Soheilifar, Sara; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Faradmal, Javad; Soheilifar, Sanaz
It has been claimed that periodontal dressing reduces the risk of wound infection, bleeding and granulation tissue formation and improves tissue healing. This study sought to assess the effect of periodontal dressing on wound healing and patient satisfaction following periodontal flap surgery. This clinical trial was conducted on 33 patients presenting to Hamadan University, School of Dentistry in 2012 whose treatment plan included two periodontal surgical procedures on both quadrants of the maxilla or mandible. The variables evaluated were severity of pain, bleeding, facial swelling and ease of nutrition experienced by patient during the first 3 days after surgery and inflammation, granulation tissue formation and gingival color at 7 and 14 days. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and R software and chi-square and t-tests. The mean (±SD) pain score was 1.73±1.153 and 2.79±1.933 in surgical sites with and without periodontal dressing, respectively and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.005). No significant difference was noted between sites with and without periodontal dressing in terms of swelling, bleeding, gingival consistency, granulation tissue formation, gingival color and ease of nutrition (P>0.05). According to the results of the present study, patients did not experience more bleeding, facial swelling or nutritional problems without periodontal dressing; however, the level of pain experienced was lower after surgeries with the use of periodontal dressing.
Purpose The National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort and medical checkup data from 2002 to 2013 were used to evaluate the association between periodontal surgery for the treatment of periodontitis (PSTP) and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED). Methods Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to a longitudinal retrospective database to assess the association between PSTP and VED while adjusting for the potential confounding effects of sociodemographic factors (age, household income, insurance status, health status, residence area, and smoking status) and comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, cerebral infarction, and myocardial infarction). Results Among the 7,148 PSTP within the 268,296 recruited subjects, the overall prevalence of VED in PSTP was 1.43% (n=102). The bivariate analysis showed that VED was significantly related to PSTP (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38–2.06; P<0.001), and this was confirmed in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.58; P=0.002). Conclusions Subjects with a history of periodontal flap surgery had a significantly higher risk of VED, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Further studies are required to identify the key mechanisms underlying the association between severe periodontal disease and VED. PMID:28462008
de Sanctis, Massimo; Clementini, Marco
To identify critical elements in design and execution of coronally advanced flap, lateral positioned flap and their variations for the treatment of facial gingival recessions or peri-implant soft tissue dehiscences. Clinical studies were identified with both electronic and hand searches, and examined for the following aspects: flap design and incision techniques, flap elevation, root conditioning, flap mobility, flap stability and suturing. Moreover, prognostic factors for complete recession coverage were identified. Some critical elements are evident in flap design and execution: the dimension and the thickness of tissue positioned over the denuded roots; the use on root surface of enamel matrix derivate; the stability and suturing of the flap in a position coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. The pre-determination of the clinical cemento-enamel junction, smoking status, operator surgical skills and the compliance to a supportive care programme have a role in obtaining and maintaining a complete root coverage. Different flap approaches are available when performing periodontal plastic surgery, resulting in a great variability in clinical outcomes. The possibility of using pedicle flaps alone to achieve complete soft tissue coverage of facial implant dehiscence has not yet been investigated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Imamura, Kentaro; Okamura, Yuri; Matsumoto, Yasugi; Mashimo, Yuko; Tomita, Sachiyo; Sugito, Hiroki; Saito, Atsushi
We report a case of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) requiring periodontal treatment including flap surgery and ridge augmentation. The patient was a 39-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of pus discharge from tooth #36. No other obvious signs of gingival inflammation were observed. Periodontal examination revealed multiple sites with a probing depth of ≥10 mm. Radiography showed pro-nounced bone defects in the maxillary incisors and molar region. Real-time PCR was used to detect Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia in subgingival plaque; all 3 pathogens were found. Based on a clinical diagnosis of generalized AgP, periodontal therapy was initiated, which resulted in an improvement in clinical and microbiological parameters. A modified Widman flap procedure was then performed on sites with residual periodontal pockets. Next, a connective tissue graft was performed for ridge augmentation at #22, which had shown evidence of ridge resorption. Postoperative reevaluation revealed a reduction in probing depth and an improvement in marginal bone levels. Oral function was then restored using a fixed bridge prosthesis and maintenance therapy initiated. The periodontal condition has remained stable over a 2.5-year period. In the present case of AgP, surgical intervention reduced periodontal pockets and periodontal pathogens and improved the architecture of both the hard and soft tissues, allowing subsequent care of the periodontium to be performed efficiently by the patient.
Ikai, H; Tamura, T; Watanabe, T; Itou, M; Sugaya, A; Iwabuchi, S; Mikuni-Takagaki, Y; Deguchi, S
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on wound healing in periodontal tissues after mucoperiosteal flap surgery. Bony defects were surgically produced bilaterally at the mesial roots of the mandibular fourth premolars in four beagle dogs. The flaps were repositioned to cover the defects and sutured after scaling and planing of the root surface to remove cementum. The affected area in the experimental group was exposed to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound, daily for 20 min, for a period of 4 wk from postoperative day 1 using a probe, 13 mm in diameter. On the control side, no ultrasound was emitted from the probe placed contralaterally. After the experiment, tissue samples were dissected out and fixed in 10% formalin for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. The experimental group showed that the processes in regeneration of both cementum and mandibular bone were accelerated by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound compared with the control group. In addition, the expression level of heat shock protein 70 was higher in the gingival epithelial cells of the low-intensity pulsed ultrasound-treated tooth. Our results suggest that osteoblasts, as well as cells in periodontal ligament and gingival epithelium, respond to mechanical stress loaded by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound, and that ultrasound accelerates periodontal wound healing and bone repair.
Korkmaz, Yavuz Tolga; Mollaoglu, Nur; Ozmeriç, Nurdan
To assess the influence of the surgical removal of partially impacted third molars (3Ms) and compare the effects of a 3-cornered laterally rotated flap (LRF) with primary closure (flap 1) and an envelope flap with secondary closure (flap 2) on the short-term periodontal status of the adjacent second molars (2Ms). We also assessed the postoperative complications after removal of the partially impacted 3M. A split mouth, randomized clinical study was designed. The study sample included patients with bilateral partially impacted 3Ms. The primary predictor variable was the type of flap design (flaps 1 and 2). The primary outcome variable was periodontal status (gingival recession [GR], probing depth [PD], plaque index [PI], and gingival index) of the 2Ms measured preoperatively and 90 days postoperatively. The secondary outcome variables were postoperative complications, including pain, facial swelling, alveolitis, and local wound infection. The other variables included gender, position of the 3Ms, and surgical difficulty. We performed descriptive, comparative, correlation, and multivariate analyses. The sample included 28 patients aged 18 to 28 years. The GR, PD, and PI values with the flap 2 design were greater than those with the flap 1 design (P < .05). Facial swelling with the flap 1 design was significantly greater than with the flap 2 design on the second postoperative day (P < .05). The pain levels with the flap 1 design were significantly greater than those with the flap 2 design on the first and second postoperative days (P < .05). According to the multivariate regression analyses, flap design was closely related to the periodontal status of the 2Ms and postoperative discomfort. The results of the present clinical study have shown that the flap design in partially impacted 3M surgery considerably influences the early periodontal health of the 2Ms and postoperative discomfort. However, although the 3-cornered LRF design might cause more pain and swelling, it
of the Prophy-Jet detoxifying ability in vivo; the evaluation of the soft tissue attach- ment to roots treated with the Prophy-Jet; the pulpal response...treatment of periodontal lesions - an initial report (I). Quintessence Int 9:51-56, January 1978. Levin, M. P., M. F. Grower, D. E. Cutright, and L. Getter
Chindia, M L; Valderhaug, J
Apicectomy is offered where routine endodontics cannot resolve periapical inflammation. This study compared the influence on periodontal attachment level of two surgical procedures, the trapezoidal (TF) and the semilunar (SF) flaps. Twenty patients aged 16-44 years (mean 23.2 years), were randomly assigned to either flap procedure. Prior to surgery the patients received periodontal prophylaxis and oral hygiene instruction. Records were made of gingival indices, pocket depth and the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the bottom of the gingival pocket. The measurements involved buccal surfaces of 13 to 23. The TF flap extended from 14 to 24 between the interdental papillae, whereas the SF flap was carried in a semi circle from 14 to 24 about 2mm from the attached gingiva. The surgical wounds were closed with black silk sutures. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. Sutures were removed after one week. On recall after 6, 12 and 24 weeks the same measurements as before surgery were made. No statistically significant change was observed in pocket depth or attachment level between TF and SF flaps (p > 0.05). However, the TF flap produced less noticeable scarification than the SF flap.
Al-Falaki, Rana; Hughes, Francis; Wadia, Reena; Eastman, Christie; Kontogiorgos, Elias; Low, Samuel
Aims: This is an extended case series of patients treated with an Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser as an adjunct to scaling for the management of intrabony defects. Materials & methods: 46 patients with 79 angular intrabony defects associated with pocket depths of >5mm, and a mean age of 53 ± 9 years presenting with chronic periodontitis were included in the analysis. All patients underwent a localized minimally invasive closed flap surgery utilizing Er,Cr:YSGG laser therapy. Final radiographs and pocket depths were compared to pretreatment measurements with a time period of 8 ± 3 months. Results: Treatment resulted in significant overall pocket depth reduction. The mean pre-op probing depth was 8.1 ± 1.9mm, reducing to 2.4 ± 0.9mm post-treatment. Bony infill of the defects was visible radiographically and there was an increase in overall radiographic coronal osseous height compared to a pre-treatment baseline. Radiographs of 15 of the defects were available for further measurements after >12 months, and showed in these sites there was a significant reduction in intrabony defect depth, but no change in suprabony bone height. 9 of the 15 sites showed 50% or more, bony infill of the intrabony defect. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the utilization of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser in a closed flap approach with chronic periodontitis may be of significant clinical benefit. Further studies using this laser surgical protocol are required to test these observations in well-designed randomized controlled trials.
Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Buti, Jacopo; Pini Prato, Giovanpaolo; Tonetti, Maurizio S
Compare the long-term outcomes and costs of three treatment modalities in intra-bony defects. Forty-five intra-bony defects in 45 patients had been randomly allocated to receive: modified papilla preservation technique with titanium-reinforced expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes (MPPT Tit, N = 15); access flap with expanded-PTFE membranes (Flap-ePTFE, N = 15) and access flap alone (Flap, N = 15). Supportive periodontal care (SPC) was provided monthly for 1 year, then every 3 months for 20 years. Periodontal therapy was delivered to sites showing recurrences. Forty-one patients complied with SPC. Four subjects were lost to follow-up. Clinical attachment-level differences between 1 and 20 years were -0.1 ± 0.3 mm (p = 0.58) in the MPPT Tit; -0.5 ± 0.1 mm (p = 0.003) in the Flap-ePTFE and -1.7 ± 0.4 mm (p < 0.001) in the Flap. At 20 years, sites treated with Flap showed greater attachment loss compared to MPPT Tit (1.4 ± 0.4 mm; p = 0.008) and to Flap-ePTFE (1.1 ± 0.4 mm; p = 0.03). Flap group lost two treated teeth. Five episodes of recurrences occurred in the MPPT Tit, six in the Flap-ePTFE and fifteen in the Flap group. Residual pocket depth at 1-year was significantly correlated with the number of recurrences (p = 0.002). Sites treated with flap had greater OR for recurrences and higher costs of re-intervention than regenerated sites over a 20-year follow-up period with SPC. Regeneration provided better long-term benefits than Flap: no tooth loss, less periodontitis progression and less expense from re-intervention over a 20-year period. These benefits need to be interpreted in the context of higher immediate costs associated with regenerative treatment. These initial observations need to be extended to larger groups and broader clinical settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zucchelli, Giovanni; Mounssif, Ilham
The aim of the present article is to summarize current knowledge in terms of the etiology, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment of gingival recession. Whilst the main etiological factors (i.e. toothbrushing trauma and bacterial plaque) are well established, challenges still remain to be solved in the diagnostic, prognostic and classification processes of gingival recession, especially when the main reference parameter - the cemento-enamel junction - is no longer detectable on the affected tooth or when there is a slight loss of periodontal interdental attachment. Root coverage in single type gingival recession defects is a very predictable outcome following the use of various surgical techniques. The coronally advanced flap, with or without connective tissue grafting, is the technique of choice. The adjunctive use of connective tissue grafts improves the probability of achieving complete root coverage. Surgical coverage of multiple gingival recessions is also predictable with the coronally advanced flap and the coronally advanced flap plus the connective tissue graft, but no data are available indicating which, and how many, gingival recessions should be treated adjunctively with connective tissue grafting in order to limit patient morbidity and improve the esthetic outcome. None of the allograft materials currently available can be considered as a full substitute for the connective tissue graft, even if some recent results are encouraging. The need for future studies with patient-based outcomes (i.e. esthetics and morbidity) as primary objectives is emphasized in this review. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vécsey, Zsombor; Joób-Fancsaly, Arpád
Before removing impacted lower wisdom teeth, a mucoperiosteal flap is prepared. In the practice we use 2 types of flaps: with or without a releasing incision. There are few publications about how the removal of impacted wisdom teeth damage the periodontium of the second molars. In our study, we examined whether there is any difference in the healing between the two flap designs. A total of 76 lower wisdom teeth have been removed. Two types of flaps were used. Prior surgery, at suture removal, 3 and 6 months after surgery 6 periodontal depth points were investigated around the second molars. We compared the technical events during surgery, complaints, probing depths after surgery and their correlance in function of flap design. After removal of lower impacted wisdom teeth, we measured greater probing depths using envelope flap than L-shaped flap. However, this difference was not significant, and after 6 months, no differences were noted.
Liu, Yiying; Duan, Dingyu; Xin, Yuejiao; Bai, Lin; Li, Tianyu; Li, Chuwen; Xu, Yi
This study aimed to investigate the systemic antibiotic usage in the perioperative period of periodontal flaps and its relevance to the infection after surgeries through reviewing the papers of the last decade. A search was conducted for the studies of randomized clinical trials between 2005 and 2014 that reported periodontal flaps in chronic periodontitis patients. Data were extracted and the rate of the systemic antibiotic use, the infection rate after surgeries and the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one infected case were calculated. The impact of antibiotic use and materials used in surgeries on the infection was evaluated. Eighty-three trials were included. Antibiotics were used in 73.7% of the patients and 75.4% of the flaps. Infection occurred in only five flaps where enamel matrix proteins (EMD) or EMD + bone grafts were used in intrabony defects. Only 0.170% of the surgeries got infected in total. When all kinds of surgeries were included for analysis, the infection rate was 0.073% for the surgeries using antibiotics, which was lower than the infection rate 0.693% for the surgeries not using antibiotics (p < .05). The infection rate was very low in general. NNT was 203 when all the surgeries were included for analysis. Therefore, the difference of the infection rates between using antibiotics and not might lack clinical significance. Considering the very low incidence of the infection and the disadvantages of the systemic antibiotic use, we suggest not using systemic antibiotics in the perioperative period of periodontal flaps to prevent infection.
... Form Inservice Exam Application Dental Hygiene Educators Periodontal Literature Review: The Next Generation American Board of Periodontology ... Papers Periospectives Magazine Glossary of Periodontal Terms Periodontal Literature Review Advertising Options Brochures Contact Us Member Login | ...
Bateman, Geoffrey J; Saha, Shuva; Pearson, David
Contemporary surgical techniques emphasize gentle tissue handling with a minimum of trauma. This in turn provides a predictable operative environment and promotes healing. A modern surgical armamentarium may be very different from that encountered a decade ago. This is clear from the greater availability of dental microsurgical instruments. Whilst the complexity of microsurgery may not be routinely necessary in general dental practice, many of the principles and equipment used may make standard surgical management easier and more predictable. A greater understanding of the evidence base behind periodontal surgery will allow us to improve flap design, closure and operative management. Also, the use of microsurgical techniques and equipment will improve the quality and outcomes of periodontal surgery in practice.
Irokawa, Daisuke; Makino-Oi, Asako; Fujita, Takahisa; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Tomita, Sachiyo; Saito, Atsushi
Here we report a case of generalized aggressive periodontitis treated with periodontal therapy including adjunct antimicrobial therapy and periodontal surgery. The patient was a 22-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession. Baseline examination revealed generalized plaque deposition and gingival inflammation. Thirty-nine percent of the sites had a probing depth (PD) of 4-6 mm and 2% a PD of ≥7 mm; 63% exhibited bleeding on probing (BOP). Radiographic examination revealed vertical bone loss in the molars and horizontal bone loss in other teeth. Microbiological examination of subgingival plaque revealed the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Tannerella forsythia. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed as a measure of patient-reported outcome. Based on a clinical diagnosis of generalized aggressive periodontitis, initial periodontal therapy and adjunct antimicrobial therapy were implemented. After reducing inflammation and subgingival bacteria, open flap debridement was performed for teeth with a PD of ≥4 mm. Reevaluation showed no sites with a PD of ≥5 mm, a minimal level of BOP, and a marked reduction in the level of the targeted periodontal pathogens. The patient's oral health-related quality of life was slightly worsened during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). Implementation of adjunct antimicrobial therapy targeting periodontal pathogens and subsequent periodontal surgery resulted in improvement in periodontal and microbiological parameters. This improvement has been adequately maintained over a 2-year period. However, additional care is necessary to further improve the patient's oral health-related quality of life during SPT.
Tunnell, John C; Harrel, Stephen K
New techniques have emerged to achieve periodontal regeneration without the drawbacks associated with conventional flap surgery. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a method of surgical access that minimizes flap reflection and tissue trauma, resulting in maintenance of critical blood supply, stability of the blood clot within the wound site, and less postoperative recession over time. As advancements in materials and techniques are made, MIS in periodontal regeneration continues to evolve. The emergence of a videoscope for use during MIS (VMIS) has improved visual access to surgical sites, facilitating improved defect debridement and root planing. As demonstrated, VMIS has resulted in an actual gain in soft-tissue height up to 3 years postoperatively.
... surgery is a complex procedure performed by a plastic surgeon. Much of the breast reconstruction using your ... doctor may recommend that you meet with a plastic surgeon. Consult a plastic surgeon who's board certified ...
Trombelli, Leonardo; Farina, Roberto; Franceschetti, Giovanni; Calura, Giorgio
New surgical techniques have been developed to optimize primary closure as well as to minimize the surgical trauma in the reconstructive procedures of periodontal intraosseous defects. Recently, we proposed a minimally invasive procedure, the single-flap approach (SFA), specifically indicated when the defect extension is prevalent on the buccal or oral side. The basic principle of the SFA is the elevation of a flap to access the defect only on one side (buccal or oral), leaving the opposite side intact. The present case series reports preliminary data on the clinical effectiveness of SFA with buccal access in conjunction with a collagen membrane and a hydroxyapatite (HA)-based biomaterial in the reconstructive treatment of deep periodontal intraosseous defects. Ten intraosseous defects in 10 patients were accessed with a buccal SFA and treated with a collagen membrane and an HA-based graft biomaterial. The follow-up period following the regenerative procedure ranged from 6 to 14 months (mean: 10.0 +/- 3.0 months). Clinical attachment level (CAL) decreased from 11.2 +/- 2.6 mm presurgery to 6.4 +/- 1.9 mm post-surgery. Probing depth was 9.0 +/- 2.8 mm before surgery and 3.8 +/- 1.5 mm post-surgery. Gingival recession increased from 2.2 +/- 1.9 mm presurgery to 2.6 +/- 1.3 mm post-surgery. Challenging intraosseous defects, surgically accessed with a buccal SFA and treated with a combined graft/guided tissue regeneration technique, may heal with a substantial CAL gain. Limited postsurgical recession indicates that SFA may represent a suitable option to surgically treat defects in areas with high esthetic demands.
Copelli, C; Tewfik, K; Cassano, L; Pederneschi, N; Catanzaro, S; Manfuso, A; Cocchi, R
Free flap surgery is overall considered the gold standard in head and neck reconstruction, with a success rate of 95%. The management of a total flap necrosis and which solution, between a pedicled or a second free flap, is safer for a salvage procedure is still controversial. Object of this study is to describe the authors' management of total free flap loss in head and neck reconstruction and compare the choices and results to those reported in the literature. From January 2012 to January 2016, 149 consecutive free flaps were performed at the Maxillo- Facial Operative Unit of the Hospital Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza in San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy) for reconstruction of head and neck defects. Of these, 6 flaps were lost due to a total necrosis. In 5 cases it was decided to harvest a second free flap, and in the remaining patient a temporalis muscle flap was used. All the free salvage flaps were successful, without complications and with a good aesthetic and functional recovery. Analysing the data obtained, and comparing them with those reported in the literature, it can be concluded that a second subsequent free flap can be considered an ideal and safe procedure in salvage surgery. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.
Hagenaars, S; Louwerse, P H G; Timmerman, M F; Van der Velden, U; Van der Weijden, G A
The aim of the present study was to examine, by clinical means and as patient perception of post-operative events, the effect of Emdogain (enamel matrix derivative (EMD)) on the healing of soft-tissue wounds following periodontal surgery in comparison to flap surgeries without application of EMD. For this study, 22 subjects (nine female and 13 male) who were scheduled for periodontal flap surgery were selected. The mean age for all patients was 49.9 (SD 8.7) years (range, 32-67). Six women and five men were assigned to the test group and three women and eight men were assigned to the control group. All subjects were scheduled, after re-evaluation of the periodontal status 8 weeks after initial treatment, to undergo surgery of the soft tissues, because of existing of probing pocket depth (5 mm or more), on at least three teeth. At random, 11 patients were assigned to control treatment and 11 patients were placed in the test group. All underwent one periodontal flap surgery for the purpose of this study. A modified Widman flap was performed. Patients in the test group received an application of EMD underneath the mucoperiostal flaps and onto the exposed root surfaces. Clinical measurements were taken at four different points in time, at the time of surgery, 1, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. All subjects filled out a questionnaire every day for the first 7 days following surgery to evaluate post-operative complaints. Of all parameters evaluated none showed a significant difference between the control and EMD groups, except for gingival swelling at the 1-week assessment, where the EMD group exhibited a higher swelling score. The questionnaire revealed that complaints of oozing of blood from the wound was twice more prevalent 1 day post-surgery in the control (n=6) as in the EMD group (n=3). This study shows that the early woundhealing of periodontal flap-surgeries in those sites treated with Emdogain is not different from control sites. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard
Kotsakis, Georgios A; Javed, Fawad; Hinrichs, James E; Karoussis, Ioannis K; Romanos, Georgios E
Periodontal flap surgery is frequently used to remove subgingival deposits, yielding consequential reductions in gingival inflammation and probing depth (PD) with a gain in clinical attachment level (CAL) to treat advanced periodontal disease. However, clinical studies have reported diminished periodontal healing in smokers compared with non-smokers. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the impact of cigarette smoking on clinical outcomes following periodontal flap surgical procedures. A systematic electronic review of articles relevant to periodontal flap surgical procedures in smokers was conducted from 1977 to March 2014 inclusive, using predefined, optimized search strategies. Meta-analyses were done separately for changes in the two primary outcomes of PD and CAL. The initial search yielded 390 titles and abstracts. After screening, eight controlled clinical studies were finally selected. Three studies were assessed as having a low risk of bias, two as having moderate risk of bias, and three as having a high risk of bias. Qualitative assessment of the articles consistently showed an improved treatment effect among non-smokers versus smokers. The reduction in PD in smokers and non-smokers ranged from 0.76 to 2.05 mm and 1.27 to 2.40 mm, respectively. For CAL, the gain in non-smokers versus smokers ranged from 0.29 to 1.6 mm and 0.09 to 1.2 mm, respectively. Meta-analysis on eight studies reporting on 363 study participants demonstrated an increased reduction in mean (95% confidence interval) PD of 0.39 (0.33 to 0.45) mm. Similar results were found for mean gain in CAL (0.35 [0.30 to 0.40] mm, n = 4 studies). Considering the relatively homogenous information available, the authors conclude that active smokers could be candidates for periodontal flap surgical procedures. However, the magnitude of the therapeutic effect is compromised in smokers compared with non-smokers. Therefore, cigarette smokers should be: 1) encouraged to
Kaner, Doğan; Soudan, Mouaz; Zhao, Han; Gaßmann, Georg; Schönhauser, Anna; Friedmann, Anton
Early wound healing after periodontal surgery with or without enamel matrix derivative/biphasic calcium phosphate (EMD/BCP) was characterized in terms of soft tissue closure, changes of microcirculation, and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid/wound fluid (GCF/WF). Periodontal surgery was carried out in 30 patients (18 patients: application of EMD/BCP for regeneration of bony defects; 12 patients: surgical crown lengthening (SCL)). Healthy sites were observed as untreated controls. GCF/WF samples were collected during two post-surgical weeks. Flap microcirculation was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Soft tissue healing was evaluated after two weeks. GCF/WF levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-10 were determined using a multiplex immunoassay. Surgery caused similar reductions of flap microcirculation followed by recovery within two weeks in both EMD/BCP and SCL groups. GCF/WF and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were immediately increased after surgery, and returned only partially to baseline levels within the two-week observation period. Levels of IL-10 were temporarily reduced in all surgical sites. Flap dehiscence caused prolonged elevated levels of GCF/WF, IL-1β, and TNF-α. These findings show that periodontal surgery triggers an immediate inflammatory reaction corresponding to the early inflammatory phase of wound healing, and these inflammation measures are temporary in case of maintained closure of the flap. However, flap dehiscence causes prolonged inflammatory exudation from the periodontal wound. If the biological pre-conditions for periodontal wound healing are considered important for the clinical outcome, care should be taken to maintain primary closure of the flap.
Kaner, Doğan; Soudan, Mouaz; Zhao, Han; Gaßmann, Georg; Schönhauser, Anna; Friedmann, Anton
Early wound healing after periodontal surgery with or without enamel matrix derivative/biphasic calcium phosphate (EMD/BCP) was characterized in terms of soft tissue closure, changes of microcirculation, and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid/wound fluid (GCF/WF). Periodontal surgery was carried out in 30 patients (18 patients: application of EMD/BCP for regeneration of bony defects; 12 patients: surgical crown lengthening (SCL)). Healthy sites were observed as untreated controls. GCF/WF samples were collected during two post-surgical weeks. Flap microcirculation was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Soft tissue healing was evaluated after two weeks. GCF/WF levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-10 were determined using a multiplex immunoassay. Surgery caused similar reductions of flap microcirculation followed by recovery within two weeks in both EMD/BCP and SCL groups. GCF/WF and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were immediately increased after surgery, and returned only partially to baseline levels within the two-week observation period. Levels of IL-10 were temporarily reduced in all surgical sites. Flap dehiscence caused prolonged elevated levels of GCF/WF, IL-1β, and TNF-α. These findings show that periodontal surgery triggers an immediate inflammatory reaction corresponding to the early inflammatory phase of wound healing, and these inflammation measures are temporary in case of maintained closure of the flap. However, flap dehiscence causes prolonged inflammatory exudation from the periodontal wound. If the biological pre-conditions for periodontal wound healing are considered important for the clinical outcome, care should be taken to maintain primary closure of the flap. PMID:28134829
Gaggl, Alexander; Bürger, Heinz; Lesnik, Gerald; Müller, Ernst; Chiari, Friedrich
Individual flap design and minor donor site morbidity are main criteria in the treatment of facial defects after tumour surgery. Microvascular perforator flaps seem to follow these criteria well. In the following study our experiences with microvascular anterolateral thigh perforator flaps (ALTPF) in reconstruction of the face following ablative tumour surgery are described and discussed in comparison to the present literature. In 19 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the floor of the mouth (8), the cheek (6) or the mandible (5) of stadium T3 or T4 ablative tumour surgery followed by reconstruction was performed. For covering the soft tissue defects 19 ALTPF were used. In the five patients with carcinomas of the mandible a microvascular iliac crest transplant was combined with the anterolateral thigh perforator flap for complete chin reconstruction. In one patient an intraoperative dissection of the perforator vessels happened. In all other patients surgery and postoperative period was free of complications. Five patients had minor second surgery for aesthetic of functional reasons. At the end there were good aesthetic and functional results in every patient. The anterolateral thigh perforator flap is of great advantage in reconstruction of the face after tumour surgery. Individual designing, central and save perfusion, easy to be controlled, and a low incidence of donor site morbidity are their main advantages.
Rendenbach, C; Hölterhoff, N; Hischke, S; Kreutzer, K; Smeets, R; Assaf, A T; Heiland, M; Wikner, J
Free flap surgery is essential for the aesthetic and functional reconstruction of various parts of the body. The aim of this study was to compare current concepts of perioperative flap management between ENT, craniomaxillofacial, and plastic surgeons. A European survey was conducted among 570 surgical departments, covering all aspects of free flap surgery. Focus was placed on antibiotic and antithrombotic drug use, aspects of osseous reconstruction, and flap monitoring strategies. One hundred and seventy-two medical units participated. A broad spectrum of anticoagulant regimens and a trend towards prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis were found. Fixation with (CAD/CAM) reconstruction plates was more popular than monocortical locking with miniplates in the mandible. Visual assessment and Doppler systems were reported to be the most common monitoring modalities. The flap loss rate was stated to be higher after osseous reconstruction. Only a few differences in perioperative flap management were identified between the different surgical fields, and osseous reconstruction appears to be the most challenging. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yolcu, Ü; Acar, A H
The aim of this study is to introduce a new flap design in the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars - a lingually based triangular flap - and to compare this flap design with the routinely used triangular flap. This randomized, prospective, split-mouth study involved 22 patients with impacted bilateral mandibular third molars that were symmetrically positioned, mesially angulated, and retained in bone. The impacted teeth were removed in two sessions, using two different flap designs: the new alternative flap and the traditional triangular flap. Postoperative complications (pain, swelling, trismus, alveolar osteitis, and wound dehiscence) were recorded on days 2, 7, 14, and 21. The data obtained were analysed using the χ(2) test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and Pearson's correlation. In terms of the severity of postoperative facial swelling and trismus, there were no statistically significant differences between the flap designs (P>0.05). The alternative flap exhibited higher pain scores at 12h post-surgery (P<0.05). In addition, the alternative flap group exhibited less wound dehiscence, although this was not statistically significant. Moreover, all wound dehiscence in this group occurred on sound bone. In conclusion, these results show that this new flap design is preferable to the routinely used flap for impacted third molar surgery. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Dijk, L J
The aim of periodontal treatment is to make and keep the periodontal tissues healthy. A proper diagnosis including the assessment of the different risk factors is essential before successful treatment can be carried out. Oral hygiene instruction together with supra- and subgingival cleaning is a basic part of the treatment. Antibiotic treatment and smoking cessation programs also contribute to a good clinical result. Until the seventies, when almost nothing was known about riskfactors and antibiotic therapy, no study was performed to assess the long-term effect of periodontal surgery being part of the treatment. Therefore a study was performed to assess clinically, radiographically and histologically the effect of periodontal surgery and oral hygiene on artificial periodontal defects. The results were reported in the thesis 'Surgery and oral hygiene on artificial periodontal defects in beagle dogs'. This study established that periodontal surgery can contribute to a healthy periodontium. A good oral hygiene is a prerequisite. These results have been confirmed by a long-term study in private practice. Pocketdepths of 5 mm and more after initial treatment is a good criterion in the decision making for periodontal surgery.
Sanz, Mariano; Simion, Massimo
The scope was to review the three main clinical indications in periodontal plastic surgical procedures. To review the fundamental principles in periodontal plastic surgery, the main surgical designs in flap surgery applied to the treatment of recessions, peri-implant soft tissue deficiencies and soft tissue ridge augmentation, as well as the surgical principles of using autologous connective tissue grafts and soft tissue substitutes. In the pre-operative phase, the key elements are the control of prognostic factors affecting the patient, namely oral hygiene, tobacco smoking cessation and systemic disease control. In the operative phase, the principles of flap design, mobilization, advancement, adaptation and stabilization. In the post-operative phase infection control, including effective oral hygiene measures, antiseptic treatment and other medications. In single recession defects, the most widely used flap technique is the coronally advanced flap and in specific clinical situations the laterally positioned flap. In multiple recession defects, the number of defects and their location and depth guide the surgical design, being one design with and the other without vertical releasing incisions. When flaps are used in combination with grafts the tunnel flap is also used extensively. The key elements are the donor site selection and harvesting technique, its tissue integration and volume stability. Given the current evidence, various clinical recommendations on the use of flaps and grafts are provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jiménez Gómez, Marta; Navarro-Sánchez, Antonio; Lima Sánchez, Jaime; Hernández Hernández, Juan Ramón
The principles of perineal reconstructive surgery comprise adequate filling of the defect along with stable and durable skin coverage, with a low morbidity rate. Two-flap perineal reconstruction is a simple, fast and reliable technique that uses a single donor site. This improves scar position with low morbidity. It is based in the use of 2flaps; one flap fills the defect with a «turn over» technique and the other is a rotation - advancement flap for skin coverage. A 52-year-old male diagnosed with Lynch syndrome who underwent laparoscopic abdominoperineal amputation for adenocarcinoma of the lower rectum and developed recurrence 2years later over the perineal scar that required radical resection and perineal reconstruction. The use of this approach facilitates perineal reconstruction and enables treatment of patients with large and complex defects in frequently irradiated tissues where wound dehiscence and infection are common. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Aliyev, Eldar; Sakallioğlu, Umur; Eren, Zafer; Açikgöz, Gökhan
It is consented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are deleterious to wound healing process due to the harmful effects on cells and tissues. Absorbable synthetic biomaterials are considered to be degraded via ROS. Free-radical-scavenging enzymes (FRSE) are a cytoprotective enzymal group that has an essential role in the reduction, de-activation and removal of ROS as well as regulating wound healing process. In the present study, synthetic and absorbable polylactide (PLA) barrier membranes were evaluated by means of ROS activity levels during degradation in the healing periodontal flaps measuring the activity of FRSE superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Gingival biopsies taken from 10 patients allowing both guided tissue regeneration (test) and conventional flap surgery (control) before and 1 month after the operations were processed and the supernatants were studied by Mc Cord and Fridovich, Flohe and Otting, and Luck methods to measure total SOD and CAT levels respectively. A significantly increased enzyme activity of SOD and CAT was observed in both groups (p<0.05). SOD activity change was 62.92% in the test and 3.97% in the control group, and, CAT activity change was 48.04% in the test and 11.58% in the control group. Our results suggest that ROS, particularly superoxide anions, may contribute to the degradation phase of PLA membranes and this may affect the wound healing of periodontium at least for one-month period.
Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.
The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.
Baytinger, V. F., E-mail: email@example.com; Kurochkina, O. S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Selianinov, K. V.
The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were nomore » differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.« less
Baytinger, V. F. Kurochkina, O. S. Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.
The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.
Kucur, Cuneyt; Durmus, Kasim; Uysal, Ismail O; Old, Matthew; Agrawal, Amit; Arshad, Hassan; Teknos, Theodoros N; Ozer, Enver
Microvascular free flaps are preferred for most major head and neck reconstruction surgeries because of better functional outcomes, improved esthetics, and generally higher success rates. Numerous studies have investigated measures to prevent flap loss, but few have evaluated the optimal treatment for free flap complications. This study aimed to determine the complication rate after free flap reconstructions and discusses our management strategies. Medical records of 260 consecutive patients who underwent free flap reconstructions for head and neck defects between July 2006 and June 2010 were retrospectively reviewed for patient and surgical characteristics and postoperative complications. The results revealed that microvascular free flaps were extremely reliable, with a 3.5 % incidence of flap failure. There were 78 surgical site complications. The most common complication was neck wound infection, followed by dehiscence, vascular congestion, abscess, flap necrosis, hematoma, osteoradionecrosis, and brisk bleeding. Twenty patients with poor wound healing received hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which was ineffective in three patients who eventually experienced complete flap loss. Eleven patients with vascular congestion underwent medicinal leech therapy, which was effective. Among the 78 patients with complications, 44 required repeat surgery, which was performed for postoperative brisk bleeding in three. Eventually, ten patients experienced partial flap loss and nine experienced complete flap loss, with the latter requiring subsequent pectoralis major flap reconstruction. Microvascular free flap reconstruction represents an essential and reliable technique for head and neck defects and allows surgeons to perform radical resection with satisfactory functional results and acceptable complication rates.
Farina, Roberto; Simonelli, Anna; Rizzi, Alessandro; Pramstraller, Mattia; Cucchi, Alessandro; Trombelli, Leonardo
This study aims to evaluate the early postoperative healing of papillary incision wounds and its association with (1) patient/site-related factors and technical (surgical) aspects as well as with (2) 6-month clinical outcomes following buccal single flap approach (SFA) in the treatment of intraosseous periodontal defects. Forty-three intraosseous defects in 35 patients were accessed with a buccal SFA alone or in combination with a reconstructive technology (graft, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), graft + EMD, or graft + membrane). Postoperative healing was evaluated at 2 weeks using the Early Wound-Healing Index (EHI). EHI ranged from score 1 (i.e., complete flap closure and optimal healing) to score 4 (i.e., loss of primary closure and partial tissue necrosis). SFA resulted in a complete wound closure at 2 weeks in the great majority of sites. A significantly more frequent presence of interdental contact point and interdental soft tissue crater, and narrower base of the interdental papilla were observed at sites with either EHI > 1 or EHI = 4 compared to sites with EHI = 1. No association between EHI and the 6-month clinical outcomes was observed. At 2 weeks, buccal SFA may result in highly predictable complete flap closure. Site-specific characteristics may influence the early postoperative healing of the papillary incision following SFA procedure. Two-week soft tissue healing, however, was not associated with the 6-month clinical outcomes.
Ottria, L; Luciani, F; Piva, P; Alagna, A M; Arcuri, C; Bartuli, F N
The purpose of the study was to analyze the healing of the deep and superficial lower first and second molars periodontium, after the surgical extraction of the contiguous impacted third molar, comparing 3 mucoperiosteal flap designs. 150 patients which had to undergo a impacted lower third molar surgery were enrolled in this study. They were checked from day 0 to day 90, in order to focus on the recovery quality of the soft tissues around the lower second molar, comparing 3 different flap designs. No intraoperatory incident happened. The complete recovery of the periodontium around the second molar has been shown in each patient after 90 days from surgery and each adverse reaction happened within the sixth week after surgery. Only 2 slight gengival recessions 0,5 mm have been find out. The impacted third molar surgery is an operation that, if rightly programmed and performed, is relatively safe. Besides, the correct handling and management of periodontium around the second molar and the choice of the flap type to be used support a correct recovery on the second molar periodontium, avoiding any long-term damage. This study wanted to analyze the healing of the deep and superficial lower second molar periodontium, after the impacted lower third molar surgery. In order to improve the surgical technique used for lower third molar germectomies, we wanted to compare 3 different kind of flap designs.
Wu, Wei-wei; Wu, Hao; Zeng, Ang; Bai, Ming; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Yu; Liu, Chang-wei
To investigate the effectiveness of flap repair for vascular prosthesis exposure after the artificial blood vessel bypass surgery for critical limb ischemia. From August 2007 to December 2011, bypass surgery with vascular prosthetic grafts were performed in 192 patients with critical limb ischemia.Five patients among them (2.6%) suffered from vascular prosthesis exposure 6 to 13 days after the previous surgery, including 4 males and 1 female, with a median age of 68 years(arranged from 52 to 81 years). The surgical managements included surgical debridement and local flap or transferred muscle-cutaneous flap repair to preserve the prosthetic vascular grafts. Three patients underwent Z-plasty with local flap repair, while 2 patients underwent transferred rectus abdominis or rectus femoris muscle flap repair of the wounds. After the surgery, prosthetic vascular graft was successfully preserved in 4 of the 5 cases with first intention healing. At a median follow-up of 38 months (arranged from 5 to 57 months), all the 4 limbs were salvaged with patent of the prosthetic grafts.One flap failed to heal and the prosthetic graft had to be removed due to infection and hemorrhage. An above-knee-amputation was performed due to severe limb ischemia. The vascular prosthesis exposure is often a disaster after artificial blood vessel bypass surgery for critical limb ischemia.Local flap or transferred muscle-cutaneous flap repair is an effective surgical management to salvage the exposed graft and the affected limb.
Hatten, Kyle M; Brody, Robert M; Weinstein, Gregory S; Newman, Jason G; Bur, Andres M; Chalian, Ara A; OʼMalley, Bert W; Rassekh, Christopher H; Cannady, Steven B
Transoral surgical techniques for oropharyngeal tumors have been widely accepted, yet often results in a significant functional deficit. Current reports on the safety, feasibility, and swallowing performance after microvascular reconstruction are limited to small volume case series. Retrospective review of 42 consecutive patients, between December 2013 and May 2016, who underwent transoral robotic surgery oropharyngectomy followed by microvascular reconstruction. Swallowing outcomes postoperatively resulted in 39 (93%) of patients tolerating oral intake postoperatively, with 13 (87%) of 15 patients at 1-year follow-up consuming an entirely oral diet. Thirty-eight (95%) of 40 patients who underwent a tracheostomy at the time of surgery were ultimately decannulated. No patients experienced complete flap failure in the current study. Minimally invasive transoral surgical techniques have offered the opportunity to minimize surgical morbidity and potentially deintensify adjuvant therapies. Reconstructive options have evolved to match surgical advances seen with robotic surgeries of oropharyngeal cancers. Microvascular reconstruction has been indicated in select patients including those with extensive soft palate resection, primary tumor abutment of the medial pterygoid musculature, exposure of internal carotid artery vasculature, prior radiation therapy, or a significant defect of the oropharyngeal sphincter. Select patients, based on previously identified criteria, were preoperatively identified as suitable candidates for microvascular reconstruction of oropharyngeal defects. This study demonstrates that complex transoral robotic surgical defects are amenable to microvascular reconstructive in carefully selected patients.
Wang, Y Y; Zhang, H Q; Fan, S; Zhang, D M; Huang, Z Q; Chen, W L; Ye, J T; Li, J S
This study evaluated the accuracy of mandibular reconstruction and assessed clinical outcomes in both virtual planning and conventional surgery patients. ProPlan CMF surgical planning software was used preoperatively in the virtual planning group. In the virtual planning group, fibula flaps were harvested and osteotomized, and the mandibles were resected and reconstructed assisted by the prefabricated cutting guides and templates. The main outcome measures included the operative time, postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, facial appearance, and occlusal function. The ischemia time and total operation time were shorter in the virtual planning group than in the conventional surgery group. High precision with the use of the cutting guides and templates was found for both the fibula and mandible, and a good fit was noted among the pre-bent plate, mandible, and fibula segments in the virtual planning group. Postoperative CT scans also showed excellent mandibular contours of the fibula flaps in accordance with virtual plans in the virtual planning group. This study demonstrated that virtual surgical planning was able to achieve more accurate mandibular reconstruction than conventional surgery. The use of prefabricated cutting guides and plates makes fibula flap moulding and placement easier, minimizes the operating time, and improves clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Bitna; Yoon, Dae Young; Seo, Young Lan; Park, Min Woo; Kwon, Kee Hwan; Rho, Young-Soo; Chung, Chul Hoon
To identify post-operative computed tomography (CT) findings associated with delayed flap failures following head and neck cancer surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 60 patients who underwent flap reconstruction after head and neck cancer surgery and post-operative (3-14 days) contrast-enhanced CT scans for suspected complications. Patients were divided into two groups: delayed flap failure patients (patients required flap revision) (n = 18) and flap success patients (n = 42). Clinical data (age, sex, T-stage, type of flap, and time interval between reconstruction surgery and CT) and post-operative CT findings of flap status (maximum dimension of the flap, intra- or peri-flap fluid collection and intra- or peri-flap air collection, fat infiltration within the flap, fistula to adjacent aerodigestive tract or skin, and enhanced vascular pedicle) were assessed and compared between the two groups. CT findings showed that the following flap anomalies were observed more frequently in the delayed flap failure group than in the flap success group: intra- or peri-flap fluid collection > 4 cm (61.1% vs. 23.8%, p < 0.05), intra- or peri-flap air collection > 2 cm (61.1% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001), and fistula to adjacent aerodigestive tract or skin (44.4% vs. 0%, p < 0.001). The maximum dimension of the flap, fat infiltration within the flap, and enhanced vascular pedicle were not associated with delayed flap failures. A large amount of fluid or air collection and fistula are the CT findings that were associated with delayed flap failures in patients with suspected post-operative complications after head and neck cancer surgery.
Lee, Joon-Seok; Lim, Young-Jun
The aims of this clinical report were to present and discuss the clinical procedure and the treatment considerations of prosthetic rehabilitation after myofascial flap surgery. A 78-year-old edentulous woman with a squamous cell carcinoma underwent hemimaxillectomy. A temporalis myofascial flap surgery combined with implant-supported prosthesis is one successful approach to the restoration of oral function after hemimaxillectomy. Although the bulky and mobile nature of a temporalis myofascial flap prevented the retention of a tissue-borne denture, an appropriate impression technique and the fabrication of implant-supported prosthesis using an implant attachment system enhanced the overall satisfaction by the patient.
Albert, Sebastien; Guedon, Charles; Halimi, Caroline; Cristofari, Jean Pierre; Barry, Beatrix
Surgeons conventionally use electrocautery dissection and surgical clip appliers to harvest free flaps. The ultrasonic Harmonic Scalpel is a new surgical instrument that provides high-quality dissection and hemostasis and minimizes tissue injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and advantages of the ultrasonic Harmonic Scalpel compared to conventional surgical instruments in free flap surgery. This prospective study included 20 patients who underwent head and neck reconstructive surgery between March 2009 and May 2010. A forearm free flap was used for reconstruction in 12 patients, and a fibular flap was used in 8 patients. In half of the patients, electrocautery and surgical clips were used for free flap harvesting (the EC group), and in the other half of the patients, ultrasonic dissection was performed using the Harmonic Scalpel (the HS group). The following parameters were significantly lower in the HS group compared to the EC group: the operative time of flap dissection (35% lower in the HS group), blood loss, number of surgical clips and cost of surgical materials. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the Harmonic Scalpel in forearm and fibular free flap dissections that may be extended to other free flaps. PMID:22693666
Sculean, A; Berakdar, M; Pahl, S; Windisch, P; Brecx, M; Reich, E; Donos, N
The pattern of cytokeratin expression has been extensively described in the normal and inflamed periodontium. However, there is no information regarding the pattern of cytokeratin expression in the periodontium which has been reformed following regenerative periodontal surgery. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the pattern of cytokeratin expression in the reformed human and monkey periodontium following regenerative and conventional periodontal surgery. In 3 monkeys, acute fenestration-type and chronic intrabony defects were treated with guided tissue regeneration (GTR), enamel matrix proteins (EMD), or coronally repositioned flap surgery (control). After a healing period of 5 months, the animals were sacrificed and perfused with 10% buffered formalin for fixation. Specimens containing the defects and surrounding tissues were dissected free, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were cut with the microtome set at 3 microm. The sections were alternatively stained either with hematoxylin and eosin, or immunohistochemically by using one of the broad range monoclonal antibodies 34betaE 12 (for cytokeratins 1, 5, 10 and 14) or KL 1 (for cytokeratins 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 16 and 19), or one of the individual monoclonal antibodies LL025 (for cytokeratin 16), DC 10 (for cytokeratin 18), A53-B/A2 (for cytokeratin 19). Twelve patients, each displaying one deep intrabony defect scheduled for extraction due to advanced periodontitis or prosthetic reasons, were treated as described above. Following a healing period of 6 months, the teeth were extracted together with some of their surrounding soft and hard tissues. The histological and immunohistochemical processing of the human biopsies was identical to that described in monkeys. The results revealed that both the normal non-treated (original) monkey and human junctional epithelium stained strongly with all of the monoclonal antibodies used. The reformed junctional epithelium
Rageth, Christoph J; Tausch, Christoph
As large segmentectomies often lead to asymmetries and indentations in the breast, numerous oncoplastic reconstruction methods have been published over the past years. Many of these involve additional skin incisions, resulting in more and larger scars.This article presents a method, which uses the same incision as for the segmentectomy and does not lead to additional scars. First, the breast gland body is being detached from the pectoralis major muscle; then the largest part of the remaining gland body is being cut horizontally parallel to the thoracic wall, exactly in the middle between the skin and the pectoralis major muscle. The pectoral part of the gland body can then be placed into the tumor bed without tension as a f;ap with a length of approximately 7-14 cm and a width of approximately 4-10 cm. In 2007, the first author performed a total of 134 breast conserving surgeries (9 benign and 125 malignant diagnoses) which have been prospectively documented. The intramammarian f;ap reconstruction technique was applied 87 times (65% of all cases), with three cases of postoperative infection and two cases needing surgical evacuation of a hematoma. In 131 cases the cosmetic results were considered favorable or moderate. The results in the 4 remaining patients were cosmetically unsatisfactory; 3 were treated with and 1 without the intramammarian flap reconstruction.In most cases the technique leads to a quick and acceptable filling of the defect and avoids nipple deviation even after a large segmentectomy, so that the breast shape can be preserved and the original breast size is being only marginally reduced. A short video demonstrates the technique on youtube and yahoo (search terms: oncoplastic, ifr).
Powell, Charles A; Bannister, Sharon R; Mackey, Scott A; Maller, Steven C; McDonnell, Howard T; Deas, David E
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been promoted as a surgical adjunct to enhance hard and soft tissue wound healing. Although anecdotally reported to be of value, the results of controlled studies examining the added effects of PRP on surgical procedures have been mixed. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of PRP on flap strength at various post-surgical time points in a minipig animal model. Twelve Yucatan minipigs provided four sites per animal. PRP was prepared from each animal at the time of surgery. Following reflection of a mucoperiosteal flap in each quadrant, subgingival plaque and calculus were removed. Each surgical site was irrigated with sterile saline; prior to suturing, one randomly selected test quadrant in each arch was treated with PRP. Four animals were euthanized at day 14, and two animals were euthanized at 2, 7, 10, and 28 days. The flap strength in each quadrant was tested by attaching to a loop of 3-0 silk suture through the tissue; the force required to separate the flap from the tooth/bone interface was recorded for each site. A separate portion of each flap site was prepared for descriptive histologic examination, including inflammation, hemorrhage, and new bone growth. Flap strength was significantly less on day 2 compared to later time points, and there were no significant differences between the test and control groups. No histologic differences in healing between test and control sites were seen at any time point. PRP did not seem to contribute to greater flap strength at any post-surgical time point, nor was it associated with any histologic differences in wound healing in this Yucatan minipig model. The time points chosen for observation post-surgery, as well as the variability in the PRP platelet count, may have contributed to the lack of positive findings in this study.
Hatakeyama, Yoshiyuki; Uzel, Mehmet Ilhan; Santana, Ronaldo B; Ruben, Morris P
The aim of this study was to investigate postsurgical periodontal probe penetration by using clinical information and histometric data. Thirty-eight three-walled defects were created in four dogs, then maintained for 3 months. Subsequently, 26 defects were subjected to periodontal surgery (surgical group), while 12 defects served as controls. The dogs were sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. Immediately before sacrifice, endodontic silver points were placed in the gingival crevices as substitutes for periodontal probes and fixed on the teeth. Following block sections, histologic and histomorphometric evaluations were undertaken: location of the probe tip in relation to the apical termination of the junctional epithelium, length of new junctional epithelium in relation to the apical junctional epithelium, and mean length of connective tissue adhesion in relation to the apical junctional epithelium. Probe tips were located -1.37 +/- 1.73 mm and -0.20 +/- 0.15 mm apical to the apical junctional epithelium for the surgical and control groups, respectively, at 4 weeks, while the probe tip was located 0.58 +/- 0.31 mm and 0.40 +/- 0.20 mm coronal to the apical junctional epithelium, respectively, at 16 weeks. Length of new junctional epithelium in relation to apical junctional epithelium was significantly less for the surgical than the control group at 4 weeks (0.73 +/- 0.60 mm vs 1.19 +/- 0.02 mm) and 8 weeks (1.77 +/- 0.52 mm vs 2.15 +/- 0.00 mm). There were no significant differences between the groups in regard to connective tissue relationship to the apical junctional epithelium. Periodontal probing is not recommended for at least 2 months after surgical procedures; before this stage, probing forces may damage the soft tissue-tooth interrelationship.
Gaucher, Sonia; Lococo, Filippo; Guinet, Claude; Bobbio, Antonio; Magdeleinat, Pierre; Bouam, Samir; Regnard, Jean-François; Alifano, Marco
Flap transposition is an infrequent but far from exceptional thoracic surgical procedure. The aim of this retrospective study was to report our experience in a referral unit of general thoracic surgery analyzing the early results after flap transposition. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records, surgical notes, and postoperative results of a cohort of patients who underwent flap transposition in our unit from November 2000 to February 2013. Overall, a surgical approach adopting flap reconstruction techniques was performed in 81 patients (54 males, 27 females) with a median age of 62 years (range 20-87). Flap transposition was necessary to reconstruct chest wall after resection for malignancy (27 patients), to repair intrathoracic viscera perforation (15 patients), and to fill residual cavities secondary to pulmonary/pleural infection (39 patients). A pedicle muscle flap was transposed in most of cases (64 pts, 79 %), while in the remaining 17 cases (11 %), an omental flap was used. There were no immediate postoperative complications, while three in-hospital deaths occurred due to respiratory or multiorgan failure. Among patients undergone flap transposition to fill a residual cavity, we observed a recurrent bronchopleural fistula in three patients (7.7 %); such patients were treated by repeat flap transposition (2 cases) and by repeat cavernostomy (1 case). Flap transposition may be indicated as part of a multimodal treatment for severely ill patients requiring complex thoracic surgery.
Takayama, Yu; Yokoo, Satoshi; Makiguchi, Takaya; Komori, Takahide
The authors investigated the clinical and histopathologic significance of medial pectoral nerve preservation/reinnervation of pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap for oromandibular reconstruction. The authors compared 13 patients treated with pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap reconstruction and 6 control patients treated by rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap reconstruction without motor nerve restoration. Subjective awareness was scored to evaluate changes in the facial contour due to muscle atrophy, and objective evaluation was performed in few patients. In addition, the authors performed histopathologic analysis of both muscle atrophy and nerve regeneration in 20 patients from whom samples were available. Subjective awareness of changes in the facial contour induced by muscle atrophy was low among patients with nerve preservation/reinnervation, but there were objective changes at 3 months after surgery among patients who underwent nerve resection. In the patients who had medial pectoral nerve preservation or nerve restoration by nerve suture, favorable facial symmetry was retained at 5 years after surgery. Even though the motor nerve was preserved or restored, fatty degeneration and fibrosis were noted in approximately 30% of the total surface area of the muscle, and type I fibers had decreased to 36% that of control at 7 years after surgery. However, regressive changes were inhibited for 1 year after surgery; in contrast, changes corresponding to those noted at 7 years after surgery were observed by 3 months in the patients with nerve resection. Thus, the authors showed that preservation or restoration of nerves can delay muscle and have highlighted the potential benefits of this approach.
Galindo, Joanna; Fadlallah, Ali; Robinson, Steve; Chelala, Elias; Melki, Samir A
To evaluate risk factors leading to loss of epithelial flap integrity in laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK). Boston Eye Group, Brookline, Massachusetts, USA. Retrospective case study. This retrospective chart review was performed for LASEK surgeries that occurred between January 2009 and October 2013. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether epithelium preservation was correlated with age, sex, sphere, cylinder, spherical equivalent (SE), keratometry, and central corneal thickness (CCT). The study reviewed 1009 eyes of 509 patients with a mean age of 29.1 years ± 12.2 (SD). The mean preoperative spherical refraction was -4.7 ± 2.5 diopters (D), and the mean preoperative cylinder was -1.1 ± 0.8 D. The mean preoperative decimal corrected distance visual acuity was 1.01 ± 0.07. Single-sheet mobilization of the loosened epithelium flap was found in 72.3% of cases. Fragmented preservation events occurred in 17.6% of cases; the flap was discarded in 10.0% of cases. Epithelium preservation was significantly correlated with age (P = .048) but not with other parameters (P > .05 for sex, sphere, cylinder, SE, keratometry, CCT, and surgeon experience). Epithelial flap dissection was less likely to lead to a single epithelial sheet in patients older than 50 years than in younger patients (56.3% versus 74.9%). The mean postoperative decimal uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) at 3 months was 0.98 ± 0.08. There was no statistical difference in postoperative UDVA between the undiscarded flap group and discarded flap group (P = .128). Successful dissection of single-sheet epithelial flap diminished with age. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tan, Pingqing; Chen, Jie; Huang, Wenxiao; Bao, Ronghua; Li, Jinyun; Wang, Junqi; Xie, Li; Zhong, Waisheng; Zhang, Hailin
This study aimd to evaluate the application and clinical effect of improved submental island flap in hypopharyngeal cancer reserved laryngeal function surgery. A retrospective review of clinical data was performed on 38 patients of hypopharyngeal cancer reserved laryngeal function using sumental island flaps, by the way of improving in design of vascular pedicle, reconstructive mode of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal function and closing of wound of neck following hypopharyngeal cancer resection. Meanwhile, the effect and prognosis was comprehensively assessed on patients with hypopharyngeal cancer reserved laryngeal function using improved submental island flaps. The submental flaps kept alive in all 38 cases. During the follow-up period, 18 cases were dead, and of them, 7 cases died of the second primary carcinoma, included 4 cases of esophagus cancer, 1 case of cancer of soft palate, 2 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma; and 5 cases died of cervical or parapharyngeal lymph nodes recurrence; 2 cases died of hepatic metastasis; and 4 cases died of pulmonary metastasis. The overall 5-years survival rate was 52.6%. Improved submental island flap repairing postoperative defect of hypopharyngeal cancer reserved laryngeal function has many advantages including higher success rate, more security, easy and simple to operate as well as good clinical effects, and is worth to widespread using.
Biglioli, F; Colombo, V; Tarabbia, F; Pedrazzoli, M; Battista, V; Giovanditto, F; Dalla Toffola, E; Lozza, A; Frigerio, A
One-stage free-flap facial reanimation may be accomplished by using a gracilis transfer innervated by the masseteric nerve, but this technique does not restore the patient's ability to smile spontaneously. By contrast, the transfer of the latissimus dorsi innervated by the contralateral facial nerve provides the correct nerve stimulus but is limited by variation in the quantity of contraction. The authors propose a new one-stage facial reanimation technique using dual innervation; a gracilis muscle flap is innervated by the masseteric nerve, and supplementary nerve input is provided by a cross-face sural nerve graft anastomosed to the contralateral facial nerve branch. Between October 2009 and March 2010, four patients affected by long-standing unilateral facial paralysis received gracilis muscle transfers innervated by both the masseteric nerve and the contralateral facial nerve. All patients recovered voluntary and spontaneous smiling abilities. The recovery time to voluntary flap contraction was 3.8 months, and spontaneous flap contraction was achieved within 7.2 months after surgery. According to Terzis and Noah's five-stage classification of reanimation outcomes, two patients had excellent outcomes and two had good outcomes. In this preliminary study, the devised double-innervation technique allows to achieve a good grade of flap contraction as well as emotional smiling ability. A wider number of operated patients are needed to confirm those initial findings. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lodders, Johannes N; Parmar, Satyesh; Stienen, Niki L M; Martin, Timothy J; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Heymans, Martijn W; Nandra, Baljeet; Forouzanfar, Tymour
The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate the incidence and types of postoperative complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary free flap reconstruction and 2) identify prognostic variables for postoperative complications. Desired data was retrieved from a computer database at the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Queen Elisabeth hospital Birmingham, United Kingdom, between June 2007 and October 2012. Logistic regression was used to study relationships between preoperative variables and postoperative outcomes. The study population consisted 184 patients, comprising 189 composite resections with reconstruction. Complications developed in 40.2% of the patients. Three patients (1.6%) died, 11.1% returned to the operating room, 5.3% developed donor site complications and 6.9% flap complications of which 3.2% total flap failure. In the multivariable analysis systemic complications were associated with anaesthesia time and hospital stay with red cell transfusion. A significant proportion of the patients with primary free flap reconstructions after oral cancer surgery develops postoperative complications. Prolonged anaesthesia time and red cell transfusion are possible predictors for systemic complications and hospital stay respectively. Preoperative screening for risk factors is advocated for patient selection and to have realistic information and expectations.
flap coronal margins following exclusion of two values approaching two standard deviations from the mean. CORONAL MARGIN 20 LEGEND ISO PRESURGICAL...40 43 mean . 53000 .44833 104.5 .49666 107 SD .30073 .22427 67.6 .27631 54.4 Tail probability .7913 Greenhouse-Geisser .7053 Huyhn-Felt .7476 adjusted
... Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures Periodontal Plastic Surgery Procedures Love the Gums You're With ... Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures Periodontal Plastic Surgery Procedures Love the Gums You're With ...
