound repair will result in quick wound healing, good function recovery, and satisfactory aesthetic effect.
Requicha, João Filipe; Viegas, Carlos Alberto; Muñoz, Fernando; Reis, Rui Luís; Gomes, Manuela Estima
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease which constitutes an important health problem in humans due to its enormous prevalence and life threatening implications on systemic health. Routine standard periodontal treatments include gingival flaps, root planning, application of growth/differentiation factors or filler materials and guided tissue regeneration. However, these treatments have come short on achieving regeneration ad integrum of the periodontium, mainly due to the presence of tissues from different embryonic origins and their complex interactions along the regenerative process. Tissue engineering (TE) aims to regenerate damaged tissue by providing the repair site with a suitable scaffold seeded with sufficient undifferentiated cells and, thus, constitutes a valuable alternative to current therapies for the treatment of periodontal defects. Stem cells from oral and dental origin are known to have potential to regenerate these tissues. Nevertheless, harvesting cells from these sites implies a significant local tissue morbidity and low cell yield, as compared to other anatomical sources of adult multipotent stem cells. This manuscript reviews studies describing the use of non-oral stem cells in tissue engineering strategies, highlighting the importance and potential of these alternative stem cells sources in the development of advanced therapies for periodontal regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schaverien, Mark V; Dean, Riley A; Myers, Jeffrey N; Fang, Lin; Largo, Rene D; Yu, Peirong
For organ transplant recipients, cancer secondary to immunosuppressive therapy threatens long-term survival. The associated multiple comorbidities make major free flap reconstruction following cancer surgery a complicated event. This study evaluates the outcomes of free flap reconstruction in this population. A retrospective chart review of all head and neck free flap cases in patients with a history of organ transplantation receiving systemic immunosuppressive therapy between 2005 and 2017 at a single-institution was conducted. Of 57 organ transplant patients, 25 patients (28 flaps) were included. Flaps used included the anterolateral thigh (n = 17), radial forearm (n = 4), latissimus dorsi (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), lateral arm (n = 1), and thoracodorsal artery perforator (n = 1) flaps. The most common organ transplant was kidney, then lung, liver, and heart. Mean inpatient stay was 8.2 days (range, 4-28). Complications occurred in 15 patients, with no total or partial flap losses. Major head and neck free flap reconstructive surgery can be performed safely in organ transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Meticulous multidisciplinary care is required to achieve consistently successful outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bartold, P M
Numerous techniques have been tried and tested to regenerate tissues lost to periodontal disease. While there has been some success to date, more work is required to move this to a reliable and clinically predictable procedure. Much of the future success for such treatments will rely largely on our understanding of the biology of both developmental and regenerative processes. Nonetheless, despite the noble goal of periodontal regeneration, the relevance of re-creation of a connective tissue attachment has been questioned. Since formation of a long junctional epithelial attachment to the tooth following a variety of periodontal treatment procedures has been shown to be no more susceptible to further breakdown than a non-diseased site, the question arises as to what purpose do we seek the ultimate outcome of periodontal regeneration? The answer lies in the "fact and fiction" of periodontal regeneration. There is no doubt that the regenerative procedures that have been developed can be shown to be biologically successful at the histological level. Furthermore, the results of periodontal regeneration (particularly guided tissue regeneration) have been stable over the long term (at least up to 10 years). However, the techniques currently under use which show the greatest promise (guided tissue regeneration and growth factors) are still clinically unpredictable because of their highly technique-sensitive nature. In addition, whether the slight clinical improvements offered by these procedures over routine open flap debridement procedures are of cost or patient benefit with regards to improved periodontal health and retention of teeth remains to be established. The next phase in regenerative technologies will undoubtedly involve a deeper understanding of the molecular signaling (both intra- and extra-cellular) and cellular differentiation processes involved in the regenerative processes. So in answer to the question of whether periodontal regeneration is fact or fiction
Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Taşkın, Ümit; Yücebaş, Kadir; Tansuker, Hasan Deniz; Oktay, Mehmet Faruk; Kozanoğlu, Erol; Aydın, Salih
External ear reconstruction is a controversial topic in reconstructive plastic surgery. Here, we prepared a pedicled biosynthetic flap for full-thickness, partial ear defects in rabbits. We operated on six adult female New Zealand rabbits weighing 3-4 kg. The dimensions of the lateral thoracic fasciocutaneous flap were 7 × 6 cm. The flap was elevated based on one of the bilaterally located internal thoracic arteries, which were dissected proximally. The pedicled flap was folded in two, and polypropylene mesh was sandwiched in the middle. The flap was adapted to a defect of 3.5 × 3 cm in diameter. In fact, the defect was created before elevation of the flap. Rabbits were followed up for 4 weeks, at the end of which they were killed and their ears were evaluated histopathologically. The survival rate of the rabbits was 100 %. All pedicled biosynthetic flaps were viable, but one showed partial (20 %) necrosis (1/6) and one was partially detached (1/6). Macroscopic (color, thickness, texture) and histological (polymorphonuclear leukocyte invasion in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and at the junction between the polypropylene mesh and the flap) features of the flap were compared to the ipsilateral ear. A new technique was developed for partial external ear reconstruction with sufficient inner skeletal support and outer skin lining. Level of evidence Level NA.
Løve, Uffe S; Sjøgren, Pia; Rasmussen, Peter; Laurberg, Søren; Christensen, Henrik K
The use of the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection or pelvic exenteration for neoplasia is well documented. However, functional outcomes after vaginal reconstruction, including sexual function, are poorly described. This study aimed to examine sexual function in women following extensive pelvic surgery with colpectomy and vaginal reconstruction with the use of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. This study is a retrospective review of medical records in combination with patient questionnaires. Nonresponders were followed up with a second contact. This study was performed at a tertiary care university medical center (Colorectal Section, Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark) All women undergoing pelvic surgery and simultaneous vaginal reconstruction with the use of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap between 2004 and 2010 at our department were identified from a patient database. Thirty women who were alive at the time of identification were included in the study. Sexual function before and after surgery was evaluated by the use of the Sexual function Vaginal changes Questionnaire. The main outcome end point was whether the patient was sexually active after vaginal reconstruction. Twenty-six participants (87%) answered the questionnaire. Fifty percent of patients reported an active sex life before surgery. In general, patients reported an unchanged desire for both physical and sexual contact after surgery. However, only 2 patients (14%) reported being sexually active after surgery. This was a retrospective study with a heterogeneous cohort involving several types of cancers and surgical procedures. Factors other than vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction itself may interfere with the sexual function. Extensive pelvic surgery with colpectomy leads to sexual dysfunction even when the vagina is reconstructed with a vertical rectus abdominis
Blair, Fiona M; Chapple, Iain L C
With concerns about the ever-increasing development of antimicrobial resistance, it is imperative that antimicrobials are prescribed responsibly and used appropriately. This article provides an overview and simple guidelines for antimicrobial prescribing in the management of periodontal diseases.
This position paper on diabetes mellitus was prepared by the Research, Science and Therapy Committee of The American Academy of Periodontology. It is intended to: 1) update members of the dental profession on the diagnosis and medical management of patients with diabetes mellitus; 2) summarize current knowledge on the relation between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases; 3) provide an overview of factors in diabetic patients relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases in these subjects; 4) outline special considerations associated with treatment of periodontal diseases in diabetic patients; and 5) discuss possible approaches to the management of diabetic emergencies in the dental office. Reliance on this position paper in patient management will not guarantee a successful outcome. Periodontal diseases often involve numerous and complex causes and symptoms. Ultimately, decisions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of disease in an individual patient must be made by the treating practitioner in light of the specific facts presented by that patient.
... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...
Feng, Kuan-Ming; Hsieh, Ching-Hua; Jeng, Seng-Feng
Theoretically, a flap can be supplied by any perforator based on the angiosome theory. In this study, the technique of free-style perforator flap dissection was used to harvest a pedicled or free skin flap from a previous free flap for a second difficult reconstruction. The authors call this a free-style puzzle flap. For the past 3 years, the authors treated 13 patients in whom 12 pedicled free-style puzzle flaps were harvested from previous redundant free flaps and recycled to reconstruct soft-tissue defects at various anatomical locations. One free-style free puzzle flap was harvested from a previous anterolateral thigh flap for buccal cancer to reconstruct a foot defect. Total flap survival was attained in 12 of 13 flaps. One transferred flap failed completely. This patient had received postoperative radiotherapy after the initial cancer ablation and free anterolateral thigh flap reconstruction. Another free flap was used to close and reconstruct the wound. All the donor sites could be closed primarily. The free-style puzzle flap, harvested from a previous redundant free flap and used as a perforator flap to reconstruct a new defect, has proven to be versatile and reliable. When indicated, it is an alternative donor site for further reconstruction of soft-tissue defects.
Lyons, Karl M; Darby, Ivan
Periodontics cannot be practiced in isolation as frequently many patients have multiple dental needs or medical health issues requiring management. In addition, pathology may manifest in the periodontal tissues, and the onset and progression of periodontitis can be affected by systemic conditions, such as diabetes, and vice versa. The focus of this volume of Periodontology 2000 is interdisciplinary periodontics, and the articles included discuss the interactions and the interrelationshipbetween periodontal tissues/periodontal diseases and endodontics, fixed prosthodontics, implant dentistry, esthetics, gerodontology, radiology, orthodontics, pediatric dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery, oral pathology, special needs dentistry and general medicine. Previous volumes of Periodontology 2000 have covered some of the interactions between periodontal diseases and other dental disciplines, especially implant dentistry, 'and the interaction between periodontal disease and systemic disease', but there has not been a volume on interdisciplinary periodontics. The intention therefore is to show how and why periodontics should be interdisciplinary, as well as the benefits of an interdisciplinary approach; in addition, the potential consequences of using a discipline in isolation are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Weersink, Robert A.
Periodontal disease is a family of chronic inflammatory conditions caused by bacterial infections.' It is manifested in red, swollen gingiva (gums) and can lead to destruction of the connective tissue and bone that hold teeth in place. Conventional treatments typically require some form of invasive surgery, depending on the disease stage at time of detection. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is the use of light-activated drugs (photosensitizers) for treatment of a variety of conditions 2 such as solid tumors, pre-malignancies, macular degeneration and actinic keratitis. There have been a number of studies of PDT as an antibacterial agent. 3'4 Depending on the photosensitizer and strain of bacteria, significant killing (several LOGS) can be achieved.
Anita, Vijayaraghavan; Vijayalakshmi, Rajaram; Bhavna, J.; Ramakrishnan, Thyagarajan; Aravindkumar; Bali, Vikram
Esthetic concerns of the patient have become an essential part of dentistry, especially Periodontics. Periodontal plastic surgery is a rapidly emerging field, which helps us to meet this criterion. Root coverage is being achieved by a variety of techniques namely pedicle grafts and free soft tissue grafts. This article highlights on 2 case reports in which a new pedicle graft technique has been used for root coverage. PMID:20142945
Shue, Li; Yufeng, Zhang; Mony, Ullas
Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various methods of regenerative periodontal therapy, including the use of barrier membranes, bone replacement grafts, growth factors and the combination of these procedures have been investigated. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering has considerably improved the available treatment options above. They fall into two broad classes: ceramics and polymers. The available ceramic-based materials include calcium phosphate (eg, tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite), calcium sulfate and bioactive glass. The bioactive glass bonds to the bone with the formation of a layer of carbonated hydroxyapatite in situ. The natural polymers include modified polysaccharides (eg, chitosan,) and polypeptides (collagen and gelatin). Synthetic polymers [eg, poly(glycolic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)] provide a platform for exhibiting the biomechanical properties of scaffolds in tissue engineering. The materials usually work as osteogenic, osteoconductive and osteoinductive scaffolds. Polymers are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). They are shown to exclude epithelial downgrowth and allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. An attempt to overcome the problems related to a collapse of the barrier membrane in GTR or epithelial downgrowth is the use of a combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials. This article reviews various biomaterials including scaffolds and membranes used for periodontal treatment and their impacts on the experimental or clinical management of periodontal defect. PMID:23507891
Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh
The sacral region is one of the most vulnerable sites for the development of pressure sores. Even when surgical reconstruction is performed, there is a high chance of recurrence. Therefore, the concept of dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for sacral pressure sore reconstruction was proposed. From September 2007 to June 2010, nine patients with grade IV sacral pressures were enrolled. Four patients received bilateral myocutaneous V-Y flaps, four patients received bilateral fasciocutaneous V-Y flaps, and one patient received bilateral rotation-advanced flaps for sacral pressure reconstruction. The flaps were designed based on the perforators of the superior gluteal artery in one patient's reconstructive procedure. All flaps' designs were based on dual-dermal-barrier fashion. The mean follow-up time was 16 months (range = 12-25). No recurrence was noted. Only one patient had a complication of mild dehiscence at the middle suture line, occurring 2 weeks after the reconstructive surgery. The dual-dermal fashion flaps are easily duplicated and versatile. The study has shown minimal morbidity and a reasonable outcome.
