Two types of mechanoreceptor have been found in the articular capsule of the knee joint of the domestic cat--Ruffini corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. Ruffini corpuscles are situated in the stratum fibrosum and consist of 2 to 6 cylinders. Each cylinder is made up of an afferent axon (diameter 3-4 micrometer), its swellings and terminal processes, Schwann cells enveloping the nerve swellings and terminal processes, endoneural connective tissue and a perineural capsule. The perineural capsule is incomplete in Ruffini corpuscles. The Pacinian corpuscles are 20 to 40 micrometer wide and 150-250 micrometer long. They are situated in groups of up to five at the boundary between the stratum synoviale and the stratum fibrosum. The afferent axon is myelinated (diameter 3-5 micrometer). Its terminal portion is inside the inner bulb which is formed of modified Schwann cells. Each corpuscle is enveloped by a perineural capsule (4-8 layers). The ultrastructure of the Pacinian corpuscles is compared with the ultrastructure of the skin receptors in the cat. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:604339
Paolo Ruffini (1765-1822) may be something of an unknown in high school mathematics; however his contributions to the world of mathematics are a rich source of inspiration. Ruffini's rule (often known as "synthetic division") is an efficient method of dividing a polynomial by a linear factor, with or without a remainder. The process can…
... This is called gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontal disease. Ongoing inflammation eventually causes pockets to develop between ... you to a specialist in the treatment of periodontal disease (periodontist). Diagnosis of periodontitis is generally simple. Diagnosis ...
Miki, Koji; Honma, Shiho; Ebara, Satomi; Kumamoto, Kenzo; Murakami, Shinya; Wakisaka, Satoshi
The periodontal ligament has a rich sensory nerve supply which originates from the trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. Although various types of mechanoreceptors have been reported in the periodontal ligament, the Ruffini ending is an essential one. It is unknown whether the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous teeth is identical to that in permanent teeth or not. Moreover, morphological changes in the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers during resorption of deciduous teeth and eruption of successional permanent teeth in diphyodont animals have not been reported in detail. Therefore, in this study, we examined changes in the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in the cat during changes in dentition (i.e., deciduous, mixed and permanent dentition) by immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5. During deciduous dentition, periodontal nerve fibers were concentrated at the apical portion, and sparsely distributed in the periodontal ligament of deciduous molars. During mixed dentition, the periodontal nerve fibers of deciduous molars showed degenerative profiles during resorption. In permanent dentition, the periodontal nerve fibers of permanent premolars, the successors of deciduous molars, increased in number. Similar to permanent premolars, the periodontal nerve fibers of permanent molars, having no predecessors, increased in number, and were densely present in the apical portion. The present results indicate that the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition is almost identical to that in permanent dentition although the number of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition was low. The sparse distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition agrees with clinical evidence that children are less sensitive to tooth stimulation than adults.
Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J
Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80 ± 5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31 ± 1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.
... your dentist if you have signs of gum disease. Prevention Good oral hygiene is the best way to prevent periodontitis. This includes thorough tooth brushing and flossing, and regular professional dental cleaning. Preventing and treating ... References Amsterdam JT. ...
Pietropaoli, D; Monaco, A; Del Pinto, R; Cifone, M G; Marzo, G; Giannoni, M
On a planetary scale, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS)is the third cause of inability after malnutrition and nicotinism, even higher than water shortage and sedentariness. In the USA, the prevalence is estimated at over 25 percent of the population; in Italy, it involves approximately 25 percent of men and even 27 percent of women. These are very high figures, corresponding to approximately 14 million affected individuals. The prevalence is alarming and must not be underestimated, particularly in the dental field, where more than one patient out of four sitting in a dentist chair is affected. The etiology of periodontal disease has not yet been clarified, and recently the idea to consider it as a multifactor pathology has been developed. Cofactors such as the formation of free radicals of oxygen (ROS), oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and formation of glycation end-products (AGEs) probably play an important role in the onset of periodontal disease. The AGEs are compounds physiologically produced by the cells. However, they accumulate and cause pro-inflammatory conditions, when the cellular clearance fails, or in hyperglycemic and oxidative states. All these conditions can be clinically summarized as Metabolic Syndrome. The purpose of this literature review is to establish a relationship between two pathologies with very high prevalence: Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontal Disorder. The literature seems to have clarified that MetS involves a pro-oxidation status, which induces AGE formation. AGEs play a very important role in the course and severity of periodontal diseases.
Hu, Ji-Wan; Wu, Jing-He; Liu, Xian-Ming
Using the Damour-Ruffini method, Hawking radiation of charged particles from squashed charged rotating five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes is investigated extensively. Under the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation, Hawking temperature of the black holes is calculated by using charged scalar particles and Dirac fermions respectively. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature for charged Dirac fermions is the same as for charged scalar particles. What's more, the spectrum of Hawking radiation contains the information of the size of the extra dimension, which could provide insight for further investigation of large extra dimensions in the future.
Hu, Ji-Wan; Wu, Jing-He; Liu, Xian-Ming
Using the Damour-Ruffini method, Hawking radiation of charged particles from squashed charged rotating five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes is investigated extensively. Under the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation, Hawking temperature of the black holes is calculated by using charged scalar particles and Dirac fermions respectively. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature for charged Dirac fermions is the same as for charged scalar particles. What's more, the spectrum of Hawking radiation contains the information of the size of the extra dimension, which could provide insight for further investigation of large extra dimensions in the future.
Guven, Yeliz; Altunoglu, Umut; Aktoren, Oya; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Kayserili, Hulya; Kaewkahya, Massupa; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik
Turkish twin brothers affected with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) are reported. Their clinical findings were generally typical for HSAN IV. Interestingly they both had preserved periodontal sensation. Mutation analysis of the NTRK1 gene showed a homozygous c.2001C>T substitution in exon 15 in both twins. This base substitution is predicted to change a polar, positively charged amino acid arginine to the highly active amino acid cystein at position 654 (p.Arg654Cys). The parents were heterozygous for the mutation. This mutation has been reported previously in one Japanese and one Arab patients. The preserved periodontal sensation has not previously been reported in patients affected with HSAN IV. This preserved sensation in our patients might have been through Ruffini endings, the periodontal mechanoreceptors which have been reported to be present in TrkA knockout mice. Here we report the first twins affected with HSAN IV and the observation that periodontal sensation is not affected by mutation in NTRK1.
... Diseases Small Text Medium Text Large Text Periodontal Diseases Periodontal diseases are disorders of the gums, or gingiva, and other tissues around the teeth. Periodontal diseases vary in severity, from the reversible, recurring mild ...
Harvey, John D
This article provides a review of current information about periodontal bacteria, their activities within dental plaque biofilm, their interactions with the host immune system, and the infections with which they are associated. Periodontal disease, plaque formation, and the host immune response are also discussed, as are antimicrobial measures used to control the bacteria and the disease.
Wang, Hom-Lay; Greenwell, Henry; Fiorellini, Joseph; Giannobile, William; Offenbacher, Steven; Salkin, Leslie; Townsend, Cheryl; Sheridan, Phillip; Genco, Robert J
Untreated periodontal disease leads to tooth loss through destruction of the attachment apparatus and tooth-supporting structures. The goals of periodontal therapy include not only the arrest of periodontal disease progression,but also the regeneration of structures lost to disease where appropriate. Conventional surgical approaches (e.g., flap debridement) continue to offer time-tested and reliable methods to access root surfaces,reduce periodontal pockets, and attain improved periodontal form/architecture. However, these techniques offer only limited potential towards recovering tissues destroyed during earlier disease phases. Recently, surgical procedures aimed at greater and more predictable regeneration of periodontal tissues and functional attachment close to their original level have been developed, analyzed, and employed in clinical practice. This paper provides a review of the current understanding of the mechanisms, cells, and factors required for regeneration of the periodontium and of procedures used to restore periodontal tissues around natural teeth. Targeted audiences for this paper are periodontists and/or researchers with an interest in improving the predictability of regenerative procedures. This paper replaces the version published in 1993.
Tan, A E S
The main goal of periodontal therapy is to establish an oral environment compatible with periodontal health by the physical disruption of the plaque biofilm and adjunctive chemical means if required. Implicit in this objective is the ongoing requirement of detection and interception of new and recurrent disease, which continues at selected intervals for the life of the dentition after the initial ("active") phase of periodontal treatment. This concept of ongoing periodontal maintenance therapy has been embraced as the mandatory requirement for favourable periodontal outcomes based on institutional clinical trials and in practice-based studies in various parts of the world. This review examines the ramifications of periodontal maintenance therapy based upon a multi-level assessment of logistic issues and risk factors at three levels: (1) The patient level - treatment time; patient attendance compliance; and homecare measures, antiseptics/antibiotics and smoking. (2) The level of the individual tooth - tooth loss; and evaluation of success versus survival. (3) The level of each tooth surface ("site") - probing depth, loss of attachment and bleeding on probing; and changes in clinical attachment levels. In spite of the diversity of studies conducted, there is agreement on the efficacy of periodontal maintenance therapy when compared with studies on untreated populations and in treated cases that were not maintained.
Periodontics is more associated with debridement of periodontal pockets and not generally thought of as using dental materials in the treatment of patients. However, the last 30 years have seen the development of materials used in regeneration of the periodontal tissues following periodontal disease, guided tissue regeneration, and the use of these materials in bone regeneration more recently, guided bone regeneration. The materials used include bone grafts and membranes, but also growth factors and cells-based therapies. This review provides an overview of the materials currently used and looks at contemporary research with a view to what may be used in the future. It also looks at the clinical effectiveness of these regenerative therapies with an emphasis on what is available in Australia.
The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the tissues destroyed as a result of periodontal disease. Currently, two clinical techniques, based on the principles of "guided tissue regeneration" (GTR) or utilization of the biologically active agent "enamel matrix derivative" (EMD), can be used for the regeneration of intrabony and Class II mandibular furcation periodontal defects. In cases where additional support and space-making requirements are necessary, both of these procedures can be combined with a bone replacement graft. There is no evidence that the combined use of GTR and EMD results in superior clinical results compared to the use of each material in isolation. Great variability in clinical outcomes has been reported in relation to the use of both EMD and GTR, and these procedures can be generally considered to be unpredictable. Careful case selection and treatment planning, including consideration of patient, tooth, site and surgical factors, is required in order to optimize the outcomes of treatment. There are limited data available for the clinical effectiveness of other biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and platelet concentrates, and although promising results have been reported, further clinical trials are required in order to confirm their effectiveness. Current active areas of research are centred on tissue engineering and gene therapy strategies which may result in more predictable regenerative outcomes in the future.
Vandersall, D C
This article prognosticates where periodontology will be in the next millennium. The forecasting of such events is wrought with confusion because such predictions are shadowed by bias, dogmatism, prejudice, experiences, and opinions from either a closed or open mind. The results of the survey from 101 periodontists reflect opinions from varied backgrounds, years of clinical experience, and individual levels of success or failure. The responses cannot be tested for accuracy or duplicated by another survey except to wait out the test of time for the year 2025. Clinicians will be challenged to make decisions on accepting new techniques and concepts as these are brought into the therapeutic fold of periodontics. The clinician will be met with new possibilities as a paradigm shift is inevitable for periodontal practice in the next millennium. After all, who would have thought in the 1960s, the soft tissue augmentation era, that 22 years later in 1982, the regeneration of the lost attachment apparatus (alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament) would become a reality. This survey strongly suggests that by the end of the first quarter of the twenty-first century, local delivery of antimicrobials, growth and differentiation factors, and root biomodification agents will have a major impact on the practice of periodontics. One thing is certain, in the next millennium, considering the responses from this survey, a new era in periodontics will be here. By the year 2025, the research, development, and dissemination of new periodontal knowledge will be beyond the imagination from what was considered usual and customary for the twentieth century.
Turnbull, Robert S.
In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist. PMID:21253201
Hägi, Tobias T; Laugisch, Oliver; Ivanovic, Aleksandar; Sculean, Anton
The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is to completely restore the tooth's supporting apparatus that has been lost due to inflammatory periodontal disease or injury. It is characterized by formation of new cementum with inserting collagen fibers, new periodontal ligament, and new alveolar bone. Indeed conventional, nonsurgical, and surgical periodontal therapy usually result in clinical improvements evidenced by probing depth reduction and clinical attachment gain, but the healing occurs predominantly through formation of a long junctional epithelium and no or only unpredictable periodontal regeneration. Therefore, there is an ongoing search for new materials and improved surgical techniques, with the aim of predictably promoting periodontal wound healing/regeneration and improving the clinical outcome. This article attempts to provide the clinician with an overview of the most important biologic events involved in periodontal wound healing/ regeneration and on the criteria on how to select the appropriate regenerative material and surgical technique in order to optimize the clinical outcomes.
Objectives: Studies suggest that periodontal disease, a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may be associated with various systemic conditions, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the literature and determine the relationship between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. Methods: A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including ‘liver cirrhosis’, ‘end-stage liver disease’, ‘liver diseases’, ‘oral health’, ‘periodontal disease’, ‘mouth disease’, ‘gingivitis’, and ‘periodontitis’. Results: Thirteen studies published between 1981 and 2014 were found to include data on oral health and periodontal disease in cirrhotic patients. Studies indicated an increased incidence of periodontal disease in patients with liver cirrhosis, measured with several different periodontal indices. The reported prevalence of periodontal disease in cirrhosis patients ranged from 25.0% to 68.75% in four studies and apical periodontitis was found in 49%–79% of the patients. One study found that mortality was lower among patients who underwent dental treatment versus non-treated patients. Another study suggested an association between periodontal disease and the progression of liver cirrhosis, but data are sparse and conflicting as to whether periodontal disease is correlated to cirrhosis aetiology and severity. Conclusion: Despite the clinical reality of periodontal disease in liver cirrhosis patients, there are few published studies. Before clinical implications can be addressed, more data on the prevalence of and correlation between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis aetiology, duration, and progression are needed. PMID:26770799
Gupta, G; Mansi, B
Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.
Gupta, G; Mansi, B
Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics. PMID:22574088
Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Arias-Herrera, Santiago; Criado-Cámara, Elena; Bascones-Ilundáin, Jaime; Bascones-Ilundáin, Cristina
Diabetes is considered to be a genetically and environmentally based chronic metabolic and vascular syndrome caused by a partial or total insulin deficiency with alteration in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins culminating with different manifestations in different organisms. In humans hyperglycemia is the main consequence of defects in the secretion and/or action of insulin, and its deregulation can produce secondary lesions in various organs, especially kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels and immune systems. Periodontal disease is an entity of localized infection that involves tooth-supporting tissues. The first clinical manifestation of periodontal disease is the appearance of periodontal pockets, which offer a favorable niche for bacterial colonization. The etiology of periodontal disease is multifactorial, being caused by interactions between multiple micro-organisms (necessary but not sufficient primary etiologic factors), a host with some degree of susceptibility and environmental factors. According to current scientific evidence, there is a symbiotic relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, such that diabetes is associated with an increased incidence and progression of periodontitis, and periodontal infection is associated with poor glycaemic control in diabetes due to poor immune systems. Hence, for a good periodontal control it is necessary to treat both periodontal disease and glycaemic control.
This position paper addresses the role of systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periodontal disease. Topical antibiotic therapy is not discussed here. The paper was prepared by the Research, Science and Therapy Committee of the American Academy of Periodontology. The document consists of three sections: 1) concept of antibiotic periodontal therapy; 2) efficacy of antibiotic periodontal therapy; and 3) practical aspects of antibiotic periodontal therapy. The conclusions drawn in this paper represent the position of the American Academy of Periodontology and are intended for the information of the dental profession.
Song, H Jung
This article reviews periodontal disease and gingival disease and also explores issues relating to mucogingival defects such as gingival hyperplasia, gingival recession, and exposure of impacted canines.
Malizia, T; Tejada, M R; Ghelardi, E; Senesi, S; Gabriele, M; Giuca, M R; Blandizzi, C; Danesi, R; Campa, M; Del Tacca, M
The tissue penetration of azithromycin, the prototype of a new class of macrolide antibiotics named azalides, was studied in patients undergoing surgery for third-molar removal. Drug concentrations in plasma, saliva, and periodontal tissues were evaluated in 28 patients treated with azithromycin 500 mg/day per os for 3 consecutive days. Samples of blood, saliva, gingiva, and alveolar bone were collected during oral surgery, 12 hours, and 2.5, 4.5, and 6.5 days after the last dosing, and the azithromycin concentration was measured microbiologically by using Micrococcus luteus NCTC 8440 as the reference organism. The highest concentrations of azithromycin were observed 12 hours after the last dose in plasma, saliva, gingiva, and bone (0.33 +/- 0.04 mg/l, 2.14 +/- 0.30 mg/l, 6.47 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, and 1.86 +/- 0.15 mg/kg, respectively) and then declined gradually. However, consistent levels of the drug in saliva and periodontal tissues could be detected up to 6.5 days, indicating that azithromycin was retained in target tissues and fluids for a long time after the end of treatment. Among the samples examined, the highest concentration of azithromycin was found in the gingiva at each time studied. Moreover, the ratios of salivary or periodontal tissue levels versus plasma concentrations remained nearly unmodified from 12 hours up to 6.5 days. Overall, these results indicate a favorable disposition of azithromycin into saliva and periodontal tissues and suggest that this macrolide antibiotic represents a valuable option in the pharmacologic treatment of odontogenic infections.
Assessment of the periodontium has relied exclusively on a variety of physical measurements (e.g., attachment level, probing depth, bone loss, mobility, recession, degree of inflammation, etc.) in relation to various case definitions of periodontal disease. Periodontal health was often an afterthought and was simply defined as the absence of the signs and symptoms of a periodontal disease. Accordingly, these strict and sometimes disparate definitions of periodontal disease have resulted in an idealistic requirement of a pristine periodontium for periodontal health, which makes us all diseased in one way or another. Furthermore, the consequence of not having a realistic definition of health has resulted in potentially questionable recommendations. The aim of this manuscript was to assess the biological, environmental, sociological, economic, educational and psychological relationships that are germane to constructing a paradigm that defines periodontal health using a modified wellness model. The paradigm includes four cardinal characteristics, i.e., 1) a functional dentition, 2) the painless function of a dentition, 3) the stability of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and 4) the psychological and social well-being of the individual. Finally, strategies and policies that advocate periodontal health were appraised. I'm not sick but I'm not well, and it's a sin to live so well. Flagpole Sitta, Harvey Danger PMID:26390888
Larjava, Hannu; Koivisto, Leeni; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari
Cell surface integrin receptors mediate cell adhesion, migration and cellular signaling in all nucleated cells. They are activated by binding to extracellular ligands or by intracellular proteins, such as kindlins that engage with their cytoplasmic tails. Cells in the periodontal tissues express several integrins with overlapping ligand-binding capabilities. A distinct phenotype in the periodontium has only been described for knockouts or mutations of three integrin subunits, α11, β6 and β2. Integrin α11β1 appears to have some regulatory function in the periodontal ligament of continuously erupting incisors in mice. Integrin αvβ6 is expressed in the junctional epithelium (JE) of the gingiva. Animals deficient in this receptor develop classical signs of periodontal disease, including inflammation, apical migration of the JE and bone loss, suggesting that it plays a role in the regulation of periodontal inflmmation, likely through activation of transforming growth factor-β1. Lack of integrin activation in the JE is also associated with periodontitis. Patients with kindlin-1 mutations have severe early-onset periodontal disease. Finally, patients with mutations in the leukocyte-specific β2 integrin subunit have severe periodontal problems due to lack of transiting neutrophils in the periodontal tissues.
Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei
There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.
Hallmon, W W
While there is evidence that suggests that occlusal trauma is a risk factor for periodontal destruction, there is no evidence that indicates that occlusal trauma will initiate periodontal destruction. Effective plaque control and compliance with periodontal maintenance recommendations are key and essential factors necessary to assure successful treatment and control of periodontal disease.
Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.
Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.
Krausz, E; Einy, S; Aizenbud, D; Levin, L
Orthodontic treatment poses a significant challenge in patients suffering from periodontal disease. Providing orthodontic treatment to periodontal patients should be carefully planned and performed in a tight collaboration between the orthodontist and periodontist. Resolution and stabilization of the periodontal condition is a pre-requisite for orthodontic treatment initiation. Careful oral hygiene performance and highly frequent recall periodontal visits are also crucial. Pre- or post- orthodontic periodontal surgery might help providing better treatment outcomes.
Liébana, José; Castillo, Ana María; Alvarez, Marta
The location of plaque-associated gingivitis at the gingival portion of the tooth plays an essential role in its genesis. However, at times local and other host response modifying factors also have an influence. The pathogeny of periodontitis is more complex. The microorganisms that comprise subgingival plaque are capable of acting directly on periodontal tissues or of modifying the host response, whereas the participation of the plaque per se (normal, decreased, or increased) is as decisive as the action of the bacteria themselves in the emergence of the disease. Different types of periodontitis are associated with specific microorganisms. The most periodontopathogenic are A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythensis. Periodontitis as a whole, represent the source of complications such as root caries, endoperiodontal processes and periodontal abscesses. They are associated with various illnesses such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and respiratory infections, amongst others, as well as pathological oral halitosis. The different modalities of PCR are particularly important in the microbiological diagnosis of periodontitis, although on the negative side of things, it must be pointed out that in vitro sensitivity studies cannot be performed using this technique. First line antibiotic treatment of periodontitis includes amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, metronidazole (associated or not with amoxicillin) and clindamycin.
Hsu, Chih-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Che-Chen; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Kao, Chia-Hung
Periodontitis is a systemic and chronic inflammatory disease associated with multiple physical conditions. Distress and depression are other problems affecting the progression of periodontitis. However, the causal relationship between depression and periodontitis has not been adequately investigated. This aim of this study was to determine the association between periodontitis and the subsequent development of depression.We identified 12,708 patients with newly diagnosed periodontitis from 2000 to 2005 and 50,832 frequency-matched individuals without periodontitis. Both groups were followed until diagnosed with depression, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance program, or the end of 2011. The association between periodontitis and depressio was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models.The incidence density rate of depression was higher in the periodontitis group than in the nonperiodontitis group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.58-1.89) when adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidity. Cox models revealed that periodontitis was an independent risk factor for depression in patients, except for comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM), alcohol abuse, and cancer.Periodontitis may increase the risk of subsequent depression and was suggested an independent risk factor regardless of sex, age, and most comorbidities. However, DM, alcohol abuse, and cancer may prevent the development of subsequent depression because of DM treatment, the paradoxical effect of alcohol, and emotional distress to cancer, respectively. Prospective studies on the relationship between periodontitis and depression are warranted.
Indrei, L L
It is difficult ro assess the role of nutrition in the etiology and progression of periodontal disease because many other factors besides the local effect of plaque affect periodontal tissue metabolism. It is clear that nutrition can affect host response to bacterial plaque and it is also apparent that there may be a need for the intake of greater amounts of certain nutrients (such as ascorbic acid, iron etc.). Inadequate nutrient intake or deficiency is significant because of the number of interactions that occur during the assimilation of foods and the effects of stress and medication. Periodontal health cannot be achieved unless nutrient deficiency is corrected along with the other phases of treatment.
Leonhardt, Åsa; Carlén, Anette; Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Dahlén, Gunnar
The aim was to compare the detection frequency of periodontopathogens by using the Pado Test 4.5 and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique in chronic periodontitis patients. Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis were tested cross-sectionally with DNA/RNA oligogenomic probe method (IAI Pado Test 4.5) and DNA/DNA whole genomic probe (checkerboard) method. Samples were taken by two paper points at the deepest site in each of the four quadrants and pooled into one sample for each of the two methods. The samples were sent to the two laboratories (IAI, Zuchwil, Switzerland, and Oral Microbiology Laboratory, University of Gothenburg, Sweden) and were analyzed in a routine setting for the presence and amount of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. While Pado Test 4.5 detected the four periodontal pathogens in 11 (36.7%) of the patients, the checkerboard method showed presence in all patients (100%) using the lower score (Score 1 corresponding to 104 bacterial cells) and 16 (53.3%) using a higher treshold (score 3 corresponding to between >105 and 106 cells). The results of the present study showed low agreement for a positive microbiological outcome using the two diagnostic methods. It was also concluded that microbiological analysis in practice should include a larger number of bacterial species to better serve as markers for a diseased associated flora in chronic periodontitis cases. PMID:21769304
Straka, Michal; Straka-Trapezanlidis, Michaela; Deglovic, Juraj; Varga, Ivan
Today's knowledge and studies show a firm correlation between osteoporosis and periodontitis, particularly in postmenopausal women. This review study deals with epidemiological and etiopathogenetic association between chronic periodontitis and an osteoporosis. A special emphasis is put on explanation of possible relations between a premature tooth loss and decrease of length and density of jaw bones, particularly their alveolar prolongations. The second part of the paper deals with principles of treatment in patients suffering of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis reduces density of jaw bones and decreases a number of teeth in jaws, but it does not affect other clinical signs and markers of periodontitis such as inflammation, bleeding and the depth of periodontal pockets and microbial plaque.
k 7RD-A157 116 PHARMRCOLOGY’ OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE(U) UNIVERSITY OF i/ I HEALTH SCIENCES/CHICAGO MEDICAL SCHOOL DEPT OF I PHARMACOLOGY S F HOFF 24...University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School Department of 3333 Green Bay Road Telephone Pharmacology North Chicago, Illinois 60064...Region Bethesda, MD 20814-5044 • .RE: Annual Letter Report , ONR Contract #N00014-84-K-0562 " Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease" Dear Capt. Hancock
Benatti, Bruno Braga; Silvério, Karina Gonzales; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Enílson Antônio; Nociti, Francisco Humberto
Experimental studies have shown that the potential of periodontal regeneration seems to be limited by the regenerative capacity of the cells involved. The regeneration of damaged periodontal tissues is mediated by various periodontal cells and is regulated by a vast array of extracellular matrix informational molecules that induce both selective and nonselective responses in different cell lineages and their precursors. In this paper, we first review periodontal ligament tissue and its different cell subpopulations including fibroblasts and paravascular stem cells, and their functions during the development and homeostasis of periodontal tissues. Because conventional periodontal regeneration methods remain insufficient to obtain a complete and reliable periodontal regeneration, the concept of periodontal tissue engineering has been based on the generation of the conditions necessary to improve the healing of periodontal tissues. Additionally, the potential of periodontal ligament cells for use in periodontal tissue engineering to overcome the limitations of conventional periodontal regenerative therapies is discussed, followed by an update of the recent progress and future directions of research utilizing periodontal ligament cells for predictable periodontal regeneration.
Shue, Li; Yufeng, Zhang; Mony, Ullas
Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various methods of regenerative periodontal therapy, including the use of barrier membranes, bone replacement grafts, growth factors and the combination of these procedures have been investigated. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering has considerably improved the available treatment options above. They fall into two broad classes: ceramics and polymers. The available ceramic-based materials include calcium phosphate (eg, tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite), calcium sulfate and bioactive glass. The bioactive glass bonds to the bone with the formation of a layer of carbonated hydroxyapatite in situ. The natural polymers include modified polysaccharides (eg, chitosan,) and polypeptides (collagen and gelatin). Synthetic polymers [eg, poly(glycolic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)] provide a platform for exhibiting the biomechanical properties of scaffolds in tissue engineering. The materials usually work as osteogenic, osteoconductive and osteoinductive scaffolds. Polymers are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). They are shown to exclude epithelial downgrowth and allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. An attempt to overcome the problems related to a collapse of the barrier membrane in GTR or epithelial downgrowth is the use of a combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials. This article reviews various biomaterials including scaffolds and membranes used for periodontal treatment and their impacts on the experimental or clinical management of periodontal defect. PMID:23507891
RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA
This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743
Chronic periodontitis is a destructive disease that affects the supporting structures of the teeth including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. If left untreated, patients may lose multiple teeth and extensive prosthetic treatment will be required. In order to re-engineer lost tooth-supporting tissues, various therapeutic modalities have been used clinically. Periodontal regeneration procedures including guided tissue regeneration have achieved substantial effects. However, there are several issues to be solved. They are highly technique-sensitive, applicable to limited cases which are susceptible to treatment, and supposed to have relatively low predictability. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new approaches to improve the predictability and effectiveness of regenerative therapies for periodontal tissues. Recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been introduced to restore lost tissues more effectively where the biological process of healing is mimicked. To achieve this, integration of three key elements is required: progenitor/stem cells, growth factors and the extracellular matrix scaffold. Although it has been shown that implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into periodontal osseous defects induced regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in dogs, further extensive preclinical studies are required. On the other hand, application of growth factors, particularly basic fibroblast growth factor in the treatment of human periodontitis, is promising and is now in clinical trial. Furthermore, the rate of release of growth factor from the scaffold also can profoundly affect the results of tissue engineering strategies and the development of new materials is expected. In addition, as tissue regenerative potential is negatively regulated by aging, the effects of aging have to be clarified to gain complete regeneration.
Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Ito, Takashi; Kawahara, Ko-Ichi; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Tatsuyama-Nagayama, Shoko; Kawakami-Morizono, Yoshiko; Fijisawa, Mari; Miyashita, Keiko; Emoto, Makiko; Torii, Mitsuo; Tokuda, Masayuki
Periodontitis is a major chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased production of numerous proinflammatory cytokines, which leads to the destruction of the periodontal tissue and ultimately loss of teeth. Periodontitis has powerful and multiple influences on the occurrence and severity of systemic conditions and diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Meanwhile, diabetes is associated with increased prevalence, severity and progression of periodontal disease. There is also abundant evidence showing that diabetes plays important etiological roles in periodontitis. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was recently identified as a lethal mediator of severe sepsis and comprises a group of intracellular proteins that function as inflammatory cytokines when released into the extracellular milieu. From a clinical perspective, extracellular HMGB1 can cause multiple organ failure and contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We recently reported that HMGB1 expression in periodontal tissues was elevated in patients with severe periodontitis. In addition, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), a receptor for HMGB1, was strongly expressed in gingival tissues obtained from patients with type 2 diabetes and periodontitis compared with systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis patients. From these data, we hypothesize that HMGB1 might play a role in the development of diabetes-associated periodontitis.
Kinumatsu, Takashi; Umehara, Kazuhiro; Nagano, Kyosuke; Saito, Atsushi
We report a patient with severe chronic periodontitis requiring regenerative periodontal surgery and different types of prosthesis in the maxillary and mandibular regions. The patient was a 57-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of occlusal pain. An initial clinical examination revealed that 73% of sites had a probing depth of ≥4 mm, and 60% of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing. Radiographic examination revealed vertical bone defects in the molar region and widening of the periodontal ligament space around teeth #17 and 24. Initial periodontal therapy was implemented based on a clinical diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis. Surgical periodontal therapy was subsequently performed at selected sites. Periodontal regenerative therapy using enamel matrix derivative was performed on #14, 15, and 35-37. Tunnel preparation was performed on #46 as it had a 2-wall vertical bony defect and Degree 3 furcation involvement. Other sites with residual periodontal pockets were treated by modified Widman flap surgery. After a re-evaluation, functional rehabilitation was implemented with a removable maxillary partial denture and a fixed mandibular bridge. No further deterioration was observed in the periodontal condition of most of the teeth during a 2-year period of supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). The patient is currently still undergoing SPT and some minor problems remain. However, the results suggest that treatment and subsequent maintenance for severe periodontitis with traumatic occlusion can be successful as long as the appropriate periodontal and prosthodontic treatment is planned and careful SPT carried out.
Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna
The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without extraction of the adjacent tooth was performed. Lesion samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed a thin, non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Epithelial plaques were also seen. A clinicopathological correlation incorporating the surgical, radiographical and gold standard histopathological findings was obtained to suggest the final diagnosis of the bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.
Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A.; Zugck, Christian
Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136
Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie
Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20(th) century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics.
A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…
Passanezi, Euloir; Damante, Carla Andreotti; de Rezende, Maria L Rubo; Greghi, Sebastião L Aguiar
About 50 years ago, lasers started to be used in periodontal treatment following evidence that wounds produced in animals healed more quickly after being irradiated with low-intensity lasers. Increased production of growth factors, stimulated mainly by red and infrared lasers, may participate in this process by influencing the behavior of various types of cells. High-intensity lasers have been used as an alternative to nonsurgical periodontal therapy in root biomodification and to reduce dentin hypersensivity; low-intensity lasers are frequently employed to improve tissue repair in regenerative procedures and in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Despite the abundance of promising data on the advantages of their use, there is still controversy regarding the real benefits of lasers and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in periodontal and peri-implant treatment. A huge variation in the parameters of laser application among studies makes comparisons very difficult. An overview of the current concepts and findings on lasers in periodontal therapy is presented with emphasis on data collected from Latin-American researchers.
Liu, Qi; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Zhou, Cui-Hong; Cui, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Kun; Deng, Chao; Xia, Jia-Jia; Wu, Yan; Liu, Lu-Chuan; Jin, Yan
Multiple studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for periodontitis. Recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) have been utilized to reconstruct tissues destroyed by chronic inflammation. However, impact of periodontitis with diabetes mellitus on PDLSCs and mechanisms mediating effects of complex microenvironments remain poorly understood. In this study, we found multiple differentiation potential of PDLSCs from chronic periodontitis with diabetes mellitus donors (D-PDLSCs) was damaged significantly. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling could rescue osteogenic potential of PDLSCs from simple chronic periodontitis patients (P-PDLSCs), whereas did not promote D-PDLSCs osteogenesis. In addition, we found expression of DKK1 in D-PDLSCs did not respond to osteogenic signal and decreased osteogenic potential of D-PDLSCs treated with DKK1 could be reversed. To further elucidate different character between P-PDLSCs and D-PDLSCs, we treated PDLSCs with TNF-α and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and find out AGEs which enhance effect of TNF-α in PDLSCs might mediate special personality of D-PDLSCs. The adverse effect of AGEs in PDLSCs could be reversed when PDLSCs were treated with DKK1. These results suggested DKK1 mediating WNT signaling might be a therapy target to rescue potential of PDLSCs in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus.