Zhang, Lei; Liu, Zhixu; Li, Biao; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction with a vascularized fibular flap and compare it with conventional surgery. In this retrospective study conducted between February 2009 and December 2012, 8 patients underwent computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction, and 14 patients underwent conventional surgery. The accuracy of virtual surgical planning was determined, and the outcomes in the two groups were compared. In the computer-assisted group, the deviation in fibula segment length was 1.34 ± 1.09 mm, the angular deviation was 2.29 ± 1.19°, and the mean 3-D deviation was 0.53 ± 0.06 mm. Mean differences in intercondylar distance, intergonial angle distance, anteroposterior distance, gonial angle, and duration of ischemia were all improved in the computer-assisted group compared with the conventional surgery group. Computer-assisted surgery, including preoperative virtual surgical planning, intraoperative cutting and reconstructive guides, and postoperative analysis is highly accurate in fibular flap mandibular reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Shaowei; Chen, Xu; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Man; Yu, Zhouxing
To present a novel technique that using capsulorhexis flap to protect corneal endothelial cells during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. During the procedure, an isolated capsulorhexis flap was used to lift it up carefully by using OVD until the flap attached to the corneal inner layer. It kept steady during the phaco phase, and been removed by I/A tip after intraocular lens implantation. In our pilot study, the damage to the corneal endothelial cells from the phacoemulsification procedure were no more than the traditional phaco procedure, even femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery. Isolated capsulorhexis flap technique initiate a new approach to protect the endothelial cell. It is a simple technique with a short learning curve, but still need a further investigation to prove the protection of corneal endothelial cells.
Lin, Hung-Yuan; Fang, Yi-Ting; Chuang, Ya-Jung; Yu, Han-Chieh; Pu, Christy; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chien, Chih-Yi; Lin, Pi-Jung; Schallhorn, Steven C; Sun, Chi-Chin
To evaluate the effects of different flap shapes and hinge angles on opaque bubble layer (OBL) formation using a femtosecond laser for flap creation in LASIK surgery. This retrospective study evaluated 138 eyes of 73 patients who underwent femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK with a 150-kHz IntraLase femtosecond laser (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA) for myopic astigmatism and compared differences between different flap shapes and hinge angles on OBL formation. The surgical procedures were videotaped, and the patterns and sizes of the OBLs seen during surgery were analyzed. Preoperative and postoperative data including patient demographics, refractive status, keratometry, central corneal thickness, and intraoperative data (flap size and pocket parameters) were recorded. The eyes were divided into four groups based on the corneal flap shape (elliptical versus round) and hinge angle (50° versus 60°). The preoperative demographic data, mean spherical errors, cylindrical power, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among the groups. Of the 138 eyes, 107 (77%) developed an OBL covering a mean area of 13.8% ± 12.6% in each case. This area was significantly smaller in the elliptical flap with 60° hinge angle group (P < .05). An oval-shaped flap with a larger hinge angle tended to result in less OBL formation in femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(3):178-182.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Beger, Orhan; Beger, Burhan; Uzmansel, Deniz; Erdoğan, Semra; Kurtoğlu, Zeliha
Although latissimus dorsi (LD) flaps are extensively used in a wide range of interventions, fetus studies on this subject are quite limited. This study aims to obtain detailed information about the morphometric features of LD, thoracodorsal artery (TDA) and nerve (TDN). The study was carried out on both sides of 50 formalin-fixed human fetuses (22 male/28 female) with a mean gestational age of 24.5 ± 4.7 (range 18-36) weeks, which were in the inventory of Anatomy Department of Mersin University Faculty of Medicine. Dimensions of LD, lengths and width of TDA and TDN were measured. Surface area of LD was calculated using digital image analysis software. All samples had LD muscle. Neither gender nor side-significant differences were observed in relation with the numerical data of LD, TDN and TDA. Linear function of surface area was calculated as "y = - 1767.532 + 114.582 × Age (weeks)". LD was attached directly to the posterior part of iliac crest in 59 of 100 sides meanwhile in the rest 41, it was attached by the thoracolumbar fascia. TDA gave a branch to serratus anterior in 96 cases and 2 branches in 4 cases. TDN passed superficial to TDA in 84 and deep to TDA in 16 samples. TDN had bifurcation in 93, trifurcation in 6 and tetrafurcation in 1 side. Data obtained from this study can be useful for estimating the sizes of LD and related neurovascular structures, especially in neonate surgeries. Linear function of LD surface area can be helpful to design the flap dimensions in newborn surgeries. A throughout knowledge about the branching pattern of TDN and its location-wise relation with TDA should be kept in mind to prevent possible complications during harvesting LD flaps and TDN grafts.
Santos, Felipe Rychuv; Kamarowski, Stephanie Felice; Lopez, Camilo Andres Villabona; Storrer, Carmen Lucia Mueller; Neto, Alexandre Teixeira; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda
Periodontal surgery associated with prior waxing, mock-up, and the use of digital tools to design the smile is the current trend of reverse planning in periodontal plastic surgery. The objective of this study is to report a surgical resolution of the gummy smile using a prior esthetic design with the use of digital tools. A digital smile design and mock-up were used for performing gingival recontouring surgery. The relationship between the facial and dental measures and the incisal plane with the horizontal facial plane of reference were evaluated. The relative dental height x width was measured, and the dental contour drawing was inserted. Complementary lines are drawn such as the gingival zenith, joining lines of the gingival and incisal battlements. The periodontal esthetic was improved according to the established design digital smile pattern. These results demonstrate the importance of surgical techniques and are well accepted by patients and are easy to perform for the professional. When properly planned, they provide the desired expectations. Periodontal Surgical procedures associated with the design digital smile facilitate the communication between the patient and the professional. It is, therefore, essential to demonstrate the reverse planning of the smile and periodontal parameters with approval by the patient to solve the esthetic problem.
Rashwan, Weam A M
Previous studies showed that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have significant benefits in the control of pain after periodontal surgery. Acetaminophen (centrally acting NSAID) is believed to provide less analgesic efficacy than ibuprofen (centrally and peripherally acting NSAID). This study compared an alternative combination of acetaminophen, 500 mg, with caffeine, 30 mg, to ibuprofen, 400 mg, in pain management after periodontal surgeries. A prospective, randomized, double-masked crossover clinical trial was conducted on 15 patients. Open flap debridement was performed on two quadrants with a 3-week interval in between. Each quadrant was randomly assigned to acetaminophen, 500 mg, with caffeine, 30 mg, or ibuprofen, 400 mg, immediately after surgery and 8 hours after the first dose. Postoperative pain was assessed during the first 8 hours and on the following day using the 101-point numeric rate scale (NRS-101) and the four-point verbal rating scale (VRS-4). Using the NRS-101, the acetaminophen-caffeine group showed statistically significantly lower mean pain scores than the ibuprofen group at 1 and 2 hours (P = 0.002), whereas at 6, 7, and 8 hours, the ibuprofen group showed statistically significantly lower mean pain scores (P <0.001). Using the VRS-4, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups at all periods (P >0.05). Acetaminophen, 500 mg, with caffeine, 30 mg, can be used efficiently in controlling postoperative pain after open flap debridement, especially in patients with gastric ulcers or bleeding tendency because acetaminophen is less hazardous than ibuprofen.
Britain, Steven K; Arx, Thomas von; Schenk, Robert K; Buser, Daniel; Nummikoski, Pirkka; Cochran, David L
Chronic periodontic-endodontic lesions are not uncommon in clinical practice and their regenerative capacity has long been questioned. However, there are no published studies investigating the application of guided tissue regeneration techniques in combination with endodontic surgery using an induced perio-endo defect model. This study evaluated the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcomes of three surgical procedures used to treat induced perio-endo lesions. Pulpal necrosis was induced in foxhounds along with surgical removal of radicular buccal bone. After 4 weeks, chronic lesions were clinically and radiographically assessed. Treatment surgery consisted of apicoectomy, root canal instrumentation, and retrofilling with mineral trioxide aggregate. Teeth were then assigned to one of the following treatment groups: open flap debridement only (OFD), OFD with bioabsorbable porcine-derived collagen membrane (BG), or OFD with BG and anorganic bovine bone matrix (BO/BG). Clinical parameters and standardized radiographs were assessed at defect creation; treatment surgery; and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Animals were sacrificed at 6 months and specimens prepared for histometric analysis. Clinical and radiographic conditions improved during the study period. Mean epithelial attachment was similar between all groups. Mean connective tissue attachment for groups OFD, BG, and BO/BG was 3.79 mm, 2.63 mm, and 1.75 mm, respectively, and mean radicular bone height was 2.16 mm, 3.24 mm, and 3.45 mm, respectively. Statistically significant increases in the amount of new cementum were observed in groups BG and BO/BG when compared with OFD (P <0.05). Treatment of combined induced perio-endo lesions using bioabsorbable collagen membranes alone or in combination with anorganic bovine bone matrix resulted in increased amounts of bone, periodontal ligament, and significant increases in the amount of new cementum when compared to open flap debridement in a canine model.
Ruga, Emanuele; Gallesio, Cesare; Boffano, Paolo
The surgical removal of impacted mesioangular mandibular third molars (3Ms) may produce trauma to the soft tissues and bony structures. In particular, healing of postextractive socket may cause periodontal defects at the distal root of the second molar. The aim of the present prospective study was to assess the outcomes of a surgical protocol to remove 3Ms including the use of ultrasound bone surgery devices and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as a grafting material. Twenty-eight impacted mandibular 3Ms were removed. Fourteen 3Ms were removed by piezoelectric osteotomy and PRF application. Instead, the 14 3Ms of the control group were removed by piezoelectric osteotomy but without PRF application. Probing depth in the distal position for all the mandibular second molars was registered before and 6 months after surgery. No complications were encountered. In the study group, alveolar socket fulfillment was rated as sufficient in 4 cases and adequate in the remaining 10 cases, whereas in the control group, it was rated as insufficient in 3 cases, sufficient in 4 cases, and adequate in 7 cases. Mean preoperative periodontal probing in the control group was 3.78 mm, whereas in the study group, it was 3.93 mm.Six months after surgery, mean periodontal probing was 3.28 mm in the control group and 3.07 mm in the study group. Combined action of PRF and piezoelectric surgery can be considered a safe and fine technique for third molar surgery and alveolar socket healing.
Coupin, A; Li, Q; Riss, I
(1) To present the Ex-PRESS device implanted under a scleral flap in open-angle glaucoma patients and to report its safety and efficacy; (2) to compare the results obtained without a scleral flap in a glaucoma group. The case series studied included the eyes of Caucasian patients (82 patients, 99 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma, operated on between January 2003 and June 2004. The Ex-PRESS devices were inserted under the scleral flap in the anterior chamber; if necessary a combined surgery was performed (28 eyes). Each patient underwent ophthalmic examinations (IOP, visual field, gonioscopy, cup/disc ratio) before and after the operation. The surgical procedure lasted between 10 and 20 min with topical anesthesia. An antimetabolite was used under the scleral flap for all patients. The mean follow-up was 7.5+/-4.6 months; 40% had 12 months follow-up (40 eyes). The IOP decreased from 22.9+/-5.3 mmHg preoperatively to 14+/-2 mmHg at 6 months and 14.3+/-2.3 mmHg at 1 year. The success rate was 86.9% (IOP below 21 mmHg with or without drugs). Complete success was achieved in 62.6% (IOP below 21 mmHg without anti-glaucoma drops or medications). In 13 eyes, IOP was not controlled with eye drops, and nine eyes had to be reoperated. Six cases presented athalamia but recovered without surgical treatment. We did not observe any infection, corneal erosion, or Ex-PRESS extrusion. There were no statistical differences between results obtained with and without scleral flap regarding IOP or early complications (athalamia). Both the safety and the efficacy of the device under a scleral flap were showed in glaucoma surgery in this retrospective study. Using the scleral flap reduces the risk of erosion but confirmation with a longer follow-up is needed.
Dastoor, Sarosh F.; Travan, Suncica; Neiva, Rodrigo F.; Rayburn, Lindsay A.; Giannobile, William V.; Wang, Hom-Lay
Background Along with conventional surgical therapy, systemic antibiotics may provide more effective treatment in smokers by targeting tissue- invasive bacteria. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial was to evaluate the adjunctive effects of systemic azithromycin (AZM) in combination with periodontal pocket reduction surgery in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in smokers. Methods Thirty patients with a greater than one pack/day smoking habit and generalized moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were randomized to the test (surgery plus 3 days of AZM, 500 mg) or control group (surgery plus 3 days of placebo). Full-mouth probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index (GI), plaque index, and wound healing indices (WHI) were assessed at baseline and at 2 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months following surgical intervention. Plaque and gingival crevicular fluid were collected for trypsin-like enzyme activity (benzoyl-dl-arginine naphthylamine) and bone biomarker (cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen [ICTP]) analyses, respectively, at baseline, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, and 6 months. Results Surgical treatment of moderate (PD = 4 to 6 mm) and deep (PD >6 mm) pockets significantly improved clinical parameters of treated and untreated teeth (CAL gain, PD reduction, and reduction of BOP). The additional use of AZM did not enhance this improvement nor did it promote reduction of ICTP levels. Compared to the control group, the test group had significantly better WHI scores at 1 month, significantly less GI at 2 weeks, and sustained reductions of red-complex bacteria with trypsin-like enzyme activity at 3 months. For non-surgery teeth, only the test group showed significant gains in overall CAL compared to baseline. Conclusions The findings of this pilot study demonstrated that in heavy smokers, adjunctive systemic AZM in combination with pocket reduction surgery did not significantly
Yang, Yue; Zhang, Fang; Lyu, Xin; Yan, Zhimin; Hua, Hong; Peng, Xin
Relevant reports about oral candidiasis status and prevention measures after free flap surgery for the oral and maxillofacial region are limited. The present study explored oral candidiasis status after free flap surgery and its prevention through a prospective comparative study. One hundred four patients were randomized to a control group (n = 54) and an experimental group (n = 50). Compared with the control group, the experimental group was provided an additional 3% sodium bicarbonate saline solution for oral care after free flap surgery. The incidence of oral candidiasis was evaluated by objective examination (saliva culture and salivary pH measurement) and subjective evaluation (clinical signs of oral candidiasis) at admission and from postoperative days 1 to 14. The salivary pH values of the 2 groups were lower than the normal salivary pH, and postoperative salivary pH values were always lower than the active range of oral lysozymes in the control group. The salivary pH values of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group from postoperative days 6 to 14 (P < .05). The incidence of oral candidiasis was 13.0% in the control group, which was higher than that in the experimental group (2.0%; P < .05). In addition, advanced age, use of a free flap for the simultaneous repair of intraoral and paraoral defects, and a combination of 2 antibiotic types were risk factors for oral candidiasis. Oral candidiasis was common in patients after free flap reconstruction surgery, and the use of 3% sodium bicarbonate saline solution for oral care effectively prevented it. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MUNTEAN, MAXIMILIAN VLAD; MUNTEAN, VALENTIN; ARDELEAN, FILIP; GEORGESCU, ALEXANDRU
Flap monitoring technology has progressed alongside flap design. The highly variable vascular anatomy and the complexity associated with modern perforator flaps demands dynamic, real-time, intraoperative information about the vessel location, perfusion patterns and flap physiology. Although most surgeons still assess flap perfusion and viability based solely on clinical experience, studies have shown that results may be highly variable and often misleading. Poor judgment of intraoperative perfusion leads to major complications. Employing dynamic perfusion imaging during flap reconstruction has led to a reduced complication rate, lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and an overall better result. With the emergence of multiple systems capable of intraoperative flap evaluation, the purpose of this article is to review the two systems that have been widely accepted and are currently used by plastic surgeons: Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT). PMID:26609259
Tabrizi, Reza; Arabion, Hamidreza; Gholami, Mehdi
Background: Several conflicting findings have been published in the previous literature regarding the effects of impacted third molar surgery on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar; some authors have shown improvement of periodontal health distal to the adjacent second molar, whilst others have demonstrated loss of attachment level (AL) and reduction of alveolar bone height. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in periodontal health parameters distal to the adjacent second molar following extraction of an impacted third molar. Materials and Methods: Out of 50 patients participated in the study, 42 patients completed the study. The mean age of the sample was 20.9 (range, 18-25) years. All teeth were mesioangular impacted mandibular third molars categorized at C1 class based on the Pell and Gregory classification. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon and the same surgeon recorded the pre-operative and post-operative measurements of probing depth (PD) and AL on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars. Data analysis were carried out with the SPSS software (version 19), using the paired-samples t-test and one sample t-test. Results: Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar resulted in a significant increase of PD on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars, whereas AL was decreased significantly after surgery (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Unlike plenty of researches that have shown improvement of periodontal parameters of the second molar after extraction of impacted third molar, our study showed a significant increase in PD at the distal aspect of the second molar. Further follow-up on clinical and radiological parameters are required for more profound understanding of the long-term effects of third molar extraction on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar. PMID:24130590
Gutiérrez-Vela, María M.; Díaz-Haro, Ana; Berbel-Salvador, Sonia; Lucero-Sánchez, Aldo; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio
Objectics: The evolution of research activity during the last thirty years on regenerative periodontal surgery is studied. Results: A small number of authors are highly productive with more than 10 publications on the subject each. 79,6% of authors have only produced one article on the subject. The co-authorship average is of 2,68 authors per paper, with a collaboration between 2 and 6 authors. Main journals on the field of regenerative periodontal surgery are Journal of Periodontology and Journal of Clinical Periodontology, which are ranked 14th and 1st in their category according to the Journal Citations Reports. The most used language is English, followed by Japanese and Italian, Spanish occupying the eighth position. Conclusions: A significant increase on scientific literature is observed, similar to the one Dentistry has had. A reduced number of authors account for most production. In the same token, there is a scarce professionalization of researchers in this field, where most of the authors are occasional. On the other hand, there are two very specialized journals on this topic. Key words:Bibliometrics, scientometrics periodontal regeneration, surgical periodontal treatment, scientific literature, scopus, scientific output. PMID:24558535
Lau, Beatrice Y; Johnston, Bryan D; Fritz, Peter C; Ward, Wendy E
Methods to optimize healing through dietary strategies present an attractive option for patients, such that healing from delicate oral surgeries occurs as optimally as possible with minimal patient-meditated complications through improper food choices. This review discusses findings from studies that have investigated the role of diet, either whole foods or individual dietary components, on periodontal health and their potential role in wound healing after periodontal surgery. To date, research in this area has largely focused on foods or individual dietary components that may attenuate inflammation or oxidant stress, or foster de novo bone formation. These studies suggest that a wide variety of dietary components, including macronutrients and micronutrients, are integral for optimal periodontal health and have the potential to accelerate oral wound healing after periodontal procedures. Moreover, this review provides guidance regarding dietary considerations that may help a patient achieve the best possible outcome after a periodontal procedure.
Lau, Beatrice Y; Johnston, Bryan D; Fritz, Peter C; Ward, Wendy E
Methods to optimize healing through dietary strategies present an attractive option for patients, such that healing from delicate oral surgeries occurs as optimally as possible with minimal patient-meditated complications through improper food choices. This review discusses findings from studies that have investigated the role of diet, either whole foods or individual dietary components, on periodontal health and their potential role in wound healing after periodontal surgery. To date, research in this area has largely focused on foods or individual dietary components that may attenuate inflammation or oxidant stress, or foster de novo bone formation. These studies suggest that a wide variety of dietary components, including macronutrients and micronutrients, are integral for optimal periodontal health and have the potential to accelerate oral wound healing after periodontal procedures. Moreover, this review provides guidance regarding dietary considerations that may help a patient achieve the best possible outcome after a periodontal procedure. PMID:23802022
You, Jie; Yang, Ya-Jie; Liu, Li-Yan; Hu, Chen
To investigate whether periodontal infection is a risk factor for lower respiratory infection patients receiving oral and maxillofacial tumor surgery. Patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgery for tumors with concurrent periodontal disease between January, 2012 and December, 2016 were randomized into periodontal intervention group and control group (treated with gargle solution containing chlorhexidine gluconate). The one-time periodontal intervention was completed within 24 h in the intervention group and two-week mouthwash was prescribed in the control group before oral and maxillofacial tumor surgery. Five periodontal indexes were examined at baseline and at 6 weeks after the treatment. The clinical symptoms and incidence of lower respiratory infections were compared between the two groups at 6 weeks. The PLI, BOP, PPD, and CAL were significantly lower and GR was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P<0.01). The periodontal status was significantly improved in the intervention group. The incidence of lower respiratory infection was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (2.22% vs 7.11%, P<0.01). The incidences of cough and expectoration in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Periodontal infection is one of the risk factors for lower respiratory infection after oral and maxillofacial tumor surgery. The periodontal status can be effectively controlled and improved by periodontal intervention. Compared with mouthwash, periodontal intervention can significantly reduce the incidences of cough and expectoration and lower the incidence of lower respiratory infections.
Dort, Joseph C; Farwell, D Gregory; Findlay, Merran; Huber, Gerhard F; Kerr, Paul; Shea-Budgell, Melissa A; Simon, Christian; Uppington, Jeffrey; Zygun, David; Ljungqvist, Olle; Harris, Jeffrey
Head and neck cancers often require complex, labor-intensive surgeries, especially when free flap reconstruction is required. Enhanced recovery is important in this patient population but evidence-based protocols on perioperative care for this population are lacking. To provide a consensus-based protocol for optimal perioperative care of patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery with free flap reconstruction. Following endorsement by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society to develop this protocol, a systematic review was conducted for each topic. The PubMed and Cochrane databases were initially searched to identify relevant publications on head and neck cancer surgery from 1965 through April 2015. Consistent key words for each topic included "head and neck surgery," "pharyngectomy," "laryngectomy," "laryngopharyngectomy," "neck dissection," "parotid lymphadenectomy," "thyroidectomy," "oral cavity resection," "glossectomy," and "head and neck." The final selection of literature included meta-analyses and systematic reviews as well as randomized controlled trials where available. In the absence of high-level data, case series and nonrandomized studies in head and neck cancer surgery patients or randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews in non-head and neck cancer surgery patients, were considered. An international panel of experts in major head and neck cancer surgery and enhanced recovery after surgery reviewed and assessed the literature for quality and developed recommendations for each topic based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. All recommendations were graded following a consensus discussion among the expert panel. The literature search, including a hand search of reference lists, identified 215 relevant publications that were considered to be the best evidence for the topic areas. A total of 17 topic areas were identified for inclusion in the protocol for the perioperative
Pandya, Dhara; Manohar, Balaji; Mathur, L K; Shankarapillai, Rajesh
Bleeding is a common sequela of oral and periodontal surgery. Generally, bleeding is self-limiting. Following traumatic injury or surgical procedures, hemorrhage can range from a minor leakage or oozing at the site, to extensive bleeding leading to complete exsanguinations. Significant postsurgical hemorrhage following periodontal surgery is uncommon due to the primary closure of the soft tissues. This case report describes the unique formation of a "liver clot" or "currant jelly clot" following periodontal flap surgery. The likelihood of this may be attributed to many factors, like infection, intrinsic trauma, presence of foreign bodies like splinter of bone, a fleck of enamel, or a piece of dental restorative dressing material that may cause repeated, delayed organization of blood coagulum.
Gkatzonis, Anastasios M; Vassilopoulos, Spyridon I; Karoussis, Ioannis K; Kaminari, Archontia; Madianos, Phoebus N; Vrotsos, Ioannis A
The use of chlorhexidine (CHX) with or without alcohol has been recommended for a number of clinical applications. On the other hand, there is a plethora of widely subscribed antiseptics, such as agent C31G (alkyl dimethyl glycine/alkyl dimethyl amine oxide), which has not yet been evaluated postsurgically. The effectiveness of three different mouthrinses (CHX with and without alcohol, C31G) in plaque control and early wound healing was compared postoperatively. In this, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial 42 patients were allocated to three groups assigned to 2 weeks rinsing after non-regenerative periodontal flap surgery with or without osseous surgery with C31G (group A), alcohol-free CHX 0.12% (group B) or alcohol-based CHX 0.12% (group C). At days 7 and 14, plaque and early wound healing indices were recorded. At day 14, total bacterial counts were estimated utilizing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Statistics included linear and generalized linear mixed models. At day 7, healing response was not significantly different among groups. At day 14, group A revealed the highest while group C demonstrated the lowest plaque index values (B vs A, odds ratio-OR = 0.18, p = 0.012; C vs A, OR = 0.01, p < 0.001; C vs B, OR = 0.06, p < 0.001). Group C demonstrated the lowest bacterial counts levels at day 14 (38.470 × 106, 48.190 × 106, and 3.020 × 106 for groups A, B, and C, respectively). At day 14, healing was significantly better in group C compared to B (p = 0.007). Group A showed no significant differences compared to other groups. (1) The presence of alcohol may increase the effectiveness of CHX in early wound healing, (2) C31G might be an alternative solution prescribed during early postoperative period after non-regenerative periodontal flap surgery. The present study found that active agent C31G displayed no significant differences to CHX formulations regarding periodontal wound
Moya-Plana, A; Vacher, C
To evaluate the feasibility of neurocutaneous flaps for head and neck surgery using the cervical superficial plexus branches. Anatomic study on cervical superficial plexi (focusing on the great auricular and cervical transverse nerves) of five fresh specimens, which were injected with green colored latex. A constancy of anatomic landmarks has been observed with little inter-individual variability. The cervical superficial plexus branches were easily isolated, their length and course not varying much. Each cervical superficial plexus nerve is accompanied by a perinervous artery, essential condition to a neurocutaneous flap. We privileged the great auricular nerve for its superior length and diameter, in order to easy the raise of the flap. We took it at the low mastoidian level, pediculed on the great auricular nerve with a point on the posterior border of the sterno-cleido-mastoidian muscle. Pedicule size is 7 to 10cm allowing to reach ipsilateral alae of the nose, the chin or the pinna. Developing this technique for oropharyngeal reconstruction (internal side of the cheek, anterior floor of mouth...), whereas not realized in this study, must be considered. The anatomic study showed the cervical superficial plexus constancy with the systematic presence of a perinervous pedicle siding each branch. The great auricular nerve is a good candidate for the raise of a neurocutaneous flap. A standardized surgical procedure must be established before any clinical study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Varadarajan, Varun V; Sawhney, Raja; Bernard, Stewart H; Boyce, Brian; Lang, Dustin M; Balamohan, Sanjeev; Baskin, Robert M; Dziegielewski, Peter T
Head and neck free flap patients require complex postoperative care. The quality of care for these patients often depends on their management from the time they leave the operating room. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a postoperative inpatient coordinator (IC) for head and free flap patients on quality outcomes: length of stay (LOS), 30-day unplanned return to the emergency department (30dRED), 30-day unplanned readmissions (30dUR), and complication rates. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients who underwent head and neck free flap surgery between January 2012 and January 2016 were reviewed using a prospective database. Patients had an IC for their entire hospitalization (group 1) or for less than their entire hospitalization (group 2). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for quality outcomes. Mean LOS was 13.8 days and 17.3 days in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = .002). The 30dRED rate was 12% and 22%, respectively (P = .04). Group 2 had an increased LOS by 4.1 days (P = .001) and a 2.4 fold increased 30dRED (P = .03). 30dUR and complications were not influenced by the IC (P > .05). An IC may help decrease LOS and 30dRED in head and neck free flap patients. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:336-342, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
and cetylpyridinium chloride (Southard, et al. 1984). Sanguinarine is found commercially in a toothpaste and oral rinse. The toothpaste is effective in... ingredients in the study material were excluded from the study. During initial therapy, prior to surgery, patients received oral hygiene instructions...Strepococcus mutans and rat caries. Arch. Oral. Bio. 24:799-805, 1979. Bhaskar, S.N.: Clinical use of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinarine. Compend
Shi, Haifeng; Rui, Yongjun; Shou, Kuishui
To introduce a method to repair soft tissue defect in different regions and different areas of hand in one procedure. From May 2002 to May 2005, anterolateral femoral flap or lobulated anterolateral femoral flap (forming irregular anterolateral femoral flap) was designed into different shapes to repair multiple soft tissue defect in different regions in hand, which was used clinically in 27 cases. Among 27 cases, there were 16 males and 11 females; the locations were left hand in 9, right hand in 16 and left foot in 2; including 5 penetrating injury, 9 hot pressing injury, 2 soft tissue defection of instep and plantae by milled injury, 6 gearing injury and 5 carding machine injury. All the cases complicated by exposure of tendons, bones or joints. Defect was repaired with H-shape flaps in 5 cases of penetrating palm injuries; with Y-shape or K-shape flaps in 11 cases of dorsal or combined with fingers of hand with skin defect; with perpendicular-shape flaps in 3 cases of dorsal combined with sides of palms or the first web of hands with skin defect and in 2 cases of skin defects of dorsal combined with palms of feet; with h-shape flaps in 6 cases of skin defects of dorsal or palms combined with disconnected skin defect of fingers. The sizes of main flaps ranged from 6.5 cm x 4.8 cm to 17.0 cm x 12.0 cm, the sizes of lobulated flaps ranged from 3.5 cm x 2.8 cm to 7.5 cm x 4.5 cm. All flaps survived without vascular crisis after operation. Except the fascia flap all recipient sites healed by first intention. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 1 year, all cases had satisfactory appearance, the texture of flaps was soft. Except 2 cases of penetrating injury, 3 cases of hot pressing injury and 1 case of carding machine injury whose function was not satisfactory, the remaining cases achieved the function of snap and pinch. More than 1 year after operation, the sense of pain and touch recovered. There was no functional impairment at the donor sites although scar
Clinical features of surgical soft tissue wound healing in dentistry have been rarely discussed in the international literature. The aim of the present paper is to highlight both the main clinical findings of surgical wound healing, especially in periodontal and implant dentistry, and the wound healing monitoring procedures which should be followed. Wound inspection after careful food and plaque debridement is the essential part of wound healing monitoring. Periodontal and peri-implant probing should be performed only after tissue healing has been completed and not on a weekly basis in peri-implant tissue monitoring. Telephone follow-up and patient self-assessment scales can also be used the days following surgery to monitor the most common surgical complications such as pain, swelling, bleeding, and bruising. Wound healing monitoring is an important concern in all surgical procedures since it allows to identify signs or/and symptoms possibly related to surgical complications.
Clinical features of surgical soft tissue wound healing in dentistry have been rarely discussed in the international literature. The aim of the present paper is to highlight both the main clinical findings of surgical wound healing, especially in periodontal and implant dentistry, and the wound healing monitoring procedures which should be followed. Wound inspection after careful food and plaque debridement is the essential part of wound healing monitoring. Periodontal and peri-implant probing should be performed only after tissue healing has been completed and not on a weekly basis in peri-implant tissue monitoring. Telephone follow-up and patient self-assessment scales can also be used the days following surgery to monitor the most common surgical complications such as pain, swelling, bleeding, and bruising. Wound healing monitoring is an important concern in all surgical procedures since it allows to identify signs or/and symptoms possibly related to surgical complications. PMID:28824306
Paprottka, Felix J; Krezdorn, Nicco; Lohmeyer, Jörn A; Young, Katie; Kuhbier, Jörn; Keck, Maike; Rösler, Stefan Klaus; Dohse, Nils-Kristian; Hebebrand, Detlev
Urogenital fistulas are devastating complications occurring after tumors or trauma. Surgical treatment is challenging. Thus, further surgical repair options are needed for treatment of complex fistulas within the pelvic region. Twelve patients with urogenital fistulas were surgically treated in our department from 2004 to 2012. These selected cases fulfilled eligibility criteria for continence-preserving surgery - a history of fistula recurrences with ongoing incontinence after receiving at least two surgical attempts. Five VRAM and eight gracilis flaps were used to cover up given tissue defects and to perform functional continence-preserving reconstruction with mean follow-up of 6.3 years. Data were retrospectively reviewed, and standardized survey was performed to evaluate quality of life of all living patients (n = 10). In all cases, final surgical treatment of the given fistulae by VRAM or gracilis flaps could be achieved, with mean operating time of 5:31 h (range: 4:50-6:48 h) for VRAM flap and 3:11 h (range: 2:04-4:42 h) for gracilis flap. Outcome measures were primarily to avoid fistula recurrence after plastic surgical treatment, and secondary quality of life and survival. All patients had their continence preserved, but two patients died during follow-up period. Postoperative assessment revealed the following: VRAM flap patients (n = 3) showed slight incontinence during the follow-up period, whereas continence was restored in all patients with gracilis flap reconstruction (n = 7). Quality-of-life assessment indicated restoration of quality of life in comparison to general population (women > men). Furthermore, key points of the two presented surgical techniques are demonstrated in detail. With preformed VRAM or gracilis flaps, complex urogenital fistulas can be successfully eradicated and continence is restored. The main focus should be the recovery of quality of life, which could be successfully regained. Nevertheless, the continence success rate has to
Delivering KT via IN, resulted in greater than 80% bioavailability (sum mean plasma concentration over five hours) compared to IV administration...absorption than the powdered fonnulation and demonstrated an absolute bioavailability of91 % and plasma concentrations comparable to that ofIV...relative bioavailability of IN KT was 67% to 75% (15mg and 30mg respectively) compared to IM KT. The investigators concluded that IN administration offered
Meloni, Silvio Mario; Tallarico, Marco; De Riu, Giacomo; Pisano, Milena; Deledda, Alessandro; Lolli, Francesco Maria; Massarelli, Olindo; Tullio, Antonio
The aim of this prospective clinical study is to assess the 4-year outcomes of implant-supported restorations performed using a computer-guided template-assisted flapless implant surgery approach in patients reconstructed with fibula or iliac crest free flaps. Twelve jaws in 10 patients were reconstructed with osteomyocutaneous free flap after tumour resection or gunshot wound, after complete healing computer-assisted template-based flapless implant placement, based on prosthetic and aesthetic analysis, was performed using a customized protocol. Treatment success was evaluated using the following parameters: survival of implants/prostheses, prosthetic and biologic complications, marginal bone remodelling, soft tissue parameters and patient satisfaction. A total of 56 implants were placed; the implants ranged between 8 and 16 mm in length and were either 3.5, 4.3 or 5 mm wide. All the patients have reached the 4-year follow-up. Three implants were lost accounting for an overall implant survival rate of 94.6%. No prosthesis were lost. Some complications were recorded. Four years after loading the mean marginal bone loss was 1.43 ± 0.49 mm at the palatal/lingual site and 1.48 ± 0.46 mm at the vestibular site. All the patients showed healthy soft tissues with stable probing depth (4 .93 ± 0.75%) and successful bleeding on probing values (12 ± 5.8%); 90% of patients were satisfied of the treatment at the 4-year follow-up. Computer-guided template-assisted flapless implant surgery seems to be a viable option for patients undergoing reconstruction with free flaps after tumour resection or gunshot trauma, although many challenges remain. A high degree of patient satisfactorily was reported. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stecco, Carla; Tiengo, Cesare; Stecco, Antonio; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stern, Robert; De Caro, Raffaele
Fascia has traditionally been thought of as a passive structure that envelops muscles, and the term "fascia" was misused and confusing. However, it is now evident that fascia is a dynamic tissue with complex vasculature and innervation. A definition of fascia as an integral tissue has been provided here, highlighting the main features of the superficial and deep fasciae. Wide anatomic variations and site-specific differences in fascial structure are described, coupled with results of our extensive investigations of fascial anatomy. This will enable surgeons to make better decisions on selecting the appropriate fascia in the construction of fascial flaps. The use of the superficial or deep fasciae in the creation of a fascial flap cannot be selected at random, but must be guided by the anatomical features of the different types of fasciae. In particular, we suggest the use of the superficial fascia, such as the parascapular fascio-cutaneous free flap or any cutaneous flap, when a well-vascularized elastic flap, with the capacity to adhere to underlying tissues, is required, and a fascio-cutaneous flap formed by aponeurotic fascia to resurface any tendon or joints exposures. Moreover, the aponeurotic fascia, such as the fascia lata, can be used as a surgical patch if the plastic surgeon requires strong resistance to stress and/or the capacity to glide freely. Finally, the epimysial fascia, such as in the latissimus dorsi flap, can be used with success when used together with the underlying muscles. Clearly, extensive clinical experience and judgment are necessary for assessment of their potential use.
Elo, Jeffrey A; Sun, Ho-Hyun Brian; Dong, Fanglong; Tandon, Rahul; Singh, Hardev M
To measure the influence of flap design on alveolar osteitis (AO) and postoperative complications following mandibular third molar surgery. This study was designed as a randomized single-blind, split-mouth clinical trial. The predictor variable was flap type. Envelope flap, modified triangular flap (MTF), and two related experimental flaps (second molar mesial papilla-sparing marginal incision with distobuccal release with double-pass single-layered primary closure [MPMI-2 X] and single-pass single-layered primary closure [MPMI-1 X]) were used. The primary outcome variable was AO. The secondary outcome variables were wound dehiscence and infection. Bivariate and logistic analyses were computed. P value < .05 was considered to be statistically significant. One hundred ninety-six patients with symmetric bilateral partial bony or full bony impacted mandibular third molars participated. No sites (0 of 196) treated with MPMI-2 X developed AO, and only two sites (2 of 196) treated with MPMI-2 X developed postoperative infection. Both MPMI-1 X and MPMI-2 X were associated with decreased odds of complications compared with MTF and envelope flap. MPMI-2 X sites were significantly less likely than MTF sites to experience complications for both sides. MPMI-2 X is a reliable technique to reduce complications, such as AO, wound dehiscence, and infection in mandibular third molar surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hartmann, Christoph E A; Ko, Loretta W L; Ion, Lucion; Jemec, Barbara
Radionecrotic ulcers due to breast cancer treatment is a highly morbid and disabling condition, causing pain, malodour, need for frequent dressings, reduced range of shoulder movements and an unacceptable cosmetic appearance. In patients with radiotherapy to the chest and/or axilla and general poor health the usual reconstructive options may not be suitable due to regional tissue damage and inappropriate long anaesthetic time, respectively. Described procedures include the pedicled latisimus dorsi flap, transverse rectus abdominal flap (TRAM) and omental transposition flap, as well as free tissue transfer (e.g. free TRAM, DIEP). We report a case of a morbidly obese female patient presenting with a large radionecrotic ulcer in her left axilla, following mastectomy, axillary clearance and local radiotherapy to left chest and axilla for breast cancer. She underwent reconstruction using an omental transposition flap, despite previous abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosich-Medina, A; Ariyaratnam, J; Koo, B; Turner, W H; Fearnhead, N S; Durrani, A; Davies, R J
Closure of the perineum following radical excision of pelvic tumours can prove to be a complex surgical problem. A number of pedicled flaps have been used for perineal reconstruction in order to reduce post-operative complications such as infection and abscess formation. The aim of this case series was to analyse the use of pre-operative computer tomography (CT) angiography to guide flap selection for perineal reconstruction following radical excision of pelvic tumours. We conducted a retrospective review to identify all patients who underwent CT angiography prior to radical excision of pelvic tumours and planned flap reconstruction over an 18 month period. Six patients were identified and are presented in this case series. Patients' medical records, histology reports, pre-operative investigations and CT angiograms, complications and follow-up were reviewed. The mean patient age was 58.3 years, with a male to female ratio of 1:2. Four out of six patients (66.6%) underwent pre-operative radiotherapy. The deep inferior epigastric arteries (DIEA) were visualised in all six cases (100%) and the pre-operative CT angiography helped guide flap choice in all cases (100%). In one case, narrowing of the DIEA vessels was noted precluding the use of a DIEA-based flap. One patient had a minor superficial wound dehiscence. Pre-operative CT angiography allows accurate visualisation of the DIEA system including perforator vessels. CT angiography is a useful tool, providing the surgical team with significant additional information to aid pre-operative planning and optimise reconstructive choice and outcome. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kwon, Yu-Jun; Ahn, Byung-Moon; Lee, Jae-Sung; Park, Yong-Gum; Ryu, Hyun-Jun; Ha, Yong-Chan
Although thenar flap for single fingertip amputation is a common and popular surgical technique, double thenar flap technique for patients with two fingertip amputations has rarely been reported in the literature. The purpose of this case-control study was to introduce the double thenar technique and compare the clinical outcomes between single thenar flap and double thenar flap surgical treatments. From January 2005 to December 2014, 92 patients with single fingertip amputations were treated with thenar flap (Group I) and 28 patients with two fingertip amputations were treated with double thenar flap (Group II). These 120 patients were followed-up for a minimum of 12 months postoperatively. At the latest follow-up, the two groups were assessed for pain, cold intolerance in the reconstructed finger, functional outcomes by Chen's criteria, and subjective patient satisfaction. At the final follow-up, all flaps in both groups had survived. No flap failure occurred. There was no significant difference in cold intolerance (p=0.783), donor site pain (p=0.728), fingertip pain (p=1.000), or paresthesia (p=0.514) between the two groups. A total of 100 (83.3%) patients were completely or fairly satisfied. There was no significant difference in satisfaction between the two groups (p=0.801). According to the Chen criteria, 102 (85%) patients had excellent or good results. This study demonstrated that the double thenar flap technique used for patients with two fingertip amputations produced complete survival with functional outcomes comparable to those of the single thenar flap technique at the last follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Castro, Ana B; Meschi, Nastaran; Temmerman, Andy; Pinto, Nelson; Lambrechts, Paul; Teughels, Wim; Quirynen, Marc
To analyse the regenerative potential of leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) during periodontal surgery. An electronic and hand search were conducted in three databases. Only randomized clinical trials were selected and no follow-up limitation was applied. Pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bone fill, keratinized tissue width (KTW), recession reduction and root coverage (%) were considered as outcome. When possible, meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-four articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three subgroups were created: intra-bony defects (IBDs), furcation defects and periodontal plastic surgery. Meta-analysis was performed in all the subgroups. Significant PD reduction (1.1 ± 0.5 mm, p < 0.001), CAL gain (1.2 ± 0.6 mm, p < 0.001) and bone fill (1.7 ± 0.7 mm, p < 0.001) were found when comparing L-PRF to open flap debridement (OFD) in IBDs. For furcation defects, significant PD reduction (1.9 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.01), CAL gain (1.3 ± 0.4 mm, p < 0.001) and bone fill (1.5 ± 0.3 mm, p < 0.001) were reported when comparing L-PRF to OFD. When L-PRF was compared to a connective tissue graft, similar outcomes were recorded for PD reduction (0.2 ± 0.3 mm, p > 0.05), CAL gain (0.2 ± 0.5 mm, p > 0.05), KTW (0.3 ± 0.4 mm, p > 0.05) and recession reduction (0.2 ± 0.3 mm, p > 0.05). L-PRF enhances periodontal wound healing. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Periodontology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ogawa, Tomoko; Hanamura, Noriko
An abdominal advancement flap (AAF) is a flap that pulls the elevated abdominal skin up, creating the shape of the inferior portion of the breast by making a neo-inframammary fold. We used an AAF combined with volume displacement techniques to fill the defect left after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Forty-one small- to medium-sized breast patients whose resection area included the lower portion of the breast underwent this procedure from October 2010 to December 2014. We evaluated efficacy of this procedure. The excision volume ranged from 10 to 35 %. Complications after surgery were observed in two patients (partial necrosis of the nipple-areola complex and partial necrosis of the breast skin in one patient each). There was no fat necrosis of the flap in any of the patients. The cosmetic results were found to be excellent in 7 cases, good in 23, fair in 9 and poor in 2. In 11 cases with an unacceptable outcome, 9 cases were in the inner portion. In patients with the tumor in the inner portion, the proportion of unacceptable cases was 50 %. In the cases other than the inner portion, the proportion of unacceptable cases was 8.7 % (p < 0.01). In the cases with larger breasts, unacceptable cases were more frequently observed (p < 0.05). We believe that an AAF combined with volume displacement techniques may be useful following BCS in the lower portion of a small- to medium-sized breast, except in cases where the tumors is located in the inner potion.
Mavropoulos, Antonios; Brodin, Pål; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Aass, Anne Merete; Aars, Harald
The aim of this study was to evaluate the gingival blood flow of smokers and non-smokers with periodontal disease before and after surgical periodontal treatment. Nine smokers and six non-smokers with at least two periodontal lesions were included in the study. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure blood flow in two gingival sites and two skin sites. Two intrabony defects were treated surgically at the same time; enamel matrix derivative was applied at random to one of the sites, whereas the other site received a placebo gel. We measured resting gingival blood flow (GBF) and responses to cold pressor test (CPT) and to smoking and made continuous measurements of blood pressure (BP). Resting GBF levels of 26 young healthy subjects were used as a reference value. Resting GBF was significantly lower for the periodontitis patients compared to the reference subjects, regardless of smoking habits. GBF and gingival vascular conductance (VC) decreased significantly pre- and postoperatively in response to smoking. CPT evoked significant decreases in VC in smokers and non-smokers. Skin blood flow decreased significantly in response to CPT, more so in the non-smokers. BP was significantly higher in the non-smokers. Resting GBF of periodontitis patients was not lower in smokers than in non-smokers, but it was significantly lower than in the younger reference subjects. In contrast to our earlier findings in healthy subjects, smoking one cigarette may cause a decrease in GBF and VC in periodontitis patients. These observations suggested the existence of a dysfunction in the gingival vasculature in smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis.
Sabino, Jennifer M.; Slater, Julia; Valerio, Ian L.
Scope and Significance: Reconstruction of traumatic injuries requiring tissue transfer begins with aggressive resuscitation and stabilization. Systematic advances in acute casualty care at the point of injury have improved survival and allowed for increasingly complex treatment before definitive reconstruction at tertiary medical facilities outside the combat zone. As a result, the complexity of the limb salvage algorithm has increased over 14 years of combat activities in Iraq and Afghanistan. Problem: Severe poly-extremity trauma in combat casualties has led to a large number of extremity salvage cases. Advanced reconstructive techniques coupled with regenerative medicine applications have played a critical role in the restoration, recovery, and rehabilitation of functional limb salvage. Translational Relevance: The past 14 years of war trauma have increased our understanding of tissue transfer for extremity reconstruction in the treatment of combat casualties. Injury patterns, flap choice, and reconstruction timing are critical variables to consider for optimal outcomes. Clinical Relevance: Subacute reconstruction with specifically chosen flap tissue and donor site location based on individual injuries result in successful tissue transfer, even in critically injured patients. These considerations can be combined with regenerative therapies to optimize massive wound coverage and limb salvage form and function in previously active patients. Summary: Traditional soft tissue reconstruction is integral in the treatment of war extremity trauma. Pedicle and free flaps are a critically important part of the reconstructive ladder for salvaging extreme extremity injuries that are seen as a result of the current practice of war. PMID:27679751
Hirche, Christoph; Kneser, Ulrich; Xiong, Lingyun; Wurzer, Paul; Ringwald, Felicitas; Obitz, Franziska; Fischer, Sebastian; Harhaus, Leila; Gazyakan, Emre; Kremer, Thomas
Microvascular free flaps have become a reliable standard procedure. Due to increasing microsurgical experience in teaching hospitals, residents are getting acquainted with performing free flap surgeries earlier in their training. However, economic considerations and safety regulations contradict adequate teaching. A validation of procedures for residency training is necessary to reduce the existing concerns. This retrospective, comparative cohort study was designed to investigate whether free flaps are a safe residency training procedure. In addition, the aim was to establish standards for microsurgical training. Between 2008 and 2011, 391 patients were included who underwent reconstructive surgery with free flaps, under the supervision of either an experienced microsurgeon (cohort 1) or a resident in training (cohort 2). Patient demographics, interventional characteristics, as well as outcome parameters were attributed for comparative analysis. The comparison of both cohorts revealed a significant difference for defect cause (p < 0.01) and defect localization (p < 0.001). Free flaps for breast reconstruction were more frequently used in cohort 1, and ALT flaps were more used in cohort 2 (p < 0.001). The length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in cohort 1 (p < 0.001). No significant differences for major postoperative complications were identified. With respect to standardized environmental conditions and risk stratification, microvascular free flaps can be applied as a safe training procedure during residency. Adequate teaching conditions require a sufficient case load and a high level of expertise of the teacher. The resident's experience and skills as well as the institutional infrastructure and expertise require consideration. III. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nibali, L; Pelekos, G; D'Aiuto, F; Chaudhary, N; Habeeb, R; Ready, D; Parkar, M; Donos, N
The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response in aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients after periodontal therapy and associate these changes to subjects' interleukin-6 (IL-6) genetic variants. Twelve non-smoking UK Caucasian patients with AgP were selected based on their IL6 haplotypes (six haplotype positive and six haplotype negative based on polymorphisms rs 2069827 and rs 2069825) and underwent full mouth non-surgical periodontal therapy, followed by open flap surgery. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and peripheral blood samples were taken at baseline and at six different time points after treatment. Gingival biopsy samples were harvested during surgery and underwent immunohistochemical analysis for identification of IL-6. An overall improvement in clinical periodontal parameters was observed following periodontal therapy. Haplotype status was associated with clinical presentation, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans counts in subgingival plaque samples, white cell count, neutrophils, red cell count and haemoglobin. GCF IL-6 concentrations increased dramatically 1 day after surgery and IL-6 haplotype-positive subjects exhibited a higher magnitude in this increase. IL6 haplotypes may have an effect on clinical presentation and magnitude and kinetics of local and systemic inflammatory responses following non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy in aggressive periodontitis. Detecting IL-6 haplotype-positive periodontitis patients might become helpful in identifying subjects prone to excessive inflammatory response and increased periodontal breakdown.
Yang, Xudong; Li, Zhenzhen; Gao, Chunyan; Liu, Ruichang
To determine whether dexmedetomidine sedation in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) could decrease agitation and delirium after free flap surgery. Eighty patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group, dexmedetomidine was given at an hourly infusion rate of 0.5 μg/kg for 1 hour before the operation was completed and continued in the PACU at 0.2 to 0.7 μg/kg continuously until the next morning. In the control group, normal saline was given during the same periods. Patients in the 2 groups received sufentanil and midazolam for sedation and pain relief when necessary. Agitation was monitored with the Riker Sedation-Agitation Scale in the PACU and delirium was monitored with the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit for 5 days postoperatively. The overall incidence of agitation was similar between the 2 groups. However, when the influence of patient shifting was excluded, the incidence of agitation in the dexmedetomidine group was apparently lower than that in the control group (10.3 vs 30%; P = .029). No difference was found in the occurrence of delirium between the experimental and control groups (5.1 vs 12.5%; P = .432). Dexmedetomidine does not change the overall incidence of agitation after free flap surgery; however, it does decrease agitation after PACU admission. It does not prevent delirium within 5 days postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koumanis, Dimitri J; Colque, Alex; Eisemann, Michael L; Smith, Jenna
Breast reconstruction can be performed safely with local anesthesia. Utilization of the star flap method in conjunction with tattooing successfully provides optimal aesthetic results without the need for an additional donor site. When tissue expander to silicon implant exchange is part of the operative plan, use of triple antibiotic irrigation as well as the Keller Funnel is recommended. Breast augmentation and breast augmentation-mastopexy can also be performed with good results under local anesthetic in a private operating room setting. All other operative conditions, including sterility and sound operative surgical techniques, should be the mainstay of any practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar
To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in those with gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p < 0.0001) when compared to those without gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.
Banodkar, Akshaya Bhupesh; Gaikwad, Rajesh Prabhakar; Gunjikar, Tanay Udayrao; Lobo, Tanya Arthur
Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) measurements of alveolar bone defects caused due to periodontal disease, by comparing it with actual surgical measurements which is the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Hundred periodontal bone defects in fifteen patients suffering from periodontitis and scheduled for flap surgery were included in the study. On the day of surgery prior to anesthesia, CBCT of the quadrant to be operated was taken. After reflection of the flap, clinical measurements of periodontal defect were made using a reamer and digital vernier caliper. The measurements taken during surgery were then compared to the measurements done with CBCT and subjected to statistical analysis using the Pearson's correlation test. Results: Overall there was a very high correlation of 0.988 between the surgical and CBCT measurements. In case of type of defects the correlation was higher in horizontal defects as compared to vertical defects. Conclusions: CBCT is highly accurate in measurement of periodontal defects and proves to be a very useful tool in periodontal diagnosis and treatment assessment. PMID:26229268
Deneuve, S; Maire, L; Bachelot, V; Dammacco, M-A; Zrounba, P; Delay, E
Sickle cell anaemia is rare in France but frequent in Africa, leading to rigid, sickle-like shape red blood cells which bind together blocking microcirculation under certain circumstances. The vaso-occlusive crisis is the most frequent clinical manifestation especially in case of homozygous disease. Sickle cells disease is therefore usually considerated as a contraindication to microsurgery, however sometimes, a free flap procedure is mandatory. We here report the case of a 47-year-old man suffering with homozygous sickle cell anaemia and needing an antebrachial free flap procedure for a tongue reconstruction. The postoperative course was unremarkable apart from a delayed healing which is common in this particular localization. A review of the litterature allows to list the precautions to be taken to ensure a microsurgical procedure with this medical background. The preoperative examination has to assess usual sickle cell disease comorbidities such as kidney failure, heart failure or pulmonary hypertension. All the events leading to either low output syndrome, hypoxia, hypothermia, or a stress caused by uncontrolled pain should be avoided per- and postoperatively. With an optimum medical care, microsurgery is possible even in patients suffering with sickle cells anaemia. This case is rare in France but will become frequent in Africa with the improvement of the healthcare system, allowing to give all patients the best medical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
McCoul, Edward D; Anand, Vijay K; Singh, Ameet; Nyquist, Gurston G; Schaberg, Madeleine R; Schwartz, Theodore H
To describe the effect on postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak after anterior skull base (ASB) surgery and complications associated with the addition of the vascularized nasoseptal flap (NSF) to an existing reconstruction protocol. A prospective database of all patients undergoing endoscopic ASB approaches was reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups based on the date the use of the NSF was adopted. Group A included patients with high-volume CSF leak closed using the NSF in addition to a multilayer closure. Group B included patients operated on during the same time period with no high-volume leak and no NSF. Group C included patients operated on before the adoption of the NSF with all types of CSF leak. Rates of intraoperative and postoperative CSF leak were analyzed for statistical significance. Of 415 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic ASB surgery, there were 96 in group A, 114 in group B, and 205 in group C. CSF leak rates in group A (3.1%) and group B (2.6%) were significantly lower than in group C (5.9%; P < 0.05). Lumbar drains and the gasket seal closure were performed more frequently in group A (75% and 32%) compared with group B (21% and 12%) and group C (28% and 11%). NSF carried a 2% risk of postoperative mucocele. The addition of NSF to an algorithm for multilayer closure can decrease the rate of postoperative CSF leak. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xuemei; Kohli, Malika; Zhou, Qingde; Graves, Dana T; Amar, Salomon
The present study tested the effects of local injection of IL-1 and TNF soluble receptors on a periodontal wound-healing model in nonhuman primates. In this model, periodontal lesions were developed for 16 wk, followed by open flap surgery. Starting at the time of surgery, groups of animals received localized injections of both soluble cytokine receptors or else PBS three times per week for 3, 14, or 35 days. Periodontal wound healing was analyzed for each group at the end of the treatment regimen. Fourteen days after surgery, a significant decrease was observed between the animals treated with soluble receptors and the untreated group with respect to recruitment of inflammatory cells in deep gingival connective tissue. Concurrent apoptosis of inflammatory cells in those tissues increased significantly in treated animals compared with untreated animals. All other outcome parameters of periodontal wound healing were likewise significantly improved in treated animals compared with untreated animals. In marked contrast, however, 35 days after surgery, there was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells that had infiltrated into deep gingival connective tissue in treated compared with untreated animals. Outcome parameters of periodontal wound healing worsened in treated animals when compared with untreated. These results indicate that proinflammatory cytokines may play different functional roles in early vs late phases of periodontal wound healing. Short-term blockade of IL-1 and TNF may facilitate periodontal wound healing, whereas prolonged blockade may have adverse effects.
Patel, Rusha; Buchmann, Luke O.; Hunt, Jason
Objective Determine the effectiveness of the temporoparietal fascia flap (TPFF) with adipose tissue in preventing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks for lateral skull base tumor reconstruction. Design A retrospective chart review from 2005 to 2010 was conducted of patients undergoing skull base tumor resection. Patients with TPFF reconstruction were compared with those with adipose packing alone based on lumbar drain placement, tumor size, extent of dissection, and incidence of CSF leak. Data was analyzed with a Fisher exact test at p < 0.05. Setting Tertiary care institution. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of CSF leak. Results A total of 16 patients had a TPFF reconstruction; 20 had adipose only. Four TPFF patients had lumbar drain placement, as did six in the adipose-only group. Six patients had a CSF leak, all in the adipose-only group (p = 0.02). Patients with a lumbar drain were more likely to have larger tumors (p = 0.01) and to have a CSF leak if they had adipose-only reconstruction (p = 0.07). Conclusions Lateral skull base reconstruction using TPFF with adipose tissue is easily performed and has a low operative morbidity. Early results show a significant decrease in the rate of CSF leak using TPFF, particularly in high-risk patients. PMID:24436930
Patel, Rusha; Buchmann, Luke O; Hunt, Jason
Objective Determine the effectiveness of the temporoparietal fascia flap (TPFF) with adipose tissue in preventing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks for lateral skull base tumor reconstruction. Design A retrospective chart review from 2005 to 2010 was conducted of patients undergoing skull base tumor resection. Patients with TPFF reconstruction were compared with those with adipose packing alone based on lumbar drain placement, tumor size, extent of dissection, and incidence of CSF leak. Data was analyzed with a Fisher exact test at p < 0.05. Setting Tertiary care institution. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of CSF leak. Results A total of 16 patients had a TPFF reconstruction; 20 had adipose only. Four TPFF patients had lumbar drain placement, as did six in the adipose-only group. Six patients had a CSF leak, all in the adipose-only group (p = 0.02). Patients with a lumbar drain were more likely to have larger tumors (p = 0.01) and to have a CSF leak if they had adipose-only reconstruction (p = 0.07). Conclusions Lateral skull base reconstruction using TPFF with adipose tissue is easily performed and has a low operative morbidity. Early results show a significant decrease in the rate of CSF leak using TPFF, particularly in high-risk patients.