Sumarroca, Anna; Rodríguez-Bauzà, Elena; Vega, Carmen; Fernández, Manuel; Masià, Jaume; Quer, Miquel; León, Xavier
The facial artery musculomucosal (FAMM) flap is a good option for covering small and medium-sized defects in the oral cavity because of its similar tissue characteristics and easy implementation. We reviewed our results using this flap between 2006 and 2014. A total of 20 patients were included and 25 FAMM flaps were performed, 16 right (64%) and 9 left (36%) flaps. Five patients had simultaneous bilateral reconstructions. The indications for flap surgery were reconstruction after resection of tumours in the floor of the mouth (8 cases, 40%), tumours in other sites of the oral cavity (4 cases, 20%), mandibular osteoradionecrosis (4 cases, 20%), oroantral fistula (3 cases, 15%) and postoperative ankyloglossia (one case, 5%). Reconstruction was successful in 92% of cases (n=23). Total flap necrosis occurred in one case and dehiscence with exposure of bone in another. Oral function and ingestion were satisfactory in all patients. The facial artery musculomucosal flap is reliable and versatile for reconstruction of small and medium-sized intraoral defects. It allows functional reconstruction of the oral cavity with a low risk of complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.
Llewellyn-Bennett, Rebecca; Wotton, Robin; West, Douglas
A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘In pneumonectomy patients, is buttressing the bronchial stump associated with a reduced incidence of bronchopleural fistula?’. Fifty-seven papers were found using the reported search, of which 12 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. One prospective randomized controlled trial was identified, which found significantly lower rates of bronchopleural fistula and empyema after pneumonectomy with the use of pedicled intercostal flap buttressing. Intercostal muscle flaps and pericardial flaps have been used in case series of high-risk patients, e.g. those with neoadjuvant therapy or extended resections, with low rates of subsequent bronchopleural fistulae. There is the least-reported evidence for thoracodorsal artery perforator and omental flaps. There is relatively little published evidence beyond the single randomized trial identified, with only a few comparison studies to guide clinicians. We conclude that there is evidence for flap buttressing in reducing the risk of bronchopleural fistulae after pneumonectomy in diabetic patients. Flap coverage in other high-risk situations, such as extrapleural or completion pneumonectomy, has been reported in case series with good results. Of the reported techniques, the evidence is strongest for the pedicled inter-costal flap. PMID:23357525
Moffat, Andrew D; Weaver, Lindell K; Tettelbach, William H
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is often indicated in compromised surgical flaps. Although limited to animal models and human case reports, the utilization of leech therapy (Hirudo medicinalis) with HBO2 provides better outcomes than each modality alone. Topical nitroglycerin and pentoxifylline are also frequently used adjunctively for compromised flaps. We present a case of successful breast flap salvage utilizing a combination of leech therapy, HBO2, topical nitroglycerin and pentoxifylline. A 34-year-old female, one day post-status cosmetic breast reduction mammoplasty developed a dusky discoloration of the left nipple areolar complex, indicating imminent flap failure. The patient was immediately treated with topical nitroglycerin, oral pentoxifylline, and referred for HBO2. After her first HBO2 treatment, there was clinical improvement to the superior portion of the areolar flap, with little improvement inferiorly where the discoloration had remained essentially unchanged. To address this, we added leech therapy and discontinued the topical nitroglycerin. Ceftriaxone for Aeromonas prophylaxis was started, and leeches were attached two at a time and removed from the area once feeding had ceased. These were applied three times per day for three days while receiving HBO2 twice per day for six days. The patient's flap improved and completely healed by Week 8 without need for further surgery. This is the first case to our knowledge of successful breast flap salvage using a combination of leech therapy, HBO2, topical nitroglycerin and pentoxifylline.
Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.
PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several blowing flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main-element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the vortex system or accelerated the merging of the side vortex to the flap top surface. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.
Pignatti, Marco; Ogawa, Rei; Hallock, Geoffrey G; Mateev, Musa; Georgescu, Alexandru V; Balakrishnan, Govindasamy; Ono, Shimpei; Cubison, Tania C S; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Koshima, Isao; Hyakusoku, Hikko
Over the past few years, the use of propeller flaps, which base their blood supply on subcutaneous tissue or isolated perforators, has become increasingly popular. Because no consensus has yet been reached on terminology and nomenclature of the propeller flap, different and confusing uses of the term can be found in the literature. In this article, the authors report the consensus on the definition and classification of propeller flaps reached by the authors that gathered at the First Tokyo Meeting on Perforator and Propeller Flaps in June of 2009. Some peculiar aspects of the surgical technique are discussed. A propeller flap can be defined as an "island flap that reaches the recipient site through an axial rotation." The classification is based on the nourishing pedicle (subcutaneous pedicled propeller flap, perforator pedicled propeller flap, supercharged propeller flap), the degrees of skin island rotation (90 to 180 degrees) and, when possible, the artery of origin of the perforator. The propeller flap is a useful reconstructive tool that can achieve good cosmetic and functional results. A flap should be called a propeller flap only if it fulfils the definition above. The type of nourishing pedicle, the source vessel (when known), and the degree of skin island rotation should be specified for each flap.
Prakash, Siddharth; Panda, Ritesh; Kumar, Vivek; Saha, Shiv Shankar; Choudhary, Lalit; Pandey, Anurag; Reddy, J. Sasidhar
Background: The excellent freedom of movement and range of this flap when based on a the nasolabial perforator flap have not been sufficiently explored. In this study, along with demonstrating the other key advantages of this flap over its traditional counterpart, we will endeavour to fill these lacunae in the available literature. Materials and Methods: From February 2009 to February 2012, twenty patients with nasal defects were repaired with a nasolabial perforator flap in the Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi. Of these, two patients (10%) underwent the procedure bilaterally. Thus, a total of 22 nasolabial perforator flap procedures were carried out. Prospectively, collected clinical records and data of each patient were retrospectively retrieved and reviewed to study the nasal defect and surgery done. Results: All the twenty (100%) patients had good functional and aesthetic outcome. All patients who had nasal stenosis preoperatively had very good improvement in the patency of the nasal passages, breathing and nasal blockage with complete recovery of symptoms. The patients were entirely satisfied with the functional recovery. Conclusions: The reliability and versatility of the nasolabial perforator flap exceed its recognised application in reconstruction of nasal defects and it must form a part of every plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:28529417
Hojo, Junya; Omokawa, Shohei; Shigematsu, Koji; Onishi, Tadanobu; Murata, Keiichi; Tanaka, Yasuhito
The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate patient-based outcomes and complications following excision of mucous cysts, joint debridement, and closure with one of three types of local flaps. From 2000-2011, 35 consecutive patients with 37 digital mucous cysts were treated surgically. The surgical procedure included excision of the cyst together with the attenuated skin, joint debridement on the affected side including capsulectomy, and removal of osteophytes. Depending on the size and location of the cyst, the skin defect was covered by a transposition flap (31 cysts), an advancement flap (two cysts), or a rotation flap (four cysts). At an average follow-up time of 4 years, 4 months, there was no wound infection, flap necrosis, or joint stiffness. Preoperative nail ridging resolved in seven of nine fingers, and no nail deformities developed after surgery. One cyst, treated with a transposition flap, recurred 10 months after surgery. The average satisfaction score for the affected finger significantly improved from 4.3 to 6.8, and the average pain score decreased from 4.7 to 2.3. This treatment protocol provides reliable results. Patients were satisfied with the reduction of associated pain and the postoperative appearance of the treated finger, and postoperative complications were minimal.
Jenabian, Niloofar; Motallebnejad, Mina; Zahedi, Ehsan; Sarmast, Nima D; Angelov, Nikola
Several researchers have tried to improve the results of gingival recession treatment techniques. One of the methods is to use growth factors The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of CAF (coronally advanced flap) + CTG (connective tissue graft) + PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors) in the treatment of Miller Class I buccal gingival recession. Twenty-two teeth with Miller Class I gingival recession in 6 patients 26 ‒ 47 years of age were included in a split-mouth designed randomized controlled trial (RCT). In each patient, one side was treated with CAF + CTG + PRGF (test) and the other side was treated with CAF + CTG (control). The following parameters were measured before surgery and up to 6 months after surgery on the mid-buccal surface of the tooth: keratinized tissue width (KTW), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), vertical recession depth (VRD), recession depth (RD), gingival thickness (GT), root coverage in percentage (RC%) and the distance between the CEJ and mucogingival junction (MGJL). Data were analyzed with paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. After 6 months noticeable improvements were observed in both groups in all the variables measured except for PD; however, the differences between the two groups were not significant. RC% was 80 ± 25% and 67 ± 28% in the test and control groups, respectively, after 6 months. Both CAF + CTG + PRGF and CAF + CTG treatment modalities resulted in favorable root coverage; however, the addition of PRGF added no measurable significant effect. Key words: Connective tissue graft, dental root coverage, gingival recession, growth factors, mucogingival surgery, periodontal plastic surgery.
Jenabian, Niloofar; Motallebnejad, Mina; Zahedi, Ehsan; Angelov, Nikola
Background Several researchers have tried to improve the results of gingival recession treatment techniques. One of the methods is to use growth factors The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of CAF (coronally advanced flap) + CTG (connective tissue graft) + PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors) in the treatment of Miller Class I buccal gingival recession. Material and Methods Twenty-two teeth with Miller Class I gingival recession in 6 patients 26 ‒ 47 years of age were included in a split-mouth designed randomized controlled trial (RCT). In each patient, one side was treated with CAF + CTG + PRGF (test) and the other side was treated with CAF + CTG (control). The following parameters were measured before surgery and up to 6 months after surgery on the mid-buccal surface of the tooth: keratinized tissue width (KTW), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), vertical recession depth (VRD), recession depth (RD), gingival thickness (GT), root coverage in percentage (RC%) and the distance between the CEJ and mucogingival junction (MGJL). Data were analyzed with paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results After 6 months noticeable improvements were observed in both groups in all the variables measured except for PD; however, the differences between the two groups were not significant. RC% was 80 ± 25% and 67 ± 28% in the test and control groups, respectively, after 6 months. Conclusions Both CAF + CTG + PRGF and CAF + CTG treatment modalities resulted in favorable root coverage; however, the addition of PRGF added no measurable significant effect. Key words:Connective tissue graft, dental root coverage, gingival recession, growth factors, mucogingival surgery, periodontal plastic surgery. PMID:29849966
Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Young-Taek; Kweon, Hye-In; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Seong-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hong
The prevalence of osteoporosis associated with the aging process is anticipated to increase along with the rising aging population. Periodontitis that the most common chronic infections of humankind is considered the risk factor for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to identify the association between osteoporosis and periodontitis using a population-based cohort. The case group was defined as patients diagnosed with periodontitis and treated with subgingival curettage, root conditioning, periodontal flap operation, bone grafting for alveolar bone defects, and guided tissue regeneration. Case and control groups matched for gender, age, household income, type of social security, disability, and residential area were generated. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to examine the difference in the development of osteoporosis between the case and control groups. The final sample included 13,464 participants. The incidence of osteoporosis was 1.1% in males and 15.8% in females during a 10-year period. The risk factors for osteoporosis in males were increasing age and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Periodontitis was not associated with the development of osteoporosis in males. The risk factors for osteoporosis in females were increasing age, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, diabetes, and periodontitis. Women with periodontitis were more likely to also develop osteoporosis (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.48). Periodontitis has an effect on the development of osteoporosis in females. Managing good teeth is required for the prevention and delay of osteoporosis. This includes dental examinations, regular cleanings and gum treatment.