Drisko, C H
Regular home care by the patient in addition to professional removal of subgingival plaque is generally very effective in controlling most inflammatory periodontal diseases. When disease does recur, despite frequent recall, it can usually be attributed to lack of sufficient supragingival and subgingival plaque control or to other risk factors that influence host response, such as diabetes or smoking. Causative factors contributing to recurrent disease include deep inaccessible pockets, overhangs, poor crown margins and plaque-retentive calculus. In most cases, simply performing a thorough periodontal debridement under local anesthesia will stop disease progression and result in improvement in the clinical signs and symptoms of active disease. If however, clinical signs of disease activity persist following thorough mechanical therapy, such as increased pocket depths, loss of attachment and bleeding on probing, other pharmacotherapeutic therapies should be considered. Augmenting scaling and root planing or maintenance visits with adjunctive chemotherapeutic agents for controlling plaque and gingivitis could be as simple as placing the patient on an antimicrobial mouthrinse and/or toothpaste with agents such as fluorides, chlorhexidine or triclosan, to name a few. Since supragingival plaque reappears within hours or days after its removal, it is important that patients have access to effective alternative chemotherapeutic products that could help them achieve adequate supragingival plaque control. Recent studies, for example, have documented the positive effect of triclosan toothpaste on the long-term maintenance of both gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Daily irrigation with a powered irrigation device, with or without an antimicrobial agent, is also useful for decreasing the inflammation associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. Clinically significant changes in probing depths and attachment levels are not usually expected with irrigation alone. Recent
Anbinder, Ana Lia; Moraes, Renata M; Lima, Gabriela M G; Oliveira, Felipe E; Campos, Débora R C; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Oliveira, Luciane D; Junqueira, Juliana C; Ma, Yun; Elefteriou, Florent
Periodontal pathogens and/or inflammatory products from periodontitis participate in the development or progression of systemic diseases. In this context, periodontitis acts as a modifying factor to systemic health, including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Osteoporosis is an increasingly prevalent condition in our aging population and considered a risk factor for periodontal disease, but the effect of periodontitis on systemic bone homeostasis is unknown. We thus evaluated the effects of experimental periodontitis (EP) on systemic bone loss and the influence of estrogen deficiency in this context, using a mouse model of combined periodontitis and osteoporosis. Experimental periodontitis (EP) was induced by a ligature insertion around the mandibular first molars and Porphyromonas gingivalis infection. Three-dimensional microcomputed tomographic analyses performed 48days following infection revealed that EP and ovariectomy (OVX) induced a significantly higher femoral and mandibular bone loss compared to EP or OVX alone. EP alone did not induce systemic bone loss. In addition, the EP+OVX and EP groups showed significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α than OVX and control groups at end point. These results suggest that periodontitis could be a risk factor for systemic bone loss, especially in post-menopausal women, and warrant further clinical investigations to confirm this association and propose adapted prophylactic and curative therapies.
Iwasaki, Kengo; Komaki, Motohiro; Yokoyama, Naoki; Tanaka, Yuichi; Taki, Atsuko; Honda, Izumi; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takeda, Masaki; Akazawa, Keiko; Oda, Shigeru; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo
Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Regeneration of periodontal tissues using ex vivo expanded cells has been introduced and studied, although appropriate methodology has not yet been established. We developed a novel cell transplant method for periodontal regeneration using periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC)-transferred amniotic membrane (PDLSC-amnion). The aim of this study was to investigate the regenerative potential of PDLSC-amnion in a rat periodontal defect model. Cultured PDLSCs were transferred onto amniotic membranes using a glass substrate treated with polyethylene glycol and photolithography. The properties of PDLSCs were investigated by flow cytometry and in vitro differentiation. PDLSC-amnion was transplanted into surgically created periodontal defects in rat maxillary molars. Periodontal regeneration was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell-like characteristics such as cell surface marker expression (CD90, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD146, and STRO-1) and trilineage differentiation ability (i.e., into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes). PDLSC-amnion exhibited a single layer of PDLSCs on the amniotic membrane and stability of the sheet even with movement and deformation caused by surgical instruments. We observed that the PDLSC-amnion enhanced periodontal tissue regeneration as determined by micro-CT and histology by 4 weeks after transplantation. These data suggest that PDLSC-amnion has therapeutic potential as a novel cell-based regenerative periodontal therapy.
Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Palcanis, K G; Ranney, R R
Statistical comparisons of the floras associated with juvenile periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and moderate periodontitis indicated that differences in the bacterial compositions of affected sites in these populations were not statistically significant. The subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was statistically significantly different from the adjacent supragingival flora and from the subgingival floras of people with healthy gingiva and of children with developing (experimental) gingivitis. However, the subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was not significantly different from the flora of sites with gingival index scores of 1 or 2 in adults with developing (experimental) gingivitis. Of 357 bacterial taxa among over 18,000 isolates, 54 non-treponemal species, 2 treponemal species, and mycoplasma were most associated with diseased periodontal sulci. These species comprised an increasing proportion of the flora during developing gingivitis and constituted over half of the cultivable flora of diseased sites. PMID:3988344
Nichols, C; Laster, L L; Bodak-Gyovai, L Z
A sample of 54 patients with diabetes mellitus were subjects to detailed assessment of periodontal disease levels using standard indices. In order to determine whether the severity of periodontal disease was related to the severity of diabets mellitus, a series of parameters of the diabetes mellitus population was simultaneously studied. There were no significant relationships between the levels of periodontal disease and the duration of diabetes, the type of treatment and the frequency of systemic complications. Periodontal disease in the diabetic appeared to the affected by the same etiologic factors [plaque, calculus, neglect] as would be expected in nondiabetic patients. Further studies with larger population samples would be appropriate.
Kao, Daniel W K; Fiorellini, Joseph P
Traditional treatment for loss of bone and attachment due to periodontal disease has focused around repairing the damage induced. However, over the past few decades, clinicians have begun to utilize regenerative techniques to rebuild bone, cementum and the periodontal ligament. Conventional procedures most often involve the use of barrier membranes with bone grafts that foster selective cell repopulation and regrowth of osseous structures. Since the predictability of these techniques may be limited to certain case types, pharmacologically based efforts are underway to investigate the possibility of harnessing osseous regrowth potential. Clinical research has found that proteins are potent biological mediators that promote many of the events in wound healing, and have been shown to promote bone formation in human clinical studies.
Efanov, O. I.
An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.
Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie
Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20th century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics. PMID:23066266
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, more attention has been reserved to the correlation between periodontitis and systemic health. MetS is characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which the equilibrium between the production and the inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) becomes disrupted. ROS have an essential role in a variety of physiological systems, but under a condition of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction and damage. Oxidative stress may act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of MetS and periodontitis. All those conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, promoting a proinflammatory state. Moreover, adipocytokines, produced by the fat cells of fat tissue, might modulate the balance between oxidant and antioxidant activities. An increased caloric intake involves a higher metabolic activity, which results in an increased production of ROS, inducing insulin resistance. At the same time, obese patients require more insulin to maintain blood glucose homeostasis – a state known as hyperinsulinemia, a condition that can evolve into type 2 diabetes. Oxidation products can increase neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis, thus favoring oxidative damage. Hyperglycemia and an oxidizing state promote the genesis of advanced glycation end-products, which could also be implicated in the degeneration and damage of periodontal tissue. Thus, MetS, the whole of interconnected factors, presents systemic and local manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease and periodontitis, related by a common factor known as oxidative stress. PMID:23009606
Guzeldemir, Esra; Toygar, Hilal Uslu
Technologic advances in mechanics, electronics, physics, chemistry, and computer science have contributed to advances in dental medicine. Periodontology is not only a clinical science but is also directly related to the basic sciences. Research is conducted in laboratories rather than in clinics now. During the last century, aggressive periodontitis has received attention from numerous researchers because of its multifactorial features. This paper explores the long scientific journey of aggressive periodontitis, beginning with its first definition as alveolar diffuse atrophy. Perhaps in the future, "alveolar diffuse atrophy" will be referred to by another name or term. However, this journey will never end.
Ajay, Mahajan; Negi, Kehar Singh; Saroj, Thakur; Kanwarjeet, Asi Singh
Treatment options for severely misaligned teeth with advanced bone loss are limited. We report the management of a case of advanced periodontitis in a labially placed extruded maxillary canine. A 24 years old male reported to the periodontal clinic to preserve his mobile and misaligned upper left lateral incisor. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed advanced attachment loss with bone resorption around the affected tooth. The decision was taken to reconstruct the lost periodontal tissues in coordination with orthodontic intervention to align the tooth in a functionally esthetic position. At the end of the combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment, the tooth was preserved and was well-aligned in the arch; the patient was satisfied with the treatment outcome. It can be concluded that severely misaligned teeth with advanced bone loss can be salvaged with a combined and meticulously planned Periodontal Orthodontic treatment approach. PMID:27041848
Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini
GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.
Rao, Subramaniam M; Ugale, Gauri M; Warad, Shivaraj B
Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins form a unique group of proteins within the transforming growth factor superfamily of genes and have a vital role in the regulation in the bone induction and maintenance. The activity of bone morphogenetic proteins was first identified in the 1960s, but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human bone morphogenetic proteins in the 1980s, because of their osteoinductive potential. Bone morphogenetic proteins have gained a lot of interest as therapeutic agents for treating periodontal defects. A systematic search for data related to the use of bone morphogenetic proteins for the regeneration of periodontal defects was performed to recognize studies on animals and human (PUBMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and Google search). All the studies included showed noticeable regeneration of periodontal tissues with the use of BMP. PMID:23626951
Kwan, John Y
Current literature supports the use of powered instrumentation over traditional hand instrumentation. The objective of scaling and root planing is the complete removal of plaque and calculus from root surfaces. While this is unrealistic, the accepted end-point is a smooth, glassy root surface during periodontal instrumentation. This often has resulted in overinstrumentation and excessive removal of cementum. Cementum removal has been deemed generally unnecessary. What is essential is the removal of plaque, calculus, and the endotoxin adherent to the root surface. This cleaning of root surfaces is best done with judicious use of powered instrumentation. The excessive removal of cementum during hand instrumentation is due to the lack of visualization. Using endoscopic technology, the ability to visually debride roots can improve chances of success in a more conservative and minimally invasive way. This article provides a brief review of micro ultrasonic technologies and periodontal endoscopy, its implementation in our practice, and a limited case series.
Arun, Tülin; Sayinsu, Korkmaz; Nalbantgil, Didem
Although comprehensive orthodontic treatment cannot preclude the possibility of periodontal disease developing later, it can be a useful part of the overall treatment plan for a patient who already has periodontal involvement. A careful clinical examination must determine the patient's dental health status, including any existing destruction or deficiencies of the teeth and their support, as well as the patient's ability to achieve and maintain good overall oral hygiene. Two major criteria should be considered in the treatment of these patients: (1) the patient should be seen frequently for periodontal maintenance and (2) minimal orthodontic forces should be applied. Segmented archwires could be used for the treatment mechanics. After treatment, splinting of the teeth is necessary both short- and long-term. With this orthodontic approach, both dental esthetics and function improve and can be maintained. A male patient, 50 years of age, with severe periodontal involvement was referred to the authors' clinic, from the periodontal department, for treatment. The mandibular incisors were intruded by using segmental archwires. At the end of treatment, permanent retention was required due to the severe bone loss.
Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S
Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors
Baghani, Zahra; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi
The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properties of dressings are directly related to their dimensional changes and adhesion properties. Their biocompatibility and therapeutic effect are among the other factors evaluated in the literature. Chlorhexidine is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in studies. In general, when comparing the advantages with the disadvantages, application of periodontal dressing seems to be beneficial. Numerous factors are involved in selection of an optimal dressing such as surgeon’s intention, required time for the dressing to remain on the surgery site and its dimensional changes. PMID:24578815
Taba, M.; Jin, Q.; Sugai, J.V.; Giannobile, W.V.
Repair of tooth supporting alveolar bone defects caused by periodontal and peri-implant tissue destruction is a major goal of reconstructive therapy. Oral and craniofacial tissue engineering has been achieved with limited success by the utilization of a variety of approaches such as cell-occlusive barrier membranes, bone substitutes and autogenous block grafting techniques. Signaling molecules such as growth factors have been used to restore lost tooth support because of damage by periodontal disease or trauma. This paper will review emerging periodontal therapies in the areas of materials science, growth factor biology and cell/gene therapy. Several different polymer delivery systems that aid in the targeting of proteins, genes and cells to periodontal and peri-implant defects will be highlighted. Results from preclinical and clinical trials will be reviewed using the topical application of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2 and BMP-7) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF) for periodontal and peri-implant regeneration. The paper concludes with recent research on the use of ex vivo and in vivo gene delivery strategies via gene therapy vectors encoding growth promoting and inhibiting molecules (PDGF, BMP, noggin and others) to regenerate periodontal structures including bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. PMID:16238610
Vinod, K; Reddy, Y Giridhar; Reddy, Vinay P; Nandan, Hemant; Sharma, Meenakshi
In this present era, when a significant number of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults, importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach cannot be overemphasized. Higher susceptibility of plaque accumulation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment makes involvement of periodontist almost unavoidable. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes which require immediate attention. More recently, orthodontics has been used as an adjunct to periodontics to increase connective tissue support and alveolar bone height. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal tissues and to discuss the mutually beneficial relationship shared between the two specialties.
Vinod, K.; Reddy, Y. Giridhar; Reddy, Vinay P.; Nandan, Hemant; Sharma, Meenakshi
In this present era, when a significant number of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults, importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach cannot be overemphasized. Higher susceptibility of plaque accumulation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment makes involvement of periodontist almost unavoidable. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes which require immediate attention. More recently, orthodontics has been used as an adjunct to periodontics to increase connective tissue support and alveolar bone height. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal tissues and to discuss the mutually beneficial relationship shared between the two specialties. PMID:22628956
Llambés, Fernando; Arias-Herrera, Santiago; Caffesse, Raúl
Periodontal disease is a high prevalent disease. In the United States 47.2% of adults ≥ 30 years old have been diagnosed with some type of periodontitis. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, with more severe periodontal tissue destruction in diabetic patients and poorer glycemic control in diabetic subjects with periodontal disease. Periodontal treatment can be successful in diabetic patients. Short term effects of periodontal treatment are similar in diabetic patients and healthy population but, more recurrence of periodontal disease can be expected in no well controlled diabetic individuals. However, effects of periodontitis and its treatment on diabetes metabolic control are not clearly defined and results of the studies remain controversial. PMID:26185600
Fenesy, K E
Periodontitis is now seen as resulting from a complex interplay of bacterial infection and host response, often modified by behavioral factors. There has been a fundamental change in the prevailing periodontal disease model of the 1960s, which suggested that the susceptibility to periodontitis increases with age, and that all individuals are susceptible to severe periodontal disease. More recent research has changed the belief in universal susceptibility to the current view that only some 5-20% of any population suffer from severe generalized periodontitis, and that only moderate disease affects a majority of adults. One major risk factor is smoking, as there is now a clear association between smoking and periodontal disease independent of oral hygiene, age, or any other risk factor. In human periodontitis, there is no simple, direct pathogen-disease link. There are three pathogens that have a strong association with progressive periodontal disease: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, spirochetes of acute necrotizing gingivitis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. These pathogens may be the cause of continued loss of periodontal attachment in all periodontal disease classifications despite diligent periodontal therapy. This loss of attachment, or destruction of the periodontal ligament and loss of adjacent supporting bone, is seen in adult periodontitis, as well as in early-onset periodontitis, which affects young persons who otherwise appear healthy. The three forms of early-onset periodontitis are prepubertal periodontitis, localized and generalized juvenile periodontitis, and rapidly progressive periodontitis. They are distinguished from adult periodontitis by the age of onset of the disease, the rapid rate of disease progression, manifestations of defects in host response, and the composition of the subgingival microflora. Prepubertal periodontitis is associated with attachment loss around teeth of the deciduous and/or permanent dentition, and is often associated
Holmlund, A; Lampa, E; Lind, L
Periodontal disease has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether the response to the treatment of periodontal disease affects this association has not been investigated in any large prospective study. Periodontal data obtained at baseline and 1 y after treatment were available in 5,297 individuals with remaining teeth who were treated at a specialized clinic for periodontal disease. Poor response to treatment was defined as having >10% sites with probing pocket depth >4 mm deep and bleeding on probing at ≥20% of the sites 1 y after active treatment. Fatal/nonfatal incidence rate of CVD (composite end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) was obtained from the Swedish cause-of-death and hospital discharge registers. Poisson regression analysis was performed to analyze future risk of CVD. During a median follow-up of 16.8 y (89,719 person-years at risk), those individuals who did not respond well to treatment (13.8% of the sample) had an increased incidence of CVD ( n = 870) when compared with responders (23.6 vs. 15.3%, P < 0.001). When adjusting for calendar time, age, sex, educational level, smoking, and baseline values for bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth >4 mm, and number of teeth, the incidence rate ratio for CVD among poor responders was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.53; P = 0.007) as opposed to good responders. The incidence rate ratio among poor responders increased to 1.39 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.73; P = 0.002) for those with the most remaining teeth. Individuals who did not respond well to periodontal treatment had an increased risk for future CVD, indicating that successful periodontal treatment might influence progression of subclinical CVD.
Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat
Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.
Woodman, Alan J
Risk assessment has become a regular feature in both dental practice and society as a whole, and principles used to assess risk in society are similar to those used in a clinical setting. Although the concept of risk assessment as a prognostic indicator for periodontal disease incidence and activity is well established in the management of periodontitis, the use of risk assessment to manage the practical treatment of periodontitis and its sequelae appears to have less foundation. A simple system of initial risk assessment - building on the use of the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), clinical, medical and social factors - is described, linked to protocols for delivering care suited to general dental practice and stressing the role of long-term supportive care. The risks of not treating the patient are considered, together with the possible causes of failure, and the problems of successful treatment are illustrated by the practical management of post-treatment recession.
Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350
Heins, Paul J.; Mackenzie, Richard S.
An adaptation of the inquiry method of teaching, which develops skills of information retrieval and reasoning through systematic questioning by the teacher, is proposed for instruction in clinical periodontics. (MSE)
inflammatory loss of attachment and bone in adolescents ; lesions are often associated with incisors and first molars; no evidence of systemic disease . RISK...FACTORS: When determining susceptibility to periodontal disease , patients in the previous classifications should be considered high risk patients if...AD-A247 28411i 11111l l l1113111! Eilli UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL PERIODONTAL STAIN TEST DIAGNOSIS PROGRAM D T IC Prof. E.J. Burkes
Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease that affects low-income individuals disproportionately. Periodontitis is associated with specific bacterial species and herpesviruses, and successful prevention and treatment of the disease is contingent upon effective control of these pathogens. This article presents an efficacious, highly safe, minimally invasive, practical and low-cost periodontal therapy that involves professional and patient-administered mechanical therapy and antimicrobial agents. The major components are scaling for calculus removal, periodontal pocket irrigation with potent antiseptics, and treatment with systemic antibiotics for advanced disease. Povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite have all the characteristics for becoming the first-choice antiseptics in the management of periodontal diseases. Both agents show excellent antibacterial and antiviral properties, are readily available throughout the world, have been safely used in periodontal therapy for decades, offer significant benefits for individuals with very limited financial resources, and are well accepted by most dental professionals and patients. Four per cent chlorhexidine applied with a toothbrush to the most posterior part to the tongue dorsum can markedly reduce or eliminate halitosis in most individuals. Systemic antibiotics are used to treat periodontopathic bacteria that are not readily reached by topical therapy, such as pathogens within gingival tissue, within furcation defects, at the base of periodontal pockets, and on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosae. Valuable antibiotic therapies are amoxicillin-metronidazole (250 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of metronidazole, three times daily for 8 days) for young and middle-aged patients, and ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (500 mg of each, twice daily for 8 days) for elderly patients and for patients in developing countries who frequently harbor enteric rods subgingivally. Scaling to remove dental calculus and the prudent
Bader, H I
Although lasers have been used in periodontal therapy for 10 or more years, clinicians have barely begun to tap the enormous potential of this form of therapy. The relative lack of pain, ease of use, and site specificity of the laser make it an ideal addition to the periodontist's armamentarium. Applications now are being developed for a broader range of wavelengths that will offer useful, predictable, and comfortable therapy for managing the periodontal patient.
Barbato, Luigi; Francioni, Edoardo; Bianchi, Massimiliano; Mascitelli, Eleonora; Marco, Leila Brancato; Tonelli, Duvina Paolo
Summary Periodontitis is a plaque induced disease characterized by tissue destruction. The extent of the alveolar bone loss depends on the host response stimulated by bacterial infection. Recently researchers have focused on the role of the immune system, of RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway and of cytokines network. Another recent field of interest is osteoimmunology that try to explain the relationship between immune and bone cells in activating bone resorption. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms allowed a better understanding of the relationship with other diseases like osteoporosis and also to hypothesize new therapies based on modulation of host response (host modulatory therapy - HMT). The purpose of this mini-review is to briefly discuss these topics. PMID:26604945
Bermejo-Fenoll, Ambrosio; Sánchez-Pérez, Arturo
Necrotizing gingivitis (NG) or necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is considered to be an acute opportunistic gingival infection caused by bacterial plaque. It appears more frequently in undernurished children and young adults as well as patients with immunodeficiency. In its pathogenesis, there are factors related to the oral microbiota with invasion processes on the one hand, and on the other hand, factors associated with the host, such as signs of capillary and immunological disorders as well as undernurishment. The disease is characterized by pain, bleeding and papillary necrosis with tendency to relapse. Diagnosis is made by a simple clinical examination. However, complementary tests ought to be performed in order to eliminate the possibility of illnesses systemic or immunodeficiency. Early and sustained treatment is strongly recommended. Lesions of the gums (craters in the interdental papillae) as an aftermath of the disease is a possibility, or if there is necrotizing periodontitis there will be loss of attachment tissue.
Holtfreter, Birte; Alte, Dietrich; Schwahn, Christian; Desvarieux, Moïse; Kocher, Thomas
Aim To quantify the digit preference effect for three manual periodontal probes and to calculate correction values to enable comparison of studies with equal recording protocols, but different periodontal probes. Material and Methods A prospective in vivo crossover study was conducted with a six-sequence three-period design. Six examiners assessed attachment loss (AL), probing pocket depth (PD) and gingiva height (GH) at four surfaces, full-mouth, in six generally healthy subjects using three manual probes: PCP11 (3-3-3-2 mm increments), PCP2 (2 mm increments), and PCPUNC15 (1 mm increments). Results Distributions of AL, PD and GH differed between probes (p < 0.001). Compared with PCPUNC15, periodontal measurements coinciding with probe markings of PCP11 and PCP2, respectively, were preferentially named by examiners. Digit preference was most pronounced for PD, but less for AL and GH. In multilevel models, PD differed significantly between all three probes (p < 0.05); probe- and examiner-related effects were also observed for AL and GH. Correction values for pairwise combinations of probes were determined. Conclusions We provided empirical evidence and quantified the effect of probe type on periodontal measurements. Differences in probe type should be considered when comparing periodontal data within and between epidemiological studies and appropriate corrections, provided here, should be applied. PMID:22924328
Unlike in adults, currently there are no nationally agreed guidelines for the assessment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. This paper considers the range of periodontal diseases that can affect youngsters and documents a simple periodontal screening system for the younger age groups. It includes principles of periodontal diagnosis and management for the practitioner to apply to the young patient and considers when to treat in practice and when to refer to a specialist.
Teles, Ricardo; Teles, Flavia; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Paster, Bruce; Haffajee, Anne
Periodontal diseases are initiated by bacterial species living in polymicrobial biofilms at or below the gingival margin and progress largely as a result of the inflammation initiated by specific subgingival species. In the past few decades, efforts to understand the microbiota of periodontal diseases have led to an exponential increase in information about biofilms associated with periodontal health and disease. In fact, the oral microbiota is one of the best characterized microbiomes that colonize the human body. Despite this increased knowledge, one has to ask if our fundamental concepts of the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases have really changed. In this chapter we will review how our comprehension of the structure and function of the subgingival microbiota evolved over the years in search of lessons learned and unlearned in periodontal microbiology. More specifically, this review focuses on: 1) how the data obtained through molecular techniques has impacted our knowledge of the etiology of periodontal infections; 2) the potential role of viruses in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal diseases; 3) how concepts of microbial ecology have expanded our understanding of host microbial interactions that might lead to periodontal diseases; 4) the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases; and 5) the impact of these evolving concepts on treatment and preventive approaches to periodontal infections. We will conclude by reviewing how novel systems biology approaches promise to unravel new details of the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and, hopefully, lead to a better understanding of periodontal disease mechanisms. PMID:23574465
Martinez-Canut, P; Lorca, A; Magán, R
This study was performed to assess the influence of smoking on periodontal disease severity. Data concerning periodontal status and smoking habits were collected from 889 periodontal patients: 340 male and 549 female, 21 to 76 years of age, 47.4% being non smokers and 52.6% smokers. Periodontal parameters, recorded by the same examiner (PMC), were: gingival recession (GR), Pocket depth (PD), Probing attachment level (PAL), and mobility (M). The influence of age, sex and tobacco consumption on these periodontal parameters was statistically evaluated using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with covariates. A non-linear effect model was also fitted by taking the natural logarithms of the response variables (GR, PD, PAL) closer to biomedical phenomena. Mobility was analyzed by a chi2-test. The effect of smoking on periodontitis showed no association with age or with sex. Smoking, age and sex were shown to be statistically significant for periodontitis, by performing both univariate (t-test for equal means) and multivariate tests. p-values for smoking and periodontitis were: GR (p=0.000), PD (p=0.000), PAL (p=0.000) and M (P=0.015). Smoking one cigarette per day, up to 10, and up to 20, increased PAL by 0.5%, 5% and 10%, respectively. The impact of tobacco is comparable to the impact resulting from the factor of age in this sample, increasing PAL by 0.7% for each year of life. Comparison between smokers of less than 10 cigarettes per day (PAL mean 3.72 mm +/-0.86) and non-smokers (PAL mean 3.84 +/- 0.89) showed no differences in PAL (p=0.216), while comparison for smokers from 11 to 20 cigarettes (PAL mean 4.36 +/- 1.23) and for more than 20 cigarettes (PAL mean 4.50 +/- 1.04) demonstrated significant differences (p=0.000). These findings suggest that: (1) tobacco increases periodontal disease severity; (2) this effect is clinically evident above consumption of a certain quantity of tobacco.
Burgett, F G
Application of the chronic disease model to IPD suggests that to be most effective, programs of prevention and treatment include measures to address as many of the identified risk factors as is possible. It remains to be determined if TO is involved in the initiation of IPD, for example, if individuals with TO are at greater risk for the development of IPD. There is evidence that TO is a risk factor in the progression of IPD. Tooth mobility is associated with and is a risk factor for increased attachment loss and increased bone loss in patients with periodontitis. Tooth mobility can be reduced by occlusal treatment. Clinical trials involving patients with periodontitis clearly establish that a better clinical periodontal attachment level response to treatment is obtained when occlusal adjustment is included as part of the treatment plan. Patients with advanced periodontal involvement benefit from occlusal treatment in terms of increased stability for the teeth and also in terms of oral comfort. Finally, There is no evidence that without occlusal treatment, periodontal patients who are in careful maintenance programs are more likely to suffer recurrence of IPD.
Douglass, Gordon L
Periodontics has a long history of utilizing advances in science to expand and improve periodontal therapies. Recently the American Academy of Periodontology published the findings of the Contemporary Science Workshop, which conducted state-of-the-art evidence-based reviews of current and emerging areas in periodontics. The findings of this workshop provide the basis for an evidence-based approach to periodontal therapy. While the workshop evaluated all areas of periodontics, it is in the area of tissue engineering that the most exciting advances are becoming a reality.
Soenjaya, Y.; Foster, B.L.; Nociti, F.H.; Ao, M.; Holdsworth, D.W.; Hunter, G.K.; Somerman, M.J.
Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an acidic phosphoprotein with collagen-binding, cell attachment, and hydroxyapatite-nucleating properties. BSP expression in mineralized tissues is upregulated at onset of mineralization. Bsp-null (Bsp-/-) mice exhibit reductions in bone mineral density, bone turnover, osteoclast activation, and impaired bone healing. Furthermore, Bsp-/- mice have marked periodontal tissue breakdown, with a lack of acellular cementum leading to periodontal ligament detachment, extensive alveolar bone and tooth root resorption, and incisor malocclusion. We hypothesized that altered mechanical stress from mastication contributes to periodontal destruction observed in Bsp-/- mice. This hypothesis was tested by comparing Bsp-/- and wild-type mice fed with standard hard pellet diet or soft powder diet. Dentoalveolar tissues were analyzed using histology and micro–computed tomography. By 8 wk of age, Bsp-/- mice exhibited molar and incisor malocclusion regardless of diet. Bsp-/- mice with hard pellet diet exhibited high incidence (30%) of severe incisor malocclusion, 10% lower body weight, 3% reduced femur length, and 30% elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity compared to wild type. Soft powder diet reduced severe incisor malocclusion incidence to 3% in Bsp-/- mice, supporting the hypothesis that occlusal loading contributed to the malocclusion phenotype. Furthermore, Bsp-/- mice in the soft powder diet group featured normal body weight, long bone length, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity, suggesting that tooth dysfunction and malnutrition contribute to growth and skeletal defects reported in Bsp-/- mice. Bsp-/- incisors also erupt at a slower rate, which likely leads to the observed thickened dentin and enhanced mineralization of dentin and enamel toward the apical end. We propose that the decrease in eruption rate is due to a lack of acellular cementum and associated defective periodontal attachment. These data demonstrate the importance of BSP
Soenjaya, Y; Foster, B L; Nociti, F H; Ao, M; Holdsworth, D W; Hunter, G K; Somerman, M J; Goldberg, H A
Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an acidic phosphoprotein with collagen-binding, cell attachment, and hydroxyapatite-nucleating properties. BSP expression in mineralized tissues is upregulated at onset of mineralization. Bsp-null (Bsp(-/-)) mice exhibit reductions in bone mineral density, bone turnover, osteoclast activation, and impaired bone healing. Furthermore, Bsp(-/-) mice have marked periodontal tissue breakdown, with a lack of acellular cementum leading to periodontal ligament detachment, extensive alveolar bone and tooth root resorption, and incisor malocclusion. We hypothesized that altered mechanical stress from mastication contributes to periodontal destruction observed in Bsp(-/-) mice. This hypothesis was tested by comparing Bsp(-/-) and wild-type mice fed with standard hard pellet diet or soft powder diet. Dentoalveolar tissues were analyzed using histology and micro-computed tomography. By 8 wk of age, Bsp(-/-) mice exhibited molar and incisor malocclusion regardless of diet. Bsp(-/-) mice with hard pellet diet exhibited high incidence (30%) of severe incisor malocclusion, 10% lower body weight, 3% reduced femur length, and 30% elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity compared to wild type. Soft powder diet reduced severe incisor malocclusion incidence to 3% in Bsp(-/-) mice, supporting the hypothesis that occlusal loading contributed to the malocclusion phenotype. Furthermore, Bsp(-/-) mice in the soft powder diet group featured normal body weight, long bone length, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity, suggesting that tooth dysfunction and malnutrition contribute to growth and skeletal defects reported in Bsp(-/-) mice. Bsp(-/-) incisors also erupt at a slower rate, which likely leads to the observed thickened dentin and enhanced mineralization of dentin and enamel toward the apical end. We propose that the decrease in eruption rate is due to a lack of acellular cementum and associated defective periodontal attachment. These data demonstrate the
Preshaw, Philip M
As periodontal researchers and clinicians, we are challenged every day to make decisions relating to the clinical management of our patients and about how best to conduct clinical periodontal research. This volume of Periodontology 2000 addresses some of the critical issues in contemporary clinical periodontics and periodontal research that are of direct relevance to clinicians, researchers, teachers and students. The 11 review articles in this volume of Periodontology 2000 focus on aspects of periodontal research methodology and clinical periodontology. In terms of research methodology, the articles aim to inform the reader on topics relating to randomized controlled trials in periodontal research, evidence-based dentistry, calibration of clinical examiners and statistics relevant to periodontal research. The clinical periodontology articles address issues relating to decisions on retaining periodontally compromised teeth or replacing them with implants, periodontal management in the patient with osteoporosis, surgical approaches for root coverage and the emerging science of advanced regenerative technologies, including the use of stem cells, for periodontal regeneration. It is hoped that these critical reviews will address many of the dilemmas that confront us on a regular basis and provide practical guidance to those engaged in both clinical periodontology and clinical periodontal research.
Maruchi, N; Miyajima, K; Iizuka, T; Inagaki, K; Noguchi, T; Sakai, M
Adults with untreated malocclusions suffer from more periodontal disease than if their malocclusion had been corrected orthodontically. What orthodontists can offer in the management of patients with periodontal disease, how they can help the periodontists and the patients, and how the periodontists can help the orthodontist make treatment safe and purposefully are widely discussed. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to discuss how orthodontic patients with severe periodontitis could be treated and what we should do for these patients during the treatment as well as at their initial visit. One case is presented as an example of treatment for malocclusion with sever periodontitis: The patient was a 23 years 8 months female with a chief complaint of protrusion of upper incisors. Since clinical examination revealed severe periodontitis, periodontal treatment was undertaken for one year prior to orthodontic treatment. From these observations, we are conviced of the importance again of the global approach and the team treatment method in treating malocclusions with periodontitis.
Luo, Kai; Ma, Souzhi; Guo, Jianbin; Huang, Yongling; Yan, Fuhua; Xiao, Yin
To investigate the correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) and the pathogenesis of periodontitis, ovariectomized rats were generated and the experimental periodontitis was induced using a silk ligature. The inflammatory factors and bone metabolic markers were measured in the serum and periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats using an automatic chemistry analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunohistochemistry. The bone mineral density of whole body, pelvis, and spine was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and image analysis. All data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical software. It was found that ovariectomy could upregulate the expression of interleukin- (IL-)6, the receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and downregulate IL-10 expression in periodontal tissues, which resulted in progressive alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. This study indicates that changes of cytokines and bone turnover markers in the periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats contribute to the damage of periodontal tissues.
Cook, R A; Stoller, N H
Periodontal examinations were performed on ten 1- to 22-year-old snow leopards (6 males and 4 females), using dentistry methods for determining the plaque and gingival indices. All tooth surfaces were probed, and alveolar bone attachment loss was determined. After subgingival plaque removal, plaque specimens were examined for differential bacterial morphotypes. The small number of leopards evaluated precluded definitive statistical analysis. However, the progression from gingival health to gingivitis to periodontitis was similar to that seen in man. Therefore, the use of plaque index, gingival index, alveolar bone attachment loss, and differential bacterial morphotypes can be used to determine the dental health of snow leopards.
Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases. PMID:27418983
Yan, Xiang-Zhen; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Cai, Xinjie; Yu, Na; Jansen, John A; Yang, Fang
This study is aimed to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility and periodontal regenerative potential of enzymatically solidified chitosan hydrogels with or without incorporated periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). To this end, chitosan hydrogels, with (n=8; CHIT+CELL) or without (n=8; CHIT) fluorescently labeled PDLCs, were prepared and transplanted into rat intrabony periodontal defects; untreated defects were used as empty controls (n=8; EMPTY). After 4 weeks, maxillae were harvested, decalcified, and used for histological, histomorphometrical, and immunohistochemical assessments. The results showed that PDLCs remained viable upon encapsulation within chitosan hydrogels before transplantation. Histological analysis demonstrated that the chitosan hydrogels were largely degraded after 4 weeks of implantation, without any adverse reaction in the surrounding tissue. In terms of periodontal regeneration, alveolar bone height, alveolar bone area, and epithelial downgrowth were comparable for CHIT, CHIT+CELL, as well as EMPTY groups. In contrast, both CHIT and CHIT+CELL showed a significant increase in functional ligament length compared with EMPTY. From a cellular perspective, the contribution of chitosan hydrogel-incorporated cells to the periodontal regeneration could not be ascertained, as no signal from transplanted PDLCs could be detected at 4 weeks posttransplantation. The results demonstrated that enzymatically solidified chitosan hydrogels are highly biocompatible and biodegradable. Moreover, chitosan hydrogels without cell loading can improve periodontal regeneration in terms of functional ligament length, indicating the great potential of this hydrogel in clinical applications. Further work on the use of chitosan hydrogels as cell carriers is required.
Latif, Sajith Abdul; Vandana, K. L.; Thimmashetty, J.; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj
Aim: This study aims to explore the clinical, microbiological, and biochemical impact of azithromycin (AZM) buccal patch in chronic generalized patients as a monotherapy as well as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy. Materials and Methods: A parallel design was used forty periodontitis patients were randomly allocated into five groups, namely Group 1 scaling root planing (SRP) alone, Group 2 (SRP + AZM patch group), Group 3 (SRP + AZM tablet group), Group 4 (AZM patch monotherapy), and Group 5 (AZM tablet as monotherapy). Plaque index, gingival bleeding index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21 and 90 days. Subgingival pooled plaque sample was collected to assess periodontopathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by anaerobic culture method. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also evaluated at baseline and 21 days. Periodontal maintenance was performed in Group 1 until 90th day, and clinical parameter was assessed at the end of 90th day. Results: SRP + AZM tablets showed greater reduction in clinical parameters (P < 0.05) AZM as monotherapy did not offer clinical benefits over SRP. Baseline data were compared at the end, i.e., 90th day a significant reduction in plaque scores, gingival bleeding, and PPD was observed however no significant gain in the clinical attachment was observed. Conclusion: The monotherapy resulted in no improvement of periodontal parameters, microbial parameters, and TNF-α level. It is safe to use AZM + SRP as a mode of nonsurgical treatment in periodontitis patients. PMID:27127325
Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran
Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.
Sete, Manuela Rubim Camara; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo da Silva; Sztajnbok, Flavio
A large number of studies have shown a potential association between periodontal and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Similar mechanisms of tissue destruction concerning periodontitis and other autoimmune diseases have stimulated the study of a possible relationship between these conditions. This study aims to review the literature about this potential association and their different pathogenic mechanisms. Considering that periodontal disease is a disease characterized by inflammation influenced by infectious factors, such as SLE, it is plausible to suggest that SLE would influence periodontal disease and vice versa. However, this issue is not yet fully elucidated and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association, as deregulation mainly in innate immune system, with action of phagocytic cells and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18 in both conditions' pathogenesis, leading to tissue destruction. However, studies assessing the relationship between these diseases are scarce, and more studies focused on common immunological mechanisms should be conducted to further understanding.
Lal, Nand; Dixit, Jaya
Introduction Osseous defects in periodontal diseases require osseous grafts and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) using barrier membranes. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to clinically evaluate the osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA), cissus quadrangularis (CQ), and oxidized cellulose membrane (OCM) and compare with normal bone healing. Materials and Methods Twenty subjects with periodontitis in the age group ranging from 20 years to 40 years were selected from our outpatient department on the basis of presence of deep periodontal pockets, clinical probing depth ≥5 mm, vertical osseous defects obvious on radiograph and two- or three-walled involvement seen on surgical exposure. Infrabony defects were randomly divided into four groups on the basis of treatment to be executed, such that each group comprised 5 defects. Group I was control, II received HA, III received CQ and IV received OCM. Probing depth and attachment level were measured at regular months after surgery. Defects were re-exposed using crevicular incisions at 6 months. Results There was gradual reduction in the mean probing pocket depth in all groups, but highly significant in the site treated with HA. Gain in attachment level was higher in sites treated with HA, 3.2 mm at 6 months. Conclusion Hydroxyapatite and OCM showed good reduction in pocket depth, attachment level gain and osseous defect fill. Further study should be conducted by using a combination of HA and OCM in periodontal osseous defects with growth factors and stem cells. PMID:25756030
Baelum, Vibeke; López, Rodrigo
The notion of periodontal disease being the major cause of tooth loss among adults was rooted in the focal infection paradigm that dominated the first half of the 20th century. This paradigm was established largely by personal opinions, and it was not until the development of periodontal indices in the mid-1950s that periodontal epidemiology gained momentum. Unfortunately, the indices used suffered from a number of flaws, whereby the interpretation of the research results took the form of circular reasoning. It was under this paradigm that therapeutic and preventive intervention for periodontal diseases became entirely devoted to oral hygiene, as poor oral hygiene and older age were understood to explain nearly all the variation in disease occurrence. In the early 1980s, studies appeared that contradicted the concepts of poor oral hygiene as the inevitable trigger of periodontitis and of linear and ubiquitous periodontitis progression, whereby periodontal epidemiology was led into a relatively short-lived high-risk era. At this time, it became evident that old scourges continue to haunt periodontology: the inability to agree in operational clinical criteria for a periodontitis diagnosis and the inability to devise both a meaningful and a useful classification of periodontal diseases based on nominalist principles. The meager outcome of the high-risk era led researchers to resurrect the focal infection paradigm, which is now dressed up as periodontal medicine. Unfortunately, these developments have left the core of periodontology somewhat disheveled and deserted.
Rein, Susanne; Manthey, Suzanne; Zwipp, Hans; Witt, Andreas
The aim of this study was to analyse the pattern of sensory nerve endings and blood vessels around the sinus tarsi. The superficial and deep parts of the fat pads at the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) as well as the subtalar joint capsule inside the sinus tarsi from 13 cadaver feet were dissected. The distribution of the sensory nerve endings and blood vessels were analysed in the resected specimens as the number per cm(2) after staining with haematoxylin-eosin, S100 protein, low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75, and protein gene product 9.5 using the classification of Freeman and Wyke. Free nerve endings were the predominant sensory ending (P < 0.001). Ruffini and Golgi-like endings were rarely found and no Pacini corpuscles were seen. Significantly more free nerve endings (P < 0.001) and blood vessels (P = 0.01) were observed in the subtalar joint capsule than in the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER. The deep part of the fat pad at the IER had significantly more blood vessels than the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER (P = 0.012). Significantly more blood vessels than free nerve endings were seen in all three groups (P < 0.001). No significant differences in distribution were seen in terms of right or left side, except for free nerve endings in the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER (P = 0.003). A greater number of free nerve endings correlated with a greater number of blood vessels. The presence of sensory nerve endings between individual fat cells supports the hypothesis that the fat pad has a proprioceptive role monitoring changes and that it is a source of pain in sinus tarsi syndrome due to the abundance of free nerve endings.
Menicanin, Danijela; Hynes, K; Han, J; Gronthos, S; Bartold, P M
The unique anatomy and composition of the periodontium make periodontal tissue healing and regeneration a complex process. Periodontal regeneration aims to recapitulate the crucial stages of wound healing associated with periodontal development in order to restore lost tissues to their original form and function and for regeneration to occur, healing events must progress in an ordered and programmed sequence both temporally and spatially, replicating key developmental events. A number of procedures have been employed to promote true and predictable regeneration of the periodontium. Principally, the approaches are based on the use of graft materials to compensate for the bone loss incurred as a result of periodontal disease, use of barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration and use of bioactive molecules. More recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been integrated into research and applications of regenerative dentistry, including periodontics, to aim to manage damaged and lost oral tissues, through reconstruction and regeneration of the periodontium and alleviate the shortcomings of more conventional therapeutic options. The essential components for generating effective cellular based therapeutic strategies include a population of multi-potential progenitor cells, presence of signalling molecules/inductive morphogenic signals and a conductive extracellular matrix scaffold or appropriate delivery system. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered suitable candidates for cell-based tissue engineering strategies owing to their extensive expansion rate and potential to differentiate into cells of multiple organs and systems. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from multiple tissue sources have been investigated in pre-clinical animal studies and clinical settings for the treatment and regeneration of the periodontium.
Kao, Richard T; Conte, Greg; Nishimine, Dee; Dault, Scott
As a result of periodontal regeneration research, a series of clinical techniques have emerged that permit tissue engineering to be performed for more efficient regeneration and repair of periodontal defects and improved implant site development. Historically, periodontal regeneration research has focused on a quest for "magic filler" material. This search has led to the development of techniques utilizing autologous bone and bone marrow, allografts, xenografts, and various man-made bone substitutes. Though these techniques have had limited success, the desire for a more effective regenerative approach has resulted in the development of tissue engineering techniques. Tissue engineering is a relatively new field of reconstructive biology which utilizes mechanical, cellular, or biologic mediators to facilitate reconstruction/regeneration of a particular tissue. In periodontology, the concept of tissue engineering had its beginnings with guided tissue regeneration, a mechanical approach utilizing nonresorbable membranes to obtain regeneration in defects. In dental implantology, guided bone regeneration membranes +/- mechanical support are used for bone augmentation of proposed implant placement sites. With the availability of partially purified protein mixture from developing teeth and growth factors from recombinant technology, a new era of tissue engineering whereby biologic mediators can be used for periodontal regeneration. The advantage of recombinant growth factors is this tissue engineering device is consistent in its regenerative capacity, and variations in regenerative response are due to individual healing response and/or poor surgical techniques. In this article, the authors review how tissue engineering has advanced and discuss its impact on the clinical management of both periodontal and osseous defects in preparation for implant placement. An understanding of these new tissue engineering techniques is essential for comprehending today's ever
Ismail, Gener; Dumitriu, Horia Traian; Dumitriu, Anca Silvia; Ismail, Fidan Bahtiar
The prevalence of atherosclerotic complications (myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death) is increased in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, especially in haemodialysis patients. Increasing evidence suggests that both in general population and in dialysis patients, systemic inflammation plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic complications. In general population, also, evidence shows that moderate to severe periodontitis can contribute to inflammatory burden by increasing serum CRP levels and may increase the prevalence of atherosclerotic events. Moreover, the results of some new interventional studies reveal that effective phase I periodontal therapy may decrease serum CRP levels, the most important acute phase protein, monitored as a systemic marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction as well, used as an initial predictor of atherosclerotic events. Considering that moderate to severe periodontal diseases have a higher prevalence in CKD and in dialysis population and that periodontal examination is not part of the standard medical assessment, destructive periodontitis might be an ignored source of systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease patients and may add to the chronic inflammatory status in CKD.
Gupta, Abhaya; Govila, Vivek; Saini, Ashish
Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition resulting from the interplay between the infectious agents and host factors. Various protein molecules play a vital role in the initiation, progression and severity of periodontal diseases. The study of proteins as biomarkers in periodontal diseases has been highlighted during the last few years. In periodontitis multiple bacteria derived (e.g. collagen degrading enzymes, elastase like enzymes etc) and host derived mediators (eg. PGE2, TNF, IL1, IL6, MMP's etc) expressed in the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid, can be utilized as diagnostic markers for the disease. Another significant development regarding human genes and proteins has been the discovery of potential new drugs for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Therefore the information of the proteins involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases can be utilized for its diagnosis, prevention and treatment.
Chiu, Chung-Jung; Chang, Min-Lee; Taylor, Allen
It is conceived that specific combinations of periodontal bacteria are associated with risk for the various forms of periodontitis. We hypothesized that such specificity is also related to human cause-specific death rates. We tested this hypothesis in a representative sample of the US population followed for a mean duration of 11 years and found that two specific patterns of 21 serum antibodies against periodontal bacteria were significantly associated with increased all-cause and/or diabetes-related mortalities. These data suggested that specific combinations of periodontal bacteria, even without inducing clinically significant periodontitis, may have a significant impact on human cause-specific death rates. Our findings implied that increased disease and mortality risk could be transmittable via the transfer of oral microbiota, and that developing personalized strategies and maintaining healthy oral microbiota beyond protection against periodontitis would be important to manage the risk. PMID:27748442
Gupta, Abhaya; Govila, Vivek; Saini, Ashish
Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition resulting from the interplay between the infectious agents and host factors. Various protein molecules play a vital role in the initiation, progression and severity of periodontal diseases. The study of proteins as biomarkers in periodontal diseases has been highlighted during the last few years. In periodontitis multiple bacteria derived (e.g. collagen degrading enzymes, elastase like enzymes etc) and host derived mediators (eg. PGE2, TNF, IL1, IL6, MMP's etc) expressed in the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid, can be utilized as diagnostic markers for the disease. Another significant development regarding human genes and proteins has been the discovery of potential new drugs for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Therefore the information of the proteins involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases can be utilized for its diagnosis, prevention and treatment. PMID:25853048
Liu, Yi; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Gang; Fang, Dianji; Zhang, Chunmei; Bartold, Peter Mark; Gronthos, Stan; Shi, Songtao; Wang, Songlin
Periodontitis is a periodontal tissue infectious disease and the most common cause for tooth loss in adults. It has been linked to many systemic disorders, such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and diabetes. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure periodontitis and achieve optimal periodontal tissue regeneration. In this study, we explored the potential of using autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to treat periodontal defects in a porcine model of periodontitis. The periodontal lesion was generated in the first molars area of miniature pigs by the surgical removal of bone and subsequent silk ligament suture around the cervical portion of the tooth. Autologous PDLSCs were obtained from extracted teeth of the miniature pigs and then expanded ex vivo to enrich PDLSC numbers. When transplanted into the surgically created periodontal defect areas, PDLSCs were capable of regenerating periodontal tissues, leading to a favorable treatment for periodontitis. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat periodontal diseases. PMID:18238856
Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Egeberg, Alexander; Holmstrup, Palle; Hansen, Peter Riis
Periodontitis and atherosclerosis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases, and it has been suggested that periodontitis is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and that a causal link may exist between the 2 diseases. Using Danish national registers, we identified a nationwide cohort of 17,691 patients who received a hospital diagnosis of periodontitis within a 15-year period and matched them with 83,003 controls from the general population. We performed Poisson regression analysis to determine crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. The results showed that patients with periodontitis were at higher risk of all examined end points. The findings remained significant after adjustment for increased baseline co-morbidity in periodontitis patients compared with controls, for example, with adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.02 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.18) for cardiovascular death and 2.70 (95% CI 2.60 to 2.81) for all-cause mortality. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of periodontitis have a high burden of co-morbidity and an increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. In conclusion, our results support that periodontitis may be an independent risk factor for CVD.
Periodontists are often called upon to provide periodontal therapy for patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Safe and effective periodontal treatment requires a general understanding of the underlying cardiovascular diseases, their medical management, and necessary modifications to dental/periodontal therapy that may be required. In this informational paper more common cardiovascular disorders will be discussed and dental management considerations briefly described. This paper is intended for the use of periodontists and members of the dental profession.
Gestrelius, S; Lyngstadaas, S P; Hammarström, L
Biomimicry has been introduced as a term for innovations inspired by nature . Such innovations may appear in almost every part of modern society. This review on the effects of enamel matrix proteins on the formation of cementum and the development of emdogain for regeneration of periodontal tissues lost due to periodontitis shows an example of biomimicry in dentistry. Findings from clinical and laboratory investigations are summarized and the biological basis for enamel matrix-induced periodontal regeneration is discussed.
Krechina, E K; Smirnova, T N
The article presents comprehensive functional study of periodontal tissues in 62 patients aged 20-45 with periodontal disease by laser Doppler flowmetry, Doppler ultrasound and computer capillaroscopy. All patients were divided into 5 groups depending on the severity of inflammation in the periodontium (chronic gingivitis, light, moderate and severe chronic periodontal disease). The relationship between microcirculatory indexes was evaluated by Pearson Product Moment Correlation or PPMC. The study shows high correlation between blood flow velocity measurement, diameter of microvessels and oxygen saturation in periodontal tissues that establish a direct relationship between studied parameters.
Shahabuddin, Nishat; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Lally, Edward T
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative microbe involved in periodontitis. Strains with varying degrees of virulence have been identified, in healthy and periodontally compromised individuals alike. Hosts mount differential immune responses to its various serotypes and virulence factors. Studies have explored host immune response in terms of antibody titers, leukocyte responses, and specific inflammatory mediators, questioning the ways in which the infectious microorganism survives. This mini-review will identify the key themes in immune response patterns of individuals both affected by and free from aggressive periodontal disease, thereby using it to understand various forms of periodontitis. PMID:28008419
Han, Pengyu; Sun, Dianxing; Yang, Jie
Periodontitis is an oral disease that is highly prevalent worldwide, with a prevalence of 30–50% of the population in developed countries, but only ~10% present with severe forms. It is also estimated that periodontitis results in worldwide productivity losses amounting to ~54 billion USD yearly. In addition to the damage it causes to oral health, periodontitis also affects other types of disease. Numerous studies have confirmed the association between periodontitis and systemic diseases, such as diabetes, respiratory disease, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also indicated that periodontitis may participate in the progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as affecting liver transplantation. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are currently no reviews elaborating upon the possible links between periodontitis and liver diseases. Therefore, the current review summarizes the human trials and animal experiments that have been conducted to investigate the correlation between periodontitis and liver diseases. Furthermore, in the present review, certain mechanisms that have been postulated to be responsible for the role of periodontitis in liver diseases (such as bacteria, pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress) are considered. The aim of the review is to introduce the hypothesis that periodontitis may be important in the progression of liver disease, thus providing dentists and physicians with an improved understanding of this issue. PMID:27588170
Villar, Cristina C; Cochran, David L
The concept that only fibroblasts from the periodontal ligament or undifferentiated mesenchymal cells have the potential to re-create the original periodontal attachment has been long recognized. Based on this concept, guided tissue regeneration has been applied with variable success to regenerate periodontal defects. Quantitative analysis of clinical outcomes after guided tissue regeneration suggests that this therapy is a successful and predictable procedure to treat narrow intrabony defects and class II mandibular furcations, but offers limited benefits in the treatment of other types of periodontal defects.
Zhu, Bin; Liu, Yihan; Li, Dehua; Jin, Yan
Somatic stem cells have been acknowledged for their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types and their capacity for self-renewal. Some mesenchymal stem cells play a dominant role in the repair and reconstruction of periodontal tissues. Both dental-derived and some non-dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells possess the capacity for periodontal regeneration under certain conditions with induced differentiation, proliferation, cellular secretion, and their interactions. Stem cell-based tissue engineering technology promises to bring improvements to periodontal regeneration, biologic tooth repair, and bioengineered implants. The present review discusses the roles and values of various somatic stem cells in periodontal regeneration.
The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on the treatment of chronic periodontitis with advanced loss of periodontal supporting tissues. Patients should be informed of the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. Failure to appropriately treat chronic periodontitis can result in progressive loss of periodontal supporting tissues, an adverse change in prognosis, and could result in tooth loss. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.
The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on the treatment of chronic periodontitis with slight to moderate loss of periodontal supporting tissues. Patients should be informed of the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. Failure to appropriately treat chronic periodontitis can result in progressive loss of periodontal supporting tissues, an adverse change in prognosis, and could result in tooth loss. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.
Grover, Harpreet Singh; Kapoor, Shalini; Saksena, Neha
Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, as they are integral components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells. Periodontal tissues comprise multicompartmental groups of interacting cells and matrices that provide continuous support, attachment, proprioception, and physical protection for the teeth. The proteome map, that is, complete catalogue of the matrix and cellular proteins expressed in alveolar bone, cementum, periodontal ligament, and gingiva, is to be explored for more in-depth understanding of periodontium. The ongoing research to understand the signalling pathways that allow cells to divide, differentiate, and die in controlled manner has brought us to the era of proteomics. Proteomics is defined as the study of all proteins including their relative abundance, distribution, posttranslational modifications, functions, and interactions with other macromolecules, in a given cell or organism within a given environment and at a specific stage in the cell cycle. Its application to periodontal science can be used to monitor health status, disease onset, treatment response, and outcome. Proteomics can offer answers to critical, unresolved questions such as the biological basis for the heterogeneity in gingival, alveolar bone, and cemental cell populations. PMID:24490073
Hardy, Douglas C.; Ross, Jonathan H.; Schuyler, Corinne A.; Leite, Renata S.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Huang, Yan
Background Although it is known that periodontal MMP-8 expression is associated with periodontal disease, the information concerning the periodontal MMP-8 expression in diabetic patients with periodontal disease is insufficient. Materials and Methods Periodontal tissue specimens were collected from 7 patients without periodontal disease and diabetes (Group 1), 15 patients with periodontal disease alone (Group 2) and 10 patients with both periodontal disease and diabetes (Group 3). The frozen sections were prepared and MMP-8 protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry and quantified. For in vitro study, human U937 mononuclear cells were pre-exposed to normal or high glucose and then treated with LPS. Results The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the difference in MMP-8 protein levels among the three groups were statistically significant (p = 0.003). Nonparametric analysis using Jonckheere-Terpstra test showed a tendency of increase in periodontal MMP-8 levels across Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 (p = 0.0002). In vitro studies showed that high glucose and LPS had a synergistic effect on MMP-8 expression. Conclusion Our current study showed an increasing trend in MMP-8 protein expression levels across patients without both periodontal disease and diabetes, patients with periodontal disease alone and patients with both diseases. PMID:22092744
Valentine, J.; Sanders, A E; Saladyanant, T; Ramsey, K; Blake, J; Morelli, T; Southerland, J; Quinlivan, E B; Nelson, J; DeParis, K; Webster-Cyriaque, J
Objective Periodontal disease resolution was hypothesized to impact systemic HIV measures. Methods In this longitudinal cohort study, 73 HIV-positive subjects received comprehensive dental care. AAP, CDC/AAP and biofilm gingival interface case definitions determined periodontal classification. In a subset, IL-6 was measured. Multivariable binary logistic regression models estimated odds of periodontitis development for comparisons between HIV and NHANES (2009–12) groups. Results In both groups, moderate/severe periodontitis was positively associated with non-white race, smoking, male gender, low income and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Likelihood of HIV periodontitis was higher across demographic variables. Subjects with severe periodontitis on antiretroviral therapy demonstrated high plasma viral loads at baseline (median= 464 co/ml; mean 65,773 co/ml). Post intervention, HIV periodontitis distribution became similar to NHANES and IL-6 levels decreased 2-fold (p=0.07). Subjects with suppressed viral load at baseline demonstrated increased CD4 counts at 12 months post intervention (P=0.027) (n=26). Conclusions Smoking, being non-white and low income were associated with periodontitis in HIV and NHANES. Higher Il-6, higher HIV VL and lower CD4 were associated with moderate/severe periodontal disease. Periodontitis decreased significantly with treatment producing periodontal profiles mirroring the national norm. In a subset of suppressed subjects, decreased oral inflammation, and associated microbial translocation, yielded improved CD4 counts. PMID:27109277
Yanagita, M; Kojima, Y; Kubota, M; Mori, K; Yamashita, M; Yamada, S; Kitamura, M; Murakami, S
We previously demonstrated that topical application of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 enhanced periodontal tissue regeneration. Although angiogenesis is a crucial event for tissue regeneration, the mechanism(s) by which topically applied FGF-2 induces angiogenesis in periodontal tissues has not been fully clarified. In this study, we investigated whether FGF-2 could induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and whether cell-to-cell interactions between PDL cells and endothelial cells could stimulate angiogenesis. FGF-2 induced VEGF-A secretion from MPDL22 cells (mouse periodontal ligament cell line) in a dose-dependent manner. Transwell and wound-healing assays revealed that co-stimulation with FGF-2 plus VEGF-A synergistically stimulated the migration of MPDL22 cells. Interestingly, co-culture of MPDL22 cells with bEnd5 cells (mouse endothelial cell line) also stimulated VEGF-A production from MPDL22 cells and tube formation by bEnd5 cells. Furthermore, time-lapse analysis revealed that MPDL22 cells migrated close to the tube-forming bEnd5 cells, mimicking pericytes. Thus, FGF-2 induces VEGF-A expression in PDL cells and induces angiogenesis in combination with VEGF-A. Cell-to-cell interactions with PDL cells also facilitate angiogenesis.
Brown, Louise; Seymour, Gregory; Holborow, Douglas
The speciality of periodontics in Australia and New Zealand has seen steady growth since 1986, when the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Periodontics (ANZAP) was formed. Very few members of ANZAP have retired in the 16 years since its formation. However, the results of a survey of members revealed that one-third of members plan to retire within the next 10 years, and over 50% of members will have retired within 15 years. The survey also revealed that most members were heavily booked, and nearly half were concerned by their level of busyness. A total of 22 members are currently seeking to employ a periodontist in their practice, and yet only three students will complete the MDSc program in periodontics in Australia at the end of this year. This paper presents the results of the ANZAP survey of members and addresses issues affecting the training of periodontists in Australia and New Zealand.
Agarwal, Sachin; Gupta, Sumita; Chugh, Vinay K; Jain, Eety; Valiathan, Ashima; Nanda, Ravindra
This article reports the comprehensive, interdisciplinary treatment of a 50-year-old periodontally compromised adult patient with multiple missing posterior teeth. After initial periodontal treatment, the maxillary first molars and right central incisor were intruded orthodontically. Miniscrews were used to intrude the maxillary first molars by 3 mm. The mandibular arch was restored with a tooth-supported overdenture. Root coverage of the maxillary right central incisor was performed using Alloderm (Biohorizons, Birmingham, Ala). At the end of the interdisciplinary therapy, the results were esthetically pleasing, with the patient's oral functions restored to the optimum. The emphasis of this report is to highlight the importance of integrating various specialties such as periodontics, orthodontics, endodontics, and restorative dentistry toward a common goal of improving the patient's oral health, function, and esthetics.
Trindade, Fábio; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.; Amado, Francisco; Gomes, Pedro S.; Vitorino, Rui
Periodontitis is a complex immune-inflammatory disease that results from a preestablished infection in gingiva, mainly due to Gram-negative bacteria that colonize deeper in gingival sulcus and latter periodontal pocket. Host inflammatory and immune responses have both protective and destructive roles. Although cytokines, prostaglandins, and proteases struggle against microbial burden, these molecules promote connective tissue loss and alveolar bone resorption, leading to several histopathological changes, namely destruction of periodontal ligament, deepening of periodontal pocket, and bone loss, which can converge to attain tooth loss. Despite the efforts of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics/peptidomics, and metabolomics, there is no available biomarker for periodontitis diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment evaluation, which could assist on the established clinical evaluation. Nevertheless, some genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites have already shown a different expression in healthy subjects and in patients. Though, so far, ‘omics approaches only disclosed the host inflammatory response as a consequence of microbial invasion in periodontitis and the diagnosis in periodontitis still relies on clinical parameters, thus a molecular tool for assessing periodontitis lacks in current dental medicine paradigm. Saliva and gingival crevicular fluid have been attracting researchers due to their diagnostic potential, ease, and noninvasive nature of collection. Each one of these fluids has some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed in this review. PMID:24828325
Yada, Sudheer; Kamalesh, B; Sonwane, Siddharth; Guptha, Indra; Swetha, R K
Quorum sensing helps bacteria to communicate with each other and in coordinating their behavior. Many diseases of human beings, plants, and animals are mediated by quorum sensing. Various approaches are being tried to inhibit this communication to control the diseases caused by bacteria. Periodontal pathogens also communicate through quorum sensing and new approaches to treat periodontal disease using quorum sensing inhibition need to explored.
Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Jaime
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, a defect in insulin action or a combination of both. Periodontitis is now considered a chronic localized infection of the oral cavity that can trigger inflammatory host immune responses at local and systemic levels, and can also be a source of bacteremia. It is now known that periodontitis has an influence on the pathogenesis of certain systemic diseases. The biological relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease is well documented. In the mid-90s sufficient scientific support for the association between diabetes and periodontitis was published, and periodontitis was designated as the sixth complication of diabetes. There have been studies that show an improvement in both clinical and immunological parameters of periodontitis and glycemic control in long-term diabetes after treatment of periodontal disease. In addition, scientific evidence confirms that poorer glycemic control contributes to a worse periodontal condition. The interplay between the 2 conditions highlights the importance of the need for a good communication between the internist and dentist about diabetic patients, considering always the possibility that the 2 diseases may be occurring simultaneously in order to ensure an early diagnosis of both.
Zheng, Pei; Zhou, Weiying
Objective: The correlation between periodontitis and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the mouth was analyzed. Method: 70 elderly patients with periodontitis treated at our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were recruited. Dental plaques and gargle were collected for H. pylori detection using PCR technique. Periodontal health status of the patients was recorded. 70 control cases with healthy periodontium were also included. The symptoms of H. pylori infection in the mouth were compared between the two groups, and the results were analyzed statistically. Results: The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the periodontitis group was 71.4%; the positive rate of cagA gene was 35.7%. The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the control group was 34.3% and that of cagA gene was 12.9%. The two groups did not show significant differences in these two indicators (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in subgingival plaques was higher than that in supragingival plaques, and the difference was of statistical significance (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of H. pylori in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was obviously higher than that of patients with mild periodontitis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal health status of elderly people with periodontitis correlated with H. pylori infection in the stomach. PMID:26629215
Talking about periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships is related primarily to the 1960s, where a generalized increase in salivary bacterial counts, especially Lactobacillus, had been shown after orthodontic band placement. The purpose of this article is to provide the dental practitioner with basic understanding of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics by means of representing classical studies, and, to give an update on this topic by demonstrating the most recent opinions concerning periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships. Specific areas reviewed are the ability of orthodontic treatment to afford some degree of protection against periodontal breakdown, short-term and long-term effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontium, and some mucogingival considerations. Topics considering orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised patients were not included in this review. While past studies have shown that orthodontic treatment can positively affect the periodontal health, recent reviews indicate an absence of reliable evidence for the positive effects of orthodontic therapy on patients’ periodontal status. Periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships are still controversial issues. However, a standard language between the periodontist and the orthodontist must always be established to eliminate the existing communications barrier, and to improve the outcomes of the whole treatment. PMID:20922083
Hasiuk, Petro; Hasiuk, Nataliya; Kindiy, Dmytro; Ivanchyshyn, Victoriya; Kalashnikov, Dmytro; Zubchenko, Sergiy
Purpose The development of inflammatory periodontal disease in young people is an urgent problem of today's periodontology, and requires a development of new methods that would give an opportunity not only to diagnose but also for prognosis of periodontitis course in a given patients contingent. Results Cellular structure of periodontal pockets is presented by hematogenous and epithelial cells. Our results are confirmed by previous studies, and show that the penetration of periodontal pathogens leads to formation in periodontal tissue of a highly active complex compounds—cytokines that are able to modify the activity of neutrophils and reduce their specific antibacterial properties. Cytokines not only adversely affect the periodontal tissues, but also cause further activation of cells that synthesized them, and inhibit tissue repair and process of resynthesis of connective tissue by fibroblasts. Conclusion Neutrophilic granulocytes present in each of the types of smear types, but their functional status and quantitative composition is different. The results of our cytological study confirmed the results of immunohistochemical studies, and show that in generalized periodontitis, an inflammatory cellular elements with disorganized epithelial cells and connective tissue of the gums and periodontium, and bacteria form specific types of infiltration in periodontal tissues. PMID:28180007
Sivakumar, Arunachalam; Raju, M A K V; Sunny, James; Cyriac, Rajesh; Bhat, Subraya; Mohandas, Ashil A; Divya, Beemavarapu
What are the orthodontic treatment possibilities, limitations and risks inherent in patients with periodontal disorders, particularly active periodontal disease? This case report describes the interface between orthodontics, periodontics and restorative dentistry in the management of a 25-year-old young man with generalized aggressive periodontitis.
The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on comprehensive periodontal examination for periodontal diseases. Appropriate screening procedures may be performed to determine the need for a comprehensive periodontal evaluation. Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR), a screening procedure endorsed by the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Periodontology, may be utilized.
Kose, Oguz; Arabaci, Taner; Yemenoglu, Hatice; Kara, Adem; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Kayis, Sevki; Duymus, Zeynep Yesil
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic fucoxanthin treatment on alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. Thirty rats were divided into control, experimental periodontitis (EP), and experimental periodontitis-fucoxanthin (EP-FUCO) groups. Periodontitis was induced by ligature for four weeks. After removal of the ligature, the rats in the EP-FUCO group were treated with a single dose of fucoxanthin (200 mg/kg bw) per day for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the study, all of the rats were euthanized and intracardiac blood and mandible tissue samples were obtained for biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histometric analyses. Fucoxanthin treatment resulted in a slight decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 levels and a significant decrease in oxidative stress index. It was observed that fucoxanthin caused a significant reduction in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) levels and a statistically non-significant elevation in osteoprotegerin and bone-alkaline phosphatase levels. There were no significant differences in alveolar bone loss levels between the EP and EP-FUCO groups. This experimental study revealed that fucoxanthin provides a limited reduction in alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. One of the mechanisms underlying the mentioned limited effect might be related to the ability of fucoxanthin to inhibit oxidative stress-related RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.