Bégué, Th; Mebtouche, N; Levante, S
Total knee arthroplasty in post-traumatic arthritis of the knee joint is a challenging situation. Difficulties are linked to malalignment, joint stiffness, or wound complications. The authors report on a case of post-traumatic intra-articular knee arthritis with tibial malalignment and a skin defect. Using computer-assisted surgery for implant positioning, and simultaneous pedicled flap surgery for wound coverage, IKS score at 2 years follow-up was 85 and 75 for clinical and function respectively. The results of total knee replacement in post-traumatic knee arthritis are not as satisfactory as in degenerative situations. In severe malalignment due to bone landmark changes following malunions, computer-assisted surgery gives immediate correct references for final positioning of implants and restoration of limb alignment. Implant selection must allow use of normal and revision components to fit the local anatomy. Commonly-used pedicle flaps such as the gastrocnemius flap are valuable to cover wound defects after prosthesis implantation. All these procedures can be used successfully in a one-stage surgical procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sozzi, Davide; Novelli, Giorgio; Silva, Rebeka; Connelly, Stephen T; Tartaglia, Gianluca M
To determine the dental implant and prostheses success rate in a cohort of patients who underwent a vascularized fibula-free flap (FFF) for maxillary or mandibular reconstruction. The investigators implemented a retrospective cohort study composed of patients who had undergone primary or secondary FFF reconstruction jaw surgery plus placement of 2-6 implants in the reconstructed arch, which were restored with an implant-supported prosthesis. The sample was composed of all patients who underwent FFF surgery between 1998 and 2012 and had either simultaneous or secondary dental implant placement. A total of 28 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 22 patients participated in the retrospective review. Patients were examined by an independent observer between January-December 2015. In addition, all patients completed a questionnaire to access satisfaction with the implant-supported prosthesis. The patient cohort consisted of 12 males and 10 females, age 12-70 years. A total of 100 implants were placed, 92 implants in fibular bone and 8 implants in native bone. In the maxilla, 35 implants were placed into fibular bone and 4 into native bone (11 in irradiated patients and 28 in non-irradiated patients). In the mandible, 57 implants were placed into fibular bone and 4 into native bone (15 in irradiated patients and 46 in non-irradiated patients). The mean follow-up after implant loading was 7.8 years (range 1.3-17.5 years). The implant survival rate was 98% (95% CI: 92.2%-99.5%). No statistically significant difference was found in implant success between maxillary and mandibular implants, or between radiated and non-radiated bone. The prostheses success rate, determined by clinical exam and patient satisfaction, was 100%. The results of this study suggest that implant survival is high and implant-supported prostheses are a reliable rehabilitation option in patients whose jaws have been reconstruction with a FFF. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yang, Xiangyu; Miller, Michael J; Friel, Harry T; Slijepcevic, Allison; Knopp, Michael V
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo perforator visualization by a newly proposed magnetic resonance-based perforator phase contrast angiography (pPCA) technique for deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap surgery and to prospectively compare its image quality and clinical value with computed tomographic angiography (CTA), the state-of-the-art perforator imaging technique. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. DIEP pPCA and CTA data were acquired in 10 female patients before DIEP flap surgery. Image findings were compared between the two techniques and with literature reports. The overall image quality is negatively correlated with patient BMI for CTA, but positively correlated with BMI for pPCA. Compared with CTA, pPCA has significantly better image quality (P = 0.005), signal-to-noise ratio (P < 0.001), and contrast-to-noise ratio (perforator-to-muscle, P < 0.001; perforator-to-fat, P = 0.014). It also has preferable clinical value ratings, although not statistically significant (P = 0.388). There is a good agreement (84%) between perforators detected by pPCA and CTA. Perforator location deviations between pPCA and CTA are compatible with the precision required for plastic surgery. Perforator size measured by pPCA seems to be more accurate than CTA, as it is 0.8 ± 0.3 mm smaller (P < 0.001), consistent with the reported 0.5 to 1.2 mm overestimation by CTA. There is no significant difference in perforator intramuscular course assessment (P = 0.415). The developed magnetic resonance-based pPCA technique presents superior image quality, better vessel contrast, and more accurate perforator anatomy than the x-ray-based CTA. pPCA has the potential to emerge as the preferred preoperative planning tool for perforator flap reconstructive surgery.
Chandra, Rampalli Viswa; Savitharani, Boya; Reddy, Aileni Amarender
Context: Electrosurgery offers many unique advantages such as hemostasis and precise tissue cutting; however, there are a number of disadvantages including thermal injury and delayed wound healing. Aims: The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of incisions made by Colorado® microdissection needle, electrosurgery tip, and surgical blade during periodontal surgery. Settings and Design: Twenty-two individuals participated in this study. Three quadrants in each individual were randomly assigned into each of the following experimental groups: Colorado® microdissection needle (CMD), electrosurgery tip (EC) and surgical blade (BP), in which, incisions were given with Colorado® microdissection needle, straight electrocautery tip, and a scalpel blade, respectively. Materials and Methods: Blood loss (BL) was measured immediately after surgery, and changes in interdental papilla dimensions were recorded at baseline, 7, 30, 120, and 180 days after surgery. Measures of periodontal disease were recorded at baseline, 120, and 180 days after surgery. Postoperative pain and wound healing were recorded at 1, 7, and 15 days after surgery. Results: The use of CMD for periodontal surgery showed better results over EC in all parameters. CMD resulted in lesser bleeding and less postoperative pain and attained similar results to that of BP in clinical parameters of periodontal disease. Conclusions: Colorado® microdissection needle may be a better choice for incisions as it seems to show less tissue damage than cautery and offers tissue healing comparable to scalpel blade. PMID:29238142
Kim, Dong-Min; Jeon, Anna; Kim, Kyung-Yong; Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Deog-Im; Kim, Yi-Suk; Han, Seung-Ho
The abdominal head of the pectoralis major (AHPM) is important in cosmetic and flap surgeries. Few studies have reported on its neurovascular entry points and distribution patterns. We aimed to determine the entry points and distribution patterns of the neurovascular structures within the AHPM. Thirty-two hemithoraxes were dissected, and the distribution patterns of the neurovascular structures were classified into several categories. The neurovascular entry points were measured at the horizontal line passing through the jugular notch (x-axis) and the midclavicular line (y-axis). The AHPM was innervated by the communication branches of the medial pectoral nerve (MPN) and the lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) in 78.1% of the specimens and of the MPN without the communication branches in 21.9%. All the LPNs had communication branches, which could be classified as independent in 46.9% of the samples, with the MPN in 21.9%, and with the LPN in 9.3%. The blood supply of the AHPM was composed of branches from the lateral thoracic artery (LTA) in 62.5% of the specimens, the thoracoacromial artery (TA) in 15.6%, and the LTA with the TA in 21.9%. The mean distance of the entry point was 6.3 cm ± 1.3 cm lateral to the y-axis, 8.1 cm ± 3.3 cm below the x-axis in the nerves, 6.5 cm ± 1.2 cm lateral to the y-axis, and 8.6 cm ± 3.0 cm below the x-axis in the arteries. This study defined the average neurovascular entry point and distribution pattern in detail using standard lines to enable the AHPM to be better understood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Liu, Dong; Wang, Wenzhang; Cai, Aibing; Han, Zhiyi; Li, Xiyuan; Ma, Jiagui
To analyze and summarize the clinical features and experience in surgical treatment of deep sternal infection (DSWI). This was a retrospective study. From January 2008 to December 2013, 189 patients with secondary DSWI after cardiac surgery underwent the pectoralis major muscle flap transposition in our department. There were 116 male and 73 female patients. The mean age was (54 ± 21) years, the body mass index was (26. 1 ± 1. 3) kg/m2. The incidence of postoperation DSWI were after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 93 patients, after other heart surgery plus CABG in 13 patients, after valve surgery in 47 patients, after thoracic aortic surgery in 16 patients, after congenital heart disease in 18 patients, and after cardiac injury in 2 patients. Clean patients' wound and extract secretions, clear the infection thoroughly by surgery and select antibiotics based on susceptibility results, and then repair the wound with appropriate muscle flap, place drain tube with negative pressure. Of all the 189 patients, 184 used isolate pectoralis, 1 used isolate rectus, and 4 used pectoralis plus rectus. The operative wounds of 179 patients were primary healing (94. 7%). Hospital discharge was postponed by 1 week for 7 patients, due to subcutaneous wound infection. Subcutaneous wound infection occurred again in 8 patients 1 week after hospital discharge, and their wounds healed after wound dressing. Nine patients (4. 7%) did not recover, due to residue of the sequestrum and costal chondritis, whom were later cured by undergoing a second treatment of debridement and pectoralis major muscle flap transposition. Eight patients died, in which 2 died of respiratory failure, 2 died of bacterial endocarditis with septicemia, 2 died of renal failure, 1 died of intraoperative bleeding leading to brain death and the 1 died of heart failure. The mortality rate was 4. 2% . The average length of postoperative hospital stay was (14 ± 5) days. The longest postoperative
Leiggener, C; Messo, E; Thor, A; Zeilhofer, H-F; Hirsch, J-M
The free fibular flap is the standard procedure for reconstructing mandibular defects. The graft has to be contoured to fit the defect so preoperative planning is required. The systems used previously do not allow transfer of the surgical plan to the operation room in an optimal way. The authors present a method to bring the virtual plan to real time surgery using a rapid prototyping guide. Planning was conducted using the Surgicase CMF software simulating surgery on a workstation. The osteotomies were translated into a rapid prototyping guide, sterilised and applied during surgery on the fibula allowing for the osteotomies and osteosynthesis to be performed with intact circulation. During reconstruction the authors were able to choose the best site for the osteotomies regarding circulation and as a result increased the precision and speed of treatment.
Buda, Alessandro; Confalonieri, Pier Luigi; Rovati, Luca Carlo Vittorio; Fruscio, Robert; Giuliani, Daniela; Signorelli, Mauro; Dell'Anna, Tiziana; Pirovano, Cecilia; Milani, Rodolfo
To evaluate the efficacy of tunneled lotus petal flap in terms of anatomical and cosmetic results in patients who underwent vulvoperineal reconstruction for vulvar malignancy. Between March 2010 and July 2011, 22 women underwent vulvoperineal reconstruction using tunneled lotus petal flap for primary or recurrent disease at San Gerardo Hospital, Monza. In 16 cases, lotus flaps were bilateral, whereas in 6 cases, they were monolateral. The median age was 72 years (range, 53-87 years). The mean operating time was 85 minutes. The mean length of follow-up was 10 months (range, 2-16 months). Postoperative complications occurred in 2 patients, including one case of partial flap necrosis and one case of donor site breakdown. Tunneled lotus petal flap is safe, easy and fast to perform, has a low rate of complications, and good functional and cosmetic results. This technique represents an optimal solution for plastic reconstruction in case of primary or recurrent vulvar disease, or in case of introital stenosis after primary inadequate closure.
Li, Z; Liu, Y S; Ye, H Q; Liu, Y S; Hu, W J; Zhou, Y S
To explore a new method of whole-process digital esthetic prosthodontic rehabilitation combined with periodontic surgery for complicated anterior teeth esthetic defects accompanied by soft tissue morphology, to provide an alternative choice for solving this problem under the guidance of three-dimensional (3D) printing digital dental model and surgical guide, thus completing periodontic surgery and digital esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth. In this study, 12 patients with complicated esthetic problems accompanied by soft tissue morphology in their anterior teeth were included. The dentition and facial images were obtained by intra-oral scanning and three-dimensional (3D) facial scanning and then calibrated. Two esthetic designs and prosthodontic outcome predictions were created by computer aided design /computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software combined with digital photography, including consideration of white esthetics and comprehensive consideration of pink-white esthetics. The predictive design of prostheses and the facial appearances of the two designs were evaluated by the patients. If the patients chose the design of comprehensive consideration of pink-white esthetics, they would choose whether they would receive periodontic surgery before esthetic rehabilitation. The dentition design cast of those who chose periodontic surgery would be 3D printed for the guide of periodontic surgery accordingly. In light of the two digital designs based on intra-oral scanning, facing scanning and digital photography, the satisfaction rate of the patients was significantly higher for the comprehensive consideration of pink-white esthetic design (P<0.05) and more patients tended to choose priodontic surgery before esthetic rehabilitation. The 3D printed digital dental model and surgical guide provided significant instructions for periodontic surgery, and achieved success transfer from digital design to clinical application. The prostheses were fabricated by CAD
Shew, Matthew; Kriet, John David; Humphrey, Clinton D
A mastery of advancement flap design, selection, and execution greatly aids the surgeon in solving reconstructive dilemmas. Advancement flaps involve carefully planned incisions to most efficiently close a primary defect in a linear vector. Advancement flaps are subcategorized as unipedicle, bipedicle, V-to-Y, and Y-to-V flaps, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. When selecting and designing an advancement flap, the surgeon must account for primary and secondary movement to prevent distortion of important facial structural units and boundaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rajan, Sunil; Srikumar, Soumya; Tosh, Pulak; Kumar, Lakshmi
Use of lactated intravenous fluids during long surgeries could cause lactate accumulation and lactic acidosis. Acetate-based solutions could be advantageous as they are devoid of lactate. The primary aim of the study was to assess the effect of use of an acetated solution or Ringer's lactate (RL) as intraoperative fluid on lactate levels in patients without hepatic dysfunction undergoing prolonged surgeries. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial involving sixty patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I to II undergoing major head and neck surgeries with free flap reconstruction. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups, Group sterofundin (SF) and Group RL. Group SF was started on acetate-based crystalloid solution (sterofundin B Braun®) and Group RL received RL intravenously at the rate of 10 ml/kg/h to maintain systolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg. Blood loss >20% was replaced with packed cells. Arterial blood gas analysis was done 2nd hourly till 8 h. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables. Independent sample t-test was used to compare means. Intraoperative lactate levels were significantly high in RL group at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h. The pH was comparable between groups except at 8 h where RL group had a significantly lower pH than SF group (7.42 ± 0.1 vs. 7.4 ± 0.1). Sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, and pCO2did not show any significant difference between the groups. Use of acetate-based intravenous solutions reduced levels of lactate in comparison with RL in patients undergoing free flap reconstructive surgeries.
Tonetti, Maurizio S; Jepsen, Søren
The scope of the discussions of this consensus report was to assess the strength of the scientific evidence and make clinical and research recommendations for surgical interventions to cover exposed root surfaces and enhance soft tissues at implants. Discussions were informed by three systematic reviews covering single recessions, multiple recessions and soft-tissue deficiencies at implants. The strength of the evidence was assessed using a modification in GRADE. The group also emphasized the need to report the experience of the surgeon and the performance of the control intervention (CONSORT guidelines for non-pharmacological treatment). A moderate strength of evidence supported the following statements for single (moderately deep, mostly maxillary) recessions without inter-dental attachment loss: (i) The addition of a connective tissue graft (CTG) improved outcomes of coronally advanced flaps (CAF). (ii) The addition of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) improved the outcomes of CAF. For multiple recessions, preliminary data indicate that flaps specifically designed to treat this condition are worthy of additional attention. Emerging data indicate that it is possible to obtain complete root coverage at sites with some inter-dental attachment loss. With regards to soft-tissue deficiencies at implants, several procedures are available, but great heterogeneity among studies does not allow drawing conclusions at this time. The group highlighted that periodontal plastic procedures are complex, technique-sensitive interventions that require advanced skills and expertise. At single recessions, the addition of autologous CTG or EMD under CAF improves complete root coverage and may be considered the procedure of choice at maxillary anterior and premolar teeth. The adjunctive benefit needs to be put in the context of increased morbidity of the donor area or increased cost. Additional research is needed to: (i) assess the role of alternatives to autologous soft-tissue grafting
Keller, Alex; Wright, Leigh P.; Elmandjra, Mohamed; Mao, Jian-min
We report results of clinical trials on flap monitoring in 65 plastic surgeries. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation of flap tissue (StO II) was monitored non-invasively by using ODISsey TM tissue oximeter, an infrared spectroscopic device. StO II measurements were conducted both intra-operatively and post-operatively. From the intra-operative measurements, we observed that StO II values dropped when the main blood vessels supplying the flap were clamped in surgery, and that StO II jumped after anastomosis to a value close to its pre-operative value. From post-operative monitoring measurements for the 65 flap cases, each lasted two days or so, we found that the StO II values approach to a level close to the baseline if the surgery was successful, and that the StO II value dropped to a value below 30% if there is a perfusion compromise, such as vascular thrombosis.
Ozcanli, Haluk; Coskunfirat, Osman Koray; Bektas, Gamze; Cavit, Ali
To describe a technique for covering defects of the fingertips: the innervated digital artery perforator (IDAP) flap. A total of 17 patients were treated with an IDAP flap. The size of the flaps varied between 2 ×1 cm and 3.5 × 2 cm. Postoperative evaluation of the patients consisted of the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament test, static 2-point discrimination, patient satisfaction, extension loss, and an investigation into complications. All IDAP flaps survived completely, and no patients required secondary interventions. The mean follow-up period was 7 months (range, 6-10 mo). The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test results ranged from 3.22 to 3.84. The static 2-point discrimination in the flaps ranged from 2 mm to 4 mm (mean, 3.4 mm) compared with a range of 2 mm to 3 mm (mean, 2.7 mm) on the contralateral hand. There were no joint contractures in the reconstructed fingertips, although 2 patients developed mild hook nail deformity. One patient experienced mild cold intolerance, and 1 patient exhibited mild postoperative hypersensitivity. The advantages of the IDAP flap include minimally invasive surgery; a reliable, versatile flap; and the ease of the technique for different-sized fingertip defect reconstructions with few complications. The IDAP flap may be useful in fingertip amputations when the amputated part is not suitable for replantation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PATARO, André Luiz; CORTELLI, Sheila Cavalca; ABREU, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; CORTELLI, José Roberto; FRANCO, Gilson Cesar Nobre; AQUINO, Davi Romeiro; COTA, Luis Otavio Miranda; COSTA, Fernando Oliveira
ABSTRACT Objectives This cross-sectional study compared the frequency of oral periodontopathogens and H. pylori in the mouths and stomachs of obese individuals with or without periodontitis submitted to bariatric surgery. Material and Methods One hundred and fifty-four men and women aged 18-65 were conveniently distributed into four groups. Two groups were composed of individuals who underwent bariatric surgery with (BP) (n=40) and without (BNP) (n=39) periodontitis and two obese control groups with (CP) (n=35) and without (CNP) (n=40) periodontitis. The oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, and Helicobacter pylori were detected by a polymerase chain reaction technique using saliva, tongue and stomach biopsy samples. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that periodontopathogens were highly frequent in the mouth (up to 91.4%). In the bariatric surgically treated group, orally, P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia were more frequent in periodontitis, while C. rectus was more frequent in non-periodontitis subjects. Stomach biopsies also revealed the high frequency of five oral species in both candidates for bariatric surgery (91.6%) and the bariatric (83.3%) groups. H. pylori was frequently detected in the mouth (50.0%) and stomach (83.3%). In the stomach, oral species and H. pylori appeared in lower frequency in the bariatric group. Conclusions Obese individuals showed high frequencies of periodontopathogens and H. pylori in their mouths and stomachs. Bariatric surgery showed an inverse microbial effect on oral and stomach environments by revealing higher oral and lower stomach bacterial frequencies. PMID:27383704
Xu, Dachuan; Zhang, Shimin; Tang, Maolin; Ouyang, Jun
To provide a comprehensive review for development and existing problems of the perforator flaps. The related home and abroad literature concerning perforator flaps was extensively reviewed. The perforator flaps are defined as the axial flaps nourished solely by small cutaneous perforating vessels (perforating arteries and veins), which are exclusively composed of skin and subcutaneous fat. The perforator flaps have the advantages as follows: less injury at donor site, less damage to the contour of the donor site, good reconstruction and appearance of the recipient site flexible design, and short time of postoperative recovery, which have been widely used in reconstructive surgery. The perforator flaps are the new development of the microsurgery, which usher an era of small axial flaps; However, the controversies of the definition, vascular classification, the nomenclature, and the clinical application of the perforator flaps still exist, which are therefore the hot spot for future study.
Kothiwale, Shaila; Rathore, Amrita; Panjwani, Vishal
A thick gingival biotype is a requisite for good periodontal health. It has important role in resisting trauma and subsequent gingival recession. The gingival thickness is a significant predictor of clinical outcome of periodontal surgeries. Various surgical procedures are used to increase the gingival thickness. The present study incorporated the innovative step of placement of chorion membrane to objectively evaluate the increase in thickness of gingival biotype during periodontal pocket therapy. The patients in age group between 25 and 45 years with chronic periodontitis, indicated for flap surgery were selected for the study. The sites with pocket depth of 6-8 mm in the mandibular anterior teeth were divided into test and control sites. Periodontal flap surgery was carried at both the sites and chorion membrane was placed at the test sites. The gingival thickness measurement was assessed using a markings marked on injection needle, these markings were read using digital vernier caliper, pre and post operatively. The baseline values of gingival thickness at test site (1.04 ± 0.19 at mid buccal region, 1.24 ± 0.20 at mid papillary) and control site (0.94 ± 0.11 at mid buccal region, 1.14 ± 0.11 at mid papillary region) showed no statistically significant difference. At test sites, 6 weeks post treatment (1.36 ± 0.16 at mid buccal region and 1.48 ± 0.17 at mid papillary region) as compared to control sites (1.06 ± 0.11 at mid buccal region, 1.24 ± 0.11 at mid papillary) showed statistically significant increase in gingival thickness (p ≤ 0.05*). The innovative step of placement of chorion membrane during periodontal pocket therapy facilitated increase in the gingival thickness in the areas with thin gingival biotype.
Al-Falaki, Rana; Cronshaw, Mark; Parker, Steven
Objectives: The current periodontal literature has been inconsistent in finding an added advantage to using lasers in periodontal therapy. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes following root surface instrumentation alone (NL group), or with adjunctive use of Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (L group). Material and Methods: Patients diagnosed with generalized chronic periodontitis, having a minimum of 1 year follow up were selected by a blinded party for inclusion in a retrospective analysis from patients treated prior to and after integration of laser in a single clinic setting. Probing depths (PD) of all sites ≥5 mm and full mouth bleeding scores were analyzed. Further analysis was carried out on the treatment outcomes of only the molar teeth and of pockets >6mm. Results: 53 patients were included (25 NL,28 L). There was no significant difference between baseline PDs (NL=6.19mm, L=6.27mm, range 5-11mm). The mean PD after one year was 2.83mm (NL) 2.45mm (L), with the mean PD reductions being 3.35mm (NL) and 3.82mm (L) (p<0.002). The mean PD reduction for the molars were 3.32mm (NL) and 3.86mm (L) (p< 0.007), and for ≥7mm group were 4.75mm (NL) compared to 5.14mm (L) (p< 0.009). There was significantly less bleeding on probing in the laser group after one year (p<0.001) Conclusion: Both treatment modalities were effective in treating chronic periodontitis, but the added use of laser may have advantages, particularly in molar tooth sites and deeper pockets. Further research with RCTs is needed to test this hypothesis further. PMID:27350796
Anyanechi, CE; Osunde, OD; Bassey, GO
Background: The most common complication of surgery for the release of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is relapse of the ankylosis. To prevent re-ankylosis, a variety of interpositional materials have been used. Aim: The aim was to compare the surgical outcome of oral mucoperiosteal flap, not hitherto used as interpositional material, with pterygo-masseteric muscles flap after surgical release of TMJ ankylosis. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of all consecutive patients treated for the release of complete TMJ bony ankylosis, from January 2003 to December 2012, at the Oral and Maxillofacial unit of our institution. The patients were randomized into two groups: The pterygo-masseteric group comprises 22 patients while the oral mucoperiosteal group had 23 patients. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and postoperative complications over a 5 year follow-up period were obtained, and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13, Chicago, IL, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 28 mean 20.3 (3.35) years while the duration of ankylosis ranged from 2 to 16 mean 5.1 (3.4) years. The baseline demographic (gender; P = 0.92; side; P = 0.58) and clinical characteristics in terms of etiology (P = 0.60) and age (P = 0.52) were comparable in both treatment groups. All the patients presented with complete bony TMJ ankylosis with a preoperative inter-incisal distance of <0.5 cm. The intraoperative mouth opening achieved ranged from 4 cm to 5 cm, mean 4.6 (0.27) cm and this was not different for either group (P = 0.51). The patients were followed up postoperatively for a period ranging from 3 to 5 years, mean 3.4 (0.62) years. The mouth opening decreased, over the period of postoperative review, from the initial range of 4–5 cm to 2.9–3.6 cm, and this was not different in both groups (P = 0
Chiummariello, Stefano; Monarca, Cristiano; Dessy, Luca Andrea; Alfano, Carmine; Scuderi, Nicolò
Free microvascular tissue transfer has become a key procedure for the surgical treatment of large tissue defects that requires specialized practitioners and magnification instruments. The operating microscope traditionally has filled this requirement. A study was performed focusing on the evaluation of a new magnification system, the Varioscope M5 (Life Optics, Vienna, Austria), in reconstructive procedures with a perforator free flap. The device was employed by the same operator during dissection and microvascular anastomosis of 12 anterolateral thigh perforator flaps in head and neck reconstruction. The need to operate in a different way, not provided by an operating microscope, gave us the idea of exploring an alternative to the classical visualization systems. Specific advantages such as reduced cost, freedom of movement, auto focus, minimal upkeep, and a variable range of magnification are some of the reasons that convinced us to try this new type of magnification system. Increasing interest in microsurgery magnification highlights the need for further technical developments in this field. We consider the Varioscope M5 an alternative option for surgical magnification in most free tissue transfers, especially when an operating microscope is not supplied.
Deek, Nidal Farhan A L; Wei, Fu-Chan
Virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design and computer-aided modeling are promising technologies with a growing trend in contemporary head and neck reconstruction. Segmental mandibular reconstruction with the osteoseptocutaneous fibula flap is one of the fields in which these technologies are increasingly used. Perceived benefits are increased surgical precision, improved operative efficiency, and overall good outcomes. Nevertheless, these programs do not cover the reconstruction picture of interest thoroughly, at least in the mind of the experienced surgeon. Based on extensive experience in segmental mandibular reconstruction and comprehensive literature review, the authors attempted to identify missing dots in computer-aided mandibular reconstruction; when possible, a problem-solution approach was taken. Of these dots, pedicle reach to the recipient vessels, multiple target soft-tissue reconstruction, anatomical variations and cross-section topography of the osteoseptocutaneous fibula flap, and intraoperative modification of the surgical plan were understated or not considered in the phases of virtual surgical planning and execution. Moreover, with the relatively small experience reported in computer-aided segmental mandibular reconstruction compared with the well-appreciated challenges, further discussion of what could be a realistic and safe indication was deemed necessary. Following in the footsteps of the iPhone developer of creating software satisfying to customers (i.e., surgeons) first and armed with the evidence from the literature and accumulation of experience, this Special Topic article aims to provoke a discussion among experts in this field to instigate ideological and technological reforms in computer-aided mandibular reconstruction.
Aldelaimi, Tahrir N; Khalil, Afrah A
Reconstruction of the head and neck is a challenge for otolarygology surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons as well as plastic surgeons. Defects caused by the resection and/or trauma should be closed with flaps which match in color, texture and hair bearing characteristics with the face. Deltopectoral flap is a one such flap from chest and neck skin mainly used to cover the facial defects. This study report a patient presenting with tragic Road Traffic Accident (RTA) admitted to maxillofacial surgery department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Anbar province, Iraq. An incision, medially based, was done and deltopectoral fascio-cutaneous flap was used for surgical exposure and closure of defects after RTA. There was no major complication. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Deltopectoral flap is an excellent alternative for the reconstruction of head and neck. Harvesting and application of the flap is rapid and safe. Only a single incision is sufficient for dissection and flap elevation.
Arabacı, Taner; Kose, Oguz; Albayrak, Mevlut; Cicek, Yasin; Kizildag, Alper
This study evaluates contributions of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) combined with conventional flap surgery on growth factor levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and periodontal healing. Twenty-six patients (52 sites) with chronic periodontitis were treated either with autologous PRF with open flap debridement (OFD+PRF) or OFD alone. Growth factor levels in GCF at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery were analyzed, and clinical parameters such as probing depth (PD), relative clinical attachment level (rCAL), and gingival margin level (GML) at baseline and 9 months after surgery were measured. Mean PD reduction and rCAL gain were significantly greater in OFD+PRF sites than in OFD sites. Mean GML change was -0.38 + 0.10 mm in OFD sites and 0.11 + 0.08 mm in the test group; difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P <0.05). Both groups demonstrated increased expression levels of fibroblast growth factor-2, transforming growth factor-β1, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB at 2 weeks compared with baseline, followed by reductions at 4 and 6 weeks. The OFD+PRF group showed significantly higher growth factor levels compared with the OFD group at 2 and 4 weeks. PRF membrane combined with OFD provides significantly higher GCF concentrations of angiogenic biomarkers for ≈2 to 4 weeks and better periodontal healing in terms of conventional flap sites.
Yano, Tomoyuki; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Tanaka, Kentaro; Tsunoda, Atsunobu; Aoyagi, Masaru; Kishimoto, Seiji
The facial dismasking flap (FDF) approach to operations on the deep skull base region consists of a coronal incision and a circumpalpebral incision. This approach provides a wide surgical field for extirpation of deep extended craniofacial tumors without leaving any undesirable scars on the face. Therefore, the FDF approach can provide satisfactory esthetical and functional results. Meanwhile, in some cases, especially in patients with a history of skull base surgery or orbital extension, patients are not fully satisfied even when the FDF approach is used. In this study, we evaluated the indication for and limitation of the FDF approach. We reviewed 26 patients who underwent the FDF approach for skull base surgery. The patients were 16 men and 10 women, and average age was 37 years. Of these patients, 21 were treated using a hemi-FDF approach, and the remaining 5 were subjected to a bilateral FDF approach. Patients were divided into 2 groups in this study: group A (11 patients), patients with no history of skull base surgery and orbital extension; and group B (15 patients), patients with a history of skull base surgery and/or orbital extension. There was no FDF loss or facial palsy in either group A or group B. In group A, there was no lagophthalmos or scar contracture of the eyelid. In group B, there were 5 cases (33%) of ectropion and lagophthalmos and 7 of eyelid scar contracture (46%). As for esthetical evaluation, group B showed a significantly higher rate of facial asymmetry than group A. Moreover, in group A, the total ratings for above average reached 90.9%, whereas in group B, nearly half of the patients (48.9%) gave ratings of fair and poor. The FDF approach could be a good option for skull base surgery. In particular, patients without a history of skull base surgery and orbital extension could obtain satisfactory esthetical and functional outcomes. However, the procedure had limited effectiveness for patients with a history of skull base surgery or
Zuhr, Otto; Akakpo, Dodji Lukas; Hürzeler, Markus
In contemporary reconstructive periodontal and implant surgery, attaining uncomplicated wound healing in the early postoperative healing phase is the key to achieving a successful treatment outcome and is of central interest, from the clinical as well as the scientific perspective. The realization of primary wound healing is the central challenge in most cases. Two of the evidence-based factors that affect postoperative wound healing can be influenced by the surgeon: the blood supply to the surgical site and postoperative wound stability. The surgical suture is a key determinant of whether adequate wound stability is achieved in this context without complicating the course of wound healing by exerting unnecessary trauma or excessive tensile strain on the wound edges. Therefore, the inclusion of anchors in the suturing process that make it possible to achieve the best wound stability possible is often an important key to success. This article provides an overview of the principles of successful wound closure that are relevant to postoperative wound healing in order to equip dentists with the tools needed for the correct, indication-specific selection and performance of surgical suturing techniques in daily practice.
Di Tullio, Marcella; Femminella, Beatrice; Pilloni, Andrea; Romano, Luigi; D'Arcangelo, Camillo; De Ninis, Paolo; Paolantonio, Michele
In this study, we compare the effectiveness of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) associated with a simplified papilla preservation flap (SPPF) technique to SPPF alone when surgically treating supra-alveolar-type defects. Fifty patients, from 54 initially selected, presenting horizontal bone loss around ≥4 adjacent teeth, were treated by an SPPF technique; 25 participants also received EMD (test group) and 25 patients underwent flap surgery alone (control group). A complete clinical and radiographic examination was performed at baseline and 12 months after treatment. Pre- and post-therapy probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession (GR), and radiographic bone level (BL) were compared between treatments. After 12 months, PD, CAL, and GR in both groups showed significant differences from baseline (P <0.001). No differences in BL scores were observed within the groups at the 12-month examination. After 1 year, the test group showed significantly (P <0.001) greater PD reduction (3.4 ± 0.7 mm) and CAL gain (2.8 ± 0.8 mm) and a smaller GR increase (0.6 ± 0.4 mm) compared to the control group (PD, 2.2 ± 0.8 mm; CAL, 1.0 ± 0.6 mm; GR, 1.2 ± 0.7 mm.) BL changes did not significantly differ between the experimental groups. The results of this study suggest that combining EMD and SPPF in the treatment of suprabony defects may lead to a greater clinical improvement compared to SPPF alone.
De la Flor-Martínez, Maria; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena; Piattelli, Adriano; Cobo, Manuel Jesus; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique
The study of classic papers permits analysis of the past, present, and future of a specific area of knowledge. This type of analysis is becoming more frequent and more sophisticated. Our objective was to use the H-classics method, based on the h-index, to analyze classic papers in Implant Dentistry, Periodontics, and Oral Surgery (ID, P, and OS). First, an electronic search of documents related to ID, P, and OS was conducted in journals indexed in Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2014 within the category 'Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine'. Second, Web of Knowledge databases were searched using Mesh terms related to ID, P, and OS. Finally, the H-classics method was applied to select the classic articles in these disciplines, collecting data on associated research areas, document type, country, institutions, and authors. Of 267,611 documents related to ID, P, and OS retrieved from JCR journals (2014), 248 were selected as H-classics. They were published in 35 journals between 1953 and 2009, most frequently in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (18.95%), the Journal of Periodontology (18.54%), International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants (9.27%), and Clinical Oral Implant Research (6.04%). These classic articles derived from the USA in 49.59% of cases and from Europe in 47.58%, while the most frequent host institution was the University of Gothenburg (17.74%) and the most frequent authors were J. Lindhe (10.48%) and S. Socransky (8.06%). The H-classics approach offers an objective method to identify core knowledge in clinical disciplines such as ID, P, and OS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nagy, Zsolt; Nemes, Júlia; Nyárasdy, Ida
A 34 years old male patient was referred to our clinic for restorative dental treatment. During detailed consultation and dental examination a relatively rare form of periodontal disease had been diagnosed. Intraoral examination included recording of dental and periodontal status. Based on patient's dental history, measurements of probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and also the X-ray findings, Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP) unknown by the patient was diagnosed. After patient's consent the comprehensive treatment plan covered the dental prevention, periodontal non-surgical and surgical therapy and rehabilitation. The treatment started with oral hygienic instruction, motivation then supra- and subgingival scaling and rootplaning. Later extraction and elective root canal treatment were performed, followed by open flap periodontal surgery combined with hemisection of two molars. After a full mouth conservative restorative therapy, function and esthetics were restored by fix dental prostheses. This case is a good example to underline the importance of periodontal examination during the dental screening and dental status recording for each patients showing up at dental clinics. Otherwise in many cases this asympthomatic disease can remain undetected.
Szatmári, Péter; Gera, István
The solitary vertical or horisonto-vertical bone lesions are mainly characteristic of aggressive periodontitis. Only a combined conservative-surgical approach can result in predictable healing. From the early 50's basically two surgical techniques were used for correcting vertical bony defects. The so called bone resective techniques combined with apically positioned flap resulted in the flattening of the bone contour by removing substantial amount of alveolar bone but compromising the periodontal support of the neighboring teeth. The other surgical approach was the facilitation of the reformation of new periodontal attachment and bone with or without bone grafting. Since the mid 80's the gold standard in the therapy of deep vertical bony defects is the guided tissue regeneration (GTR), although an alternative approach has also been developed using different growth and differentiation factors promoting periodontal wound healing. Today in the clinical practices both in periodontal osseous and mucogingival surgeries the most widely used biological factor is the amelogenin and its commercially available product the Enamel Matrix Derivative (Emdogain). With the presented five solitary horisonto-vertical bony defects of three patients the possibilities and the late results are presented that could have been achieved with the application of EMD and thorough postoperative follow-up. The clinical results were comparable to the current data presented by articles in peer reviewed periodontal journals.
Treatment of localized gingival recession using the free rotated papilla autograft combined with coronally advanced flap by conventional (macrosurgery) and surgery under magnification (microsurgical) technique: A comparative clinical study.
Pandey, Suraj; Mehta, D S
The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the conventional (macro-surgical) and microsurgical approach in performing the free rotated papilla autograft combined with coronally advanced flap surgery in treatment of localized gingival recession. A total of 20 sites from 10 systemically healthy patients were selected for the study. The selected sites were randomly divided into experimental site A and experimental site B by using the spilt mouth design. Conventional (macro-surgical) approach for site A and micro-surgery for site B was applied in performing the free rotated papilla autograft combined with coronally advanced flap. Recession depth (RD), recession width (RW) clinical attachment level (CAL.) and width of keratinized tissue (WKT.) were recorded at baseline, 3 months and 6 months post-operatively. Both (macro- and microsurgery) groups showed significant clinical improvement in all the parameters (RD, RW, CAL and WKT). However, on comparing both the groups, these parameters did not reach statistical significance. Both the surgical procedures were equally effective in treatment of localized gingival recession by the free rotated papilla autograft technique combined with coronally advanced flap. However, surgery under magnification (microsurgery) may be clinically better than conventional surgery in terms of less post-operative pain and discomfort experienced by patients at the microsurgical site.
Atieh, M A; Alsabeeha, N; Tawse-Smith, A; Payne, A G T
Several clinical trials describe the effectiveness of xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) as an alternative option to surgical mucogingival procedures for the treatment of marginal tissue recession and augmentation of insufficient zones of keratinized tissue (KT). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical and patient-centred outcomes of XCM compared to other mucogingival procedures. Applying guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta analyses statement, randomized controlled trials were searched for in electronic databases and complemented by hand searching. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool and data were analysed using statistical software. A total of 645 studies were identified, of which, six trials were included with 487 mucogingival defects in 170 participants. Overall meta-analysis showed that connective tissue graft (CTG) in conjunction with the coronally advanced flap (CAF) had a significantly higher percentage of complete/mean root coverage and mean recession reduction than XCM. Insufficient evidence was found to determine any significant differences in width of KT between XCM and CTG. The XCM had a significantly higher mean root coverage, recession reduction and gain in KT compared to CAF alone. No significant differences in patient's aesthetic satisfaction were found between XCM and CTG, except for postoperative morbidity in favour of XCM. Operating time was significantly reduced with the use of XCM compared with CTG but not with CAF alone. There is no evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of XCM in achieving greater root coverage, recession reduction and gain in KT compared to CTG plus CAF. Superior short-term results in treating root coverage compared with CAF alone are possible. There is limited evidence that XCM may improve aesthetic satisfaction, reduce postoperative morbidity and shorten the operating time. Further long
Erba, Paolo; di Summa, Pietro G; Wettstein, Reto; Raffoul, Wassim; Kalbermatten, Daniel F
Fibrin sealant is used in many areas of surgery. We present a novel aspect of flap insetting in the ischial region using fibrin spray to seal the transferred tissue. We analyzed 10 patients suffering from decubital ulcers and assessed drainage output, time of drain removal, as well as complications following fasciocutaneous flap surgery. Patients were randomized to receive sprayed fibrin glue (study group) or not (control group) before wound closure. The mean drainage time was 4 +/- 1 days in the study group and 6 +/- 1 days in the control group ( P = 0.06). The mean drainage volume was 100 +/- 20 mL in the study group and 168 +/- 30 mL in the control group ( P < 0.01). Fibrin sealant led to reduced drainage volumes and duration of drainage, indicating a beneficial effect of the application of fibrin glue in fasciocutaneous flap surgery for pressure sore coverage. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers.
Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter; Vág, János
The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7-12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation.
Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter
The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7–12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation. PMID:28232940
Dölen, Utku Can; Koçer, Uğur
Local flaps exhibit excellent color matching that no other type of flap can compete with. Moreover, surgery using a local flap is easier and faster than surgery using a distant or free flap. However, local flaps can be much more difficult to design. We designed 2 templates to plan a V-Y rotation advancement flap. The template for a unilateral V-Y rotation advancement flap was used on the face (n=5), anterior tibia (n=1), posterior axilla (n=1), ischium (n=1), and trochanter (n=2). The template for a bilateral flap was used on the sacrum (n=8), arm (n=1), and anterior tibia (n=1). The causes of the defects were meningocele (n=3), a decubitus ulcer (n=5), pilonidal sinus (n=3), and skin tumor excision (n=10). The meningocele patients were younger than 8 days. The mean age of the adult patients was 50.4 years (range, 19-80 years). All the donor areas of the flaps were closed primarily. None of the patients experienced wound dehiscence or partial/total flap necrosis. The templates guided surgeons regarding the length and the placement of the incision for a V-Y rotation advancement flap according to the size of the wound. In addition, they could be used for the training of residents.
Adam, S; Salles, F; Guyot, L; Cheynet, F; Chossegros, C; Blanc, J-L
A palatal defect with bucconasal fistula often follows exeresis of palatal tumors. It cannot be directly sutured. Several techniques have been used to cure such defects: palatal obturator, free, or local flaps. The tongue pediculated flap is an easy, safe, and reliable surgical option to reconstruct palatal defects. The tongue flap is a double-layer muscular and mucosal flap that requires two surgeries. During the first, the flap is harvested on the tongue and partially sutured on the anterior portion of the palatal defect. During the second, the pedicle is freed from the tongue and sutured to the posterior portion of the palatal defect. Between these two surgeries the patient is fed through a nasogastric tube. The tongue flap is easy and reproducible. It can be recommended in mediopalatal defects after cancer palatal surgery. Its esthetical and functional results are excellent. It is an alternative to palatal obturator, which are not well tolerated in the long run. Similar but uneven results are obtained with free flaps. Free flaps do not require a second surgery but are more difficult to implement in developing countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Esposito, M; Coulthard, P; Worthington, H V
Periodontitis is a chronic infective disease of the gums caused by bacteria present in dental plaque. This condition induces the breakdown of the tooth supporting apparatus until teeth are lost. Surgery may be indicated to arrest disease progression and regenerate lost tissues. Several surgical techniques have been developed to regenerate periodontal tissues including guided tissue regeneration (GTR), bone grafting (BG) and the use of enamel matrix derivative (EMD). EMD is an extract of enamel matrix and contains amelogenins of various molecular weights. There is evidence to show that amelogenins are involved not only in enamel formation, but also in the formation of the periodontal attachment during tooth formation. To test the efficacy of EMD in comparison with open flap debridement, GTR and various BG procedures for the treatment of intrabony defects. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Several journals were handsearched. No language restrictions were applied. Authors of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified, personal contacts and the manufacturer were contacted to identify unpublished trials. Most recent search: January 2003. RCTs on patients affected by periodontitis having intrabony defects treated with EMD compared with open flap debridement, GTR and various BG procedures with at least one year follow up. The outcome measures considered were: tooth loss, changes in probing attachment levels (PAL), pocket depths (PPD), gingival recessions (REC), marginal bone levels on intraoral radiographs and postoperative infections. Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two reviewers. Results were expressed as random effect models using weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes and relative risk for dichotomous outcomes with 95
Heitz-Mayfield, L J A
Periodontitis is a biofilm infection with a mixed microbial aetiology. Periodontitis is generally treated by non-surgical mechanical debridement and regular periodontal maintenance care. Periodontal surgery may be indicated for some patients to improve access to the root surface for mechanical debridement. A range of systemic antibiotics for treatment of periodontitis has been documented, with some studies showing superior clinical outcomes following adjunctive antibiotics while others do not. This has resulted in controversy as to the role of systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periodontal diseases. Recent systematic reviews have provided an evidence-based assessment of the possible benefits of adjunctive antibiotics in periodontal therapy. This review aims to provide an update on clinical issues of when and how to prescribe systemic antibiotics in periodontal therapy.
Peng, Xin; Mao, Chi; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Lei; An, Jin-gang; Yu, Guang-yan
To evaluate the application, indications and outcomes of free flaps for ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects reconstruction. Twenty consecutive cases of ora-maxillofacial the traumatic defects reconstruction with free flaps were reviewed. All clinical data including causes of injuries, the type of defects, selection of free flaps, perioperative complications and the follow-up were analyzed. All the cases underwent free flap reconstruction for ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects: 8 cases with soft tissue defects, 12 cases with soft and hard tissue defects. Fifteen patients received two-stage operation and 5 patients underwent primary reconstruction at the time of debridement or fracture reduction. Twenty free flaps were applied for the reconstruction, 11 cases with fibula flap, 1 case with iliac crest free flap, 7 cases with radial forearm flap and 1 case with scapula flap. No flap failure occurred. The successful rate of free flaps transfer was 100%. The free flaps transfer is reliable and can reconstruct the ora-maxillofacial traumatic soft and hard tissue defects. Fibula and radial forearm free flap are the most common used flaps. Early aggressive surgery with free flaps transfer for traumatic defects can prevent the scar contracture and tissue displace, which can shorten the treatment period and improve the final outcome.
Lima, L L; Gonçalves, P F; Sallum, E A; Casati, M Z; Nociti, F H
Guided tissue regeneration has been shown to lead to periodontal regeneration, however, the mechanisms involved remain to be clarified. The present study was carried out to assess the expression of genes involved in the healing process of periodontal tissues in membrane-protected vs. nonprotected intrabony defects in humans. Thirty patients with deep intrabony defects (> or = 5 mm, two or three walls) around teeth that were scheduled for extraction were selected and randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments: flap surgery alone (control group) or flap surgery plus guided tissue regeneration (expanded polytetrafluorethylene (e-PTFE) membrane) (test group). Twenty-one days later, the newly formed tissue was harvested and quantitatively assessed using the polymerase chain reaction assay for the expression of the following genes: alkaline phosphatase, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Data analysis demonstrated that mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase -9 were higher in the sites where guided tissue regeneration was applied compared with the control sites (p < 0.05), whereas osteocalcin mRNA levels were lower (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in interleukin-4 mRNA levels between control and test groups. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that genes are differentially expressed in membrane barrier-led periodontal healing when compared with flap surgery alone, and this may account for the clinical outcome achieved by guided tissue regeneration.
Gautam, Abhinav K; Allen, Robert J; LoTempio, Maria M; Mountcastle, Timothy S; Levine, Joshua L; Allen, Robert J; Chiu, Ernest S
Congenital breast deformities such as Poland syndrome, unilateral congenital hypoplasia, tuberous breast anomaly, and amastia pose a challenging plastic surgical dilemma. The majority of patients are young, healthy individuals who seek esthetic restoration of their breast deformities. Currently, both implant and autologous reconstructive techniques are used. This study focuses on our experience with congenital breast deformity patients who underwent reconstruction using a perforator flap. From 1994 to 2005, a retrospective chart review was performed on women who underwent breast reconstruction using perforator flaps to correct congenital breast deformities and asymmetry. Patient age, breast deformity type, perforator flap type, flap volume, recipient vessels, postoperative complications, revisions, and esthetic results were determined. Over an 11-year period, 12 perforator flaps were performed. All cases were for unilateral breast deformities. The patients ranged from 16 to 43 years of age. Six patients had undergone previous correctional surgeries. Eight (n = 8) flaps were used for correction of Poland syndrome and its associated chest wall deformities. Four (n = 4) flaps were used for correction of unilateral breast hypoplasia. In all cases, the internal mammary vessels were the recipient vessels of choice. No flaps were lost. No vein grafts were used. All patients were discharged on the fourth postoperative day. Complications encountered included seroma, hematoma, and nipple malposition. Revisional surgery was performed in 30% of the cases. Esthetic results varied from poor to excellent. Perforator flaps are an acceptable choice for patients with congenital breast deformities seeking autologous breast reconstruction. Deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) or superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps are performed when adequate abdominal tissue is available; however, many young patients have inadequate abdominal tissue, thus a GAP flap can be used
Garces-McIntyre, Teresa; Carbonell, Josep Maria; Vallcorba, Lluís; Santos, Antonio; Valles, Cristina; Nart, José
Evaluate if there is any relationship between the flap thickness (FT) and the presence of complete root coverage (CRC) when performing coronally advanced flaps in combination with a connective tissue graft (CTG). Prospective clinical study, in which multiple Miller class I and II recessions were treated with a coronally advanced flap and a CTG standardized at 1 mm of thickness. Individual stents permitted repeated measurements of conventional periodontal parameters at the same point. The primary outcome variable was CRC. Secondary outcomes were recession reduction, gingival thickness and width of keratinized tissue (KT) achieved at 6 months post-surgery. Forty-five recessions (2.4 ± 0.75 mm) were treated in 20 patients. Mean root coverage was 93.4 ± 10.98%; 65% achieved CRC. The mean FT was 1.01 mm ± 0.64 mm and 1.01 ± 0.61 mm at 2 and 5 mm from the gingival margin, respectively. No relationship could be found between FT and CRC (p > .05). Statistical significant changes (p < .05) were observed for recession depth, clinical attachment level, KT and soft tissue thickness at the end of the study. Flap thickness seems not to be a predictor for CRC when performing a coronally advanced flap plus a CTG. This technique may be of choice when treating thin biotypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Egeberg, Alexander; Rasmussen, Mads Kløvgaard; Sørensen, Jens Ahm
Countless studies have compared the use of autologous tissue for breast reconstruction; however, rates of donor-site morbidity differ greatly. This study examined the donor-site morbidity of superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA), deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) and muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MS-TRAM) flaps when used for unilateral breast reconstruction. Searches in PubMed and Medline as well as three manual search strategies for English-language articles published from 1 January 1995 to 1 January 2011 resulted in 2154 publications. Four levels of screening identified five studies suitable for the meta-analysis. StatsDirect software was used to perform the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. Only one study reported rates of donor-site morbidity for SIEA flaps. It was therefore impossible to perform any analysis regarding SIEA flaps. Five studies reported rates for both DIEP and MS-TRAM flaps and were used to estimate pooled relative risk (RR) and confidence intervals (CIs) of bulging. There was a 20% reduced risk of bulging when DIEP flaps were used compared to MS-TRAM flaps (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.48-1.35). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the risk of bulging in DIEP flap patients was one-third of MS-TRAM flap patients (RR 0.29; 95% CI 0.06-1.36), when rates were reported by clinical examinations. However, when rates were reported by surveys there was no difference in bulge formation between DIEP and MS-TRAM flap patients (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.59-1.79). The adjusted RR of hernia in DIEP flap patients was approximately one-half of MS-TRAM flap patients (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.07-2.63). This analysis demonstrated a clear trend towards a favourable outcome when DIEP flaps were used compared to MS-TRAM flaps. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Primary radical ablative surgery and fibula free-flap reconstruction for T4 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with mandibular invasion: oncologic and functional results and their predictive factors.
Camuzard, Olivier; Dassonville, Olivier; Ettaiche, Marc; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Poissonnet, Gilles; Berguiga, Riadh; Leysalle, Axel; Benezery, Karen; Peyrade, Frédéric; Saada, Esma; Hechema, Raphael; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Demard, François; Santini, José; Bozec, Alexandre
The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical outcomes and to determine their predictive factors in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) invading the mandibular bone (T4) who underwent primary radical surgery and fibula free-flap reconstruction. Between 2001 and 2013, all patients who underwent primary surgery and mandibular fibula free-flap reconstruction for OCSCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. Predictive factors of oncologic and functional outcomes were assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. 77 patients (55 men and 22 women, mean age 62 ± 10.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Free-flap failure and local and general complication rates were 9, 31, and 22 %, respectively. In multivariate analysis, ASA score (p = 0.002), pathologic N-stage (p = 0.01), and close surgical margins (p = 0.03) were independent predictors of overall survival. Six months after therapy, oral diet, speech intelligibility, and mouth opening functions were normal or slightly impaired in, respectively, 79, 88, and 83 % of patients. 6.5 % of patients remaining dependent on enteral nutrition 6 months after therapy. With acceptable postoperative outcomes and satisfactory oncologic and functional results, segmental mandibulectomy with fibula free-flap reconstruction should be considered the gold standard primary treatment for patients with OCSCC invading mandible bone. Oncologic outcomes are dependent on three main factors: ASA score, pathologic N-stage, and surgical margin status.
George, Rinku K.; Krishnamurthy, Arvind
Reconstructive microsurgery for oral and maxillofacial (OMF) defects is considered as a niche specialty and is performed regularly only in a handful of centers. Till recently the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) was considered to be the benchmark for OMF reconstruction. This philosophy is changing fast with rapid advancement in reconstructive microsurgery. Due to improvement in instrumentation and the development of finer techniques of flap harvesting we can positively state that microsurgery has come of age. Better techniques, microscopes and micro instruments enable us to do things previously unimaginable. Supramicrosurgery and ultrathin flaps are a testimony to this. Years of innovation in reconstructive microsurgery have given us a reasonably good number of very excellent flaps. Tremendous work has been put into producing some exceptionally brilliant research articles, sometimes contradicting each other. This has led to the need for clarity in some areas in this field. This article will review some controversies in reconstructive microsurgery and analyze some of the most common microvascular free flaps (MFF) used in OMF reconstruction. It aims to buttress the fact that three flaps-the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) and fibula are the ones most expedient in the surgeon's arsenal, since they can cater to almost all sizeable defects we come across after ablative surgery in the OMF region. They can thus aptly be titled as the workhorses of OMF reconstruction with regard to free flaps. PMID:23662264
Change in reimbursement and costs in German oncological head and neck surgery over the last decade: ablative tongue cancer surgery and reconstruction with split-thickness skin graft vs. microvascular radial forearm flap.
Hoefert, Sebastian; Lotter, Oliver
Defects after ablative tongue cancer surgery can be reconstructed by split-thickness skin grafts or free microvascular flaps. The different surgical options may influence costs, reimbursement, and therefore possible profits. Our goal was to analyze the development of these parameters for different procedures in head and neck reconstruction in Germany over the last decade. After tumor resection and neck dissection of tongue cancer, three different scenarios were chosen to calculate costs, reimbursement, length of stay (LoS), and profits. Two options considered were reconstruction by split-thickness skin graft with (option Ia) and without (option Ib) tracheotomy. In addition, we analyzed microvascular reconstruction with radial forearm flap (option II). Furthermore, unsatisfactory results after options Ia and Ib may make secondary tongue plastic with split-thickness skin grafting necessary (option I+). The calculations were performed considering the German Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) system and compared to the specific DRG cost data of 250 German reference hospitals. The overall average length of stay (aLoS) declined from 16.7 to 12.8 days with a reduction in every option. Until 2011, all options showed similar accumulated DRG reimbursement. From 2012 onwards, earnings almost doubled for option II due to changes in the DRG allocation. As was expected, the highest costs were observed in option II. Profits (reimbursement minus costs) were also highest for option II (mean 2052 €, maximum 3630 Euros in 2015) followed by options Ia (765 €) and Ib/I+ (681 €). Average profits over time would be 17 to 19% higher if adjusted for inflation. We showed the development of the DRG allocation of two commonly used methods of reconstruction after ablative tongue cancer surgery and the associated LoS, reimbursement, costs, and profits. As expected, the highest values were found for microvascular reconstruction. Microvascular reconstruction may also be the primary choice of
Arpaci, Enver; Altun, Serdar; Ertas, Nilgün Markal; Uysal, Ahmet Cagri; Inozu, Emre
Most skin defects that require reconstruction with a local skin flap have a circular- or oval-shaped pattern. The majority of the skin flaps are planned in an angled shape. Therefore, it may be necessary to modify the shape of the defect or the distal flap border to minimize tissue distortion. We have designed a circular-shaped advancement flap to be compatible with the circular defect. Eighteen cases of reconstruction of skin defects in the face, chest wall, hand and buttock area were performed using the omega advancement flap between 2010 and 2014. In this technique, a circular-shaped flap that has an equal diameter with the defect is planned adjacent to the defect. To facilitate the advancement of the flap and to avoid standing cones, deepithelialized equilateral triangular flaps are designed on both sides of the main circular flap. The circular flap is easily moved to the defect by pulling of the triangular flaps with minimal tension. All flaps survived without complication such as infection, hematoma or flap necrosis. No secondary surgery was required to correct contour deformities such as standing cones and trap-door deformities. The results were satisfactory aesthetically and functionally. The omega advancement flap is an easy and reliable procedure for reconstruction of circular skin defects located on various anatomical regions. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Milstein, Dan M J; Mathura, Keshen R; Lindeboom, Jérôme A H; Ramsoekh, Dewkoemar; Lindeboom, Robert; Ince, Can
To investigate post-operative capillary density regeneration in healing mucoperiosteal flaps at guided bone regeneration-treated implant sites. A non-invasive post-operative investigation was performed in 10 patients using orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging for assessment of capillary density during the course of mucoperiosteal flap wound healing for 6 weeks in patients receiving dental implants. The greatest increase in capillary regeneration occurred in the early wound-healing phase, during weeks 1 and 2, and recovery to baseline was achieved between weeks 4 and 5. A comparison of adjacent OPS measurements indicated that differences between the time point immediately following administration of local anaesthesia and directly post-operatively ( p=0.002), between a directly post-operative time point and after 1 week (p=0.009), and between post-operative weeks 1 and 2 (p=0.036) were statistically significant. The early healing phase of mucoperiosteal flaps is characterized by rapid capillary regeneration. OPS imaging enabled the possibility to monitor and quantify the temporal development of mucoperiosteal flap revascularization following periodontal surgery.
Golbin, Denis A; Lasunin, Nikolay V; Cherekaev, Vasily A; Polev, Georgiy A
Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a buccal fat pad for endoscopic skull base defect reconstruction. Design Descriptive anatomical study with an illustrative case presentation. Setting Anatomical study was performed on 12 fresh human cadaver specimens with injected arteries (24 sides). Internal carotid artery was exposed in the coronal plane via the endoscopic transpterygoid approach. The pedicled buccal fat pad was used for reconstruction. Participants : 12 human cadaver head specimens; one patient operated using the proposed technique. Main outcome measures : Proximity of the buccal fat pad flap to the defect, compliance of the flap, comfort and safety of harvesting procedure, and compatibility with the Hadad-Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. Results : Harvesting procedure was performed using anterior transmaxillary corridor. The pedicled buccal fat pad flap can be used to pack the sphenoid sinus or cover the internal carotid artery from cavernous to upper parapharyngeal segment. Conclusion The buccal fat pad can be safely harvested through the same approach without external incisions and is compliant enough to conform to the skull base defect. The proposed pedicled flap can replace free abdominal fat in central skull base reconstruction. The volume of the buccal fat pad allows obliteration of the sphenoid sinus or upper parapharyngeal space.
Meuli, Martin; Meuli-Simmen, Claudia; Mazzone, Luca; Tharakan, Sasha J; Zimmermann, Roland; Ochsenbein, Nicole; Moehrlen, Ueli
One of the intraoperative challenges of fetal spina bifida repair is skin closure when there is an extended skin defect. Thus, we examined whether distally pedicled random pattern transposition flaps (TFs) are a valid option to overcome this problem. All patients undergoing in utero repair of spina bifida with application of a TF for back skin closure were analyzed focusing on intraoperative flap characteristics and postoperative flap performance. In 30 (70%) of the 43 fetuses a primary skin closure was achieved, in 5 (12%) a skin substitute was used, and in 8 (18%) a TF was applied. Flap raising and insertion was uneventful and perfusion was sufficient in all 8 fetuses (100%). In 3 fetuses (37%) the donor sites were closed primarily, and in 5 (63%) a skin substitute was used for coverage. At birth, 7 flaps were viable and provided robust skin coverage over the center of the former lesion. Complications included a small skin defect with CSF leakage in 1 patient (13%). During open fetal spina bifida repair, TFs can be safely and efficaciously used to obtain solid and durable skin coverage over lesions too large to allow conventional primary skin closure. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Golbin, Denis A.; Lasunin, Nikolay V.; Cherekaev, Vasily A.; Polev, Georgiy A.
Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a buccal fat pad for endoscopic skull base defect reconstruction. Design Descriptive anatomical study with an illustrative case presentation. Setting Anatomical study was performed on 12 fresh human cadaver specimens with injected arteries (24 sides). Internal carotid artery was exposed in the coronal plane via the endoscopic transpterygoid approach. The pedicled buccal fat pad was used for reconstruction. Participants: 12 human cadaver head specimens; one patient operated using the proposed technique. Main outcome measures: Proximity of the buccal fat pad flap to the defect, compliance of the flap, comfort and safety of harvesting procedure, and compatibility with the Hadad–Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. Results: Harvesting procedure was performed using anterior transmaxillary corridor. The pedicled buccal fat pad flap can be used to pack the sphenoid sinus or cover the internal carotid artery from cavernous to upper parapharyngeal segment. Conclusion The buccal fat pad can be safely harvested through the same approach without external incisions and is compliant enough to conform to the skull base defect. The proposed pedicled flap can replace free abdominal fat in central skull base reconstruction. The volume of the buccal fat pad allows obliteration of the sphenoid sinus or upper parapharyngeal space. PMID:28180047
Kroll, S S; Evans, G R; Goldberg, D; Wang, B G; Reece, G P; Miller, M J; Robb, G L; Baldwin, B J; Schusterman, M A
A series of 178 immediate reconstructions with regional or distant tissue for repair of oropharyngeal defects caused by treatment of head and neck cancer was reviewed to determine whether reconstruction with free flaps was more or less expensive than reconstruction with regional myocutaneous flaps. In this series, three types of flaps were used: the radial forearm free flap (n = 89), the rectus abdominis free flap (n = 56), and the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (n = 33). Resource costs were determined by adding all costs to the institution of providing each service studied using salaried employees (including physicians). The two free-flap groups were combined to compare free flaps with the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, a regional myocutaneous flap. Failure rates in the two groups were similar (3.0 percent for pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, 3.4 percent for free flaps). The mean costs of surgery were slightly higher for the free flaps, but the subsequent hospital stay costs were lower. Therefore, the total mean resource cost for the free-flap group ($28,460) was lower than the cost for the myocutaneous flap group ($40,992). The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap may have been selected for more patients with advanced disease and systemic medical problems, contributing to longer hospitalization and added cost. Nevertheless, this study suggests that free flaps are not more expensive than other methods and may provide cost savings for selected patients.
Pradeep, A R; Garg, Vibhuti; Kanoriya, Dharmendra; Singhal, Sandeep
Regenerative periodontal therapy encompasses use of various bioactive agents that are not only inflammomodulatory but also osteoclast-inhibitory or, rather, osteostimulative. Hypolipidemic statin drugs, particularly rosuvastatin (RSV), are known to be associated with alveolar bone formation and periodontal improvements. Platelet analogs such as platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), being rich sources of growth factors, have also come into widespread periodontal regenerative use. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare efficacy of open flap debridement (OFD) with or without PRF or PRF + 1.2% RSV gel in treatment of intrabony defects (IBDs) in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Ninety individuals with a total of 90 IBDs were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: 1) OFD alone; 2) OFD + PRF; and 3) OFD + PRF + 1.2% RSV gel placement. Measurements recorded at baseline and 9 months after surgery were: 1) plaque index (PI); 2) modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI); 3) probing depth (PD); 4) clinical attachment level (CAL); and 5) IBD depth. Significant PI and mSBI reductions were observed in all three groups. PRF placement significantly enhanced improvements in periodontal parameters compared with OFD alone. Addition of 1.2% RSV gel to PRF resulted in significantly greater CAL gain and PD and IBD depth reductions over 9 months compared with other groups. OFD with RSV (1.2%) and PRF results in significantly greater periodontal benefits compared with OFD alone or with PRF.
Preber, H; Bergström, J
The influence of cigarette smoking on the outcome of surgical therapy was investigated in 54 patients, 24 of whom were smokers. The patients had moderate to severe periodontitis with persisting diseased pockets after non-surgical therapy. The surgical modality used was the modified Widman flap operation and the pockets under scrutiny were those with an initial probing depth of 4-6 mm. Re-examination was made 12 months following the completion of surgery. The probing depth reduction at the 12-month follow-up was 0.76 +/- 0.36 mm (mean +/- SD) in smokers as compared to 1.27 +/- 0.43 mm in non-smokers. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001) and persisted after accounting for plaque. The results suggest that smoking may impair the outcome of surgical therapy.
Raheja, Jyoti; Tewari, Sanjay; Tewari, Shikha; Duhan, Jigyasa
Treatment of concomitant endodontic-periodontal lesions remains a challenge in clinical practice and requires effective endodontic and regenerative periodontal therapy. Among other factors, cross seeding and recolonization of flora may affect the outcome of periodontal therapy. Intracanal medicaments have been shown to exert antimicrobial activity on the external root surface, and local delivery of antimicrobials has been suggested to be a complementary approach in the management of periodontitis. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX) intracanal medicament on the clinical outcomes of therapy. Thirty-one patients were divided into two treatment groups: 1) open flap debridement (OFD) in endodontically treated teeth (control); and 2) OFD in endodontically treated teeth with CHX placed in the coronal space (test). The clinical variables evaluated were probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and percentage of sites with PD ≥5 mm. Reevaluation was performed at 3 and 6 months post-surgery. Both treatments resulted in improvement in all the clinical variables evaluated. Postoperative measurements from test and control groups showed reductions in mean PD of 2.22 ± 1.27 and 0.91 ± 0.81 mm, mean CAL gains of 2.16 ± 1.12 and 0.60 ± 0.93 mm, and 43.33% ± 31.37% and 17.71% ± 14.23% reduction in sites with PD ≥5 mm. Significantly more PD reduction, CAL gain, and percentage reduction in sites with PD ≥5 mm were observed in the test group at 6 months (P <0.05). CHX may be used as an effective intracanal medicament for promoting periodontal healing in concomitant endodontic-periodontal lesions.
Rath, Saroj K; Mukherjee, Manish; Kaushik, R; Sen, Sourav; Kumar, Mukesh
There has been increasing attention paid in recent years to the possibility that oral bacterial infection, particularly periodontal disease may influence the initiation and or progression of systemic diseases. These studies confirm the observation that heart disease is the most commonly found systemic condition in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, the literature has also highlighted substantial evidence indicating the presence of Gram-negative periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. This study intends to investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease by evaluating periodontal status, association between the periodontal plaque and coronary atheromatous plaques for presence of micro-organisms such as, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia. A case-control study was designed with seven patients who had undergone coronary endarterectomy for cardiovascular disease and 28 controls. The periodontal examination for cases was performed 1 day before vascular surgery and the controls were clinically examined. The atheromatous plaque sample collected during endarterectomy and the intraoral plaque samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction for identification of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and T. forsythia. The presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in coronary atheromatous plaques and sub-gingival plaque samples of the same patients was confirmed by this study. CONCLUSION A correlation was established between putative bacteria contributing to atheromatous plaques and species associated with periodontal disease. One particularly important study to be carried out is the investigation of a possible clinically meaningful reduction in coronary heart disease resulting from the prevention or treatment of periodontal disease.
Marolt, Darja; Rode, Matjaz; Kregar-Velikonja, Nevenka; Jeras, Matjaz; Knezevic, Miomir
Objectives Bone tissue regeneration requires a source of viable, proliferative cells with osteogenic differentiation capacity. Periodontal surgeries represent an opportunity to procure small amounts of autologous tissues for primary cell isolation. Our objective was to assess the potential of human alveolar bone as a source of autologous osteogenic cells for tissue engineering and biomaterials and drug testing studies. Materials and Methods Alveolar bone tissue was obtained from 37 patients undergoing routine periodontal surgery. Tissue harvesting and cell isolation procedures were optimized to isolate viable cells. Primary cells were subcultured and characterized with respect to their growth characteristics, gene expression of osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization, under osteogenic stimulation. Results Alveolar bone cells were successfully isolated from 28 of the 30 samples harvested with bone forceps, and from 2 of the 5 samples obtained by bone drilling. The yield of cells in primary cultures was variable between the individual samples, but was not related to the site of tissue harvesting and the patient age. In 80% of samples (n = 5), the primary cells proliferated steadily for eight subsequent passages, reaching cumulative numbers over 1010 cells. Analyses confirmed stable gene expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin in early and late cell passages. In osteogenic medium, the cells from late passages increased alkaline phosphatase activity and accumulated mineralized matrix, indicating a mature osteoblastic phenotype. Conclusions Primary alveolar bone cells exhibited robust proliferation and retained osteogenic phenotype during in vitro expansion, suggesting that they can be used as an autologous cell source for bone regenerative therapies and various in vitro studies. PMID:24667745
Ricard, A-S; Zwetyenga, N; Laurentjoye, M; Siberchicot, F; Majoufre-Lefebvre, C
We studied the files of head and neck reconstruction with antebrachial flap used in 100 patients between May 1996 and March 2007 in the department of Maxillofacial Surgery of the CHU of Bordeaux. Flap harvesting and vascular anastomosis were performed by the same operator. Antebrachial flap was used to cover the defect after resection of head and neck cancer in 89 patients and after shotgun injuries of the face in 11 patients. This flap, by its smoothness and its plasticity, makes it possible to rebuild all the oral cavity localizations, even the most complex, by covering the defects without blocking deglutition and enunciation. It brings to the patient a better quality of life by decreasing the functional after-effects that can be seen with the traditional myocutaneous flaps. This flap is highly reliable, not requiring specific care after the operation as other micro-surgeries, which simplifies the postoperative quality of life of the aged and debilitated patients.
Sculean, Anton; Windisch, Péter; Döri, Ferenc; Keglevich, Tibor; Molnár, Balint; Gera, István
The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i.e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of the enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in the periodontal wound healing. Histological results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of the current overview is to present, based on the existing evidence, the clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD. Surgical periodontal treatment of deep intrabony defects with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. The application of EMD in the context of non-surgical periodontal therapy has failed to result in periodontal regeneration. Surgical periodontal therapy of deep intrabony defects with EMD may lead to significantly higher improvements of the clinical parameters than open flap debridement alone. The results obtained following treatment with EMD are comparable to those following treatment with GTR and can be maintained over a longer period. Treatment of intrabony defects with a combination of EMD + GTR does not seem to additionally improve the results compared to treatment with EMD alone or GTR alone. The combination of EMD and some types of bone grafts/bone substitutes may result in certain improvements in the soft and hard tissue parameters compared to treatment with EMD alone. Treatment of recession-type defects with coronally repositioned flaps and EMD may promote formation of cementum, periodontal ligament and bone, and may significantly increase the width of the keratinized tissue. Application of EMD seems to provide better long-term results than coronally repositioned flaps alone. Application of EMD may enhance periodontal regeneration in mandibular Class II
Del Corso, Marco; Vervelle, Alain; Simonpieri, Alain; Jimbo, Ryo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M
Platelet concentrates for surgical use are innovative tools of regenerative medicine, and were widely tested in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Unfortunately, the literature on the topic is contradictory and the published data are difficult to sort and interpret. In periodontology and dentoalveolar surgery, the literature is particularly dense about the use of the various forms of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) - Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP) or Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP) - but still limited about Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) subfamilies. In this first article, we describe and discuss the current published knowledge about the use of PRP and PRF during tooth avulsion or extraction, mucogingival surgery, Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) or bone filling of periodontal intrabony defects, and regeneration of alveolar ridges using Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR), in a comprehensive way and in order to avoid the traps of a confusing literature and to highlight the underlying universal mechanisms of these products. Finally, we particularly insist on the perspectives in this field, through the description and illustration of the systematic use of L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet- Rich Fibrin) clots and membranes during tooth avulsion, cyst exeresis or the treatment of gingival recessions by root coverage. The use of L-PRF also allowed to define new therapeutic principles: NTR (Natural Tissue Regeneration) for the treatment of periodontal intrabony lesions and Natural Bone Regeneration (NBR) for the reconstruction of the alveolar ridges. In periodontology, this field of research will soon find his golden age by the development of user-friendly platelet concentrate procedures, and the definition of new efficient concepts and clinical protocols.
Cyriac, Chacko; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet
The pedicled TRAM flap has been a workhorse of autologous breast reconstruction for decades. However, there has been a rising concern about the abdominal wall donor site morbidity with the use of conventional TRAM flap. This has generally been cited as one of the main reasons for resorting to "abdominal wall friendly" techniques. This study has been undertaken to assess the abdominal wall function in patients with pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. The entire width of the muscle and the overlying wide disk of anterior rectus sheath were harvested with the TRAM flap in all our patients and the anterior rectus sheath defect was repaired by a Proline mesh. Abdominal wall function was studied in 21 patients who underwent simultaneous primary unipedicled TRAM flap reconstruction after mastectomy for cancer. In all the patients, the abdominal wall defect was repaired using wide sheet of Proline mesh both as inlay and onlay. The assessment tools included straight and rotational curl ups and a subjective questionnaire. The abdominal wall was also examined for any asymmetry, bulge, or hernia. The minimal follow-up was 6 months postoperative. The objective results were compared with normal unoperated volunteers. The harvesting the TRAM flap certainly results in changes to the anterior abdominal wall that can express themselves to a variable degree. A relatively high incidence of asymptomatic asymmetry of the abdomen was seen. There was total absence of hernia in our series even after a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. A few patients were only able to partially initiate the sit up movement and suffered an important loss of strength. In most patients, synergists took over the functional movement but as the load increased, flexion and rotation performances decreased. The lack of correlation between exercise tests and the results of the questionnaire suggests that this statistically significant impairment was functionally not important. The patients encountered
Zhou, W; Zhang, W-B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Mao, C; Guo, C-B; Yu, G-Y; Peng, X
The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for free flap failure after head and neck reconstructive surgery. The data of 881 consecutive patients who underwent free flap surgery at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, between January 2013 and November 2016, were reviewed retrospectively. All surgeries were performed by a single head and neck surgical team. Patient demographic and surgical data that may have an influence on free flap outcomes were recorded. The χ 2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify relevant risk factors. In total, 881 free tissue transfer surgeries were included in this study. Free flap failure occurred in 26 of 881 flaps (2.9%). A history of irradiation (odds ratio 0.205, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.56; P=0.002) was a statistically significant risk factor for free flap failure. Age, diabetes mellitus, history of previous neck surgery to the anastomosis side, donor site, choice of recipient vein, use of a coupler device, and postoperative anticoagulation were not associated with free flap outcomes. Thus, it is concluded that when performing head and neck reconstructive surgery, special attention should be paid to patients who have previously undergone irradiation. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teughels, Wim; Dhondt, Rutger; Dekeyser, Christel; Quirynen, Marc
Despite etiological differences between aggressive and chronic periodontitis, the treatment concept for aggressive periodontitis is largely similar to that for chronic periodontitis. The goal of treatment is to create a clinical condition that is conducive to retaining as many teeth as possible for as long as possible. When a diagnosis has been made and risk factors have been identified, active treatment is commenced. The initial phase of active treatment consists of mechanical debridement, either alone or supplemented with antimicrobial drugs. Scaling and root planing has been shown to be effective in improving clinical indices, but does not always guarantee long-term stability. Antimicrobials can play a significant role in controlling aggressive periodontitis. Few studies have been published on this subject for localized aggressive periodontitis, but generalized aggressive periodontitis has been subject to more scrutiny. Studies have demonstrated that systemic antibiotics as an adjuvant to scaling and root planing are more effective in controlling disease compared with scaling and root planing alone or with supplemental application of local antibiotics or antiseptics. It has also become apparent that antibiotics ought to be administered with, or just after, mechanical debridement. Several studies have shown that regimens of amoxicillin combined with metronidazole or regimens of clindamycin are the most effective and are preferable to regimens containing doxycycline. Azithromycin has been shown to be a valid alternative to the regimen of amoxicillin plus metronidazole. A limited number of studies have been published on surgical treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but the studies available show that the effect can be comparable with the effect on patients with chronic periodontitis, provided that proper oral hygiene is maintained, a strict maintenance program is followed and modifiable risk factors are controlled. Both access surgery and
... many people, to the sometimes irreversible, severe, chronic periodontitis that badly erodes the bone and other supporting ... Smoking contributes significantly to the risk of having periodontitis. The risk is also higher in individuals with ...
Chan, R. C. L.; Chan, J. Y. W.
Background. Our study aimed to review the role of deltopectoral (DP) flap as a reconstructive option for defects in the head and neck region in the microvascular era. Methods. All patients who received DP flap reconstruction surgery at the Department of Surgery, Queen Mary Hospital, between 1999 and 2011 were recruited. Demographic data, indications for surgery, defect for reconstruction, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results. Fifty-four patients were included. All but two patients were operated for reconstruction after tumour resection. The remaining two patients were operated for necrotizing fasciitis and osteoradionecrosis. The majority of DP flaps were used to cover neck skin defect (63.0%). Other reconstructed defects included posterior pharyngeal wall (22.2%), facial skin defect (11.1%), and tracheal wall (3.7%). All donor sites were covered with partial thickness skin graft. Two patients developed partial flap necrosis at the tip and were managed conservatively. The overall flap survival rate was 96.3%. Conclusions. Albeit the technical advancements in microvascular surgery, DP still possesses multiple advantages (technical simplicity, reliable axial blood supply, large size, thinness, and pliability) which allows it to remain as a useful, reliable, and versatile surgical option for head and neck reconstruction. PMID:25374953
Rahimpour, Sina; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Karimian, Negin; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Farzad; Taleb, Shayandokht; Mirazi, Naser; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza
The protective effect of hypothyroidism against ischemic or toxic conditions has been shown in various tissues. We investigated the effect of propylthiouracil (PTU)/methimazole (MMI)-induced hypothyroidism and acute local effect of MMI on the outcome of lethal ischemia in random-pattern skin flaps. Dorsal flaps with caudal pedicles were elevated at midline and flap survival was measured at the seventh day after surgery. The first group, as control, received 1 mL of 0.9% saline solution in the flap before flap elevation. In groups 2 and 3, hypothyroidism was induced by administration of either PTU 0.05% or MMI 0.04% in drinking water. The next four groups received local injections of MMI (10, 20, 50, or 100 μg/flap) before flap elevation. Local PTU injection was ignored due to insolubility of the agent. Hypothyroidism was induced in chronic PTU- and MMI-treated groups, and animals in these groups showed significant increase in their flap survival, compared to control euthyroid rats (79.47% ± 10.49% and 75.48% ± 12.93% versus 52.26% ± 5.75%, respectively, P < 0.01). Acute local treatment of skin flaps with MMI failed to significantly affect the flap survival. This study demonstrates for the first time that hypothyroidism improves survival of random-pattern skin flaps in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Windisch, Péter; Szendroi-Kiss, Dóra; Horváth, Attila; Suba, Zsuzsanna; Gera, István; Sculean, Anton
Treatment of intrabony periodontal defects with a combination of a natural bone mineral (NBM) and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been shown to promote periodontal regeneration in intrabony defects. In certain clinical situations, the teeth presenting intrabony defects are located at close vicinity of the resorbed alveolar ridge. In these particular cases, it is of clinical interest to simultaneously reconstruct both the intrabony periodontal defect and the resorbed alveolar ridge, thus allowing insertion of endosseous dental implants. The aim of the present study was to present the clinical and histological results obtained with a new surgical technique designed to simultaneously reconstruct the intrabony defect and the adjacently located resorbed alveolar ridge. Eight patients with chronic advanced periodontitis displaying intrabony defects located in the close vicinity of resorbed alveolar ridges were consecutively enrolled in the study. After local anesthesia, mucoperiosteal flaps were raised, the granulation tissue removed, and the roots meticulously scaled and planed. A subepithelial connective tissue graft was harvested from the palate and sutured to the oral flap. The intrabony defect and the adjacent alveolar ridge were filled with a NBM and subsequently covered with a bioresorbable collagen membrane (GTR). At 11-20 months (mean, 13.9+/-3.9 months) after surgery, implants were placed, core biopsies retrieved, and histologically evaluated. Mean pocket depth reduction measured 3.8+/-1.7 mm and mean clinical attachment level gain 4.3+/-2.2 mm, respectively. Reentry revealed in all cases a complete fill of the intrabony component and a mean additional vertical hard tissue gain of 1.8+/-1.8 mm. The histologic evaluation indicated that most NBM particles were surrounded by bone. Mean new bone and mean graft area measured 17.8+/-2.8% and 32.1+/-8.3%, respectively. Within their limits, the present findings indicate that the described surgical approach may be
Blondeel, N; Vanderstraeten, G G; Monstrey, S J; Van Landuyt, K; Tonnard, P; Lysens, R; Boeckx, W D; Matton, G
This study was undertaken to demonstrate that the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap can provide the well-known advantages of autologous breast reconstruction with lower abdominal tissue while avoiding the abdominal wall complications of the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap. Eighteen unilateral free DIEP flap breast reconstruction patients were assessed 12-30 months (mean 17.8 months) after surgery. Clinical examination, physical exercises and isokinetic dynamometry were performed preoperatively and two months and one year postoperatively. Intraoperative segmental nerve stimulation, visual evaluation and postoperative CT scans were also used to quantify the damage to the rectus muscle. The 18 patients were then compared with 20 free TRAM flap patients and 20 non-operated controls. Two DIEP flap patients presented with abdominal asymmetry. A limited decrease of trunk flexing strength was noticed but rotatory function was intact. Ten of the TRAM flap patients had umbilical or abdominal asymmetry, bulging or hernias. TRAM flap patients showed a statistically significant reduction in strength to flex and to rotate the upper trunk compared to both the one year postoperative DIEP flap group and the control group. The answers to a questionnaire revealed impairment of activities of daily living for some TRAM flap patients while the activities of all DIEP flap patients were unaffected. Our data demonstrate that the free DIEP flap can limit the surgical damage to the rectus abdominis and oblique muscles to an absolute minimum. We believe it is worthwhile to spend extra operative time, the main disadvantage of this technique, to limit late postoperative weakness of the lower abdominal wall.
The usefulness of laser for oral hard tissue procedure such as caries treatment, impacted teeth extraction, periodontal therapy, peri-implantitis management, sinus lifting is reported by several Authors . Conventionally, mechanical rotary instruments and hand instruments are employed for bone surgery. Rotary instruments have better accessibility and cutting efficiency, but there is a risk of excessive heating of bone tissue and caution must be exercised to avoid the bur becoming entangled with surrounding soft tissues and the reflected flap. The main clinical advantages of the lasers are represented by minimal patient discomfort, good recovery with decreased or absent post-operative pain. In the last ten years are described in the international literature great advantages of Laser Surgery and Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) performed with different wavelength in addition to traditional surgical techniques to improve bone and soft tissue healing and for pain and infection control.
Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie
Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20(th) century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics.
Fox, Paige; Endress, Ryan; Sen, Subhro; Chang, James
muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. The fascia-only ALT is another excellent option for reconstructive surgery of the extremities.
Tomio, Ryosuke; Toda, Masahiro; Tomita, Toshiki; Yazawa, Masaki; Kono, Maya; Ogawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Kazunari
Dural and anterior cranial base reconstruction is essential in the surgical resection of a craniofacial tumor that extends from the paranasal sinuses to the subdural space. Watertight reconstruction of vascularized tissue is essential to prevent postoperative liquorrhea, especially under conditions that prevent wound healing (e.g., postoperative irradiation therapy). We successfully treated two cases of olfactory neuroblastoma by endoscopic-assisted craniotomy with primary dural closure and anterior cranial base reconstruction using a multi-layered flap technique. Dural defects were closed using temporal fascia or fascia lata in a conventional fashion, immediately after detaching the subdural tumor, in order to isolate and prevent contamination of subdural components and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the tumor and nasal sinuses. Tumor removal and anterior cranial base reconstruction were performed without any concern of CSF contamination after dural closure by craniotomy and endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA). Vascularized pericranial flaps (PCF) and nasoseptal flaps (NSF) were used simultaneously as doubled-over layers for reconstruction. The tumor was completely removed macroscopically and the anterior cranial base was reconstructed in both cases. CSF leak and postoperative meningitis were absent. Postoperative and irradiation therapy courses were successful and uneventful. This multi-layered anterior cranial base reconstruction consisted of three layers: a fascia for dural plasty and double-layered PCF and NSF. This surgical reconstruction technique is suitable to treat craniofacial tumors extending into the subdural space through the anterior cranial base dura mater.
Krishnan, Naveen M; Purnell, Chad; Nahabedian, Maurice Y; Freed, Gary L; Nigriny, John F; Rosen, Joseph M; Rosson, Gedge D
The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap has gained notoriety because of its proposed benefit in decreasing donor-site morbidity but has been associated with longer operative times, higher perfusion-related complications, and increased cost relative to muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps. The authors performed the first cost-utility analysis examining the cost effectiveness of DIEP flaps relative to muscle-sparing free TRAM flaps in women who underwent mastectomy. A comprehensive literature review was conducted using the MED- LINE, Embase, and Cochrane library databases to include studies directly comparing DIEP to muscle-sparing free TRAM flaps in matched patient cohorts. Eight studies were included, examining 740 DIEP flaps and 807 muscle-sparing free TRAM flaps. Costs were derived adopting both societal and third-party payer perspectives. Utilities were derived from a previous cost-utility analysis. Probabilities of clinically relevant complications were combined with cost and utility estimates to fit into a decision tree analysis. The overall complication rates were 24.7 percent and 21.8 percent for DIEP and muscle-sparing free TRAM flaps, respectively. The authors' baseline analysis using Medicare reimbursement revealed a cost decrease of $69.42 and a clinical benefit of 0.0035 quality-adjusted life-year when performing DIEP flap surgery relative to muscle-sparing free TRAM flap surgery, yielding an incremental cost-utility ratio of -$19,834.29. When using societal costs, the incremental cost-utility ratio increased to $87,800. DIEP flaps are cost effective relative to muscle-sparing free TRAM flaps when patients are carefully selected based on perforator anatomy and surgery is performed by experienced surgeons.
Buganza-Tepole, Adrian; Steinberg, Jordan P.; Kuhl, Ellen; Gosain, Arun K
Background Tissue expansion is a widely used technique to create skin flaps for the correction of sizeable defects in reconstructive plastic surgery. Major complications following the inset of expanded flaps include breakdown and uncontrolled scarring secondary to excessive tissue tension. While it is recognized that mechanical forces may significantly impact the success of defect repair with tissue expansion, a mechanical analysis of tissue stresses has not previously been attempted. Such analyses have the potential to optimize flap design pre-operatively. Methods We establish computer-aided design as a tool to explore stress profiles for two commonly employed flap designs, the direct advancement flap and the double back-cut flap. We advanced both flaps parallel and perpendicular to the relaxed skin tension lines to quantify the impact of tissue anisotropy on stress distribution profiles. Results Stress profiles were highly sensitive to flap design and orientation of relaxed skin tension lines, with stress minimized when flaps were advanced perpendicular to relaxed skin tension lines. Maximum stresses in advancement flaps occurred at the distal end of the flap, followed by the base. The double back-cut design increased stress at the lateral edges of the flap. Conclusions We conclude that finite element modeling may be used to effectively predict areas of increased flap tension. Performed pre-operatively, such modeling can allow for the optimization of flap design and a potential reduction in complications such as flap dehiscence or hypertrophic scarring. PMID:24945952
Liang, Gang; Xu, Bao-cheng; Li, Da-wei
To investigate the feasibility and effect of different types of axial pattern flaps in repairing soft tissue defects of the fingers. Five types of axial pattern flaps were used to repair soft tissue defects of the fingers of 30 patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Shaoxing Municipality from 2005 to 2010, including distally-based dorsal thumb neurocutaneous vascular flaps in 4 cases, free flaps from the fibular side of the great toe in 6 cases, modified retrograde dorsal metacarpal artery flaps in 8 cases, free flaps based on the radial dorsal septum muscular perforator of the posterior interosseous artery in 6 cases, and free posterior interosseous artery flaps carrying a long segment of the posterior interosseous artery in 6 cases. The flap size ranged from 2.5 cm × 2.0 cm to 8.0 cm × 3.0 cm. The donor sites were sutured directly or covered with skin graft. The condition of flaps was observed. The local feeling, function, and appearance of affected hands were followed up. Twenty-seven flaps grew well without infection. Partial necrosis at the distal portion in two flaps and venous congestion in 1 flap were observed after surgery, and they were healed with suitable treatment. Eighteen patients were followed up for 1 to 12 months. The flaps were found to have good color, texture, and thickness. Satisfactory appearance and function both in the donor sites and in the recipient areas were found in most patients. The sense of two-point discrimination of repaired fingers ranged from 5 to 9 mm. Optimizing the repair method for soft tissue defects in the fingers by taking both the characteristics of various axial pattern flaps and the specific conditions of soft tissue defects into account can achieve expected effect.
Baghani, Zahra; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi
The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properties of dressings are directly related to their dimensional changes and adhesion properties. Their biocompatibility and therapeutic effect are among the other factors evaluated in the literature. Chlorhexidine is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in studies. In general, when comparing the advantages with the disadvantages, application of periodontal dressing seems to be beneficial. Numerous factors are involved in selection of an optimal dressing such as surgeon’s intention, required time for the dressing to remain on the surgery site and its dimensional changes. PMID:24578815
Goh, Terence L H; Park, Sung Woo; Cho, Jae Young; Choi, Jong Woo; Hong, Joon Pio
The superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap is a thin skin flap that can be harvested reliably and quickly from the groin. It is ideal for single-stage resurfacing of cutaneous defects. The donor site heals well and is easily concealed. The authors clarify the anatomy, simplify the flap harvest technique, and outline the modifications to expand the applications of this flap. Between January of 2011 and January of 2014, 210 superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flaps were performed at Asan Medical Center. The flaps were used for head and neck reconstruction (n = 13), upper extremity reconstruction (n = 19), lower limb reconstruction (n = 176), and reconstruction in the trunk region (n = 2). All flaps were raised suprafascially using a free-style approach. The anatomy of the flap, the elevation technique, and the results of the reconstruction were assessed. The average flap size was 86 cm, ranging from 17.5 to 216 cm (mean vertical width, 6.3 cm; mean transverse length, 13.5 cm). Total flap loss occurred in 10 flaps (4.8 percent). Two patients developed complications at the donor site. Debulking surgery was performed in five patients (2.4 percent). The average follow-up period was 400 days (range, 30 to 1690 days). The superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap enables accurate resurfacing of moderate-size cutaneous defects. It is vascularly robust and versatile for use in different sites. This is the thinnest skin flap presently available and has the potential to become the new workhorse flap for resurfacing moderate-size skin defects. Therapeutic, IV.
Kovach, Stephen J; Georgiade, Gregory S
Necrosis of the skin flaps after mastectomy can be a devastating complication following immediate breast reconstruction with a TRAM flap. Skin-flap loss compromises the aesthetic result and may necessitate revisional surgery. The authors wish to present a simple and effective method to insure mastectomy skin-flap survival. Seven patients over the last 5 years were treated with immediate breast reconstruction with a TRAM flap after skin-sparing mastectomy and had evidence of skin-flap compromise intraoperatively. These patients had their TRAM flaps "banked" under the flaps and returned to the operating room within 72 hours for definitive debridement of the skin flaps, deepithelialization, and insetting of the TRAM. In all cases, there was 100% survival of the skin flaps after delayed insetting. There was no skin-flap loss. No patients required additional surgery for revision. The banked TRAM is a simple and effective method to insure mastectomy skin flap survival if there is a question of flap viability.
Ji, Chenyang; Li, Ruiting; Shen, Grace; Zhang, Jinming; Liang, Weiqiang
Large defects after skin malignant tumors resection were difficult to repair. We introduced a partition concept, in which the large defects were divided into several subunits, and each subunit was repaired by a certain pedicled flap to achieve a complete coverage.Between May 2012 and Oct 2016, 8 patients with skin malignant tumors underwent radical resection. Prior to surgery, the dimension of the potential defect after tumor ablation was estimated and outlined. After evaluation, the partition concept was applied and the defects were divided into several subunits. Also, the rationality of the choice of pedicled flap was evaluated. Each flap was used to cover its specific subunits defect.After excision, the defect areas were from 13 × 17 cm to 36 × 23 cm. Each subunit was designed to be repaired with a pedicled flap, which included local random flap, superficial iliac artery flap, transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap, lateral thoracic advanced island flap, anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap, anteromedial thigh (AMT) flap, and deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap. Primary closure of both donor and recipient sites was achieved in all patients. All the flaps survived. Flap necrosis was not observed.Reconstruction of large defects following resection of malignant tumors with multiple pedicled flaps was a reliable method. The partition concept is useful in the reconstruction of large tumor wounds in 1-stage operation.
Simon, François; Celerier, Charlotte; Garabedian, Erea-Noël; Denoyelle, Françoise
Cryptotia is one of the most common malformations of the upper auricle with aesthetic and functional consequences, however there is no standard treatment. We present the surgical technique and results of a kite flap procedure which can be used in the different cryptotia subtypes. We reviewed all patients treated in our department from 2010 to 2015, using a mastoid fascia kite flap technique. The incision of this local flap follows the retro-auricular sulcus along the rim of the helix superiorly and drawing a skin paddle inferiorly. The mastoid fascia is exposed and a superiorly and posteriorly based flap is drawn and detached from the skull. Finally, the skin paddle is rotated and sutured between the superior helix and temporal skin creating the superior sulcus. The retro-auricular incision is closed directly inferiorly. Six patients (mean age 12) and seven ears were studied. One patient had bilateral cryptotia and only two had a normal contralateral ear. Mean follow-up was of 45 months. There was no skin necrosis, no complications reported and no revision surgery. We describe a reliable flap with a simple design and improved aesthetic result, as the thickness of the flap projects the helix well, the scar is entirely hidden in the retro-auricular sulcus and the direct suture induces a harmonious medialization of the inferior part of the ear and earlobe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edgecombe, Gregory D
An anomalocaridid from the Ordovician exposes a second set of body flaps and reopens the question of how the two branches of arthropod legs evolved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tabrizi, Reza; Khorshidi, Hooman; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Gholami, Mehdi; Kalbasi, Saman; Khayati, Adell
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal regenerative capacity of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) alone or used with local lincomycin. In the present single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 20 subjects 26 years old or older, requiring extraction of bilateral third molars (M3s), were included. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive either DFDBA or DFDBA plus lincomycin therapy. Within the subjects, 1 M3 site was randomly selected to be the experimental site and the contralateral served as the control and was permitted to heal without intervention. The primary variables were changes in the probing depth (PD), clinical alveolar bone levels (ABLs), and radiographic alveolar bone density (ABD) on the distal aspect of second molar between baseline (immediately postoperatively) and 26 weeks postoperatively (T26). Appropriate sample sizes and descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistics were computed. For both treatment and control sites, between T0 and T26, statistically significant improvements were seen in the ABLs and ABD (P < .05). Within-subject comparisons showed no significant differences in PD, ABL, or ABD between the treatment and control M3 sites at T0 or T26 (P > .05). Also, no significant differences were found in the PD, ABL, or ABD between the 2 treatment M3 sites at T26 (P > .05). The results of the present study have revealed that the PD, ABL, and ABD improved after M3 removal in subjects 26 years old or older, irrespective of the treatment or control group. Reconstructive procedures (e.g., DFDBA with or without lincomycin therapy) did not offer predictable benefits compared with a no-treatment protocol in patients younger than 30 years old. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cobb, Charles M; Low, Samuel B; Coluzzi, Donald J
For many intraoral soft-tissue surgical procedures the laser has become a desirable and dependable alternative to traditional scalpel surgery. However, the use of dental lasers in periodontal therapy is controversial. This article presents the current peer-reviewed evidence on the use of dental lasers for the treatment of chronic periodontitis.
Effects of two different post-surgical protocols including either 0.05 % chlorhexidine herbal extract or 0.1 % chlorhexidine on post-surgical plaque control, early wound healing and patient acceptance following standard periodontal surgery and implant placement.
Laugisch, Oliver; Ramseier, Christoph A; Salvi, Giovanni E; Hägi, Tobias T; Bürgin, Walter; Eick, Sigrun; Sculean, Anton
The aim of this study was to compare early wound healing, tooth staining and patient acceptance with two different post-surgical maintenance protocols. Forty patients scheduled for flap surgery to treat periodontal pockets or accommodate dental implants were randomly assigned to receive the following two different post-surgical maintenance protocols: (a) 2 weeks rinsing with a 0.05 % chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX)/herbal extract combination (test) or (b) a 0.1 % CHX solution (control). Early wound healing was evaluated clinically and immunologically. Tooth staining and patient acceptance were assessed by means of visual analogue scale (VAS). Both groups presented with comparable wound healing profiles. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two protocols regarding early wound healing and plaque index (p > 0.05). However, in the control group, statistically significantly more patients felt discomfort due to tooth staining (p = 0.0467). Compared with patients from the test group, patients in the control group reported statistically significant more irritation of taste at week 1 (p = 0.0359) and at week 2 (p = 0.0042). The present findings indicate that the two CHX protocols resulted in comparable healing and inhibition of plaque formation. Tooth staining and subjective discomfort related to irritation of taste were more frequent in the control group. A post-operative protocol including 0.05 % CHX/herbal extract may have the potential to improve patient compliance during post-operative maintenance.
Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul
Endodontic and periodontal microsurgery has surpassed the success rates for traditional endodontic and periodontal surgical procedures. Excellent healing results are being attributed to both the techniques, when employed, for isolated endodontic or periodontal defects. Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques. The prevention of epithelial downgrowth and regeneration of periodontal cementum, fiber, and bone seals the fate of these cases. Achieving primary closure with submergence of grafts has a positive effect on GTR outcome. New techniques of periodontal microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla preserving flaps with passive internal mattress suturing, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and conditioning has also shown to be beneficial for GTR. Endodontic microsurgery for the combined lesion has not integrated these advances yet. These advances, along with a recently suggested treatment strategy, are ushering in the level next in management of the combined lesions. This article offers an overview of the combined lesion, the disease, its classification, treatment strategy, regenerative tools, microsurgical recommendations, and outcome studies.
Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul
Endodontic and periodontal microsurgery has surpassed the success rates for traditional endodontic and periodontal surgical procedures. Excellent healing results are being attributed to both the techniques, when employed, for isolated endodontic or periodontal defects. Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques. The prevention of epithelial downgrowth and regeneration of periodontal cementum, fiber, and bone seals the fate of these cases. Achieving primary closure with submergence of grafts has a positive effect on GTR outcome. New techniques of periodontal microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla preserving flaps with passive internal mattress suturing, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and conditioning has also shown to be beneficial for GTR. Endodontic microsurgery for the combined lesion has not integrated these advances yet. These advances, along with a recently suggested treatment strategy, are ushering in the level next in management of the combined lesions. This article offers an overview of the combined lesion, the disease, its classification, treatment strategy, regenerative tools, microsurgical recommendations, and outcome studies. PMID:25506135
Bach, Georg; Neckel, Claus P.
Numerous groups have recommended the use of the diode laser to decontaminate infected root and implant surfaces. The aim of this study was to show the outcome after laser assisted and conventional therapy of periimplantitis and periodontitis administering approved treatment protocols. Between 1994 and 1999 a total of 50 patients with periimplantitis (20) and periodontitis (30) were treated in two groups each. Clinical, microbiological and radiographic evaluation was performed before and 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after treatment. In addition to the conventional treatment protocol, flap surgery, the tooth or implant surface was decontaminated with a 810 nm diode laser using 1 Watt output for 20 sec (CW mode). All accessible surfaces were decontaminated at the follow up dates. In the periimplantitis group recurrence of the marker bacteria was higher and faster over time for the conventionally operated patients. Also the clinical and radiographic reevaluation showed significantly better results. The laser group of the periodontitis patients also showed significantly better outcome in terms of clinical evaluation, microbiological counts, radiographic evaluation and tooth loss. In comparison to other long term studies our results for the conventional therapy were adequate, the laser assisted therapy brought up significantly better and reproducible results.
Pellegrini, G; Rasperini, G; Pagni, G; Giannobile, W V; Milani, S; Musto, F; Dellavia, C
Within the same surgical procedure, a great variability on achievement of clinical outcomes exists and may be associated to different molecular factors related to tissue healing. The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of clinical success separately in regenerative therapy (REG) and open flap debridement (OFD) to evaluate if factors related with healing of epithelium, connective tissue and bone may be associated to the clinical outcome within each surgical procedure. Sixteen patients underwent periodontal REG and nine patients underwent OFD. Periodontal wound fluid was collected at baseline, 3-5, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery, and expression of wound healing proteins was assessed. Pocket depth and clinical attachment level were taken at baseline and at 6 mo of follow-up. Percentage pocket depth reduction and percentage clinical attachment level gain were computed. Patients were regarded as better or worse responders depending on their percentage pocket depth reduction or percentage clinical attachment level gain. Higher percentage of better responders was observed in the REG group (68.7%) compared to the OFD group (22.2%). At 21 d, no difference in the profile of most of the proteins emerged, with two exceptions, both regarding REG treatment. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 tended to increase in better responders and to decrease in worse responders. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 increased in worse responders and remained substantially unchanged in better responders. Local expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 during wound healing is associated with the clinical performance of periodontal regenerative surgery. The use of local biomarkers offers the potential for real-time assessment of the periodontal healing process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Orhan, Erkan; Uysal, Ahmet Çağrı; Başer, Engin; Keskin, Dürdane; Demiroğlu-Yakut, Çiğdem
To evaluate the effect of inactive form of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on the flap viability. Thirty six rats were used. Rats were divided into six groups then 9x3 cm random pattern skin flaps were elevated from dorsum of all rats. For precluding vascularization from the base, a silicone layer was placed under the flap in groups 2(only flap+silicone), 4(saline+silicone) and 6(PRP+silicone). In groups 1(only flap), 2(only flap+silicone) nothing was done except flap surgery. In groups 3(saline) and 4(saline+silicone), saline was applied intradermally , in groups 5(PRP) and 6(PRP+silicone), inactive form of PRP which obtained from different 16 rats was applied intradermally, into certain points of flaps immediately after surgery. After 7 days flap necrosis ratio was measured in all groups. Mean necrosis rate in group 5(PRP) (16.05%) was statistically significantly lower than group 1(only flap) (31,93%) and group 3(saline) (30,43%) (p<0.001). Mean necrosis rate in group 6(PRP+silicone) (36.37%) was statistically significantly lower than group 2(only flap+silicone) (47.93%) and group 4(saline+silicone) (45.65%) (p<0.001). Intradermal inactive platelet rich plasma administration decreases flap necrosis so for skin application.
Bajwa, Neha; Au, Joshua; Jarrahy, Reza; Sung, Shijun; Fishbein, Michael C.; Riopelle, David; Ennis, Daniel B.; Aghaloo, Tara; St. John, Maie A.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.
Accurate and early prediction of tissue viability is the most significant determinant of tissue flap survival in reconstructive surgery. Perturbation in tissue water content (TWC) is a generic component of the tissue response to such surgeries, and, therefore, may be an important diagnostic target for assessing the extent of flap viability in vivo. We have previously shown that reflective terahertz (THz) imaging, a non-ionizing technique, can generate spatially resolved maps of TWC in superficial soft tissues, such as cornea and wounds, on the order of minutes. Herein, we report the first in vivo pilot study to investigate the utility of reflective THz TWC imaging for early assessment of skin flap viability. We obtained longitudinal visible and reflective THz imagery comparing 3 bipedicled flaps (i.e. survival model) and 3 fully excised flaps (i.e. failure model) in the dorsal skin of rats over a postoperative period of 7 days. While visual differences between both models manifested 48 hr after surgery, statistically significant (p < 0.05, independent t-test) local differences in TWC contrast were evident in THz flap image sets as early as 24 hr. Excised flaps, histologically confirmed as necrotic, demonstrated a significant, yet localized, reduction in TWC in the flap region compared to non-traumatized skin. In contrast, bipedicled flaps, histologically verified as viable, displayed mostly uniform, unperturbed TWC across the flap tissue. These results indicate the practical potential of THz TWC sensing to accurately predict flap failure 24 hours earlier than clinical examination. PMID:28101431
Camara, O; Herrmann, J; Egbe, A; Koch, I; Gajda, M; Runnebaum, I B
Free-flap surgery has become a routine procedure in breast reconstruction. The microvascular surgical anastomosis remains one of the technically sensitive aspects of free-tissue transfers. Between December 2006 and September 2007, 12 anastomoses were performed with a venous coupling device from Synovis. There were no free-flap failures. Venous congestion occurred in only one case and was managed successfully with leeches. No major complications were observed. The Synovis venous coupling device system allowed a time-efficient and safe venous anastomosis in breast reconstruction.
Higgins, Kristen S; Gillis, Joshua; Williams, Jason G; LeBlanc, Martin; Bezuhly, Michael; Chorney, Jill M
Clinical experience suggests that flap failure after autologous breast reconstruction can be a devastating experience for women. Previous research has examined women's experiences with autologous breast reconstruction with and without complications, and patients' experiences with suboptimal outcomes from other medical procedures. The authors aimed to examine the psychosocial experience of flap failure from the patient's perspective. Seven women who had experienced unilateral flap failure after deep inferior epigastric perforator flap surgery in the past 12 years completed semistructured interviews about their breast cancer treatments, their experiences with flap failure, the impact of flap failure on their lives, and the coping strategies they used. Interpretive phenomenological analysis, a type of qualitative analysis that provides an in-depth account of participant's experiences and their meanings, was used to analyze the interview data. From these data, patient-derived recommendations were developed for surgeons caring for women who have experienced flap failure. Three main themes (6 subthemes) emerged: coming to terms with flap failure (coping with emotions, body dissatisfaction); making meaning of flap failure experience (questioning, relationship with surgeon); and care providers acknowledging the emotional experience of flap failure (experience of being treated "mechanically," suggestions for improvement). In conclusion, flap failure in breast reconstruction is an emotionally difficult experience for women. Although there are similarities to other populations of patients experiencing suboptimal outcomes from medical procedures, there are also unique aspects of the flap failure experience. A better understanding of women's experiences with flap failure will assist in providing more appropriate supports.
Boopalan, P R; Nithyananth, Manasseh; Titus, V T; Cherian, Vinoo Mathew; Jepegnanam, Thilak S
Optimal care of open, high-velocity, lower limb injury requires surgical skills in debridement, skeletal stabilization, and in providing appropriate soft tissue cover. Timely coordination between orthopedic and plastic surgeons, though ideal, is often difficult. In our center, orthopedic surgeons undertake comprehensive treatment of open fractures including soft tissue cover. We reviewed the results of the local flaps of lower limb, done by orthopedic surgeons. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the lower limb flaps done between January 2005 and December 2006. All flaps done at and below the level of knee were included. There were 105 patients with 120 flaps during this period. Two patients with two flaps were lost to follow-up. The average age was 32 years. Sixty-four patients had Type IIIB Gustilo and Anderson injuries. Thirty-nine patients had isolated soft tissue injuries. The indications for flaps were exposed bone, tendon, and joint in 45, 11, and 12, respectively, or a combination in 35 patients. The flaps done were 51 reverse sural artery, 35 gastrocnemius, 25 local fasciocutaneous, and seven foot flaps. The flap dimensions ranged from 2 × 2 to 30 × 15 cm. Ninety-three flaps (79%) healed primarily. Among 25 flaps (21%) with necrosis, 14 flaps required secondary split skin graft for healing, while the other nine flaps healed without further surgery. Appropriate soft tissue cover provided by orthopedic surgeons can help in providing independent, composite care of lower limb injuries.
Wang, Qianwen; Li, Xiuqi; Li, Wuyan; Wang, Jiaqi
To investigate the application of expanded distant skin flaps for the facial and cervical deformities. 96 patients with facial and cervical deformities who underwent reconstructive surgery with expanded distant skin flaps were retrospectively reviewed and followed up. Good results were achieved in 95 cases. Necrosis happened in the distal end of one flap. The patients were followed up for 1-8 years with good cosmetic results, such as well-matched flap texture and color. The expanded distant skin flap is suitable and reliable for facial and cervical deformities.
Sahin, Ismail; Aykan, Andac; Acikel, Cengiz; Alhan, Dogan; Isik, Selcuk
Total reconstruction of the eyelid after serious periorbital injury is a challenging procedure for plastic and reconstructive surgery. Although several methods have been used for reconstructing the eyelids, such as advancement flap with fascia lata sling, island mucochrondrocutaneous flap, prefabricated temporal island flap, porous polyethylene and superficial temporal fascia flap, creating a supportive eyelid for housing an artificial eye without complication is still an ongoing problem. In the case presented, superficial temporal fascia flap with porous polyethylene was used for the reconstruction of total lower eyelid. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
It has been shown that the inflammatory pathways are activated in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and the use of anti-inflammatory drugs reduces risk to develop AD. It is understood that molecules involved in this inflammation promote pathological processes leading to AD, whereas other molecules work to protect neuron/brain function from toxicity found in AD pathogenesis. Periodontal disease is one of the diseases causing inflammation and recent lines of evidence show the link between these two diseases. In this paper, relationship between periodontitis and AD will be reviewed and the possible mechanisms, by which periodontitis may affect the onset and progression of AD, will be discussed.
Censi, Rachele; Vavassori, Virna; Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Re, Dino
The complete oral rehabilitation of patients demanding a beautiful and attractive smile involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes the change of both the morphological aspect of the teeth and the architecture of gum tissues. This clinical report describes a successful interdisciplinary approach for the treatment of an esthetically compromised dentition. In a first phase, the periodontal plastic surgery was performed for root coverage and, in particular, it was decided for the execution of a coronally advanced flap for the treatment of multiple recession defects. Once complete healing of soft tissues was obtained, six lithium disilicate veneers were placed over the anterior maxillary teeth. Lithium disilicate is a glass-based ceramic which presents excellent aesthetics and allows the passage of light without creating unnatural reflections. This feature has made it possible to recreate a natural aspect of teeth that in combination with the harmonic architecture of soft tissue has permitted obtaining a beautiful and pleasant smile. PMID:24715999
Censi, Rachele; Vavassori, Virna; Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Re, Dino
The complete oral rehabilitation of patients demanding a beautiful and attractive smile involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes the change of both the morphological aspect of the teeth and the architecture of gum tissues. This clinical report describes a successful interdisciplinary approach for the treatment of an esthetically compromised dentition. In a first phase, the periodontal plastic surgery was performed for root coverage and, in particular, it was decided for the execution of a coronally advanced flap for the treatment of multiple recession defects. Once complete healing of soft tissues was obtained, six lithium disilicate veneers were placed over the anterior maxillary teeth. Lithium disilicate is a glass-based ceramic which presents excellent aesthetics and allows the passage of light without creating unnatural reflections. This feature has made it possible to recreate a natural aspect of teeth that in combination with the harmonic architecture of soft tissue has permitted obtaining a beautiful and pleasant smile.
... how pain will be treated. Preparing for the Day of Surgery Various preparations are made in the ... Then, this device can perform more accurately. The Day of Surgery Before most operations, a person removes ...
Slots, J; Jorgensen, M G
The goal of follow-up care after periodontal therapy is to preserve the function of individual teeth and the dentition, ameliorate symptoms and simplify future surgery or make it unnecessary. Effective follow-up periodontal care depends on early diagnosis and treatment, as well as patient education. The main determinants of successful periodontal maintenance therapy are dental professionals' ability to combat periodontal infections and patients' compliance with prescribed follow-up care. Mechanical and chemical antimicrobial intervention is the mainstay of preventive periodontal therapy. Chemotherapeutics alone are unlikely to be effective in the presence of subgingival calculus, underscoring the importance of subgingival mechanical débridement. Also, because toothbrushing and rinsing alone do not reach pathogens residing in periodontal pockets of increased depths, oral hygiene procedures should include subgingival treatment with home irrigators or other appropriate self-care remedies. When considering possible preventive therapies, dental professionals must weigh the risk of patients' acquiring destructive periodontal disease against potentially adverse effects, financial costs and inconvenience of the preventive treatment. The authors discuss theoretical and practical aspects of follow-up care for patients with periodontal disease. In addition, because it can be both difficult and expensive to control periodontal disease via conventional preventive measures alone, they present a new, simple and more cost-effective antimicrobial protocol for supportive periodontal therapy.
Voigt, Matthias; Andree, C
Breast reshaping surgery for tuberous breast, breast reduction, and mastopexy procedures aim to keep the gained shape for a long time. In breast reduction, the surgeon must avoid loss of fullness in the upper pole, descent of the breast mass known as secondary dropout, and relapsed shape of the repaired tuberous breasts. As described in their clinical report, the authors use a caudally based thoracic wall flap to avoid these problems. The blood supply to the breast comes from two main sources: the mammary internal and lateral arteries. Because of vessels constantly perforating the pectoralis major muscle, it is possible to isolate a caudally based thoracic wall flap. These vessels originate from intercostal arteries as anteromedial intercostal perforators, and from the thoracoacromial artery as in the skin paddle of the pectoralis major muscle flap. This flap is long enough to reach every part of the breast where it is needed. Between January 2002 and June 2005, 64 patients underwent procedures in which the caudally based thoracic wall flap was used.
Rakmanee, Thanasak; Griffiths, Gareth S; Auplish, Gita; Darbar, Ulpee; Petrie, Aviva; Olsen, Irwin; Donos, Nikolaos
This study reports the radiographic analysis of a split-mouth, single-blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial which was designed to compare the efficacy of simplified papilla preservation flap (SPPF) with or without guided tissue regeneration (GTR) in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Eighteen AgP patients who had similar bilateral intrabony defects were treated. In all patients, the defects presented with radiographic evidence of an intrabony defect ≥3 and ≥5 mm of periodontal pocket depths (PPD). The surgical procedures included access for root instrumentation using SPPF alone (control) or, after debridement, a placement of resorbable GTR membrane (test). The standardised radiographic assessments were carried out at pre-surgical baseline and at 6 and 12 month post-surgery. Radiographic linear measurements and subtraction radiography were used as the method of analysis. Both treatments showed significant improvements in linear radiographic bone fill and defect resolution at 6 and 12 months, compared to baseline. The 12-month subtraction radiography at the GTR sites showed a significant improvement compared to the 6-month outcomes. Both therapies were effective in the treatment of intrabony defects in AgP patients although no significant differences between them could be demonstrated. The finding that the bone fill and resolution of the defect at the GTR sites were significantly higher at 12 months than at 6 months after treatment indicates that bone regeneration is still an ongoing process at 6 months post-surgery. Radiographic assessment of periodontal regeneration should be carried out at 12 months post-surgery in order to evaluate the complete healing of the bony defect.
Hough, G. R.
A study of the blown flap/jet flap analogy has been undertaken. Analytical predictions were made using both improved lifting line and optimized vortex lattice models for the jet flap. Results were compared with experimental data for three propulsive lift systems; the jet augmented flap, the externally blown flap, and the upper surface blown flap. Force increments due to changes in geometry and jet parameters were well approximated in most cases, although the absolute values of the aerodynamic forces were usually underestimated. The relatively simple jet-flap models gave performance predictions of accuracy comparable to more complex analyses.
Foroglou, Pericles; Karathanasis, Vasileios; Demiri, Efterpi; Koliakos, George; Papadakis, Marios
The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adipose-derived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals. PMID:27022440
Kinane, Denis F; Stathopoulou, Panagiota G; Papapanou, Panos N
Periodontal diseases comprise a wide range of inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting structures of the teeth (the gingiva, bone and periodontal ligament), which could lead to tooth loss and contribute to systemic inflammation. Chronic periodontitis predominantly affects adults, but aggressive periodontitis may occasionally occur in children. Periodontal disease initiation and propagation is through a dysbiosis of the commensal oral microbiota (dental plaque), which then interacts with the immune defences of the host, leading to inflammation and disease. This pathophysiological situation persists through bouts of activity and quiescence, until the affected tooth is extracted or the microbial biofilm is therapeutically removed and the inflammation subsides. The severity of the periodontal disease depends on environmental and host risk factors, both modifiable (for example, smoking) and non-modifiable (for example, genetic susceptibility). Prevention is achieved with daily self-performed oral hygiene and professional removal of the microbial biofilm on a quarterly or bi-annual basis. New treatment modalities that are actively explored include antimicrobial therapy, host modulation therapy, laser therapy and tissue engineering for tissue repair and regeneration.
Özkan, Heval Selman; İrkören, Saime; Aydın, Osman Enver; Eryılmaz, Aylin; Karaca, Hüray
Medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap is a relatively new flap which is a modification of medial gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap. Both radial forearm flap and MSAP has common benefits, such as thinness, long pedicle and pliability; however, MSAP has lower donor site morbidity when compared with radial forearm flap. Because of this reason, the MSAP flap has gained popularity during the last decade. The objective of this study was to determine clinical application results of this flap in reconstruction of post-oncologic defects in the head and neck region. 11 patients operated for head and neck post oncologic defects and reconstructed with MSAP between June 2014 and Dec 2015 were included in the study. Age, gender, histopathology, area of reconstruction, flap size, number of perforators were reviewed. Postoperatively recipient and donor site complications, hospital stay and additional surgical procedures were also analyzed. We had seven uncomplicated cases; one total flap failure due to arterial problem, in three cases due fistula formation and local wound healing problems additional surgeries were performed. All venous anastomosis were performed with 9/0 sutures, nine arterial anastomosis were performed with 9/0 and two arterial anastomosis were performed with 10/0 nylon sutures. Medial sural artery perforator flap is a good alternative in head and neck reconstruction, with the advantages of thin and pliable skin, a reliable vascular pedicle, straightforward intramuscular dissection. But there are certain drawbacks like tedious pedicle and perforator dissection, small arterial pedicle size which complicates anastomosis and obscurities of anatomy. Surgical team must always be ready for a difficult micro anastomosis and an alternative flap choice must be prepared and counseled with the patient in case of inadequate perforators.
Boyd, R L; Leggott, P J; Quinn, R S; Eakle, W S; Chambers, D
This longitudinal study monitored periodontal status in 20 adults and 20 adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Ten adults had generalized periodontitis and received periodontal treatment, including periodontal surgery, before orthodontic treatment. They also received periodontal maintenance at 3-month intervals during orthodontic treatment. The other 10 adults had normal periodontal tissues. Neither these latter adults nor the adolescents received periodontal maintenance during orthodontic treatment. Periodontal status was determined (1) at six standard sites before fixed appliances were placed (baseline), (2) at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after appliances had been placed, and (3) 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after appliances had been removed. At each of these visits, these sites were assessed for plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, and pocket depth. Loss of attachment between baseline and 3 months after appliances were removed and tooth loss were also determined. Complete data were obtained for 15 adolescents and 14 adults. During orthodontic treatment the adolescent group showed significantly more (p less than 0.05) periodontal inflammation and supragingival plaque than the adults; after appliances were removed, this pattern was no longer statistically significant. For loss of attachment, there were no significant differences among adolescents, adults with normal periodontal tissues, or adults with reduced but healthy periodontal tissues who had undergone treatment for periodontal disease. For tooth loss, three nonstudy site teeth with pockets deeper than 6 mm and/or furcation involvements were lost because of periodontal abscesses in the adult group treated for periodontal disease.
Buerger, Friedhelm R.