Kajikawa, Tetsuhiro; Meshikhes, Fatimah; Maekawa, Tomoki; Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Hosur, Kavita B.; Abe, Toshiharu; Moss, Kevin; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Hajishengallis, George
Aim We have previously shown that the secreted glycoprotein MFG-E8 has anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenic properties. Our objective was to investigate the potential of MFG-E8 as a diagnostic or therapeutic agent in periodontitis. Materials and Methods Periodontitis was induced in non-human primates (NHPs) by placing ligatures around posterior teeth on both halves of the mandible for a split-mouth design: one side was treated with MFG-E8−Fc and the other with Fc control. Disease was assessed by clinical periodontal examinations, radiographic analysis of bone loss, and analysis of cytokine mRNA expression in gingival biopsy samples. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected from human healthy volunteers or subjects with gingivitis, chronic moderate periodontitis, or chronic severe periodontitis. Additionally, GCF was collected from a subset of severe periodontitis patients following scaling and root planing (SRP) and after pocket reduction surgery. GCF was analyzed to quantify MFG-E8 and periodontitis-relevant cytokines using multiplex assays. Results In NHPs, sites treated with MFG-E8-Fc exhibited significantly less ligature-induced periodontal inflammation and bone loss than Fc control-treated sites. In humans, the GCF levels of MFG-E8 were significantly higher in health than in periodontitis, whereas the reverse was true for the proinflammatory cytokines tested. Consistently, MFG-E8 was elevated in GCF after both non-surgical (SRP) and surgical periodontal treatment of periodontitis patients. Conclusion MFG-E8 is, in principle, a novel therapeutic agent and biomarker of periodontitis. PMID:28207941
Kim, Young Seok; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk; Yoo, Won Min; Lee, Won Jai; Tark, Kwan Chul
The ischial area is by far the most common site for pressure sores in wheelchair-bound paraplegic patients, because most of the pressure of the body is exerted on this area in the seated position. Even after a series of successful pressure sore treatments, the site is very prone to relapse from the simplest everyday tasks. Therefore, it is crucial to preserve the main pedicle during primary surgery. Several surgical procedures, such as myocutaneous flap and perforator flap, have been introduced for the treatment of pressure sores. During a 4-year time period at our institute, we found favourable clinical results using the inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) procedure for ischial sore treatment. A total of 23 patients (20 males and three females) received IGAP flap surgery in our hospital from January 2003 to January 2007. Surgery was performed on the same site again in 10 (43%) patients who had originally relapsed after undergoing the conventional method of pressure sore surgery. The average age of patients was 47.4 years (range 26-71 years). Most of the patients were paraplegic (16 cases, 70%) and others were either quadriplegic (four cases, 17%) or ambulatory (three cases, 13%). Based on hospital records and clinical photographs, we attempted to assess the feasibility and practicability of the IGAP flap procedure through comparative analysis of several parameters including the size of the defective area, treatment modalities, relapses, complications, and postoperative treatments. The average follow-up duration for 23 subjects was 25.4 months (range 5-42 months). All flaps survived without major complications. Partial flap necrosis developed in one case but secondary healing was achieved and the final outcome was not impaired. Most of the cases healed well during the follow-up period. Postoperative complications such as wound dehiscence and fistula developed in some subjects, but all healed well with a secondary treatment. A total of five cases relapsed
Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.
The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.
Colombo, Ana Paula V; Boches, Susan K; Cotton, Sean L; Goodson, J Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D; Socransky, Sigmund S; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J
This study compared the subgingival microbiota of subjects with refractory periodontitis (RP) to those in subjects with treatable periodontitis (GRs = good responders) or periodontal health (PH) using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). At baseline, subgingival plaque samples were taken from 47 subjects with periodontitis and 20 individuals with PH and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM. The subjects with periodontitis were classified as having RP (n = 17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or more than three sites with AL >or=2.5 mm after scaling and root planing, surgery, and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GRs (n = 30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL >or=2.5 mm after treatment. Significant differences in taxa among the groups were sought using the Kruskal-Wallis and chi(2) tests. More species were detected in patients with disease (GR or RP) than in those without disease (PH). Subjects with RP were distinguished from GRs or those with PH by a significantly higher frequency of putative periodontal pathogens, such as Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros), Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., and Eikenella corrodens, as well as unusual species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon [OT] 346/356, Bacteroidetes sp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium timidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, and Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) (P <0.05). Species that were more prevalent in subjects with PH than in patients with periodontitis included Actinomyces
Sonmez, Erhan; Silistireli, Özlem Karataş; Karaaslan, Önder; Kamburoğlu, Haldun Onuralp; Safak, Tunc
The flaps based on the vascular axis of superficial sensitive cutaneous nerves had gained increased popularity in reconstructive surgery because of such major advantages as preservation of major extremity arteries and avoidance of microsurgical procedures. However, postoperative venous congestion resulting in partial or total necrosis is still a common problem for these flaps. The aim of the current study is to introduce a new method for reducing the postoperative venous congestion of neural island flap with the results of reconstruction of the soft tissue defects of foot and ankle. This method was used to treat 19 patients with various chronic soft tissue defects of the foot and ankle between 2011 and 2012. We observed that the novel method presented in this report enables effective venous drainage, solving the postoperative venous congestion problem of these flaps. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Ercan, Esra; Uysal, Cihan; Uzun, Cansu; Yılmaz, Mümün
To investigate the periodontal examination profiles and treatment approaches of a group of Turkish general dentists. 457 general dentists were called and 173 dentists agreed to participate in the study. The questionnaire comprised 10 questions including gender, years of experience, periodontal probing during examination, oral hygiene motivation methods (do you perform, yes/no; the oral hygiene motivation method; verbal expression or using visual materials), periodontal treatments (supragingival scaling, subgingival scaling and planing or surgery) and knowledge about diagnosis and treatment for aggressive and chronic periodontitis. The participants were grouped according to their years of clinical experience: group 1: 0 to 10 years of clinical practice (n = 58); group 2: 10 to 20 years (n = 68); group 3: >20 years (n = 47). The 'periodontal probing' performance percentages were 70.69%, 26.47% and 40.43% in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The oral hygiene motivation rate was high in the first 10 years of clinical practice (60.3%). In addition, 72.4% of the dentists in group 1 used visual materials in addition to verbal expression during oral hygiene motivation. 72.25% of the general dentists performed supragingival scaling. The knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of chronic periodontitis was present in >90% of the dentists surveyed. In contrast, >50% of the general dentists were not knowledgeable in the diagnosis and treatment of aggressive periodontitis. Periodontal probing is a gold standard for periodontal diagnosis, but as the dentists' clinical experience increases, the frequency of its performance decreases. The percentage of the knowledge and treatment of chronic periodontitis is higher than that of aggressive periodontitis. Postgraduate education in periodontology is important to keep general dentists up to date on current periodontal practice and improve awareness of periodontal diseases.
Chen, Wei-Liang; Wang, You-Yuan; Zhang, Da-Ming; Fan, Song; Lin, Zhao-Yu
The purpose of this study was to compare the use of an extended vertical lower trapezius island myocutaneous flap (TIMF) and a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF). A total of 39 patients with advanced recurrent oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) underwent salvage surgery followed by placement of either an extended lower vertical TIMF or PMMF for reconstruction. Twenty-one patients received extended lower vertical TIMFs, whereas 18 received PMMFs. The pedicle length of the TIMF was longer than that of the PMMF, and the skin paddle of the TIMF was both wider and longer than the PMMF. No major complication developed in any of the patients. The TIMF group experienced a lower rate of minor flap failure than did the PMMF group. Use of an extended vertical lower TIMF, which has a longer pedicle flap and a larger skin paddle than a PMMF, is optimal for reconstruction of major defects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E159-E164, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Contreras, Adolfo; Moreno, Sandra M; Jaramillo, Adriana; Pelaez, Melissa; Duque, Andres; Botero, Javier E; Slots, Jørgen
This review article describes the microbiota associated with periodontal disease in Latin America. This vast territory includes 22 nations, which show great ethnic diversity, with large groups of White people, Black people, Mestizo people and Native people. Widespread poverty and limited access to education and health-care services, including periodontal care, are prominent predisposing factors for destructive periodontal disease in Latin America. Black people and Mestizo people seem to have particularly severe periodontal disease and are frequently colonized by the major periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The 'red complex' bacterial pathogens and A. actinomycetemcomitans predominate in chronic and aggressive periodontitis, but gram-negative enteric rods and herpesviruses can also play important periodontopathic roles in Latin America. The key to minimizing the risk of periodontal disease is control of the pathogens, and new low-cost periodontal treatments deserve serious consideration in Latin America. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li, Haizhou; Wang, Zi; Gu, Bin; Gao, Yashan; Xie, Feng; Zhu, Hainan; Li, Qingfeng; Zan, Tao
For extensive postburn neck deformities, the preexpanded flaps in the upper back region were used and gained a uniform skin appearance and esthetic contours. Free-style perforator-based free-tissue transfer that represents the most recent advance in reconstructive surgery may provide more versatility of these flaps. We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients treated at our institution for postburn neck contracture from March 2010 to May 2016. Various upper back flaps were designed according to the dominant perforators and the shape of the defect after fully releasing the neck contracture. Thirty-one patients received neck reconstructions with the versatile applications of the preexpanded upper back perforator flaps. Tip necrosis was observed in one case, and the others survived completely. The donor sites were all primarily closed. No incision dehiscence was observed. The free-style design has significantly increased the potential and versatility of the upper back flaps in reconstruction of severe neck scar contracture.
Nickl, Stefanie; Nedomansky, Jakob; Radtke, Christine; Haslik, Werner; Schroegendorfer, Klaus F
The transverse myocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap is a widely used alternative to abdominal flaps in autologous breast reconstruction. However, secondary procedures for aesthetic refinement are frequently necessary. Herein, we present our experience with an optimized approach in TMG breast reconstruction to enhance aesthetic outcome and to reduce the need for secondary refinements. We retrospectively analyzed 37 immediate or delayed reconstructions with TMG flaps in 34 women, performed between 2009 and 2015. Four patients (5 flaps) constituted the conventional group (non-optimized approach). Thirty patients (32 flaps; modified group) underwent an optimized procedure consisting of modified flap harvesting and shaping techniques and methods utilized to reduce denting after rib resection and to diminish donor site morbidity. Statistically significant fewer secondary procedures (0.6 ± 0.9 versus 4.8 ± 2.2; P < .001) and fewer trips to the OR (0.4 ± 0.7 versus 2.3 ± 1.0 times; P = .001) for aesthetic refinement were needed in the modified group as compared to the conventional group. In the modified group, 4 patients (13.3%) required refinement of the reconstructed breast, 7 patients (23.3%) underwent mastopexy/mammoplasty or lipofilling of the contralateral breast, and 4 patients (13.3%) required refinement of the contralateral thigh. Total flap loss did not occur in any patient. Revision surgery was needed once. Compared to the conventional group, enhanced aesthetic results with consecutive reduction of secondary refinements could be achieved when using our modified flap harvesting and shaping techniques, as well as our methods for reducing contour deformities after rib resection and for overcoming donor site morbidities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Struk, S; Schaff, J-B; Qassemyar, Q
The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap is defined as a thin cutaneo-adipose perforator flap harvested on the medial aspect of the leg. The aims of this study were to describe the anatomical basis as well as the surgical technique and discuss the indications in head and neck reconstructive surgery. We harvested 10 MSAP flap on 5 fresh cadavers. For each case, the number and the location of the perforators were recorded. For each flap, the length of pedicle, the diameter of source vessels and the thickness of the flap were studied. Finally, we performed a clinical application of a MSAP flap. A total of 23 perforators with a diameter superior than 1mm were dissected on 10 legs. The medial sural artery provided between 1 and 4 musculocutaneous perforators. Perforators were located in average at 10.3cm±2cm from the popliteal fossa and at 3.6cm±1cm from the median line of the calf. The mean pedicle length was 12.1cm±2.5cm. At its origin, the source artery diameter was 1.8mm±0.25mm and source veins diameters were 2.45mm±0.9mm in average. There was no complication in our clinical application. This study confirms the reliability of previous anatomical descriptions of the medial sural artery perforator flap. This flap was reported as thin and particularly adapted for oral cavity reconstruction and for facial or limb resurfacing. Sequelae might be reduced as compared to those of the radial forearm flap with comparable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Cordova, Adriana; Pirrello, Roberto; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Jeschke, Johannes; Brenner, Erich; Moschella, Francesco
The supraclavicular skin has been studied extensively and used as a pedicled flap for face and neck reconstruction. Its use as a free flap has not paralleled its use as a pedicled flap. The authors performed an anatomical investigation to assess the possibility of harvesting a free supraclavicular flap with the donor-site scar lying in the supraclavicular crease. In this article, the authors present the results of their anatomical study together with the preliminary clinical applications. Skin vascularization and feasibility of a free supraclavicular perforator flap were studied on 25 cadavers (15 fresh cadavers injected with colored latex at the Universiteé René Descartes in Paris; and 10 formalin-fixed, noninjected cadavers at the Innsbruck Medical University). The flap was used in two patients at the Plastic Surgery Department of the University of Palermo for a cutaneous facial reconstruction and intraoral reconstruction after cancer excision. An average of four perforators were consistently found in the supraclavicular area coming from the transverse cervical artery. Venous perforators drain into the superficial venous plexus rather than into the venae comitantes of the transverse cervical artery. Two flaps were successfully used based on these vessels. The vascularization of the supraclavicular skin depends on skin perforators coming from the transverse cervical artery and draining into the superficial venous plexus. Based on these vessels, a reliable free supraclavicular flap seems to be safe to harvest, with the scar hidden in the supraclavicular crease. The preliminary clinical applications of such a flap gave promising results, suggesting its potential applications.