Kose, Oguz; Arabaci, Taner; Yemenoglu, Hatice; Kara, Adem; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Kayis, Sevki; Duymus, Zeynep Yesil
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic fucoxanthin treatment on alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. Thirty rats were divided into control, experimental periodontitis (EP), and experimental periodontitis-fucoxanthin (EP-FUCO) groups. Periodontitis was induced by ligature for four weeks. After removal of the ligature, the rats in the EP-FUCO group were treated with a single dose of fucoxanthin (200 mg/kg bw) per day for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the study, all of the rats were euthanized and intracardiac blood and mandible tissue samples were obtained for biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histometric analyses. Fucoxanthin treatment resulted in a slight decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 levels and a significant decrease in oxidative stress index. It was observed that fucoxanthin caused a significant reduction in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) levels and a statistically non-significant elevation in osteoprotegerin and bone-alkaline phosphatase levels. There were no significant differences in alveolar bone loss levels between the EP and EP-FUCO groups. This experimental study revealed that fucoxanthin provides a limited reduction in alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. One of the mechanisms underlying the mentioned limited effect might be related to the ability of fucoxanthin to inhibit oxidative stress-related RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27043583
Albalat, Salvador E.; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Monserrat, Carlos
Evolution of periodontal disease is one of the most important data for the clinicians in order to achieve correct planning and treatment. Clinical measure of the periodontal sulcus depth is the most important datum to know the exact state of periodontal disease. These measures must be done periodically study bone resorption evolution around teeth. Time factor of resorption indicates aggressiveness of periodontitis. Manual probes are commonly used with direct reading. Mechanical probes give automatic signal but this method uses complicated and heavy probes that are only limited for University researchers. Probe position must be the same to have right diagnosis. Digital image analysis of periodontal probing provides practical, accurate and easy tool. Gum and plaque index could also be digitally measured with this method.
Califano, Joseph V
Children and adolescents are subject to several periodontal diseases. Although there is a much lower prevalence of destructive periodontal diseases in children than in adults, children can develop severe forms of periodontitis. In some cases, this destructive disease is a manifestation of a known underlying systemic disease. In other young patients, the underlying cause for increased susceptibility and early onset of disease is unknown. These diseases are often familial, suggesting a genetic predisposition for aggressive disease. Current modalities for managing periodontal diseases of children and adolescents may include antibiotic therapy in combination with non-surgical and/or surgical therapy. Since early diagnosis ensures the greatest chance for successful treatment, it is important that children receive a periodontal examination as part of their routine dental visits.
Barnes, V M; Teles, R; Trivedi, H M; Devizio, W; Xu, T; Mitchell, M W; Milburn, M V; Guo, L
Periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, are characterized by bacterial plaque accumulation around the gingival crevice and the subsequent inflammation and destruction of host tissues. To test the hypothesis that cellular metabolism is altered as a result of host-bacteria interaction, we performed an unbiased metabolomic profiling of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites in humans, by liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The purine degradation pathway, a major biochemical source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, was significantly accelerated at the disease sites. This suggests that periodontal-disease-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are mediated through this pathway. The complex host-bacterial interaction was further highlighted by depletion of anti-oxidants, degradation of host cellular components, and accumulation of bacterial products in GCF. These findings provide new mechanistic insights and a panel of comprehensive biomarkers for periodontal disease progression.
Han, J; Menicanin, D; Gronthos, S; Bartold, P M
The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical utility of stem cells in periodontal regeneration by reviewing relevant literature that assesses the periodontal-regenerative potential of stem cells. We consider and describe the main stem cell populations that have been utilized with regard to periodontal regeneration, including bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and the main dental-derived mesenchymal stem cell populations: periodontal ligament stem cells, dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla and dental follicle precursor cells. Research into the use of stem cells for tissue regeneration has the potential to significantly influence periodontal treatment strategies in the future.
Franco, Cavalla; Patricia, Hernández-Ríos; Timo, Sorsa; Claudia, Biguetti; Marcela, Hernández
Periodontitis are infectious diseases characterized by immune-mediated destruction of periodontal supporting tissues and tooth loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key proteases involved in destructive periodontal diseases. The study and interest in MMP has been fuelled by emerging evidence demonstrating the broad spectrum of molecules that can be cleaved by them and the myriad of biological processes that they can potentially regulate. The huge complexity of MMP functions within the 'protease web' is crucial for many physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity, inflammation, bone resorption, and wound healing. Evidence points out that MMPs assemble in activation cascades and besides their classical extracellular matrix substrates, they cleave several signalling molecules-such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, among others-regulating their biological functions and/or bioavailability during periodontal diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging evidence of MMPs as regulators of periodontal inflammation.
Kumar, Vivek; Sinha, Jolly; Verma, Neelu; Nayan, Kamal; Saimbi, C S; Tripathi, Amitandra K
Periodontal disease results from inflammation of the supporting structure of the teeth and in response to chronic infection caused by various periodontopathic bacteria. The mechanical removal of this biofilm and adjunctive use of antibacterial disinfectants and antibiotics have been the conventional methods of periodontal therapy. However, the removal of plaque and the reduction in the number of infectious organisms can be impaired in sites with difficult access. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a powerful laser-initiated photochemical reaction, involving the use of a photoactive dye (photosensitizer) activated by light of a specific wavelength in the presence of oxygen. Application of PDT in periodontics such as pocket debridement, gingivitis, and aggressive periodontitis continue to evolve into a mature clinical treatment modality and is considered as a promising novel approach for eradicating pathogenic bacteria in periodontitis.
Franco, Cavalla; Patricia, Hernández-Ríos; Timo, Sorsa; Claudia, Biguetti; Marcela, Hernández
Periodontitis are infectious diseases characterized by immune-mediated destruction of periodontal supporting tissues and tooth loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key proteases involved in destructive periodontal diseases. The study and interest in MMP has been fuelled by emerging evidence demonstrating the broad spectrum of molecules that can be cleaved by them and the myriad of biological processes that they can potentially regulate. The huge complexity of MMP functions within the ‘protease web’ is crucial for many physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity, inflammation, bone resorption, and wound healing. Evidence points out that MMPs assemble in activation cascades and besides their classical extracellular matrix substrates, they cleave several signalling molecules—such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, among others—regulating their biological functions and/or bioavailability during periodontal diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging evidence of MMPs as regulators of periodontal inflammation. PMID:28218665
Gonçalves, Patricia Furtado; Huang, Hong; McAninley, Suzanna; Alfant, Barnett; Harrison, Peter; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Walker, Clay; Shaddox, Luciana Macchion
Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived proteinases reported to mediate multiple functions associated with periodontal destruction and inflammation. We have previously reported high MMP levels in African-American children with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP). However, little is known about MMP reductions in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after therapy. This study aimed to evaluate MMP levels in the GCF following treatment of LAP and to correlate these levels with clinical response. Methods GCF samples were collected from 29 African-American individuals diagnosed with LAP. GCF was collected from one diseased site (pocket depth [PD]>4mm, bleeding on probing [BoP] and clinical attachment level [CAL] ≥2mm) and one healthy site (PD≤3mm, no BoP) from each individual at baseline, 3 and 6 months after periodontal treatment, which consisted of full-mouth SRP and systemic antibiotics. The volume of GCF was controlled using a calibrated gingival fluid meter and levels of MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 12 and 13 were assessed using fluorometric kits. Results MMP-1, 8, 9 12, and 13 levels were reduced significantly up to 6 months, at which point were comparable with healthy sites. Significant correlations were noted between MMP-2, 3, 8, 9, 12 and 13 levels and % of sites with PD>4mm. MMP-3, 12 and 13 levels also correlated with mean pocket depth of affected sites. Conclusion Treatment of LAP with SRP and systemic antibiotics was effective in reducing the local levels specific MMPs in African-American individuals, which correlated positively with some clinical parameters. PMID:23537121
Ren, Hongyu; Du, Minquan
In the last two decades, many studies have focused on whether periodontitis is a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB). However, both epidemiological investigation and intervention trials have reached contradictory results from different studies. What explains the different findings, and how should future studies be conducted to better assess this risk factor? This article reviews recent epidemiological, animal, and in vitro studies as well as intervention trials that evaluate the link between periodontitis and PTB. Periodontitis may act as a distant reservoir of microbes and inflammatory mediators and contribute to the induction of PTB. Animal studies revealed that maternal infections with periodontal pathogens increase levels of circulating IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and TNF-α and induce PTB. In vitro models showed that periodontal pathogens/byproducts induce COX-2, IL-8, IFN-γ, and TNF-α secretion and/or apoptosis in placental tissues/cells. The effectiveness of periodontal treatment to prevent PTB is influenced by the diagnostic criteria of periodontitis, microbial community composition, severity of periodontitis, treatment strategy, treatment efficiency, and the period of treatment during pregnancy. Although intervention trials reported contradictory results, oral health maintenance is an important part of preventive care that is both effective and safe throughout pregnancy and should be supported before and during pregnancy. As contradictory epidemiological and intervention studies continue to be published, two new ideas are proposed here: (1) severe and/or generalized periodontitis promotes PTB and (2) periodontitis only promotes PTB for pregnant women who are young or HIV-infected or have preeclampsia, pre-pregnancy obesity, or susceptible genotypes. PMID:28243243
Chen, Bin; Wu, Wenlei; Sun, Weibin; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Fuhua; Xiao, Yin
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by periodontal pocket formation and alveolar bone resorption. Periodontal bone resorption is induced by osteoclasts and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) which is an essential and central regulator of osteoclast development and osteoclast function. Therefore, RANKL plays a critical role in periodontal bone resorption. In this review, we have summarized the sources of RANKL in periodontal disease and explored which factors may regulate RANKL expression in this disease.
Thomas, R Z; Loos, B G; Teeuw, W; Kunnen, A; van Winkelhoff, A J; Abbas, F
The evidence for an association between systemic diseases and periodontitis is strongest with diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease. There is a moderate association of periodontitis with adverse pregnancy outcomes and rheumatoid arthritis. Periodontal treatment has, on average, a positive effect on reducing systemic infection and improving the condition of the vascular system. For diabetes patients, periodontal treatment can also have a positive effect on metabolic regulation. There is insufficient evidence that periodontal treatment prevents adverse pregnancy outcomes and rheumatoid arthritis.
Shchipkova, A Y; Nagaraja, H N; Kumar, P S
The subgingival microbiome is largely uncultivated, and therefore, cultivation-based and targeted molecular approaches have limited value in examining the effect of smoking on this community. We tested the hypothesis that the subgingival biofilm is compositionally different in current and never-smokers by using an open-ended molecular approach for bacterial identification. Subgingival plaque from deep sites of current and never-smokers matched for disease was analyzed by 16S sequencing. Smokers demonstrated greater abundance of Parvimonas, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, and Treponema and lower levels of Veillonella, Neisseria, and Streptococcus. Several uncultivated Peptostreptococci, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter gracilis, Treponema socranskii, Dialister pneumosintes, and Tannerella forsythia were elevated in this group, while Veillonella sp. oral clone B2, Neisseria sp. oral clone 2.24, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Capnocytophaga sp. clone AH015 were at lower levels. The microbial profile of smoking-associated periodontitis is distinct from that of non-smokers, with significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of disease-associated and health-compatible organisms.
Iacopino, A M
Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease with several major complications affecting both the quality and length of life. One of these complications is periodontal disease (periodontitis). Periodontitis is much more than a localized oral infection. Recent data indicate that periodontitis may cause changes in systemic physiology. The interrelationships between periodontitis and diabetes provide an example of systemic disease predisposing to oral infection, and once that infection is established, the oral infection exacerbates systemic disease. In this case, it may also be possible for the oral infection to predispose to systemic disease. In order to understand the cellular/molecular mechanisms responsible for such a cyclical association, one must identify common physiological changes associated with diabetes and periodontitis that produce a synergy when the conditions coexist. A potential mechanistic link involves the broad axis of inflammation, specifically immune cell phenotype, serum lipid levels, and tissue homeostasis. Diabetes-induced changes in immune cell function produce an inflammatory immune cell phenotype (upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines from monocytes/polymorphonuclear leukocytes and downregulation of growth factors from macrophages). This predisposes to chronic inflammation, progressive tissue breakdown, and diminished tissue repair capacity. Periodontal tissues frequently manifest these changes because they are constantly wounded by substances emanating from bacterial biofilms. Diabetic patients are prone to elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (LDL/TRG) even when blood glucose levels are well controlled. This is significant, as recent studies demonstrate that hyperlipidemia may be one of the factors associated with diabetes-induced immune cell alterations. Recent human studies have established a relationship between high serum lipid levels and periodontitis. Some evidence now suggests that periodontitis itself may
NEGRATO, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; JOVANOVIČ, Lois; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro
Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the english and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods: This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in english and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results: This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions: The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes
Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Grover, Vishakha; Grover, Deepak
Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP), can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy. PMID:23559912
In the next few years there will be a great increase in the percentage of the population aged over 65. Not only will they have more teeth than previous generations, but also a large number of implants. The increase in age is accompanied by an increase in the prevalence and incidence of periodontal diseases. In addition, there is a decrease in manual dexterity and an increase in co-morbidity and medications affecting the oral cavity. Dental care in aged care facilities can be poor and access to dental professionals difficult. This article discusses these issues.
Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Grover, Vishakha; Grover, Deepak
Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP), can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy.
Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N. D.; Prabhat, K. C.
The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750
Lynch, J. E.; Hinders, M. K.
Periodontal disease is manifested clinically by a degradation of the ligament that attaches the tooth to the bone. The most widely used diagnostic tool for assessment of periodontal diseases, measurement of periodontal attachment loss with a manual probe, may overestimate attachment loss by as much as 2 mm in untreated sites, while underestimating attachment loss by an even greater margin following treatment. Manual probing is also invasive, which causes patient discomfort. This work describes the development and testing of an ultrasonographic periodontal probe designed to replace manual probing. It uses a thin stream of water to project an ultrasonic beam into the periodontal pocket, and then measures echoes off features within the pocket. To do so, the ultrasonic beam must be narrowed from 2 (the diameter of the transducer) to 0.5 mm (the approximate width of the periodontal pocket at the gingival margin). The proper choice of transducer frequency, the proper method for controlling water flow from the probe, and a model for interpreting these echoes are also addressed. Initial results indicate that the device measures echoes from the hard tissue of the tooth surface, and that the periodontal attachment level can be inferred from these echoes.
Renvert, Stefan; Persson, G Rutger
Within the next 40 years the number of older adults worldwide will more than double. This will impact periodontal treatment needs and presents a challenge to health-care providers and governments worldwide, as severe periodontitis has been reported to be the sixth most prevalent medical condition in the world. Older adults (≥ 80 years of age) who receive regular dental care retain more teeth than those who do not receive such care, but routine general dental care for these individuals is not sufficient to prevent the progression of periodontitis with the same degree of success as in younger individuals. There is a paucity of data on the efficacy of different periodontal therapies for older individuals. However, considering the higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions seen in older adults, it cannot be assumed that periodontal therapy will yield the same degree of success seen in younger individuals. Furthermore, medications can influence the status of the periodontium and the delivery of periodontal care. As an example, anticoagulant drugs are common among older patients and may be a contraindication to certain treatments. Newer anticoagulants will, however, facilitate surgical intervention in older patients. Furthermore, prescription medications taken for chronic conditions, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases, can affect the periodontium in a variety of ways. In summary, consideration of socio-economic factors, general health status and multiple-drug therapies will, in the future, be an important part of the management of periodontitis in older adults.
Fabri, Gisele M C; Savioli, Cynthia; Siqueira, José T; Campos, Lucia M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Silva, Clovis A
Gingivitis and periodontitis are immunoinflammatory periodontal diseases characterized by chronic localized infections usually associated with insidious inflammation This narrative review discusses periodontal diseases and mechanisms influencing the immune response and autoimmunity in pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD), particularly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Gingivitis was more frequently observed in these diseases compared to health controls, whereas periodontitis was a rare finding. In JIA patients, gingivitis and periodontitis were related to mechanical factors, chronic arthritis with functional disability, dysregulation of the immunoinflammatory response, diet and drugs, mainly corticosteroids and cyclosporine. In C-SLE, gingivitis was associated with longer disease period, high doses of corticosteroids, B-cell hyperactivation and immunoglobulin G elevation. There are scarce data on periodontal diseases in JDM population, and a unique gingival pattern, characterized by gingival erythema, capillary dilation and bush-loop formation, was observed in active patients. In conclusion, gingivitis was the most common periodontal disease in PRD. The observed association with disease activity reinforces the need for future studies to determine if resolution of this complication will influence disease course or severity.
Shishniashvili, T E; Tsagareli, Z G; Gogiashvili, L E; Khimshiashvili, N B
The study aimed at investigation of the rate of periodontal pathologies in juvenile adolescents, the analysis of the severity of the disease and detection of the correlation between the periodontal tissue pathology and hormonal status of pre-and pubertal periods. A stomatologic (dental) status of 618 pupils, 9-15 of ages in Tbilisi General Education Schools has been studied--to detect the rate and intensity of periodontal pathologies and analyze the influence of hormonal changes of juvenile periodontal tissues. According to the obtained results we can conclude that the high rate of periodontal diseases has been fixed in pre-pubertal and pubertal schoolchildren (pupils). It should be emphasized that the degree of periodontal tissue pathologies increases with age. In addition, the mentioned pathology was more frequently fixed and expressed in girls, 12-13 of ages and in boys, 14-15 of ages. Juvenile periodontal pathologies most frequently is generalized, which most frequently is aggravated with the existence of jaw-dental anomalies and the poor oral hygiene status.
Ide, Mark; Harris, Marina; Stevens, Annette; Sussams, Rebecca; Hopkins, Viv; Culliford, David; Fuller, James; Ibbett, Paul; Raybould, Rachel; Thomas, Rhodri; Puenter, Ursula; Teeling, Jessica; Perry, V Hugh; Holmes, Clive
Periodontitis is common in the elderly and may become more common in Alzheimer's disease because of a reduced ability to take care of oral hygiene as the disease progresses. Elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria are associated with an increased systemic pro-inflammatory state. Elsewhere raised serum pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that periodontitis would be associated with increased dementia severity and a more rapid cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine if periodontitis in Alzheimer's disease is associated with both increased dementia severity and cognitive decline, and an increased systemic pro inflammatory state. In a six month observational cohort study 60 community dwelling participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for systemic inflammatory markers. Dental health was assessed by a dental hygienist, blind to cognitive outcomes. All assessments were repeated at six months. The presence of periodontitis at baseline was not related to baseline cognitive state but was associated with a six fold increase in the rate of cognitive decline as assessed by the ADAS-cog over a six month follow up period. Periodontitis at baseline was associated with a relative increase in the pro-inflammatory state over the six month follow up period. Our data showed that periodontitis is associated with an increase in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's Disease, independent to baseline cognitive state, which may be mediated through effects on systemic inflammation.
Fokkema, S J
Periodontitis results from the interaction of bacteria on the tooth surfaces and the host immune response. Although periodontal pathogens are essential for the initiation and progression of the disease, the tissue damage in periodontitis is primarily mediated by the host immune response. Differences in the susceptibility to the disease and in the clinal outcome of the therapy seem to be less dependent on genetics but more on lifestyle factors, like smoking, overweight, stress and nutrition. It has been shown that these lifestyle factors may modulate the immune response and therefore influence the initiation and progression of the disease. To study the host immune response, whole blood cell cultures (WBCC) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been widely used and they specifically reflect the behaviour of monocytes. It has been shown that peripheral blood monocytes in LPS-stimulated WBCC from non-smoking periodontitis patients display a T-helper 2 (Th2)-promoting phenotype in comparison with controls. After periodontal therapy, this phenotype reversed and was comparable with controls. However, in smoking but treated patients, the Th2-promoting phenotype of monocytes still remained. Therefore, the aberrant phenotype of monocytes in the peripheral blood from periodontitis patients is likely to be a systemic response to exogenous and endogenous danger molecules released or induced by the periodontal infection or by smoking. It can be concluded that periodontal therapy in non-smoking periodontitis patients has beneficial health effects and that smoking cessation should be an integral part of the therapy as well for general health reasons as for the clinical outcome.
Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila
Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis. PMID:27651883
Kapferer, Ines; Hienz, Stefan; Ulm, Christian
Localized periodontal destruction has been reported as a rare complication of intraoral piercings. The purpose of this case report was to illustrate the destructive nature of a lip stud and to describe the successful treatment of this case. The lip stud was removed and supra- and subgingival debridement was performed. Because of a shallow vestibule, the absence of keratinized gingiva, and the strong frenulum insertion at the gingival margins, a free gingival graft was placed. Subsequently the patient demonstrated a significant amount of osseous regeneration and partial coverage of the recession, which has been clinically and radiographically (computed tomography) documented.
Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Gupta, Rajan; Bhardwaj, Rohit; Chaudhary, Karun; Kaur, Simerpreet
Recent epidemiological studies reveal that more than two-third of the world's population suffers from one of the chronic forms of periodontal disease. The primary etiological agent of this inflammatory disease is a polymicrobial complex, predominantly Gram negative anaerobic or facultative bacteria within the sub-gingival biofilm. These bacterial species initiate the production of various cytokines such as interleukin-8 and TNF-α, further causing an increase in number and activity of polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) along with these cytokines, PMNs also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide via the respiratory burst mechanism as the part of the defence response to infection. ROS just like the interleukins have deleterious effects on tissue cells when produced in excess. To counter the harmful effects of ROS, human body has its own defence mechanisms to eliminate them as soon as they are formed. The aim of this review is to focus on the role of different free radicals, ROS, and antioxidants in the pathophysiology of periodontal tissue destruction. PMID:24174716
Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Rosales, Carlos; Uribe-Querol, Eileen
Oral tissues are constantly exposed to damage from the mechanical effort of eating and to microorganisms, mostly bacteria. In healthy gingiva tissue remodeling and a balance between bacteria and innate immune cells are maintained. However, excess of bacteria biofilm (plaque) creates an inflammation state that recruits more immune cells, mainly neutrophils to the gingiva. Neutrophils create a barrier for bacteria to reach inside tissues. When neutrophils are insufficient, bacteria thrive causing more inflammation that has been associated with systemic effects on other conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. But paradoxically when neutrophils persist, they can also promote a chronic inflammatory state that leads to periodontitis, a condition that leads to damage of the bone-supporting tissues. In periodontitis, bone loss is a serious complication. How a neutrophil balance is needed for maintaining healthy oral tissues is the focus of this review. We present recent evidence on how alterations in neutrophil number and function can lead to inflammatory bone loss, and how some oral bacteria signal neutrophils to block their antimicrobial functions and promote an inflammatory state. Also, based on this new information, novel therapeutic approaches are discussed.
Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Rosales, Carlos
Oral tissues are constantly exposed to damage from the mechanical effort of eating and to microorganisms, mostly bacteria. In healthy gingiva tissue remodeling and a balance between bacteria and innate immune cells are maintained. However, excess of bacteria biofilm (plaque) creates an inflammation state that recruits more immune cells, mainly neutrophils to the gingiva. Neutrophils create a barrier for bacteria to reach inside tissues. When neutrophils are insufficient, bacteria thrive causing more inflammation that has been associated with systemic effects on other conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. But paradoxically when neutrophils persist, they can also promote a chronic inflammatory state that leads to periodontitis, a condition that leads to damage of the bone-supporting tissues. In periodontitis, bone loss is a serious complication. How a neutrophil balance is needed for maintaining healthy oral tissues is the focus of this review. We present recent evidence on how alterations in neutrophil number and function can lead to inflammatory bone loss, and how some oral bacteria signal neutrophils to block their antimicrobial functions and promote an inflammatory state. Also, based on this new information, novel therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:27019855
Kinaia, Bassam Michael; Chogle, Sami M A; Kinaia, Atheel M; Goodis, Harold E
Periodontal and endodontic diseases are inflammatory responses leading to periodontal and pulpal tissue loss. Regenerative therapies aim to restore the lost structures to vitality and function. Various materials and treatments methods have been used such as bone grafts, guided tissue regeneration, enamel matrix derivatives, growth and differentiation factors, and stem cells. Although the current materials and methods demonstrated adequate clinical results, true and complete biological tissue regeneration is not yet attainable. The current article reviews chronologically the materials and methods used in periodontal and endodontic regeneration highlighting their clinical success and shortcomings, and discussing future directions in regenerative therapy.
Bains, Vivek Kumar; Bains, Rhythm
Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO), is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials. PMID:26604952
Vaughan, O B
Periodontal disease during orthodontic therapy is preventable and is controllable and in continuous studies after orthodontic therapy has been completed, it has been shown that under the properly controlled regimen of treatment the destruction to the periodontal tissues of the teeth is not accentuated to a statistically significant degree as greater than that which occurs during the same interim without orthodontic therapy. This encourages us; however, the difficulties cited in the paper above challenges us and our finest professional skills in the proper care of the orthodontic patients with periodontal complications.
Puig-Silla, Miriam; Montiel-Company, José María; Dasí-Fernández, Francisco; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, its fimA genotypes, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola and the evolution of periodontal health. In a longitudinal prospective study, samples of subgingival plaque were taken from 114 patients (37 with chronic periodontitis, 17 with gingivitis, and 60 periodontally healthy) in the course of a full periodontal examination. PCR was employed to determine the presence of the periodontopathogenic bacteria. Four years later, a second examination and sample collection were performed in 90 of these patients (20 with chronic periodontitis, 12 with gingivitis, and 58 periodontally healthy). T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, and T. denticola are the most prevalent bacteria in patients with chronic periodontitis (78.4%, 62.2 y 56.8%, respectively). The P. gingivalis bacterium and its fimA genotypes I, II, and IV showed the highest correlation between the baseline and follow-up assessments. P. gingivalis fimA genotype II and T. forsythia were associated to a significant degree with unfavourable periodontal evolution. Of the variables studied, P. gingivalis fimA genotype II and T. forsythia increase the risk of an unfavourable evolution of periodontal status.
Machida, Tatsuya; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Takeuchi, Noriko; Maruyama, Takayuki; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Kataoka, Kota; Kawabata, Yuya; Morita, Manabu
This cross-sectional study addressed the relationship between coffee consumption and periodontitis in patients during the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. A total of 414 periodontitis patients in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment completed a questionnaire including items related to coffee intake and underwent periodontal examination. Logistic regression analysis showed that presence of moderate/severe periodontitis was correlated with presence of hypertension (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.99, p < 0.05), smoking (former, OR = 5.63, p < 0.01; current, OR = 6.81, p = 0.076), number of teeth present (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001), plaque control record ≥20% (OR = 1.88, p < 0.05), and duration of maintenance phase (OR = 1.07, p < 0.01). On the other hand, presence of severe periodontitis was correlated with smoking (former, OR = 1.35, p = 0.501; current, OR = 3.98, p < 0.05), coffee consumption (≥1 cup/day, OR = 0.55, p < 0.05), number of teeth present (OR = 0.95, p < 0.05), and bleeding on probing ≥ 20% (OR = 3.67, p < 0.001). There appears to be an inverse association between coffee consumption (≥1 cup/day) and prevalence of severe periodontitis in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment.
Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Acharya, Shashidhar; Bhat, Parvati; Kamath, Asha; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay
In view of recent understanding of the association of periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the present investigation was undertaken to study the periodontal infections among 390 asymptomatic pregnant women and to find an association of bacterial etiologies with the disease. Prevalence of gingivitis was 38% and clinical periodontitis was 10% among the study population. Subgingival plaque specimens were subjected to multiplex PCR targeting ten putative periodontopathogenic bacteria. Among the periodontitis group, high detection rates of Porphyromonas gingivalis (56%), Prevotella nigrescens (44%), Treponema denticola (32%), and Prevotella intermedius (24%) were noted along with significant association with the disease (P < 0.05). PMID:24899898
Treatment of periodontal disease is a complex and multidisciplinary procedure, requiring periodontal, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic treatment modalities. Several authors attempted to formulate models for periodontal treatment that orders the treatment steps in a logical and easy to remember manner. In this article, we discuss two models of periodontal treatment planning from two of the most well-known textbook in the specialty of periodontics internationally. Then modify them to arrive at a new model of periodontal treatment planning, The Trimeric Model. Adding restorative and orthodontic interrelationships with periodontal treatment allows us to expand this model into the Extended Trimeric Model of periodontal treatment planning. These models will provide a logical framework and a clear order of the treatment of periodontal disease for general practitioners and periodontists alike. PMID:25177662
Vallejo-Aisa, Francisco J.; Estefanía-Fresco, Ruth
Objectives: To evaluate bone loss around implants placed in patients with a history of treated chronic periodontitis and who did or did not attend supportive periodontal therapy, after one year in function. Furthermore, the influence of periodontal biotype and level of plaque was also evaluated. Material and Methods: Forty-nine patients participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects had a history of chronic periodontitis, which had been previously treated. After the active treatment, 27 patients attended supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) and the rest did not (No SPT). The O’Leary plaque index and periodontal biotype were recorded for each subject and 246 Astra Tech® OsseospeedTM implants were radiographically analysed (123 placed in SPT patients and 123 in No SPT patients) at the time of loading and one year later, measuring marginal bone loss with the program Dental Studio NX 6.0®. The statistical analysis was performed with Windows SPSS, applying Pearson’s correlation index and the Kruskal-Wallis and U-Mann Whitney non-parametric tests. Results: Six patients were found to have periimplantitis and sixteen mucositis. The survival rate was 99.59% (100% SPT and 99.18% No SPT). Mean bone loss was 0.39 mm (range [-0.71 - 8.05]). Among SPT patients, 95% of the implants had losses less than or equal to the mean (mean bone loss of 0.16 mm) compared to 53.7% for the No SPT group (mean bone loss of 0.62 mm). A statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between bone loss around the implant and the patient’s periodontal biotype and plaque index. Conclusions: The marginal bone loss around implants in patients with treated chronic periodontitis is minimal if they are in a controlled SPT programme and there is individual control of plaque index. Moreover, the presence of a thin periodontal biotype represents a risk factor for additional bone loss. Key words:Peri-implantitis, chronic periodontitis, bacterial plaque, periodontal biotype. PMID:23722147
Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung
Abstract Several studies have reported an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal diseases. However, a large-scale population-based cohort study was previously absent from the literature. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of periodontal diseases in patients with COPD in a nationwide population. From the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 22,332 patients with COPD who were newly diagnosed during 2000 to 2010. For each case, two individuals without COPD were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up till the end of 2011. The overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.19-fold greater in the COPD group than in the comparison group (32.2 vs 26.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.24). Compared with non-COPD patients, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD increased with the number of emergency room visits (from 1.14 [95% CI 1.10–1.19] to 5.09 [95% CI 4.53–5.72]) and admissions (from 1.15 [95% CI 1.10–1.20] to 3.17 [95% CI 2.81–3.57]). In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD treated with inhaled corticosteroids (1.22, 95% CI 1.11–1.34) and systemic corticosteroids (1.15, 95% CI 1.07–1.23) were significantly higher than those of patients not treated with corticosteroids. Patient with COPD are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases than the general population. Our results also support that the risk of periodontal diseases is proportional to COPD control. In addition, patients who receive corticosteroid treatment are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases. PMID:26579813
Cherukuri, Sandhya; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan
Periodontitis is characterized by infection and inflammation of the tooth supporting structures. Few signs of susceptibility and recurrence after treatment are seen due to the outgrowth of various pathogenic microorganisms. Many studies have been done to understand the genetic basis of periodontal disease. An increased risk for periodontitis has been shown with the variations in genes related to the inflammatory response. Interestingly, some of the genes regulated by epigenetic modifications are modified in response to environmental stimuli. Conditions such as cancer, autoimmune or inflammatory diseases have been dispensed by epigenetic mechanisms. The understanding of these molecular mechanisms and the early detection of susceptibility may guide in future periodontal disease treatment and prevention. PMID:28050521
Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Everett, Matthew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Otis, Linda L.; Nathel, Howard
We have, in this preliminary study, investigated the use of optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of periodontal disease. We took in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues from a young pig and compared them to histological sections. These images distinguish tooth and soft tissue relationships that are important in diagnosing and assessing periodontal disease. We have imaged the attachment of gingiva to the tooth surface and located the cemento-enamel junction. This junction is an important reference point for defining attachment level in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. the boundary between enamel and dentin is also visible for most of the length of the anatomical crown, allowing quantitation of enamel thickness and character.
Leech, Michelle T; Bartold, P M
The relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and poor oral health has been recognised for many decades. The association between periodontal infection and the risk of developing RA has been the subject of epidemiological, clinical and basic science research in recent times. Converging and reproducible evidence now makes a clear case for the role of specific periodontal infective pathogens in initiating, amplifying and perpetuating rheumatoid arthritis. The unique enzymatic properties of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and its contribution to the burden of citrullinated peptides is now well established. The impact of localized infection such as periodontitis in shaping specific anti-citrullinated peptide immune responses highlights a key area for treatment, prevention and risk assessment in rheumatoid arthritis.
Finkbeiner, R. L.
The argon laser has proven to be a valuable tool for the thermodynamic debridement of the periodontal lesion, incisions and tissue fusion. Illustrations of clinical applications and discussion of laser parameters will be provided.
The end-to-end test would verify the complex sequence of events from lander separation to landing. Due to the large distances involved and the significant delay time in sending a command and receiving verification, the lander needed to operate autonomously after it separated from the orbiter. It had to sense conditions, make decisions, and act accordingly. We were flying into a relatively unknown set of conditions-a Martian atmosphere of unknown pressure, density, and consistency to land on a surface of unknown altitude, and one which had an unknown bearing strength.
Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore
Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care. PMID:25810600
Lin, Guo-Hao; Boynton, James R
The primary etiology of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque and its byproducts in a susceptible host. Although the prevalence of plaque-induced periodontal disease is relatively low for the child and adolescent, destructive periodontal disease may be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. In some cases, childhood periodontal destruction may be the first sign of systemic disease, making appropriate recognition and determination of etiology critical in this population. Therefore, this literature review discusses the periodontal considerations for the child and adolescent patient, aiming to offer a guide for differential diagnosis and oral management of periodontal disease in the young population.
Bassir, Seyed Hossein; Wisitrasameewong, Wichaya; Raanan, Justin; Ghaffarigarakani, Sasan; Chung, Jamie; Freire, Marcelo; Andrada, Luciano C; Intini, Giuseppe
Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and are linked to several systemic diseases. The goal of periodontal treatment is to halt the progression of the disease and regenerate the damaged tissue. However, achieving complete and functional periodontal regeneration is challenging because the periodontium is a complex apparatus composed of different tissues, including bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament. Stem cells may represent an effective therapeutic tool for periodontal regeneration due to their plasticity and their ability to regenerate different tissues. This review presents and critically analyzes the available information on stem cell-based therapy for the regeneration of periodontal tissues and suggests new avenues for the development of more effective therapeutic protocols.