Since intensive efforts ofprophylaxis including fluoridisation, better oral hygiene, eating ofless sugar containing foods, reduced the risk ofcaries and the problems ofcaries lesions significantly. But, especially beginning at the age of3O years more than 80 % ofthe population in almost every nation shows signs of periodontal defects. This you can call an epidemic disease. Because people get older and expect a lot concerning their outlook, their esthetic, their phonetic, they have great expectations towards their natural dentition and keep their own teeth. This is a great challenge to periodontal prophylaxis and periodontal therapy. According to the progress ofthe disease different therapies are indicated. Starting with oral hygiene instructions to establish better oral hygiene with all the modem technologies ofmicrobiological investigations, pharmaceutical therapy, physiotherapy, low level laser treatment, periodontal-surgery, like curettage, deepscaling and rootplaning but also more sophisticated teatmentplans with gingivoplasty, gingivectomy, flap-procedures and mucogingival surgeiy including bone fillings, regenerativ technics the whole spectrum oftreatment options has widely expanded during the last years.
Kelly-Sell, Michael; Hollmig, S Tyler; Cook, Joel
The laterally based bilobed flap is commonly used for the reconstruction of small- to medium-sized defects of the distal portion of the nose; However, when this flap is used to repair defects that are larger, more cephalic, or more lateral on the nose, there is a risk for lower nasal distortion. Reorienting the base superiorly preserves the advantages of the traditional design while minimizing this risk. To demonstrate the design, execution, and efficacy of the superiorly based bilobed flap. A retrospective review examined all superiorly based bilobed flaps performed by 1 surgeon (J.C.) in 2000-2016 after tumor extirpation by Mohs micrographic surgery at a single institution. A total of 41 surgical defects were closed with 40 flaps between June 2000 and August 2016 (1 patient had 2 defects closed with a single flap). Of the tumors, 55% were located on the nasal dorsum, and the median of the longest postoperative tumor axis was 1.4 cm. Follow-up was available for 40 flaps, and no infections, hematomas, or episodes of full-thickness necrosis were observed. Data were collected retrospectively from a single institution without a standardized assessment tool for aesthetic outcomes. The superiorly based bilobed flap is useful for nasal reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sternberg, Erez G; Perdikis, Galen; McLaughlin, Sarah A; Terkonda, Sarvam P; Waldorf, James C
Latissimus dorsi flap has been unfairly relegated to a second option in breast reconstruction. One hundred consecutive latissimus dorsi muscle flaps (LDMF) with tissue-expander reconstruction were studied, mean follow-up 34.5 months (range, 1-175), 50 immediate, 50 delayed. With attention to a few technical details, excellent esthetic, soft reconstructions were achieved. Complications included 1 partial flap loss; 2 patients required inframammary fold revision; and 6 patients required surgery for capsular contracture. Donor-site seroma occurred in 34 patients; 6 required operative revision. Results were similar in the immediate versus the delayed groups. LDMF remains an esthetic, reliable, safe reconstructive choice.
Doğan, Fatih; Özyazgan, İrfan
Partial flap failures are unpredictable complications of reconstructive surgery. Electrical stimulation increases blood flow, capillary density, angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor, anti-inflammatory effects while decreasing oxygen tension in tissues. In this study, we investigated these effective properties of electrical stimulation preoperatively on flap surgery instead of the surgical delay procedure.Modified McFarlane flaps were raised on the backs of 50 Sprague-Dawley rats. In the control group, a skin flap was made and flap survival rate was assessed on the seventh day. In the surgical delay group, 14 days after creating the bipedicled flap, the flap was totally elevated and flap survival rate was assessed on the 21st day. In the preconditioning by electrical stimulation group, the flap was created after application of electrical stimulation for 7 days. Flap survival rate was assessed on the 14th day. In the electrically stimulated ischemic flap group, the flap was created and afterward, electrical stimulation was applied for 7 days. After that, flap survival rate was assessed on the seventh day. In the surgical delay plus electrical stimulation group, following the elevation and suturing of the bipedicled flap back into its bed, electrical stimulation was applied in the first 7 days of delay, the flap was created on the 14th day, and then flap survival rate was assessed on the 21st day. In all groups, blood flow was evaluated at particular times. After completing these procedures, the flap vascularities of 5 animals from each group were assessed with microangiography.The flap survival rate of the preconditioning by electrical stimulation group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P < 0.05). According to the blood flow estimates, except the preconditioning by electrical stimulation group and surgical delay plus electrical stimulation group, blood flow decreased in all the other groups after the postprocedure. In the
Background: Microvascular reconstruction for oncologic defects is a challenging and rewarding endeavor, and successful outcomes are dependent on a multitude of factors. This study represents lessons learned from a personal prospective experience with 100 consecutive free flaps. Methods: All patients’ medical records were reviewed for demographics, operative notes, and complications. Results: Overall 100 flaps were performed in 84 consecutive patients for reconstruction of breast, head and neck, trunk, and extremity defects. Nineteen patients underwent free flap breast reconstruction with 10 patients undergoing bilateral reconstruction and 2 patients receiving a bipedicle flap for reconstruction of a unilateral breast defect. Sixty-five free flaps were performed in 61 patients with 3 patients receiving 2 free flaps for reconstruction of extensive head and neck defects and 1 patient who required a second flap for partial flap loss. Trunk and extremity reconstruction was less common with 2 free flaps performed in each group. Overall, 19 patients (22.6%) developed complications and 14 required a return to the operating room. There were no flap losses in this cohort. Thorough preoperative evaluation and workup, meticulous surgical technique and intraoperative planning, and diligent postoperative monitoring and prompt intervention are critical for flap success. Conclusions: As a young plastic surgeon embarking in reconstructive plastic surgery at an academic institution, the challenges and dilemmas presented in the first year of practice have been daunting but also represent opportunities for learning and improvement. Skills and knowledge acquired from time, experience, and mentors are invaluable in optimizing outcomes in microvascular free flap reconstruction. PMID:25289221
Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie
Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20th century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics. PMID:23066266
Bauer, Florian; Koerdt, Steffen; Hölzle, Frank; Mitchell, David A; Wolff, Klaus-D
Microvascular free flaps are complex but important tools in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS), and though techniques to raise flaps are challenging surgeons often have little structured training. In this study we have evaluated a structured, three-day, hands-on, practical training course on raising flaps. Five human, Thiel-embalmed cadavers were used for training in how to raise the following flaps: radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, lateral arm, fibular, latissimus dorsi, scapular, iliac crest, and rectus abdominis. The total duration of the course was 24 hours over three days. All participants were asked to evaluate the design and conduct of the course, their own learning curve, and general questions about their knowledge of how to raise flaps and microsurgery. There was a significant increase in participants' assessments of how they raised all free flaps, except the lateral arm flap (4.74 (0.68) compared with 2.42 (0.81); p=0.052) before and after the course. The radial forearm flap was thought to be the most relevant in clinical practice (n=40; 75%), followed by the anterolateral thigh (n=5; 9%) and fibular (n=4; 8%) flaps. Comparisons between residents and consultants showed unsurprising differences in experience with microsurgery and self-assessment in raising particular free flaps before the course. We have shown that a structured, hands-on course using a well-established simulation model can significantly improve postgraduate surgeons' skills in raising free flaps. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Almas, Khalid
Periodontal health is influenced by a number of factors such as oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic factors, systemic health, and nutrition. Many studies have observed that a balanced diet has an essential role in maintaining periodontal health. Additionally, the influences of nutritional supplements and dietary components have been known to affect healing after periodontal surgery. Studies have attempted to find a correlation between tooth loss, periodontal health, and nutrition. Moreover, bone formation and periodontal regeneration are also affected by numerous vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the currently available data on diet and maintenance of periodontal health and periodontal healing. The effects of nutritional intervention studies to improve the quality of life and well-being of patients with periodontal disease have been discussed. PMID:27589794
Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Almas, Khalid
Periodontal health is influenced by a number of factors such as oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic factors, systemic health, and nutrition. Many studies have observed that a balanced diet has an essential role in maintaining periodontal health. Additionally, the influences of nutritional supplements and dietary components have been known to affect healing after periodontal surgery. Studies have attempted to find a correlation between tooth loss, periodontal health, and nutrition. Moreover, bone formation and periodontal regeneration are also affected by numerous vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the currently available data on diet and maintenance of periodontal health and periodontal healing. The effects of nutritional intervention studies to improve the quality of life and well-being of patients with periodontal disease have been discussed.
Mitani, A; Takasu, H; Horibe, T; Furuta, H; Nagasaka, T; Aino, M; Fukuda, M; Fujimura, T; Mogi, M; Noguchi, T
Although regenerative periodontal surgery with EMD or guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been shown to enhance periodontal regeneration, there are limited data on the long-term results following these treatment modalities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the long-term clinical outcomes in intrabony defects following regenerative periodontal surgery with EMD or GTR compared with open-flap debridement (OFD). Data from 40 subjects (44 teeth), with no history of smoking or systemic diseases that could interfere with periodontal disease and who received one of three surgical procedures (EMD, GTR or OFD) for two- or three-wall intrabony defects, were analyzed. Postoperative reduction in probing pocket depth, gain in clinical attachment level, gingival recession and percentage bone fill were compared at 1, 3 and 5 years. Reduction in probing pocket depth after GTR was significantly higher than after OFD at 1 and 3 years postoperatively, but there was no difference between the groups at 5 years. The gains in clinical attachment level for EMD (at 3 and 5 years) and for GTR (at 1, 3 and 5 years) were significantly greater than for OFD. Gingival recession after treatment with EMD and GTR showed a tendency toward positive results, whereas no such tendency was observed for OFD. Postoperative percentage bone fill for EMD and GTR was significantly greater than for OFD at 3 and 5 years. This is a retrospective study and an exploratory report with a high risk of bias. Within the limits of the current study, it may be concluded that superior gains in clinical attachment level and improved percentage bone fill can be obtained with EMD and GTR when compared with OFD, and these can be maintained over a period of 5 years. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Glez, Dominique; Hourdin, Solenn; Sorel, Olivier
The Er:YAG laser is used in periodontal surgery to remove excess tissue formations and to clean periodontal pockets. Combined with ultrasonic procedures lasers have significantly advanced the parameters of periodontal surgery. The goal of this article is to review the working mechanisms of the Er:YAG laser in the wide variety of its applications in complex treatment situations in both periodontics and orthodontics. EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2010.
Ding, Jian; Feng, Xiaoliang; Gao, Weiyang; Yan, Hede; Tao, Xianyao; Wang, Long; Tang, Maolin
Selection of suitable perforators is critical for satisfactory postreconstructive surgery outcome. This study aims to compare a small central versus a large peripheral perforator flap in a rat extended dorsal three-vascular territory perforator flap model. An extended intercostal artery perforator flap with three vascular territories was used to model a small central perforator flap. An extended deep circumflex iliac artery flap with three vascular territories was used to model a large peripheral perforator flap. Flap viability, angiography, and perfusion were compared. Intercostal artery flaps showed significantly higher relative viable area than deep circumflex iliac artery flaps (98.5 ± 3.2 percent versus 87.1 ± 7.3 percent; p < 0.01). Angiography revealed that the anatomical and the first adjacent territories were perfused successfully in both types of flap, but the second adjacent territory of deep circumflex iliac artery flaps was not perfused sufficiently, thus ultimately leading to flap necrosis. Perfusion at the anatomical and the first adjacent territories of both types of flap increased significantly for 3 days (p < 0.05) and became stable 5 to 7 days after surgery. Perfusion at the second adjacent territory of deep circumflex iliac artery flaps diminished continuously. A small central perforator may supply a larger vascular territory than a large peripheral perforator. Both the size and the location of a perforator should be considered for optimizing the design of an extended perforator flap.
Sloan, G M
Surgical management of velopharyngeal insufficiency by attachment of posterior pharyngeal flap or construction of sphincter pharyngoplasty is reviewed. Posterior pharyngeal flap surgery is well established, with a long history dating back to the 19th century. Flaps have been based superiorly, inferiorly, or laterally. There have been reports of airway obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea associated with posterior pharyngeal flap surgery. The concept of surgical creation of a dynamic sphincter pharyngoplasty to provide velopharyngeal closure was first introduced by Hynes in 1950. Hynes and others have proposed several subsequent anatomic modifications. Airway dysfunction has also been reported following sphincter pharyngoplasty, but may not be as frequent or severe as with posterior pharyngeal flap. While several studies have compared posterior pharyngeal flap and sphincter pharyngoplasty in terms of speech outcome or complications, there is not, as yet, a consensus regarding the specific choice of one versus the other for surgical management of velopharyngeal insufficiency.
Yang, Heping; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Haidi; Yang, Shuxiong; Wang, Jun; Hu, Dawang
To compare the effectiveness of complex defects repair between using chimeric anterolateral thigh flap and series-wound flaps after resection of oral and maxillofacial cancer. After resection of oral and maxillofacial cancer, defect was repaired with chimeric anterolateral thigh flap in 39 patients between January 2011 and July 2014 (chimeric anterolateral thigh flap group); and defect was repaired with series-wound flaps in 35 patients between January 2009 and December 2010 (series-wound flaps group). There was no significant difference in gender, age, duration of disease, tumor type, tumor staging, defect location, and defect area between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The operation time, flap harvesting and microvascular anastomosis time, stomach tube extraction time, and oral feeding time were recorded and compared between 2 groups, and postoperative complications were observed; the effectiveness was evaluated according to clinical efficacy evaluation table of bone and soft tissue defects reconstruction surgery in oral and maxillofacial region. Vascular crisis occurred in 2 cases of chimeric anterolateral thigh flap group, and 4 cases of series-wound flaps group. Partial necrosis appeared at distal end of a series-wound flaps, and oral fistula and infection developed in 3 series-wound flaps. The other flaps and the grafted skin at donor site survived; wounds at recipient site healed by first intention. The operation time, stomach tube extraction time, and oral feeding time of chimeric anterolateral thigh flap group were significantly shorter than those of series-wound flaps group (P < 0.05), while the flap harvesting and microvascular anastomosis time was significantly longer than that of series-wound flaps group (P < 0.05). The patients were followed up 1-5 years (mean, 2.5 years). At 3 months after operation, the appearance, patients' satisfaction, working conditions, oral closure function, chew, language performance, and swallowing scores of the chimeric anterolateral
Germain, M A; Demers, G; Mamelle, G; Julieron, M; Marandas, P; Schwaab, G; Luboinski, B
Midface is situated between the occlusal plane and the transverse midorbital plane. The aim of midface reconstruction is to restore the bony and soft tissue contour of the face, to obtain a rigid support for the velum, to allow oronasal separation, and to allow support for the orbit and obliteration of the maxillary sinus in order to restore the main functions: respiration, speech, deglutition, mastication, olfaction, vision. Between 1988 and 1997, 65 patients with defects to the midface in relation with cancer (n = 60), gunshot (n = 3), or congenital malformation (n = 2), underwent reconstruction with one or more transplants: forearm (n = 21), latissimus dorsi (n = 23), scapula (n = 12), composed subscapula (n = 10), and fibula (n = 4). Forty-seven of the patients were men and 18 were women. The mean age was 56 years (12-90 years). In patients with cancer, tumoral resection was immediately followed by midface reconstruction in the last 43 cases. Free flaps were selected for reconstruction of each part of the midface: cheek, nose, orbit floor, maxillary and palate. One post-operative death occurred (1.5%). The morbidity rate (18.7%) included necrosis of the free flaps in four cases. Average resumption of oral intake was ten days. The mean time to discharge was 17 days. Aesthetic and functional results were rated good or excellent in 53 patients. After one year, 52 patients were alive. Oral intake was normal in 48 patients, and mixed in four. Speech was excellent or good in 49 patients. From amongst the patients, 80% were able to find a job. Free flaps with micro surgery provides an optimal, functional, morphological and aesthetic outcome. Patients with advanced cancer of the midface are best managed through a multidisciplinary team approach. Microsurgical reconstruction represents the technical state of the art in case of extensive and complex midface defect.
Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva
Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. Yet the effects of muscle stiffness on the performance of insect wings remain unclear. Here, we construct an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring and submerged in an oscillatory flow. The wing system is free to rotate and flap. We first explore the extent to which the flyer can withstand roll perturbations, then study its flapping behavior and performance as a function of spring stiffness. We find an optimal range of spring stiffness that results in large flapping amplitudes, high force generation and good storage of elastic energy. We conclude by conjecturing that insects may select and adjust the muscle spring stiffness to achieve desired movement. These findings may have significant implications on the design principles of wings in micro air-vehicles.
Background Advanced and recurrent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp and forehead require aggressive surgical excision often resulting in complex defects requiring reconstruction. This study evaluates various microvascular free flap reconstructions in this patient population, including the rarely utilized radial forearm free flap. Patients and methods A retrospective review of patients undergoing free flap surgeries (n = 47) of the scalp between 1997 and 2011 were included. Patients were divided primarily into two cohorts: a new primary lesion (n = 21) or recurrence (n = 26). Factors examined include patient demographics, indication for surgery, defect, type of flap used, complications (major and minor), and outcomes. Results The patients were primarily male (n = 34), with a mean age of 67 years (25–91). A total of 58 microvascular free flap reconstructions were performed (radial forearm free flap: n = 28, latissimus dorsi: n = 20, rectus abdominis: n = 9, scapula: n = 1). Following reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap, duration of hospitalization was shorter (P = 0.04) and complications rates were similar (P = 0.46). Donor site selection correlated with defect area (P < 0.001), but not with the extent of skull defect (P = 0.70). Larger defect areas correlated with higher complications rates (P = 0.03) and longer hospitalization (P = 0.003). Patients were more likely to require multiple reconstructions if referred for a recurrent lesions (P = 0.01) or received prior radiation therapy (P = 0.02). Conclusion Advanced and recurrent malignancies of the scalp are aggressive and challenging to treat. The radial forearm free flap is an underutilized free flap in the reconstruction of complex scalp defects. PMID:22583845
Kim, Sang Hun; Shin, Ho Seong; Lee, Sang Hwan
Free flaps are a common treatment option for head and neck reconstruction in plastic reconstructive surgery, and monitoring of the free flap is the most important factor for flap survival. In this study, the authors performed real-time free flap monitoring based on an implanted Doppler system and "internet of things" (IoT)/wireless Wi-Fi, which is a convenient, accurate, and efficient approach for surgeons to monitor a free flap. Implanted Doppler signals were checked continuously until the patient was discharged by the surgeon and residents using their own cellular phone or personal computer. If the surgeon decided that a revision procedure or exploration was required, the authors checked the consumed time (positive signal-to-operating room time) from the first notification when the flap's status was questioned to the determination for revision surgery according to a chart review. To compare the efficacy of real-time monitoring, the authors paired the same number of free flaps performed by the same surgeon and monitored the flaps using conventional methods such as a physical examination. The total survival rate was greater in the real-time monitoring group (94.7% versus 89.5%). The average time for the real-time monitoring group was shorter than that for the conventional group (65 minutes versus 86 minutes). Based on this study, real-time free flap monitoring using IoT technology is a method that surgeon and reconstruction team can monitor simultaneously at any time in any situation.
Yang, Bin; Qu, Yi; Su, Ming; Li, Jinzhong; Li, Hua; Xing, Rudong; Han, Zhengxue
A principal reason for flap compromise in oral and maxillofacial head and neck surgery, and failure of a free flap transfer, is thrombosis of a drainage vein such as the internal jugular vein. This study characterized flap compromise caused by internal jugular vein thrombosis after a free flap transfer, and its management. A retrospective clinical study was conducted of 306 consecutive microvascular free flaps performed for 305 patients with head and neck cancer from March 2003 to March 2013 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Beijing Stomatological Hospital, Capital Medical University. Vascular thrombosis developed postoperatively in 18 of the 306 free flaps (5.9%): 1 arterial and 17 venous. Of the latter, in 10 patients the thrombosis occurred at the anastomosis site; in 7 patients internal jugular vein thrombosis was detected during emergent reexploration (4 radial forearm free flaps, 1 fibular flap, and 2 anterior lateral thigh flaps). The 4 cases involving radial forearm free flaps were salvaged successfully by venous transfer to bridge the reflow vein to the anterior jugular vein, or removal of the thrombosis in the internal jugular vein and re-anastomosis. The remaining 3 cases of internal jugular vein thrombosis were not salvaged: 2 defects were reconstructed with major pectoralis myocutaneous flaps, and the other was closed directly without reconstruction. In oral and maxillofacial head and neck cancer surgery, postoperative thrombosis of the internal jugular vein can result in failure of the free flap transfer. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rakmanee, Thanasak; Griffiths, Gareth S; Auplish, Gita; Darbar, Ulpee; Petrie, Aviva; Olsen, Irwin; Donos, Nikolaos
The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes between guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and access flap (AF) surgery in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Eighteen AgP patients with similar bilateral intrabony defects were treated in this split-mouth, single-blinded, randomised, controlled clinical trial. All patients presented with ≥3 mm intrabony defects and ≥5 mm periodontal pocket depths (PPD). In each patient, one defect was treated with a polyglycolide membrane according to the GTR principle, whereas the contralateral side was treated with AF. For both sides, a simplified papilla preservation flap was used. At baseline, 6 and 12 months post-surgery, the clinical attachment levels (CAL) and PPD were evaluated. At 6 and 12 months, at the GTR sites, the mean [95 % CI] CAL gain was 1.7 mm [1.1, 2.3] and 1.6 mm [0.9, 2.1], respectively, while the mean [95 % CI] PPD reduction was 2.3 mm [1.9, 2.8] and 2.4 mm [1.9, 2.8], respectively. Similar CAL (1.6 mm [1.0, 2.2] and 2.1 mm [1.4, 2.7]) and PPD (2.0 mm [1.5, 2.4] and 2.5 mm [2.0, 3.0]) outcomes were observed at the control sites at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Notably, at the GTR-treated sites, 13 subjects presented with various degrees of membrane exposure. Both therapies were effective in the treatment of intrabony defects in AgP patients, and no statistically significant differences between them could be demonstrated, possibly as a result of the differing degrees of membrane exposure at the GTR sites. Both periodontal regeneration and conventional periodontal surgery are effective treatments for AgP patients.
Defect reconstruction by transposition of well-vascularized muscle (muscle flap) or muscle/skin tissue (myocutaneous flap). Reconstruction of missing muscle unit by free functional muscle transplantation. Treatment of first choice for defect coverage at the distal thigh, knee (including exposed and infected total knee prosthesis), and proximal lower leg. Lesions of the popliteal artery. Concomitant lesion of the soleus muscle (impaired plantar flexion). Proximally pedicled flap: the distal tendinous insertion of the medial and/or lateral gastrocnemius muscle at the Achilles tendon is cut. Vascularization is assured by the medial and lateral sural artery, respectively. - Muscle flaps (medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius). - Muscle-skin (myocutaneous) flaps. Distally pedicled flap: the proximal tendinous origin of the medial or lateral gastrocnemius muscle is cut. Vascularization is assured by vascular anastomoses between the two muscles crossing the midline. Because of its unpredictable vascularization, especially after trauma, this technique is rarely used today. To improve arterial inflow, the cut sural artery can be anastomosed in microsurgical technique with an adequate arterial blood vessel at the recipient site. Complete immobilization for 5-7 days (knee and ankle joints). Progressive increase of range of motion after 1 week (30 degrees /45 degrees /60 degrees /90 degrees ). Postoperative standardized compression therapy, combined with scar therapy (silicone sheet). Reliable, excellent functional and aesthetic results.
A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.
Saenthaveesuk, P; Zhang, S-E; Zheng, G-S; Liang, Y-J; Su, Y-X; Liao, G-Q
The medial upper arm has previously been proposed as a potential free flap donor site, but the clinical application of such flaps in head and neck reconstruction has not been popular. The preliminary results of the clinical application of medial upper arm free flaps in oral cavity reconstruction are reported here. Five patients with oral cancer underwent surgical resection and neck dissection, with simultaneous reconstruction using a medial upper arm free flap. Functional outcomes were investigated using the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire. Sensory-motor functions of the upper arm donor site were recorded before and after surgery. Four flaps were successfully transferred. One flap was abandoned during surgery because of a lack of perforators, and a forearm flap was used instead. All patients survived without loco-regional recurrence or distant metastasis. Functional outcomes, especially swallowing and speech, were satisfactory. The donor site scar was well hidden, with no functional impairment. This initial experience shows that the medial upper arm free flap represents an alternative perforator flap for oral cavity microsurgical reconstruction. The well-hidden scar and better texture match compared with other flaps make it suitable for oral cavity reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Zellner, Susan; Manabat, Rowena; Roe, David F
To determine if skin flap failure rates could be improved with the use of a dissolved oxygen wound dressing in a porcine model. Full-thickness skin flaps (4 × 16 cm) were raised on pigs. Flaps were randomly assigned after surgery to experimental treatment with a dissolved oxygen dressing (treatment group) or a hydrogel dressing (control group). Flaps were evaluated daily for 14 days. Skin flaps that failed any one of four key clinical outcomes were considered failures. Histological parameters (including skin and subcutaneous necrosis, inflammation, ischemia, fibrosis, and bacterial load) were compared by a blinded histopathologist. Sixteen full-thickness skin flaps were raised on four pigs. All animals survived surgery and all incisions were evaluable. Clinical flap failure was observed in six (75%) control-treated wounds and in two (25%) dissolved oxygen-treated wounds. Histological evaluation demonstrated no significant differences in the proximal 75% of the flaps. There were significant differences in a number of histological parameters in the distal 25% in favor of the dissolved oxygen dressing. Flaps treated with a dissolved oxygen dressing had fewer clinical failures and improved histological profiles compared with control-treated flaps, suggesting that increasing local oxygen supply may improve the local wound healing environment. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Sowa, Yoshihiro; Itsukage, Sizu; Sakaguchi, Kouichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Numajiri, Toshiaki
The C-V flap for nipple reconstruction is now one of standard surgical techniques. But decreased projection is still a problem. In recent years, it has been suggested that projection can be more easily maintained when raising of the C-flap is performed with a split thickness dermis. In this study, we examined whether decrease of projection can be prevented by raising of a C-flap with a split dermis rather than with full dermis. A total of 49 consecutive patients who underwent reconstruction of a nipple using the C-V flap technique were enrolled. The patients included 22 who underwent surgery using a C-flap with a full thickness dermis (Group F), and 27 who underwent surgery with raising of a flap with a split thickness dermis (Group S). The size of the reconstructed nipple was measured at 2 weeks, 6 months and 1 year postoperatively for comparison between Groups F and S. Partial necrosis of the C-flap end occurred in 4 subjects in only Group S. The decrease in projection after 1 year postoperatively in Group S was significantly lower than that in Group F. In contrast, the teat base size in Group F tended to be greater than that in Group S, suggesting a tendency for an expanded base using a flap with a full dermis. Our results indicated that it is recommended to use a C-flap with a split dermis for cases with high projection of the nipple on the contralateral side.
Kostopoulos, Lambros; Karring, Thorkild
This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of guided tissue regeneration (GTR)-regenerated periodontal attachment to ligature-induced periodontitis with that of the pristine periodontium. Periodontal breakdown was produced in four monkeys by the placement of orthodontic elastics around experimental teeth (test teeth). During a flap operation, the root surfaces were scaled and planed, and a notch indicating the apical termination of scaling and root planing was made in the root surface. Following resection of the crowns and endodontic treatment, an e-PTFE membrane was adapted over the roots. Subsequently, the flaps were sutured to complete closure of the wound (submerged). At membrane removal after 5 weeks, the crowns of the contralateral teeth serving as controls were resected, and the roots treated endodontically during a flap operation. Artificial composite crowns were then placed on both test and control roots. After 3 months of tooth cleaning, cotton floss ligatures were placed passively around both test and control teeth for a period of 6 months. Two weeks later the animals were sacrificed. Histological analysis demonstrated that the instrumented root surfaces of the test teeth were covered by newly formed cementum of the reparative, cellular, extrinsic and intrinsic fiber type, while the cementum on the controls was mainly acellular extrinsic fiber cementum. Histometric assessments demonstrated that similar attachment loss had occurred on test (1.0+/-0.5 mm) and control roots (1.0+/-0.4 mm) during the 6 months of ligature-induced plaque accumulation. The results indicate that teeth with a periodontal attachment apparatus formed by GTR is not more susceptible to periodontitis than those with a pristine periodontium.
Ramich, Tatjana; Asendorf, Anne; Nickles, Katrin; Oremek, Gerhard M; Schubert, Ralf; Nibali, Luigi; Wohlfeil, Martin; Eickholz, Peter
The aim of the study is to assess the long-term effect of active periodontal therapy on serum inflammatory parameters in patients with aggressive (AgP) and chronic (ChP) periodontitis in a non-randomised clinical study. Twenty-five ChP and 17 AgP were examined clinically prior to (baseline), 12 weeks and 60 months after subgingival debridement of all pockets within 2 days. Systemic antibiotics were prescribed if Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was detected (10 AgP, 8 ChP), flap surgery was rendered if required. Neutrophil elastase (NE), C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein, interleukin 6, 8, and leukocyte counts were assessed at baseline, 12 weeks and 60 months. Clinical parameters improved significantly in both groups from 12 weeks to 60 months. Eleven AgP and 18 ChP patients received surgical treatment after the 12 weeks examination. Only 3 patients in each group attended ≥ 2 supportive maintenance visits per year. NE and CRP were significantly higher in AgP than ChP at baseline and 60 months (p < 0.01). For leukocyte counts in ChP, significant changes were observed (baseline: 6.11 ± 1.44 nl -1 ; 12 weeks: 5.34 ± 1.40 nl -1 ; 60 months: 7.73 ± 2.89 nl -1 ; p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis identified African origin, surgical treatment and female sex to correlate with better clinical improvement. Despite comprehensive periodontal treatment, AgP patients exhibit higher NE and CRP levels than ChP patients up to 5 years after therapy. Systemic inflammatory burden in AgP patients is higher than in ChP patients even 5 years after periodontal treatment.
Bansal, Chhaya; Bharti, Vipin
Background: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), an intimate assembly of cytokines, glycan chains, and structural glycoproteins enmeshed within a slowly polymerized fibrin network, has the potential to accelerate soft and hard tissue healing. The purpose of the study was to clinically evaluate and compare the efficacy of autologous PRF combined with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) to DFDBA alone in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: In a split mouth study design, 10 patients having two almost identical intrabony defects with clinical probing depth of at least 6 mm were selected for the study. Selected sites were randomly divided into two groups. In Group I, mucoperiosteal flap elevation followed by the placement of DFDBA was done. In Group II, mucoperiosteal flap elevation followed by the placement of homogeneous mixture of PRF with DFDBA was done. Clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded at baseline and at 6 months post-operatively. Results: Both treatment groups showed a significant probing pocket depth reduction, clinical attachment gain, defect fill, and defect resolution 6 months after surgery compared to baseline. However, there was a significantly greater probing pocket depth reduction and clinical attachment gain when PRF was added to DFDBA. Conclusion: Within limits of the study it may be concluded that a combination of PRF with DFDBA demonstrated better results in probing pocket depth reduction and clinical attachment level gain as compared to DFDBA alone in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. PMID:24049338
Tukiainen, E; Laurila, K; Kallio, M; Lorenzetti, F; Kantonen, I; Lepäntalo, M
The fascio-cutaneous radial forearm flap is especially suitable to rebuild the contour of the foot, but because of low natural low flow this flap lacks the beneficial effect of large muscle flaps on bypass graft flow. The aim of this study was to introduce a novel technique of flap coverage combined to vascular bypass: an internal av-fistula was created within a radial forearm flap. Nine critically ischaemic limbs were treated with a modified radial forearm flap in the Department of Plastic and Vascular Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital 1998-2003. All the patients were candidates for a major amputation unless this combined operation was attempted. A two-team approach was used: the vascular surgeon performed the distal bypass and the radial forearm flap was raised by the plastic surgeon. In eight cases a femorodistal bypass was performed and in the ninth the vein graft supplied the flap directly. The internal fistula within the flap was created between the distal end of the radial artery and either the cephalic vein or the concomitant vein of the radial artery. Flow was measured during surgery. Vein graft flow increased significantly after the radial forearm flap anastomosis (76 vs 44 ml/min, p=0.016). The flow of both the bypass graft and the flap artery were higher with the av-fistula patent (p=0.016 and p=0.004). Graft patency was 89% at 2 years. Infection was a major cause of amputation, 1- and 2-year limb salvages being 67 and 53%. In a group of diabetic patients increased flow in a vascular bypass graft was achieved by an internal av-fistula within a radial forearm flap. This method is useful in selected cases with poor run off and large ischaemic lesions.
Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Bremmer, David M.
PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the flap vortex system. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.
Snyder, Ned; Craven, Cameron; Phillips, Linda G
The concept of delaying a skin flap is well established and has been implemented into plastic surgery practice for years. Some investigators have delayed musculocutaneous flaps to improve the perforator inflow. To our knowledge, the concept of delaying a muscle flap had previously never been tested in a model with segmental pedicles. Five cats each underwent 3 sequential operations providing them with a sartorius muscle whose blood supply was a single distal pedicle. The opposite leg was used as a control. Our delayed type IV muscle flap demonstrated perfusion to the proximal tip of the sartorius muscle without necrosis or loss of muscle mass (P < 0.0001). The control showed no evidence of perfusion beyond the distal portion of the muscle when infused through the distal pedicle. The delayed flap can survive on a distal blood supply that would not be adequate in a single-stage procedure. This flap has an increased arc of rotation that may provide solutions to difficult reconstructive problems in the groin, lower abdomen, genitalia, knee, proximal leg, and might be suitable as a free flap.
Modabber, Ali; Ayoub, Nassim; Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Goloborodko, Evgeny; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Loberg, Christina; Lethaus, Bernd; Ghassemi, Alireza; Hölzle, Frank
Background The intention of mandibular reconstruction is to restore the complex anatomy with maximum possible functionality and high accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of computer-assisted surgery in primary mandibular reconstruction with an iliac crest bone flap compared with an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. Materials and methods Preoperative computed tomography data of the mandible and the iliac crest or fibula donor site were imported into a specific surgical planning software program. Surgical guides were manufactured using a rapid prototyping technique for translating the virtual plan, including information on the transplant dimensions and shape, into real-time surgery. Using postoperative computed tomography scans and an automatic surface-comparison algorithm, the actual postoperative situation was compared with the preoperative virtual simulation. Results The actual flap position showed a mean difference from the virtual plan of 2.43 mm (standard deviation [SD] ±1.26) and a surface deviation of 39% <2 mm and 15% <1 mm for the iliac crest bone flap, and a mean difference of 2.18 mm (SD ±1.93) and a surface deviation of 60% <2 mm and 37% <1 mm for the osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. The position of the neomandible reconstructed with an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap indicated a mean difference from the virtual plan of 1.25 mm (SD ±1.31) and a surface deviation of 82% <2 mm and 57% <1 mm, in contrast to a mean difference of 1.68 mm (SD ±1.25) and a surface deviation of 63% <2 mm and 38% <1 mm for the neomandible after reconstruction with an iliac crest bone flap. For shape analysis, a similarly high accuracy could be calculated for both flaps. Conclusion Virtual surgical planning is an effective method for mandibular reconstruction with vascularized bone flaps, and can help to restore the anatomy of the mandible with high accuracy in position and shape. It seems that primary mandibular reconstruction with the osteomyocutaneous
Modabber, Ali; Ayoub, Nassim; Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Goloborodko, Evgeny; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Loberg, Christina; Lethaus, Bernd; Ghassemi, Alireza; Hölzle, Frank
The intention of mandibular reconstruction is to restore the complex anatomy with maximum possible functionality and high accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of computer-assisted surgery in primary mandibular reconstruction with an iliac crest bone flap compared with an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. Preoperative computed tomography data of the mandible and the iliac crest or fibula donor site were imported into a specific surgical planning software program. Surgical guides were manufactured using a rapid prototyping technique for translating the virtual plan, including information on the transplant dimensions and shape, into real-time surgery. Using postoperative computed tomography scans and an automatic surface-comparison algorithm, the actual postoperative situation was compared with the preoperative virtual simulation. The actual flap position showed a mean difference from the virtual plan of 2.43 mm (standard deviation [SD] ±1.26) and a surface deviation of 39% <2 mm and 15% <1 mm for the iliac crest bone flap, and a mean difference of 2.18 mm (SD ±1.93) and a surface deviation of 60% <2 mm and 37% <1 mm for the osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. The position of the neomandible reconstructed with an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap indicated a mean difference from the virtual plan of 1.25 mm (SD ±1.31) and a surface deviation of 82% <2 mm and 57% <1 mm, in contrast to a mean difference of 1.68 mm (SD ±1.25) and a surface deviation of 63% <2 mm and 38% <1 mm for the neomandible after reconstruction with an iliac crest bone flap. For shape analysis, a similarly high accuracy could be calculated for both flaps. Virtual surgical planning is an effective method for mandibular reconstruction with vascularized bone flaps, and can help to restore the anatomy of the mandible with high accuracy in position and shape. It seems that primary mandibular reconstruction with the osteomyocutaneous fibula flap is more accurate compared with the
For traumatized teeth exhibiting crown-root fractures, there is a growing body of evidence that re-fastening the coronal part may result in successful treatment. However, data on the long-term impact of these bonding procedures on the periodontium are scarce. A case report of a young female patient presenting with an isogingivally- and horizontally-fractured lower incisor with a two-year follow-up is presented. The tooth fragment was reattached to the remaining root using an adhesive technique after flap elevation and endodontic therapy. No attempt was made to splint the coronal fragment to the neighboring teeth. Despite the subgingival location of the bonding surface, uneventful periodontal healing was clinically monitored during the observation period. The coronal fragment was retained successfully for a period of more than two years. Even for tooth fractures below the gingival margin, the combined approach of surgery and adhesive techniques can be used successfully to restore a severely traumatized tooth.
Periodontal Diseases; Periodontitis; Aggressive Periodontitis; Immunologic Disease; Microbial Disease; Periodontal Pocket; Inflammation; Inflammation Gum; Dysbiosis; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis; Generalized Chronic Periodontitis; Chronic Periodontitis
Ryder, Mark I; Armitage, Gary C
There remains a high prevalence of mild-to-moderate forms of periodontal diseases in both developed and developing countries. Although many periodontal specialty practices currently place strong emphasis on implant surgery, periodontal plastic surgery and esthetics, general dentists and hygienists have often assumed more responsibility than periodontal specialty practices for the diagnosis, treatment, assessment and maintenance, and possible referral, of their patients. To address these current trends and challenges, this volume of Periodontology 2000 presents a series of topics on the basic biological principles of periodontal disease, as well as on approaches to diagnosis, treatment planning and treatment, in what is called 'conservative' or 'noninvasive' periodontal therapy. These topics include risk assessment of the periodontal condition; reduction, elimination and/or control of etiologies and risk factors, including mechanical, antimicrobial and host-modulation approaches; considerations for evaluation of clinical outcomes based on treatment approaches; and selected topics in laser therapy, halitosis and gingival recession. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Barot, L R; Pearlman, M; Freed, G; Brown, A S
Signs of nasal airway obstruction, ranging from hyponasality, snoring, and inability to blow the nose to cardiorespiratory compromise, have been reported after posterior pharyngeal flap surgery. In some cases the symptoms are severe enough to require take-down or revision of the flap. Polysomnography has been used to document obstruction to nasal airflow and may be a guide in selecting patients for flap revision. This case report points out that in certain patients a particular coexisting anatomic abnormality--the locked-out premaxilla--may predispose patients to this symptom complex. In such patients flap revision may not relieve the symptoms, and careful evaluation of the lateral pharyngeal ports is recommended.
Chen, Collin L; Zenga, Joseph; Roland, Lauren T; Pipkorn, Patrik
The purpose of this clinical review was to assess the feasibility of reconstructing complex head and neck defects with 2 or more free flaps simultaneously. A total of 38 articles were reviewed. The patient population included those who received 2 or more free flaps or a single free flap plus a locoregional flap. The primary outcome assessed was rate of complications. Among double flaps, the minor complication rate was 6.96% and the major complication rate was 20.0%. In comparison, the free flap plus locoregional flap group had higher rates of minor and major complications of 30.4% and 29.5%, respectively. The median operating time was 660 minutes for double flaps and 602 minutes for free flap plus locoregional flap (P = .828). Compared to the single free flap plus locoregional flap, double free flaps are relatively reliable without increasing surgical complications or decreasing flap survival, while only modestly increasing operating times. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reddy, N. N.
Theoretical and experimental developments of flow-surface interaction noise with a particular emphasis on blown-flap noise were reviewed. Several blown-flap noise prediction methods were evaluated by comparing predicted acoustic levels, directivity, and spectra with a recently obtained data base. A prediction method was selected and a detailed step-by-step description of this method was provided to develop a computer module to calculate one-third octave band frequency spectra at any given location in the far-field for under-the-wing and upper surface blown configurations as a function of geometric and operational parameters.
Madeley, Ed; Duane, Brett
Data sourcesMedline, The Cochrane Database Trials Register, Embase, supplemented by handsearching of five prominent periodontal journals, references from reviewed papers and contact with experts in the field of mucogingival surgery.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) with or without a split-mouth design, on human patients. RCTs had to compare at least two different surgical interventions on clearly specified recession defects, be over six months in duration and have clearly specified clinical measurements regarding root coverage.Data extraction and synthesisThe initial search for studies was carried out by one operator. The studies were quality assessed by two independent review authors using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Odds Ratios were combined for dichotomous data and mean differences in continuous data using a random-effect model. The strength of the evidence of included studies was assessed according to the GRADE recommendations for bias and heterogeneity.ResultsFifty-one RCTs were reviewed encompassing 1574 patients and 1744 recession defects. Eighty meta-analyses were conducted. Results showed that surgical intervention using a coronally advanced flap (CAF) in conjunction with a connective tissue graft (CTG) was more effective at obtaining complete root coverage (CRC), reduced recession (RecRed) and keratinised tissue (KT) gain compared to CAF alone. The use of barrier membranes with CAF showed no significant improvement to CAF alone with regard to CRC and RecRed. The use of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) in conjunction with CAF had significant improvement in CRC, RecRed and KT gain compared to CAF alone. Using multiple techniques or biomaterials yielded similar or fewer benefits than simpler proceduresConclusionsTreatment of recession defects is best achieved with a coronally advanced flap combined with a connective tissue graft.
Cruz-Navarro, Natalio; León-Dueñas, Eduardo
Reconstructive surgery of large urethral stenosis and the management of congenital anomalies such as hypospadias and epispadias require covering large cutaneous and mucosal defects with different techniques. The objective of this work is to define the main differences between tissues to be transferred and to study the principles that must govern the management of the various flaps and grafts used for these techniques. We analyze the anatomical and physiological features that may be key to understand the success and possible failures of these procedures, and we review technical details that must accompany in every case, not only during the operation, but also during the preoperative and postoperative period. We conclude stating that grafts (mainly oral and preputial mucosa) and flaps are increasingly used for the repair of urethral stenosis. Grafts must be prepared adequately in the back table and thinned to the maximum, and also be fixed properly, to guarantee their immobility until neovascularization is assured.
Sakallioğlu, Umur; Aliyev, Eldar; Eren, Zafer; Akşimşek, Gülhan; Keskiner, Ilker; Yavuz, Umit
Excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wounded tissue due to inflammation and ischaemia is a deleterious and destructive phenomenon for the healing process. Hence, scavenging of ROS is one of the essential steps in normal wound repair. In this study, we presented a profile of free radical scavenging enzyme (FRSE) activity of periodontal mucoperiosteal wounds in order to investigate ROS activity during periodontal wound healing. Mucoperiosteal periodontal flaps were elevated in the mandibular buccal region of seven dogs between the first premolar and first molar teeth, creating acute incisional wounds in the inner side of the flaps and they were replaced 30 min after elevation. Gingival samples taken from certain biopsy regions at baseline (before flap elevation), day 3, 12, 21 and 30 were processed for detection of active amounts of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). All enzyme activities had increased by more than 100% of their baseline levels by day 3. SOD activity decreased gradually from days 3 to 30 and reached a level lower than the baseline value. The increase in CAT activity continued until day 21, and decreased to a level higher than the baseline value by day 30. GPX also decreased from day 3, and reached a level less than its baseline value by day 30. Our results suggest that FRSEs may contribute to the detoxification of ROS during periodontal mucoperiosteal healing. This relationship may be utilized to facilitate soft tissue and/or flap management in periodontal or intra-oral treatments.
Kwok, Alvin C; Agarwal, Jayant P
We sought to use the NSQIP database to determine the national rate and predictors of free flap failure based upon flap sites and flap types. Free flaps were identified using the 2005-2010 NSQIP database. We examined overall flap failure rates as well as failure rates based upon flap sites (head and neck, extremities, trunk, and breast) and flap types (muscle, fascial, skin, bone, and bowel flaps). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine predictors of flap failure. There were 1,187 microvascular free tissue transfers identified. The overall flap failure rate was 5.1%. Head and neck flaps had the highest rate of free flap failure at 7.7%. Prolonged operative time is an independent predictor of flap failure for all free flaps (OR: 2.383, P = 0.0013). When examining predictors of failure by flap site, free flaps to the breast with prolonged operative time are independently associated with flap failure (OR: 2.288, P = 0.0152). When examining predictors of flap failure by flap type, muscle based free flaps with an ASA classification ≥3 are associated with flap failure (P = 0.0441). Risk factors for free flap failure differ based upon flap site and flap type. Prolonged operative time is an independent risk factor for the failure of free flaps used for breast reconstruction. An ASA classification ≥3 is associated with the failure of free muscle based flaps. Our findings identify actionable areas that may help to improve free flap success. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lin, Renjin; Chen, Huanwen; Callow, Daniel; Li, Shihen; Wang, Lei; Li, Shi; Chen, Long; Ding, Jian; Gao, Weiyang; Xu, Huazi; Kong, Jianzhong; Zhou, Kailiang
Random pattern skin flap transplantation is frequently applied in plastic and reconstructive surgery, but the distal part of skin flaps often suffers necrosis due to ischemia. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a natural saponin purified from Astragalus membranaceus, may have beneficial functions for flap survival. In this study, rats were divided into a control group and an AS-IV treatment group, and underwent surgery using a modified "McFarlane flap" model. After intragastric administration of vehicle control or AS-IV for their respective groups, flap survival area and water content were measured 7 days after surgery. Flap tissue was separated to test protein expressions related to angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy via western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Results showed that AS-IV improved flap survival area and reduced tissue edema. AS-IV also increased mean vessel densities and upregulated levels of VEGF protein, both of which indicate increased angiogenesis. Furthermore, AS-IV depressed leukocyte infiltration, decreased expressions of inflammatory proteins TNF-α, IL1β and IL6, increased SOD activity, decreased MDA content, and stimulated autophagy. Overall, our results suggest that AS-IV promotes skin flap survival via inducing angiogenesis, depressing inflammation and dampening oxidative stress; it also activates autophagy, which may be an underlying mechanism for oxidative stress depression.
Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)
A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.
Man, Li-Xing; Selber, Jesse C; Serletti, Joseph M
Numerous studies compare techniques for free flap breast reconstruction techniques, with no consensus regarding differences in complication rates. This study compared the risk of fat necrosis, partial flap loss, total flap loss, abdominal bulge, laxity, or weakness, and abdominal hernia after deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) and free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap surgery for breast reconstruction. A MEDLINE and manual search of English-language articles on DIEP and free TRAM flap surgery published up to April of 2007 yielded 338 citations. Two levels of screening identified 37 relevant studies. The Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects and DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models were used to perform the meta-analysis. Six studies reporting both DIEP and free TRAM flap outcomes were used to estimate pooled relative risks of complications and confidence intervals. There was a twofold increase in the risk of fat necrosis (relative risk, 1.94; 95 percent CI, 1.28 to 2.93) and flap loss (relative risk, 2.05; 95 percent CI, 1.16 to 3.61) in DIEP patients compared with free TRAM patients. There was no difference in the risk for fat necrosis when the analysis was limited to studies using muscle-sparing free TRAM flaps (relative risk, 0.91; 95 percent CI, 0.47 to 1.78). DIEP patients had one-half the risk of abdominal bulge or hernia (relative risk, 0.49; 95 percent CI, 0.28 to 0.86). Sixteen studies reporting DIEP outcomes and 23 studies reporting free TRAM outcomes were used to estimate pooled complication rates. Pooled flap-related complication rates were higher in DIEP patients, whereas donor-site morbidity was higher in free TRAM patients. This analysis suggests that the DIEP flap reduces abdominal morbidity but increases flap-related complications compared with the free TRAM flap in breast reconstruction.
Chen, Baoguo; Song, Huifeng; Xu, Minghuo; Gao, Quanwen
A high-quality flap is necessary for repairing faciocervical scar contractures. The supraclavicular region and chest wall are the preferred choices for reconstruction. The supraclavicular island flap (SIF) pedicled by the transverse cervical artery (TCA) has been reported. Compared to the traditional SIF flap, another type of flap pedicled by the anterior perforator of transverse cervical artery (ap-TCA) is more convenient for transfer to the faciocervical area. In this article, we use this type of perforator flap and expanded perforator flap to repair the faciocervical contracture. In this study, 10 cases (deformity caused by burn or trauma to the face and neck sites) with an average age of 32 years-old, were treated by ap-TCA flap and this type of expanded flap. In between, the flap was pre-expanded for approximately 3 months prior to transfer in 6 patients. Another 4 cases did not want the expander because of the long duration required for saline filling and potential complications of the expander. Bilateral prefabricated flaps were designed in two female cases. All 12 flaps in 10 patients were transferred tension-free to the defects and no flap was lost. The size of the flap ranged from 12 cm × 8 cm to 15 cm × 20 cm. All 12 flaps survived completely. The donor sites were closed directly in the above 6 patients where an expander had been used and reconstructed by split skin graft in 4 patients where no expander had been employed. Through a mean time of 6 months' follow-up, only one female patient was disappointed with the cicatrix that presented on the upper polar skin of both breasts, the other 9 patients were satisfied with both recipient function and appearance. The color and the texture matched well with the recipient area. The ap-TCA flap and expanded ap-TCA flap can be considered reliable options for faciocervical deformities as it can be easily elevated and it matches well with faciocervical area in color. With regards to the expanded flap, we
The purpose of the present study was to describe and evaluate a new incision technique: the papilla base incision. Twenty healthy patients referred for surgical treatment of persisting apical periodontitis, who were free of periodontal disease and had intact interdental papillae were included in the study. The preoperative papilla height was recorded by measuring the distance between the contact point and the most coronal point of the papilla. The papilla base flap, consisting of the papilla base incision and two releasing incisions, was used to expose the bone. The papilla base incision consisted of a shallow first incision at the base of the papilla and a second incision directed to the crestal bone, creating a split thickness flap in the area of the papilla base. Further apically a full thickness flap was raised. Following standard root-end resection and filling, flap closure was achieved with microsurgical sutures. The papilla base incision was sutured with 2-3 interrupted sutures, which were removed 3-5 days after the surgery. The experimental sites were evaluated at the conclusion of the surgery, at suture removal and after 1 month, and compared to the preoperative findings. The healing pattern, complications and postoperative recession were recorded. The experimental sites were observed with a x 3 magnification and graded as to whether a visible scar resulting from the incision could be detected. Twenty experimental sites were analysed. Complete closure of the wound was achieved in all cases after surgery. Except for four patients with delayed healing at suture removal, all other patients displayed rapid healing. No noticeable space was created beneath the contact point area. The change in distance between the reference point and the most coronal point of the papilla comparing the preoperative and the one-month postoperative situation was 0.05 +/- 0.39 mm. The probing depth remained within normal limits. One month postoperatively, observation of the incision
Ranjbari, Ardeshir; Gholami, Gholam Ali; Amid, Reza; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Youssefi, Navid; Mehdizadeh, Amir Reza; Aghaloo, Maryam
Statement of the Problem Gingival recession has been considered as the most challenging issue in the field of periodontal plastic surgery. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of root coverage procedures by using partial thickness double pedicle graft and compare it with full thickness double pedicle graft. Materials and Method Eight patients, aged 15 to 58 years including 6 females and 2 males with 20 paired (mirror image) defects with class I and II gingival recession were randomly assigned into two groups. Clinical parameters such as recession depth, recession width, clinical attachment level, probing depth, and width of keratinized tissue were measured at the baseline and 6 months post-surgery. A mucosal double papillary flap was elevated and the respective root was thoroughly planed. The connective tissue graft was harvested from the palate, and then adapted over the root. The pedicle flap was secured over the connective tissue graft and sutured. The surgical technique was similar in the control group except for the prepared double pedicle graft which was full thickness. Results The mean root coverage was 88.14% (2.83 mm) in the test group and 85.7% (2.75 mm) in the control group. No statistical differences were found in the mean reduction of vertical recession, width of recession, or probing depth between the test and control groups. In both procedures, the width of keratinized tissue increased after three months and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant in this respect. Conclusion Connective tissue with partial and full thickness double pedicle grafts can be successfully used for treatment of marginal gingival recession. PMID:27602394
Ranjbari, Ardeshir; Gholami, Gholam Ali; Amid, Reza; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Youssefi, Navid; Mehdizadeh, Amir Reza; Aghaloo, Maryam
Gingival recession has been considered as the most challenging issue in the field of periodontal plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of root coverage procedures by using partial thickness double pedicle graft and compare it with full thickness double pedicle graft. Eight patients, aged 15 to 58 years including 6 females and 2 males with 20 paired (mirror image) defects with class I and II gingival recession were randomly assigned into two groups. Clinical parameters such as recession depth, recession width, clinical attachment level, probing depth, and width of keratinized tissue were measured at the baseline and 6 months post-surgery. A mucosal double papillary flap was elevated and the respective root was thoroughly planed. The connective tissue graft was harvested from the palate, and then adapted over the root. The pedicle flap was secured over the connective tissue graft and sutured. The surgical technique was similar in the control group except for the prepared double pedicle graft which was full thickness. The mean root coverage was 88.14% (2.83 mm) in the test group and 85.7% (2.75 mm) in the control group. No statistical differences were found in the mean reduction of vertical recession, width of recession, or probing depth between the test and control groups. In both procedures, the width of keratinized tissue increased after three months and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant in this respect. Connective tissue with partial and full thickness double pedicle grafts can be successfully used for treatment of marginal gingival recession.
Kwon, David H; Bisch, Frederick C; Herold, Robert W; Pompe, Cornelius; Bastone, Patrizia; Rodriguez, Nancy A; Susin, Cristiano; Wikesjö, Ulf M E
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel recombinant human GDF-5 (rhGDF-5) construct intended for onlay and inlay indications on periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Contralateral, surgically created, critical-size, 6-mm, supra-alveolar periodontal defects in five adult Hound Labrador mongrel dogs received rhGDF-5 coated onto beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) particles and immersed in a bioresorbable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite or the beta-TCP/PLGA carrier alone (control). The rhGDF-5 and control constructs were moulded around the teeth and allowed to set. The gingival flaps were then advanced; flap margins were adapted 3-4 mm coronal to the teeth and sutured. The animals were euthanized at 8 weeks post-surgery when block biopsies were collected for histometric analysis. Healing was generally uneventful. A few sites exhibited minor exposures. Three control sites and one rhGDF-5 site (in separate animals) experienced more extensive wound dehiscencies. The rhGDF-5 and control constructs were easy to apply and exhibited adequate structural integrity to support the mucoperiosteal flaps in this challenging onlay model. Limited residual beta-TCP particles were observed at 8 weeks for both rhGDF-5/beta-TCP/PLGA and beta-TCP/PLGA control sites. The rhGDF-5/beta-TCP/PLGA sites showed significantly greater cementum (2.34 +/- 0.44 versus 1.13 +/- 0.25 mm, p=0.02) and bone (2.92 +/- 0.66 versus 1.21 +/- 0.30 mm, p=0.02) formation compared with the carrier control. Limited ankylosis was observed in four of five rhGDF-5/beta-TCP/PLGA sites but not in control sites. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that rhGDF-5 is a promising candidate technology in support of periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Carrier and rhGDF-5 dose optimization are necessary before further advancement of the technology towards clinical evaluation.
Chang, Edward I; Ibrahim, Amir; Papazian, Nazareth; Jurgus, Abdo; Nguyen, Alexander T; Suami, Hiroo; Yu, Peirong
The lateral arm flap remains an underused flap, especially as a free flap. In this article, the authors describe the perforator anatomy to optimize flap design and harvest. Perforator locations were mapped in 12 cadavers (24 arms), and a retrospective review was conducted of 51 patients undergoing lateral arm flap surgery. One to three reliable perforators supply the lateral arm flap. Based on cadaveric dissections, from the deltoid insertion, the A, B, and C perforators were located at 7.2 ± 1.0 cm, 9.9 ± 1.2 cm, and 11.8 ± 0.8 cm, which was 0.44, 0.61, and 0.72 of the distance from the deltoid insertion, respectively. The average pedicle length was 7.0 ± 1.1 cm. The cadavers were entirely symmetric in the number and location of the perforators between the right and left arms. All 51 patients (24 male and 27 female patients) had at least one perforator with an average pedicle length of 7.0 ± 1.3 cm, an average arterial diameter of 1.7 ± 0.3 mm, and a vein diameter of 2.5 ± 0.5 mm. All but one flap was performed as a free flap for head and neck reconstruction, with one pedicled flap for shoulder reconstruction. The average flap size was 72.2 ± 37.1 cm (range, 21 to 165 cm). The nondominant arm was used for all free flaps. There were no total or partial flap losses. Twenty-eight patients reported donor-site numbness, with one infection, one hematoma, and one wound dehiscence. The lateral arm flap can be harvested reliably based on well-defined perforators and anatomical landmarks with minimal donor-site morbidity and should be included among the techniques used by reconstructive microsurgeons. Therapeutic, IV.
Ying-Xin, Guo; Guo-Qian, Yin; Jia-Quan, Li; Han, Xiao
We have assessed the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-coagulant effects of locally applied natural and recombinant hirudin in a random skin flap rat model. Thirty Wistar rats with venous congested skin flaps were randomly divided into two treatment groups and a control group to receive subcutaneous injections of natural hirudin (6 U), recombinant hirudin (6 U) or physiological saline, respectively. Superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and endothelin levels as well as flap survival rates of the skin flaps were measured after surgery. Compared to the control group, the treatment groups had significant higher superoxide dismutase levels and lower malondialdehyde and endothelin levels in the skin flaps. The surviving areas of the flaps were larger in the treatment groups than the control group. Our results demonstrated that hirudin could improve skin flap survival through its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-coagulant activities.