Summary: Recent advances in wearable recording technology have enabled high-quality video recording of several surgical procedures from the surgeon’s perspective. However, the available wearable cameras are not optimal for recording the harvesting of perforator flaps because they are too heavy and cannot be attached to the surgical loupe. The Ecous is a small high-resolution camera that was specially developed for recording loupe magnification surgery. This study investigated the use of the Ecous for recording perforator flap harvesting procedures. The Ecous SC MiCron is a high-resolution camera that can be mounted directly on the surgical loupe. The camera is light (30 g) and measures only 28 × 32 × 60 mm. We recorded 23 perforator flap harvesting procedures with the Ecous connected to a laptop through a USB cable. The elevated flaps included 9 deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps, 7 thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps, 4 anterolateral thigh flaps, and 3 superficial inferior epigastric artery flaps. All procedures were recorded with no equipment failure. The Ecous recorded the technical details of the perforator dissection at a high-resolution level. The surgeon did not feel any extra stress or interference when wearing the Ecous. The Ecous is an ideal camera for recording perforator flap harvesting procedures. It fits onto the surgical loupe perfectly without creating additional stress on the surgeon. High-quality video from the surgeon’s perspective makes accurate documentation of the procedures possible, thereby enhancing surgical education and allowing critical self-reflection. PMID:27482504
Lee, Johnson C; Whipple, Lauren A; Binetti, Brian; Singh, T Paul; Agag, Richard
Bulges and hernias after abdominal free flap surgery are uncommon with rates ranging from as low as 0-36%. In the free flap breast reconstruction population, there are no clear guidelines or optimal strategies to treating postoperative bulges. We describe our minimally invasive technique and outcomes in managing bulge complications in abdominal free flap breast reconstruction patients. A retrospective review was performed on all abdominal free flap breast reconstruction patients at Albany Medical Center from 2011 to 2014. All patients with bulges on clinical exam underwent abdominal CT imaging prior to consultation with a minimally invasive surgeon. Confirmed symptomatic bulges were repaired laparoscopically and patients were monitored regularly in the outpatient setting. Sixty-two patients received a total of 80 abdominal free flap breast reconstructions. Flap types included 41 deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP), 36 muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous (msTRAM), 2 superficial inferior epigastric artery, and 1 transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap. There were a total of 9 (14.5%) bulge complications, with the majority of patients having undergone msTRAM or DIEP reconstruction. There were no complications, revisions, or recurrences from laparoscopic bulge repair after an average follow-up of 181 days. Although uncommon, bulge formation after abdominal free flap reconstruction can create significant morbidity to patients. Laproscopic hernia repair using composite mesh underlay offers an alternative to traditional open hernia repair and can be successfully used to minimize scarring, infection, and pain to free flap patients who have already undergone significant reconstructive procedures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Baltu, Yahya; Uzun, Hakan; Dölen, Utku Can; Özyurtlu, Mustafa
Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common type of skin cancer of the nasal dorsum and the medial canthal region, which is caused by chronic sun exposure. Limited adjacent tissue and the need for aesthetically pleasing result make the reconstruction of these regions very challenging. To overcome this challenge, we designed a perforator propeller flap based on the central artery. Between January 2014 and November 2015, we covered the nasal or medial canthal defects of 22 patients with central artery perforator propeller flaps. The mean age of the patients was 60.4 years (range: 47-81 years). The median follow-up period was 7.5 months (range: 2-23 months). The pathological diagnoses were basal cell carcinoma for 14 patients and squamous cell carcinoma for the remaining eight patients. The size of the defects ranged from 2 × 2 to 3.5 × 4 cm, and that of the flaps ranged from 2 × 3.5 to 3.2 × 6 cm. We did not observe any major complications requiring surgery, such as total flap loss, hematoma, or dog-ear deformity. However, venous congestion was seen in five patients and partial flap necrosis (that healed without intervention) in two patients. The central artery perforator propeller flap is a reliable and versatile flap for the reconstruction of the nasal dorsum and medial canthal region. Reconstruction with this flap is a single-stage procedure that can cover large defects without causing dog-ear deformity or eyebrow asymmetry compared with other local flap options. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Jiang; Liu, Qiong
To study the effect of Bio-Oss collagen for bone grafting in the treatment of endodontic-periodontic lesion. Thirty patients (37 teeth) with endodontic-periodontic lesions received root canal therapy and periodontal treatment. Four weeks after the treatment, Bio-Oss collagen was grafted in these teeth. Clinical examinations were performed 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the surgery. The mobility of these teeth improved 1 month after the surgery. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the surgery, the pocket depth reduced obviously good attachment and further improvement of the tooth mobility. Bio-Oss collagen for bone grafting can achieve good therapeutic effect for endodontic-periodontic lesions.
A new modelling approach is presented for describing flap-gliding flight in birds and the associated mechanical energy cost of travelling. The new approach is based on the difference in the drag characteristics between flapping and non-flapping due to the drag increase caused by flapping. Thus, the possibility of a gliding flight phase, as it exists in flap-gliding flight, yields a performance advantage resulting from the decrease in the drag when compared with continuous flapping flight. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization for the mathematical relations describing flap-gliding flight, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that there is an energy saving of flap-gliding flight in the entire speed range compared to continuous flapping flight. The energy saving reaches the highest level in the lower speed region. The travelling speed of flap-gliding flight is composed of the weighted average of the differing speeds in the flapping and gliding phases. Furthermore, the maximum range performance achievable with flap-gliding flight and the associated optimal travelling speed are determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano
This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute
Strang, Karl Axel
In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for
Moret, Lionel; Thiria, Benjamin; Zhang, Jun
We study the effect of passive pitching and flexible deflection of wings on the forward flapping flight. The wings are flapped vertically in water and are allowed to move freely horizontally. The forward speed is chosen by the flapping wing itself by balance of drag and thrust. We show, that by allowing the wing to passively pitch or by adding a flexible extension at its trailing edge, the forward speed is significantly increased. Detailed measurements of wing deflection and passive pitching, together with flow visualization, are used to explain our observations. The advantage of having a wing with finite rigidity/flexibility is discussed as we compare the current results with our biological inspirations such as birds and fish.
Harris, David M.; Nicholson, Dawn M.; McCarthy, Delwin; Yukna, Raymond A.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Greenwell, Henry; Finley, James; McCawley, Thomas K.; Xenoudi, Pinelopi; Gregg, Robert H.
Data are presented from a multi-center, prospective, longitudinal, clinical trial comparing four different treatments for periodontitis, (1) the LANAPTM protocol utilizing a FR pulsed-Nd:YAG laser; (2) flap surgery using the Modified Widman technique (MWF); (3) traditional scaling and root planing (SRP); and (4) coronal debridement (CD). Each treatment was randomized to a different quadrant. Fifty-one (54) subjects were recruited at five centers that included both private practice and university-based investigators. At 6-months and 12 months post-treatment the LANAPTM protocol and MWF yielded equivalent results based on changes in probing depths. The major difference observed between the two procedures was that patients reported significantly greater comfort following the LANAP™ procedure than following the MWF (P<0.001). There was greater reduction in bleeding in the LANAPTM quadrant than in the other three at both 6 and 12 months. Improvements following SRP were better than expected at 6 months and continued to improve, providing outcomes that were equivalent to both LANAPTM and MWF at 12 months. The improvement in the SRP quadrants suggests the hypothesis that an aspect of the LANAPTM protocol generated a significant, positive and unanticipated systemic (or trans-oral) effect on sub-gingival wound healing.
Puonti, Helena K; Jääskeläinen, Satu K; Hallikainen, Helena K; Partanen, Taina A
Classic abdominoplasty for a transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction impairs abdominal somatosensory function at the donor site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the type of surgical procedure has an effect on somatosensory alterations of abdominal skin after TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Sixty patients (mean ± SD age, 50 ± 6.0 years) who underwent microvascular TRAM flap breast reconstruction and 20 healthy subjects (control group; mean age, 46 ± 6.7 years) participated in the study. Twenty patients had bilateral-nerve anastomosis, 20 had single-nerve anastomosis, and 20 underwent no nerve dissection for the TRAM flap. Clinical sensory examination and tactile and thermal quantitative sensory testing were performed and a patient questionnaire was administered at a mean of 2 to 4.5 years after surgery. All surgical techniques produced significant sensory impairment below the umbilicus, but there were no significant differences in total sensibility scores between the groups with single-nerve (mean sensibility score, 21.98 ± 2.7) and double-nerve (mean sensibility score, 20.71 ± 3.6) anastomosis of the TRAM flap. The best sensibility scores were found in the group with single-nerve dissection. Fifteen percent of patients complained of mild pain, and 13 percent felt occasional tactile hyperesthesia in their abdominal skin, mostly around the umbilicus and scars. In this study, unilateral or bilateral nerve dissection when preparing and lifting a TRAM flap did not seem to increase sensory alterations or postoperative pain in the abdominal donor site after breast reconstruction surgery. Cautious microneurovascular dissection techniques may even improve sensory recovery of the abdominal skin after TRAM flap breast reconstruction surgery.
Bhat, G. Subraya; Singh, Vishal; Bhat, K. Mahalinga
We report an unusual case of recurrent periodontal abscess in a 31-year-old male electrician due to his habit of using his teeth as a tool for stripping electrical wires. The patient was not aware of the consequences of this habit. Clinically, there was presence of moderate depth of periodontal pocket around the tooth and, radiographically, there was a vertical defect mesial to the involved teeth. The patient was educated about the consequences of his habit and surgical treatment was undertaken. A papilla preservation flap with regenerative periodontal surgical procedure was done, orthodontic and restorative treatment was planned at the follow-up. This case highlights the importance of eliciting a proper and complete personal history, including occupational details. In our patient these details helped us correlate the destruction of the periodontium to the unusual etiology. PMID:22628975
Chambrone, Luiz A; Chambrone, Leandro
The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the reasons for tooth loss in a sample of patients who underwent periodontal therapy and supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) in a Brazilian private periodontal practice. A sample of 120 subjects who had been treated and maintained for 10 years or longer was selected from patients attending a periodontal practice. All patients followed a similar treatment: basic procedures, re-evaluation and periodontal surgery where indicated. Reasons for tooth loss were categorized as periodontal, caries, endodontal, root fractures and extraction of retained or partially erupted third molars. Of the 2927 teeth present at the completion of active periodontal treatment, 53 (1.8%) were lost due to periodontal disease, 16 (0.5%) for root fracture, six (0.2%) to caries, five (0.2%) for endodontic reasons and 31 (1.0%) were lost to extraction of retained or partially erupted third molars. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between five independent variables with tooth loss due to periodontitis. Only age (> 60 years) and smoking were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The findings of this survey were consistent with previous studies. Older subjects and smokers were more susceptible to periodontal tooth loss. In addition, patients with generalized chronic periodontitis were treated and maintained for long-term periods with low rates of tooth loss.