Chamila Prageeth Pandula, P K; Samaranayake, L P; Jin, L J; Zhang, Chengfei
Chronic periodontitis is a serious infectious and inflammatory oral disease of humans worldwide. Conventional treatment modalities are effective for controlling periodontal disease. However, the regeneration of damaged periodontal tissues remains a major challenge in clinical practice due to the complex structure of the periodontium. Stem cell-based regenerative approaches combined with the usage of emerging biomaterials are entering a new era in periodontal regeneration. The present review updates the current knowledge of periodontal ligament stem cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration, and elaborates on the potentials for clinical application.
Sculean, Anton; Rathe, Florian; Junker, Rüdiger; Becker, Jürgen; Schwarz, Frank; Arweiler, Nicole
The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i. e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of an enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in periodontal wound healing. Histological results from experiments in animals and from human case reports have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of the current overview is to present the clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD based on the existing evidence.
The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on Periodontal Maintenance. Periodontal maintenance is an integral part of periodontal therapy for patients with a history of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Patients should be informed of the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. Failure to comply with a periodontal maintenance program may result in recurrence or progression of the disease process. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.
Dursun, Erhan; Akalin, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan
Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers
Dursun, Erhan; Akalın, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan
Abstract Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women. Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status
Yada, Sudheer; Kamalesh, B; Sonwane, Siddharth; Guptha, Indra; Swetha, R K
Quorum sensing helps bacteria to communicate with each other and in coordinating their behavior. Many diseases of human beings, plants, and animals are mediated by quorum sensing. Various approaches are being tried to inhibit this communication to control the diseases caused by bacteria. Periodontal pathogens also communicate through quorum sensing and new approaches to treat periodontal disease using quorum sensing inhibition need to explored. PMID:25709373
Söder, Birgitta; Yakob, Maha; Meurman, Jukka H; Andersson, Leif C; Klinge, Björn; Söder, Per-Östen
The main purpose was to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and the incidence of breast cancer in a prospective study of 3273 randomly selected subjects aged 30-40 years at baseline. Breast cancer incidence was registered from 1985 to 2001 according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases criteria. At baseline, 1676 individuals also underwent a clinical oral examination (Group A) whereas 1597 subjects were not clinically examined but were registered (Group B). The associations between breast cancer, periodontal disease, and missing molars were determined using multiple logistic regression models with several background variables and known risk factors for cancer. In total 26 subjects in group A and 15 subjects in group B had breast cancer. The incidence of breast cancer was 1.75% in subjects who had periodontal disease and/or any missing molars, and 0 in subjects who had periodontal disease but had no missing molars. For periodontally healthy subjects with no missing teeth the breast cancer incidence was 1%. For group B the respective incidence was 0.94%. Female gender (odds ratio (OR) 13.08) and missing any molar in the mandible (OR 2.36) were explanatory variables for breast cancer. Of the subjects with periodontal disease and any missing molars in the mandible 5.5% had breast cancer in comparison to 0.5% of the subjects who had periodontal disease but no missing molars in the mandible (P < 0.02). Chronic periodontal disease indicated by missing molars seemed to associate statistically with breast cancer.
Pérez-Chaparro, P.J.; Gonçalves, C.; Figueiredo, L.C.; Faveri, M.; Lobão, E.; Tamashiro, N.; Duarte, P.; Feres, M.
There is substantial evidence supporting the role of certain oral bacteria species in the onset and progression of periodontitis. Nevertheless, results of independent-culture diagnostic methods introduced about a decade ago have pointed to the existence of new periodontal pathogens. However, the data of these studies have not been evaluated together, which may generate some misunderstanding on the actual role of these microorganisms in the etiology of periodontitis. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the current weight of evidence for newly identified periodontal pathogens based on the results of “association” studies. This review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched up to September 2013 for studies (1) comparing microbial data of subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis and periodontal health and (2) evaluating at least 1 microorganism other than the already-known periodontal pathogens. From 1,450 papers identified, 41 studies were eligible. The data were extracted and registered in predefined piloted forms. The results suggested that there is moderate evidence in the literature to support the association of 17 species or phylotypes from the phyla Bacteroidetes, Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes. The phylum Candidatus Saccharibacteria and the Archaea domain also seem to have an association with disease. These data point out the importance of previously unidentified species in the etiology of periodontitis and might guide future investigations on the actual role of these suspected new pathogens in the onset and progression of this infection. PMID:25074492
Cobb, Charles M; MacNeill, Simon R; Satheesh, Keerthana
Evidence-based practice involves complex and conscientious decision making based not only on the available evidence but also on patient characteristics, situations, and preferences. It recognizes that care is individualized and ever-changing and involves uncertainties and probabilities. The specialty of periodontics has abundant high-level evidence upon which treatment decisions can be determined. This paper offers a brief commentary and overview of the available evidence commonly used in the private practice of periodontics.
Glascoe, Alison; Brown, Ronald; Robinson, Grace; Hailu, Kassahun
The oral cavity is a part of the body. The health of the oral cavity affects the health of the entire body. This relationship is reciprocal, as the overall health of an individual will also affect the health of that individual's oral cavity. Periodontal disease is a common, chronic inflammatory disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth. It has been proposed that periodontal disease is a risk factor for systemic diseases such as diabetes.
Yılmaz, Gülin; Kırzıoğlu, Fatma Yeşim; Doğuç, Duygu Kumbul; Koçak, Havva; Orhan, Hikmet
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has modulatory effects on the immune system. This study was designed to evaluate plasma ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and to investigate if a relationship exists between ghrelin and periodontal parameters, serum cytokines, and bone turnover markers. Thirty-five chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and periodontal healthy individuals (C) were included in this study. Periodontal parameters were recorded. Blood samples were obtained to determine the levels of total and acylated ghrelin, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), the soluble receptor activator nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OSC). Plasma levels of total and acylated ghrelin were significantly elevated in the CP group compared with the C group (p < 0.05). The difference was significant only between males in the two groups (groups were compared with respect to gender) (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the groups regarding the levels of serum sRANKL, TNF-α, and ALP. A relative increase in the serum levels of IL-1β and a decrease in the serum levels of OSC of the CP group were observed (p < 0.05). In addition, positive correlations between total ghrelin/ALP and total ghrelin/acylated ghrelin were discovered. We found no direct correlation between ghrelin levels and periodontal parameters. Our results indicate an increase of total and acylated ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Further, studies in larger populations (which could include ghrelin levels in gingival tissue, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva) are needed in order to confirm the role of ghrelin in periodontal disease.
Kido, Jun-Ichi; Hino, Mami; Bando, Mika; Hiroshima, Yuka
Many middle aged and old persons take periodontal diseases that mainly cause teeth loss and result in some systemic diseases. The prevention of periodontal diseases is very important for oral and systemic health, but the present diagnostic examination is not fully objective and suitable. To diagnose periodontal diseases exactly, some biomarkers shown inflammation, tissue degradation and bone resorption, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva are known. We demonstrated that GCF levels of calprotectin, inflammation-related protein, and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, bone metabolism-related protein, were associated with clinical condition of periodontal diseases, and suggested that these proteins may be useful biomarkers for periodontal diseases. Recently, determinations of genes and proteins by using microdevices are studied for diagnosis of some diseases. We detected calprotectin protein by chemiluminescent immunoassay on a microchip and showed the possibility of specific and quantitative detection of calprotectin in a very small amount of GCF. To determine plural markers in GCF by using microdevices contributes to develop accurate, objective diagnostic system of periodontal diseases.
Castro, Cecilia Estela; Koss, Myriam Adriana; López, María Elena
For many years the diagnosis of Periodontal Disease has been based on clinical and radiographic methods. Other more recent methods have the objective of studying the inflammatory response of the host. That way, immunologic and biological methods determine the free mediators in the periodontal infection. The components of the gingivo-crevicular liquid or fluid are used to identify or to diagnose the active disease, to anticipate the risk of acquiring the disease and to determine its progress. For it to be clinically useful important changes should be registered the way a specific site turns active or that a previously disease affected site improves its conditions as a result of periodontal therapy. The response of the neutrophillic granulocytes play an important role in the detection of Periodontal Disease. The unspecific defense system in the gingivo-crevicular fluid can be determined through cytokines and/or interleukines that serve to identify sites at risk on the patient. In Periodontal Disease, the cytokines are not only defense mediators of the gingival sulcus fluid, but are also an indicator of tissue destruction. The liberation of high levels of lysosomal enzymes by neutrophils, proteolytic enzymes as the collagenases, or intercytoplasmatic enzymes as dehydrogenase lactate and aspartate amino transferase can equally help monitor the progress of the Periodontal Disease.
Kebschull, M.; Demmer, R.T.; Grün, B.; Guarnieri, P.; Pavlidis, P.; Papapanou, P.N.
The currently recognized principal forms of periodontitis—chronic and aggressive—lack an unequivocal, pathobiology-based foundation. We explored whether gingival tissue transcriptomes can serve as the basis for an alternative classification of periodontitis. We used cross-sectional whole-genome gene expression data from 241 gingival tissue biopsies obtained from sites with periodontal pathology in 120 systemically healthy nonsmokers with periodontitis, with available data on clinical periodontal status, subgingival microbial profiles, and serum IgG antibodies to periodontal microbiota. Adjusted model-based clustering of transcriptomic data using finite mixtures generated two distinct clusters of patients that did not align with the current classification of chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Differential expression profiles primarily related to cell proliferation in cluster 1 and to lymphocyte activation and unfolded protein responses in cluster 2. Patients in the two clusters did not differ with respect to age but presented with distinct phenotypes (statistically significantly different whole-mouth clinical measures of extent/severity, subgingival microbial burden by several species, and selected serum antibody responses). Patients in cluster 2 showed more extensive/severe disease and were more often male. The findings suggest that distinct gene expression signatures in pathologic gingival tissues translate into phenotypic differences and can provide a basis for a novel classification. PMID:24646639
Ivanovski, S.; Vaquette, C.; Gronthos, S.; Hutmacher, D.W.; Bartold, P.M.
For a successful clinical outcome, periodontal regeneration requires the coordinated response of multiple soft and hard tissues (periodontal ligament, gingiva, cementum, and bone) during the wound-healing process. Tissue-engineered constructs for regeneration of the periodontium must be of a complex 3-dimensional shape and adequate size and demonstrate biomechanical stability over time. A critical requirement is the ability to promote the formation of functional periodontal attachment between regenerated alveolar bone, and newly formed cementum on the root surface. This review outlines the current advances in multiphasic scaffold fabrication and how these scaffolds can be combined with cell- and growth factor–based approaches to form tissue-engineered constructs capable of recapitulating the complex temporal and spatial wound-healing events that will lead to predictable periodontal regeneration. This can be achieved through a variety of approaches, with promising strategies characterized by the use of scaffolds that can deliver and stabilize cells capable of cementogenesis onto the root surface, provide biomechanical cues that encourage perpendicular alignment of periodontal fibers to the root surface, and provide osteogenic cues and appropriate space to facilitate bone regeneration. Progress on the development of multiphasic constructs for periodontal tissue engineering is in the early stages of development, and these constructs need to be tested in large animal models and, ultimately, human clinical trials. PMID:25139362
Ivanovski, S; Vaquette, C; Gronthos, S; Hutmacher, D W; Bartold, P M
For a successful clinical outcome, periodontal regeneration requires the coordinated response of multiple soft and hard tissues (periodontal ligament, gingiva, cementum, and bone) during the wound-healing process. Tissue-engineered constructs for regeneration of the periodontium must be of a complex 3-dimensional shape and adequate size and demonstrate biomechanical stability over time. A critical requirement is the ability to promote the formation of functional periodontal attachment between regenerated alveolar bone, and newly formed cementum on the root surface. This review outlines the current advances in multiphasic scaffold fabrication and how these scaffolds can be combined with cell- and growth factor-based approaches to form tissue-engineered constructs capable of recapitulating the complex temporal and spatial wound-healing events that will lead to predictable periodontal regeneration. This can be achieved through a variety of approaches, with promising strategies characterized by the use of scaffolds that can deliver and stabilize cells capable of cementogenesis onto the root surface, provide biomechanical cues that encourage perpendicular alignment of periodontal fibers to the root surface, and provide osteogenic cues and appropriate space to facilitate bone regeneration. Progress on the development of multiphasic constructs for periodontal tissue engineering is in the early stages of development, and these constructs need to be tested in large animal models and, ultimately, human clinical trials.
Zohar, Ron; Tenenbaum, Howard C
Periodontal regeneration has become one of the primary objectives of periodontal therapy. The resulting scientific endeavours have elucidated modes of periodontal wound healing, the growth of periodontal cells and their association with the surrounding matrix, and growth-promoting factors. The periodontal regeneration industry is producing better and more expensive devices, but the criteria for evaluating their success have not progressed to the same extent. Although clinical measurements of attachment level and probing depths, along with radiography, are good methods of evaluating tooth survival and prognosis, they do not indicate true biological regeneration. In addition, the regeneration industry may encourage the overuse of allografts and alloplasts which may serve as an impediment to simple wound healing. This review is a critical assessment of the clinical use of various regenerative tools, specifically bone replacements and membranes. The future of the regeneration industry may depend on the merging of various technologies and biological concepts, including the possible use of biological barriers, various bone and periodontal growth inducers, and artificial matrices that will attract or carry the cells necessary for regeneration.
Joshi, Deeksha; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of gums involving the degeneration of periodontal ligaments, creation of periodontal pocket and resorption of alveolar bone, resulting in the disruption of the support structure of teeth. According to WHO, 10-15% of the global population suffers from severe periodontitis. The disease results from the growth of a diverse microflora (especially anaerobes) in the pockets and release of toxins, enzymes and stimulation of body's immune response. Various local or systemic approaches were used for an effective treatment of periodontitis. Currently, controlled local drug delivery approach is more favorable as compared to systemic approach because it mainly focuses on improving the therapeutic outcomes by achieving factors like site-specific delivery, low dose requirement, bypass of first-pass metabolism, reduction in gastrointestinal side effects and decrease in dosing frequency. Overall it provides a safe and effective mode of treatment, which enhances patient compliance. Complete eradication of the organisms from the sites was not achieved by using various surgical and mechanical treatments. So a number of polymer-based delivery systems like fibers, films, chips, strips, microparticles, nanoparticles and nanofibers made from a variety of natural and synthetic materials have been successfully tested to deliver a variety of drugs. These systems are biocompatible and biodegradable, completely fill the pockets, and have strong retention on the target site due to excellent mucoadhesion properties. The review summarizes various available and recently developing targeted delivery devices for the treatment of periodontitis.
Jorgensen, M G; Slots, J
New products and treatment modalities for the management of periodontal disease continue to offer the clinician a large number of choices, many of which involve antimicrobials. Specific pathogenic bacteria play a central role in the etiology and pathogenesis of destructive periodontal disease. Under suitable conditions, periodontal pathogens colonize the subgingival environment and are incorporated into a tenacious biofilm. Successful prevention and treatment of periodontitis is contingent upon effective control of the periodontopathic bacteria. This is accomplished by professional treatment of diseased periodontal sites and patient-performed plaque control. Attention to community factors, such as water contamination and bacterial transmission among family members, facilitates preventive measures and early treatment for the entire family. Subgingival mechanical debridement, with or without surgery, constitutes the basic means of disrupting the subgingival biofilm and controlling pathogens. Appropriate antimicrobial agents that can be administered systemically (antibiotics) or via local delivery (povidone-iodine) may enhance eradication or marked suppression of subgingival pathogens. Microbiological testing may aid the clinician in the selection of the most effective antimicrobial agent or combination of agents. Understanding the benefits and limitations of antibiotics and antiseptics will optimize their usefulness in combating periodontal infections.
Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Vieira, Thaís Ribeiral; Bustamante, Roberta Paula Colen; Gomes, Hayder Egg; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarin
Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases. PMID:26491574
Ionescu, Ecaterina; Preoteasa, Elena; Duduca, Ioana
In orthodontics the relation between the force (natural or artificial) and the structures that must be modified or led towards a normal situation is in fact a complex equation would multiple aspects determined by the biological part. The orthodontic forces imply, both in action as in effect, all the elements of the dental system, meaning bones, teeth, periodontal tissue. On the other side, the structures of the dental system may help, limit ate, or even erase the action of the orthodontic forces. Our article brings into discussion the relation between the teeth' sustaining structures and their movements determined by the orthodontic forces both as a reaction to a therapeutical treatment and as their direct implication into the result and the stability of the orthodontic treatment, on a long-term.
Closs, Luciane Quadrado; Gomes, Sabrina Carvalho; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Bertoglio, Vivian
A combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment demands a detailed evaluation in both specialties, particularly when the periodontium is reduced. This is especially true for adult patients, but young patients can also suffer from advanced periodontitis. This article describes combined periodontal and orthodontic therapy in a young patient with severe localized and aggressive periodontitis, tooth crown abnormalities, and missing maxillary second premolars. Periodontal treatment was carried out. Once attachment gain and bone stability were confirmed, orthodontic therapy commenced. It lasted 32 months, during which segmented mechanics and only light forces were used. The result of this intervention was satisfactory, and long-term stability (9 years) with periodontal maintenance was achieved.
Liu, Jia; Liu, Shiyu; Gao, Jie; Qin, Wen; Song, Yang
During orthodontic treatment, periodontium remodeling of periodontitis patients under mechanical force was abnormal. We have previously confirmed the function impairment of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in the periodontitis microenvironment which might be involved in this pathological process. However, the response of PDLSCs in periodontitis microenvironment to mechanical force remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we introduced a Flexcell tension apparatus and investigated the response of PDLSCs obtained from periodontal tissues of periodontitis patients (PPDLSCs) and of those obtained from healthy periodontal tissues (HPDLSCs) to different magnitudes of static mechanical strain (SMS). PPDLSCs showed increased proliferation, decreased osteogenic activity, activated osteoclastogenesis, and greater secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Different magnitudes of SMS exerted distinct effects on HPDLSCs and PPDLSCs. An SMS of 12% induced optimal effects in HPDLSCs, including the highest proliferation, the best osteogenic ability, the lowest osteoclastogenesis, and the lowest secretion of inflammatory cytokines, while the optimal SMS for PPDLSCs was 8%. Excessive SMS damaged PPDLSCs function, including decreased proliferation, an imbalance between osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and an activated inflammatory response. Our data suggest that PPDLSCs are more sensitive and less tolerant to SMS, and this may explain why mechanical force results in undesirable effects in periodontitis patients. PMID:28316629
Background The aim of this review is to systematically investigate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis with the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. Material and Methods Based on a focused question, an electronic search identified 155 unique citations. Three journals (Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and Journal of Periodontal Research), references of relevant studies and review articles were hand-searched. Two independent reviewers implementing eligibility inclusion criteria selected the studies. Results Of the 155, four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All studies were published between 2000 and 2004 and the samples’ size was 40 to 86 patients. Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene were included in all. Three out of four studies failed to identify an association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration, while one found an association. The heterogeneity and small number of studies included prevented the conduct of a meta-analysis. No studies were identified evaluating the effect of other genotypes and as a result only IL-1 genotype studies were included. Conclusions Within the limits of the present review, no direct conclusion for the effect of a susceptible IL-1 genotype status to the clinical outcome after periodontal regeneration could be drawn. The need of more qualitative studies to explore a possible association emerges. Key words:Periodontitis, genotype, periodontal therapy, regeneration, susceptibility, systematic review. PMID:26946210
von Troil-Lindén, B; Alaluusua, S; Wolf, J; Jousimies-Somer, H; Torppa, J; Asikainen, S
Suspected periodontal pathogens can be transmitted between spouses. The treatment response may be unsuccessful in periodontitis patients, if the spouse harbors these bacteria. The aim of the present 6-month follow-up study was to clarify whether the microbiological treatment outcome of periodontitis patients is related to the detection of suspected periodontal pathogens in the saliva of the spouse. 10 patients with advanced periodontitis and their spouses were included in the study. The patients received mechanical periodontal treatment and 500 mg metronidazole systemically 2x a day for 7 days. The presence of visible plaque, gingival bleeding after probing, suppuration, supragingival and subgingival calculus and pocket depths were assessed at baseline and 1 and 6 months after treatment. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia/Prevotella nigrescens, Campylobacter rectus and Peptostreptococcus micros were cultured from pooled subgingival samples from the patients and from salivary samples from the spouses at corresponding occasions. Periodontal conditions in the patients improved after treatment as determined by the significantly lower values of clinical variables 1 and 6 months after treatment compared to those at baseline. However, the re-emergence of periodontal bacteria after treatment of the patients was not related to the concurrent detection of the respective bacteria in the saliva of the spouses. In this study design, it seemed that the salivary bacterial load in the spouse was of minor importance for the microbiological treatment outcome of the patient.
Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases. Gingivitis affects the majority of people, and advanced periodontitis is estimated to affect 5-15% of adults. The detection and diagnosis of these common diseases is a fundamentally important component of oral health care. All patients should undergo periodontal assessment as part of routine oral examination. Periodontal screening using methods such as the Basic Periodontal Examination/Community Periodontal Index or Periodontal Screening Record should be performed for all new patients, and also on a regular basis as part of ongoing oral health care. If periodontitis is identified, full periodontal assessment is required, involving recording of full mouth probing and bleeding data, together with assessment of other relevant parameters such as plaque levels, furcation involvement, recession and tooth mobility. Radiographic assessment of alveolar bone levels is driven by the clinical situation, and is required to assess bone destruction in patients with periodontitis. Risk assessment (such as assessing diabetes status and smoking) and risk management (such as promoting smoking cessation) should form a central component of periodontal therapy. This article provides guidance to the oral health care team regarding methods and frequencies of appropriate clinical and radiographic examinations to assess periodontal status, to enable appropriate detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions. PMID:26390822
Seringec, Nurten; Guncu, Guliz; Arihan, Okan; Avcu, Nihal; Dikmenoglu, Neslihan
Periodontal diseases are frequently associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). On the other hand, occurrence of CVD has also been related with increased blood viscosity. This study was planned to investigate four main hemorheological parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - and also some biochemical parameters (hs-CRP, fibrinogen, globulin etc.) in patients with periodontal disease. We hypothesized that poor periodontal health would be associated with deterioration of hemorheological properties. According to periodontal health status, subjects were divided into three groups as control (healthy), with plaque induced gingivitis and with chronic periodontitis. All groups included 15 males who had not received periodontal therapy in the last six months before the study, were non-smokers, had no systemic diseases and were not on any medication. Erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte aggregation were measured with laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyzer (LORCA). Plasma viscosity was measured by a cone-plate viscometer. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U Test and Spearman Correlation Coefficient. Plasma viscosity (1.36 ± 0.01 mPa.s in the control group and 1.43 ± 0.02 mPa.s in the chronic periodontitis group, P < 0.01), erythrocyte aggregation tendency (aggregation index, amplitude and t½ were 58.82 ± 1.78% , 20.22 ± 0.40 au, 2.80 ± 0.25 s respectively in the control group, and 67.05 ± 1.47% , 22.19 ± 0.50 au, 1.84 ± 0.15 s in the chronic periodontitis group, P < 0.01), hs-CRP, fibrinogen and globulin levels were significantly higher, whereas HDL level was significantly lower in the chronic periodontitis group (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. All of these conditions may contribute to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in people with periodontal disease, via increasing blood viscosity.
Miyajima, Shin-ichi; Naruse, Keiko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Nishikawa, Toru; Adachi, Kei; Suzuki, Yuki; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Mizutani, Makoto; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Matsubara, Tatsuaki
A relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis has been suggested by epidemiological studies. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis is an adequate model for clinical periodontitis, which starts from plaque accumulation, followed by inflammation in the periodontal tissue. Here we have demonstrated using a ligature-induced periodontitis model that periodontitis activates monocytes/macrophages, which subsequently circulate in the blood and adhere to vascular endothelial cells without altering the serum TNF-α concentration. Adherent monocytes/macrophages induced NF-κB activation and VCAM-1 expression in the endothelium and increased the expression of the TNF-α signaling cascade in the aorta. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells from rats with experimental periodontitis showed enhanced adhesion and increased NF-κB/VCAM-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that periodontitis triggers the initial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation of the vasculature, through activating monocytes/macrophages.
Kalsi, Jagdip S; Auplish, Gita; Johnson, Adele R; Darbar, Ulpee R
Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Severe periodontal breakdown in alpha-mannosidosis patients has not previously been reported in the literature. The purposes of this paper are to: present the cases of 2 siblings diagnosed with alpha-mannosidosis, each of whom had varying severity of periodontal destruction; and provide an overview of alpha-mannosidosis, the possible reasons for the periodontal destruction, and the periodontal management in the 2 affected siblings. Both had preventive and nonsurgical periodontal therapy followed by a 5-year period of supportive therapy. Their pattern of bone loss was consistent with those with periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases, with the extent of periodontal destruction being related to the severity of the alpha-mannosidosis. Alpha-mannosidosis patients present with social disfigurements and, to prevent tooth loss that can add to this, early periodontal diagnosis is important to optimize management and intervention.
Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Almas, Khalid
Periodontal health is influenced by a number of factors such as oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic factors, systemic health, and nutrition. Many studies have observed that a balanced diet has an essential role in maintaining periodontal health. Additionally, the influences of nutritional supplements and dietary components have been known to affect healing after periodontal surgery. Studies have attempted to find a correlation between tooth loss, periodontal health, and nutrition. Moreover, bone formation and periodontal regeneration are also affected by numerous vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the currently available data on diet and maintenance of periodontal health and periodontal healing. The effects of nutritional intervention studies to improve the quality of life and well-being of patients with periodontal disease have been discussed. PMID:27589794
Kochar, Gagan Deep; Jayan, B; Chopra, S S; Mechery, Reenesh; Goel, Manish; Verma, Munish
This case report describes the interdisciplinary management of an adult patient with advanced periodontal disease. Treatment involved orthodontic and periodontal management. Good esthetic results and dental relationships were achieved by the treatment.
Williams, R C; Paquette, D W
The twentieth century was an especially notable time for research advances into the understanding of the aetiology and the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Beginning in 1900, using dark-field preparations, investigators began to implicate certain microorganisms, such as amoebae, as causing periodontitis. Today, using modern molecular techniques, we believe we have identified the primary causative agents of adult periodontitis. In 1900, histological sections of periodontal tissues at autopsy provided clues as to how periodontal pockets probably formed. Today there is a wealth of cellular and molecular data that suggest the actual pathways that the susceptible host uses to initiate periodontal tissue destruction. We now also appreciate that periodontitis may be a significant risk factor for systemic disease. A very exceptional 'century of discovery' into the nature of periodontal diseases should now lead to a new era of better diagnosis, prevention and treatment for this ubiquitous disease.
Novaes, A B; Gutierrez, F G; Novaes, A B
Periodontal disease progression of 30 type II diabetic patients (NIDDM) and 30 patients in whom diabetes was not detected was evaluated. Age ranged from 30 to 77 years. To determine the periodontal condition, probing pocket depth and periodontal attachment loss were measured; to determine the metabolic control of the patients, glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting glucose were measured. At the end of the study, the diabetic group was divided into three subgroups, according to the metabolic state of the patients: controlled patients, moderately controlled patients, and poorly controlled patients. Comparing the diabetic and the control groups as a whole, there was no statistically significant difference in probing pocket depth, but significance (P < 0.01) was observed for attachment loss. When diabetic patients were divided into subgroups, significant differences were observed between the poorly controlled and the control groups (P < 0.01) for both the probing pocket depth and periodontal attachment. The glycosylated hemoglobin test was more reliable than the fasting glucose analysis.
Ross, Jonathan H.; Hardy, Douglas Crane; Schuyler, Corinne A.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Huang, Yan
Background and objectives Epidemiological studies have established that patients with diabetes have an increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease. Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine, plays a role in the tissue inflammation that characterizes periodontal disease. Our recent study has shown a trend of increase in periodontal IL-6 expression at the mRNA level across patients with neither periodontal disease nor diabetes, patients with periodontal disease alone and patients with both diseases. However, the periodontal IL-6 expression at the protein level in these patients has not been investigated. Material and Methods Periodontal tissue specimens were collected from eight patients without periodontal disease and diabetes (group 1), from 17 patients with periodontal disease alone (group 2) and from 10 patients with both periodontal disease and diabetes (group 3). The frozen sections were prepared from these tissue specimens and IL-6 protein expression was detected and quantified. Results The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test showed that differences in IL-6 protein levels among the three groups were statistically significant (p = 0.035). Nonparametric analysis using Jonckheere-Terpstra test showed a tendency of increase in periodontal IL-6 protein levels across group 1 to group 2 to group 3 (p = 0.006). Parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) on IL-6 protein levels showed that neither age nor gender significantly affected the difference of IL-6 levels among the groups. Conclusion Periodontal IL-6 expression at the protein level is increased across patients with neither periodontal disease nor diabetes, patients with periodontal disease alone, and patients with both diseases. PMID:20682019
Nualart Grollmus, Zacy Carola; Morales Chávez, Mariana Carolina; Silvestre Donat, Francisco Javier
A number of systemic disorders increase patient susceptibility to periodontal disease, which moreover evolves more rapidly and more aggressively. The underlying factors are mainly related to alterations in immune, endocrine and connective tissue status. These alterations are associated with different pathologies and syndromes that generate periodontal disease either as a primary manifestation or by aggravating a pre-existing condition attributable to local factors. This is where the role of bacterial plaque is subject to debate. In the presence of qualitative or quantitative cellular immune alterations, periodontal disease may manifest early on a severe localized or generalized basis--in some cases related to the presence of plaque and/or specific bacteria (severe congenital neutropenia or infantile genetic agranulocytosis, Chediak-Higiashi syndrome, Down syndrome and Papillon-Lefévre syndrome). In the presence of humoral immune alterations, periodontal damage may result indirectly as a consequence of alterations in other systems. In connective tissue disorders, bacterial plaque and alterations of the periodontal tissues increase patient susceptibility to gingival inflammation and alveolar resorption (Marfan syndrome and Ehler-Danlos syndrome). The management of periodontal disease focuses on the control of infection and bacterial plaque by means of mechanical and chemical methods. Periodontal surgery and even extraction of the most seriously affected teeth have also been suggested. There are variable degrees of consensus regarding the background systemic disorder, as in the case of Chediak-Higiashi syndrome, where antibiotic treatment proves ineffective; in severe congenital neutropenia or infantile genetic agranulocytosis, where antibiotic prophylaxis is suggested; and in Papillon-Lefévre syndrome, where an established treatment protocol is available.
Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Holmstrup, Palle; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Køllgaard, Tania; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Givskov, Michael; Hansen, Peter Riis
Periodontitis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease induced by bacterial biofilm in the dental pocket resulting in destruction of the periodontal tissues. Periodontitis is associated with ischaemic heart disease and we here provide a summary of the current evidence linking these two disorders.
Reed, Susan G.; Lopatin, Dennis E.; Foxman, Betsy; Burt, Brian A.
Periodontitis is considered a consequence of a pathogenic microbial infection at the periodontal site and host susceptibility factors. Periodontal research supports the association of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Bacteroides forsythus, and periodontitis; however causality has not been demonstrated. In pursuit of the etiology of periodontitis, we hypothesized that the intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, may play a role. As a first step, a cross-sectional study of dental school clinic patients with established periodontitis were assessed for the presence of C. trachomatis in the oral cavity, and in particular from the lining epithelium of periodontal sites. C. trachomatis was detected using a direct fluorescent monoclonal antibody (DFA) in oral specimens from 7% (6/87) of the patients. Four patients tested positive in specimens from the lining epithelium of diseased periodontal sites, one patient tested positive in healthy periodontal sites, and one patient tested positive in the general mucosal specimen. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary evidence of C. trachomatis in the periodontal sites. Planned studies include the use of a more precise periodontal epithelial cell collection device, the newer nucleic acid amplification techniques to detect C. trachomatis, and additional populations to determine the association of C. trachomatis and periodontitis. PMID:11218493
Demmer, R.T.; Jacobs, D.R.; Singh, R.; Zuk, A.; Rosenbaum, M.; Papapanou, P.N.; Desvarieux, M.
Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P
Bizzarro, S; Laine, M L; Buijs, M J; Brandt, B W; Crielaard, W; Loos, B G; Zaura, E
Antibiotics are often used in the treatment of chronic periodontitis, which is a major cause of tooth loss. However, evidence in favour of a microbial indication for the prescription of antibiotics is lacking, which may increase the risk of the possible indiscriminate use of antibiotics, and consequent, microbial resistance. Here, using an open-ended technique, we report the changes in the subgingival microbiome up to one year post-treatment of patients treated with basic periodontal therapy with or without antibiotics. Antibiotics resulted in a greater influence on the microbiome 3 months after therapy, but this difference disappeared at 6 months. Greater microbial diversity, specific taxa and certain microbial co-occurrences at baseline and not the use of antibiotics predicted better clinical treatment outcomes. Our results demonstrate the predictive value of specific subgingival bacterial profiles for the decision to prescribe antibiotics in the treatment of periodontitis, but they also indicate the need for alternative therapies based on ecological approaches.
Bizzarro, S.; Laine, M. L.; Buijs, M. J.; Brandt, B. W.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B. G.; Zaura, E.