Andrade, Patrícia F; Garlet, Gustavo P; Silva, João S; Fernandes, Patrícia G; Milanezi, Cristiane; Novaes, Arthur B; Palioto, Daniela B; Grisi, Marcio F M; Taba, Mário; Souza, Sérgio L S
This study has evaluated the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) used in conjunction with non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment (PT) in modulating gene expression during periodontal wound healing. Fifteen patients with chronic periodontitis, presenting bilaterally lower molars with class III furcation lesions and scheduled for extraction, were selected. In initial therapy, scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed in the Control Group (CG), while SRP+aPDT were performed in the Test Group (TG). 45days later, flap surgery plus SRP, and flap surgery plus SRP+aPDT were performed in the CG and TG, respectively. At 21days post-surgery, the newly formed granulation tissue was collected, and Real-time PCR evaluated the expression of the genes: tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-4, interleukin-10, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in relation to mRNA levels for MMP-2 (TG=3.26±0.89; CG=4.23±0.97; p=0.01), TIMP-2/MMP-2 ratio (TG=0.91±0.34; CG=0.73±0.32; p=0.04), OPG (TG=0.84±0.45; CG=0.30±0.26; p=0.001), and OPG/RANKL ratio (TG=0.60±0.86; CG=0.23±0.16; p=0.04), favoring the TG. The present data suggest that the aPDT associated to nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy may modulate the extracellular matrix and bone remodeling by up regulating the TIMP- 2/MMP-2 and OPG/RANKL mRNA ratio, but the clinical relevance needs to be evaluated in further studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yang; Cai, Xiaobing; Shen, Lifeng; Huang, Xiaowen; Wang, Xuping; Lan, Yinan; Shou, Dan
Sanguis draconis, a resin known to improve blood circulation, relieve pain, stimulate tissue regeneration, and heal wounds, is widely used in clinical practice. In this study, we prepared an ethanol extract of sanguis draconis (EESD) containing 75.08 mg/g of dracorhodin. The experiment was carried out on 20 rats that were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and an EESD group (n = 10). All the rats underwent a perforator flap surgery, after which post-operative abdominal compressions of EESD were given to the EESD group for seven days, while the control group received saline. Flap survival percentages were determined after seven days, and were found to be significantly higher in the EESD group than in the control group. Results of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) showed that perforator flaps in the EESD group had higher perfusion values than those of the control group. The flap tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by immunohistochemical evaluation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression and micro-vessel development markedly increased in the EESD group, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreased. This is the first study to investigate the effect of sanguis draconis on perforator flap survival. Our results demonstrate that sanguis draconis can improve perforator flap survival in rats by promoting microvessel regeneration and blood perfusion.
Takeuchi, Naoshi; Shirakata, Yoshinori; Shinohara, Yukiya; Sena, Kotaro; Noguchi, Kazuyuki
Furcation involvement in the molars is difficult to treat, and has been recognized as a risk factor for tooth loss. Although periodontal regenerative therapies, including guided tissue regeneration and various types of bone grafts, have been applied to furcation defects, the effects of these treatments are limited, especially in large class III furcation defects. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of reciprocal autologous root transplantation on periodontal wound healing and regeneration in class III furcation defects in dogs. Furcation defects (7 mm wide and 6 mm high) were surgically created after root separation of the unilateral third and fourth premolars in 4 dogs. Eight furcation defects were randomized to receive either reciprocal autologous root transplantation (test) or no further treatment (control). In the test group, the mesial and distal roots were transplanted into the distal and mesial extraction sockets, respectively. The animals were sacrificed 10 weeks after surgery for histologic evaluation. The healing pattern in the control group was characterized by extensive collapse of the flap and limited periodontal regeneration. New bone formation in the test group (3.56±0.57 mm) was significantly greater than in the control group (0.62±0.21 mm). Dense collagen fibers inserting into the residual cementum on the transplanted root surfaces were observed in the test group. Slight ankylosis was observed in 2 of the 4 specimens in the test group on the mesiodistal sides where the root-planed surfaces faced the existing bone. Root resorption (RR) was detected in both the control and test groups. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that reciprocal autologous root transplantation was effective for bone regeneration in class III furcation defects in dogs. However, further studies are required to standardize the approach in order to prevent unwanted RR prior to clinical application.
Ma, Xian-Jie; Li, Yang; Wang, Lu; Li, Wei-Yang; Dong, Li-Wei
To observe the therapeutic effect of repairing cervical scar contracture using flaps carrying cervical cutaneous branch of the transverse cervical artery. Sixty-six patients with scar contracture after burn in anterior region of neck hospitalized from 1988 to 2011. The scars were excised and repaired with flaps containing the cervical cutaneous branch of transverse cervical artery. They included 55 island flaps (with 9 flaps pre-expanded) and 11 non-island flaps (with 1 flap pre-expanded). After removing the scar and releasing the contracture, flaps with the cervical cutaneous branch of transverse cervical artery were designed and raised in the supraclavicular and infraclavicular regions and the anterior thoracic region. The axial vessel of the flap was the cutaneous artery, which perforated in the crossing area of sternocleidomastoid muscle and omohyoid muscle and originated from the transverse cervical artery. The posterior borderline of the flap reached the anterior border of the trapezius muscle. Its exterior borderline reached the middle part of deltoid muscle, and its interior borderline ended at the midsternal line. The lower borderline was located 3.0-4.0 cm below the nipple. The incisions at the interior, lower, and exterior borders of the flap were first made. Then after sharp dissection to the clavicle, blunt dissection was performed to the pedicle to allow the flaps to be able to cover the wound after rotation without undue tension. The pre-expanded donor sites were sutured directly, while the un-expanded ones were covered with skin graft. Out of the 66 flaps, 64 flaps survived. Two flaps showed partial necrosis at the distal end due to sub-flap hematoma, and they healed after skin grafting. All the donor sites healed. The color and texture of all flaps matched well with the surrounding skin tissue. The flaps regained sensation pertaining to the chest in the early stage, and complete sensation pertaining to the neck appeared 6 months after surgery. The
Grant, Michael D
One of the most challenging procedures in breast surgery is the skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM). Various techniques and incisions have evolved that characterize this procedure; however, what is common in all of them is the smaller the incision, the more difficult it is to develop the skin flaps. A procedure was developed that incorporates the use of liposuction cannulas (without suction) to create the skin flaps. The technique and results are described in this manuscript. From October of 2012 to April 2014, 289 mastectomies (171 patients) were performed using the CAFE procedure on women of all shapes and sizes. Postoperatively, no problems were experienced with flap viability using this technique. The main difference in side effects between the CAFE technique and other standard techniques for developing flaps in SSMs was more bruising than normal, but this resolved rapidly. The results for use of this technique were consistently impressive. The learning curve for this procedure is very short, especially for those who perform SSMs using sharp technique (scissors). Residents and fellows became proficient with the CAFE technique in a relatively short amount of time. Plastic surgeons were pleased with the cosmetic outcomes of their reconstructions that follow this type of mastectomy. Patients were extremely satisfied with their reconstructions as well. Incorporating the use of liposuction cannulas (without suction) makes the creation of flaps for SSM a relatively simple and rapid method. It is especially useful to assist in developing skin flaps with even the smallest of skin incisions.
Raffaelli, L; Santangelo, R; Falchetti, P; Galluccio, F; Luciani, N; Anselmi, A; Nowzari, H; Verdugo, F; Fadda, G; D'Addona, A
Periodontitis may be a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The influence of periodontal pathogens in cardiovascular diseases needs further investigation. Therefore, the aims of this clinical study are: to test the presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in aortic valves and to assess the concomitant presence of the same periodontal bacteria DNA in whole blood samples in patients affected by aortic valve stenosis and chronic periodontitis. Nineteen consecutive patients (12 males and 7 females, age: 49-85 years) were enrolled in this study after having been subjected to a complete periodontal evaluation to confirm the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. All patients were scheduled for aortic valve replacement surgery. After clinical and microbial periodontal examination, the aortic valve tissue specimens were obtained by excision during valve replacement surgery and the patients were subjected to the whole blood sampling before the surgery. The polymerase chain reaction technology was used to detect the putative periodontal pathogens Tannerella forshytia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens and Treponema denticola. Neither the 19 aortic valve specimens nor the blood samples were positive for the genoma of the selected periodontal pathogens. The selected periodontal pathogens did not colonize the aortic valve of patients affected by stenosis and bacterial genoma was not present in whole blood samples. A high blood pressure at the aortic valve may prevent the adhesion and proliferation of bacterial colonies.
Schonauer, Fabrizio; Marlino, Sergio; Turrà, Francesco; Graziano, Pasquale; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni
Superficial ulnar artery is a rare finding but shows significant surgical implications. Its thinness and pliability make this flap an excellent solution for soft tissue reconstruction, especially in the head and neck region. We hereby report a successful free superficial ulnar artery perforator forearm flap transfer for tongue reconstruction. A 64-year-old man presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left tongue underwent a wide resection of the tumor, left radical neck dissection, and reconstruction of the tongue and the left tonsillar pillar with the mentioned flap. No complications were observed postoperatively. The flap survived completely; no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up was detected. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap has shown to be a safe alternative to other free tissue flaps in specific forearm anatomic conditions.
Enzinger, S; Bürger, H; Gaggl, A
The lateral femoral condyle (LFC) flap is a new flap first reported in 2015 for the treatment of osteomyelitis in hand surgery. This paper introduces a technique of osteochondral LFC flap harvest for mandibular condyle reconstruction and reports on the use of this flap in temporomandibular joint reconstruction. For condyle resection, a pre-auricular approach saving the temporal artery and vein is performed. A step osteotomy technique is used for condyle resection. LFC harvesting starts with dissection of the popliteal artery and vein. The superior genicular artery and vein are identified and followed along their periosteal branches. An osteochondral flap according to the condyle defect is harvested from the anterior pole of the knee. The flap is banded according to the defect and fixed to the mandibular neck with three miniscrews. Follow-up computed tomography scans should be performed at 1 week, 6 months, and 1year after surgery. The case of a 58-year-old female patient with osteomyelitis of the left mandibular condyle after multiple preoperative therapies is reported. The LFC flap technique was used for left condyle reconstruction, resulting in good functional and morphological outcomes at the 6-month postoperative follow-up. In conclusion, the osteochondral LFC flap is a new and promising technique for mandibular condyle reconstruction for special indications. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xing; Lu, Wan; Zhang, Yidong; Liu, Yun; Yang, Xinghua; Liao, Sheng; Zhang, Zhongrong
Traditional gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps have generally been used to fill tissue defects after resection of sacrococcygeal pressure ulcers. However, postoperative complications were gradually revealed as increasing operations were performed. This study aimed to introduce the innovative application of gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flaps for repairing tissue defects and to comparatively analyze the differences between the innovative and traditional flaps. A total of 32 cases were included in this study. All the PU lesions were removed by resection. Sixteen cases used the gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps, and the remaining 16 cases used gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flaps to fill the tissue defects after surgery. Comparative analysis between the gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps and gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flaps was used to evaluate the 2 flaps based on the mean operating time, postoperative infection, paresthesia, appearance of flaps, and recurrence. The gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flaps required a reduced operating time and a more simple operation compared with the gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps. Although the infectious risk of the gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flaps was reduced compared with the gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps, the gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps have a better appearance compared with the gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flaps. Most importantly, no flap necrosis was noted, and the recurrence rate during follow-up was reduced in cases using the gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flaps. The combined application of gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flaps with surgical resection can reduce the postoperative complications and aid in the treatment of sacrococcygeal pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xiaorong; Liu, Yusheng; Chen, Keqiong; Gao, Yan; Huang, Weilong; Yuan, Wenwei; Cai, Qian
Cervicofacial flaps are commonly used in the reconstruction of skin defects in regions such as the medial cheek and lower eyelid. However, their drawbacks include long flap incision, extensive undermining, and a high possibility of postoperative complications including distal flap necrosis and lower eyelid ectropion. Nine cases of reconstruction of skin defects in the medial cheek and adjacent areas were performed using a lateral cheek rotation flap in combination with Z-plasties between October 2009 and August 2014. In the surgery, the defect was trimmed into a downward-pointing triangle, with the flap incision line starting from the bottom edge of the defect and extending outward in the lateral orbital direction in an arc until before the sideburn. After the flap was undermined, double or quadruple Z-plasties were performed along the lateral orbital incision line to elongate the flap. All flaps survived without the occurrence of complications such as hematoma, wound infection, distal flap necrosis, and lower eyelid ectropion. During the follow-up period, the flaps exhibited good color and texture. A natural looking cheek was restored without obvious scars. A lateral cheek rotation flap in combination with Z-plasty is an optimal method for reconstruction of skin defects in the medial cheek and lower eyelid region. Compared to conventional cervicofacial flaps, the lateral cheek rotation flap was shown to have a variety of advantages, including a simpler operation, shorter flap incision, minimal undermining, and effective prevention of complications such as lower eyelid ectropion and distal flap necrosis. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
acute shortening and angulation of the tibia and rotational muscle flap coverage and split thickness skin grafting of the soft tissue defect...is also amenable to split - thickness skin grafting after tissue incorporation.11 In addition to donor site morbidity, free tissue transfer is dependent...the use of both a hemisoleus and medial gastrocnemius flap. All flaps were covered with split - thickness skin grafting and demon- strated nearly 100
Lu, Mingxing; Hu, Qingang; Tang, Enyi; Wang, Yujia
Background To compare free thin anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap with free radial forearm (FRF) flap in the reconstruction of hemiglossectomy defects, and to introduce our methods and experience in the tongue reconstruction with free thin ALT flap. Material and Methods The clinicopathologic data of 46 tongue carcinoma cases hospitalized from December 2009 to April 2014 were obtained from Nangjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University. All the subjects were evaluated for the articulation and the swallowing function 3 months after the surgery. Results Among these 46 patients, 12 patients underwent tongue reconstruction after hemiglossectomy with ALT flap; 34 patients underwent tongue reconstruction with FRF flap. The differences in the incidence of vascular crisis, the speech and the swallowing function between two groups were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusions Thin ALT flap could be one of the ideal flaps for hemiglossectomy defect reconstruction with its versatility in design, long pedicle with a suitable vessel diameter, and the neglectable donor site morbidity. Key words:Free thin anterolateral thigh flap, free radial forearm flap, hemiglossectomy, reconstruction, morbidity. PMID:26449437
Park, Ji Ung; Kim, Kiwan; Kwon, Sung Tack
Microvascular reconstruction using distant free flaps is often required after excision of skin cancers of the digits. The delivered flaps should be chosen with many factors taken into consideration, especially in the digits, in which a very thin, pliable, and durable flap is required to maintain both function and cosmetic appearance. Free flaps, such as perforator flaps, however, for distal or small defects of the hand after excision of skin cancer, require the sacrifices of the main arterial pedicle with deep dissection and exhibit potential limitations regarding flap size and location of the defect. Instead, arterialized venous free flap could be used as an alternative reconstructive method for skin cancers of the digits. Twelve soft tissue defects of the digits after excision of skin cancers (5 cases of malignant melanoma and 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma) were reconstructed using arterialized venous free flaps from January 2009 to May 2011. The flaps ranged in size from 1 × 1.5 cm to 5 × 7 cm. The flaps completely survived in 9 cases. Partial necrosis developed in 3 cases; however, skin graft was necessary only for 1 case. There were no recurrences or metastases for at least 20 months after the last case. Recently in cases of noninvasive or low-grade skin cancer of the hand, the concept of "preservative surgery" has been a higher priority compared with functional and esthetic aspects. Particularly in cases of reconstruction of a small-sized fingertip defect as 1 functional unit, arterialized venous free flaps offer several advantages, such as thinness and color similar to the hand, technical ease with a short operative time, long vascular pedicle, less donor site morbidity with no sacrifice of a major vessel, applicable to any site, and modifiable to the appropriate size and shape. Arterialized venous free flap could serve as a useful and reliable method for soft tissue reconstruction after excision of skin cancers in the digits.
Zheng, Yan; Zhou, Yuehua; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Qian; Zhai, Changbin; Wang, Yonghua
To compare flap morphology created by the WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser and the VisuMax femtosecond laser, assessing the uniformity, accuracy, and predictability of flap creation. A total of 400 eyes had corneal flaps created with the WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser (200 eyes) or the VisuMax femtosecond laser (200 eyes). The desired flap thickness was 110 μm. At 1 week postoperatively, all eyes were evaluated with RTVue Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Dimensions of the flaps were tested for their regularity, uniformity, accuracy, and predictability comparison. One week after surgery, the central flap thickness and the mean flap thickness of the FS200 group were 105.4 ± 3.4 μm and 105.7 ± 2.6 μm, respectively. They were both thinner than those of the VisuMax group, which were 110.8 ± 3.9 μm and 111.3 ± 2.3 μm, respectively. The mean deviation between the achieved and attempted flap thickness of the FS200 group (5.2 ± 1.9 μm) was greater than that of the VisuMax group (3.2 ± 1.8 μm). Flap thickness measurements at 36 points in both groups were close to the intended thickness. Morphology of the flaps in the 0-, 45-, 90-, and 135-degree lines created by the FS200 femtosecond laser and VisuMax femtosecond laser were uniform and regular. Flap dimensions created by the WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser and VisuMax femtosecond laser were uniform and regular. Although the flap thickness created by the FS200 was less than that created by the VisuMax, measurements of both femtosecond lasers were close to the intended thickness.
Lin, Renjin; Chen, Huanwen; Callow, Daniel; Li, Shihen; Wang, Lei; Li, Shi; Chen, Long; Ding, Jian; Gao, Weiyang; Xu, Huazi; Kong, Jianzhong; Zhou, Kailiang
Random pattern skin flap transplantation is frequently applied in plastic and reconstructive surgery, but the distal part of skin flaps often suffers necrosis due to ischemia. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a natural saponin purified from Astragalus membranaceus, may have beneficial functions for flap survival. In this study, rats were divided into a control group and an AS-IV treatment group, and underwent surgery using a modified “McFarlane flap” model. After intragastric administration of vehicle control or AS-IV for their respective groups, flap survival area and water content were measured 7 days after surgery. Flap tissue was separated to test protein expressions related to angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy via western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Results showed that AS-IV improved flap survival area and reduced tissue edema. AS-IV also increased mean vessel densities and upregulated levels of VEGF protein, both of which indicate increased angiogenesis. Furthermore, AS-IV depressed leukocyte infiltration, decreased expressions of inflammatory proteins TNF-α, IL1β and IL6, increased SOD activity, decreased MDA content, and stimulated autophagy. Overall, our results suggest that AS-IV promotes skin flap survival via inducing angiogenesis, depressing inflammation and dampening oxidative stress; it also activates autophagy, which may be an underlying mechanism for oxidative stress depression. PMID:28979690
Over the past 20 years, numerous investigations have demonstrated epidemiologically and biologically that smoking is one of the most significant risk factors with respect to the development and progression of periodontal disease. In terms of the mechanism via which smoking influences periodontitis progression, various factors contribute to the deleterious periodontal effects of smoking, including alteration of both microbial and host response factors. Furthermore, since it is well known that smoking is also a risk factor of osteoporosis, the combination of smoking with osteoporosis further enhances the risk of periodontal disease. Recent investigations reported that passive smoking exposure may be a risk factor of periodontal disease and may stimulate inflammatory responses of periodontal tissue.
Bigdeli, Amir Khosrow; Gazyakan, Emre; Schmidt, Volker Juergen; Hernekamp, Frederick Jochen; Harhaus, Leila; Henzler, Thomas; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Hirche, Christoph
Near-infrared indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-NIR-VA) has been introduced for free-flap surgery and may provide intraoperative flap designing as well as postoperative monitoring. Nevertheless, the technique has not been established in clinical routine because of controversy over benefits. Improved technical features of the novel Visionsense ICG-NIR-VA surgery system are promising to revisit the field of application. It features a unique real-time fusion image of simultaneous NIR and white light visualization, with highlighted perfusion, including a color-coded perfusion flow scale for optimized anatomical understanding. In a feasibility study, the Visionsense ICG-NIR-VA system was applied during 10 free-flap surgeries in 8 patients at our center. Indications included anterior lateral thigh (ALT) flap (n = 4), latissimus dorsi muscle flap (n = 1), tensor fascia latae flap (n = 1), and two bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps (n = 4). The system was used intraoperatively and postoperatively to investigate its impact on surgical decision making and to observe perfusion patterns correlated to clinical monitoring. Visionsense ICG-NIR-VA aided assessing free-flap design and perfusion patterns in all cases and correlated with clinical observations. Additional interventions were performed in 2 cases (22%). One venous anastomosis was revised, and 1 flap was redesigned. Indicated by ICG-NIR-VA, 1 ALT flap developed partial flap necrosis (11%). The Visionsense ICG-NIR-VA system allowed a virtual view of flap perfusion anatomy by fusion imaging in real-time. The system improved decision making for flap design and surgical decisions. Clinical and ICG-NIR-VA parameters correlated. Its future implementation may aid in improving outcomes for free-flap surgery, but additional experience is needed to define its final role. © The Author(s) 2015.
Yang, Hai Jing
Aim This study examined the predictors of loss to follow-up in long-term supportive periodontal therapy in patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods A total of 280 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis in a tertiary care hospital in China were investigated and followed over the course of study. Questionnaires on clinical and demographic characteristics, self-efficacy for oral self-care and dental fear at baseline were completed. Participants were followed to determine whether they could adhere to long-term supportive periodontal therapy. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical and demographic characteristics, self-efficacy for oral self-care, dental fear and loss to follow-up in long-term supportive periodontal therapy. Results The loss to follow-up in long-term supportive periodontal therapy was significantly associated with age [adjusted OR = 1.042, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.012–1.074, p = 0.006], severe periodontitis [adjusted OR = 4.892, 95%CI: 2.280–10.499, p<0.001], periodontal surgery [adjusted OR = 11.334, 95% CI: 2.235–57.472, p = 0.003], and middle and low-scoring of self-efficacy scale for self-care groups. The adjusted ORs of loss to follow-up for the middle- (54–59) and low-scoring groups (15–53) were 71.899 (95%CI: 23.926–216.062, p<0.001) and 4.800 (95% CI: 2.263–10.182, p<0.001), respectively, compared with the high-scoring SESS group (60–75). Conclusion Age, severity of periodontitis, periodontal surgery and the level of self-efficacy for self-care may be effective predictors of loss to follow-up in long-term supportive periodontal therapy in patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:29420586
Radentz, William H.; Caffesse, Raul G.
A survey of 58 dental school periodontics departments revealed the frequency of predoctoral dental students performing surgery, the frequency of specific procedures, the degree of participation or performance of students, incidence of preclinical surgical laboratories in the curricula, and materials and anesthesia used. A wide range in…
Yu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Bi, Wei-Dong; Wu, Tao
The fingertip skin defect is a common hand injury often accompanied by tendon or bone exposure, and is normally treated with flaps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional sensory recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip cutaneous deficiency. A total of 23 patients, aged between 18 and 50 years (mean age, 31 years) with fingertip cutaneous deficiency (30 digits) were treated with random-pattern abdominal skin flaps. The post-debridement defect area measured from 0.7×1.2 to 2.5×3 cm. The flap pedicle was divided three weeks after surgery, which marked the onset of the second stage. A second surgery was performed on 2 patients after 3 months and on another set of 2 patients after 6 months to create a thinner flap. Tissue was dissected during surgery for a histological examination. All the flaps survived and the post-operative follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the appearance of their fingers and the flaps. All flaps demonstrated satisfactory flexibility and texture and sensory recovery was achieved. Only 4 patients were subjected to a second surgery to make the flap thinner. The flaps for the 3-month tissue section had several low-density, free nerve endings, whereas those of the 6-month section had more intensive free nerve endings, nerve tracts, tactile cells and lamellar corpuscles. Random-pattern abdominal skin flap therefore repairs fingertip skin defects achieving sensory recovery.
Lanning, Sharon K; Best, Al M; Hunt, Ronald J
There are few reports in the dental literature regarding the types of periodontal services offered by general practitioners (GPs). The purpose of this study was to determine the specific nature of periodontal services rendered by GPs and to investigate whether certain variables affect GPs' practice patterns. A 13-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 600 dentists practicing in the state of Virginia. GPs were asked to identify the periodontal services rendered in their office within a 3-month period. Descriptive statistics, simple correlation, and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used to identify significant relationships between variables and periodontal services. Ninety percent of GPs reported treating at least one patient with scaling and root planing, and 16% of GPs reported rendering this service to >36 patients. Eighty-six percent of GPs reported providing periodontal maintenance in their practices. Approximately 50% of dentists reported up to 24 patients having received periodontal maintenance. Fifty-eight percent of GPs reported that >or=90% of scaling and root planing was done by the hygienists. Fifty-five percent of GPs treated at least one patient with site-specific therapy using chemotherapeutic agents. Twenty-eight percent of GPs treated one to five patients with low-dose antibiotic. Seventy percent of GPs treated at least one patient with occlusal therapies, and 50% reported treating one to five patients with occlusal therapies. The most common surgical services performed included crown lengthening and pocket reduction surgery, which were done by 38% and 21% of GPs, respectively. A few GPs (N = 26) performed the majority of periodontal surgical services. Variables found to influence specific services rendered by GPs included year of dental school graduation, recent hours of continuing education related to periodontics, combined number of dental hygienist days per week, percentage of periodontal patients in practice, and referral for
Spindler, N; Langer, S
Objective: Sternal bone and soft tissue debridement after osteomyelitis of the sternum with simultaneous defect coverage using a vascular pedicle latissimus dorsi flap. Indication: Profound sternal wound healing disorders may be covered with various flap grafts. The latissimus dorsi flap provides a fast, sufficient and reliable option to cover sternal defects. If the bone and soft tissue debridement has been very radical, coverage may be performed in a one-stage procedure. Method: The individual surgical steps for sternal debridement with simultaneous defect coverage using a vascular pedicle latissimus dorsi flap are shown. Conclusion: The radicality of debridement is crucial to treatment success and allows debridement and flap graft coverage to be performed at the same time. If two surgeons work simultaneously, the duration of surgery may be significantly reduced. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Espitalier, F; Dréno, B; Malard, O
To discuss advantages and disadvantages of Karapandzic flap for reconstruction of extensive defects of the lower lip. Two clinical observations and a review of the literature are presented. The Karapandzic flap requires only one operating time. The tissue used to reconstruct the lower lip is very close to the resected lip. The functional result is satisfactory, the lips being continent, allowing speech and feeding. The main advantage of this technique is the preservation of the labial sphincter, which is vascularized, mobile and sensitive. The aesthetic result is acceptable. This flap keeps the vermilion, but with rounded commissures that corrects spontaneously. The main disadvantage of this flap is the microstomia, requiring only rarely further surgery. The Karapandzic flap is a good option for reconstruction of extensive defects of the lower lip. It recreates the labial sphincter, while maintaining its vascularization and innervation. Functionality is maintained, with an aesthetically acceptable result despite the presence of residual microstomia proportional to the defect.
Tan, Onder; Algan, Said; Denktas Kuduban, Selma; Cinal, Hakan; Zafer Barin, Ensar; Ulvi, Hizir
In this report, we describe the technique of muscle and nerve sparing latissimus dorsi (LD) flap and evaluate the outcomes of reconstruction of various defects with 12 free and 2 pedicled muscle and nerve sparing LD flaps in 14 patients. The LD muscle functions at operated and nonoperated muscles were evaluated clinically and with electroneuromyography. All flaps survived completely but one which had a partial necrosis. The mean follow-up time was 12.3 months. Adduction and extention ranges of the shoulders were the same bilaterally in all patients. In electroneuromyography, no significant difference was available statistically between the sides. This muscle and nerve sparing latissimus dorsi flap has advantages of thinness, muscle preservation and reliability, and thus can be a good option to other fasciocutaneous flaps in reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rastogi, Pavitra Kumar; Lal, Nand; Garg, Nimit; Anand, Vishal; Singhal, Rameshwari
Localised gingival recessions continue to represent an important aesthetic condition requiring treatment in periodontics. Various techniques have been tried to treat exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics with high percentage of success and minimal discomfort. Root biomodification is done to improve the predictability of these procedures. This clinical report describes periodontal plastic procedure involving subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique and root biomodification with CO2 laser for the management of gingival recession. PMID:22778454
Gümüş, Nazım; Odemiş, Yusuf; Yılmaz, Sarper; Tuncer, Ersin
Flap necrosis still is a challenging problem in reconstructive surgery that results in irreversible tissue loss. This study evaluated the effect of topically applied minoxidil on angiogenesis and survival of a caudally based dorsal rat skin flap. For this study, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight each. A caudally based dorsal skin flap with the dimensions of 9 × 3 cm was raised. After elevation of the flaps, they were sutured back into their initial positions. In group 1 (control group), 1 ml of isotonic saline was applied topically to the flaps of all the animals for 14 days. In group 2, minoxidil solution was spread uniformly over the flap surface for 7 days after the flap elevation. In group 3, minoxidil solution was applied topically to the flap surface during a 14-day period. On day 7 after the flap elevation, the rats were killed. The average area of flap survival was determined for each rat. Subdermal vascular architecture and angiogenesis were evaluated under a light microscope after two full-thickness skin biopsy specimens had been obtained from the midline of the flaps. The lowest flap survival rate was observed in group 1, and no difference was observed between groups 1 and 2. Compared with groups 1 and 2, group 3 had a significantly increased percentage of flap survival (P < 0.05). Intense and moderate angiogenesis also was observed respectively at the proximal and distal areas of the flaps in group 3. The results of this experiment seem to show that the early effect of minoxidil is vasodilation and that prolonged use before flap elevation leads to angiogenesis, increasing flap viability. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Bhat, G Subraya; Singh, Vishal; Bhat, K Mahalinga
We report an unusual case of recurrent periodontal abscess in a 31-year-old male electrician due to his habit of using his teeth as a tool for stripping electrical wires. The patient was not aware of the consequences of this habit. Clinically, there was presence of moderate depth of periodontal pocket around the tooth and, radiographically, there was a vertical defect mesial to the involved teeth. The patient was educated about the consequences of his habit and surgical treatment was undertaken. A papilla preservation flap with regenerative periodontal surgical procedure was done, orthodontic and restorative treatment was planned at the follow-up. This case highlights the importance of eliciting a proper and complete personal history, including occupational details. In our patient these details helped us correlate the destruction of the periodontium to the unusual etiology.
Liu, Qinxiu; Li, Qingfeng; Zheng, Shengwu; Zheng, Danning
To evaluate the effect of University of Wisconsin (UW) solution on composite facial flaps in dogs to offer a preservation time limit for clinical application. The experiment included 2 parts. In part 1, 32 half facial flaps were cold stored for 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours in UW solution (experimental group) or normal saline (control group). In part 2, 8 flaps that had been cold stored in UW solution for 24 (group A, n = 3), 36 (group B, n = 3), and 48(group C, n = 2) hours were autotransplanted. After preservation in part 1, the viability of each tissue type (skin, mucosa, muscle, blood vessel, nerve, and gland) in the experimental groups was better than that in the control group. Muscle viability decreased more quickly than did the viability of other tissue. In the experimental groups, the viability of all tissue preserved for 12 and 24 hours was better than that of tissue preserved for 36 and 48 hours. After 48 hours of preservation, tissue had good structure and integrity in the experimental group but showed degeneration in the control group. In part 2, the flap survival percentages were 100%, 100%, and 99.7% in group A; 93.2%, 95.7%, and 94.1% in group B; and 87.2% and 86.1% in group C. Six months after surgery, the dogs in group A showed contraction potential and corneal reflex. Twenty-four hours could be considered a reference time for clinical application of UW solution flap preservation.
Grinsell, Damien; Di Bella, Claudia; Choong, Peter F. M.
Soft-tissue reconstruction following preoperative radiotherapy and wide resection of soft tissue sarcoma remains a challenge. Pedicled and free tissue transfers are an essential part of limb sparing surgery. We report 22 cases of sarcoma treated with radiotherapy and wide excision followed by one-stage innervated free or pedicled musculocutaneous flap transfers. The resection involved the upper limb in 3 cases, the lower limb in 17, and the abdominal wall in 2. The flaps used for the reconstruction were mainly latissimus dorsi and gracilis. The range of motion was restored fully in 14 patients. The muscle strength of the compartment reconstructed was of grades 4 and 5 in all patients except one. The overall function was excellent in all the cases with functional scores of 71.2% in the upper limb and 84% in the lower limb. The only 2 major complications were flap necrosis, both revised with another flap, one of which was innervated with restoration of function. Innervated flaps are valuable alternatives for reconstruction after sarcoma resection in the extremity and in the abdominal wall. The excellent functional results are encouraging, and we believe that innervated muscle reconstruction should be encouraged in the treatment of sarcoma after radiotherapy and wide resection. PMID:22969309
Gröbe, Alexander; Michalsen, Andreas; Hanken, Henning; Schmelzle, Rainer; Heiland, Max; Blessmann, Marco
Corrective plastic surgery is indicated after accidents, burns, cancer surgery, or postoperative wound healing disorders with large tissue defects. The range of reconstructive techniques includes local skin flaps, pedicle grafts, and microvascular anastomosed flaps in the case of large defects. Main complications such as arterial and venous insufficiency caused by a vessel collapse or a vascular spasm are reported regularly in the area of anastomosed vessels and are the concern of any surgeon. Today, leeches are used if wound healing is at risk because of hemodynamic imbalance or a venous insufficiency. A retrospective evaluation of 148 patients who underwent medical leech therapy in the case of local or pedicaled flaps and some patients who had undergone reconstruction with microvascular flaps from 2005 and 2010 was conducted. Our sample had the typical symptoms of venous congestions of their flaps, despite suture removal, relief of pressure on the flap, and the elimination of a hematoma beyond the flap after surgery. Medical leech therapy was used in these cases. Our series has confirmed the excellent and predictable healing after medical leech therapy for local and microsurgical anastomosed flaps in the case of venous congestion. Leech therapy should be considered as a reliable additional procedure and an advantage in maxillofacial and plastic reconstructive surgery to remedy complications resulting from a hemodynamic imbalance or venous insufficiency in the immediate postoperative period. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Custer, Philip L; Neimkin, Michael
To report results in patients undergoing lower eyelid reconstruction following Mohs surgery using a combination of surgical techniques, the rhomboid skin flap and a sliding tarsal flap. An IRB approved, retrospective case series of patients undergoing surgery between April 2007 and October 2014. Outcomes include establishment of a functional eyelid, quality of postoperative eyelid margin contour, and postoperative complications. During the study period, sliding tarsal flaps were used to repair marginal lower eyelid defects in 32 patients. Coexisting anterior lamellar defects were repaired with a modified rhomboid skin flap in 24 patients, a full thickness skin graft in 4 patients, and combined skin graft and rhomboid flaps in 4 patients. The average width of the marginal defects was 11.3 mm (range: 7-19 mm). Reconstruction resulted in a functional lower eyelid in all patients, the majority having an excellent cosmetic result (n = 20). Minimal contour abnormalities were present in 9 patients, while 3 patients developed a noticeable notch following surgery. Patients repaired with a rhomboid flap were more likely to have isolated postoperative misdirected lashes (5/24) than those repaired using a skin graft with or without a flap (0/8). Combined sliding tarsal and modified rhomboid skin flaps are an effective method of repairing superficial defects of the lower eyelid margin. This tissue-preserving technique maintains the ability to perform subsequent upper eyelid tarsoconjunctival flaps and lateral canthal procedures should a future need arise. Isolated misdirected lashes and minor contour abnormalities are the most common complications of the procedure.
Wen, Quan; Gao, Jean
Perforator flaps have been increasingly used in the past few years for trauma and reconstructive surgical cases. With the thinned perforated flaps, greater survivability and decrease in donor site morbidity have been reported. Knowledge of the 3D vascular tree will provide insight information about the dissection region, vascular territory, and fascia levels. This paper presents a scheme of shape-based 3D vascular tree reconstruction of perforator flaps for plastic surgery planning, which overcomes the deficiencies of current existing shape-based interpolation methods by applying rotation and 3D repairing. The scheme has the ability to restore the broken parts of the perforator vascular tree by using a probability-based adaptive connection point search (PACPS) algorithm with minimum human intervention. The experimental results evaluated by both synthetic and 39 harvested cadaver perforator flaps show the promise and potential of proposed scheme for plastic surgery planning.
Şen, Hilmi; Oruç, Melike; Işik, Veysel Murat; Sadiç, Murat; Sayar, Hamide; Çitil, Rana; Korkmaz, Meliha; Koçer, Uğur
Necrosis of random pattern flaps caused by inadequate blood flow, especially in the distal part of the flap is one of the biggest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Various agents have been used to prevent flap ischemia. In this study, we used omeprazole, which is a potent inhibitor of gastric acidity to increase flap viability. In this study, 35 Wistar-Albino type rats which were divided into 5 equal groups were used. Random-pattern dorsal skin flaps were raised in all groups at seventh day of the study. Group 1 was accepted as control group, and the rats in this group was only given distilled water intraperitoneally for 14 days. Group 2 and group 3 received 10 and 40 mg/kg omeprazole daily for 14 days, respectively. Group 4 and group 5 were given distilled water for the first 7 days and then after the operations they received 10 and 40 mg/kg omeprazole daily for 7 days, respectively. Survival rates of the flaps were examined seventh day after elevation of the flaps by digital imaging and scintigraphy. After assessment of the amount of necrosis, number of vascular structures were counted histopathologically. Percentage of flap necrosis was found to be less in all omeprazole received groups. On digital imaging, percentages of flap necrosis in the study groups were statistically significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the study groups (P > 0.05).In the histopathologic specimens, it was detected that the mean number of vessels in proximal (a) and distal (c) portions of the flap in the study groups showed a significant increase when compared with the control group (P < 0.01 for groups 2, 4 and 5, and P < 0.05 for group 3). In conclusion, possible clinical usage of medications increasing gastrin during flap surgeries can be thought as a positive contributor. In this sense, this study showed that parenteral administration of omeprazole in skin flap surgery increases flap viability possibly by
Nau, Christoph; Henrich, Dirk; Seebach, Caroline; Schröder, Katrin; Barker, John H.; Marzi, Ingo; Frank, Johannes
Vascularized periosteal flaps are used for complex cases if the reconstruction of large bone defects is necessary in modern trauma and orthopedic surgery. In this study, we combined this surgical procedure with β-TCP scaffold and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) + endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) as a tissue engineering approach to obtain optimum conditions for bone healing in rats. A critical size femoral defect was created in 80 rats allocated into 4 groups. Defects were treated according to the following protocol: i) vascularized periosteal flap alone; ii) vascularized periosteal flap + β-TCP scaffold; iii) vascularized periosteal flap + β-TCP scaffold + ligated vascular pedicle; and ii) vascularized periosteal flap + β-TCP scaffold + MSCs/EPCs. After 8 weeks, femur bones were extracted and analyzed for new bone formation, vascularization, proliferation and inflammatory processes and strength. Bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical stability at week 8 were highest in group 4 (flap + β-TCP scaffold + MSCs/EPCs) compared to all the other groups. Stability was significantly higher in group 4 (flap + β-TCP scaffold + MSCs/EPCs) in comparison to group 3 (ligated flap + β-TCP scaffold). BMD was found to be significantly lower in group 3 (ligated flap + β-TCP scaffold) compared to group 1 (flap) and group 4 (flap + β-TCP scaffold + MSCs/EPCs). The highest density of blood vessels was observed in group 4 (flap + β-TCP + MSCs/EPCs) and the values were significantly increased in comparison to group 3 (ligated flap), but not to group 1 (flap) and group 2 (flap + β-TCP). The highest amounts of proliferating cells were observed in group 4 (flap + β-TCP scaffold + MSC/EPCs). The percentage of proliferating cells was significantly higher in group 4 (flap + β-TCP scaffold + MSCs/EPCs) in comparison to all the other groups after 8 weeks. Our data thus indicate that critical size defect healing could be improved if MSCs/EPCs are added to β-TCP scaffold in
Di Martino, A; Bonavolontà, P; Dell'Aversana Orabona, G; Schönauer, F
Wide resection of recurrent basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the peri-orbital-infraorbital-nasal area may include periosteum resection with maxillary or nasal bone exposure. The absence of vascularized periosteum makes the defect ungraftable and local flaps are often required. As an alternative to a large single flap or a combination of flaps, it is possible to turn the ungraftable portion of the defect into a graftable one. The suborbicularis oculi fat (SOOF) flap is an advancement flap that is used in aesthetic surgery for midface rejuvenation. The use of the SOOF flap along with a full-thickness skin graft, as an alternative to the use of other standardized flaps to cover defects in the peri-orbital-infraorbital-nasal area with avascularized tissue or noble structure exposure, is reported herein. As an immediate single-stage reconstruction, this procedure leaves other flap options intact in the event of re-operation for a recurrent tumour. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alipour, Sadaf; Omranipour, Ramesh; Akrami, Rahim
Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap is the most common procedure performed for breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer. Obesity is a relative contraindication, and complex modifications have been proposed in the pedicled technique for obese patients. We studied ischemic complications in our patients to investigate the effect of body weight on the outcome of TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Pertinent data from medical records of patients receiving a TRAM flap surgery from 1986 to 2011 were extracted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the body mass index (BMI): normal (<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (>30 kg/m(2)). Flap necrosis is defined as any visible nonviable tissue in the reconstructed breast. It was observed that 117 patients had received TRAM flap reconstruction. Fifty-eight patients were excluded. Of the remaining 59 cases, 24 had normal BMI, 21 were overweight, and 14 were obese. No patient was found to develop flap necrosis. Outcome of TRAM flap breast reconstruction in obese patients is similar to nonobese patients. No major necrosis in need of reoperation was identified in the studied obese patients. It was concluded that categorizing obesity as a relative contraindication to TRAM flap breast reconstruction should be revisited based on larger cohort studies.
Kim, Sang Wha; Lee, Won Moo; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan
Vulvar and vaginal reconstruction can be challenging for the reconstructive surgeon. The reconstructive goal is to provide wound healing, adequate function, and acceptable appearance. In the present study, we introduce a new design called the "angel wing" flap, which is a modification of a transposition flap and is based on the perforator concept for vulvar and vaginal reconstruction. From January 2002 to December 2013, 23 women underwent reconstruction of vulvar and vaginal defects. Causative factors were vulvar cancer in 14 patients, extramammary Paget's disease in 2, vulvar dysplasia in 5, and combined vulvar and vaginal cancer in 2 patients. A total of 41 flaps were applied. All patients underwent surgical reconstruction in a single step using the "angel wing" flap. Flap size ranged from 4×7 to 13×6cm(2) and the operative duration for reconstructive surgery ranged from 30 to 100min. All the flaps survived with good coverage of the defect. Mean follow-up time after the procedure was 16.1months (range, 6-30months). In this article, we introduce a simple and easy reconstructive procedure of the "angel wing" flap. For restoring function, as well as for esthetic purposes, the flap was designed in accordance with the defect since the natural contour of the vulva and vagina is three-dimensional. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murakami, R; Fujii, T; Itoh, T; Tsutsui, K; Tanaka, K; Lio, Y; Yano, H
The groin flap is one of the most usable flaps. It provides a large amount of skin coverage with an easily concealed donor site. However, when the flap is used to reconstruct areas of the neck, hand, or foot, a secondary procedure for defatting is usually necessary. Thinner flaps are thought to be more useful in these areas. We present an anatomical study of the thin groin flap, including its dissection and defatting, and 12 clinical cases using the thin groin flap for neck (n = 7), foot (n = 4), and scalp (n = 1) reconstruction. The largest successful flap measured 13 x 30 cm. Eight flaps survived completely, two had partial necrosis, and two had total necrosis. Complications were thought to be caused by dissection around the pedicle. Meticulous dissection and thinning are required to create the thin groin flap. Excellent aesthetic results requiring no secondary defatting procedures are possible with this new thin groin flap.
Alemi, A Sean; Seth, Rahul; Heaton, Chase; Wang, Steven J; Knott, P Daniel
Objective Compare the efficiency of remote telehealth flap assessments with traditional in-person flap assessments. Study Design Observational study with retrospective review. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Subjects and Methods All patients undergoing head and neck free tissue transfer were included in the study. All patients whose surgery was performed at hospital A underwent an in-person flap check overnight. Those at hospital B received a remote flap assessment. The primary outcome was total time spent performing the midnight flap assessment, including travel time. Data were gathered prospectively using an online survey. Results Sixty consecutive patients met inclusion criteria. On the night of the surgery, 31 had an in-person flap check while 29 had a video telehealth flap check. There were no partial or total flap losses or take-backs resulting from the flap checks. Mean (SD) times for in-person and remote assessments were 34 (16) minutes (range, 10-60 minutes) and 13 (8) minutes (range, 5-35 minutes), respectively ( P < .001). House staff unanimously felt the remote telehealth system improved their quality of life without affecting their perception of the quality of the flap assessment ( P = .001). Conclusion Compared with in-person flap assessments in this cohort, telehealth assessments allowed more efficient examination of free tissue reconstructions while yielding seemingly equivalent information. Therefore, remote telehealth flap checks may provide useful information supporting the use of high-fidelity remote data-streaming technology in the delivery of complex care to patients distant from their care provider.
Deschner, J; Eick, S; Damanaki, A; Nokhbehsaim, M
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the periodontium, which is caused by pathogenic bacteria in combination with other risk factors. The bacteria induce an immunoinflammatory host response, which can lead to irreversible matrix degradation and bone resorption. Periodontitis can be successfully treated. To achieve regenerative periodontal healing, bioactive molecules, such as enamel matrix derivative (EMD), are applied during periodontal surgery. Recently, it has been shown that obesity is associated with periodontitis and compromised healing after periodontal therapy. The mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood so far, but adipokines may be a pathomechanistic link. Adipokines are bioactive molecules that are secreted by the adipose tissue, and that regulate insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure, but also inflammatory and healing processes. It has also been demonstrated that visfatin and leptin increase the synthesis of proinflammatory and proteolytic molecules, whereas adiponectin downregulates the production of such mediators in periodontal cells. In addition, visfatin and leptin counteract the beneficial effects of EMD, whereas adiponectin enhances the actions of EMD on periodontal cells. Since visfatin and leptin levels are increased and adiponectin levels are reduced in obesity, these adipokines could be a pathomechanistic link whereby obesity and obesity-related diseases enhance the risk for periodontitis and compromised periodontal healing. Recent studies have also revealed that adipokines, such as visfatin, leptin and adiponectin, are produced in periodontal cells and regulated by periodontopathogenic bacteria. Therefore, adipokines may also represent a mechanism whereby periodontal infections can impact on systemic diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas
The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Himes, Benjamin T; Wilson, Thomas J; Maldonado, Andres A; Murthy, Naveen S; Spinner, Robert J
The authors present a case of delayed peroneal neuropathy following a lateral gastrocnemius rotational flap reconstruction. The patient presented 1.5 years after surgery with a new partial foot drop, which progressed over 3 years. At operation, a fascial band on the deep side of the gastrocnemius flap was compressing the common peroneal nerve proximal to the fibular head, correlating with preoperative imaging. Release of this fascial band and selective muscle resection led to immediate improvement in symptoms postoperatively.
Myers, R.A.; Marx, R.E. )
Data are presented to indicate the value of hyperbaric oxygen in all stages of treatment of patients with irradiation complications following head and neck surgery. Hyperbaric oxygen stimulates angiogenesis, with increased neovascularization and optimization of cellular levels of oxygen for osteoblast and fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation, and support of ingrowing blood vessels. The hypoxic, acellular matrix in the postirradiated field is changed to a hypercellular, hyperoxic/normoxic situation. Oxygen is used as an adjunct to appropriate surgery. By using the two modalities together, the salvage rate for osteoradionecrosis and its complications of orocutaneous fistula, pathological fractures, and severe bone losses can be increased dramatically. It may also be used prophylactically in patients with periodontal disease or teeth requiring extraction in a previously irradiated area. Finally, the use of oxygen helps support tissue flaps and grafts placed into previously irradiated areas. Economically, there is considerable cost savings in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy with appropriate surgery. From the patient's point of view, pain relief is achieved, function is returned, and prognosis improves in a relatively short time.
Reddy, N. N.; Yu, J. C.
The far field noise from subsonic jet impingement on a wing-flap with a 45 deg bend was experimentally investigated. The test parameters are jet Mach number and flap length. For long flaps, the primary source mechanisms are found to be turbulent mixing and flow impingement. For short flaps, the interaction of turbulent flow with the flap trailing edge appears to strongly influence the radiated noise.
Krag, Andreas E; Eschen, Gete T; Damsgaard, Tine E; Svaerdborg, Mille; Steiniche, Torben; Kiil, Birgitte J
In free flap reconstruction and replantation surgery, prolonged ischemia time may lead to flap or replantation failure. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of hypothermic flap ischemia or remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPER) during normothermic ischemia on acute inflammation of musculocutaneous flaps subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury. In 24 pigs, a musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap was dissected and subjected to 4 hours of arterial ischemia and 7 hours of reperfusion. The animals were allocated into two experimental groups: hypothermic flap ischemia at 4°C (n = 8) or normothermic flap ischemia with RIPER (n = 8), and one control group with normothermic flap ischemia (n = 8). The hypothermic ischemic flaps were cooled in a basin with fresh water and ice. RIPER was initiated 1 hour before reperfusion, by inducing three 10 min cycles of hind limb ischemia with a tourniquet, each separated by 10 min of reperfusion. Acute inflammation was described by inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, and TNF-α) from the flap during reperfusion, and by quantitative determination of macrophages in flap biopsies of dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and skeletal muscle following reperfusion. No significant differences were found between normothermic and hypothermic flap ischemia in inflammatory cytokine secretion. However, the IL-6 secretion was significantly reduced in the RIPER group compared with the control group at 5 hours of reperfusion (P = 0.036), and in the RIPER group compared with the hypothermic ischemia group at 3 (P = 0 0.0063), 5 (P = 0.0026), and 7 hours of reperfusion (P = 0.028). The IL-12p40 secretion was significantly reduced in the RIPER group compared with the control group (P = 0.0054) as well as the hypothermic ischemia group (P = 0.028) at 5 hours of reperfusion. No significant difference was found among groups in macrophage infiltration. RIPER reduced IL-6 and IL-12p40 secretion
Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)
A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.
Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna; Łojewski, Włodzimierz; Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena
The study was designed to investigate how the periodontal disease treatment with Emdogain may influence the parameters of serum acute phase response and the total antioxidant status (TAS) of nonstimulated saliva. The wound healing process after periodontal treatment provided with EMD and regular open flap procedure was observed in 28 patients. TAS in saliva and acute phase proteins in blood was measured before and after treatment. The PD varied from 3,91 mm before treatment to 1,27 after it in EMD group and from 3,83 mm and 1,33 in the control group. CAL varied from 3,2 - 2,4 mm in EMD group and from 2,70 - 2,2 in the control group (p<0,01 and p<0,001). On the basis and after treatment of acute phase proteins analysis existence of chronic inflammatory state with slight decreased total concentration of AGP, ACP. Low TAS level found in the saliva of the subjects in our study may suggest that the antioxidant defence of saliva in patients with chronic periodontitis is poor.
To create a deep web, a flap must be designed to have a high elongation effect in one direction along the mid-lateral line of the finger and also to have a shortening effect in the other direction, crossing at a right angle to the mid-lateral line. The dancing girl flap is a modification of a four-flap Z-plasty with two additional Z-plasties. It has a high elongation effect in one direction (>550%) and a shortening effect in the other direction at a right angle (<33%), creating a deep, U-shaped surface. This new flap can be used to release severe scar contracture with a web, and is most suitable for incomplete syndactyly with webs as high as the proximal interphalangeal joint.
Batra, R K; Aseeja, Veena
Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new entrant in wound care after growth factors and alginate or hydrocolloid dressing, in the treatment of pressure ulcers. We have been using this technique for diabetic foot ulcers. A young nondiabetic man presented with a large sacral bed sore after high doses of ionotropes in an intensive care unit for treating severe hypotension. His wound was debrided, and instead of flap surgery in such infected wound, he was treated with VAC therapy. The complete wound healing was achieved in 6 weeks and at half the cost of flap surgery. Moreover, the chances of flap failure and its related complications were eliminated.
Immediate Breast Reconstruction of a Nipple Areolar Lumpectomy Defect With the L-Flap Skin Paddle Breast Reduction Design and Contralateral Reduction Mammoplasty Symmetry Procedure: Optimizing the Oncoplastic Surgery Multispecialty Approach.
Buller, Mitchell; Heiman, Adee; Davis, Jared; Lee, Thomas J; Ajkay, Nicolás; Wilhelmi, Bradon J
Objective: We describe a modification of the inferior pedicle reduction mammoplasty for oncoplastic reconstruction of a central tumor defect. Our technique involved a deepithelialized L-shaped medial inferior based flap with removal of lateral breast tissue after central lumpectomy with a contralateral Wise-pattern mastopexy with inferior pedicle for symmetry. This technique is ideal for patients with large, ptotic breasts that desire breast conservation with immediate reconstruction. Methods: A 47-year-old woman with size 38 DD breasts presented with a palpable 2-cm subareolar mass of the left breast. Surgical oncology performed a left lumpectomy with nipple-areola complex excision and a sentinel lymph node biopsy. Immediate left breast reconstruction was performed with an inferior pedicle island flap. An additional 30 g of breast tissue was excised laterally for contour, and the neo-nipple-areola complex was rotated into the defect to facilitate inverted-T closure. A standard Wise-pattern mastopexy with inferior pedicle was then performed on the right breast and an additional 205 g of tissue was removed for symmetry. Results: The patient showed excellent symmetry at the conclusion of the procedure. Final pathology demonstrated complete excision of the tumor with negative margins. The entire neo-nipple-areola complex skin island was viable postoperatively. Conclusions: Immediate reconstruction of a nipple-areola complex lumpectomy defect with a L-shaped medial inferior based skin paddle flap and contralateral reduction mammoplasty provides an excellent cosmetic outcome in patients with large, ptotic breasts and central defects following oncologic tumor resection.
Rajaram, Vijayalakshmi; Thyegarajan, Ramakrishnan; Balachandran, Ashwath; Aari, Geetha; Kanakamedala, Anilkumar
Gingival recession is a common occurrence in periodontal disease leading to an unaesthetic appearance of the gingiva. The effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), when used along with double lateral sliding bridge flap (DLSBF), remains unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of PRF in conjunction with DLSBF for multiple gingival recessions. Twenty systemically healthy individuals exhibiting Grade II gingival recession on their mandibular central incisors were recruited in this study. These patients were randomly assigned into two groups: DLSBF and PRF + DLSBF. The clinical parameters that were evaluated in this study were gingiva recession height, gingiva recession width, width of keratinized gingiva, clinical attachment level, and probing depth. PRF was procured from the patient's blood at the time of the surgery and used for the procedure. The follow-up was performed at 12 and 24 weeks postsurgery. Statistically significant difference was observed between the clinical parameters at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks within the groups. There was no statistically significant difference, between the groups. Mean root coverage (RC) was 80% ±29.1% in the DLSBF group and 78.8% ±37.6% in the DLSBF + PRF group with no statistically significant difference. From the results obtained in this study, the addition of PRF to DLSBF gives no additional benefits to the clinical parameters measured in RC.
Rajaram, Vijayalakshmi; Thyegarajan, Ramakrishnan; Balachandran, Ashwath; Aari, Geetha; Kanakamedala, Anilkumar
Background: Gingival recession is a common occurrence in periodontal disease leading to an unaesthetic appearance of the gingiva. The effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), when used along with double lateral sliding bridge flap (DLSBF), remains unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of PRF in conjunction with DLSBF for multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Twenty systemically healthy individuals exhibiting Grade II gingival recession on their mandibular central incisors were recruited in this study. These patients were randomly assigned into two groups: DLSBF and PRF + DLSBF. The clinical parameters that were evaluated in this study were gingiva recession height, gingiva recession width, width of keratinized gingiva, clinical attachment level, and probing depth. PRF was procured from the patient's blood at the time of the surgery and used for the procedure. The follow-up was performed at 12 and 24 weeks postsurgery. Results: Statistically significant difference was observed between the clinical parameters at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks within the groups. There was no statistically significant difference, between the groups. Mean root coverage (RC) was 80% ±29.1% in the DLSBF group and 78.8% ±37.6% in the DLSBF + PRF group with no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: From the results obtained in this study, the addition of PRF to DLSBF gives no additional benefits to the clinical parameters measured in RC. PMID:26941518
Dornseifer, Ulf; Fichter, Andreas Max; Von Isenburg, Sarah; Stergioula, Sofia; Rondak, Ina-Christine; Ninkovic, Milomir
While it is a known fact that warming increases blood flow in healthy tissue, little is known about the impact of active thermoregulation on the altered microcirculation of free flaps. The objective of the study was to identify the impact of postoperative active thermoregulation on free flap microcirculation. Tissue temperature was assessed in 25 free perforator flaps using an implanted probe. Active thermoregulation was achieved using a water circulation based system. Changes in microcirculation were evaluated at the day of surgery and throughout the first three postoperative days after passive cooling (room temperature), passive warming (wound dressing), active warming (38 °C) and active cooling (15 °C) using laser Doppler flowmetry and remission spectroscopy. Active warming increased flap temperature by 7.7% to 36.4 °C ± 0.5 °C in comparison to the initial values of flaps without dressing (P < 0.001). As a result, the blood flow increased by 77.7% of the base value (P < 0.001). A significant correlation between all microcirculation parameters and tissue temperature was observed with a 5.52 AU blood flow increase per degree temperature increase (r = 0.7; P < 0.001). All microcirculation parameters showed a statistically significant increase after both passive and active warming, whereby active warming showed significantly higher values than passive warming. Active thermoregulation using water-based circulation is an effective and safe procedure to improve microcirculation in free flaps and is superior to conventional passive warming strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zan, Tao; Jin, Rui; Li, Haizhou; Herrler, Tanja; Meng, Xuchang; Huang, Xiaolu; Li, Qingfeng; Gu, Bin
The epicanthal fold is a distinct characteristic of the Asian upper eyelid, which may impair the beauty of the eyes and the outcome of double eyelid blepharoplasty. Although many surgical procedures have been reported, their main drawbacks include a conspicuous scar in the medial canthal area and an unnatural palpebral contour. We devised a novel surgical approach to correct the epicanthal fold with acceptable scarring. From June 2011 to October 2014, U-flap epicanthoplasty was performed on 118 Chinese patients in our department. The U-flap was designed on the medial canthal skin. After complete dissection of the flap from the dislocated orbicularis muscle and underlying connective tissue, the flap naturally rotated upward to a line consistent with the direction of the palpebral fold. The flap was then subcutaneously fixed to the medial part of the medial canthal ligament. Finally, the redundant skin was trimmed off and the incision was sutured without tension. Patients were evaluated before and 12 months after surgery. The average decrease in the intercanthal distance was 4.36 ± 0.32 mm. The general satisfaction rate was 97.5 %. Three patients showed bilateral hypertrophic scar formation on both bilateral medial canthal incisions and palpebral incisions; however, the scarring subsided after three triamcinolone acetonide injections. No epicanthal fold recurrence or other complications were observed during the 12-month follow-up period. U-flap epicanthoplasty is a simple and effective method for elimination of types I-III epicanthal folds. However, its long-term effects require further study. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Kesler, Gavriel; Koren, Rumelia; Kesler, Anat; Kristt, Don; Gal, Rivka
Recent technological advances lead to an increase in the options for the treatment of the periodontal diseases. Lasers utilized for gingival soft tissue resurfacing mainly for esthetics purposes, require careful histopathological evaluation of the effects on tissue. Up to date no comparative clinical or histological studies have been performed, aiming at demonstration of the effects of laser irradiation on connective tissue, especially its most important component -- the collagen fibers. The alteration in the structures of this tissue plays the most important role in the healing process. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of Erbium: YAG - Kesler's hand piece on gingival tissue. This handpiece is designed for gingival resurfacing, in cases of 'Gummy smile' and gingival pigmentation. The following irradiation parameters were used: energy per pulse -- 500 mJ, repetition rate 10 pps, spot size 3 mm. Gingival biopsies specimens of 10 patients, 6 with 'Gummy smile' and 4 with gingival pigmentation were examined before laser treatment, and at 7 and 14 days after laser treatment. The tissues were fixed in LNRS, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned into 5 micrometer thickness, dewaxed in xylol and stained with H&E and Picrosirius Red (PSR). The sections were examined by polarization microscopy. PSR is a collagen stain that differentiates collagen fiber density by the range of colors from green through yellow to red, and/or fiber size. This was utilized in the present study to evaluate the hypothesis that Erbium -- YAG (Er: YAG) laser energy is capable of remodeling the collagen fibers in the gingival connective tissue through a photothermal process. We found a significant difference between the structures of collagen fibers at the first week and at 14 days post treatment. In the normal gingiva the predominant polarization colors were in the red-orange range, signifying tightly packed, mature collagen. During the first postoperative week, collagen
... Form Inservice Exam Application Dental Hygiene Educators Periodontal Literature Review: The Next Generation American Board of Periodontology ... Papers Periospectives Magazine Glossary of Periodontal Terms Periodontal Literature Review Advertising Options Brochures Contact Us Member Login | ...