Ting, Darren Shu Jeng; Danjoux, Jean-Pierre
To report three cases of late-onset (7-14 years postoperative) traumatic dislocation of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps with epithelial ingrowth that all had delayed surgical intervention. A retrospective, interventional case series of three patients who underwent flap repositioning and mechanical debridement of epithelial ingrowth, all after an initial delayed diagnosis/treatment of dislocated LASIK flap. Visual improvement was noted in all three cases following LASIK flap repositioning and debridement of epithelial ingrowth; patient 1 improved from 20/800 corrected-distance-visual-acuity (CDVA) to 20/20 uncorrected-distance-visual-acuity (UDVA) postoperative (14 years post-LASIK, 5-week interval between injury and surgery), patient 2 improved from 20/50 CDVA to 20/20 CDVA (10 years post-LASIK, 4-month interval between injury and surgery) and patient 3 improved from 20/80 CDVA to 20/60 CDVA (7 years post-LASIK, 14-month interval between injury and surgery). Flap dislocation was not suspected or diagnosed in two patients during the first ophthalmic visit. Postoperative visual outcome was not influenced by the presenting vision but might be negatively affected by the delay in surgical intervention, the presence of preoperative central epithelial ingrowth and postoperative striae. This case series reported one of the longest documented intervals between LASIK and traumatic dislocation of LASIK flap with secondary epithelial ingrowth. Delayed diagnosis and management of flap dislocation after corneal trauma may potentially increase the risk of epithelial ingrowth, recalcitrant flap striae and visual impairment. The presence of late-onset epithelial ingrowth in patients with previous LASIK mandates careful examination for occult flap displacement.
Huang, Chenyu; Ogawa, Rei
Joint scar contractures are characterized by tight bands of soft tissue that bridge the 2 ends of the joint like a web. Classical treatment methods such as Z-plasties are mainly based on 2-dimensional designs. Our square flap method is an alternative surgical method that restores the span of the web in a stereometric fashion, thereby reconstructing joint function. In total, 20 Japanese patients with joint scar contractures on the axillary (n = 10) or first digital web (n = 10) underwent square flap surgery. The maximum range of motion and commissure length were measured before and after surgery. A theoretical stereometric geometrical model of the square flap was established to compare it to the classical single (60 degree), 4-flap (45 degree), and 5-flap (60 degree) Z-plasties in terms of theoretical web reconstruction efficacy. All cases achieved 100% contracture release. The maximum range of motion and web space improved after square flap surgery (P = 0.001). Stereometric geometrical modeling revealed that the standard square flap (α = 45 degree; β = 90 degree) yields a larger flap area, length/width ratio, and postsurgical commissure length than the Z-plasties. It can also be adapted by varying angles α and β, although certain angle thresholds must be met to obtain the stereometric advantages of this method. When used to treat joint scar contractures, the square flap method can fully span the web space in a stereometric manner, thus yielding a close-to-original shape and function. Compared with the classical Z-plasties, it also provides sufficient anatomical blood supply while imposing the least physiological tension on the adjacent skin.
Background: Joint scar contractures are characterized by tight bands of soft tissue that bridge the 2 ends of the joint like a web. Classical treatment methods such as Z-plasties are mainly based on 2-dimensional designs. Our square flap method is an alternative surgical method that restores the span of the web in a stereometric fashion, thereby reconstructing joint function. Methods: In total, 20 Japanese patients with joint scar contractures on the axillary (n = 10) or first digital web (n = 10) underwent square flap surgery. The maximum range of motion and commissure length were measured before and after surgery. A theoretical stereometric geometrical model of the square flap was established to compare it to the classical single (60 degree), 4-flap (45 degree), and 5-flap (60 degree) Z-plasties in terms of theoretical web reconstruction efficacy. Results: All cases achieved 100% contracture release. The maximum range of motion and web space improved after square flap surgery (P = 0.001). Stereometric geometrical modeling revealed that the standard square flap (α = 45 degree; β = 90 degree) yields a larger flap area, length/width ratio, and postsurgical commissure length than the Z-plasties. It can also be adapted by varying angles α and β, although certain angle thresholds must be met to obtain the stereometric advantages of this method. Conclusions: When used to treat joint scar contractures, the square flap method can fully span the web space in a stereometric manner, thus yielding a close-to-original shape and function. Compared with the classical Z-plasties, it also provides sufficient anatomical blood supply while imposing the least physiological tension on the adjacent skin. PMID:25289342
Li, Bo-Han; Jung, Hun Jong; Choi, Sung-Won; Kim, Soung-Min; Kim, Myung-Jin; Lee, Jong-Ho
The purpose of this study was to consider the indications and evaluate the clinical advantages and disadvantages including, results and complications, of immediate reconstruction using a latissimus dorsi (LD) free flap and reconstruction plate (R-plate) in advanced oro-mandibular tumour resection. Our cohort included 116 patients who underwent LD free flap and R-plate reconstruction. Flap survival, postoperative function, donor/recipient site complication and aesthetics were evaluated. Our series demonstrated a 99.1% flap survival rate. One case required a contralateral LD free flap reconstruction after the initial flap failed due to pedicle kinking. Twelve patients needed the plate to be removed and replaced (n=4, plate fracture; n=2, plate exposure) or definite reconstruction with free fibular flap and implant installation. Donor site complications included seroma accumulation, scarring, and discomfort of the shoulder girdle. The size of the skin paddle ranged from 6 × 10 cm to 12 × 18 cm (12 were double paddled).The facial contour was acceptable without sagging of the flap. The flap was tolerant to irradiation and was resistant to the exposure of the plate at the symphyseal arch. Our series of primary reconstruction with LD free flaps and R-plates showed the retention of mandibular function and the reconstruction of considerably large soft tissue can be achieved successfully. This reconstruction scheme can be indicated for large-volume defects in the oro-mandibular area when the area cannot be covered by a single osteocutaneous free flap, has undergone extensive oncologic resection for advanced or high recurrence rate malignancy and when immediate postoperative chemotherapy and/or irradiation is necessary. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bonomi, Stefano; Salval, André; Brenta, Federica; Rapisarda, Vincenzo; Settembrini, Fernanda
Many procedures have been proposed for the treatment of pressure sores, and V-Y advancement flaps are widely used to repair a defect. Unfortunately, the degree of mobility of a V-Y advancement flap is dependent on the laxity of the underlying subcutaneous tissue. This is an important disadvantage of traditional V-Y advancement flap and limits its use.We used V-Y advancement flaps as perforator-based to overcome mobility restriction problem, with a further modification (Pacman-like shape) to improve the covering surface area of the flap. Between January 2012 and December 2014, the authors used 37 V-Y Pacman perforator-based flaps in 33 consecutive patients for coverage of defects located at sacral (n = 21), ischial (n = 13), trochanter (n = 1) regions. There were 27 male and 6 female patients with a mean age of 49.9 years (range, 15-74 years). All flaps survived completely (92.3%) except 3 in which one of them had undergone total necrosis due to hematoma and the other 2 had partial necrosis. No venous congestion was observed. The mean follow-up period was 14.9 months (range, 2-38 months). No flap surgery-related mortality or recurrence of pressure sores was noted. The V-Y Pacman perforator-based advancement flaps are safe and very effective for reconstruction of pressure sores at various regions. The advantage of our modification procedure include shorter operative time, lesser pedicle dissection, low donor site morbidity, good preservation of muscle, and offers remarkable excursion to the V-Y flap, which make the V-Y Pacman perforator-based flaps an excellent choice for large pressure sore coverage.
Tunç, Süphan; Kesiktas, Erol; Yilmaz, Yeliz; Açikalin, Arbil; Oran, Gökçen; Yavuz, Metin; Gencel, Eyüphan; Eser, Cengiz
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and melatonin, alone and in combination, on McFarlane flap viability in a rat model. METHODS Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups and received daily intraperitoneal injections for one week before surgery: control (sham [n=10]); melatonin (n=10); NAC (n=10); and NAC+melatonin (n=10). One week after surgery, the experiment was terminated and photographs were taken for topographic studies. A transillumination study was performed to observe vascularization in the flaps and biopsies were obtained for histopathological studies. RESULTS Flap viability was significantly greater in the antioxidant- (ie, NAC and melatonin) treated groups compared with the control group; however, there were no significant differences among the groups that received antioxidants. CONCLUSIONS Melatonin and NAC are important antioxidants that can be used alone or in combination to increase flap viability and prevent distal necrosis in rats. PMID:28439512
Mayo, James L.; Allen, Robert J.
Background: In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction when the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap alone does not provide sufficient volume for body-specific reconstruction, stacking each DIEP flap with a second free flap will deliver added volume and maintain a purely autologous reconstruction. Stacking the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap with the DIEP flap offers favorable aesthetics and ideal operative efficiency. We present the indications, technique, and outcomes of our experience with 4-flap breast reconstruction using stacked DIEP/PAP flaps. Methods: The authors performed 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction in 20 patients who required bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. The timing of reconstruction, average mastectomy/flap weights, and operative time are reported. Complications reviewed include fat necrosis, dehiscence, hematoma, seroma, mastectomy flap necrosis, and flap loss. Results: Twenty patients underwent 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction. Surgical time averaged 7 hours and 20 minutes. The primary recipient vessels were the antegrade and retrograde internal mammary vessels. No flap losses occurred. Complications included 1 hematoma, 1 incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis successfully treated with anastomotic revision, 1 incidence of thigh donor site dehiscence, and 3 episodes of minor mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Conclusions: Four-flap breast reconstruction is a favorable autologous reconstructive option for patients requiring bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. Stacking DIEP/PAP flaps as described is both safe and efficient. Furthermore, this combination provides superior aesthetics mirroring the natural geometry of the breast. Bilateral stacked DIEP/PAP flaps represent our first choice for breast reconstruction in this patient population. PMID:26090273
Wei, Na; Gong, Ping; Liao, Dapeng; Yang, Xingmei; Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yurong; Yuan, Quan; Tan, Zhen
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess multilineage differentiation potential and characteristics of self-renewal. It has been reported that MSC can acquire characteristics of cells in the periodontal ligament (PDL) in vitro. Moreover, the transplantation of MSC has been shown to be a promising strategy for treating periodontal defects. However, little is known about the fate of MSC in periodontal tissue in vivo. The aim of this study was to trace the paths of MSC after transplantation into periodontal tissues in vivo. MSC labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were transplanted into periodontal defects of beagle dogs. Six weeks after surgery, the animals were killed and decalcified specimens were prepared. Migration and differentiation of MSC were detected by single/double immunohistochemistry and a combination of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. BrdU-labeled MSC were observed distributing into periodontal tissue that included alveolar bone, PDL, cementum and blood vessels and expressing surface markers typical of osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Cumulatively, our data suggest that MSC migrate throughout periodontal tissue and differentiate into osteoblasts and fibroblasts after transplantation into periodontal defects at 6 weeks in vivo, and have the potential to regenerate periodontal tissue.
Vadachkoriia, N R; Mandzhavidze, N A; Gumberidze, N Sh
Periodontal therapy by means of Vector device directly effects an environment of the tooth. It allows removing sub gingival dental plaque destroying pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins, washing out periodontal pockets carefully and polishing teeth roots. During treatment the hard tissues are not injured and the gum is not injured as well. Efficiency of a new ultrasonic technique in the complex treatment of periodontal diseases was declared. Periodontal therapy with the ultrasonic device leads to clinical improvements. It was found that Vector treatment was effective in the treatment of patients suffering from periodontitis.