Antibiotics are often used in the treatment of chronic periodontitis, which is a major cause of tooth loss. However, evidence in favour of a microbial indication for the prescription of antibiotics is lacking, which may increase the risk of the possible indiscriminate use of antibiotics, and consequent, microbial resistance. Here, using an open-ended technique, we report the changes in the subgingival microbiome up to one year post-treatment of patients treated with basic periodontal therapy with or without antibiotics. Antibiotics resulted in a greater influence on the microbiome 3 months after therapy, but this difference disappeared at 6 months. Greater microbial diversity, specific taxa and certain microbial co-occurrences at baseline and not the use of antibiotics predicted better clinical treatment outcomes. Our results demonstrate the predictive value of specific subgingival bacterial profiles for the decision to prescribe antibiotics in the treatment of periodontitis, but they also indicate the need for alternative therapies based on ecological approaches. PMID:26830979
Dundar, Serkan; Eltas, Abubekir; Hakki, Sema S; Malkoc, Sıddık; Uslu, M Ozay; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Komorowski, James; Ozercan, I Hanifi; Akdemir, Fatih; Sahin, Kazim
The purpose of this study was to induce experimental periodontitis in rats previously fed diets containing arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex and examine the biochemical, immunological, and radiological effects. Fifty two 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups. The control group included those fed a standard rat diet with no operation performed during the experiment. The periodontitis, ASI I, and ASI II groups were subjected to experimental periodontitis induction for 11 days after being fed a standard rat diet alone, a diet containing 1.81 g/kg ASI complex, or a diet containing 3.62 g/kg ASI complex, respectively, for 8 weeks. Throughout the 11-day duration of periodontitis induction, all rats were fed standard feed. The rats were euthanized on the eleventh day, and their tissue and blood samples were collected. In the periodontitis group, elevated tissue destruction parameters and reduced tissue formation parameters were found, as compared to the ASI groups. Levels of enzymes, cytokines, and mediators associated with periodontal tissue destruction were lower in rats fed a diet containing ASI complex after experimental periodontitis. These results indicate that ASI complex could be an alternative agent for host modulation. PMID:27895467
Geiger, A M; Wasserman, B H
In this study population the following observations have been made: Periodontal destruction, gingival inflammation and mobility were not significantly related to axial inclination of the incisor teeth. Labial gingival recession of the mandibular incisor was related to linguoversion (less than 85 degrees to GoGn). No other associations between incisor inclination and labial or lingual recession were found. Age was not related to either maxillary or mandibular incisor inclination. The periodontal-incisor inclination relationships reported above for periodontal destruction and gingival inflammation were not altered by the factor of age. Study of the secondary influence of incisor inclination on the relationships of selected occlusal factors and periodontal pathosis showed: A. Severe overjet (more than 6mm) had been found to be associated with more periodontal destruction. With severe overjet maxillary incisors in linguoversion (less than 100 degrees to SN) were somewhat healthier than all others. Among the same cases of severe overjet mandibular incisors in labioversion had slightly more disease than all others. B. The absence of a significant correlation between anterior overbite or crowding reported previously was not influenced by incisor inclination. C. Facial alveolar bone thickness, observed clinically, was studied for its relation to periodontal destruction and gingival inflammation. Thick facial alveolar bone was found to be associated with increased pathosis. This finding was not consistent for the maxillary and mandibular incisor and the influence of other factors might be suspected: Incisor inclination had no effect on the bone thickness-periodontal disease findings.
Nguyen, L; Lekic, P; McCulloch, C A
An improved understanding of the differentiation of periodontal ligament cells could facilitate the development of new treatment approaches for overcoming the loss of specialized cell types caused by periodontitis. To study healing of wounded periodontal tissues and the differentiation of mineralizing connective tissue cells in periodontal ligament, we have examined the influence of wound size and collagen implantation on the regeneration of periodontium and on immunohistochemical staining for osteopontin and bone sialoprotein. Four groups of Wistar rats were wounded by drilling through the alveolar bone and by extirpation of the periodontal ligament. Wounds were 0.6 or 1.8 mm in diameter and defects were either implanted with collagen gels or were treated without implants. Rats were killed at 1 wk or 2 months after wounding and tissue sections were stained with monoclonal antibodies against rat osteopontin and bone sialoprotein. Collagen implants strongly increased staining for osteopontin and bone sialoprotein in defects at 1 wk. By 2 months alveolar bone healed completely regardless of the wound size but in large defects, periodontal ligament width was significantly reduced with or without implants. In large wounds at 2 months, collagen implants inhibited bone regeneration and there was stronger staining for osteopontin and bone sialoprotein in the bone replacing the implant, indicating that collagen prolonged bone remodelling. We conclude that implantation of exogenous collagen affects alveolar bone healing but does not preserve the width of the regenerated periodontal ligament. Therefore collagen does not appear to contribute to homeostasis in the periodontium following wounding.
López Silva, M C; Diz-Iglesias, P; Seoane-Romero, J M; Quintas, V; Méndez-Brea, F; Varela-Centelles, P
About 85-94% of the Spanish adults older than 35 experience gum problems, and about 15-30% suffer from periodontitis, being severe in up to 5-11% of them. Unlike other inflammatory conditions, periodontal disease rarely causes discomfort, or limits life or causes functional limitations until its advanced stages, when clinical signs and symptoms arise (gingival recession, pathological teeth migration, or mobility). Lack of knowledge about the disease, together with the idea that tooth loss is linked to ageing, frequently results in a late diagnosis, requiring extensive treatments with a worse prognosis. At Primary Care level, there is series of drugs have been related to periodontal disease (anticonvulsants, immunosuppressive drugs, and calcium channel blockers) as secondary effects, which vary as regards their frequency and severity depending of the amount of accumulated plaque. Stress and depression have also been reported to alter the immune response and to increase the inflammatory response as well as periodontal susceptibility. Certain systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, respiratory diseases, as well as low-weight pre-term birth, have also been linked to periodontitis.
Venkataraman, Archana; Almas, Khalid
A review of the epidemiological, pathological and immunological relationships between two chronic inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD). RA is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints, characterized by loss of connective tissue and mineralized structures, the so-called "synovial membrane." Periodontitis is the inflammatory destruction of the periodontal attachment and alveolar bone. While the etiology of these two diseases may differ, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are similar. And it is possible that individuals manifesting both PD and RA may suffer from a unifying underlying systemic deregulation of the inflammatory response. There is an overproduction of a variety of cytokines and MMPs that appears to be common in both diseases. Oral health parameters should be more closely monitored in patients with RA, an autoimmune disease. Data suggest that periodontal therapies combined with routine RA treatments further improve RA status. Interventions to prevent, minimize or treat periodontitis in arthritis patients will definitely promise a better quality of life for these patients.
Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh
Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted.
Tariq, Mohammad; Iqbal, Zeenat; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Sahni, Jasjeet K
Periodontitis is the most common localized dental inflammatory disease related with several pathological conditions like inflammation of gums (gingivitis), degeneration of periodontal ligament, dental cementum and alveolar bone loss. In this perspective, the various preventive and treatment modalities, including oral hygiene, gingival irrigations, mechanical instrumentation, full mouth disinfection, host modulation and antimicrobial therapy, which are used either as adjunctive treatments or as stand-alone therapies in the non-surgical management of periodontal infections, have been discussed. Intra-pocket, sustained release systems have emerged as a novel paradigm for the future research. In this article, special consideration is given to different locally delivered anti-microbial and anti inflammatory medications which are either commercially available or are currently under consideration for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The various in vitro dissolution models and microbiological strain investigated to impersonate the infected and inflamed periodontal cavity and to predict the in vivo performance of treatment modalities have also been thrashed out. Animal models that have been employed to explore the pathology at the different stages of periodontitis and to evaluate its treatment modalities are enlightened in this proposed review. PMID:23373002
Del Fabbro, M; Francetti, L; Pizzoni, L; Weinstein, R L
An alteration of the immune system function is one of the main factors involved in the development of periodontal disease. Polymorpho-nuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) play a crucial role in the cell-mediated immune response against bacterial challenge. The mechanism of neutralization of pathogen microorganisms by PMNs involves many different steps: adhesion to capillary endothelium in the inflamed region, trans-endothelial migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and, ultimately, bacterial killing by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. A defect in one of these steps leads to altered neutrophil function and, consequently, to a higher host susceptibility to periodontal tissue infection. The main intrinsic neutrophil diseases such as neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD-1), Chediak-Higashi syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), are often related to severe and early-onset forms of periodontitis, as described by many evidences in the literature. Therefore PMN dysfunctions, both intrinsic and extrinsic, represent an important risk factor for periodontal disease. Studies on the basic molecular mechanisms of such dysfunctions, also in terms of genetic polymorphisms, recently allowed to identify some specific markers related to a higher susceptibility to the development of disease. Many researches have yet to be performed aiming to gain insight on the dynamics of PMN activation and interaction with other cells, in order to improve and modulate neutrophil function and to develop specific approaches for care and prevention of periodontal diseases.
Novak, M J
With the recent description of 12 different forms and sub-forms of periodontitis by the World Workshop in Clinical Periodontics (1989), increased emphasis has been placed on diagnosis. Dr. Ranney's review addressed the specificity and sensitivity of current diagnostic tests with respect to their ability to differentiate between health and disease and between the individual disease states. Although considerable microbiologic and immunologic data have been accumulated in the past decade, very little of this information has proved to be sufficiently sensitive to be of use in differential diagnosis. Clinical measurements provide us with an insensitive, retrospective analysis of what has already occurred but allow us to diagnose disease based on its natural history. Measures of attachment levels, by use of conventional probes, are only sufficiently sensitive indicators of periodontitis when as much as 20-30% of attachment has already been lost. Current technological improvements in probing measurements and radiographic assessment may increase sensitivity in this area. Future improvements in diagnostic techniques will occur with the advent of sensitive biochemical analyses of gingival crevicular fluid. These assays will provide a more objective analysis of inflammation and, in time, will provide sufficient sensitivity to allow for differentiation between and among the various forms of periodontal disease. Future directions in diagnosis will focus on the identification of disease-susceptible individuals and the prediction of future periodontal breakdown.
Park, C H; Kim, K H; Rios, H F; Lee, Y M; Giannobile, W V; Seol, Y J
Physiologic bioengineering of the oral, dental, and craniofacial complex requires optimized geometric organizations of fibrous connective tissues. A computer-designed, fiber-guiding scaffold has been developed to promote tooth-supporting periodontal tissue regeneration and functional restoration despite limited printing resolution for the manufacture of submicron-scaled features. Here, we demonstrate the use of directional freeze-casting techniques to control pore directional angulations and create mimicked topographies to alveolar crest, horizontal, oblique, and apical fibers of natural periodontal ligaments. For the differing anatomic positions, the gelatin displayed varying patterns of ice growth, determined via internal pore architectures. Regardless of the freezing coordinates, the longitudinal pore arrangements resulted in submicron-scaled diameters (~50 µm), along with corresponding high biomaterial porosity (~90%). Furthermore, the horizontal + coronal ([Formula: see text]) freezing orientation facilitated the creation of similar structures to major fibers in the periodontal ligament interface. This periodontal tissue-mimicking microenvironment is a potential tissue platform for the generation of naturally oriented ligamentous tissues consistent with periodontal ligament neogenesis.
Martins, M D; Jiao, Y; Larsson, L; Almeida, L O; Garaicoa-Pazmino, C; Le, J M; Squarize, C H; Inohara, N; Giannobile, W V; Castilho, R M
Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease driven by dysbiosis, an imbalance between commensal bacteria and the host organism. Periodontitis is a leading cause of tooth loss in adults and occurs in about 50% of the US population. In addition to the clinical challenges associated with treating periodontitis, the progression and chronic nature of this disease seriously affect human health. Emerging evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with mechanisms beyond bacteria-induced protein and tissue degradation. Here, we hypothesize that bacteria are able to induce epigenetic modifications in oral epithelial cells mediated by histone modifications. In this study, we found that dysbiosis in vivo led to epigenetic modifications, including acetylation of histones and downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1. In addition, in vitro exposure of oral epithelial cells to lipopolysaccharides resulted in histone modifications, activation of transcriptional coactivators, such as p300/CBP, and accumulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Given that oral epithelial cells are the first line of defense for the periodontium against bacteria, we also evaluated whether activation of pathogen recognition receptors induced histone modifications. We found that activation of the Toll-like receptors 1, 2, and 4 and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 1 induced histone acetylation in oral epithelial cells. Our findings corroborate the emerging concept that epigenetic modifications play a role in the development of periodontitis.
Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.
Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Bagan, Leticia; Bagan, Jose V.
Background Periodontitis has been regarded as a potential risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A systematic review is made to determine whether nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with RA offers benefits in terms of the clinical activity and inflammatory markers of the disease. Material and Methods A search was made of the Medline-PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Scopus databases to identify studies on the relationship between the two disease processes, and especially on the effects of nonsurgical treatment in patients of this kind. The search was based on the following keywords: rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontitis (MeSH), rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontal treatment. Results Eight articles on the nonsurgical treatment of patients with periodontitis and RA were finally included in the study. All of them evaluated clinical (DAS28) and laboratory test activity (ESR, CRP, IL-6, TNFα) before and after treatment. A clear decrease in DAS28 score and ESR was recorded, while other parameters such as CRP, IL-6 and TNFα showed a non significant tendency to decrease as a result of treatment. Conclusions Nonsurgical treatment improved the periodontal condition of patients with periodontitis and RA, with beneficial effects upon the clinical and laboratory test parameters (DAS28 and ESR), while other inflammatory markers showed a marked tendency to decrease. However, all the studies included in the review involved small samples sizes and follow-up periods of no more than 6 months. Larger and particularly longitudinal studies are therefore needed to more firmly establish possible significant relations between the two disease processes. Key words:Periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal treatment. PMID:26946202
Drolshagen, M; Keilig, L; Hasan, I; Reimann, S; Deschner, J; Brinkmann, K T; Krause, R; Favino, M; Bourauel, C
Periodontal diseases like gingivitis and periodontitis have damaging effects on the periodontium and commonly affect the mechanical properties of the periodontal ligament (PDL), which in the end might lead to loss of teeth. Monitoring tooth mobility and changes of the material properties of the PDL might help in early diagnosis of periodontal diseases and improve their prognosis. It was the aim of this study to develop a novel intraoral device to determine the biomechanical characteristics of the periodontal ligament. This includes the measurement of applied forces and resulting tooth displacement in order to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of the periodontium with varying loading protocols with respect to velocity and tooth displacement. The developed device uses a piezoelectric actuator to apply a displacement to a tooth's crown, and the resulting force is measured by an integrated force sensor. To measure the tooth displacement independently and non-invasively, two magnets are fixed on the teeth. The change in the magnetic field caused by the movement of the magnets is measured by a total of 16 Hall sensors. The displacement of the tooth is calculated from the movement of the magnets. The device was tested in vitro on premolars of four porcine mandibular segments and in vivo on two volunteers. The teeth were loaded with varying activation curves. Comparing the force progression of different activation velocities, the forces decreased with decreasing velocity. Intensive testing demonstrated that the device fulfils all requirements. After acceptance of the ethical committee, further testing in clinical measurements is planned.
Savita, A. M.; Sarun, E.; Arora, Shivli; Krishnan, Swathi
Context: Periodontitis is predominantly due to exaggerated host response to pathogenic microorganisms and their products which causes an imbalance between the reactive oxygen species-antioxidant in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Glutathione is an important redox regulator in GCF and maintenance of stable reduced glutathione (GSH):oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio is essential for periodontal health. Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the level of glutathione and redox balance (GSH: GSSG ratio) in GCF of chronic periodontitis patients, periodontally healthy controls and also to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on the level of glutathione and redox balance during 3 months postoperative visit. Study Design: Baseline GCF samples were collected from 20 chronic periodontitis patients and 20 periodontally healthy subjects for GSH and GSSG levels estimation. Periodontitis patients were recalled 3 months postnonsurgical periodontal therapy to re-sample GCF. Materials and Methods: GSH and GSSG levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values were statistically analyzed by Paired t-test. Results: The mean GSH and GSSG values in GCF were found to be significantly lower in periodontitis patients pre- and 3 months post-nonsurgical periodontal therapy, compared with those in the control group subjects. In addition, the successful nonsurgical therapy even though leading to a significant improvement in the GSH and GSSG levels, does not restore glutathione concentration to the levels seen in healthy subjects. Conclusion: Successful nonsurgical periodontal therapy leads to significant improvement in the redox balance (GSH: GSSG ratio) in chronic periodontitis patients. PMID:26097356
Okuda, K; Naito, Y; Ohta, K; Fukumoto, Y; Kimura, Y; Ishikawa, I; Kinoshita, S; Takazoe, I
A total of five bacteriological samples from the periodontal pockets of two sisters with localized juvenile periodontitis and their mother with advanced periodontitis was studied. Gram-negative anaerobic rods were predominant in the samples. Bacteroides intermedius and Bacteroides loescheii were the most predominant species. The antigenicity and bacteriocinogenicity of these isolates were quite similar. Serum immunoglobulin G antibody levels of the subjects to gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria were measured by using the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of antibodies to saccharolytic black-pigmented Bacteroides species were significantly higher than the levels in healthy young females. Images PMID:6429040
Plančak, Darije; Musić, Larisa
The term ‘quorum sensing’ describes intercellular bacterial communication which regulates bacterial gene expression according to population cell density. Bacteria produce and secrete small molecules, named autoinducers, into the intercellular space. The concentration of these molecules increases as a function of population cell density. Once the concentration of the stimulatory threshold is reached, alteration in gene expression occurs. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria possess different types of quorum sensing systems. Canonical LuxI/R-type/acyl homoserine lactone mediated quorum sensing system is the best studied quorum sensing circuit and is described in Gram-negative bacteria which employ it for inter-species communication mostly. Gram-positive bacteria possess a peptide-mediated quorum sensing system. Bacteria can communicate within their own species (intra-species) but also between species (inter-species), for which they employ an autoinducer-2 quorum sensing system which is called the universal language of the bacteria. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria possess AI-2 quorum sensing systems. It is known that they use it for regulation of biofilm formation, iron uptake, stress response and virulence factor expression. A better understanding of bacterial communication mechanisms will allow the targeting of quorum sensing with quorum sensing inhibitors to prevent and control disease. PMID:27688408
Repo, H; Saxén, L; Jäättelä, M; Ristola, M; Leirisalo-Repo, M
We studied the chemotaxis of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha by monocytes of patients with juvenile periodontitis (JP). As a group, the patients' PMNs showed significantly increased chemotaxis determined by counting the number of migrating cells within a 3-microns-pore-size filter. Determined as distance of migration within the filter, as chemotactic increment based on checkerboard analysis, as leukotactic index calculated on the basis of distance of migration and cell count at different depths within a 3-microns-pore-size filter, as distance of migration under agarose, and as the number of PMNs migrating across a 5-microns-pore-size filter, the chemotactic migration rates of PMNs of patients were similar to those of controls. Evaluation of the data on an individual basis suggested that in terms of PMN chemotaxis some patients were hyperresponsive and some were hyporesponsive. Chemotaxis, spontaneous migration, and the rates of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production by JP monocytes were similar to those of control cells. Our results give credence to the view that there are minor aberrations in the functions of JP phagocytes, but the extent to which these aberrations are relevant to accumulation of PMNs at sites of infection and inflammation in vivo and possibly contribute to the pathogenesis of JP remains unclear. PMID:2318531
Plančak, Darije; Musić, Larisa; Puhar, Ivan
The term 'quorum sensing' describes intercellular bacterial communication which regulates bacterial gene expression according to population cell density. Bacteria produce and secrete small molecules, named autoinducers, into the intercellular space. The concentration of these molecules increases as a function of population cell density. Once the concentration of the stimulatory threshold is reached, alteration in gene expression occurs. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria possess different types of quorum sensing systems. Canonical LuxI/R-type/acyl homoserine lactone mediated quorum sensing system is the best studied quorum sensing circuit and is described in Gram-negative bacteria which employ it for inter-species communication mostly. Gram-positive bacteria possess a peptide-mediated quorum sensing system. Bacteria can communicate within their own species (intra-species) but also between species (inter-species), for which they employ an autoinducer-2 quorum sensing system which is called the universal language of the bacteria. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria possess AI-2 quorum sensing systems. It is known that they use it for regulation of biofilm formation, iron uptake, stress response and virulence factor expression. A better understanding of bacterial communication mechanisms will allow the targeting of quorum sensing with quorum sensing inhibitors to prevent and control disease.
Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.
The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species.
Srikanth, Adusumilli; Sathish, Manthena; Sri Harsha, Anumolu Venkatanaga
Gingivitis and periodontitis are most common inflammatory diseases of supporting tissues of teeth. Role of microbial etiology and host response in progression of gingival and periodontal diseases has been well established. Because of the beneficial biological effects of ozone, due to its antimicrobial and immunostimulating effect, it is well indicated in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The objective of this article is to provide a general review about clinical applications of ozone in treatment of periodontal diseases and to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. PMID:23946585
Livingstone, David; Murthy, Varsha; Reddy, Vineela Katam; Pillai, Ajay
Aggressive periodontitis previously termed as juvenile periodontitis is characterised by rapid destruction of the periodontium at a relatively young age. Rehabilitation of these patients is often challenging and difficult. Controlling the disease and restoring periodontal health is essential for successful prosthodontic rehabilitation. This clinical report describes an interdisciplinary approach in the rehabilitation of a young adult patient with generalised aggressive periodontitis. Treatment objectives included plaque control, prevention of further attachment loss, reduction/elimination of pockets, and prosthetic rehabilitation to enhance aesthetics and restore masticatory function. One year recall evaluation revealed stable periodontal support with no further loss of attachment and no other complications. PMID:25743856
Laforgia, A; Corsalini, M; Stefanachi, G; Tafuri, S; Ballini, A; Pettini, F; Di Venere, D
The aim of the present study is to investigate the periodontal status of people with scleroderma and their response to non-surgical treatment protocol aimed at controlling the evolution of the disease. The response to non-surgical periodontal treatment was tested on patients belonging to a scleroderma group and a control group: the data show an improvement of the periodontal conditions of all these patients in response to treatment. When compared on the same diagram, a slight remission of the periodontal disease was obtained in both scleroderma and healthy patients. This highlights the benefit to soft tissues produced by non-surgical periodontal treatment also in patients affected by systemic diseases.
Shin, Daniel; Hamada, Yusuke; John, Vanchit
Currently, the protocol for treating periodontitis follows a standardized and straightforward algorithm: 1) review and reinforce oral hygiene; 2) perform scaling and root planing; 3) proceed to periodontal surgery if the disease process has not been arrested; then 4) enroll the patient in a customized periodontal maintenance recall program to maintain the health of the reduced periodontium. Multiple longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the aforementioned treatment regimen can arrest the progression of periodontitis and can increase the likelihood of tooth retention and periodontal stability.
Latheef, P; Sirajuddin, Syed; Gundapaneni, Veenadharini; MN, Kumuda; Apine, Ashwini
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the periodontium i.e. the tissues that surround and support the teeth. Periodontitis manifests as progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can cause loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Periodontitis is initiated by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth's surfaces, besides an over -aggressive immune response against these microorganisms. The primary goal of periodontal therapy is to preserve the natural dentition by accomplishing and preserving a healthy functional periodontium. Many treatment modalities have been introduced to improve the therapeutic result of periodontal treatment which may also damage the periodontiumiatrogenically. PMID:26312087
Ishi, Eduardo de Paula; Bertolo, Manoel Barros; Rossa, Carlos; Kirkwood, Keith Lough; Onofre, Mirian Aparecida
The purpose of this clinical study was to investigate if periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are associated. The study included 39 RA patients (test group) and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals (control group). Questionnaires on general and oral health were applied and a complete periodontal exam, including visible plaque, marginal bleeding, attachment loss (AL) and number of teeth present, was also performed by a single calibrated examiner. Diabetes mellitus patients and smokers were excluded. RA patients had fewer teeth, higher prevalence of sites presenting dental plaque and a higher frequency of sites with advanced attachment loss. Although the prevalence of dental plaque was higher in the test group (Chi-square test, p = 0.0006), the percentage of sites showing gingival bleeding was not different (Fishers exact test, p > 0.05). Based on our results, we suggest that there is an association between periodontal disease and RA.
Casteyde, J P; Occhiminuti, M A; Achache, S; Netter, J C
The author point out that periodontitis is a disease of multiple aetiology and indicate two types of pitfall: traps in conceiving the plan of treatment and traps in carrying out treatment. The treatment plan may be incomplete. The authors show that the deepest types of vertical alveolysis are always related to occlusal or functional imbalance and that treatment based only upon hygiene and periodontal surgery represents a pitfall. They stress the importance of functional treatment. However such complex functional treatment itself has a number of pitfalls when it is being carried out. It is essential to restore balance of the oro-facial musculature before any treatment of occlusion. These are also types of non-occlusal musculo-dental imbalance which may plan an important role in the course of periodontitis. In conclusion, the authors note that functional treatment of the manducatory apparatus is as important as controlling inflammation. This must not be underestimated nor be allowed to go unrecognised.
Chatterjee, Anirban; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Kandwal, Abhishek
Macfarlane Burnett stated in 1962 that “By the late twentieth century, we can anticipate the virtual elimination of infectious diseases as a significant factor in social life”. Probiotics have become of interest to researchers in recent times. Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics. The development of resistance to a range of antibiotics by some important pathogens has raised the possibility of a return to the pre-antibiotic dark ages. Here, probiotics provide an effective alternative way, which is economical and natural to combat periodontal disease. Thus, a mere change in diet by including probiotic foods may halt, retard, or even significantly delay the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, promoting a healthy lifestyle to fight periodontal infections. PMID:21772717
XU, XIN-CHEN; CHEN, HUI; ZHANG, XI; ZHAI, ZAN-JING; LIU, XU-QIANG; ZHENG, XIN-YI; ZHANG, JUN; QIN, AN; LU, ER-YI
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone, and osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture. To date, the association between periodontitis and osteoporosis has remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, an experimental rat model of periodontitis was used to explore the effects of oestrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis on the maxillary alveolar bone. Forty-four female, six-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control, ligature, ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX + ligature. One month after ovariectomy, rats in the ligature and OVX + ligature groups received ligatures on their first and second maxillary molars for 1 month. Fluorescent labelling was performed prior to sacrificing the animals. At the end of the experiment, the maxillae and serum were collected and subjected to micro-computed tomography analysis, confocal laser-scanning microscopic observation, Van Gieson's fuchsin staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and ELISA. Ligatures slightly reduced the alveolar bone mineral density (BMD) and bone formation rate, but significantly reduced alveolar crest height (ACH). Ovariectomy reduced the alveolar BMD, impaired the trabecular structure, reduced the bone formation rate and increased the serum levels of bone resorption markers. Animals in the OVX + ligature group exhibited a lower alveolar BMD, a poorer trabecular structure, a reduced ACH, a lower bone formation rate and higher serum levels of bone resorption markers compared with those in the control group. The results of the present study showed that ovariectomy enhanced alveolar bone loss and reduced the ACH of rats with experimental periodontitis. Thus, post-menopausal osteoporosis may influence the progression of periodontitis. PMID:26035209
Xu, Xin-Chen; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xi; Zhai, Zan-Jing; Liu, Xu-Qiang; Zheng, Xin-Yi; Zhang, Jun; Qin, An; Lu, Er-Yi
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone, and osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture. To date, the association between periodontitis and osteoporosis has remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, an experimental rat model of periodontitis was used to explore the effects of oestrogen deficiency‑induced osteoporosis on the maxillary alveolar bone. Forty‑four female, six‑month‑old Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control, ligature, ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX + ligature. One month after ovariectomy, rats in the ligature and OVX + ligature groups received ligatures on their first and second maxillary molars for 1 month. Fluorescent labelling was performed prior to sacrificing the animals. At the end of the experiment, the maxillae and serum were collected and subjected to micro‑computed tomography analysis, confocal laser‑scanning microscopic observation, Van Gieson's fuchsin staining, tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase staining and ELISA. Ligatures slightly reduced the alveolar bone mineral density (BMD) and bone formation rate, but significantly reduced alveolar crest height (ACH). Ovariectomy reduced the alveolar BMD, impaired the trabecular structure, reduced the bone formation rate and increased the serum levels of bone resorption markers. Animals in the OVX + ligature group exhibited a lower alveolar BMD, a poorer trabecular structure, a reduced ACH, a lower bone formation rate and higher serum levels of bone resorption markers compared with those in the control group. The results of the present study showed that ovariectomy enhanced alveolar bone loss and reduced the ACH of rats with experimental periodontitis. Thus, post‑menopausal osteoporosis may influence the progression of periodontitis.
Williams, Karen B; Burgardt, Grayson J; Rapley, John W; Bray, Kimberly K; Cobb, Charles M
Referral of periodontal patients requires development of a complex set of decision making skills. This study was conducted to determine criteria used by dental and dental hygiene students regarding the referral of periodontal patients for specialty care. Using mixed methods, a thirteen-item survey was developed to elicit the students' perceptions of their knowledge, confidence regarding managing patients, and clinical reasoning related to periodontal patients. The instrument was administered during the summer prior to (T1) and at the end of the students' final year (T2) of training. Seventy-nine dental students (81 percent of total class) and thirty dental hygiene students (83 percent of total class) completed T1. At T2, forty-two dental (44 percent of total class) and twenty-six dental hygiene students (87 percent of total class) completed the questionnaire. While 90 percent of dental and 96 percent of dental hygiene respondents reported a willingness to refer patients with active disease to specialists, only 40 percent of dental and 36 percent of dental hygiene respondents reported confidence in diagnosing, treating, and appropriately referring such patients. The students' ability to recognize critical disease and risk factors influencing referral was good; however, clinical application of that knowledge indicated a gap between knowledge and applied reasoning. The students' attitudes about the importance of periodontal disease and their perceived competence to identify critical disease risk factors were not significantly related (p>0.05) to correct clinical decisions in the case scenarios. The study concludes that dental and dental hygiene curricula should emphasize both the acquisition and application of knowledge regarding criteria for referral of periodontal patients.
Tavakoli, Mohammad; Izadi, Mozhgan; Yaghini, Jaber; Rastegari, Abdolah; Abed, Ahmad Moghareh
Background: The metabolic syndrome and periodontitis coincide with systemic inflammation and glucose tolerance disorder, which indicate the common pathophysiologic pathway of these diseases. The main goal of this study was to determine the effects of the metabolic syndrome on the periodontal indices of hemodialysis (HD) patient. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 75 persons were selected by the simple method, 50 of them were HD patients, and 25 of them were healthy people. They were divided into three groups each of which included 25 persons. The periodontal conditions of the selected persons were determined by radiography, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and bleeding index. Then, the periodontal indices of the patients suffering from metabolic syndrome and the persons not affected by metabolic syndrome were compared. At the end, the data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 20) using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests at the meaningful level of α = 0.05. Since the condition of the unilateral variance test could not be provided for this study, the Kruskal–Wallis test was used. To complete the test, the Mann–Whitney test was used in the binary form among the groups being studied. Results: The obtained results showed a meaningful difference among the groups under study (P < 0.001). The results of the test showed a meaningful difference among the obtained indices of the groups being studied in the binary form (P < 0.001) too. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed when the severity of chronic systemic disease increased the health of the periodontal tissues would decrease. PMID:27605991
Ayanbadejo, P O; Savage, K O; Jeboda, S O
This prospective study sample consisted of 261 Nigerians made up of 155 diabetics seen at the medical outpatient clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos and general hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria and 106 health controls randomly selected. The subjects were required to complete a questionnaire containing the biographic data and occupation, and assessment of their knowledge, attitude and practice towards periodontal health and utilisation of appropriate professional care. They were then examined and assessed using the CPITN code. Their ages ranged from 5 to 65 years. Close to three-quarters of the subjects (73.5% for diabetics and 74.5% for controls) were 45 years or older. Furthermore, 6% of the low skilled diabetics new about periodontal disease while only 27.2% of those in the medium and highly skilled group had some knowledge of periodontal disease. This relationship was found to be statistically significant (X2 = 12-22 ; df = 2, p < 0.05). Similarly, statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between diabetics and controls with regards to knowledge about the demonstrated between diabetic and controls with regards to knowledge about the cause/s of periodontal disease and awareness of gum bleeding. 73.6% of the controls had never been to the dentist before unlike 62.1% of diabetics. All subjects in either group who claimed not to bleed scored at least the minimum on the CPITN code. While 52.3% of diabetics and 22.5% of control had a CPITN score of 2,54% of those in the control group and 30% of diabetics recorded a score of 3 on the CPITN code. In conclusion, the level of awareness of periodontal disease is quite low amongst both groups, hence there is a need to promote periodontal health awareness in the general populace as well as clinics.
Hassell, T M; Harris, E L
Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment
SILVA, Nora; ABUSLEME, Loreto; BRAVO, Denisse; DUTZAN, Nicolás; GARCIA-SESNICH, Jocelyn; VERNAL, Rolando; HERNÁNDEZ, Marcela; GAMONAL, Jorge
Periodontal diseases usually refer to common inflammatory disorders known as gingivitis and periodontitis, which are caused by a pathogenic microbiota in the subgingival biofilm, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola that trigger innate, inflammatory, and adaptive immune responses. These processes result in the destruction of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, and eventually in tissue, bone and finally, tooth loss. The innate immune response constitutes a homeostatic system, which is the first line of defense, and is able to recognize invading microorganisms as non-self, triggering immune responses to eliminate them. In addition to the innate immunity, adaptive immunity cells and characteristic cytokines have been described as important players in the periodontal disease pathogenesis scenario, with a special attention to CD4+ T-cells (T-helper cells). Interestingly, the T cell-mediated adaptive immunity development is highly dependent on innate immunity-associated antigen presenting cells, which after antigen capture undergo into a maturation process and migrate towards the lymph nodes, where they produce distinct patterns of cytokines that will contribute to the subsequent polarization and activation of specific T CD4+ lymphocytes. Skeletal homeostasis depends on a dynamic balance between the activities of the bone-forming osteoblasts (OBLs) and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). This balance is tightly controlled by various regulatory systems, such as the endocrine system, and is influenced by the immune system, an osteoimmunological regulation depending on lymphocyte- and macrophage-derived cytokines. All these cytokines and inflammatory mediators are capable of acting alone or in concert, to stimulate periodontal breakdown and collagen destruction via tissue-derived matrix metalloproteinases, a characterization of the progression of periodontitis as a stage that
Zupancic, Spela; Kocbek, Petra; Baumgartner, Sasa; Kristl, Julijana
Periodontal disease is chronic inflammation of periodontal tissues resulting in formation of periodontal pockets, periodontal attachment loss and progressive destruction of the ligament and alveolar bone. This review gives an update on periodontal disease pathogenesis, which is important for the development of novel methods and delivery systems for its treatment. The available treatment approaches, including removal of dental plaque, modulation of the host inflammatory response, and regeneration of periodontal tissue, are reviewed and their drawbacks discussed. Furthermore the latest achievements involving development of nanomedicines, which represent a new approach to better treatment of periodontal disease, are highlighted. They enable local drug delivery to particular tissues, cells, or subcellular compartments in periodontal pockets, either to biofilm pathogens or host cells, as well as control the release of incorporated drugs, usually antibiotic or anti-inflammatory. Specific examples of the nanocarriers or nanomaterials such as liposomes, lipid and polymeric nanoparticles, nanocrystals, dendrimers, and nanofibers under development for the treatment of periodontal disease are also clearly reviewed. Nanofibers are of special interest as nanodelivery systems and scaffolds for the regeneration of periodontal tissue. Finally, the future outlook of novel therapeutic approaches involving nanodelivery systems in the treatment of periodontal disease is provided.