The Effect of Systemic Delivery of Aminoguanidine versus Doxycycline on the Resorptive Phase of Alveolar Bone Following modified Widman Flap in Diabetic Rats: A Histopathological and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study.
Tella, E; Aldahlawi, S; Eldeeb, A; El Gazaerly, H
Aminoguanidine (guanylhydrazinehydrochloride) is a drug that prevents many of the classical systemic complications of diabetes including diabetic osteopenia through its inhibitory activity on the accumulation of advanced glycation end -products (AGEs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of aminoguanidine versus doxycycline in reducing alveolar bone resorption following mucoperiosteal flap in diabetic rats, using the conventional histopathology and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Twenty-seven male albino rats were used in this study. Periodontal defects were induced experimentally on lower anterior teeth. All rats were subjected to induction of diabetes, by IV injection of the pancreatic B-cells toxin alloxan monohydrate. After eight weeks following the establishment of periodontal defects in all rats, the ligation was removed and 3 rats were scarified as negative control (group 1). The remaining animals were divided into three group based on treatment applied following mucoperiosteal flap surgery. Group 2 received saline treatment only, group 3 received doxycycline periostat (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks, and group 4 received aminoguanidine (7.3 mmol/kg) for 3 weeks. The fasting glucose level was measured weekly post operatively. After 21 days all rats were sacrificed. Three anterior parts of the mandible of each group was prepared for histopathological examination and two parts were prepared for SEM. Aminoguanidine treated group (group 4) showed statistically significant increased new bone formation, higher number of osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts number, resorptive lacunae and existing inflammatory cell infiltration as compared to positive control group (group 2) (P<0.05). Doxycycline was also effective in reducing bone loss as documental by histopathological study. The present study showed that aminoguanidine was significantly effective in reducing alveolar bone loss and can modify the detrimental effects of diabetes in
Littuma, Gustavo Javier Salazar; Bez, Leonardo; Lopez, Camilo Andres Villabona; Benfatti, Cesar Augusto Magalhães; Magini, Ricardo de Souza
Gingival recession can compromise the esthetic appearance, leading to functional problems, hypersensitivity, and root caries. Several techniques have been implicated for root coverage, which includes pedicle grafts, free gingival grafts, connective tissue grafts, and guided-tissue regeneration. The double-papillae flap associated with subepithelial connective tissue is a predictable technique to cover isolated areas with insufficient attached gingiva apical to a recession. This case report demonstrates a surgical alternative to the technique using a sling periosteal suture to stabilize the connective tissue and pedicle flap during the initial phase of healing, increasing the potential of this periodontal procedure for gingival recession coverage.
Massarelli, O; Vaira, L A; Gobbi, R; Biglio, A; Dell'aversana Orabona, G; De Riu, G
Oropharyngeal reconstruction after ablative surgery is a challenge. The results of a retrospective study of 17 patients who underwent total or sub-total soft palate reconstruction with a buccinator myomucosal island flap, between 2008 and 2016, are reported herein. An analysis of flap type and size, harvesting time, and postoperative complications was performed. Patients underwent standardized tests to assess the recovery of sensitivity, deglutition, quality of life (QoL), and donor site morbidity, at >6 months after surgery or the end of adjuvant therapy, if performed. All flaps were transposed successfully. Only minor donor and recipient site complications occurred. The sensitivity assessment showed that touch, two-point discrimination, and pain sensations were recovered in all patients. Significant differences between the flap and native mucosa were reported for tactile (P=0.004), pain (P=0.001), and two-point discrimination (P=0.001) thresholds. The average deglutition score reported was 6.1/7, with only minimal complaints regarding deglutition. The QoL assessment showed high physical (24.6/28), social (25/28), emotional (19.1/24), and functional (24.6/28) scores. No major donor site complications were noted in any patient; the average donor site morbidity score was 8.1/9. Buccinator myomucosal island flaps represent a valuable functional oropharyngeal option for reconstruction, requiring a short operating time and presenting a low donor site morbidity rate. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nualart Grollmus, Zacy Carola; Morales Chávez, Mariana Carolina; Silvestre Donat, Francisco Javier
A number of systemic disorders increase patient susceptibility to periodontal disease, which moreover evolves more rapidly and more aggressively. The underlying factors are mainly related to alterations in immune, endocrine and connective tissue status. These alterations are associated with different pathologies and syndromes that generate periodontal disease either as a primary manifestation or by aggravating a pre-existing condition attributable to local factors. This is where the role of bacterial plaque is subject to debate. In the presence of qualitative or quantitative cellular immune alterations, periodontal disease may manifest early on a severe localized or generalized basis--in some cases related to the presence of plaque and/or specific bacteria (severe congenital neutropenia or infantile genetic agranulocytosis, Chediak-Higiashi syndrome, Down syndrome and Papillon-Lefévre syndrome). In the presence of humoral immune alterations, periodontal damage may result indirectly as a consequence of alterations in other systems. In connective tissue disorders, bacterial plaque and alterations of the periodontal tissues increase patient susceptibility to gingival inflammation and alveolar resorption (Marfan syndrome and Ehler-Danlos syndrome). The management of periodontal disease focuses on the control of infection and bacterial plaque by means of mechanical and chemical methods. Periodontal surgery and even extraction of the most seriously affected teeth have also been suggested. There are variable degrees of consensus regarding the background systemic disorder, as in the case of Chediak-Higiashi syndrome, where antibiotic treatment proves ineffective; in severe congenital neutropenia or infantile genetic agranulocytosis, where antibiotic prophylaxis is suggested; and in Papillon-Lefévre syndrome, where an established treatment protocol is available.
Dadlani, Himanshu; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Mehta, Dhoom Singh
Pathological tooth migration is a characteristic sign of an advanced form of chronic periodontitis. The etiology of pathological tooth migration is complex and multifactorial. Usually treatment of pathological migration includes a multidisciplinary approach. However, in some cases, spontaneous repositioning of the pathologically migrated teeth has been reported following periodontal therapy alone. In the present report, following periodontal surgery, there was a spontaneous repositioning of the migrated teeth and restoration of dento-facial esthetics. The treatment options in cases of pathological tooth migration, based on the severity, are also discussed. PMID:24174739
Slezák, Radovan; Paulusová, Vladimíra
The pilot study deals with the clinical results of the regenerative therapeutical method in intraosseous periodontal defects done by surgical augmentation procedure using a material of a new generation prepared on the basis of a bioactive glass. A group of 10 individuals were treated properly for chronic periodontitis. Some of treated infraalveolar periodontal lesions, both periodontal pockets and interradicular defects, persisted or recurred in posterior teeth. In order to eliminate them they were indicated for advanced periodontal surgery or regenerative surgical therapy stimulating healing processes of supportive tissues, mostly alveolar bone around treated teeth. Relevant clinical parameters, i. e. values of the pocket depth, gingival recession, and loss of attachment were evaluated before and after the periodontal surgery and compared with each other. The therapy led to significant improvement of clinical parameters in terms of the reduction of pocket depth and loss of attachment values.
Ersoy, Burak; Çevik, Özge; Çilingir, Özlem Tuğçe
Background Being an inevitable component of free tissue transfer, ischemia-reperfusion injury tends to contribute to flap failure. TNF-α is an important proinflammatory cytokine and a prominent mediator of the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Etanercept, a soluble TNF-α binding protein, has shown anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in animal models of renal and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. We have designed an experimental study to investigate the effect of etanercept on myocutaneous ischemia-reperfusion injury on transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap model in rats. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: In group 1 (sham), the TRAM flap was raised and sutured back without further intervention. In group 2 (control), the flap was raised and the ischemia-reperfusion protocol was followed. In group 3, etanercept (10 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered 10 minutes before reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion period, biochemical and histolopathological evaluations were performed on serum and tissue samples. Results In the etanercept group the IMA and 8-OHdG levels (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively) were found significantly lower, and the GSH and SOD levels (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) significantly higher in comparison to the control group. The histopathological analysis has revealed a lower degree of hyalinization, degenerated muscle fibers and nuclear change in the etanercept group compared to the control group. Conclusion The results of our experimental study indicate that etanercept offers protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle tissue, enhancing the TRAM flap viability. The ability of etanercept to induce ischemic tolerance suggests that it may be applicable in free-flap surgery.
Al-Dam, Ahmed; Zrnc, Tomislav Ante; Hanken, Henning; Riecke, Björn; Eichhorn, Wolfgang; Nourwali, Ibrahim; Smeets, Ralf; Blessmann, Marco; Heiland, Max; Gröbe, Alexander
Microvascular free tissue transfer allows major ablative defects following oncologic surgical and traumatic reasons to be reliably reconstructed in the head and neck region. A retrospective analysis of the microvascular flap procedures which were performed within one year in a high volume training centre was performed. The microvascular free flap procedures of the year 2011 were reviewed and followed up until the 31st December 2012. The type and indication of the reconstructive procedure, operation time, operating team, experience and level of training of the surgeons involved, postoperative IMC (intermediate care unit) and/or ICU (intensive care unit) time, inpatient time, flap revisions, further postoperative complications, preoperative and postoperative radiation of the patients, the placement of dental implants were studied. From 1st of January 2011 to 31st of December, 2011, the data of 101 patients with 103 microvascular free flap procedures were analysed of which 72% (84 flaps) were harvested by residents. The patients ranged in age from 14 to 89 years (mean age 59 years, 71 males and 40 females). The mean operation time was 591 min with the longest operation times for scapular flaps (744 min) and the shortest operation times for ALT flaps (455 min). Mean inpatient time was 34.2 days with a minimal time for the fibular flaps of 27.2 days and a maximum of 45.7 days for the latissimus dorsi flaps. 24 flaps (23.3%) in total had to be revised with bleeding being the main cause of immediate revisions (41.7% of all revisions). 5 flaps (4.85% of all flaps) were lost despite a revision procedure meaning a successful revision rate in 79.2% of all revisions. Microvascular reconstruction procedures are safe and should be considered as standard procedures for reconstruction of large defects especially in high volume training centres. Intensive flap monitoring and early revisions maximize the flap outcome. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio
Du, Juan; Li, Minqi
The goal of periodontal regenerative therapy is to predictably restore the tooth's supporting periodontal tissues and form a new connective tissue attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers and new alveolar bone. Periostin is a matricellular protein so named for its expression primarily in the periosteum and PDL of adult mice. Its biological functions have been widely studied in areas such as cardiovascular physiology and oncology. Despite being initially identified in the dental tissues and bone, investigations of Periostin functions in PDL and alveolar-bone-related physiopathology are less abundant. Recently, several studies have suggested that Periostin may be an important regulator of periodontal tissue formation. By promoting collagen fibrillogenesis and the migration of fibroblasts and osteoblasts, Periostin might play a pivotal part in regeneration of the PDL and alveolar bone following periodontal surgery. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive review of the implications of Periostin in periodontal tissue biology and its potential use in periodontal tissue regeneration.
Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth (periodontium). The periodontium consists of four tissues : gingiva, alveolar bone and periodontal ligaments. Tobbaco use is one of the modifiable risk factors and has enormous influance on the development, progres and tretmen results of periodontal disease. The relationship between smoking and periodontal health was investigated as early as the miiddle of last century. Smoking is an independent risk factor for the initiation, extent and severity of periodontal disease. Additionally, smoking can lower the chances for successful tretment. Tretmans in patients with periodontal disease must be focused on understanding the relationship between genetic and environmental factors. Only with individual approach we can identify our pacients risks and achieve better results.
Gupta, G; Mansi, B
Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics. PMID:22574088
Mericli, Alexander F; Tarola, Nicholas A; Moore, John H; Copit, Steven E; Fox, James W; Tuma, Gary A
With increasingly complex spine surgeries now being performed on a more comorbid patient population, the reconstruction of midline back wounds from these procedures is becoming a frequent dilemma encountered by plastic surgery. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of various preoperative risk factors on postoperative wound healing complications after paraspinous muscle flap reconstruction of midline back defects. An Institutional Review Board-approved, 11-year, retrospective, office and hospital chart review was conducted. All adult patients who underwent paraspinous muscle flap reconstruction during the study period were included. There were 92 patients in the study, representing the largest reported series to-date for the paraspinous muscle flap procedure. Mean follow-up was 120 days. Several wound-healing risk factors were present in this patient population: 72% were malnourished, 41% had hypertension, 37% were obese, 34% had a history of smoking, 32% had diabetes, 16% were on chronic steroids, 14% had a history of more than 2 previous spine surgeries, and 9% had a history of radiation to the wound area. Factors significantly (P < 0.05) associated with postreconstruction wound complications included history of traumatic spine injury, prereconstruction hardware removal, a history of more than 2 spine surgeries, hypertension, and lumbar wound location. This patient population possesses multiple comorbidities making complex wound healing difficult. Several specific risk factors are associated with an increased rate of postreconstruction wound complications after paraspinous muscle flaps. The paraspinous muscle flap remains an important tool for spinal wound reconstruction in the reconstructive surgeon's armamentarium.
Rozen, W M; Ashton, M W; Stella, D L; Phillips, T J; Taylor, G I
Preoperative imaging is sought prior to DIEA (Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery) perforator flaps due to the potential for maximizing operative success and minimizing operative complications. Recent advances include the use of computed tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography. Image-guided stereotactic surgery is a recent technique that has been used with success in several fields of surgery. The variability of perforator anatomy makes DIEA perforator flap surgery a suitable candidate for such technology, but as yet this has not been described. A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of CT-guided stereotaxy technique in DIEA perforator flap surgery and to compare findings with both conventional CTA and operative findings. Five consecutive patients planned for an elective DIEA perforator flap were recruited. Each patient underwent preoperative imaging of the anterior abdominal wall vasculature with both conventional CTA and CT-guided stereotactic imaging. Imaging findings were compared to operative findings. In all cases, all the major perforators were accurately localized with stereotactic imaging and with conventional CTA. Stereotactic navigation demonstrated a slightly better (nonsignificant) correlation with perforator location than conventional CTA. As such, CT-guided stereotactic imaging is an accurate method for the preoperative planning of DIEA perforator flaps, providing additional and potentially more accurate data to conventional CTA. With no additional scanning required, the method described in this paper allows the combined use of both methods for preoperative planning. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Purpose The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Methods Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. Results New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. Conclusions After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit. PMID:27800213
Montevecchi, Marco; Parrilli, Annapaola; Fini, Milena; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Muttini, Aurelio; Checchi, Luigi
The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit.
Shi, Youyuan; Zhou, Xiao; Yu, Jianjun; Liu, Hui
Treatment of malignant periorbital tumors requires radical resection of the tumor, which can result in the creation of major eyelid defects. Reconstruction of such defects with satisfactory restoration of function and aesthetic appearance is difficult. The present patient series describes the satisfactory outcomes achieved with a new surgical approach using a retroauricular flap and palatal mucosal graft. The authors reviewed 19 patients of eyelid defects created upon resection of malignant periorbital tumors between 1994 and 2012. Upon confirmation of the defect size, the eyelid defect was repaired with a palatal mucosal graft. Then a retroauricular flap was prepared at the postauricular region and the flap was used to cover the skin defect. In 1 patient, serious venous congestion of the flap occurred. After emergency surgery, the epidermis of the flap died, but the base of the flap survived. Thus, dermatoplasty was repeated. One-fourth of the flap died in 1 patient with an upper eyelid defect near the inner canthus, and after dressing of the wound, dermoplasty was repeated. No complications occurred in the other 17 patients, and satisfactory results were achieved.Thus, using a retroauricular flap, the authors can obtain good aesthetic results in the reconstruction of eyelids defect including the inner and external canthus. The color and texture of the retroauricular flap are similar to those of the eyelid, and scar contracture has a minimal effect.
Zhou, Yefang; Li, Yusheng; Mao, Ling; Peng, Hao
Successful transplantation of avulsed teeth is to restore the attachment and regenerate the periodontal support. Different strategies have been applied in treatment from modification of teeth storage, antibiotic usage to peridontium tissue replacement. We developed a novel periodontal ligament cell-sheet delivery system to apply on delayed replanted teeth in promoting periodontal healing in a canine model. Autologous periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were isolated from extracted premolars of beagle dog. The cell-sheets were fabricated using normal culture dish after stimulation of extracellular matrix formation. Teeth were surgically extracted and attached soft tissues were removed. After root canal treatment, the root of teeth were wrapped by the PDL cell-sheets and replanted back to prior socket accordingly whilst teeth without cell sheets as a control. Eight weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified specimens were prepared. Regeneration of periodontal tissue was evaluated through histology assay. Multi-layered PDL cell-sheet could be attached on tooth root and most cells on sheet-tooth constructs were viable before replantation. Minimum clinical signs of inflammation were observed in experiment. PDL cell-sheets group show significant higher occurrence of favourable healing (88.4%) than control group with low healing (5.3%). Periodontal ligament and cememtum tissue regeneration was observed in the experimental group, and the regenerated tissues showed high collagen type III, type I and fibronectin expression. The periodontal ligament cell-sheets fabricated through normal cell culture dish has a potential for regeneration of periodontal ligament and may become a novel therapy for avulsed teeth replantation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mangini, F; Santacroce, L; Bottalico, L
Periodontitis is a condition of suffering of gingival and periodontal tissues. To the light of the available knowledges till now on the pathogenetic mechanisms of such affection is possible to affirm that the different risk factors can influence onset of it, evolution and therapeutic possibility. In the examination of the risk factors in the development of the periodontal pathology the effects of the systemic conditions on the health of the oral cavity has been considered, as well as the influence of the periodontal pathology on the onset and on the evolution of several systemic pathologies and related to some physiological conditions (e.g. the pregnancy).
Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.
PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several blowing flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main-element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the vortex system or accelerated the merging of the side vortex to the flap top surface. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.
Akdemir, Ovunc; Lineaweaver, William C; Celik, Servet; Cınar, Celal; Zhang, Feng
Lower lip reconstruction following cancer resection includes a variety of clinical and microsurgical options. We have developed a myocutaneous flap for full thickness reconstruction with a functioning muscle. In all patients, the submandibular artery was outlined using computerized tomographic angiography and Doppler. The flap was designed after resection. The first lobe was designed to fill the defect and was outlined 90° from the defect margin, with the submandibular artery in the center of the flap. A second lobe was then outlined 90° from the first lobe. The flap was raised along with the platysma muscle and artery, with the first lobe rotated to the lip and the second lobe inset into the first lobe site, permitting neck closure without skin redundancy. From January to May 2012, 17 patients were treated with this flap, and all flaps survived. All of the patients had oral continence at sixteen months, and electromyography documented platysma function. The flap provides single-stage lower lip reconstruction with functional muscle. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chin, Michael S; Chappell, Ava G; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Perry, Dylan J; Lujan-Hernandez, Jorge; Haddad, Anthony; Matsumine, Hajime; Orgill, Dennis P; Lalikos, Janice F
Necrosis remains a significant complication in cutaneous flap procedures. Monitoring, and ideally prediction, of vascular compromise in the early postoperative period may allow surgeons to limit the impact of complications by prompt intervention. Hyperspectral imaging could be a reliable, effective, and noninvasive method for predicting flap survival postoperatively. In this preclinical study, the authors demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging is able to correlate early skin perfusion changes and ultimate flap survival in a preclinical model. Thirty-one hairless, immunocompetent, adult male mice were used. Random pattern dorsal skin flaps were elevated and sutured back into place with a silicone barrier. Hyperspectral imaging and digital images were obtained 30 minutes, 24 hours, or 72 hours after flap elevation and before sacrifice on postoperative day 7. Areas of high deoxygenated hemoglobin change (124; 95 percent CI, 118 to 129) seen at 30 minutes after surgery were associated with greater than 50 percent flap necrosis at postoperative day 7. Areas demarcated by high deoxygenated hemoglobin at 30 minutes postoperatively had a statistically significant correlation with areas of macroscopic necrosis on postoperative day 7. Analysis of images obtained at 24 and 72 hours did not show similar changes. These findings suggest that early changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin seen with hyperspectral imaging may predict the region and extent of flap necrosis. Further clinical studies are needed to determine whether hyperspectral imaging is applicable to the clinical setting.
Zhao, H; Shi, Q; Sun, Z Y; Yin, G Q; Yang, H L
The effect of local administration of hirudin on random pattern skin flap survival was investigated in a porcine model. Three random pattern skin flaps (4 × 14 cm) were created on each flank of five Chinese minipigs. The experimental group (10 flaps) received 20 antithrombin units of hirudin, injected subdermally into the distal half immediately after surgery and on days 1 and 2; a control group (10 flaps) was injected with saline and a sham group (10 flaps) was not injected. All flaps were followed for 10 days postoperatively. Macroscopically, the congested/necrotic length in the experimental group was significantly decreased compared with the other two groups by day 3. Histopathological evaluation revealed venous congestion and inflammation in the control and sham groups from day 1, but minimal changes in the experimental group. By day 10, the mean ± SD surviving area was significantly greater in the experimental group (67.6 ± 2.1%) than in the control (45.2 ± 1.4%) or sham (48.3 ± 1.1%) groups. Local administration of hirudin can significantly increase the surviving area in overdimensioned random pattern skin flaps, in a porcine model.
Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh
The sacral region is one of the most vulnerable sites for the development of pressure sores. Even when surgical reconstruction is performed, there is a high chance of recurrence. Therefore, the concept of dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for sacral pressure sore reconstruction was proposed. From September 2007 to June 2010, nine patients with grade IV sacral pressures were enrolled. Four patients received bilateral myocutaneous V-Y flaps, four patients received bilateral fasciocutaneous V-Y flaps, and one patient received bilateral rotation-advanced flaps for sacral pressure reconstruction. The flaps were designed based on the perforators of the superior gluteal artery in one patient's reconstructive procedure. All flaps' designs were based on dual-dermal-barrier fashion. The mean follow-up time was 16 months (range = 12-25). No recurrence was noted. Only one patient had a complication of mild dehiscence at the middle suture line, occurring 2 weeks after the reconstructive surgery. The dual-dermal fashion flaps are easily duplicated and versatile. The study has shown minimal morbidity and a reasonable outcome.
Sumarroca, Anna; Rodríguez-Bauzà, Elena; Vega, Carmen; Fernández, Manuel; Masià, Jaume; Quer, Miquel; León, Xavier
The facial artery musculomucosal (FAMM) flap is a good option for covering small and medium-sized defects in the oral cavity because of its similar tissue characteristics and easy implementation. We reviewed our results using this flap between 2006 and 2014. A total of 20 patients were included and 25 FAMM flaps were performed, 16 right (64%) and 9 left (36%) flaps. Five patients had simultaneous bilateral reconstructions. The indications for flap surgery were reconstruction after resection of tumours in the floor of the mouth (8 cases, 40%), tumours in other sites of the oral cavity (4 cases, 20%), mandibular osteoradionecrosis (4 cases, 20%), oroantral fistula (3 cases, 15%) and postoperative ankyloglossia (one case, 5%). Reconstruction was successful in 92% of cases (n=23). Total flap necrosis occurred in one case and dehiscence with exposure of bone in another. Oral function and ingestion were satisfactory in all patients. The facial artery musculomucosal flap is reliable and versatile for reconstruction of small and medium-sized intraoral defects. It allows functional reconstruction of the oral cavity with a low risk of complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.
Johnson-Jahangir, Hillary; Stevenson, Mary; Ratner, Désirée
The apical triangle is the superior portion of the cutaneous upper lip lying between the medial cheek and alar margin. Defects involving this subunit are often repaired without taking into consideration the aesthetic implications of its potential loss or reduction. We present a simple option for repair of apical triangle defects to address this concern. We collected a series of 69 patients with apical triangle defects treated from 2002 to 2008 with Mohs micrographic surgery. Their defects were reconstructed using various flaps (advancement, rotation, island pedicle, or M-plasty). A subset of 27 patients was identified who had undergone a standard cheek advancement flap or a modified flap. The modified design introduces an incision extending from the alar crease onto the nasal sill along the cutaneous upper lip, creating a second sliding flap to assist in recreating the apical triangle. A modified flap design introduced the ability to transfer adjacent tissue of the cutaneous upper lip to reconstruct the apical triangle subunit. This flap modification is a simple and efficient method of repairing peri-alar defects that restores the apical subunit, preserving facial symmetry. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lin, Shih-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Wang, I-Kuan; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chen, Chao-Jung; Ting, I-Wen; Wu, I-Ting; Sung, Fung-Chang; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Chang, Yen-Jung
It is well known that patients with diabetes have higher extent and severity of periodontitis, but the backward relationship is little investigated. The relationship between periodontitis needing dental surgery and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) in those individuals without diabetes was assessed. This is a retrospective cohort study using data from the national health insurance system of Taiwan. The periodontitis cohort involved 22,299 patients, excluding those with diabetes already or those diagnosed with diabetes within 1 year from baseline. Each study participant was randomly frequency matched by age, sex, and index year with one individual from the general population without periodontitis. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of periodontitis on the risk of diabetes. The mean follow-up period is 5.47 ± 3.54 years. Overall, the subsequent incidence of DMT2 was 1.24-fold higher in the periodontitis cohort than in the control cohort, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.19 (95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.29) after controlling for sex, age, and comorbidities. This is the largest nation-based study examining the risk of diabetes in Asian patients with periodontitis. Those patients with periodontitis needing dental surgery have increased risk of future diabetes within 2 years compared with those participants with periodontitis not requiring dental surgery.
Thomas, Rebecca; Mouat, Christine; King, Burton
There are various methods to design mastectomy flaps but few are standardized. Lateral skin folds or 'dog ears' are a common, unsightly and uncomfortable consequence following a surgery in overweight patients. We describe a simple technique for designing mastectomy flaps and a method to eliminate the lateral dog ear. The design is easy to apply and may enable standardization. Heuristics of mastectomy design should be standardized and included in surgical training. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.
The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.
Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter
For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive
Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Ilkhani, Sina
Background and aims. Wound dehiscence after lower third molar surgery extends the postoperative treatment period and may cause long-standing pain. The aim of this study was to compare wound dehiscence after removal of wisdom teeth in the most prevalent mandibular impaction (mesioangular class IB) by two different soft tissue flap designs. Materials and methods. Partially-erupted mandibular third molars with mesioangular class IB impaction (Pell and Gregory classification) were selected. Split mouth technique was used to compare the two flap designs (envelope vs. triangular transposition flap-TTF). The patients were recalled one week and a month later and rechecked for dehiscence, infection, and dry socket formation. Results. There were no cases of infection in either group. However, three cases of dry socket in the envelope group and four in the TTF group were recorded. In the envelope group, dehiscence occurred in 43% of cases during the first week, with 67% of cases being a large dehiscence (diameters of more than 5 mm). Extra appointments (those requested by the patient exclusively related to the problem of the hole distal to the second molar) were scheduled in 10% of cases in the envelope group. In the TTF group, dehiscence occurred during the first week for the same impaction in 19% of cases with large dehiscence cases occurring in 65% of cases and extra appointment rate at 4.1%. Conclusion. According to theresults in the evaluated operation, TTF may prevent postoperative wound dehiscence more probably than the envelope flap.
Tseng, James; Lin, Yu-Te
Various methods have been described to surgically release posttraumatic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Extension of the distal digit often creates a soft tissue defect on the volar aspect of the finger. Although various flaps and skin grafting have been utilized for coverage of this defect, they can be associated with morbidity. We present our experience with a volar neurovascular advancement flap to achieve soft tissue release in proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture. This advancement flap is designed to include both digital neurovascular bundles and eliminates the need for a secondary procedure as it allows primary closure of the subsequent defect. It is indicated for contracture lengthening of 10 to 14 mm. Surgical considerations of flap design are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Gk; Mohan, Sv
We report the use of a fillet of upper arm pedicled flap, which has not been previously reported in the literature. The fillet of upper arm flap follows the principle of "spare parts" surgery, and can provide vascularized soft tissue coverage for defects of the shoulder and the chest wall when the upper extremity cannot otherwise be salvaged, such as in cases of radical tumor excision. The fillet of upper arm pedicled flap was used to successfully cover a large shoulder and chest wall defect measuring 25 cm x 15 cm. This "spare parts" reconstructive technique has several advantages over the previously reported forearm free flap, including minimal need for microsurgery and the ability for expansion to cover larger defects. This case demonstrates effective use of fillet of upper arm flaps in reconstruction of large defects of the shoulder and chest wall. © JSCR.
Kostopoulos, Epameinondas; Agiannidis, Christos; Konofaos, Petros; Dounavis, Avraam; Papadopoulos, Othon; Casoli, Vincent
The proper digital arteries as any other axial vessel give rise to multiple cutaneous perforators either volar or dorsal along their course. Their identification is performed with Doppler flowmetry. The vasculo-cutano-tendino-osseous complex (VCTOC), which was described by the senior authors, was responsible for the vascularization of all digital anatomic structures (extensor apparatus, skin, periosteum). Their consistent appearance to well measured distances from the digital joints led the way to the present clinical study for highlighting this described anatomy in-vivo and demonstrating the predictability in digital artery perforator (DAP) flap harvest. From November 2012 to March 2014, fifteen patients underwent reconstruction with a predictable pattern digital artery perforator flap (PPDAP), based on the previously described VCTOC mapping, for digital lesions secondary to tumor extirpation. Flaps were designed as V-Y advancement or propeller type. Postoperative control concerned flap viability and digital function. Seven males and 8 females underwent elective surgery using PPDAP flaps for digital defects following tumor extirpation. The diameter of the defect ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 cm. The vast majority of the lesions were identified on the right hand, the index, the ring finger and the distal phalanx. All flaps survived without signs of venous congestion. No functional digital problems were observed during follow up (mean of 77 months). A minor wound dehiscence presented in one patient. Authors introduced the concept of a "predictable pattern" in the surgery of perforator flaps in the digits. These flaps are reliable and could be a valuable reconstructive option.
Although the complement system is centrally involved in host defense, its overactivation or deregulation (e.g., due to inherent host genetic defects or due to pathogen subversion) may excessively amplify inflammation and contribute to immunopathology. Periodontitis is an oral infection-driven chronic inflammatory disease which exerts a systemic impact on health. This paper reviews evidence linking complement to periodontal inflammation and pathogenesis. Clinical and histological observations show a correlation between periodontal inflammatory activity and local complement activation. Certain genetic polymorphisms or deficiencies in specific complement components appear to predispose to increased susceptibility to periodontitis. Animal model studies and in vitro experiments indicate that periodontal bacteria can either inhibit or activate distinct components of the complement cascade. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone species in periodontitis, subverts complement receptor 3 and C5a anaphylatoxin receptor signaling in ways that promote its adaptive fitness in the presence of non-productive inflammation. Overall, available evidence suggests that complement activation or subversion contributes to periodontal pathogenesis, although not all complement pathways or functions are necessarily destructive. Effective complement-targeted therapeutic intervention in periodontitis would require determining the precise roles of the various inductive or effector complement pathways. This information is essential as it may reveal which specific pathways need to be blocked to counteract microbial evasion and inflammatory pathology or, conversely, be enhanced to promote host immunity. PMID:20599785
Assessment of the periodontium has relied exclusively on a variety of physical measurements (e.g., attachment level, probing depth, bone loss, mobility, recession, degree of inflammation, etc.) in relation to various case definitions of periodontal disease. Periodontal health was often an afterthought and was simply defined as the absence of the signs and symptoms of a periodontal disease. Accordingly, these strict and sometimes disparate definitions of periodontal disease have resulted in an idealistic requirement of a pristine periodontium for periodontal health, which makes us all diseased in one way or another. Furthermore, the consequence of not having a realistic definition of health has resulted in potentially questionable recommendations. The aim of this manuscript was to assess the biological, environmental, sociological, economic, educational and psychological relationships that are germane to constructing a paradigm that defines periodontal health using a modified wellness model. The paradigm includes four cardinal characteristics, i.e., 1) a functional dentition, 2) the painless function of a dentition, 3) the stability of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and 4) the psychological and social well-being of the individual. Finally, strategies and policies that advocate periodontal health were appraised. I'm not sick but I'm not well, and it's a sin to live so well. Flagpole Sitta, Harvey Danger PMID:26390888
Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei
There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.
A new modelling approach is presented for describing flap-gliding flight in birds and the associated mechanical energy cost of travelling. The new approach is based on the difference in the drag characteristics between flapping and non-flapping due to the drag increase caused by flapping. Thus, the possibility of a gliding flight phase, as it exists in flap-gliding flight, yields a performance advantage resulting from the decrease in the drag when compared with continuous flapping flight. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization for the mathematical relations describing flap-gliding flight, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that there is an energy saving of flap-gliding flight in the entire speed range compared to continuous flapping flight. The energy saving reaches the highest level in the lower speed region. The travelling speed of flap-gliding flight is composed of the weighted average of the differing speeds in the flapping and gliding phases. Furthermore, the maximum range performance achievable with flap-gliding flight and the associated optimal travelling speed are determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strang, Karl Axel
In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for
Moret, Lionel; Thiria, Benjamin; Zhang, Jun
We study the effect of passive pitching and flexible deflection of wings on the forward flapping flight. The wings are flapped vertically in water and are allowed to move freely horizontally. The forward speed is chosen by the flapping wing itself by balance of drag and thrust. We show, that by allowing the wing to passively pitch or by adding a flexible extension at its trailing edge, the forward speed is significantly increased. Detailed measurements of wing deflection and passive pitching, together with flow visualization, are used to explain our observations. The advantage of having a wing with finite rigidity/flexibility is discussed as we compare the current results with our biological inspirations such as birds and fish.
Yano, Tomoyuki; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Tanaka, Kentarou; Iida, Hideo
For safe and reliable skull base reconstruction combined with repair of cranial bone defects, we introduce the flap sandwich technique in this study. A titanium mesh is often used to repair structural cranial bone defects because it has less donor site morbidity and is easy to handle. However, titanium mesh has disadvantages of exposure and infection postoperatively. To improve surgical outcomes, we applied the flap sandwich technique to 3 cases of skull base reconstruction combined with cranial bone defect repair. Two anterior skull base defects and 1 middle skull base defect were included in this study. The subjects were all women, aged 30, 58, and 62 years. One patient had former multiple craniotomies and another patient had preoperative radiotherapy. The flap sandwich technique involves structural cranial bone reconstruction with a titanium mesh and soft tissue reconstruction with a chimeric anterolateral thigh free flap. First, the dead space between the repaired dura and the titanium mesh is filled with vastus lateralis muscle, and then structural reconstruction is performed with a titanium mesh. Finally, the titanium mesh is totally covered with the adiposal flap of the anterolateral thigh free flap. The muscle flap protects the dead space from infection, and the adiposal flap covers the titanium mesh to reduce mechanical stress on the covered skin and thus prevent the exposure of the titanium mesh through the scalp. By applying this technique, there was no intracranial infection or titanium mesh exposure in these 3 cases postoperatively, even though 2 patients had postoperative radiotherapy. Additionally, the adiposal flap could provide a soft and natural contour to the scalp and forehead region, and this gives patients a better facial appearance even though they have had skull base surgery.
Recent advances in wearable recording technology have enabled high-quality video recording of several surgical procedures from the surgeon's perspective. However, the available wearable cameras are not optimal for recording the harvesting of perforator flaps because they are too heavy and cannot be attached to the surgical loupe. The Ecous is a small high-resolution camera that was specially developed for recording loupe magnification surgery. This study investigated the use of the Ecous for recording perforator flap harvesting procedures. The Ecous SC MiCron is a high-resolution camera that can be mounted directly on the surgical loupe. The camera is light (30 g) and measures only 28 × 32 × 60 mm. We recorded 23 perforator flap harvesting procedures with the Ecous connected to a laptop through a USB cable. The elevated flaps included 9 deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps, 7 thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps, 4 anterolateral thigh flaps, and 3 superficial inferior epigastric artery flaps. All procedures were recorded with no equipment failure. The Ecous recorded the technical details of the perforator dissection at a high-resolution level. The surgeon did not feel any extra stress or interference when wearing the Ecous. The Ecous is an ideal camera for recording perforator flap harvesting procedures. It fits onto the surgical loupe perfectly without creating additional stress on the surgeon. High-quality video from the surgeon's perspective makes accurate documentation of the procedures possible, thereby enhancing surgical education and allowing critical self-reflection.
Rommel, Niklas; Kesting, Marco Rainer; Rohleder, Nils Hagen; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Weitz, Jochen
Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws represents one of the most severe complications after primary or adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) of large head and neck tumors. In advanced ORN cases, surgical management is generally considered the therapy of choice. However, in several severe ORN patients with extensive bone and soft tissue defects, functional and aesthetic reconstruction represents a huge challenge for any surgeon, with an increased risk of post-operative wound healing disorders. Our aim here was to perform a double free flap technique as a therapeutic option in this difficult patient collective and to evaluate the post-operative outcome. 15 patients with advanced and severe ORN undergoing mandibular and soft tissue reconstruction with a double free flap were retrospectively reviewed. In one single operation involving a three-team approach, an obligatory free fibular flap (FFF) was freely combined with another free flap according to the desired features: anterolateral thigh (ALT) or vastus lateralis flap (VLF), radial forearm flap (RFF) and latissimus dorsi flap (LDF). We found sufficient wound healing in the head and neck region in all patients with no need for any additional surgical intervention. The overall flap success rate was 93.3%, although three revisions of anastomosis were necessary. Furthermore, prolonged stay on the intensive care unit (ICU) and extended hospitalisation were avoided. The double free flap technique with an obligatory FFF provides a suitable surgical solution for the treatment of patients with severe ORN of the mandibular bone for which other conservative or surgical therapy strategies have reached their limits. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cordova, Adriana; Pirrello, Roberto; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Jeschke, Johannes; Brenner, Erich; Moschella, Francesco
The supraclavicular skin has been studied extensively and used as a pedicled flap for face and neck reconstruction. Its use as a free flap has not paralleled its use as a pedicled flap. The authors performed an anatomical investigation to assess the possibility of harvesting a free supraclavicular flap with the donor-site scar lying in the supraclavicular crease. In this article, the authors present the results of their anatomical study together with the preliminary clinical applications. Skin vascularization and feasibility of a free supraclavicular perforator flap were studied on 25 cadavers (15 fresh cadavers injected with colored latex at the Universiteé René Descartes in Paris; and 10 formalin-fixed, noninjected cadavers at the Innsbruck Medical University). The flap was used in two patients at the Plastic Surgery Department of the University of Palermo for a cutaneous facial reconstruction and intraoral reconstruction after cancer excision. An average of four perforators were consistently found in the supraclavicular area coming from the transverse cervical artery. Venous perforators drain into the superficial venous plexus rather than into the venae comitantes of the transverse cervical artery. Two flaps were successfully used based on these vessels. The vascularization of the supraclavicular skin depends on skin perforators coming from the transverse cervical artery and draining into the superficial venous plexus. Based on these vessels, a reliable free supraclavicular flap seems to be safe to harvest, with the scar hidden in the supraclavicular crease. The preliminary clinical applications of such a flap gave promising results, suggesting its potential applications.
Baltu, Yahya; Uzun, Hakan; Dölen, Utku Can; Özyurtlu, Mustafa
Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common type of skin cancer of the nasal dorsum and the medial canthal region, which is caused by chronic sun exposure. Limited adjacent tissue and the need for aesthetically pleasing result make the reconstruction of these regions very challenging. To overcome this challenge, we designed a perforator propeller flap based on the central artery. Between January 2014 and November 2015, we covered the nasal or medial canthal defects of 22 patients with central artery perforator propeller flaps. The mean age of the patients was 60.4 years (range: 47-81 years). The median follow-up period was 7.5 months (range: 2-23 months). The pathological diagnoses were basal cell carcinoma for 14 patients and squamous cell carcinoma for the remaining eight patients. The size of the defects ranged from 2 × 2 to 3.5 × 4 cm, and that of the flaps ranged from 2 × 3.5 to 3.2 × 6 cm. We did not observe any major complications requiring surgery, such as total flap loss, hematoma, or dog-ear deformity. However, venous congestion was seen in five patients and partial flap necrosis (that healed without intervention) in two patients. The central artery perforator propeller flap is a reliable and versatile flap for the reconstruction of the nasal dorsum and medial canthal region. Reconstruction with this flap is a single-stage procedure that can cover large defects without causing dog-ear deformity or eyebrow asymmetry compared with other local flap options. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doan, Nghiem Van Trong; Du, Zhibin; Reher, Peter; Xiao, Yin
The purpose of this study was to identify retrospectively the predictors of implant survival when the flapless protocol was used in two private dental practices. The collected data were initially computer searched to identify the patients; later, a hand search of patient records was carried out to identify all flapless implants consecutively inserted over the last 10 years. The demographic information gathered on statistical predictors included age, sex, periodontal and peri-implantitis status, smoking, details of implants inserted, implant locations, placement time after extraction, use of simultaneous guided hard and soft tissue regeneration procedures, loading protocols, type of prosthesis, and treatment outcomes (implant survival and complications). Excluded were any implants that required flaps or simultaneous guided hard and soft tissue regeneration procedures, and implants narrower than 3.25 mm. A total of 1,241 implants had been placed in 472 patients. Life table analysis indicated cumulative 5-year and 10-year implant survival rates of 97.9% and 96.5%, respectively. Most of the failed implants occurred in the posterior maxilla (54%) in type 4 bone (74.0%), and 55.0% of failed implants had been placed in smokers. Flapless dental implant surgery can yield an implant survival rate comparable to that reported in other studies using traditional flap techniques.
Malhotra, Ranjan; Kapoor, Anoop; Grover, Vishakha; Kaushal, Sumit
Tobacco use has been recognized to be a significant risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal disease. Its use is associated with increased pocket depths, loss of periodontal attachment, alveolar bone and a higher rate of tooth loss. Nicotine, a major component and most pharmacologically active agent in tobacco is likely to be a significant contributing factor for the exacerbation of periodontal diseases. Available literature suggests that nicotine affects gingival blood flow, cytokine production, neutrophil and other immune cell function; connective tissue turnover, which can be the possible mechanisms responsible for overall effects of tobacco on periodontal tissues. Inclusion of tobacco cessation as a part of periodontal therapy encourages dental professionals to become more active in tobacco cessation counseling. This will have far reaching positive effects on our patients’ oral and general health. PMID:20922084
Periodontal disease is considered to be an opportunistic infection as a result of interactions between the causative agents (dental plaque) and the host responses which may be modulated by genetic, environmental and acquired risk factors. Besides being a well-confirmed risk factor in a number of systemic diseases, tobacco smoking has also been associated with periodontal disease. Over the past 10-15 years, more and more scientific data on the impact of smoking on various aspects of periodontal disease and the underlying mechanisms has been published. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the available data in order to give practitioners a better understanding of the relationship between smoking and periodontal disease. Subsequently, they can use some of the information in treatment decisions and give advice to patients who are smokers suffering from periodontal disease.
Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.
Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.
Han, J; Menicanin, D; Marino, V; Ge, S; Mrozik, K; Gronthos, S; Bartold, P M
The complex microenvironment of the periodontal wound creates many challenges associated with multitissue regeneration of periodontal lesions. Recent characterization of mesenchymal stem cell-like populations residing in periodontal ligament tissues has shown that these cells exhibit features of postnatal stem cells. Despite these advances, a lack of consistency in design of preclinical studies and a limited study of allogeneic transplantation applications has restricted our understanding of their clinical utility in the treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the regenerative potential of allogeneic periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in a rat periodontal fenestration defect mode and to identify an optimal end time-point suitable for quantitative assessment of tissue regeneration. Periodontal fenestration defects, created in Sprague Dawley rats, were treated with allogeneic PDLSCs seeded onto Gelfoam(®) (Absorbable gelatin sponge; Pharmacia Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) or with Gelfoam(®) alone, or remained untreated. Experimental rats were killed at 7, 14, 21 or 28 d after surgery and the tissues were processed for immunohistochemical and histomorphometric examination. Defects treated with PDLSCs showed significantly greater percentage bone fill and length of new bone bridge compared with the untreated group or the group treated with Gelfoam(®) alone on days 14 and 21. Similarly, a statistically significant difference was achieved within specimens retrieved on day 21 for analysis of regeneration of cementum/periodontal ligament (PDL)-like structures. The present investigation shows that allogeneic PDLSCs have a marked ability to repair periodontal defects by forming bone, PDL and cementum-like tissue in vivo. The results suggest that treatment periods of 14 and 21 d are optimal end time-points for quantitative assessment of periodontal regeneration within the rodent fenestration-defect model utilized in the present study
Salinas, Thomas J; Desa, Valmont P; Katsnelson, Alexander; Miloro, Michael
The success of osseointegrated implants in the radiated fibula flap used for mandibular reconstruction is variable, and there are few long-term data available in the literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate implant success in radiated fibula flaps and the native mandible after ablative tumor surgery. The medical records of 44 patients who underwent resection and reconstruction of the mandible from 1994 to 2006 were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 206 implants were placed; 144 were placed in a fibula flap, and 92 were placed in the native mandible. Before implant placement, 22 patients (50%) received adjuvant tumoricidal doses of radiation therapy (>6,000 cGy). All patients who received radiation received a standard regimen of 20 preoperative and 10 postoperative hyperbaric oxygen treatments. The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 108 months (mean, 41.1 months). Comparisons were made between groups regarding long-term implant success based on several variables. Implants were considered to be successful if there was no radiographic evidence of peri-implant bone loss and if they were clinically osseointegrated. Of 206 implants, 31 failed, with an overall success rate of 85%. The success rate of implants placed in fibula flaps was 82.4%, and the success rate in native mandibles was 88%. Most of the failures in the fibula (90%) occurred within the first 6 months after implant placement, whereas most of the failures in the mandible occurred after 6 months. The cumulative survival rate was 91.9%, and there was no difference in survival between implants placed in the fibula versus the native mandible or depending on whether the patient received radiation therapy. Acceptable long-term implant success rates may be achieved in the radiated mandible with vascularized fibula flap reconstruction. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Puonti, Helena K; Jääskeläinen, Satu K; Hallikainen, Helena K; Partanen, Taina A
Classic abdominoplasty for a transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction impairs abdominal somatosensory function at the donor site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the type of surgical procedure has an effect on somatosensory alterations of abdominal skin after TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Sixty patients (mean ± SD age, 50 ± 6.0 years) who underwent microvascular TRAM flap breast reconstruction and 20 healthy subjects (control group; mean age, 46 ± 6.7 years) participated in the study. Twenty patients had bilateral-nerve anastomosis, 20 had single-nerve anastomosis, and 20 underwent no nerve dissection for the TRAM flap. Clinical sensory examination and tactile and thermal quantitative sensory testing were performed and a patient questionnaire was administered at a mean of 2 to 4.5 years after surgery. All surgical techniques produced significant sensory impairment below the umbilicus, but there were no significant differences in total sensibility scores between the groups with single-nerve (mean sensibility score, 21.98 ± 2.7) and double-nerve (mean sensibility score, 20.71 ± 3.6) anastomosis of the TRAM flap. The best sensibility scores were found in the group with single-nerve dissection. Fifteen percent of patients complained of mild pain, and 13 percent felt occasional tactile hyperesthesia in their abdominal skin, mostly around the umbilicus and scars. In this study, unilateral or bilateral nerve dissection when preparing and lifting a TRAM flap did not seem to increase sensory alterations or postoperative pain in the abdominal donor site after breast reconstruction surgery. Cautious microneurovascular dissection techniques may even improve sensory recovery of the abdominal skin after TRAM flap breast reconstruction surgery.
Eichelsbacher, Florian; Denner, Walter; Klaiber, Bernd; Schlagenhauf, Ulrich
This series of case reports evaluated the impact of adhesive crown-root fragment reattachment in periodontally healthy teeth suffering from crown-root fractures on various parameters of periodontal health over a time course of 2 years. A total of 20 teeth with crown-root fractures in 18 periodontally healthy subjects were evaluated. After open-flap access, crown-root fragments were adhesively reattached to the root stub. In all cases, the vertical difference between the alveolar bone crest and the fracture line was
Bast, Florian; Roos, Susann; Weikert, Sebastian; Schrom, Thomas
A variety of flaps are available to cover skin defects after surgery or trauma in the head and neck area. The bilobed flap is a double transposition flap commonly used in reconstruction of small-to-medium skin defects of the face where skin is less mobile. However, larger defects can also be effectively treated with a bilobed flap in certain cases. The classic indication to cover a small defect on the nose and covering a large skin-defect after tumour resection in the jugular notch. After sufficient mobilization, the defects could easily be closed with no wound complications and with very good aesthetic and functional outcome. The bilobed flap, as a local flap, is possible in suitable locations even for larger skin defects. In addition to the simplicity of the procedure, good aesthetic results can be expected.
Dolan, RT; Butler, JS; Murphy, SM; Cronin, KJ
INTRODUCTION Microvascular free flap reconstruction has revolutionised the reconstruction of complex defects of traumatic, oncological, congenital and infectious aetiologies. Complications of microvascular free flap procedures impact negatively on patient post-operative course and outcome. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of 102 consecutive patients undergoing 108 free flap procedures at a tertiary referral centre over an 8-year period. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors pRedictive of free flap complications. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and aesthetic outcomes were assessed using the Short Form 36 questionnaire and a satisfaction visual analogue scale respectively. RESULTS In total, 108 free tissue transfers were performed; 23% were fasciocutaneous free flaps, 69% musculocutaneous and 8% osteoseptocutaneous. The overall flap success rate was 92.6%. Over a third of patients (34.3%) had flap-related complications ranging from minor wound dehiscence to total flap loss. ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade ≥2 (OR: 16.9, 95% CI: 15.3–18.1, p<0.009), history of smoking (OR: 6.1, 95% CI: 5.5–7.2, p<0.049), body mass index ≥25kg/ m2 (OR: 21.3, 95% CI: 20.8–22.1, p<0.003), low albumin (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–3.9, p<0.003) and peripheral vascular disease (OR: 6.9, 95% CI: 5.9–7.5, p<0.036) were identified as factors independently predictive of free flap complications. CONCLUSIONS Patients undergoing uncomplicated free flap surgery and those reporting superior post-operative flap aesthesis have higher HRQoL scores. Microvascular free tissue transfer has revolutionised our approach to the reconstruction of complex defects, providing a safe, reliable procedure to restore functionality and quality of life for patients. PMID:22524928
Bonomi, Stefano; Salval, André; Brenta, Federica; Rapisarda, Vincenzo; Settembrini, Fernanda
Many procedures have been proposed for the treatment of pressure sores, and V-Y advancement flaps are widely used to repair a defect. Unfortunately, the degree of mobility of a V-Y advancement flap is dependent on the laxity of the underlying subcutaneous tissue. This is an important disadvantage of traditional V-Y advancement flap and limits its use.We used V-Y advancement flaps as perforator-based to overcome mobility restriction problem, with a further modification (Pacman-like shape) to improve the covering surface area of the flap. Between January 2012 and December 2014, the authors used 37 V-Y Pacman perforator-based flaps in 33 consecutive patients for coverage of defects located at sacral (n = 21), ischial (n = 13), trochanter (n = 1) regions. There were 27 male and 6 female patients with a mean age of 49.9 years (range, 15-74 years). All flaps survived completely (92.3%) except 3 in which one of them had undergone total necrosis due to hematoma and the other 2 had partial necrosis. No venous congestion was observed. The mean follow-up period was 14.9 months (range, 2-38 months). No flap surgery-related mortality or recurrence of pressure sores was noted. The V-Y Pacman perforator-based advancement flaps are safe and very effective for reconstruction of pressure sores at various regions. The advantage of our modification procedure include shorter operative time, lesser pedicle dissection, low donor site morbidity, good preservation of muscle, and offers remarkable excursion to the V-Y flap, which make the V-Y Pacman perforator-based flaps an excellent choice for large pressure sore coverage.
Chen, Fa-Ming; Gao, Li-Na; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Dong, Guang-Ying; Lu, Hong; Chu, Qing; Xu, Jie; Yu, Yang; Wu, Rui-Xin; Yin, Yuan; Shi, Songtao; Jin, Yan
Periodontitis, which progressively destroys tooth-supporting structures, is one of the most widespread infectious diseases and the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Evidence from preclinical trials and small-scale pilot clinical studies indicates that stem cells derived from periodontal ligament tissues are a promising therapy for the regeneration of lost/damaged periodontal tissue. This study assessed the safety and feasibility of using autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) as an adjuvant to grafting materials in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) to treat periodontal intrabony defects. Our data provide primary clinical evidence for the efficacy of cell transplantation in regenerative dentistry. We conducted a single-center, randomized trial that used autologous PDLSCs in combination with bovine-derived bone mineral materials to treat periodontal intrabony defects. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned to either the Cell group (treatment with GTR and PDLSC sheets in combination with Bio-oss(®)) or the Control group (treatment with GTR and Bio-oss(®) without stem cells). During a 12-month follow-up study, we evaluated the frequency and extent of adverse events. For the assessment of treatment efficacy, the primary outcome was based on the magnitude of alveolar bone regeneration following the surgical procedure. A total of 30 periodontitis patients aged 18 to 65 years (48 testing teeth with periodontal intrabony defects) who satisfied our inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the Cell group or the Control group. A total of 21 teeth were treated in the Control group and 20 teeth were treated in the Cell group. All patients received surgery and a clinical evaluation. No clinical safety problems that could be attributed to the investigational PDLSCs were identified. Each group showed a significant increase in the alveolar bone height (decrease in the bone-defect depth) over time (p < 0.001). However
Mücke, Thomas; Ritschl, Lucas M; Roth, Maximilian; Güll, Florian D; Rau, Andrea; Grill, Sonja; Kesting, Marco R; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Loeffelbein, Denys J
Microvascular free flaps have become an essential part of reconstructive surgery following head and neck tumour ablation. The authors' aim was to investigate the influence of cardiovascular risk factors, preoperative irradiation, previous operations and metabolically active medication on free flap loss in order to predict patients at risk and to improve their therapy. All patients who underwent reconstructive surgery with microvascular free flaps in the head and neck region between 2009 and 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between possible predictor variables for free flap loss. We included 451 patients in our analysis. The overall free flap failure rate was 4.0%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significantly increased risks of free flap failure depending on prior attempts at microvascular transplants (p < 0.001, OR = 14.21) and length of hospitalisation (p = 0.007, OR = 1.05). With consistently low rates of flap failure, microvascular reconstruction of defects in the head and neck region has proven to be highly reliable, even in patients with comorbidities. The expertise of the operating team seems to remain the main factor affecting flap success. The only discerned independent predictor was previously failed attempts at microvascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lai, Hsin-Ti; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Chang, Chih-Hau; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw; Kuo, Yur-Ren
Bulky appearance after free flap reconstruction in patients with head and neck cancer is common and requires revision to achieve improved final outcomes. Although different delayed debulking methods have been reported, the procedure can be technically difficult in patients with severe scaring after adjuvant radiotherapy. The present study proposes a combined method of liposuction and arthroscopic shaving for delayed contouring of free flaps in head and neck reconstruction. In this study, 12 patients with head and neck cancer who had bulky flaps after cancer ablation surgery and immediate free anterolateral thigh flap reconstruction were included. These patients underwent delayed debulking through the combined arthroscopic shaving and liposuction method at least 3 months after the initial reconstruction or the completion of adjuvant radiotherapy (if required). Age, sex, cancer stages, the presence or absence of adjuvant radiotherapy, the interval between the initial free flap reconstruction and the debulking procedure, complications, and subjective satisfaction ratings were recorded 1 and 6 months after the revision surgery. All patients were men, with an average age of 56.3 years (43-69 years), and 9 (75%) patients underwent adjuvant radiotherapy. Partial flap loss was not observed in the study patients, and subjective satisfaction ratings improved after the debulking procedure. The combined liposuction and arthroscopic shaving method can facilitate the debulking and contouring procedures in patients with head and neck cancer after free flap reconstruction. With appropriate timing, the combined procedure can be simple and safe, even in patients with severe scaring after adjuvant radiotherapy.
Matsumine, Hajime; Kirita, Miho; Sakurai, Hiroyuki
This study described a technique for reconstruction of a large lateral thoracic region defect after locally advanced breast cancer resection that allows for full coverage of the defect and primary closure of the flap donor site. The authors performed reconstruction using the newly designed 180-degree rotationally-divided latissimus-dorsi-musculocutaneous flap in a 42-year-old woman for coverage of a large skin defect (18 × 15 cm) following extensive tissue resection for locally advanced breast cancer. The latissimus-dorsi-musculocutaneous flap, consisting of two rotated skin islands (18 × 7.5 cm each) that were sutured to form a large skin island, was used for coverage of the defect. The flap was sutured without causing excessive tension in the recipient region and the donor site was closed with simple reefing. No skin grafting was necessary. The flap survived completely, shoulder joint function was intact, and esthetic outcome was satisfactory. Quick wound closure allowed postoperative irradiation to be started 1 month after surgery. The technique offered advantages over the conventional pedicled latissimus-dorsi-musculocutaneous flap, but the flap was unable to be used, when the thoracodorsal artery and vein were damaged during extensive tissue removal. Detailed planning before surgery with breast surgeons would be essential.
Lindhe, J; Nyman, S
The present clinical trial was performed to study whether subgingival scaling is a method of therapy which is equally effective as "access" flaps in reducing gingivitis and probing depths and in improving probing attachment levels. The study was also designed to assess whether granulation tissue removal is a determining factor for proper healing in the treatment of periodontal disease. 15 patients with advanced periodontal disease were included in the study. Each patient had at least 4 sites in each quadrant of the jaws with probing depths exceeding 6 mm. A baseline examination was performed to assess the following parameters: the oral hygiene status, the gingival conditions, the probing pocket depths and the probing attachment levels. In addition, in each quadrant, 3 approximal sites were selected for analysis of the subgingival microbiota. All of these sites showed signs of gingivitis. One site had a probing depth of less than 4 mm, another a probing depth between 4 and 6 mm and the third site had a probing depth exceeding 6 mm. The subgingival bacterial samples were studied by dark-field microscopy and the % of spirochetes and motile rods was assessed. By random selection the 4 jaw quadrants in each patient were treated for periodontal disease by the use of (1) the modified Widman flap procedure, (2) the modified Kirkland flap procedure or by (3) nonsurgical scaling and root planing. In all, 20 quadrants were treated with each of the 3 procedures. After the termination of active periodontal treatment, all patients were recalled for professional tooth cleaning once every 2 weeks during a 12-week period. Subsequently, they were recalled for prophylaxis every 3 months. The patients were examined 6 and 12 months after treatment using the same parameters as used at baseline. The data from the examinations demonstrated that subgingival scaling is an effective measure in the treatment of periodontal disease. Both in terms of average gingivitis resolution and average
Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Donnelly, M.