Mücke, Thomas; Ritschl, Lucas M; Roth, Maximilian; Güll, Florian D; Rau, Andrea; Grill, Sonja; Kesting, Marco R; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Loeffelbein, Denys J
Microvascular free flaps have become an essential part of reconstructive surgery following head and neck tumour ablation. The authors' aim was to investigate the influence of cardiovascular risk factors, preoperative irradiation, previous operations and metabolically active medication on free flap loss in order to predict patients at risk and to improve their therapy. All patients who underwent reconstructive surgery with microvascular free flaps in the head and neck region between 2009 and 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between possible predictor variables for free flap loss. We included 451 patients in our analysis. The overall free flap failure rate was 4.0%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significantly increased risks of free flap failure depending on prior attempts at microvascular transplants (p < 0.001, OR = 14.21) and length of hospitalisation (p = 0.007, OR = 1.05). With consistently low rates of flap failure, microvascular reconstruction of defects in the head and neck region has proven to be highly reliable, even in patients with comorbidities. The expertise of the operating team seems to remain the main factor affecting flap success. The only discerned independent predictor was previously failed attempts at microvascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kirita, Miho; Sakurai, Hiroyuki
Summary: This study described a technique for reconstruction of a large lateral thoracic region defect after locally advanced breast cancer resection that allows for full coverage of the defect and primary closure of the flap donor site. The authors performed reconstruction using the newly designed 180-degree rotationally-divided latissimus-dorsi-musculocutaneous flap in a 42-year-old woman for coverage of a large skin defect (18 × 15 cm) following extensive tissue resection for locally advanced breast cancer. The latissimus-dorsi-musculocutaneous flap, consisting of two rotated skin islands (18 × 7.5 cm each) that were sutured to form a large skin island, was used for coverage of the defect. The flap was sutured without causing excessive tension in the recipient region and the donor site was closed with simple reefing. No skin grafting was necessary. The flap survived completely, shoulder joint function was intact, and esthetic outcome was satisfactory. Quick wound closure allowed postoperative irradiation to be started 1 month after surgery. The technique offered advantages over the conventional pedicled latissimus-dorsi-musculocutaneous flap, but the flap was unable to be used, when the thoracodorsal artery and vein were damaged during extensive tissue removal. Detailed planning before surgery with breast surgeons would be essential. PMID:25426400
Ziebolz, D; Jahn, C; Pegel, J; Semper-Pinnecke, E; Mausberg, R F; Waldmann-Beushausen, R; Schöndube, F A; Danner, B C
The aim of the study was to detect periodontal pathogens DNA in atrial and myocardial tissue, and to investigate periodontal status and their connection to cardiac tissue inflammation. In 30 patients, biopsy samples were taken from the atrium (A) and the ventricle myocardium (M) during aortic valve surgery. The dental examination included the dental and periodontal status (PS) and a collection of a microbiological sample. The detection of 11 periodontal pathogens DNA in oral and heart samples was carried out using PCR. The heart samples were prepared for detecting the LPS-binding protein (LBP), and for inflammation scoring on immunohistochemistry (IHC), comprising macrophages (CD68), LPS-binding protein receptor (CD14), and LBP (big42). 28 (93%) patients showed moderate to severe periodontitis. The periodontal pathogens in the oral samples of all patients revealed a similar distribution (3-93%). To a lesser extent and with a different distribution, these bacteria DNA were also detected in atrium and myocardium (3-27%). The LBP was detected in higher amount in atrium (0.22±0.16) versus myocardium (0.13±0.13, p=0.001). IHC showed a higher inflammation score in atrial than myocardial tissue as well as for CD14, CD68 and for LBP. Additional, periodontal findings showed a significant correlation to CD14 and CD68. The results provide evidence of the occurrence of oral bacteria DNA at the cardiac tissue, with a different impact on atrial and myocardial tissue inflammation. Influence of periodontal findings was identified, but their relevance is not yet distinct. Therefore further clinical investigations with long term implication are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz
Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases.
Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A.; Zugck, Christian
Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136
Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The etiology is clearly bacterial and a number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the identification of health-associated and potentially beneficial bacterial species that may reside in the gingival sulcus. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by using natural beneficial bacteria, commonly found in healthy mouths, to provide a natural defense against those bacteria which are thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. This article endeavors to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics. PMID:22514571
Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The etiology is clearly bacterial and a number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the identification of health-associated and potentially beneficial bacterial species that may reside in the gingival sulcus. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by using natural beneficial bacteria, commonly found in healthy mouths, to provide a natural defense against those bacteria which are thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. This article endeavors to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics.
Colombo, Ana Paula V.; Boches, Susan K.; Cotton, Sean L.; Goodson, J. Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Paster, Bruce J.
Aim This study compared the subgingival microbiota of subjects with refractory periodontitis (RP) to those in subjects with treatable periodontitis (GR) or periodontal health (PH) using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Methods At baseline, subgingival plaque samples were taken from 47 periodontitis and 20 PH individuals, and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM. The periodontitis subjects were classified as RP (n=17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or >3 sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after SRP, surgery and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GR (n=30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after treatment. Significant differences in taxa among groups were sought using the Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square tests. Results More species were detected in diseased patients (GR or RP) than those without disease (PH). RP subjects were distinguished from GR and PH by a significantly high frequency of putative periodontal pathogens such as, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., Eikenella corrodens, as well as “unusual” species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon (OT) 346/356, Bacteroidetes spp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium tidmidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) [p<0.05]. Species that were more prevalent in PH than in periodontitis patients included Actinomyces sp. OT 170, Actinomyces spp. cluster I, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis, Propionibacterium propionicum, Rothia dentocariosa
Subramaniam, Shiva; Sharp, David; Jardim, Christopher; Batstone, Martin D
Methods of free flap monitoring have become more sophisticated and expensive. This study aims to determine the cost of free flap monitoring and examine its cost effectiveness. We examined a group of patients who had had free flaps to the head and neck over a two-year period, and combined these results with costs obtained from business managers and staff. There were 132 free flaps with a success rate of 99%. The cost of monitoring was Aus $193/flap. Clinical monitoring during this time period cost Aus$25 476 and did not lead to the salvage of any free flaps. Cost equivalence is reached between monitoring and not monitoring only at a failure rate of 15.8%. This is to our knowledge the first study to calculate the cost of clinical monitoring of free flaps, and to examine its cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.
Chen, Shao-Liang; Chiou, Tai-Fung
The boomerang flap originates from the dorsolateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit and is supplied by the retrograde blood flow through the vascular arcades between the dorsal and palmar digital arteries. To provide sensation of the boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction, the dorsal sensory branch of the proper digital nerve and the superficial sensory branch of the corresponding radial or ulnar nerve are included within the skin flap. After transfer of the flap to the injured site, epineural neurorrhaphies are done between the digital nerves of the pulp and the sensory branches of the flap. We used this sensory flap in five patients, with more than 1 year follow-up, and all patients achieved measurable two-points discrimination. The boomerang flap not only preserves the proper palmar digital artery but also provides an extended and innervated skin paddle. It seems to be an alternative choice for one-stage reconstruction of major pulp defect.
Koh, Kyung S; Park, Sung Woo; Oh, Tae Suk; Choi, Jong Woo
Flap survival is essential for the success of soft-tissue reconstruction. Accordingly, various surgical and medical methods aim to increase flap survival. Because flap survival is affected by the innate vascular supply, traditional preconditioning methods mainly target vasodilatation or vascular reorientation to increase blood flow to the tissue. External stress on the skin, such as an external volume expander or cupping, induces vascular remodeling, and these approaches have been used in the fat grafting field and in traditional Asian medicine. In the present study, we used a rat random-pattern dorsal flap model to study the effectiveness of preconditioning with an externally applied device (cupping) at the flap site that directly applied negative pressure to the skin. The device, the pressure-controlled cupping, is connected to negative pressure vacuum device providing accurate pressure control from 0 mm Hg to -200 mm Hg. Flap surgery was performed after preconditioning under -25 mm Hg suction pressure for 30 min a day for 5 d, followed by 9 d of postoperative observation. Flap survival was assessed as the area of viable tissue and was compared between the preconditioned group and a control group. The preconditioned group showed absolute percentage increase of flap viability relative to the entire flap by 19.0± 7.6% (average 70.1% versus 51.0%). Tissue perfusion of entire flap, evaluated by laser Doppler imaging system, was improved with absolute percentage increase by 24.2± 10.4% (average 77.4% versus 53.1%). Histologic analysis of hematoxylin and eosin, CD31, and Masson-trichrome staining showed increased vascular density in the subdermal plexus and more organized collagen production with hypertrophy of the attached muscle. Our study suggests that flap preconditioning caused by controlled noninvasive suction induces vascular remodeling that increases tissue perfusion and improves flap survival in a rat model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights
İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye
Background Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. Aims This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. Results The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Mean vessel diameter was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Conclusion We have determined that, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, R. officinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival. PMID:27994918
Herrera, D; Roldán, S; Sanz, M
The periodontal abscess is a frequent periodontal condition in which periodontal tissues may be rapidly destroyed. Its importance is based on the possible need of urgent care, the affectation of tooth prognosis, and the possibility of infection spreading. There is scant information in the scientific literature regarding this condition and most of it has been published as case reports and text books, where conclusions are not evidence-based, but rather empirical observations made by recognised clinicians. The aim of this review was to critically analyse all available information on this subject in the dental and medical literature, including information on its prevalence, proposed etiologies and pathogenesis, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment alternatives. The periodontal abscess is the 3rd most frequent dental emergency, and it is specially prevalent among untreated periodontal patients and periodontal patients during maintenance. Different etiologies have been proposed, and 2 main groups can be distinguished, depending on its relation with periodontal pockets. In the case of a periodontitis-related abscess, the condition may appear as an exacerbation of a non-treated periodontitis or during the course of periodontal therapy. In non-periodontitis related abscesses, impaction of foreign objects, and radicular abnormalities are the 2 main causes. The abscess microflora seems to be similar to that of adult periodontitis, and it is dominated by gram-negative anaerobic rods, including well-known periodontal pathogens. Complications and consequences include tooth loss and the spread of the infection to other body sites. Diagnosis and treatment is mainly based on empiricism, since evidence-based data are not available. The role of systemic antibiotics, in the treatment of periodontal abscesses, is especially controversial.
Yoshimasu, Hidemi; Sato, Yutaka; Mishimagi, Takashi; Negishi, Akihide
Background: Velopharyngeal function is very important for patients with cleft palate to acquire good speech. For patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, prosthetic speech appliances and speech therapy are applied first, and then pharyngeal flap surgery to improve velopharyngeal function is performed in our hospital. The folded pharyngeal flap operation was first reported by Isshiki and Morimoto in 1975. We usually use a modification of the original method. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to introduce our method of the folded pharyngeal flap operation and report the results. Materials and Methods: The folded pharyngeal flap operation was performed for 110 patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency from 1982 to 2010. Of these, the 97 whose postoperative speech function was evaluated are reported. The cases included 61 males and 36 females, ranging in age from 7 to 50 years. The time from surgery to speech assessment ranged from 5 months to 6 years. In order to evaluate preoperative velopharyngeal function, assessment of speech by a trained speech pathologist, nasopharyngoscopy, and cephalometric radiography with contrast media were performed before surgery, and then the appropriate surgery was selected and performed. Postoperative velopharyngeal function was assessed by a trained speech pathologist. Results: Of the 97 patients who underwent the folded pharyngeal flap operation, 85 (87.6%) showed velopharyngeal competence, 8 (8.2%) showed marginal velopharyngeal incompetence, and only 2 (2.1%) showed velopharyngeal incompetence; in 2 cases (2.1%), hyponasality was present. Approximately 95% of patients showed improved velopharyngeal function. Conclusions: The folded pharyngeal flap operation based on appropriate preoperative assessment has been shown to be an effective method for the treatment of cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency. PMID:26389036
Ferraiolo, Debra M
Cochrane Library, Ovid, Medline, Embase and LILACS were searched using no language restrictions and included information up to July 2014. Bibliographic references of included articles and related review articles were hand searched. On-line hand searching of recent issues of key periodontal journals was performed (Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Dental Research, Journal of Periodontal Research, Journal of Periodontology, Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry). Prospective and retrospective cohort studies were used for answering the question of prediction since there were no randomised controlled trials on this topic. Risk of bias was assessed using the validated Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for non-randomised studies. Cross-sectional studies were included in the summary of currently reported risk assessment tools but not for risk of progression of disease, due to the inability to properly assess bias in these types of studies. Titles and abstracts were scanned by two reviewers independently.Full reports were obtained for those articles meeting inclusion criteria or those with insufficient information in the title to make a decision. Any published risk assessment tool was considered. The tool was defined to include any composite measure of patient-level risk directed towards determining the probability for further disease progression in adults with periodontitis. Periodontitis was defined to include both chronic and aggressive forms in the adult population. Outcomes included changes in attachment levels and/or deepening of periodontal pockets in millimeters in study populations undergoing supportive periodontal therapy. Data extraction was performed independently and in collaboration by two reviewers; completed evidence tables were reviewed by three reviewers. Studies were each given a descriptive summary to assess the quantity of data as well as further assessment of study variations within study characteristics. This also allowed for
Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Donnelly, M.
Aquatic animals like fish use flapping caudal fins to produce axial and cross-stream forces. During WW2, German scientists had built and tested an underwater vehicle powered by similar flapping foils. We have examined the forces produced by a pair of flapping foils. We have examined the forced produced by a pair of flapping foils attached to the tail end of a small axisymmetric cylinder. The foils operate in-phase (called waving), or in anti-phase (called clapping). In a low-speed water tunnel, we have undertaken time-dependent measurements of axial and cross-stream forces and moments that are exerted by the vortex shedding process over the entire body. Phase-matched LDV measurements of vorticity-velocity vectors, as well as limited flow visualization of the periodic vortex shedding process have also been carried out. The direction of the induced velocity within a pair of shed vortices determines the nature of the forces produced, viz., thrust or drag or cross-stream forces. The clapping mode produces a widely dispersed symmetric array of vortices which results in axial forces only (thrust and rag). On the other hand, the vortex array is staggered in the waving mode and cross-stream (maneuvering) forces are then generated.
Jalikop, Shreyas; Sreenivas, K. R.
At present, there is a strong interest in developing Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for applications like disaster management and aerial surveys. At these small length scales, the flight of insects and small birds suggests that unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings can offer many advantages over fixed wing flight, such as hovering-flight, high maneuverability and high lift at large angles of attack. Various lift generating mechanims such as delayed stall, wake capture and wing rotation contribute towards our understanding of insect flight. We address the effect of asymmetric flapping of wings on lift production. By visualising the flow around a pair of rectangular wings flapping in a water tank and numerically computing the flow using a discrete vortex method, we demonstrate that net lift can be produced by introducing an asymmetry in the upstroke-to-downstroke velocity profile of the flapping wings. The competition between generation of upstroke and downstroke tip vortices appears to hold the key to understanding this lift generation mechanism.
de Sanctis, Massimo; Goracci, Cecilia; Zucchelli, Giovanni
Over the last few decades, many authors have investigated the effect of periodontal disease and treatment on pulpal status with controversial results. This study was conducted to verify whether periodontal disease in a deep intrabony defect and complex therapy, including aggressive root planing such as in periodontal regeneration, have an influence on tooth vitality. One hundred thirty-seven patients who fulfilled the requirements were included. The collected data did not support the need for "preventive" root canal treatment in severely compromised teeth that are planned to undergo periodontal regenerative surgery.
Sambhav, Jain; Rohit, Rai; Ranjana, Mohan; Shalabh, Mehrotra
Multirooted teeth offer unique and challenging problems due to the furcation area, creates situations in which routine periodontal procedures are somewhat limited and special procedures are generally required. The present case was showing the management of grade II furcation defect by platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and β-Tricalcium phosphate with coronally advanced flap. Platelet rich fibrin and β-Tricalcium phosphate with coronally advanced flap have been shown to be a promising and successful approach for the treatment of furcation defect. Its gaining clinical attachment significantly manages both the gingival recession and furcation involvement simultaneously.
Mazzaferro, Daniel; Song, Ping; Massand, Sameer; Mirmanesh, Michael; Jaiswal, Rohit; Pu, Lee L Q
The omental flap has a rich history of use over the last century, and specifically as a free flap in the last four decades. It has a wide variety of applications in reconstructive surgery and has shown itself to be a reliable donor tissue. We seek to review the properties that make the omental free flap a valuable tool in reconstruction, as well as its many surgical applications in all anatomic regions of the body. We conducted a narrative review of the literature on Medline and Google Scholar. We reviewed basic science articles discussing the intrinsic properties of omental tissue, along with clinical papers describing its applications. The omental free flap is anatomically suitable for harvest and wound coverage and has molecular properties that promote healing and improve function at recipient sites. It has demonstrated utility in a wide variety of reconstructive procedures spanning the head and neck, extremities, and viscera and for several purposes, including wound coverage, lymphedema treatment, and vascularization. It is also occasionally employed in the thoracic cavity and chest wall, though more often as a pedicled flap. More novel uses include its use for cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The omental free flap is a valuable option for reconstructive efforts in nearly all anatomic regions. This is a result of its inherent anatomy and vascularity, and its angiogenic, immunogenic, and lymphatic properties. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Kalra, G S; Bedi, Mitesh; Barala, Vipin Kumar
Background: Large post burn scars are a very difficult problem to treat. Available methods include skin grafts and tissue expansion. The reconstructive method used should be tailored according to individual patient rather than following a textbook approach in each. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done of cases with extensive facial burn scars in whom secondary reconstruction was done with either free parascapular flap cover or tissue expansion and flap advancement following facial burn scar excision by a single surgeon (GSK) in Department of Burns, Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Results: A total of 15 patients with free parascapular flap and 15 patients with tissue expansion followed by flap advancement were analyzed in the group. There were no free flap failures, but 2 patients required skin graft at donor site. In patients undergoing tissue expansion, minor complication was noted in 1 patient. Conclusion: Tissue expansion is a useful technique in reconstruction of post burn scars, but has its limitations, especially in patients with extensive burns in head and neck region with limited local tissue availability. Parascapular free flap may provide a good alternative option for reconstruction in such cases. PMID:28804686
Kostro, Justyna; Jankau, Jerzy; Bigda, Justyna; Skorek, Andrzej
The number of breast reconstruction procedures has been increasing in recent years. One of the suggested treatment methods is breast reconstruction with a pedicled skin and muscle TRAM flap (transverse rectus abdominis muscle – TRAM). Surgical incisions performed during a cholecystectomy procedure may be located in the areas significant for flap survival. The aim of this paper is to present anatomical changes in abdominal walls secondary to pedicled skin and muscle (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction, which influence the planned access in cholecystectomy procedures. The authors present 2 cases of cholecystectomy performed due to cholelithiasis in female patients with a history of TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedures. The first patient underwent a traditional method of surgery 14 days after the reconstruction due to acute cholecystitis. The second patient underwent a laparoscopy due to cholelithiasis 7 years after the TRAM procedure. In both cases an abdominal ultrasound scan was performed prior to the operation, and surgical access was determined following consultation with a plastic surgeon. The patient who had undergone traditional cholecystectomy developed an infection of the postoperative wound. The wound was treated with antibiotics, vacuum therapy and skin grafting. After 7 weeks complete postoperative wound healing and correct healing of the TRAM flap were achieved. The patient who had undergone laparoscopy was discharged home on the second postoperative day without any complications. In order to plan a safe surgical access, it is necessary to know the changes in the anatomy of abdominal walls following a pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedure. PMID:25337177
Sarukawa, Shunji; Kamochi, Hideaki; Noguchi, Tadahide; Sunaga, Ataru; Uda, Hirokazu; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Nishino, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Kotaro
Anteromedial maxillectomy is typically performed in conjunction with low-dose radiotherapy and intraarterial chemotherapy. In doing so, the extent of surgical defects is reduced. However, nasal deviation and oral incompetence may ensue, due to cicatricial contracture of wounds, and may be distressing to these patients. Herein, we report a series of eight free perforator flap procedures (anterolateral thigh [ALT] flap, 6; thoracodorsal artery perforator [TAP] flap, 2) used to correct such deformities. The TAP flap was combined with scapular tip [ST] osseous flap in patients with added zygomatic prominence defects. Three adipocutaneous parts developed from each perforator flap were applied as follows: two to reconstruct nasal lining and oral vestibule, and one to augment cheek volume. All aesthetic results proved satisfactory, although orbital dystopia and contracture of mimic muscles were not resolved completely. These secondary interventions are suitable for sequelae of simple anteromedial maxillectomy. Immediate reconstruction should be considered if orbital floor and mimic muscles are involved. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guzzini, Matteo; Guidi, Marco; Civitenga, Carolina; Ferri, Germano; Ferretti, Andrea
Introduction. The vascularized corticoperiosteal flap is harvested from the medial femoral condyle and it is nourished by the articular branch of the descending genicular artery and the superomedial genicular artery. This flap is usually harvested as a free flap for the reconstruction of bone defects at forearm, distal radius, carpus, hand, and recently at lower limb too. Case Report. A 50-year-old Caucasian man referred to our department for hypertrophic nonunion of the distal femur, refractory to the conservative treatments. The first surgical choice was the revision of the nail and the bone reconstruction with a corticoperiosteal pedicled flap from the medial femoral condyle. We considered union to have occurred 3.5 months after surgery when radiographs showed bridging of at least three of the four bony cortices and clinically the patient was able to walk with full weight bearing without any pain. At the last follow-up (25 months), the patient was completely satisfied with the procedure. Discussion. The corticoperiosteal flap allows a faster healing of fractures with a minimal morbidity at the donor site. We suggest that the corticoperiosteal pedicled flap graft is a reliable and effective treatment for distal femur nonunion. PMID:27064589
Shan, Xiao-Feng; Li, Ru-Huang; Lu, Xu-Guang; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jian-Guo
Fibular osteoseptocutaneous flap has been widely used for unilateral mandibular reconstruction. However, reports about the effects of fibular osteoseptocutaneous flap for the reconstruction of bilateral mandibular defects are limited. In this study, we used free vascularized fibular flaps to successfully manage bilateral mandibular osteoradionecrosis(ORN) in 5 patients. Functional aspects were evaluated during the reconstruction process. All 5 patients had bilateral refractory ORN of the mandible and underwent radical resection between 2003 and 2011. The reconstruction surgery was performed in 2 stages using 2 free fibular flaps in 3 patients. In the other 2 patients, reconstruction was performed in a single stage using 2 separate flaps prepared from a single fibula. All patients had a healthy mandibular symphysis and meniscus of the temporomandibular joint, and these structures were preserved during the reconstruction.Of the 10 defects involving the mandible sides, 9 were successfully reconstructed. One microvascular composite flap failed because of radiation injury to the arterial endothelium at the recipient site. After the treatments, all patients had good esthetic and functional outcomes. Preoperative clinical features such as trismus and dysphagia were also markedly improved. Our surgical method may be an effective alternative for the clinical management of advanced bilateral mandibular ORN.
Caffesse, Raúl G; de la Rosa, Manuel; Mota, Luis F
Periodontitis is characterized by the formation of periodontal pockets and bone loss. Although the basic treatment emphasizes the control of bacterial plaque, the clinician is confronted with the need to correct soft and/or hard tissue defects that develop as a consequence of the disease. This article reviews the current status of regenerative approaches in treating soft and hard tissue defects (based mainly on findings from our own laboratory) and assessed the global applicability of these procedures. Many different techniques have been suggested to treat those defects with, in general, a high degree of success. From the present knowledge it can be concluded that periodontal soft and hard tissue regeneration is possible. Treatment of areas with localized gingival recession or insufficient keratinized gingiva can be achieved with soft tissue grafts or pedicle flaps, as well as with the use of dermal allografts. The treatment of hard tissue defects around teeth and implants can be approached using different types of bone grafts, guided tissue or bone regeneration, or a combination of these. The predictability of many of these therapies, however, still needs to be improved. Since most of these techniques are sensitive, specific, and expensive, their present universal application is limited.