Aquatic animals like fish use flapping caudal fins to produce axial and cross-stream forces. During WW2, German scientists had built and tested an underwater vehicle powered by similar flapping foils. We have examined the forces produced by a pair of flapping foils. We have examined the forced produced by a pair of flapping foils attached to the tail end of a small axisymmetric cylinder. The foils operate in-phase (called waving), or in anti-phase (called clapping). In a low-speed water tunnel, we have undertaken time-dependent measurements of axial and cross-stream forces and moments that are exerted by the vortex shedding process over the entire body. Phase-matched LDV measurements of vorticity-velocity vectors, as well as limited flow visualization of the periodic vortex shedding process have also been carried out. The direction of the induced velocity within a pair of shed vortices determines the nature of the forces produced, viz., thrust or drag or cross-stream forces. The clapping mode produces a widely dispersed symmetric array of vortices which results in axial forces only (thrust and rag). On the other hand, the vortex array is staggered in the waving mode and cross-stream (maneuvering) forces are then generated.
Pye, John D.; Cantwell, Brian J.
Recent studies of airframe noise suggest that the wing and flap trailing--edges as well as the flap side--edge are areas of significant noise generation. To identify the fluid dynamic processes associated with these noise sources, we are examining the flow--field around a NACA 63--215 Mod B main element airfoil configured with a half--span Fowler flap. The tests are performed in a low--speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of ~ 6.0×10^5. A hot wire traverse system is used to map the mean velocities and turbulence intensities in the near wake region of the flow. Measurements of the pressure fluctuations along the flap side--edge and in the cove of the airfoil configuration are made with pressure transducers mounted inside the airfoil. The experimental data are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical simulation of a slightly higher Reynolds number flow ( ~ 1.5×10^6) around a geometrically similar airfoil configuration.
Persson, G Rutger; Imfeld, Thomas
The prevalence of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is high. A mixed infectious biofilm etiology of periodontitis is known but not fully established in CVD. Cofactors; smoking habits, stress, ethnicity, genetics, socioeconomics and age contribute to both diseases. The objectives of this report are to summarize factors in regards to CVD and periodontitis that are clinically relevant. The hypothesis behind a relationship between the two conditions can be founded in (I) shared infections etiology, (II) shared inflammatory response, (III) epidemiological and case-control studies, and (IV) periodontal studies demonstrating improvements of CVD markers. Streptococcus species in the S. mitis group, and S. anginosus group have been identified in periodontitis and are known as pathogens in endocarditis possibly transported from the oral cavity to the heart through bacteremia during dental therapies, and tooth brushing. Other periodontal bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Parvimonas micra are beta-lactamase producing and may contribute to antibiotic resistance (extended spectrum beta-lactamases). Other bacteria in CVD and periodontitis include Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chlamydia pneumoniae and P. gingivalis lipopolyysaccharide capsels share homology and induce heat-shock protein activity and a cascade of proinflammatory cytokines. Associations between periodontitis and CVD have been presented in many studies when controlling for confounders. Other studies have demonstrated that periodontal therapies increase brachial artery flow rate and reduce serum inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, physicians caring for subjects at CVD risk should consult with dentists/periodontists. Dentists must improve their medical knowledge and also learn to consult with physicians when treating patients at CVD risk.
Requicha, João Filipe; Viegas, Carlos Alberto; Muñoz, Fernando; Reis, Rui Luís; Gomes, Manuela Estima
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease which constitutes an important health problem in humans due to its enormous prevalence and life threatening implications on systemic health. Routine standard periodontal treatments include gingival flaps, root planning, application of growth/differentiation factors or filler materials and guided tissue regeneration. However, these treatments have come short on achieving regeneration ad integrum of the periodontium, mainly due to the presence of tissues from different embryonic origins and their complex interactions along the regenerative process. Tissue engineering (TE) aims to regenerate damaged tissue by providing the repair site with a suitable scaffold seeded with sufficient undifferentiated cells and, thus, constitutes a valuable alternative to current therapies for the treatment of periodontal defects. Stem cells from oral and dental origin are known to have potential to regenerate these tissues. Nevertheless, harvesting cells from these sites implies a significant local tissue morbidity and low cell yield, as compared to other anatomical sources of adult multipotent stem cells. This manuscript reviews studies describing the use of non-oral stem cells in tissue engineering strategies, highlighting the importance and potential of these alternative stem cells sources in the development of advanced therapies for periodontal regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye
Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Animal experimentation. Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Mean vessel diameter was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. We have determined that, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, R. officinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival.
İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye
Background Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. Aims This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. Results The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Mean vessel diameter was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Conclusion We have determined that, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, R. officinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival. PMID:27994918
Koh, Kyung S; Park, Sung Woo; Oh, Tae Suk; Choi, Jong Woo
Flap survival is essential for the success of soft-tissue reconstruction. Accordingly, various surgical and medical methods aim to increase flap survival. Because flap survival is affected by the innate vascular supply, traditional preconditioning methods mainly target vasodilatation or vascular reorientation to increase blood flow to the tissue. External stress on the skin, such as an external volume expander or cupping, induces vascular remodeling, and these approaches have been used in the fat grafting field and in traditional Asian medicine. In the present study, we used a rat random-pattern dorsal flap model to study the effectiveness of preconditioning with an externally applied device (cupping) at the flap site that directly applied negative pressure to the skin. The device, the pressure-controlled cupping, is connected to negative pressure vacuum device providing accurate pressure control from 0 mm Hg to -200 mm Hg. Flap surgery was performed after preconditioning under -25 mm Hg suction pressure for 30 min a day for 5 d, followed by 9 d of postoperative observation. Flap survival was assessed as the area of viable tissue and was compared between the preconditioned group and a control group. The preconditioned group showed absolute percentage increase of flap viability relative to the entire flap by 19.0± 7.6% (average 70.1% versus 51.0%). Tissue perfusion of entire flap, evaluated by laser Doppler imaging system, was improved with absolute percentage increase by 24.2± 10.4% (average 77.4% versus 53.1%). Histologic analysis of hematoxylin and eosin, CD31, and Masson-trichrome staining showed increased vascular density in the subdermal plexus and more organized collagen production with hypertrophy of the attached muscle. Our study suggests that flap preconditioning caused by controlled noninvasive suction induces vascular remodeling that increases tissue perfusion and improves flap survival in a rat model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Tan, Bien-Keem; Joethy, Janna; Ong, Yee-Siang; Ho, Gay-Hui; Pribaz, Julian J
Recent experience with the ipsilateral TRAM flap has shown that it has the advantage of a longer functional pedicle length, which allows tension-free inset of well-vascularized tissue into the breast pocket. This leads to better positioning and shaping of the reconstructed breast with minimal disruption of the inframammary fold. The purpose of this article was to provide an illustrated approach to the ipsilateral TRAM flap and to clarify the technique when applied in the context of immediate breast reconstruction following cancer extirpation. A prospective evaluation of 89 patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction following skin-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer was performed. All patients underwent ipsilateral TRAM reconstruction. The innate insetting advantage of the ipsilateral TRAM flap is illustrated in the article. The key steps of the technique were as follows: (1) The ipsilateral corner of the flap was used as the axillary tail, leaving the more bulky part to form the main body of the breast; (2) To avoid undesirable twists, a right TRAM was rotated clockwise so that its apex points superiorly; (3) This flap was subsequently tunneled into the breast pocket while preserving the inframammary fold. The opposite maneuvers were done for the left side; (4) If the flap was congested, venous augmentation was performed where the tributary of the axillary vein or the thoracodorsal vein was anastomosed with the inferior epigastric vein from the flap with an interposed vein graft (17% of cases). All flaps survived and flap-related complications included partial necrosis of tissue across the midline (2.2%), palpable fat necrosis (22%), and hematoma requiring drainage (2.2%). All flaps were raised concurrent with the resection, and the combined operative time ranged from 3.5 to 6 h, with a mean hospital stay of 7 days. The ipsilateral TRAM flap was a reliable flap with low complication rates and short surgery time. It was our preferred choice for
Yoshimasu, Hidemi; Sato, Yutaka; Mishimagi, Takashi; Negishi, Akihide
Background: Velopharyngeal function is very important for patients with cleft palate to acquire good speech. For patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, prosthetic speech appliances and speech therapy are applied first, and then pharyngeal flap surgery to improve velopharyngeal function is performed in our hospital. The folded pharyngeal flap operation was first reported by Isshiki and Morimoto in 1975. We usually use a modification of the original method. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to introduce our method of the folded pharyngeal flap operation and report the results. Materials and Methods: The folded pharyngeal flap operation was performed for 110 patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency from 1982 to 2010. Of these, the 97 whose postoperative speech function was evaluated are reported. The cases included 61 males and 36 females, ranging in age from 7 to 50 years. The time from surgery to speech assessment ranged from 5 months to 6 years. In order to evaluate preoperative velopharyngeal function, assessment of speech by a trained speech pathologist, nasopharyngoscopy, and cephalometric radiography with contrast media were performed before surgery, and then the appropriate surgery was selected and performed. Postoperative velopharyngeal function was assessed by a trained speech pathologist. Results: Of the 97 patients who underwent the folded pharyngeal flap operation, 85 (87.6%) showed velopharyngeal competence, 8 (8.2%) showed marginal velopharyngeal incompetence, and only 2 (2.1%) showed velopharyngeal incompetence; in 2 cases (2.1%), hyponasality was present. Approximately 95% of patients showed improved velopharyngeal function. Conclusions: The folded pharyngeal flap operation based on appropriate preoperative assessment has been shown to be an effective method for the treatment of cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency. PMID:26389036
Sugawara, Akiyoshi; Fujikawa, Kenji; Hirayama, Satoshi; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C.
Previous studies showed that water-free, premixed calcium phosphate cements (Pre-CPCs) exhibited longer hardening times and lower strengths than conventional CPCs, but were stable in the package. The materials hardened only after being delivered to a wet environment and formed hydroxyapatite as the only product. Pre-CPCs also demonstrated good washout resistance and excellent biocompatibility when implanted in subcutaneous tissues in rats. The present study evaluated characteristics of Pre-CPCs when implanted in subcutaneous tissues (Study I) and used for repairing surgically created two-wall periodontal defects (Study II). Pre-CPC pastes were prepared by combining CPC powders that consisted of CPC-1: Ca4(PO4)2O and CaHPO4, CPC-2: α-Ca3(PO4)2 and CaCO3 or CPC-3: DCPA and Ca(OH)2 with a glycerol at powder-to-liquid mass ratios of 3.5, 2.5, and 2.5, respectively. In each cement mixture, the Ca to P molar ratio was 1.67. The glycerol contained Na2HPO4 (30 mass %) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (0.55 %) to accelerate cement hardening and improve washout resistance, respectively. In Study I, the test materials were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Four weeks after the operation, the animals were sacrificed and histopathological observations were performed. The results showed that all of the implanted materials exhibited very slight or negligible inflammatory reactions in tissues contacted with the implants. In Study II, the mandibular premolar teeth of mature beagle dogs were extracted. One month later, two-wall periodontal bone defects were surgically created adjacent to the teeth of the mandibular bone. The defects were filled with the Pre-CPC pastes and the flaps replaced in the preoperative position. The dogs were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery and sections of filled defects resected. Results showed that one month after surgery, the implanted Pre-CPC-1 paste was partially replaced by bone and was converted to bone at 6 months. The pockets filled
Weersink, Robert A.
Periodontal disease is a family of chronic inflammatory conditions caused by bacterial infections.' It is manifested in red, swollen gingiva (gums) and can lead to destruction of the connective tissue and bone that hold teeth in place. Conventional treatments typically require some form of invasive surgery, depending on the disease stage at time of detection. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is the use of light-activated drugs (photosensitizers) for treatment of a variety of conditions 2 such as solid tumors, pre-malignancies, macular degeneration and actinic keratitis. There have been a number of studies of PDT as an antibacterial agent. 3'4 Depending on the photosensitizer and strain of bacteria, significant killing (several LOGS) can be achieved.
Durkin, Alan J; Pierpont, Yvonne N; Patel, Shitel; Tavana, M Lance; Uberti, M Georgina; Payne, Wyatt G; Smith, David J; Smith, Paul D
Innovative surgical techniques developed by surgical oncologists have changed the landscape of mastectomy defects. Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap-based breast reconstruction provides a reliable foundation for breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differential skin island designs with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap breast reconstruction, and to develop an algorithmic approach to breast reconstruction that is applicable to a broad spectrum of mastectomy defects. In this study, the authors retrospectively reviewed data of patients who underwent latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap reconstruction following unilateral or bilateral mastectomies between February of 2001 and April of 2005. Patients were selected to undergo reconstruction under the following circumstances: (1) previously irradiated tissue, (2) body mass index greater than 30, (3) current tobacco use, (4) previous abdominopelvic surgery, and (5) patient preference. Patients were divided into three groups based on defect present: intact inframammary fold with skin deficit, intact inframammary fold without skin deficit, and absent inframammary fold with or without skin deficit. Differential skin island design was customized to the presenting mastectomy defect to optimize results and minimize donor-site scaring. Fifty-four patients underwent 64 latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap reconstructions. Aesthetic outcomes and donor-site scar placement differed between groups. The authors have developed an algorithmic approach to latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap breast reconstruction. Through critical evaluation of mastectomy defects, reconstructive breast surgeons can tailor skin island orientation, minimize donor-site scarring, enhance cosmetic outcomes, and provide a durable and natural aesthetic outcome in breast reconstruction with the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap.
Aksam, Ersin; Demirseren, Mustafa Erol; Aksam, Berrak; Demirseren, Duriye Deniz; Inan, Haci Mehmet
This article discusses the results of orbicularis oris muscle-sparing surgery and reconstruction of defects through the use of facial artery perforator flaps and mucosal advancement flaps. Patients with lower lip carcinoma were evaluated retrospectively. Patients who underwent reconstruction with facial artery perforator flaps and mucosal advancement flaps with clear surgical margins and no muscle invasion were included in this study. Frozen section examinations were performed intraoperatively. Patients with muscle invasion were excluded. Between 2005 and 2015, 42 patients were treated by the described method. Supraomohyoid lymph node dissections were performed in patients whose ultrasonography had detected suspicious lymph nodes (n = 4). No metastases were identified on pathologic examination of the lymph nodes, and no local or distant recurrences were seen during a mean follow-up time of 58.4 months (range, 16 to 82 months). The value of resecting the orbicularis oris muscle in cases in which there has been no muscle invasion is an ongoing subject of debate among surgeons. Preserving the muscle means preserving the function, and this is the main purpose of reconstruction. Using facial artery perforator flaps for reconstruction ensures good esthetic results while also maintaining the maximum oral opening. Sphincter-sparing excision and reconstruction with facial artery perforator flaps comprise a safe and reliable treatment method for selected cases involving lower lip carcinomas. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sinno, Sammy; Kadel, Rohini; Tanna, Neil; Zide, Barry M
The senior author has previously described a deep-plane cervicofacial hike flap as a workhorse for reconstruction mid-cheek defects. One important modification commonly used involves overcorrection of the defect in order to reduce the incidence of ectropion. This report outlines the senior author's experience in surgical treating complex cheek defects with an overcorrected deep-plane cervicofacial hike flap. The authors performed a retrospective review of the senior author's patients with cheek and eyelid reconstruction. The authors initially identified all patients who had undergone a deep-plane cervicofacial hike flap, then filtered those charts for patients who had overcorrection of their deformity in order to prevent ectropion. A total of 3 patients had an overcorrected flap. Overcorrection was accomplished either by cheek advancement with suture fixation to the deep temporal fascia, or by placement of drill holes and bone anchors. Lower eyelid malposition was avoided in all 3 patients. Patient satisfaction at long term follow-up was very high, and no revision surgery was needed. If gravitational or cicatricial forces can potentially distort the eyelid in patients with cheek or eyelid reconstruction, it is necessary to overcorrect the cheek flap. This modification of the deep-plane cervicofacial flap is an important tool in reconstructing defects in this area.
Graczyk, Magdalena; Kostro, Justyna; Jankau, Jerzy; Bigda, Justyna; Skorek, Andrzej
The number of breast reconstruction procedures has been increasing in recent years. One of the suggested treatment methods is breast reconstruction with a pedicled skin and muscle TRAM flap (transverse rectus abdominis muscle - TRAM). Surgical incisions performed during a cholecystectomy procedure may be located in the areas significant for flap survival. The aim of this paper is to present anatomical changes in abdominal walls secondary to pedicled skin and muscle (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction, which influence the planned access in cholecystectomy procedures. The authors present 2 cases of cholecystectomy performed due to cholelithiasis in female patients with a history of TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedures. The first patient underwent a traditional method of surgery 14 days after the reconstruction due to acute cholecystitis. The second patient underwent a laparoscopy due to cholelithiasis 7 years after the TRAM procedure. In both cases an abdominal ultrasound scan was performed prior to the operation, and surgical access was determined following consultation with a plastic surgeon. The patient who had undergone traditional cholecystectomy developed an infection of the postoperative wound. The wound was treated with antibiotics, vacuum therapy and skin grafting. After 7 weeks complete postoperative wound healing and correct healing of the TRAM flap were achieved. The patient who had undergone laparoscopy was discharged home on the second postoperative day without any complications. In order to plan a safe surgical access, it is necessary to know the changes in the anatomy of abdominal walls following a pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedure.
Ali, Ebrahimi; Nasrin, Nejadsarvari; Azin, Ebrahimi
We can use pre auricular and post auricular skin as a pull through flap for upper antihelix defects reconstruction. This was a prospective case-series study, which was done in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Ward. In this study, 15 patients (3 women, 12 men), ranging from 45 to 72 years old (mean, 58 years) underwent operation with pull through banner flap for reconstruction of upper antihelix (7 cases) and triangular fossa with superior and inferior crura (5cases) caused by BCC or SCC excision. Reconstruction of upper antihelix defects up to 20 × 30 mm with post auricle pull through flap and reconstruction of triangular fossa up to 20 × 20 mm with pre auricle pull through flap were done. Our study showed that pull through flap with superior pedicle from post auricular and preauricular area was an effective method for reconstruction of upper ear antihelix defects. We advocate that the pull through flap with superior pedicle from post auricle and pre auricle is an excellent choice for reconstruction of upper antihelix ear reconstruction in both crura and triangular fossa.
Maeda, T; Oyama, A; Funayama, E; Yamamoto, Y
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare genetic disorder leading to congenital craniofacial malformations. Although this syndrome presents with various symptoms, corrective surgery for bilateral microtia with low hairline is one of the most challenging operations given the complex contours of the external ear. In this technical note, a novel, simple procedure for dealing with the low hairline by using a hinged mastoid fascial flap simultaneously with costal cartilage grafting is described. Several techniques for the reconstruction of low hairline microtia have been reported previously, such as skin graft, skin flap, and tissue expander, but the high number of repeat operations and residual scars remain problematic. As a simultaneous procedure with framework grafting, the use of a temporoparietal flap with skin grafting is popular; however, its drawbacks include the operative scar, decreased hair growth, and hair thinning. Patients with TCS show anatomical variations of the superficial temporal vessels supplying the temporoparietal flap. In contrast, due to the high vascularity of the mastoid fascia, the mastoid fascial flap can be elevated safely and easily as an anteriorly, posteriorly, superiorly, or inferiorly based flap. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herrero, Nicholas A; Sherman, Ethan G; Adelson, Robert T
To determine the flap tension present for 2 different surgical approaches for midface lifts and whether a gingivobuccal incision for release of the midface periosteum will diminish the resultant load on the midface flap. Cadaver study. Anatomy laboratory at the University of Florida. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaver heads are subjected to a transblepharoplasty (TB) approach on one side of the cadaver head while a transtemporal (TT) approach is performed on the contralateral side. The tension (grams) generated by moving the midface flap a distance of 1.03 cm is recorded by a digital load cell. A gingivobuccal incision is made on each side to allow transoral periosteal release (TOPR) of the midface flap, and the experiment is repeated. Three trials are performed for each operation, and the average load is calculated. A paired t test is applied. The tension resulting from the TT approach (172 g) was not found to be significantly different from that of the TB approach (179 g; P = .75). Significant differences in the resultant tension were not appreciated when comparing standard techniques to TT with TOPR (141.5 g; P = .27) or for TB with TOPR (164.1 g; P = .45). An experimental method is described for determining flap tension in facial rejuvenation surgery. No significant difference is found between flap tensions generated in the TB and TT approaches to the midface.
Song, H Jung
This article reviews periodontal disease and gingival disease and also explores issues relating to mucogingival defects such as gingival hyperplasia, gingival recession, and exposure of impacted canines. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Young-Taek; Kweon, Hye-In; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Seong-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hong
The prevalence of osteoporosis associated with the aging process is anticipated to increase along with the rising aging population. Periodontitis that the most common chronic infections of humankind is considered the risk factor for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to identify the association between osteoporosis and periodontitis using a population-based cohort. The case group was defined as patients diagnosed with periodontitis and treated with subgingival curettage, root conditioning, periodontal flap operation, bone grafting for alveolar bone defects, and guided tissue regeneration. Case and control groups matched for gender, age, household income, type of social security, disability, and residential area were generated. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to examine the difference in the development of osteoporosis between the case and control groups. The final sample included 13,464 participants. The incidence of osteoporosis was 1.1% in males and 15.8% in females during a 10-year period. The risk factors for osteoporosis in males were increasing age and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Periodontitis was not associated with the development of osteoporosis in males. The risk factors for osteoporosis in females were increasing age, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, diabetes, and periodontitis. Women with periodontitis were more likely to also develop osteoporosis (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.48). Periodontitis has an effect on the development of osteoporosis in females. Managing good teeth is required for the prevention and delay of osteoporosis. This includes dental examinations, regular cleanings and gum treatment.
The aim of this paper was to review the origins and history of deltopectoral flaps and the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap.The first published paper on the deltopectoral flap was written by Aymard in 1917. He described raising a medially based fasciocutaneous flap from the shoulder skin, which was then tubed and used for staged nasal reconstruction. Conley introduced the laterally based deltopectoral flap, which was supplied by the lateral thoracic and thoracocranial branches. Bakamjian used a medially based deltopectoral flap for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction; this was an axial flap based medially on the intercostal perforating vessels of the internal mammary artery. Krizek reviewed the literature and stated that Aymard flap was the keystone to the conception and execution of Bakamjian flap. Hueston was the first to combine a skin flap and pectoralis major muscle for repair of the large defects of the chest wall. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps described by Ariyan and Baek are a hybrid of Conley's laterally based deltopectoral flap and Hueston's inclusion of the pectoralis major muscle in the skin flap.When the authors develop what appears to be a new surgical technique, the authors are prone to be excited. However, at such a moment the authors must perform a literature review. In most patients, the authors will realize that the previous authors have already developed a given concept. The authors must not commit plagiarism due to their ignorance or laziness in conducting a literature review.
Lok, Lin-Wing; Chan, Wing-Leung; Lau, Yan-Kit
Fingertip amputations can be debilitating and challenging to treat, due to the need for both function and cosmesis. We studied the functional outcomes of patients receiving an antegrade homodigital neurovascular island flap for fingertip amputations. From 2004 to 2013, we performed 13 cases of antegrade homodigital neurovascular island flaps. Functional outcomes were studied. Four had Allen Zone II and nine had Zone III injuries. Seven were performed as secondary surgery. The mean followup period was 36 weeks. All the flaps survived. Ten of 11 had less than or equal to 6 mm two-point discrimination. Five patients were noted to have mild flexion contracture at distal interphalangeal joints ranging from 5 to 10 degrees. There were three cases with nail deformity, three with fingertip hypersensitivity and four with cold intolerance. For patients injured on duty, the mean duration of sick leave taken was 18.5 weeks. With careful patient selection, the antegrade homodigital neurovascular island flap is a reliable means of restoring the function of the fingertip after amputation injury with significant tissue loss. Flap survival, sensibility and mobile adjacent joint can be expected, even when performed as a secondary surgery and for patients with work-related injuries.
Nakanishi, Akito; Omokawa, Shohei; Iida, Akio; Kaji, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yasuhito
To identify independent predictors of postoperative proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contracture after direct-flow homodigital island flap transfer. Forty-four fingertip amputations in 39 patients treated with oblique triangular flaps were evaluated at a minimum of 1 year after surgery. Five variables were examined: patient age, injured finger, mechanism of injury, flap advancement distance, and time required for wound healing. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the extent to which these variables affected the flexion contracture of the PIP joint. The average reduction in the passive extension angle of the PIP joint was 16° at final follow-up. Univariate analysis indicated significant correlations of PIP joint flexion contracture with age, injured finger, and time for wound healing, but no significant correlation with the distance the flap was advanced. Multivariate analysis indicated that the age and duration of wound healing were independent predictors of the flexion contracture of the PIP joint. Elderly people and cases with delayed wound healing are at risk for postoperative PIP joint contracture after homodigital flap transfer. Intervention with early hand therapy and orthotics may be useful in elderly patients with delayed wound healing. Prognostic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hart, Kristopher; Baur, Dale; Hodam, Jason; Lesoon-Wood, Leslie; Parham, Mary; Keith, Karen; Vazquez, Raymond; Ager, Edward; Pizarro, Jose
Distal ischemic necrosis of the flap remains an unsolved, challenging problem. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, which include the drug sildenafil, are a relatively new class of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications whose effect on tissue viability has not been widely explored. The vasodilatory effects of these drugs have the potential to enhance blood flow to flaps and increase their survivability. The purpose of this study was to examine the short- and long-term effects of sildenafil, administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 9 mg/kg per day, on the survival of surgical skin flaps in rats. A McFarlane-type random pattern skin (3 x 10-cm) flap model was used to evaluate the effect of sildenafil on necrosis at multiple time points. Rats were assigned to sildenafil-treated (9 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally; n = 34), vehicle control (n = 35), or sham (no injection; n = 40) groups. In each group, caudally based, dorsal, rectangular (3 x 10-cm) flaps were created. Flap necrosis was determined using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and digital photography analysis on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 postsurgery. Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging results showed a significant decrease in necrosis and stasis in rats treated with sildenafil on days 1 and 3. Although reductions observed at days 5 and 7 were not as dramatic as days 1 and 3, digital photography analysis confirmed a decrease in the area of necrosis at all time points evaluated. These results suggest that PDE 5 inhibitors may play a more important role in early postoperative skin flap viability rather than at later time points and may be beneficial for skin flap viability as shown in the rat model. PDE 5 inhibitors may reduce the extent of necrosis after reconstructive surgeries.
Chhabra, Nipun; Healy, David Y; Freitag, Suzanne K; Bleier, Benjamin S
Endoscopic endonasal orbital surgery may result in large orbital defects that mandate reconstruction to minimize the risk of diplopia and enophthalmos. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the nasoseptal flap can provide adequate coverage of maximal orbital defects. This was an anatomic cadaveric study. Morphometric measurements were completed in 5 cadaveric orbits to determine the dimensions of an orbital defect comprising the entire lamina papyracea and the orbital floor. The dimensions of a planned nasoseptal flap were then calculated and an appropriately sized flap was harvested to verify complete coverage of the defect. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) medial orbital defect was a depth of 47.3 mm ± 2.52, height of 13.67 mm ± 2.73, and width of 13.33 mm ± 1.03 for the orbital floor. The mean flap dimensions were a width of 55 ± 6.16 mm, height of 48 ± 4.47 mm, and depth of 70 ± 3.54 mm. In all cases, the harvested flap adequately covered the orbital defect. These dimensions correlated with flap incisions subtending the mucocutaneous junction anteriorly, the inferior meatus laterally, the attachment of the middle turbinate superiorly, and the choanal arch posteriorly. Endoscopic orbital approaches may result in large orbital defects with significant orbital fat herniation and extraocular muscle exposure. Immediate vascularized flap reconstruction of the orbit may help to limit the attendant morbidity including diplopia and enophthalmos. This study is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of the nasoseptal flap for the reconstruction of maximal orbital defects. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Chen, Baoguo; Song, Huifeng
Web contractures are fairly commonly encountered in those who have suffered from burn injury or other trauma. Numerous local flaps have been adopted previously. The five-flap Z-plasty is one that has been used frequently. To release the scar as much as possible, based on the traditional design, we developed a modified technique of the five-flap Z-plasty to reconstruct the axillary and elbow web contractures. Hence, the length of the axis of the cicatrix could be much lengthened. Twenty patients (12 females and 8 males, 7 to 48 years-old) with 27 web contractures were arranged for the operation using the new flap. The contractures were formed on by burn injury in 17 patients, surgery in 2 patients, and traumatic cicatrix in 1 case. All patients were operated on using a modified five-flap Z-plasty to reach the aim of maximum contracture relaxation. All flaps survived well. No flap tip necrosis occurred. Good function was gained in all patients postoperatively by the one year average follow-up. There was no recurrence. The contracture band was freed satisfactorily. The technique is very easy to execute and can be used both in web and linear contractures. With the virtue of extending the length of the scar axis to a higher degree compared to the traditional method, we suggest this modified five-flap Z-plasty application. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Fries, C Anton; Villamaria, Carole Y; Spencer, Jerry R; Rasmussen, Todd E; Davis, Michael R
Free tissue transfer is a powerful reconstructive surgical technique. The ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) at revascularization affects the flap and the patient; reducing this insult could improve outcomes. This study evaluated the effect of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) on IRI in a porcine musculocutaneous flap model. A musculocutaneous flap was transferred from the limb to the neck of 12 swine. Flaps underwent a 3-hour ischemic interval prior to revascularization. Intervention group flaps (n = 6) were perfused intra-arterially with 100U C1-inh at the commencement of the ischemic period; controls (n = 6) received heparinized saline solution. Protocol duration was 14 days; markers of reperfusion injury (creatine kinase [CK], aspartate transaminase [AST], tumor necrosis factor-alpha) were evaluated. All flaps from the intervention group were viable at 14 days; five of six control flaps were viable at 14 days (P = 1). Systemic levels of biomarkers of tissue necrosis and inflammation were reduced in the intervention group. On post-operative day one, statistically significant reductions in mean levels of AST and CK were demonstrated (2,293 ± 1 × 103 U/L vs. 1,586 ± 767 U/L [P = 0.04] and 429 × 103 ± 214 × 103 U/L vs. 213 × 103 ± 156 × 103 U/L [P = 0.002], respectively). Flaps of both groups healed in their recipient locations, no adverse reactions were observed. C1-inh is protective of IRI and may have utility in free tissue transfer, vascularized composite allotransplantation, and spare parts surgery. © 2016 Crown copyright. Microsurgery © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 37:142-147, 2017. © 2016 Crown copyright. Microsurgery © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Song, Baoqiang; Chen, Jianwu; Han, Yan; Li, Yang; Su, Yingjun; Guo, Shuzhong
Bulky appearance is a major shortcoming after surface coverage using free muscle flaps. The one-stage thinning procedure at the time of transfer can improve the appearance and avoid additional debulking surgery. We present our experiences in the reconstruction of complex lower extremity defects using thinned free muscle flaps. Latissimus dorsi muscle flaps (LDMs) and rectus abdominis muscle flaps (RAMs), which have vessel pedicles running deep in the muscles, were raised and the superficial tissue layers were removed to thin the flaps. These thinned muscle flaps were then used to resurface the wounds on lower extremities followed by coverage of skin autografts on the muscle surfaces. Fourteen LDMs and four RAMs were thinned used for resurfacing eight, five, and three defects on feet, ankles, and pretibial regions, respectively, with wounds that ranged from 6 × 4 cm(2) to 23 × 9 cm(2). All muscle flaps survived the tangential thinning procedures uneventfully. High take rates were observed for most skin grafts, except that a partial skin loss was found in one case. During the 1-20 months follow-up, the skin surface contours over the thinned muscle flaps matched well with adjacent areas. Intraoperative immediate thinning of LDMs and RAMs can be safely accomplished during the primary reconstruction procedure and may provide an alternative for coverage of complex lower extremity defects. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Saydam, Mehmet; Ozturk, Bulent; Sinan, Huseyin; Balta, Ahmet Z; Demir, Pervin; Ozer, Mustafa T; Demirbas, Sezai
Although many options exist for surgical treatment of pilonidal sinus disease (PSD), consensus has not yet been achieved, as all surgical methods have various rates of complications, postoperative infection, and recurrence. This study was a prospective, randomized, clinical trial, and was conducted with consecutive 100 patients admitted to Ankara Military Hospital General Surgery Service for treatment of PSD from May 2013 to August 2013. This study compared two surgical treatments for PSD: modified Limberg flap transposition and lateral advancement flap transposition with Burow's triangle. The patients received surgical treatment with either modified Limberg flap transposition (n = 50) or lateral advancement flap transposition with Burow's triangle (n = 50). Clinical healing period, length of hospital stay, operative time, postoperative complications including recurrence, wound dehiscence, and surgical site infection, as noted during postoperative follow-up period; Visual Analog Scale scores for pain. The mean follow-up period was 12 months. No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in length of hospital stay (P = .515), operative time (P = .175), wound dehiscence (P = .645), and Visual Analog Scale pain scores (P = .112). The mean operative times were 42.5 minutes in the modified Limberg group and 40.0 minutes in the lateral advancement group. Although lateral advancement flap transposition with Burow's triangle is used less often than modified Limberg flap transposition, we could not determine a parameter that was statistically different such as operative time, postoperative complication, or the length of hospital stay. Hence, the lateral advancement flap is as viable an option as other more preferable techniques in the treatment of PSD, which particularly settled on the upper segment without a deep natal cleft. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kocak, Omer Faruk; Bozan, Nazim; Oksuz, Mustafa; Yuce, Serdar; Demir, Canser Yılmaz; Bulut, Gulay; Ragbetli, Murat Cetin
Thymoquinone (TQ) is a plant extract that has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic effects. The aim of this study is to research how the use of TQ affects flap viability. 42 rats were placed into 6 groups, with 7 rats in each. A 3 × 10 cm McFarlane flap model was used on the test animals. The sham group had used neither surgical nor TQ treatment. The control group had surgery but no treatment afterwards. The preoperative TQ group was given oral doses of 2 mg/kg. TQ for 10 days preoperatively with no treatment after the surgical procedure. The postoperative TQ group received oral doses of 2 mg/kg TQ for 10 days after the surgical process. The preoperative + postoperative (pre + postoperative) TQ group was given oral doses of 2 mg/kg TQ for 10 days both preoperatively and postoperatively. Finally, the dimethylsulfoxide group received 10 mg/kg dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for 10 days both preoperatively and postoperatively. Ten days after surgery the findings were evaluated. The average rates of necrosis were found to be 29.7 % in the control group, 19.18 % in the preoperative TQ group, 13.05 % in the postoperative TQ group, 8.42 % in the pre + postoperative TQ group, and 29.03 % in the DMSO group. The experimental groups had better area measurement, histopathological, and electron microscopic results than the control group (All; p < 0.05). We believe that, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and angiogenic properties, thymoquinone is an agent that can prevent ischemia-reperfusion damage and, therefore, prevent necrosis.
at: http://ejournal.tnmed.org/home Part of the Surgery Commons This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Tennessee Medicine e-Journal...acceptable cosmetic and functional digit. CASE A right-hand dominant, 28-year-old electrician suffered electrical injuries to his left index and right...eds. Principles of Hand Surgery and Therapy. Philadelphia: Sevier, 2010; pp??? 11. Souquet R, Souquet JR: The actual indications of cross-finger flaps
Rivera, César; Monsalve, Francisco; Suazo, Iván; Becerra, Javiera
This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1-1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease.
RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA
This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743
Deganello, A; Gitti, G; Parrinello, G; Muratori, E; Larotonda, G; Gallo, O
Reconstructive surgery of the head and neck region has undergone tremendous advancement over the past three decades, and the success rate of free tissue transfers has risen to greater than 95%. It must always be considered that not all patients are ideal candidates for free flap reconstruction, and also that not every defect strictly requires a free flap transfer to achieve good functional results. At our institution, free flap reconstruction is first choice, although we use pedicled alternative flaps for most weak patients suffering from severe comorbidities, and for pretreated patients presenting a second primary or a recurrent cancer. From July 2006 to May 2010, 54 consecutive patients underwent soft tissue reconstruction of oral cavity and oropharyngeal defects. We divided the cohort in three groups: Group 1 (G1): 16 patients in good general conditions that received free radial forearm flap reconstruction; Group 2 (G2): 18 high-risk patients that received a reconstruction with infrahyoid flap; Group 3 (G3): 20 patients that received temporal flap (10 cases) or pectoral flap (10 cases) reconstruction. We must highlight that pedicled alternative flaps were used in elderly, unfavourable and weak patients, where usually the medical costs tend to rise rather than decrease. We compared the healthcare costs of the three groups, calculating real costs in each group from review of medical records and operating room registers, and calculating the corresponding DRG system reimbursement. For real costs, we found a statistically significant difference among groups: in G1 the average total cost per patient was € 22,924, in G2 it was € 18,037 and in G3 was € 19,872 (p = 0.043). The amount of the refund, based on the DRG system, was € 7,650 per patient, independently of the type of surgery. Our analysis shows that the use of alternative non-microvascular techniques, in high-risk patients, is functionally and oncologically sound, and can even produce a cost savings. In
Harris, David M.; Nicholson, Dawn M.; McCarthy, Delwin; Yukna, Raymond A.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Greenwell, Henry; Finley, James; McCawley, Thomas K.; Xenoudi, Pinelopi; Gregg, Robert H.
Data are presented from a multi-center, prospective, longitudinal, clinical trial comparing four different treatments for periodontitis, (1) the LANAPTM protocol utilizing a FR pulsed-Nd:YAG laser; (2) flap surgery using the Modified Widman technique (MWF); (3) traditional scaling and root planing (SRP); and (4) coronal debridement (CD). Each treatment was randomized to a different quadrant. Fifty-one (54) subjects were recruited at five centers that included both private practice and university-based investigators. At 6-months and 12 months post-treatment the LANAPTM protocol and MWF yielded equivalent results based on changes in probing depths. The major difference observed between the two procedures was that patients reported significantly greater comfort following the LANAP™ procedure than following the MWF (P<0.001). There was greater reduction in bleeding in the LANAPTM quadrant than in the other three at both 6 and 12 months. Improvements following SRP were better than expected at 6 months and continued to improve, providing outcomes that were equivalent to both LANAPTM and MWF at 12 months. The improvement in the SRP quadrants suggests the hypothesis that an aspect of the LANAPTM protocol generated a significant, positive and unanticipated systemic (or trans-oral) effect on sub-gingival wound healing.
Fukunaga, Yutaka; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Horinouchi, Yuya; Sairyo, Eriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Abe, Yoshiro; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki
Ischemic skin flap necrosis can occur in random pattern flaps. An excess amount of reactive oxygen species is generated and causes necrosis in the ischemic tissue. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF) has been demonstrated to possess potent radical scavenging ability. However, there has been no study on the effects of NO-NIF on ischemic skin flap necrosis. Therefore, they evaluated the potential of NO-NIF in ameliorating ischemic skin flap necrosis in a mouse model. A random pattern skin flap (1.0 × 3.0 cm) was elevated on the dorsum of C57BL/6 mice. NO-NIF was administered by topical injection immediately after surgery and every 24 hours thereafter. Flap survival was evaluated on postoperative day 7. Tissue samples from the skin flaps were harvested on postoperative days 1 and 3 to analyze oxidative stress, apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction. The viable area of the flap in the NO-NIF group was significantly increased (78.30 ± 7.041%) compared with that of the control group (47.77 ± 6.549%, p < 0.01). NO-NIF reduced oxidative stress, apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction, which were evidenced by the decrease of malondialdehyde, p22phox protein expression, number of apoptotic cells, phosphorylated p38 MAPK protein expression, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 protein expression while endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression was increased. In conclusion, they demonstrated that NO-NIF ameliorated ischemic skin flap necrosis by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endothelial dysfunction. NO-NIF is considered to be a candidate for the treatment of ischemic flap necrosis. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.
Huang, Chong; Radabaugh, Jeffrey P.; Aouad, Rony K.; Lin, Yu; Gal, Thomas J.; Patel, Amit B.; Valentino, Joseph; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang
Head and neck cancer accounts for 3 to 5% of all cancers in the United States. Primary or salvage surgeries are extensive and often lead to major head and neck defects that require complex reconstructions with local, regional, or free tissue transfer flaps. Knowledge of tissue blood flow (BF) changes after free tissue transfer may enable surgeons to predict the failure of flap thrombosis at an early stage. This study used our recently developed noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy to monitor dynamic BF changes in free flaps without getting in contact with the targeted tissue. Eight free flaps were elevated in patients with head and neck cancer; one of the flaps failed. Multiple BF measurements probing the transferred tissue were performed during and post the surgical operation. Postoperative BF values were normalized to the intraoperative baselines (assigning '1') for the calculation of relative BF change (rBF). The rBF changes over the seven successful flaps were 1.89 +/- 0.15, 2.26 +/- 0.13, and 2.43 +/- 0.13 (mean +/- standard error) respectively on postoperative days 2, 4, and 7. These postoperative values were significantly higher than the intraoperative baseline values (p < 0.001), indicating a gradual recovery of flap vascularity after the tissue transfer. By contrast, rBF changes observed from the unsuccessful flap were 1.14 and 1.34 respectively on postoperative days 2 and 4, indicating a less flow recovery. Measurement of BF recovery after flap anastomosis holds the potential to act early to salvage ischemic flaps.
Scaglioni, Mario F; Franchi, Alberto; Giovanoli, Pietro
The posteromedial thigh (PMT) perforator flap is a valuable reconstructive option. In its pedicled form, the experience is currently limited to a few case reports. The purpose of this article is to describe various clinical applications of the pedicled posteromedial thigh (pPMT) flap for reconstruction of loco-regional soft tissue defects. From 2014 to 2016, 15 patients underwent reconstruction with 15 pPMT flaps. The locations of the defects included the inguinal region (4 cases), the perineal and genital region (3 cases), the proximal and distal medial thigh (3 and 2 cases, respectively), and the popliteal fossa (3 cases). The perforator selected was a branch of the profunda femoris artery (PFA) in 12 cases and the medial circumflex fermoral artery (MCFA) in 3 cases. In all cases, the flap was harvested as a perforator-based island flap, while the mechanism of flap transfer varied between V-Y advancement, interpolation, or different degrees of axial pivoting around the skeletonized perforator (propeller flap design). The flap sizes varied from 5 × 4 cm2 to 29 × 8 cm2, and the pedicle could be skeletonized for up to 13 cm. All the flaps survived after surgery without complication. The donor sites were all primarily closed with minimal morbidity. Follow-up observations were conducted for 6 to 14 months, and all patients had good functional recovery. The pPMT perforator flap is a reconstructive option that can be considered when dealing with soft tissue defects located in body regions ranging from the groin down to the popliteal fossa. It avoids the need for a microsurgical transfer and easily fulfills the dictum of replacing "like tissue with like tissue." Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Altindas, Muzaffer; Yucel, Akin; Ozturk, Guncel; Sarac, Mesud; Kilic, Ali
Anophtalmic socket reconstruction is a challenging problem in plastic surgery. We had described a prefabricated superficial temporal fascia island flap and used this technique in >50 enucleation patients with severe socket contraction ending in excellent or good results for 28 years (Altindas- 1 procedure). However, the flap was not suitable for the exenteration patients with complete eyelid loss. The technique was modified and used in exenteration patients (Altindas-2 procedure). In this 2-staged procedure, the temporoparietal fascia is prefabricated with a full-thickness skin graft from the retroauricular area, and a strip of scalp is preserved at the middle of the flap. The flap is transferred to the orbit through a subcutaneous tunnel at the second stage. The prefabricated flap is used for the reconstruction of eyelids and periorbital skin; scalp island is used for the reconstruction of lid margins and eyelashes; and the neighboring bare temporoparietal fascia is used for the augmentation of the periorbital soft tissues. The orbital lining is elevated as a centrally based skin flap and used for the reconstruction of the eye socket, fornicles, and posterior lining of the eyelids. The technique was used successfully in 5 total exenteration patients with complete eyelid loss. In 1 patient, the ipsilateral temporal island flap was used previously, and the flap was prepared from the contralateral site and transferred to the anophtalmic orbit as a free flap 5 weeks later. By this procedure, it is possible to reconstruct a stable eye socket that is suitable for ocular prosthesis, upper and lower fornicles, periorbital skin with good color matching, naturally looking eyelids with eyelashes and lid margins, and medial and lateral canthal areas. It is also possible to improve periorbital soft tissue atrophy, which is an important problem in patients who had radiotherapy previously. Free transfer of the flap provides a new solution for the reconstruction of cases that
Sambhav, Jain; Rohit, Rai; Ranjana, Mohan; Shalabh, Mehrotra
Multirooted teeth offer unique and challenging problems due to the furcation area, creates situations in which routine periodontal procedures are somewhat limited and special procedures are generally required. The present case was showing the management of grade II furcation defect by platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and β-Tricalcium phosphate with coronally advanced flap. Platelet rich fibrin and β-Tricalcium phosphate with coronally advanced flap have been shown to be a promising and successful approach for the treatment of furcation defect. Its gaining clinical attachment significantly manages both the gingival recession and furcation involvement simultaneously.
Fansa, H; Schirmer, S; Frerichs, O; Gehl, H B
Muscle sparing TRAM flaps and DIEA perforator flaps are standard procedures for breast reconstruction. Recently CT-angiography has been established to evaluate perforator vessels pre-operatively. CT-angiography was introduced to our department in July 2009. In a retrospective analysis data of the last 20 patients (altogether 22 flaps) before CT-angiography introduction and the following 20 (also 22 flaps) patients after introduction of CT-angiography were analysed with regard to the ratio of TRAM to DIEP flaps, and the time required to raise the flaps. The same surgeon raised all flaps. As different surgeons performed dissection of the recipient site, anastomoses, and insertion of flaps, and patients received primary (with sentinel or complete lymphadenctomy) or secondary reconstructions, only the time required harvesting the flap was compared. Thus other influences on raising the flap were eliminated. DIEP flaps were harvested with one single perforator. If perfusion or was considered not to be safe via one single perforator a muscle sparing TRAM flap (ms2) was raised. Angiography was performed using a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner. CT-angiography did not lead to an increased rate of DIEP flaps in relation to ms2-TRAM flaps. Harvesting time of all flap types with CT-angiography on average was 121 min, without CT-angiography 135 min. This was not significantly different. However, separate analysis of DIEP flaps and ms2-TRAM flaps revealed a significant advantage of CT-angiography based harvesting of DIEP flaps of 26 min: with CT-angiography 101 min vs. 127 min without CT-angiography (p<0.028). There were no significant differences for ms2-TRAM flaps. All scans showed course and branching, diameter and size of the inferior epigastric artery. If evident the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) was marked. Dosage was 292 mGy-606 mGy×cm dependent on body weight. CTDI was 6.8-14.7 mGy. CT-angiography is a reproducible and observer independent procedure
Papadopoulos, Othon; Karypidis, Dimitrios; Moustaki, Margarita; Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos; Grigorios, Champsas; Epaminondas, Kostopoulos; Frangoulis, Marios
Scalp reconstruction is a challenging area in plastic surgery. The susceptibility of potentially exposed brain tissue is almost always a concern along with the provision of adequate soft tissue coverage in cases of full-thickness defects. The applied reconstructive strategy also affects efficiency in malignant disease treatment providing both local control of the disease and vigorous monitoring for recurrence or metastasis. The general condition of the patients presenting with malignant lesions of the scalp is often impaired because of old age or concomitant disease. Therefore, demanding, long-lasting, or multistage procedures may often be undesirable. The double scalping flap comprises a 1-stage procedure, which can be used in most full-thickness defects of the vertex of the scalp. Some of the primary advantages of the double scalping flap procedure are its versatility and arc of rotation, its minimal donor site morbidity, being relatively simple, and being a short technique. Disadvantages that may be considered are the loss of hair-bearing skin at the occipital region and the poor color and texture match between scalp skin and the split-thickness skin graft that is used on the donor site. We present 2 patients with exemplary case of neglected malignancy of the scalp and their successful treatment using the double scalping flap. Comparison and contrast of alternative reconstructive procedures are also included to further investigate scalp reconstruction.
Lee, Young Taek; Kwon, Chan; Rhee, Seung Chul; Cho, Sang Hun
The absence or disfigurement of the umbilicus is both cosmetically and psychologically distressing to patients. The goal of aesthetically pleasing umbilical reconstruction is to create a neoumbilicus with sufficient depth and good morphology, with natural-looking superior hooding and minimal scarring. Although many reports have presented techniques for creating new and attractive umbilici, we developed a technique that we term the "four flaps technique" for creating a neoumbilicus in circumstances such as the congenital absence of the umbilicus or the lack of remaining umbilical tissue following the excision of a hypertrophic or scarred umbilicus. This method uses the neighboring tissue by simply elevating four flaps and can yield sufficient depth and an aesthetically pleasing shape with appropriate superior hooding. PMID:26015893
Su, Haibin; Li, Bo; Li, Chunjie; Men, Yi; Gao, Ning; Li, Longjiang
Anterolateral thigh flap is perfect for reconstructing maxillofacial soft tissue defects. This tissue has been widely used by clinicians, but often causes operation difficulties because of vascular variation. In this paper, we report a case where anteromedial thigh was used as new donor site when the vascular anatomic variation of anterolateral thigh perforator flap induced a failure in the flap harvest. Moreover, this paper discusses the anatomy and application of anteromedial thigh flap.
Yeoh, Melvyn S; Kim, D David; Ghali, G E
Indocyanine green angiography is increasingly being adopted by reconstructive surgeons for use in pedicle tissue flaps and microvascular free-tissue transfer procedures. With the increasing adoption of this technology, the postoperative complication rate and the need for reoperation can be decreased, making these reconstructive procedures more predictable. The main disadvantage of this technology is its cost; with time and greater adoption of this technology, the cost will eventually decrease. Decreased postoperative complications and reduced need for revision surgery with the use of this technology will play a significant role in decreasing the overall health care costs for these complex reconstructive procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chae, Michael P; Hunter-Smith, David J; Rostek, Marie; Smith, Julian A; Rozen, Warren Matthew
Optimizing preoperative planning is widely sought in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap surgery. One reason for this is that rates of fat necrosis remain relatively high (up to 35%), and that adjusting flap design by an improved understanding of individual perforasomes and perfusion characteristics may be useful in reducing the risk of fat necrosis. Imaging techniques have substantially improved over the past decade, and with recent advances in 3D printing, an improved demonstration of imaged anatomy has become available. We describe a 3D-printed template that can be used preoperatively to mark out a patient's individualized perforasome for flap planning in DIEP flap surgery. We describe this "perforasome template" technique in a case of a 46-year-old woman undergoing immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap. Routine preoperative computed tomographic angiography was performed, with open-source software (3D Slicer, Autodesk MeshMixer and Cura) and a desktop 3D printer (Ultimaker 3E) used to create a template used to mark intra-flap, subcutaneous branches of deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforators on the abdomen. An individualized 3D printed template was used to estimate the size and boundaries of a perforasome and perfusion map. The information was used to aid flap design. We describe a new technique of 3D printing a patient-specific perforasome template that can be used preoperatively to infer perforasomes and aid flap design.
Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rostek, Marie; Smith, Julian A.; Rozen, Warren Matthew
Summary: Optimizing preoperative planning is widely sought in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap surgery. One reason for this is that rates of fat necrosis remain relatively high (up to 35%), and that adjusting flap design by an improved understanding of individual perforasomes and perfusion characteristics may be useful in reducing the risk of fat necrosis. Imaging techniques have substantially improved over the past decade, and with recent advances in 3D printing, an improved demonstration of imaged anatomy has become available. We describe a 3D-printed template that can be used preoperatively to mark out a patient’s individualized perforasome for flap planning in DIEP flap surgery. We describe this “perforasome template” technique in a case of a 46-year-old woman undergoing immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap. Routine preoperative computed tomographic angiography was performed, with open-source software (3D Slicer, Autodesk MeshMixer and Cura) and a desktop 3D printer (Ultimaker 3E) used to create a template used to mark intra-flap, subcutaneous branches of deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforators on the abdomen. An individualized 3D printed template was used to estimate the size and boundaries of a perforasome and perfusion map. The information was used to aid flap design. We describe a new technique of 3D printing a patient-specific perforasome template that can be used preoperatively to infer perforasomes and aid flap design. PMID:29464169
ects of several parameters on aeroelastic hovering motions of a exible apping wing. The parameters used in this study were wing shape, structural...Theodorsen, T., General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter , Tech. Rep. 496, NACA, May 1934.  Garrick, I. E...International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics , 2009.  Sane, S. P. and Dickinson, M. H., The Control of Flight Force by a Flapping Wing
Gloor, Jason W; Balakrishnan, Lata; Bambara, Robert A
FEN1 cleaves 5' flaps at their base to create a nicked product for ligation. FEN1 has been reported to enter the flap from the 5'-end and track to the base. Current binding analyses support a very different mechanism of interaction with the flap substrate. Measurements of FEN1 binding to a flap substrate show that the nuclease binds with similar high affinity to the base of a long flap even when the 5'-end is blocked with biotin/streptavidin. However, FEN1 bound to a blocked flap is more sensitive to sequestration by a competing substrate. These results are consistent with a substrate interaction mechanism in which FEN1 first binds the flap base and then threads the flap through an opening in the protein from the 5'-end to the base for cleavage. Significantly, when the unblocked flap length is reduced from five to two nucleotides, FEN1 can be sequestered from the substrate to a similar extent as a blocked, long flap substrate. Apparently, interactions related to threading occur only when the flap is greater than two to four nucleotides long, implying that short flaps are cleaved without a threading requirement.
Borrell, Luisa N; Papapanou, Panos N
To review the literature related to the analytical epidemiology of periodontitis generated over the past decade. This review does not deal with descriptive epidemiologic studies of the prevalence, extent and severity of periodontitis with respect to global geography, but focuses exclusively on analytical epidemiology issues, including the challenges posed by the use of different case definitions across studies, current theories and models of disease progression, and risk factors associated with the onset and progression of periodontitis. Relevant publications in the English language were identified after Medline and PubMed database searches. There is a conspicuous lack of uniformity in the definition of periodontitis used in epidemiologic studies, and findings from different research groups are not readily interpretable. There is a lack of studies that specifically address the distinction between factors responsible for the onset of periodontitis versus those affecting its progression. Colonization by specific bacteria at high levels, smoking, and poorly controlled diabetes have been established as risk factors for periodontitis, while a number of putative factors, including specific gene polymorphisms, have been identified in association studies. There is a clear need for longitudinal prospective studies that address hypotheses emerging from the cross-sectional data and include established risk factors as covariates along with new exposures of interest. Intervention studies, fulfilling the "targeting" step of the risk assessment process, are particularly warranted. Obvious candidates in this context are studies of the efficacy of elimination of specific bacterial species and of smoking cessation interventions as an alternative to the traditional broad anti-plaque approach in the prevention and control of periodontitis. Ideally, such studies should have a randomized-controlled trial design.
Bhat, G. Subraya; Singh, Vishal; Bhat, K. Mahalinga
We report an unusual case of recurrent periodontal abscess in a 31-year-old male electrician due to his habit of using his teeth as a tool for stripping electrical wires. The patient was not aware of the consequences of this habit. Clinically, there was presence of moderate depth of periodontal pocket around the tooth and, radiographically, there was a vertical defect mesial to the involved teeth. The patient was educated about the consequences of his habit and surgical treatment was undertaken. A papilla preservation flap with regenerative periodontal surgical procedure was done, orthodontic and restorative treatment was planned at the follow-up. This case highlights the importance of eliciting a proper and complete personal history, including occupational details. In our patient these details helped us correlate the destruction of the periodontium to the unusual etiology. PMID:22628975
Sahin, Sermet; Saygun, N Işil; Kaya, Yavuz; Ozdemir, Atilla
Dental avulsion is a common and complex injury which affects multiple oral tissues. In this case report, a 9-year-old girl patient with two traumatically avulsed maxillary central incisors with loss of periodontal tissue was presented. Treatment guidelines for avulsed permanent teeth with open apex were carried out. Bilateral laterally sliding flap procedure was performed, to repair loss of gingival soft tissue. Conventional immobilization was carried out for 6 weeks. Five months follow-up of the patient in whom replantation was performed resulted in positive sensitivity test, no symptoms of infection, pain or any discomfort and good periodontal wound healing. In conclusion, this report presents successful replantation and periodontal treatment of a patient with complex dentoalveolar injury.
Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Hyun Woo; Park, Jung Je; Woo, Seung Hoon
Lip cancer is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity and the second most common cancer in the head and neck. Typically, squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip is an ulcerated lesion with raised margins. Surgery is the best treatment for lower lip cancer. The lips are important aesthetically because of their prominent location on the face and functionally because of the essential mechanism of the sphincter in assisting mastication, swallowing, phonation, and expressing emotions. Depending on the location and size of a lip tumor, different types of reconstructive flaps are used. We describe our technique for reconstructing the lower lip with a submental island flap.
Ardehali, B; Hand, K; Nduka, C; Holmes, A; Wood, S
Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) are commonly used in plastic surgery for the salvage of congested flaps and replanted parts compromised by venous congestion. Infection associated with leech therapy is a documented complication of leech application, with reported incidences ranging from 2.4 to 20% [De Chalain TM. Exploring the use of the medicinal leech: a clinical risk-benefit analysis. J Reconstr Microsurg 1996;12(3):165-72.1]. We describe a case of delayed leech-borne infection, from the escharotic portion of a latissimus dorsi flap, which developed several days after stopping leech therapy for venous congestion in a reconstructed breast.
Kakudo, Natsuko; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujimori, Sawako; Shimotsuma, Ayuko; Ogawa, Yutaka
A case of successful reconstruction of the umbilicus using a depressed scar in an 11-year-old girl with a large and rigid scar spreading around the centre of the abdominal wall is presented. The anatomical umbilicus was replaced by a large scar after a previous surgery for umbilical cord hernia. The difficulty of the conventional method compelled us to use a distant scar dimple as an island flap. In addition, the three-dimensional morphology of the umbilicus could be reproduced by rolling a spindle island flap into a cone. Postoperatively, the reconstructed umbilicus has remained deep and aesthetically well shaped.
Agarwal, Jayant P; Agarwal, Shailesh; Adler, Neta; Gottlieb, Lawrence J
Reconstruction of complex tissue deficiencies in which each missing component is in a different spatial relationship to each other can be particularly challenging, especially in patients with limited recipient vessels. The chimera flap design is uniquely suited to reconstruct these deformities. Chimera flaps have been previously defined in many ways with 2 main categories: prefabricated or intrinsic. Herein we attempt to clarify the definition of a true intrinsic chimeric flap and provide examples of how these constructs provide a method for reconstruction of complex defects. The versatility of the intrinsic chimera flap and its procurement from 7 different vascular systems is described. A clarification of the definition of a true intrinsic chimera flap is described. In addition, construction of flaps from the lateral femoral circumflex, deep circumflex iliac, inferior gluteal, peroneal, subscapular, thoracodorsal, and radial arterial systems is described to showcase the versatility of these chimera flaps. A true intrinsic chimera flap must consist of more than a single tissue type. Each of the tissue components receives its blood flow from separate vascular branches or perforators that are connected to a single vascular source. These vascular branches must be of appropriate length to allow for insetting with 3-dimensional spatial freedom. There are a multitude of sites from which true intrinsic chimera flaps may be harvested.
Neuhart, Dan H.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.
Several Gurney flap configurations were tested in the NASA Langley 16 x 24 inch Water Tunnel. These devices provided an increased region of attached flow on a wing upper surface relative to the wing without the flaps. The recirculation region behind the flap was visualized and shown to be consistent with hypotheses stated in previous research. Although the test Reynolds number for this study was several orders of magnitude below those in