A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…
Graziani, Filippo; Karapetsa, Dimitra; Alonso, Bettina; Herrera, David
Treatment of periodontitis aims at preventing further disease progression with the intentions to reduce the risk of tooth loss, minimize symptoms and perception of the disease, possibly restore lost periodontal tissue and provide information on maintaining a healthy periodontium. Therapeutic intervention includes introduction of techniques to change behavior, such as: individually tailored oral-hygiene instructions; a smoking-cessation program; dietary adjustment; subgingival instrumentation to remove plaque and calculus; local and systemic pharmacotherapy; and various types of surgery. No single treatment option has shown superiority, and virtually all types of mechanical periodontal treatment benefit from adjunctive antimicrobial chemotherapy. Periodontal treatment, because of the chronic nature of periodontitis, is a lifelong commitment to intricate oral-hygiene techniques, which, when properly implemented, will minimize the risk of disease initiation and progression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhao, Ming; Jin, Qiming; Berry, Janice E.; Nociti, Francisco H.; Giannobile, William V.; Somerman, Martha J.
Background Predictable periodontal regeneration following periodontal disease is a major goal of therapy. The objective of this proof of concept investigation was to evaluate the ability of cementoblasts and dental follicle cells to promote periodontal regeneration in a rodent periodontal fenestration model. Methods The buccal aspect of the distal root of the first mandibular molar was denuded of its periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum, and superficial dentin through a bony window created bilaterally in 12 athymic rats. Treated defects were divided into three groups: 1) carrier alone (PLGA polymer sponges), 2) carrier + follicle cells, and 3) carrier + cementoblasts. Cultured murine primary follicle cells and immortalized cementoblasts were delivered to the defects via biodegradable PLGA polymer sponges, and mandibulae were retrieved 3 weeks and 6 weeks post-surgery for histological evaluation. In situ hybridization, for gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN), and histomorphometric analysis were further done on 3-week specimens. Results Three weeks after surgery, histology of defects treated with carrier alone indicated PLGA particles, fibrous tissue, and newly formed bone scattered within the defect area. Defects treated with carrier + follicle cells had a similar appearance, but with less formation of bone. In contrast, in defects treated with carrier + cementoblasts, mineralized tissues were noted at the healing site with extension toward the root surface, PDL region, and laterally beyond the buccal plate envelope of bone. No PDL-bone fibrous attachment was observed in any of the groups at this point. In situ hybridization showed that the mineralized tissue formed by cementoblasts gave strong signals for both BSP and OCN genes, confirming its nature as cementum or bone. The changes noted at 3 weeks were also observed at 6 weeks. Cementoblast-treated and carrier alone-treated defects exhibited complete bone bridging and PDL formation
Hassan, Khalid S; Marei, Hesham F; Alagl, Adel S
This study was designed to evaluate the use of xenograft plus a membrane as grafting material for periodontal osseous defects distal to the mandibular second molar compared with nongrafted extraction sites after removal of impacted mandibular third molars. We performed a single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, and the sample comprised of subjects at high risk for the development of periodontal osseous defects distal to the second molar after third molar extraction (aged 30-35 years), pre-existing osseous defects distal to the second molar, and horizontal third molar impaction. The predictor variable was the treatment status of the second molar osseous defects. The third molar extraction sites were grafted with an anorganic xenograft plus a membrane. The other sites received a full-thickness flap and extraction of the third molar without placement of the grafting materials. The outcome variables were the change in gingival index, pocket probing depth, and clinical attachment level on the distobuccal aspect of the second molar preoperatively and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Data were statistically analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance, and the statistical significance was set at P < .05. The study was composed of 28 sites that were selected by use of a split-mouth design for each patient, and this was randomly determined through a biased coin randomization. Twelve months after third molar removal, there was a statistically significant gain in the clinical attachment level and a reduction in the probing pocket depth in the grafted sites compared with the nongrafted sites (P < .001). Moreover, there was a significant difference in the alveolar bone height during the monitoring periods for the grafted sites compared with the nongrafted sites (P < .001). Grafting of osseous defects distal to mandibular second molars with an anorganic xenograft plus a membrane predictably resulted in a significant reduction in the probing pocket depth
Cherubino, Mario; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Battaglia, Paolo; Giudice, Marco; Pellegatta, Igor; Tamborini, Federico; Maggiulli, Francesca; Guzzetti, Luca; Di Giovanna, Danilo; Bignami, Maurizio; Calati, Carolina; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Valdatta, Luigi
Complex cranio-orbito-facial defects after skull base cancers resection entail a functional and esthetic reconstruction. The introduction of endoscopic assisted techniques for excision surgery with the advances in reconstructive surgery and anesthesiology allowed to improve the management of such critical patients. We report a series of chimeric anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps used to reconstruct complex cranio-orbital-facial defects after skull base surgery. A retrospective review of patients that underwent cranio-orbito-facial reconstruction using a chimeric ALT flap from March 2013 to October 2015 at a single tertiary care referral Institute was performed. All patients were affected by locally-advanced malignant tumor and the resulting defects involved the skull base in all cases. The ALT flaps were perforator-based flaps with different components: fascia, skin and muscle. The different flap territories had independent vascular supply and were independent of any physical interconnection except where linked by a common source vessel. Ten patients were included in the study. Three patients underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and to chemotherapy. The mean hospitalization time was 21 days (range, 8-24 days). One failure was observed. After a mean follow-up of 12.4 months, 3 patients died of the disease, 2 are alive with disease, while 5 patients (50%) are currently alive without evidence of disease. Chimeric ALT flap is a reliable and versatile reconstructive option for complex cranio-orbito-facial defects resulting from skull base surgery. The chimeric flap composed of different territories proved to be adequate for a patient-tailored three-dimensional reconstruction of the defects as well as able to resist to the postoperative adjuvant treatments. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allensworth, Jordan J; Troob, Scott H; Weaver, Tyler S; Gonzalez, Javier D; Petrisor, Daniel; Wax, Mark K
Acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFS) is a frequently fatal infection for which extensive and debilitating surgical debridement is a mainstay of therapy. Resulting defects are often composite in nature, mandating free tissue-transfer reconstruction. Outcomes data for free flap reconstruction are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine surgical outcomes and survival in patients undergoing free flap transfer following invasive fungal sinusitis. Retrospective case series. Between 1995 and 2015, patients undergoing operative debridement for AIFS were identified. Surgical records were used to identify survivors of acute infection who subsequently underwent free flap reconstructive surgery. Patient demographics, cause of immune compromise, defect description, flap type, perioperative complications, indications for revision surgery, functional outcomes, and long-term survival were reviewed. Forty-four patients were treated for AIFS, of those, 30 (68%) survived acute infection. Ten patients underwent maxillectomy, six with orbital exenteration, and were designated candidates for reconstruction. Eight patients underwent reconstruction. Median time from debridement to reconstruction was 67.5 days. Flap types included latissimus dorsi, scapula, anterolateral thigh, rectus, radial forearm, and fibula. Median follow-up was 7.7 months. No perioperative complications were encountered, and all subjects remained disease-free, able to speak and eat normally without prosthetic supplementation. Seven patients (87%) are currently alive. Reconstruction of defects left by invasive fungal sinusitis using free-tissue transfer resulted in successful flap survival, with no disease recurrence for all defects and flap types reviewed. Survivors of AIFS are able to tolerate midface reconstruction, with favorable functional outcomes and survival rates. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:815-819, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Karimipour, Mojtaba; Amanzade, Vahid; Jabbari, Nasrollah; Farjah, Gholam Hossein
Skin flap necrosis due to inadequate blood supply has remained a common postoperative problem in constructive surgery. As low-dose irradiation (LDI) has been shown to promote the wound-healing process, this study aims to investigate whether LDI could increase neovascularization and skin flap survival in rats. McFarlane flaps were created in 21 male rats, which were divided into one control and two treatment groups (Ta and Tb). The treatment groups received a whole body single dose of 100cGy gamma ray irradiation before (Tb) and after (Ta) flap surgery. The flap survival area was evaluated after seven days. The skin samples were collected for histological analysis and determining the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using the immunohistochemical method. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined with the kit. The mean areas of flap survival were 56.7±3.24, 61.7±2.6, and 66.5±3.82 in the control, Tb, and Ta groups, respectively. There were significant differences between the Tb and Ta groups in comparison with the control group (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Compared with the control group (8.0±0.73), the mean numbers of the blood vessels in the Ta group (22±1.24) and the Tb group (14±1.29) were significantly higher (P<0.001 and P<0.01). Moreover, the mean numbers of the VEGF-positive cells in the Ta group (4.5±1.04) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control group (2.5±0.83). However, no significant differences in the MDA levels were observed among the groups. The findings of this study suggest that LDI has the potential to promote neovascularization to improve flap survival. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jackson, Colette M; Nguyen, Michelle; Mancini, Ronald
To examine a novel technique for periocular skin graft and flap stabilization using cyanoacrylate glue applied to the host bed around the perimeter of the graft or flap to create an immobile cast in the immediate postoperative period to promote successful graft take and stable anatomic position. Retrospective review was performed of a single surgeon's patients who underwent periocular skin graft or flap between August 1, 2011, and February 29, 2016, in which cyanoacrylate glue was applied postoperatively for graft stabilization. Data examined included indication for procedure, location and size of graft, postoperative complications, and length of follow up postoperatively. Of 164 cases reviewed, 9 cases were identified in which cyanoacrylate glue was used as the sole means of graft or flap stabilization. Indications for surgery included repair of cicatricial ectropion (3 cases) and repair of Mohs defect status after excision of basal or squamous cell carcinoma (6 cases). All cases involved reformation of the lower eyelid. Five cases employed full-thickness skin grafts and 4 cases employed adjacent tissue rearrangement. Size of defect repaired ranged from 8 mm to 35 mm when largest diameter was measured. Complications included mild residual ectropion or mild punctal ectropion in 2 patients who was asymptomatic and did not require further surgery. No cases were complicated by hematoma, infection, or graft necrosis. Cyanoacrylate glue can be used to successfully stabilize skin grafts and flaps in the immediate postoperative period.
Basal cell carcinomas commonly involve the medial canthal region and reconstruction of medial canthal defects is a challenging problem in reconstructive surgery. A new axial pattern flap raised from radix nasi region has been successfully used for the medial canthal defects in eight patients in figure-of-eight manner. One of the ellipses of the figure of eight is the defect, the other is the radix nasi flap. The radix nasi flap with a dimension up to 25 mm is transposed to the defect based either on ipsilateral anastomosis of the dorsal nasal artery with angular artery (AA) or with the connection of its source artery (i.e. ophthalmic artery) if the AA is damaged. All flaps survived and no tumour recurrence was observed. The donor sites were closed primarily and hidden at the radix nasi crease in all cases. The radix nasi flap in figure-of-eight fashion is good alternative for defects of the medial canthal area in terms of attaining a suitable colour and texture and minimal surgical scars. Copyright 2009 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creagh, Terrence A; Dixon, Liane; Frizelle, Frank A
Pelvic extenuative surgery produces good long term outcomes in advanced pelvic malignancies. We evaluate the use and clinical outcomes of the Vertical Rectus Abdominus Myocutaenous (VRAM) flap as a reconstruction technique in a heterogenic cohort of patients with advanced colorectal cancer in whom neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy had been performed pre-operatively. Analysis of patients having VRAM flaps for pelvic reconstruction in a tertiary referral centre from 2001 to 2010 was conducted. 37 patients (23 female, 14 male) underwent pelvic extenuative surgery of which 22 (60%) had recurrent pelvic disease. All surgical and medical complications were analysed. Major flap complications were defined as 'requiring return to the operating theatre at any stage' and these occurred in 6 (16%) patients. There were 7 (19%) minor flap complications defined as 'requiring conservative non surgical treatment' The total global re-intervention rate of patients requiring return to theatre for re-operation as a result of their exenteration and reconstruction was 6 (16%). We highlight the merits and versatility of the VRAM flap in advanced pelvic malignancy in obtaining stable and supple reconstructive cover and the relative low morbidity in this difficult group confirms out strong support for immediate VRAM reconstruction in pelvic exenterative procedures. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuran, Ismail; Öreroğlu, Ali Rıza; Efendioğlu, Kamran
An important consideration in rhinoplasty is maintenance of the applied tip rotation. Different techniques have been proposed to accomplish this. Loss of rotation after surgery not only results in a derotated tip but also