Lamster, I B; Novak, M J
During the past few years, a considerable number of studies have examined different aspects of the host response in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), including the relationship of specific markers to the active phases of periodontal disease. Various indicators of the acute inflammatory response (the lysosomal enzymes beta-glucuronidase and collagenase, the cytoplasmic enzyme aspartate aminotransferase, and the arachidonic acid metabolite PGE2) have been shown to be associated with clinical attachment loss in chronic adult periodontitis in man and experimental periodontitis in animal models. In contrast, the relationship of indicators of the humoral immune response in GCF to active periodontal disease is equivocal. Furthermore, a number of indicators of the cellular immune response have been identified recently in GCF (i.e., Interleukin-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), but their relationship to active phases of periodontal disease have not been studied. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) is the cellular hallmark of acute inflammation. Evidence from the GCF studies suggests that hyperreactivity of these cells plays a critical role in the active phases of some forms of periodontal disease. Metabolic activation of PMN can be associated with a number of potentially destructive reactions. The major effector mechanism for tissue destruction that can be specifically identified with the PMN is the synergistic effect of the release of PMN proteases and the generation of reactive oxygen metabolites by these cells. Priming of the PMN, where the PMN response is enhanced by agents that do not initiate the response, may be an important mechanism for PMN activation in the crevicular environment; for example, cytokines such as IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, and lipopolysaccharides released from subgingival Gram-negative bacteria, can serve this function. The hypothesis proposed here argues that in addition to the severe forms of periodontal disease that have been
Casanova, L; Hughes, F J; Preshaw, P M
Periodontitis and diabetes are common, complex, chronic diseases with an established bidirectional relationship. That is, diabetes (particularly if glycaemic control is poor) is associated with an increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis, and, severe periodontitis is associated with compromised glycaemic control. Periodontal treatment (conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy) has been associated with improvements in glycaemic control in diabetic patients, with reductions in HbA1c of approximately 0.4% following periodontal therapy. For these reasons, management of periodontitis in people with diabetes is particularly important. The dental team therefore has an important role to play in the management of people with diabetes. An emerging role for dental professionals is envisaged, in which diabetes screening tools could be used to identify patients at high risk of diabetes, to enable them to seek further investigation and assessment from medical healthcare providers.
Rosenbaum, R S
This paper raises new questions about the relationship between occlusion and periodontics. Specifically, it raises questions about the effect of periodontal diseases on mechanoreceptors in the periodontal ligament. Periodontal mechanoreceptors transmit information from the periodontium to various reflexes coordinated by the central nervous system. One of these reflexes is the trigemino-neck reflex. Its function is to change the position of the head, neck, and jaws on a moment-to-moment basis, and it powerfully influences the occlusal position. This paper raises questions about the consequences of periodontal diseases on all reflexes that depend on periodontal mechanoreceptors, and specific questions are raised about the effect of periodontal disease on the trigemino-neck reflex because of its extreme importance to the way we analyze and treat occlusion.
Skaleric, U; Kovac-Kavcic, M
Inflammatory periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases of mankind. Gingival inflammation is widespread, but advanced periodontitis is limited to relatively small subgroups of the population. Gingivitis is initiated by microbial plaque deposits on the dento-gingival interface but progression to periodontitis is modified by several environmental, behavioural, biological and health care variables. This paper reviews the reports dealing with some risk factors for periodontal disease published in recent years and compares the data with findings in a Ljubljana population. It is concluded that male smokers with lower education and low frequency of tooth brushing represent a risk population for progression of periodontal disease. Marital status and body mass need further study to be proved as risk factors for periodontitis. A socioecological model proposed by Hansen et al. (1993) should be used for understanding the interplay of different risk factors for progression of periodontal disease.
Marchesan, J T; Morelli, T; Moss, K; Barros, S P; Ward, M; Jenkins, W; Aspiras, M B; Offenbacher, S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbial community (MC) composition as it relates to salivary metabolites and periodontal clinical parameters in a 21-d biofilm-overgrowth model. Subjects (N = 168) were enrolled equally into 5 categories of periodontal status per the biofilm-gingival interface classification. Microbial species within subgingival plaque samples were identified by human microbiome identification microarray. Whole saliva was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for metabolite identification. Phylum was grouped into MCs according to principal component analysis. Generalized linear and regression models were used to examine the association among MC, species, periodontal clinical parameters, and salivary metabolome. Multiple comparisons were adjusted with the false discovery rate. The study population was distributed into 8 distinct MC profiles, designated MC-1 to MC-8. MC-2 explained 14% of the variance and was dominated by Synergistetes and Spirochaetes. It was the only community structure significantly associated with high probing depth (P = 0.02) and high bleeding on probing (P = 0.008). MC-2 was correlated with traditional periodontal pathogens and several newly identified putative periodontal pathogens: Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Fretibacterium sp. OT360/OT362, Filifactor alocis, Treponema lecithinolyticum, Eubacterium saphenum, Desulfobulbus sp./OT041, and Mogibacterium timidum. Synergistetes phylum was strongly associated with 2 novel metabolites-cyclo (-leu-pro) and cyclo (-phe-pro)-at 21 d of biofilm overgrowth (P = 0.02). In subjects with severe periodontitis (P2 and P3), cyclo (-leu-pro) and cyclo (-phe-pro) were significantly associated with increased changes in probing depth at 21 d of biofilm overgrowth (P ≤ 0.05). The analysis identified a MC dominated by Synergistetes, with classic and putative newly identified pathogens/pathobionts associated with clinical disease
Dentists, comedian Bill Cosby memorably mused, tell you not to pick your teeth with any sharp metal object. Then you sit in their chair, and the first thing they grab is an iron hook!" Conventional periodontal probing is indeed invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and the results can vary greatly between dentists and even for repeated measurements by the same dentist. It is a necessary procedure, though, as periodontal disease is the most common dental disease, involving the loss of teeth by the gradual destruction of ligaments that hold teeth in their sockets in the jawbone. The disease usually results from an increased concentration of bacteria in the pocket, or sulcus, between the gums and teeth. These bacteria produce acids and other byproducts, which enlarge the sulcus by eroding the gums and the periodontal ligaments. The sulcus normally has a depth of 1 to 2 millimeters, but in patients with early stages of periodontal disease, it has a depth of 3 to 5 millimeters. By measuring the depth of the sulcus, periodontists can have a good assessment of the disease s progress. Presently, there are no reliable clinical indicators of periodontal disease activity, and the best available diagnostic aid, periodontal probing, can only measure what has already been lost. A method for detecting small increments of periodontal ligament breakdown would permit earlier diagnosis and intervention with less costly and time-consuming therapy, while overcoming the problems associated with conventional probing. The painful, conventional method for probing may be destined for the archives of dental history, thanks to the development of ultrasound probing technologies. The roots of ultrasound probes are in an ultrasound-based time-of-flight technique routinely used to measure material thickness and length in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Laboratory at Langley Research Center. The primary applications of that technology have been for corrosion detection and bolt tension
Page, R C
Prior to the 1950s, periodontitis was treated mostly by tooth exfoliation or extraction, and that is still the predominant treatment for most of the world's populations today. Debridement of the root surface by scaling and root planning came into relatively common use in the first half of the present century and has become the central feature held in common by all currently-used forms of periodontal therapy. Until the 1980s, the most commonly-used treatment consisted of scaling and root planing, followed by resective surgery aimed at achieving zero pocket depth. During the 1980s, data were obtained demonstrating that the thoroughness of root debridement and subgingival infection control, not the presence or absence or periodontal pockets, is the major determinant of successful periodontal therapy, and non-surgical therapy became a commonly-used treatment. Neither resective surgery nor non-surgical therapy results in significant regeneration of periodontal attachment. With the realization that periodontitis is an infectious process, the use of antibiotics and other anti-infective agents came into common use as adjuncts to other standard therapies. An understanding of the pathways by which the soft and calcified tissues of the periodontium are destroyed has led to the likelihood of widespread future use of the non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory family of drugs to suppress alveolar bone destruction by blocking prostaglandin production, and to the use of chemically-modified tetracyclines that chelate divalent cations and thereby block tissue destruction by the metalloproteinases. Recent data clearly show that regeneration of the previously-destroyed periodontal attachment tissues is biologically possible, and regeneration has become the goal of therapy for the 1990s. Use of osteoconductive and osteoinductive graft materials can, under favorable conditions, induce roughly 60% to 70% regeneration of bone lesion height or volume with concomitant improvement in the clinical
Even the general dental practitioners consider the orthodontic therapeutical interventions carried out with removable appliances as a harmful procedure. It is much less known how the lack of adequate orthodontic treatment endangers the peridontium. Clinical data show a cause related correlation between the maxillary incisor protrusion, mandibular frontal jammed dentition, deep vertical overbite, openbite, crossbite early deciduous tooth extractions and the periodontal pathological happenings. So it is very important to start an early orthodontic treatment to avoid the periodontal consequences of malocclusion before it has become irreversible.
As periodontics has progressed towards an understanding of the influences of risk factors such as genetics, smoking and stress in the occurrence and severity of periodontal disease, the question of prognosis, so essential to treatment planning, has become even more perplexing to the clinician. A survey of long term clinical practice gives insight into the outcome of therapy relative to initial severity, and modern concepts of bacteria versus host relationships provide directions for greater predictability. However, it is only with observation over time that a more accurate assessment of prognosis can be made, as response to initial therapeutic measures can be determined.
Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Erzsébet; Urbán, Edit; Eller, József; Novák, Tibor; Pál, Attila
A great number of clinical studies focused on the periodontal health of the pregnant women in the last decades, since an association has been presumed between the pregnant women's periodontal disease and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Altogether 161 healthy women were examined soon after delivery in Szeged/Hungary. The periodontal status of the patients was recorded by the Silness-Löe Plaque index (0.67), frequency of calculus (21.07%), mean probing pocket depth (1.67 mm) and the frequency of bleeding on probing (37.8%). A significant correlation was found between the state of the periodontium and the educational level and the pregnant women's profession. The periodontal state of women with higher education and the intellectuals was much better, than of the less educated patients and the manual workers.
Girard, Nicolas; Servet, Eric; Biourge, Vincent; Hennet, Philippe
Periodontal disease has not been well characterized in the cat, and it is not known if feline tooth resorptions (TR) are equivalent to those observed in humans and dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the different patterns of periodontal inflammation in cats, and to evaluate their prevalence in a standardized healthy population (n = 109). Particular emphasis was placed on the potential associations between TR and periodontal parameters, as well as the influence of potential risk factors (including breed, sex, and age). A single complete periodontal examination was performed, including periodontal probing of each tooth and exploration of the tooth surface using a dental explorer; at least 10 radiographs were taken for each cat. Missing teeth with radiographic evidence of root apices were present in 34.0% of cats. Periodontal disease was common, and 13.0% of cats had aggressive periodontitis. All of the cats had some form of periodontal inflammation, and only 4.0% of cats were free from gingival inflammation. Moderate to severe gingivitis was present in 13.0% of teeth. Dental furcation exposure was present in 18.0% of all multi-rooted teeth. Periodontal bone loss was observed in 31.2% of teeth, with the majority (98.2%) of all cats having some form of periodontal bone loss. Breed effects were identified for some variables. Eight of 14 periodontal variables were statistically correlated with Type 1 TR. Two of 14 variables (and age) were statistically correlated with Type 2 TR. In conclusion, the cats of this colony had a wide range of periodontal inflammation, including aggressive periodontitis. Type 1 TR and Type 2 TR were identified to be two significantly different manifestations of TR, with a strong association between Type 1 TR and periodontal disease.
Lim, W.H.; Liu, B.; Cheng, D.; Williams, B.O.; Mah, S.J.; Helms, J.A.
Background and Objective In health, the periodontal ligament maintains a constant width throughout an organism’s lifetime. The molecular signals responsible for maintaining homeostatic control over the periodontal ligament are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Wnt signaling in this process by removing an essential chaperone protein, Wntless (Wls) from odontoblasts and cementoblasts, and observing the effects of Wnt depletion on cells of the periodontal complex. Material and Methods The Wnt responsive status of the periodontal complex was assessed using two strains of Wnt reporter mice, Axin2LacZ/+ mice and Lgr5LacZ/+. The function of this endogenous Wnt signal was evaluated by conditionally eliminating the Wntless (Wls) gene using an Osteocalcin Cre driver. The resulting OCN-Cre;Wlsfl/fl mice were examined using micro-CT and histology, immunohistochemical analyses for Osteopontin, Runx2 and Fibromodulin, in situ hybridization for Osterix, and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results The adult periodontal ligament is Wnt responsive. Elimination of Wnt signaling in the periodontal complex of OCN-Cre;Wlsfl/fl mice results in a wider periodontal ligament space. This pathologically increased periodontal width is due to a reduction in the expression of osteogenic genes and proteins, which results in thinner alveolar bone. A concomitant increase in fibrous tissue occupying the periodontal space was observed along with a disruption in the orientation of the periodontal ligament. Conclusion The periodontal ligament is a Wnt dependent tissue. Cells in the periodontal complex are Wnt responsive and eliminating an essential component of the Wnt signaling network leads to a pathological widening of the periodontal ligament space. Osteogenic stimuli are reduced and a disorganized fibrillary matrix results from depletion of Wnt signaling. Collectively, these data underscore the importance of Wnt signaling in homeostasis of the periodontal ligament
Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu
The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011–2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p < 0.05), and 3.1% of the variations in these occurrence over the study period were explained by these factors. Meteorological variables may predict occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. PMID:26251916
Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu
The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011-2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p < 0.05), and 3.1% of the variations in these occurrence over the study period were explained by these factors. Meteorological variables may predict occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis.
Gao, Hui; Li, Bei; Zhao, Lingzhou; Jin, Yan
Periodontal regeneration is an important part of regenerative medicine, with great clinical significance; however, the effects of nanotopography on the functions of periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells (PDLSCs) and on PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration have never been explored. Titania nanotubes (NTs) layered on titanium (Ti) provide a good platform to study this. In the current study, the influence of NTs of different tube size on the functions of PDLSCs was observed. Afterward, an ectopic implantation model using a Ti/cell sheets/hydroxyapatite (HA) complex was applied to study the effect of the NTs on cell sheet based periodontal regeneration. The NTs were able to enhance the initial PDLSC adhesion and spread, as well as collagen secretion. With the Ti/cell sheets/HA complex model, it was demonstrated that the PDLSC sheets were capable of regenerating the PDL tissue, when combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheets and HA, without the need for extra soluble chemical cues. Simultaneously, the NTs improved the periodontal regeneration result of the ectopically implanted Ti/cell sheets/HA complex, giving rise to functionally aligned collagen fiber bundles. Specifically, much denser collagen fibers, with abundant blood vessels as well as cementum-like tissue on the Ti surface, which well-resembled the structure of natural PDL, were observed in the NT5 and NT10 sample groups. Our study provides the first evidence that the nanotopographical cues obviously influence the functions of PDLSCs and improve the PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration size dependently, which provides new insight to the periodontal regeneration. The Ti/cell sheets/HA complex may constitute a good model to predict the effect of biomaterials on periodontal regeneration. PMID:26150714
Gao, Hui; Li, Bei; Zhao, Lingzhou; Jin, Yan
Periodontal regeneration is an important part of regenerative medicine, with great clinical significance; however, the effects of nanotopography on the functions of periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells (PDLSCs) and on PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration have never been explored. Titania nanotubes (NTs) layered on titanium (Ti) provide a good platform to study this. In the current study, the influence of NTs of different tube size on the functions of PDLSCs was observed. Afterward, an ectopic implantation model using a Ti/cell sheets/hydroxyapatite (HA) complex was applied to study the effect of the NTs on cell sheet based periodontal regeneration. The NTs were able to enhance the initial PDLSC adhesion and spread, as well as collagen secretion. With the Ti/cell sheets/HA complex model, it was demonstrated that the PDLSC sheets were capable of regenerating the PDL tissue, when combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheets and HA, without the need for extra soluble chemical cues. Simultaneously, the NTs improved the periodontal regeneration result of the ectopically implanted Ti/cell sheets/HA complex, giving rise to functionally aligned collagen fiber bundles. Specifically, much denser collagen fibers, with abundant blood vessels as well as cementum-like tissue on the Ti surface, which well-resembled the structure of natural PDL, were observed in the NT5 and NT10 sample groups. Our study provides the first evidence that the nanotopographical cues obviously influence the functions of PDLSCs and improve the PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration size dependently, which provides new insight to the periodontal regeneration. The Ti/cell sheets/HA complex may constitute a good model to predict the effect of biomaterials on periodontal regeneration.
Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Hideaki; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Naohiko; Shiba, Hideki; Nakamura, Shigeo; Hino, Takamune; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Hidemi; Tanaka, Hideo; Kimura, Akiro; Tsuji, Koichiro; Kato, Yukio
A major goal of periodontal therapy is to reconstruct healthy periodontium destroyed by periodontal diseases. Basic studies have revealed that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into periodontal defects promotes regeneration of periodontal tissue. We have developed a novel method for periodontal therapy using MSC. Human bone marrow cells are obtained from the iliac crest and expanded in vitro at Cell and Tissue Engineering Center in Hiroshima University Hospital. MSC are, then, isolated and mixed with Atelocollagen at final concentrations of 2 x 10(7) cells/mL. These MSC in Atelocollagen are transplanted into periodontal osseous defects at the periodontal surgery. The results in all seven patients who received the own MSC transplantation have shown good clinical course. Further basic studies and the continuous clinical trial are needed to prove the effectiveness of the clinical application.
Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul
Endodontic and periodontal microsurgery has surpassed the success rates for traditional endodontic and periodontal surgical procedures. Excellent healing results are being attributed to both the techniques, when employed, for isolated endodontic or periodontal defects. Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques. The prevention of epithelial downgrowth and regeneration of periodontal cementum, fiber, and bone seals the fate of these cases. Achieving primary closure with submergence of grafts has a positive effect on GTR outcome. New techniques of periodontal microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla preserving flaps with passive internal mattress suturing, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and conditioning has also shown to be beneficial for GTR. Endodontic microsurgery for the combined lesion has not integrated these advances yet. These advances, along with a recently suggested treatment strategy, are ushering in the level next in management of the combined lesions. This article offers an overview of the combined lesion, the disease, its classification, treatment strategy, regenerative tools, microsurgical recommendations, and outcome studies. PMID:25506135
Ingham, K E; Gorrel, C
The periodontal health status was assessed in two groups of dogs which had received different levels of periodontal care over a two-year period. The dental group received regular dental scaling and polishing, and intermittent daily tooth brushing, while the control group received no periodontal care. All dogs developed gingivitis, and two (one from each group) showed evidence of incipient periodontitis. The dental group had a reduced gingivitis index (GI) compared with the control group only when they had received daily tooth brushing before the GI assessment. When the dogs had not had their teeth brushed for four weeks before the assessment, the GI was not significantly different to that in the control dogs. This suggests that continual periodontal care throughout life is of great importance and questions the benefits of intermittent oral care. The GI of the palatal and lingual surfaces in all dogs was significantly higher than the GI of the buccal surfaces. Thus, all tooth surfaces may need to be cleaned to achieve optimal periodontal health.
Zheng, Wei; Wang, Shi; Wang, Jianguo; Jin, Fang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the periodontitis-associated changes in the number, proliferation and differentiation potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Cultures of human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were established from healthy donors and donors with periodontitis. The numbers of stem cell were characterized using flow cytometry. PDLSCs were isolated from the PDLCs by immunomagnetic bead selection. Colony‑forming abilities, osteogenic and adipogenic potential, gene expression of cementoblast phenotype, alkaline phosphatase activity and in vivo differentiation capacities were then evaluated. Periodontitis caused an increase in the proliferation of PDLSCs and a decrease in the commitment to the osteoblast lineage. This is reflected by changes in the expression of osteoblast markers. When transplanted into immunocompromised mice, PDLSCs from the healthy donors exhibited the capacity to produce cementum PDL‑like structures, whereas, the inflammatory PDLSCs transplants predominantly formed connective tissues. In conclusion, the data from the present study suggest that periodontitis affects the proliferation and differentiation potential of human PDLSCs in vitro and in vivo.
Novak, M J; Polson, A M; Freeman, E
Systemic administration of gold salts for treatment of arthritis is thought to limit tissue destruction through alteration of inflammatory cell function. The present study ascertained if gold salts could modify the tissue destruction associated with an experimental marginal periodontitis. Therapeutic levels of serum gold salts were established in four squirrel monkeys (experimental) by intramuscular injection of Myochrisine (gold sodium thiomalate 25 mg/ml) at 5 mg/kg/body weight at 4-day intervals for 12 days. Marginal periodontitis was then induced around mandibular bicuspids by tying plaque retentive ligatures at the gingival margins. Periodontitis was induced around corresponding teeth in four control animals which had not received gold salts. Serum levels of gold salts were maintained in experimental animals, and all animals were killed 2 weeks after induction of periodontitis. Progression of periodontitis was evaluated histometrically on step-serial sections, and the results analyzed statistically. Specimens from gold-receiving animals had significantly smaller areas of infiltrated supracrestal connective tissue, and less loss of connective tissue attachment and coronal alveolar bone. Quantitation of total plaque around the ligatures showed no differences; however, there was less plaque located apical to the ligatures in gold-receiving specimens. Although the study design did not permit identification of the relative importance of cellular or microbial factors, it was concluded that administration of systemic gold salts was associated with significantly less periodontal destruction.
Kinane, D F
Epidemiological studies demonstrate a high prevalence of advanced destruction but also that relatively few individuals in each age group account for most of the advanced periodontal disease. The available data suggest that three quarters of advanced periodontal disease could be prevented by targeting an effective preventive strategy on the 28% of individuals especially at risk. Questions remain regarding: 1) whether an acceptable cost-effective preventive strategy can be devised; and 2) whether it is possible to establish a simple method of identifying the 'at risk' group. The various risk factors are numerous and include systemic diseases, smoking, drug therapy, hormonal disturbances and genetic factors as well as the more mundane factors such as plaque control and socio-economic and education and attitude factors. Aside from these factors, many patients present with periodontal disease and have no discernible predisposition other than possibly genetic, for which we can not currently test, and for the vast majority of patients there would appear to be no other alternative to periodic thorough examination for all patients, early treatment of all periodontal lesions and appropriate dental health education.
Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa
Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.
Floyd, P D; Ide, M; Palmer, R M
Regeneration of the lost tissues of the periodontium is an ideal therapeutic goal and has been the subject of much research and ingenious clinical techniques. Reconstructive or regenerative techniques are used either singly or in combination for three main purposes: (1) to regain lost periodontal ligament attachment, (2) to provide a wider zone of attached gingiva, and (3) to cover previously exposed root surfaces.
Lepp, Paul W.; Brinig, Mary M.; Ouverney, Cleber C.; Palm, Katherine; Armitage, Gary C.; Relman, David A.
Archaea have been isolated from the human colon, vagina, and oral cavity, but have not been established as causes of human disease. In this study, we reveal a relationship between the severity of periodontal disease and the relative abundance of archaeal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA) in the subgingival crevice by using quantitative PCR. Furthermore, the relative abundance of archaeal small subunit rDNA decreased at treated sites in association with clinical improvement. Archaea were harbored by 36% of periodontitis patients and were restricted to subgingival sites with periodontal disease. The presence of archaeal cells at these sites was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The archaeal community at diseased sites was dominated by a Methanobrevibacter oralis-like phylotype and a distinct Methanobrevibacter subpopulation related to archaea that inhabit the gut of numerous animals. We hypothesize that methanogens participate in syntrophic relationships in the subgingival crevice that promote colonization by secondary fermenters during periodontitis. Because they are potential alternative syntrophic partners, our finding of larger Treponema populations sites without archaea provides further support for this hypothesis. PMID:15067114
Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M.; Ramseier, Christoph A.; Sugai, Jim V.; Giannobile, William V.
Aim Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). Materials and Methods 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and categorized into 4 groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters, and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Sub-gingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6-months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6-12 months. GCF samples were analyzed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, OPG, CRP and IL-1β. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p=0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Results Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61,86). Conclusions Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00277745). PMID:24303954
Darby, I B; Ngo, L
This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease.
Huth, Karin C; Quirling, Martina; Lenzke, Stefanie; Paschos, Ekaterini; Kamereck, Klaus; Brand, Korbinian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta
Ozone has been proposed as an adjunct antiseptic in periodontitis therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effectiveness of gaseous/aqueous ozone, in comparison with that of the established antiseptic chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), against periodontal microorganisms. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Parvimonas micra in planktonic or biofilm cultures were exposed, for 1 min, to gaseous ozone, aqueous ozone, CHX, or phosphate-buffered saline (control). None of the agents was able to substantially reduce the A. actinomycetemcomitans count in biofilm cultures. In contrast, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. micra could be eliminated by 2% CHX or by ozone gas at 53 gm(-3) . Significantly greater antimicrobial effects were observed against planktonic cultures than against biofilm-associated bacteria. The rate of killing was influenced by the species of bacteria, and by the type and concentration of agent. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of aqueous ozone (20 μg ml(-1) ) or gaseous ozone (≥ 4 gm(-3) ) compared with 2% CHX but they were more effective than 0.2% CHX. Therefore, high-concentrated gaseous and aqueous ozone merit further investigation as antiseptics in periodontitis therapy. A safe system for applying gaseous ozone into the periodontal pocket that avoids inhalation still needs to be developed.
Periodontitis is a major chronic inflammatory disorder that can lead to the destruction of the periodontal tissues and, ultimately, tooth loss. It is a major cause of tooth loss in adults and a substantial public-health burden worldwide. There is thus a significant need for periodontal ligament (PDL) regeneration to enable functional mechanical support of tooth prostheses and prevent occlusal overloading. The goal of stem cell-based dental tissue engineering, is to create tooth-like structures using scaffold materials to guide the dental stem cells. Current resorbable membranes act as an epithelial tissue down-growth into the defect, favoring the regeneration of periodontal tissues. In order to develop synthetic grafts for these applications, different biocompatible materials have been used to fabricate fibers with different structures and morphologies. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a composite material that combines the advantage of multiple materials to synthesize polyvinyl alcohol/ chitosan blend fiber scaffolds to promote PDL regeneration and to achieve a synthetic composite that match the native PDL modulus. Morphology, dispersibility, and mechanical properties of blend nanofibrous mats were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and tensile test.
Stîngu, Cătilina Suzana; Turcu, Tatiana; Dimitriu, St
Microbiological findings together with clinical and radiological diagnosis are essential for rationale use of antibiotics in periodontal disease. Methods used for microbiological diagnosis are: microscopy, cultivation, gas liquid chromatography, PCR, immuno-assays (ELISA, immunofluorescence), FISH. Each of them has some advantages and disadvantages related to cost, accessibility, sensitivity, duration. The most used today are cultivation and PCR techniques.
In this study an overview of dental insurance in the Netherlands for periodontal care is presented. Since the dental insurance reform in 1995, dental care is no longer part of the collective health care system. Patients are therefore obliged to enter the market for private dental insurance. Of the 118 available insurance packages 86 (73%) contain dental care. Sixty eight of these packages (58%) include periodontal care. A minority of the companies (4) include periodontal care in all packages. Fifty two percent of the companies apply additional terms, which reduces the scope of the claims. In this paper it is concluded that a sufficient amount and diversity of insurance packages is present. Since patients may not know about the diversity, insufficient coverage of treatment costs may result. It is concluded that market elements are successful integrated in the field of dental insurance. It has to be shown in the future if this success will lead to an increase of dental and periodontal health of the patients.
Radentz, William H.; Caffesse, Raul G.
A survey of 58 dental school periodontics departments revealed the frequency of predoctoral dental students performing surgery, the frequency of specific procedures, the degree of participation or performance of students, incidence of preclinical surgical laboratories in the curricula, and materials and anesthesia used. A wide range in…
Gonzalez, Octavio A; Orraca, Luis; Kensler, Terry B; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Maldonado, Elizabeth; Ebersole, Jeffrey L
Substantial ongoing research continues to explore the contribution of genetics and environment to the onset, extent and severity of periodontal disease(s). Existing evidence supports that periodontal disease appears to have an increased prevalence in family units with a member having aggressive periodontitis. We have been using the nonhuman primate as a model of periodontal disease for over 25 years with these species demonstrating naturally occurring periodontal disease that increases with age. This report details our findings from evaluation of periodontal disease in skulls from 97 animals (5-31 years of age) derived from the skeletons of the rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. Periodontal disease was evaluated by determining the distance from the base of the alveolar bone defect to the cemento-enamel junction on 1st/2nd premolars and 1st/2nd molars from all four quadrants. The results demonstrated an increasing extent and severity of periodontitis with aging across the population of animals beyond only compensatory eruption. Importantly, irrespective of age, extensive heterogeneity in disease expression was observed among the animals. Linking these variations to multi-generational matriarchal family units supported familial susceptibility of periodontitis. As the current generations of animals that are descendants from these matrilines are alive, studies can be conducted to explore an array of underlying factors that could account for susceptibility or resistance to periodontal disease.
Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn
Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P < 0.01, periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P < 0.01). After completion of periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Adachi, Kyoichi; Mishiro, Tomoko; Tanaka, Shino; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu
Objective Metabolic syndrome and dental erosion have been demonstrated to correlate with gastroesophageal acid reflux disease (GERD), while periodontitis has been reported to have a positive relationship with metabolic syndrome. However, no correlation between periodontitis and GERD has yet been reported. We therefore investigated the relationship between periodontitis and GERD. Methods The subjects consisted of 280 individuals who visited the Health Center for a detailed medical checkup examination. Each underwent upper endoscopy and periodontitis examinations, with the latter performed by measuring the concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and hemoglobin in saliva. The subjects were divided into those with positive and negative periodontitis findings, and the prevalence rates of endoscopically proven reflux esophagitis, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia were compared. Results The number of subjects positive for periodontitis was 93, while 187 had negative findings. The prevalence of reflux esophagitis was not different between the positive and negative groups (8.6% vs. 8.0%). In addition, a multiple logistic regression analysis did not identify a positive relationship between the presence of periodontitis and reflux esophagitis. On the other hand, dyslipidemia and hypertension were more frequently observed in the subjects that were positive for periodontitis. Conclusion We did not find an association between periodontitis and reflux esophagitis in the present study. On the other hand, the presence of periodontitis was found to correlate with hypertension and dyslipidemia.
Rao, J; D'Silva, I
The periodontal status and treatment needs were assessed in 575 dentists between 20-64 years in some places of India. The Community periodontal Index of Treatment Needs was used. The influence of age, sex, educational qualifications and diet on periodontal treatment needs were analysed. The time that would be required to cater to the treatment requirement of the dentists examined was also calculated. Periodontal diseases was found to be highly prevalent (99.6%) but mostly of low to moderate periodontitis. The prevalence and severity and treatment needs increased with age. Among those who needed treatment 99.6% required Oral hygiene instructions and motivation, 70.6% required scaling and 1.7% required complex periodontal treatment. Periodontal treatment needs was less in females than males. Higher educational qualifications showed increased periodontal treatment needs. Diet did not have any significant influence on the periodontal treatment needs. The treatment time calculated was 821 hours of dental hygienists work and only 10 hours of specialists work. On the basis of this study, it can be said that if dentists do not believe in prevention themselves, they will lack the conviction and the enthusiasm necessary to support the development of a preventive programme so necessary in India where the magnitude of the periodontal problem is enormous and hence they will not be able to achieve the targets laid down by the IDA Workshop on "Oral Health for all by the year 2000 AD."
Sculean, Anton; Windisch, Péter; Döri, Ferenc; Keglevich, Tibor; Molnár, Balint; Gera, István
The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i.e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of the enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in the periodontal wound healing. Histological results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of the current overview is to present, based on the existing evidence, the clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD. Surgical periodontal treatment of deep intrabony defects with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. The application of EMD in the context of non-surgical periodontal therapy has failed to result in periodontal regeneration. Surgical periodontal therapy of deep intrabony defects with EMD may lead to significantly higher improvements of the clinical parameters than open flap debridement alone. The results obtained following treatment with EMD are comparable to those following treatment with GTR and can be maintained over a longer period. Treatment of intrabony defects with a combination of EMD + GTR does not seem to additionally improve the results compared to treatment with EMD alone or GTR alone. The combination of EMD and some types of bone grafts/bone substitutes may result in certain improvements in the soft and hard tissue parameters compared to treatment with EMD alone. Treatment of recession-type defects with coronally repositioned flaps and EMD may promote formation of cementum, periodontal ligament and bone, and may significantly increase the width of the keratinized tissue. Application of EMD seems to provide better long-term results than coronally repositioned flaps alone. Application of EMD may enhance periodontal regeneration in mandibular Class II
A review of the current scientific literature was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of minimally invasive periodontal regenerative surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects. The impact on clinical outcomes, surgical chair-time, side effects and patient morbidity were evaluated. An electronic search of PUBMED database from January 1987 to December 2011 was undertaken on dental journals using the key-word "minimally invasive surgery". Cohort studies, retrospective studies and randomized controlled clinical trials referring to treatment of periodontal defects with at least 6 months of follow-up were selected. Quality assessment of the selected studies was done through the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy Grading (SORT) System. Ten studies (1 retrospective, 5 cohorts and 4 RCTs) were included. All the studies consistently support the efficacy of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects in terms of clinical attachment level gain, probing pocket depth reduction and minimal gingival recession. Six studies reporting on side effects and patient morbidity consistently indicate very low levels of pain and discomfort during and after surgery resulting in a reduced intake of pain-killers and very limited interference with daily activities in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery might be considered a true reality in the field of periodontal regeneration. The observed clinical improvements are consistently associated with very limited morbidity to the patient during the surgical procedure as well as in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery, however, cannot be applied at all cases. A stepwise decisional algorithm should support clinicians in choosing the treatment approach.
Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung
Several studies have reported an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal diseases. However, a large-scale population-based cohort study was previously absent from the literature. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of periodontal diseases in patients with COPD in a nationwide population.From the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 22,332 patients with COPD who were newly diagnosed during 2000 to 2010. For each case, two individuals without COPD were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up till the end of 2011.The overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.19-fold greater in the COPD group than in the comparison group (32.2 vs 26.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.24). Compared with non-COPD patients, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD increased with the number of emergency room visits (from 1.14 [95% CI 1.10-1.19] to 5.09 [95% CI 4.53-5.72]) and admissions (from 1.15 [95% CI 1.10-1.20] to 3.17 [95% CI 2.81-3.57]). In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD treated with inhaled corticosteroids (1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34) and systemic corticosteroids (1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23) were significantly higher than those of patients not treated with corticosteroids.Patient with COPD are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases than the general population. Our results also support that the risk of periodontal diseases is proportional to COPD control. In addition, patients who receive corticosteroid treatment are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases.
Puig-Silla, Miriam; Dasí-Fernánde, Francisco; Montiel-Company, José-María
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the different fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in adult Spanish patients with chronic periodontitis, patients with gingivitis and periodontally healthy subjects, and the relationship between these genotypes and other periodontopathogenic bacteria. Study design: Samples of subgingival plaque were taken from 86 patients (33 with chronic periodontitis, 16 with gingivitis, and 37 periodontally healthy) in the course of a full periodontal examination. PCR was employed to determine the presence of the 6 fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis (I-V and Ib) and of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes II and Ib were present in significantly higher percentages in periodontal patients (39.4% and 12.1% respectively) than in healthy or gingivitis subjects. The prevalence of Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotype IV was significantly higher in the group that presented bleeding greater than 30%. A positive correlation was found between Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotype IV and Treponema denticola. Conclusions: A strong association between Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes II and Ib and chronic periodontitis exists in the Spanish population. The most prevalent genotype in periodontal patients is II. Key words:Periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, fimA genotype, periodontal bacteria, polymerase chain reaction. PMID:22549664
Soheilifar, Sara; Amiri, Iraj; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Hedayatipanah, Morad
Objectives: Stem cell (SC) therapy is a promising technique for tissue regeneration. This study aimed to compare the viability and proliferation ability of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) isolated from the periodontium of healthy and periodontitis-affected teeth to obtain an autologous, easily accessible source of SCs for tissue regeneration in periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: The PDLSCs were isolated from the roots of clinically healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes and periodontally involved teeth with hopeless prognosis (with and without phase I periodontal treatment). Cells were cultured and viability and proliferation ability of third passage cells in each group were evaluated using the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test. Results: No SCs could be obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth without phase I periodontal treatment. The viability of cells was 0.86±0.13 OD/540 in healthy group and 0.4±0.25 OD/540 in periodontitis-affected group (P=0.035). The proliferation ability (population doubling time) of cells obtained from healthy teeth was 4.22±1.23 hours. This value was 2.3±0.35 hours for those obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth (P=0.02). Conclusions: Viability and proliferation ability of cells isolated from the periodontium of healthy teeth were significantly greater than those of cells isolated from the periodontitis-affected teeth. PMID:28127319
During the application of orthodontic force to a tooth, the surrounding tissues undergo changes of bone resorption and apposition, thereby resulting in tooth movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between alveolar bone changes and the periodontal vascular network caused by extrusive orthodontic force using a scanning electron microscopy. Extrusive orthodontic force was applied to the mandibular 2nd and 3rd premolars of adult dogs. At the completion of the loading process, the inferior alveolar arteries were injected with a low viscosity MMA resin (Mercox). The following results were obtained. 1) At 3 days post-extrusion, various types of vascular network showing a loop pattern were seen along the direction of the tooth movement. 2) At 7 days post-extrusion, various types of vascular network with a hairpin loop pattern along the direction of the tooth movement were observed. Histologically, the fibers of periodontal ligament were stretched in the direction of the extrusion, Vascular hairpin loop formations were observed within the fibers of periodontal ligament. Bone apposition was not observed on the surface of alveolar bone. 3) At 14 days post-extrusion, a much more extensive and developed hairpin loop pattern occurred. Furthermore, new bone apposition was seen on the alveolar bone beneath under the hairpin loops. The periodontal ligament space was retained in the same width, even after bony apposition. 4) At 21 days post-extrusion, the tooth side microvascular network showed abundant low hairpin loops which anastomosed each other, and new spinous bony apposition was observed right below the periodontal vascular network. 5) At 30 days post-extrusion, the periodontal vascular network showed a almost normal appearance, with the rearrangement of vascular network. The surface of the spinous bony apposition became flat. The appositional bone had a lower degree of calcification than the alveolar bone in control group. 6) At 60 days
Shinwari, Muhammad Saad; Tanwir, Farzeen; Hyder, Pakiza Raza; Bin Saeed, Muhammad Humza
Host Modulation Therapy (HMT) is a treatment concept that reduces tissue destruction and stabilizes or even regenerates inflammatory tissue by modifying host response factors. It has been used for treating osteoporosis and arthritis for several decades. However, its use in dentistry has only been recently reported. The objective of this article is to present a review of the various literatures available on HMT and also its role as adjunct therapy in periodontics. For identifying studies for this review, a PUBMED search was carried out in 2013 for all articles published till December 2012. The search was restricted to English language publications only. Longitudinal prospective and retrospective studies were included in the search. The key words used were: Host Modulation Therapy; Sub antimicrobial dose doxycycline and Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy. The main outcomes sought were host modulation therapeutics in periodontics. Exclusion criteria included cross sectional studies, short case series as well as studies with short follow-up periods. There is a paucity of literature on HMT in periodontics although the only drug approved by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a subantimicrobial dose of doxycycline (SDD) with highly predictable results as a host modulating agent in periodontal diseases and also an effective adjunctive therapy in various diseases of periodontium. However, more randomized controlled trials are needed to obtain clinical guidelines on the usage of other host modulating agents as adjunct as well as definite therapy for periodontal diseases. SDD is an effective adjunct therapy when used in dosage of 20mg twice daily for minimum 3 months duration in various periodontal diseases with predictable clinical outcomes. It is also recommended that future clinical research on anti cytokine drugs, chemically modified tetracycline and other HMT agents should be conducted so that new drugs are available with highly predictable results.
Franzen, Tanya J; Brudvik, Pongsri; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska
Relapse after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is an undesirable outcome that involves a number of factors. This study investigated the remodelling of the alveolar bone and related periodontal structures during orthodontic relapse in rat molars. The maxillary right first molars of 35 Wistar rats were moved mesially by a fixed orthodontic appliance for 10 days and the contralateral molars served as controls. The appliances were removed and six animals killed. The molars were allowed to relapse, and the remaining animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days. The jaws were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). One day after appliance removal, the molars relapsed to a mean 62.5 per cent of the achieved OTM and then steadily relapsed to 86.1 per cent at 21 days. The number of osteoclasts situated along the alveolar bone of the first molars was highest at the end of active treatment and significantly decreased during the relapse period. In the OTM group, osteoclasts were most numerous in the pressure side of the periodontal ligament (PDL). As the molars relapsed over time, the osteoclast distribution shifted, and after 7 days of relapse, TRAP-positive cells were registered in previous pressure and tension sides of the first molars. After 21 days, these cells were concentrated in the distal parts of the PDL of all three maxillary right molars. These results indicate that orthodontic relapse in the rat model occurs rapidly and remodelling of the alveolar bone and PDL plays a central role in the relapse processes of both actively moved and adjacent teeth.
Arabaci, T; Ciçek, Y; Canakçi, C F
Periodontal therapy aims at arresting periodontal infection and maintaining a healthy periodontium. The periodic mechanical removal of subgingival microbial biofilms is essential for controlling inflammatory periodontal disease. Mechanical periodontal therapy consists of scaling, root planing and gingival curettage. The sonic and ultrasonic scalers are valuable tools in the prevention of periodontal disease. The vibration of scaler tips is the main effect to remove the deposits from the dental surface, such as bacterial plaque, calculus and endotoxin. However, constant flushing activity of the lavage used to cool the tips and cavitational activity result in disruption of the weak and unattached subgingival plaque. The aim of the study was to review the safety, efficacy, role and deleterious side-effects of sonic and ultrasonic scalers in mechanical periodontal therapy.
Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi
Mesenchymal stem cells can effectively regenerate destroyed periodontal tissue. Because periodontal tissues are complex, mesenchymal stem cells that can differentiate into many tissue types would aid periodontal tissue regeneration. Indeed, periodontal tissue regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue or bone marrow has been performed in experimental animal models, such as rat, canine, swine, and monkey. We have shown that rat periodontal tissue can be regenerated with adipose-derived stem cells. Adipose tissue contains a large number of stromal cells and is relatively easy to obtain in large quantities, and thus constitutes a very convenient stromal cell source. In this chapter, we introduce a rat periodontal tissue regeneration model using adipose-derived stem cells.
Radnai, M; Pál, A; Novák, T; Urbán, E; Eller, J; Gorzó, I
There is growing evidence that chronic periodontitis may be a risk factor for pre-term birth. The goal of this intervention study was to determine the effect of periodontal treatment on the pregnancy outcome in women with threatening pre-term birth and initial localized chronic periodontitis. Forty-one women with a singleton pregnancy were enrolled in the study. For this treatment group, oral hygiene instruction and periodontal therapy were provided in the third trimester, while those in the control group (42 persons) did not receive any periodontal treatment. In the treatment group, the mean weight of newborns was 3079.0 g, compared with the control group mean of 2602.4 g. The incidence of pre-term birth and low birthweight in the treatment group was significantly less than in the control group (p = 0.015). Periodontal treatment completed before the 35th week appeared to have a beneficial effect on birth weight and time of delivery.
Kanaparthy, Rosaiah; Kanaparthy, Aruna; Mahendra, Muktishree
Periodontal subgingival pathogens affect local and systemic immune and inflammatory response and cause the release of cytokines; this results in periodontal destruction and initiation of an acute phase systemic inflammatory response characterized by the release of C-reactive proteins (CRP). This study set out to evaluate the serum concentration of CRP that can be used as a marker of periodontal disease as well as a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease. Based on their periodontal status, 45 patients were divided into three groups. The following clinical parameters were recorded: plaque index, gingival index, bleeding index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment levels. Scoring was done on six tooth surfaces for all teeth. For the CRP assessment, blood samples were collected from subjects at the time of clinical examination. The results indicated an increase in serum CRP levels in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis as compared to controls.
Bassir, Seyed Hossein; Wisitrasameewong, Wichaya; Raanan, Justin; Ghaffarigarakani, Sasan; Chung, Jamie; Freire, Marcelo; Andrada, Luciano C.; Intini, Giuseppe
Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and are linked to several systemic diseases. The goal of periodontal treatment is to halt the progression of the disease and regenerate the damaged tissue. However, achieving complete and functional periodontal regeneration is challenging because the periodontium is a complex apparatus composed of different tissues, including bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament. Stem cell-based regenerative therapy may represent an effective therapeutic tool for periodontal regeneration due to their plasticity and ability to differentiate into different cell lineages. This review presents and critically analyzes the available information on stem cell-based therapy for the regeneration of periodontal tissues and suggests new avenues for the development of more effective therapeutic protocols. PMID:26058394
The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on periodontitis associated with systemic conditions. Patients affected by periodontal disease with concomitant systemic factors should be informed about the significance of the systemic condition(s) to the periodontal disease process. Patients should also be informed of the periodontal disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibilities in treatment. Consequences of no periodontal treatment should be explained. Failure to treat periodontitis appropriately can result in progressive loss of periodontal supporting tissues, an adverse change in prognosis, tooth loss, and compromise of the dentition. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.
Blicher, B; Joshipura, K; Eke, P
Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing many population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases, but has rarely been used for periodontal disease (chronic periodontitis). The availability of valid self-reported measures of periodontal disease would facilitate epidemiologic studies on a much larger scale, allow for integration of new studies of periodontal disease within large ongoing studies, and facilitate lower-cost population surveillance of periodontitis. Several studies have been conducted to validate self-reported measures for periodontal disease, but results have been inconsistent. In this report, we conducted a systematic review of the validation studies. We reviewed the 16 studies that assessed the validity of self-reported periodontal and gingivitis measures against clinical gold standards. Seven of the studies included self-reported measures specific to gingivitis, four included measures only for periodontitis, and five included both gingivitis and periodontal measures. Three of the studies used a self-assessment method where they provided the patient with a detailed manual for performing a self-exam. The remaining 13 studies asked participants to self-report symptoms, presence of periodontal disease itself, or their recollection of a dental health professional diagnosing them or providing treatment for periodontal disease. The review indicates that some measures showed promise, but results varied across populations and self-reported measures. One example of a good measure is, "Has any dentist/hygienist told you that you have deep pockets?", which had a sensitivity of 55%, a specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 77%, and negative predictive value of 75% against clinical pocket depth. Higher validity could be potentially obtained by the use of combinations of several self-reported questions and other predictors of periodontal disease.
Soejima, Hirofumi; Oe, Yoko; Nakayama, Hideki; Matsuo, Katsuhiko; Fukunaga, Takashi; Sugamura, Koichi; Kawano, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Seigo; Shinohara, Masanori; Izumi, Yuichi; Ogawa, Hisao
We performed periodontal examination and measured serum antibody levels against Prevotella intermedia in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Composite periodontal risk scores were significantly higher in the ACS group than in the coronary artery disease (CAD) group. Serum antibody levels were higher in the ACS group than in the CAD group and those were significantly correlated with the composite periodontal risk scores. These results provided important information about the status of P. intermedia infection in patients with ACS.
Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas
The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets.
Yao, Wenxin; Xu, Peicheng; Zhao, Jingjing; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Nengneng; Pang, Zhiqing
Long term retention of antimicrobials with effective drug concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is of vital importance for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. In this study, a novel epithelial cell-targeting nanoparticle drug delivery system by conjugating minocycline-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (NP-MIN) with RGD peptide were developed and administrated locally for targeting periodontitis epithelial cells and enhancing the treatment of periodontitis in dogs. Biodegradable NP-MIN was made with an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. RGD peptide was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via Maleimide group reaction with hydrosulfide in RGD peptide (RGD-NP-MIN). Transmission electron microscopy examination and dynamic light scattering results revealed that RGD-NP-MIN had a sphere shape, with a mean diameter around 106nm. In vitro release of minocycline from RGD-NP-MIN showed that RGD modification did not change the remarkable sustained releasing characteristic of NP-MIN. To elucidate the interaction of RGD-NP and epithelial cells, RGD-NP binding, uptake and cellular internalization mechanisms by calu-3 cells were investigated. It was shown RGD modification significantly enhanced nanoparticles binding and uptake by Calu-3 cells, and RGD-NP uptake was an energy-dependent process through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Both clathrin-associated endocytosis and caveolae-dependent endocytosis pathway were involved in the RGD-NP uptake, and the intracellular transport of RGD-NP was related to lysosome and Golgi apparatus. Finally, in vivo pharmacokinetics of minocycline in the periodontal pockets and anti-periodontitis effects of RGD-NP-MIN on periodontitis-bearing dogs were evaluated. After local administration of RGD-NP-MIN, minocycline concentration in gingival crevicular fluid decreased slowly and maintained an effective drug concentration for a longer time than that of NP-MIN. Anti-periodontitis effects
Naqvi, A.Z.; Hasturk, H.; Mu, L.; Phillips, R.S.; Davis, R.B.; Halem, S.; Campos, H.; Goodson, J.M.; Van Dyke, T.E.; Mukamal, K.J.
Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease initiated by bacteria, resulting in bone resorption, tooth loss, and systemic inflammation. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) reduce periodontitis in animals. We aimed to determine whether DHA supplementation with low-dose aspirin would reduce periodontitis in humans. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel trial lasting 3 mo. Fifty-five adults with moderate periodontitis were randomized to 2,000 mg of DHA or identical soy/corn oil capsules. All participants received 81 mg of aspirin but received no other treatments. We analyzed the primary outcome of per-pocket change in pocket depth using mixed models among teeth with pocket depth ≥5 mm. Secondary outcomes assessed with generalized estimating equations included gingival index, plaque index, and bleeding on probing. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were analyzed for changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukins 6 and 1β (IL-6 and IL-1β). Plasma was analyzed for changes in systemic inflammatory markers, including hsCRP. We confirmed adherence with erythrocyte fatty acid measurement. Forty-six participants completed the trial. While similar at baseline, the proportion of DHA in red blood cell plasma membranes increased from 3.6% ± 0.9% to 6.2% ± 1.6% in the intervention group but did not change among controls. DHA supplementation decreased mean pocket depth (–0.29 ± 0.13; p = .03) and gingival index (–0.26 ± 0.13; p = .04). Plaque index and bleeding on probing did not change. Significant adjusted differences were found between DHA and control for both gingival crevicular fluid hsCRP (–5.3 ng/mL, standard error [SE] = 2.4, p = .03) and IL-1β (–20.1 pg/mL, SE = 8.2, p = .02) but not IL-6 (0.02 pg/mL, SE = 0.71, p = .98) or systemic hsCRP (–1.19 mg/L, SE = 0.90, p = .20). In this randomized controlled trial, aspirin-triggered DHA supplementation significantly improved
Resende, Marta; Pinto, Elisabete; Pinto, Miguel; Montenegro, Nuno
Preterm delivery is associated with high mortality and morbility perinatal, being the costs dispended by the family and the National Health System with preterm newborns extremely high. However, it has been difficult to reduce its incidence due to the various factors involved. There is scientific evidence which support the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm delivery. There is also evidence of tobacco as a risk factor for periodontal disease, even though the relationship with preterm delivery is not yet clear. The aims of our study were to evaluate, in women in a post-partum period, dental and periodontal status as well as the exposure to tobacco and to establish the relationship between these two factors with preterm delivery. We performed a case control study with 237 parturient women from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Hospital S. João, E.P.E., during the first 48 hours after birth. A total of 86 gave birth at a gestational age under 37 weeks (case group ) and 151 gave birth to term newborns with birthweight equal or superior 2500 g (control group). The prevalence of some indicators of periodontal disease in the studied population was extremely high, namely gingival inflammation and gingival recession, and more of 30% had values of probing depth equal or higher than 4 mm significantly. Based on these periodontal indicators, only the presence of recession in more than two teeth seems to increase the risk of preterm delivery in fivefold (OR = 5,28; IC95%: 1,63-17,04). There is a statistically significant association between probing depth equal or higher than 4mm and smoking during pregnancy. This association might be relevant because 20% of preterm newborns mothers smoked during pregnancy and the proportion that stopped smoking during pregnancy in this group of mothers was almost half of the number of the control group. Therefore it is necessary to embody the information about this thematic in the health education, not only in
Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Chambrone, Leandro; Foz, Adriana Moura; Artese, Hilana Paula Carillo; Rabelo, Mariana de Sousa; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre
Background To date, there is no compilation of evidence-based information associating bacteremia and periodontal procedures. This systematic review aims to assess magnitude, duration, prevalence and nature of bacteremia caused by periodontal procedures. Study Design Systematic Review Types of Studies Reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases were searched in duplicate through August, 2013 without language restriction. Observational studies were included if blood samples were collected before, during or after periodontal procedures of patients with periodontitis. The methodological quality was assessed in duplicate using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Results Search strategy identified 509 potentially eligible articles and nine were included. Only four studies demonstrated high methodological quality, whereas five were of medium or low methodological quality. The study characteristics were considered too heterogeneous to conduct a meta-analysis. Among 219 analyzed patients, 106 (49.4%) had positive bacteremia. More frequent bacteria were S. viridans, A. actinomycetemcomitans P. gingivalis, M. micros and species Streptococcus and Actinomyces, although identification methods of microbiologic assays were different among studies. Clinical Implications Although half of the patients presented positive bacteremia after periodontal procedures, accurate results regarding the magnitude, duration and nature of bacteremia could not be confidentially assessed. PMID:24870125
Li, Chenghua; Wang, Xinwen; Tan, Jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Qintao
Periodontitis is currently the main cause of tooth loss and as yet there is no appropriate method for establishing a functional and predictable periodontal regeneration. Tissue engineering involving seed cells provides a new prospect for periodontal regeneration. While periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are a good choice for seed cells, it is not always possible to obtain the patients' own PDLSCs. We and others have found a type of stromal cells from inflamed periodontal granulation. These cells displayed similar differentiation properties to PDLSCs. Inflammation has a profound influence on the immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells, which may affect therapeutic outcome. In this study, we assessed the immunomodulatory characteristics of these inflamed human (ih)PDLSCs. Along with the similarity in cell surface marker expressions, they also displayed immunomodulatory properties comparable to those in healthy human (hh)PDLSCs. Both hhPDLSCs and ihPDLSCs can suppress the proliferation and secretion of IFN-γ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by indirect soluble mediators and direct cell-cell contact. Albeit with some quantitative variances, the gene expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthases, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-α-induced protein 6 and IL-10 in ihPDLSCs displayed similar patterns as those in hhPDLSCs. Taken together, our results suggest that ihPDLSCs can provide a promising alternative to hhPDLSCs in terms of evident similarities in immunomodulatory properties as well as their easier accessibility and availability.
Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren
The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction. PMID:26038666
Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren
The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction.
Khosravi Samani, Mahmoud; Jalali, Farzad; Seyyed Ahadi, Seyyed Masud; Hoseini, Seyyed Reza; Dabbagh Sattari, Farhad
Background: Periodontitis is common in adults and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of adult death in the world. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CVD and periodontitis. Methods: Sixty patients with myocardial infarction (MI) as case and 63 subjects with periodontitis without MI as control were studied. Periodontitis was assessed according to Ramfjord periodontal diseases index and the number of missing teeth besides classic risk factors of MI were recorded. Results: The patients who lost more than 10 teeth were at more risk of myocardial infarction (OR=2.73). There was a significant relationship between mean attachment loss and MI (p=0.0001). There was also a relation between attachment loss more than 3 mm and MI with OR of 4. Significant difference between mean PDI (periodontal disease index) was seen in case and control groups (p=0.0001). Subjects with PDI>4 were at more risk of periodontal diseases (OR=7.87). Conclusion: The results show the presence of significant relation between periodontitis and MI which could serve as an alarm to treat periodontitis carefully. PMID:24009957
Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T
Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25857702
Orekhova, L Yu; Neizberg, D M; Demchenko, T V; Artem'ev, N A; Loboda, E S
The aim of the study was to analyze research methods for periodontitis severity and elaborate the most effective diagnostic combination. Twenty patients with moderate periodontal disease were included in the study. In addition to conventional diagnostic methods depth of periodontal pockets (PP) was measured by means of endoscopic system and cone bean CT. Differences in PP depth estimated by probing and endoscopic evaluation was 1.2±0.4 mm proving endoscopic method to be useful and most precise tool for periodontal diagnostics.
Fuentes, L; Yakob, M; Wong, D T W
The field of salivary diagnostics to allow risk determination for periodontal diseases is advancing. New technologies in proteomics, genomics and nanotechnologies have continued the discovery of discriminatory periodontal disease biomarkers. This review briefly overviews biomarker studies that have been completed in saliva for the detection of periodontal disease since 2010. Disease specific biomarkers could be used in risk determination, treatment planning and disease progression. Currently, diagnostic tests are commercially available, and the development of point-of-care tests is expanding. Even though challenges remain, salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease is promising and could facilitate the diagnostics and treatment in a clinical practice by dental practitioners.
Loos, Bruno G; Papantonopoulos, Georgios; Jepsen, Søren; Laine, Marja L
This review addresses the multicausal etiology of periodontitis, in which genetic factors play a role. The various proposed causes for periodontitis always work simultaneously, but the relative contribution of each of these varies from case to case. We are still at an early stage to identify the genes involved, in comparison with other chronic diseases. To date, the genetic variations firmly and repeatedly associated with periodontitis in some populations are found within the following genes: ANRIL, COX2, IL1, IL10, DEFB1, whereas many other proposed periodontitis candidate genes have not been firmly proven or replicated.
Mohd Dom, Tuti Ningseh; Ayob, Rasidah; Abd Muttalib, Khairiyah; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit) using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010) data to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and 2010 national census data to estimate the adult population at risk for periodontitis. Results. The economic burden of managing all cases of periodontitis at the national level from the societal perspective was approximately MYR 32.5 billion, accounting for 3.83% of the 2012 Gross Domestic Product of the country. It would cost the nation MYR 18.3 billion to treat patients with moderate periodontitis and MYR 13.7 billion to treat patients with severe periodontitis. Conclusion. The economic burden of periodontitis in Malaysia is substantial and comparable with that of other chronic diseases in the country. This is attributable to its high prevalence and high cost of treatment. Judicious application of promotive, preventive, and curative approaches to periodontitis management is decidedly warranted.
Eke, Paul I; Genco, Robert J
This supplement contains papers presented at the 2006 International Association of Dental Research (IADR) symposium entitled "Development of Self-Reported Measures for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis." These papers highlight activities of an independent periodontal disease surveillance workgroup convened by the Division of Oral Health (DOH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology, to examine the feasibility of using self-reported measures for population-based surveillance of periodontal disease in the United States. This workgroup was convened in 2003 as part of a CDC periodontal disease surveillance project.
Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhao, Yu-Ming; Lin, Bi-Chen; Yang, Jie; Ge, Li-Hong
Periodontal diseases, which are characterized by destruction of the connective tissues responsible for restraining the teeth within the jaw, are the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontal regeneration mediated by human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) may offer an alternative strategy for the treatment of periodontal disease. Dogs are a widely used large-animal model for the study of periodontal-disease progression, tissue regeneration, and dental implants, but little attention has been paid to the identification of the cells involved in this species. This study aimed to characterize stem cells isolated from canine periodontal ligament (cPDLSCs). The cPDLSCs, like hPDLSCs, showed clonogenic capability and expressed the mesenchymal stem cell markers STRO-1, CD146, and CD105, but not CD34. After induction of osteogenesis, cPDLSCs showed calcium accumulation in vitro. Moreover, cPDLSCs also showed both adipogenic and chondrogenic potential. Compared with cell-free controls, more cementum/periodontal ligament-like structures were observed in CB-17/SCID mice into which cPDLSCs had been transplanted. These results suggest that cPDLSCs are clonogenic, highly proliferative, and have multidifferentiation potential, and that they could be used as a new cellular therapeutic approach to facilitate successful and more predictable regeneration of periodontal tissue using a canine model of periodontal disease.
Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Jia, Ru; Cai, Yu; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Masafumi
Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent disorder affecting up to 80% of the global population. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, as oxidative stress plays an important role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms by which periodontopathic bacteria cause chronic inflammation through the enhancement of oxidative stress and accelerate cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we comment on the antioxidative activity of catechin in atherosclerosis accelerated by periodontitis. PMID:26783845
Zhou, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenyi; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Yiming
Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis are both common, chronic diseases. It is generally accepted that the inter-relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis is a two-way relationship, i.e. the presence of one condition tends to increases the risk and severity of the other, and vice versa. Mechanisms for this two-way relationship are largely unknown. Hyperlipidemia is a group of disorders characterized by an excess of lipids in the bloodstream. Hyperlipidemia increases the risk of diabetes and peridontitis. On the other hand, diabetes and periodontitis could result in hyperlipidemia. The purposes of this review were: (1) examine the two-way relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis; (2) discuss the potential synergistic interactions of hyperlipidemia to both diabetes mellitus and periodontitis; and (3) explore the mechanisms through which hyperlipidemia affects the development of both diseases. The effects of hyperlipidemia on insulin secretion and pro-inflammatory cytokines production (TNF-α, IL-1β) play an important role on the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontitis. A model is proposed suggesting the important role of hyperlipidemia in the two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis. As our understanding of the inter-relationship expands between hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and periodontitis, therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting hyperlipidemia should be advocated for the clinical management of diabetes and periodontitis.
Bhola, Monish; Cabanilla, Leyvee; Kolhatkar, Shilpa
ABSTRACT The role of occlusion in periodontal disease has always been a challenging topic. A good understanding of the current status of the relationship of occlusion and periodontitis is of paramount importance in order for dental clinicians to provide adequate and comprehensive periodontal treatment in patients presenting with traumatic occlusion. This article reviews the literature regarding the relationship between occlusion and periodontitis and presents recommendations for clinical practice based on available evidence. Clinical cases illustrating the complexity of this relationship and their management are presented.
Polson, A M
A series of studies has investigated interactions between periodontal trauma and marginal periodontitis in relation to the initiation, progression and treatment of periodontal disease. Lesions of trauma in the periodontal ligament do not initiate the loss of connective tissue attachment characteristic of marginal periodontitis. Studies conducted in squirrel monkeys and beagle dogs in which jiggling forces were superimposed upon an established marginal periodontitis reported increased loss of alveolar bone, but the accelerated loss of attachment which occurred in the dog model did not occur in the monkey model. In order to clarify the relative importance of inflammation and tooth mobility in the treatment of advanced periodontal disease, periodontal responses were evaluated after removing combinations of traumatic and inflammatory components. Elimination of trauma in the presence of existing marginal inflammation did not reduce tooth mobility or increase bone volume. Osseous regeneration and decreased tooth mobility occurred after resolving both components; however, similar findings occurred after resolving inflammation in the presence of continued tooth mobility. After resolution of inflammation, remaining tooth mobility does not result in increased loss of connective tissue attachment. On a clinical level for periodontal disease treatment, the findings place decreased emphasis upon management of tooth mobility and increased emphasis upon resolution of marginal inflammation.
Matarasso, S; Cafiero, C; Bizzarri, L; Nicolò, M
Having described the morphological and functional characteristics of phagocytic cells, the paper underlines that, in addition to the etiological responsibility of bacterial plaque, the main role in the onset and evolution of periodontitis is played by the host's response. Phagocytic response plays a fundamental role in the host's defence reaction and represents the first barrier to the penetration of bacteria into periodontal tissue. In addition to their defensive role, phagocytic cells may also be responsible for damage to periodontal tissue as a collateral effect of their phagocytic function, thus worsening the periodontal lesion.
Novak, M John; Donley, Timothy G
Periodontal disease is the result of a complex interaction between microbial plaque, the host's inflammatory response to the plaque, and host modifying factors (e.g., smoking, diabetes, genetics) that may have an impact on the disease process. It is known that plaque initiates periodontal disease but that the host response is responsible for the destruction of periodontal tissues. This article describes why host response modifiers may be used to help control inflammation and tissue destruction as part of the initial phase of periodontal therapy in selected patient groups.
The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on the treatment of acute periodontal diseases. Patients should be informed about the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. Failure to treat acute periodontal diseases appropriately can result in progressive loss of periodontal supporting tissues, an adverse change in prognosis, and could result in tooth loss. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.
The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on the treatment of aggressive periodontitis. Patients should be informed of the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. Failure to treat aggressive periodontitis appropriately can result in progressive and often rapid loss of periodontal supporting tissues. This may have an adverse effect upon prognosis and could result in tooth loss. Given this information, patients (or their parents or guardians, as appropriate) should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.
Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T
Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
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Ummadisetty, Teja; Chava, Vijay Kumar; Bhumanapalli, Venkata Ramesh Reddy
Aim: The study aimed to assess the levels of awareness about the mutual relationship between diabetes and periodontitis among high-risk age group of the general population and to assess the attitude of general physicians in suggesting diabetic patients to visit a dentist. Materials and Methods: A structured, closed-ended questionnaire either in English or in local language (Telugu) was distributed and collected from 203 patients who were willing to participate in the study attending the Department of Periodontics, Narayana Dental College & Hospital, Nellore, AP. Data were statistically analyzed and represented in percentages and number. Results: Only 49.8% of the sample population knew about the mutual relationship between diabetes and periodontitis and only 46% of the diabetic study population was suggested to visit a dentist by the physician. Conclusion: There is an insufficient knowledge among the diabetic population regarding the mutual relationship. Only few physicians have suggested their diabetic patients to visit a dentist. As diabetic patients tend to visit a physician earlier than a dentist, it is their responsibility to educate and motivate their patients to seek dental treatment. PMID:28298834
Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K.; Chava, Vijay K.
Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chronic diseases like periodontal disease. Studies have demonstrated that the type of processing mainly effects the concentration of catechins. Several epidemiological studies have proved that green tea also has some general health benefitting properties like antihypertensive, reduction of cardiovascular risk, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. The present review concentrates on the effects of green tea in periodontal and general health. PMID:21772716
Companion, John A. (Inventor)
This invention relates to a periodontal structure mapping system employing a dental handpiece containing first and second acoustic sensors for locating the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) and measuring the differential depth between the CEJ and the bottom of the periodontal pocket. Measurements are taken at multiple locations on each tooth of a patient, observed, analyzed by an optical analysis subsystem, and archived by a data storage system for subsequent study and comparison with previous and subsequent measurements. Ultrasonic transducers for the first and second acoustic sensors are contained within the handpiece and in connection with a control computer. Pressurized water is provided for the depth measurement sensor and a linearly movable probe sensor serves as the sensor for the CEJ finder. The linear movement of the CEJ sensor is obtained by a control computer actuated by the prober. In an alternate embodiment, the CEJ probe is an optical fiber sensor with appropriate analysis structure provided therefor.
Carta, G; Persia, G; Falciglia, K; Iovenitti, P
Maternal infective processes sustained especially by Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria like periodontal disease, during pregnancy, have been demonstrated to perturb the physiologic course of parturition through inflammatory cytokine production, sometimes resulting in preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm low birth weight. In a matched case-control study, the hypothesis that poor oral health of pregnant women is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW) was evaluated. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of PGE2 and IL-1beta were measured in order to determine whether mediator levels were related to current pregnancy outcome. Results indicate that GCF-PGE2 and GCF-IL-1beta levels are significantly higher in preterm low birth weight (PLBW) mothers as compared with normal birth weight controls. The data confirm that there is a possible correlation between periodontal problems typical of pregnancy and the occurrence of complications such as preterm low birth weight.
Bains, Vivek K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm
Ultrasound offers great potential in development of a noninvasive periodontal assessment tool that would offer great yield real time information, regarding clinical features such as pocket depth, attachment level, tissue thickness, histological change, calculus, bone morphology, as well as evaluation of tooth structure for fracture cracks. In therapeutics, ultrasonic instrumentation is proven effective and efficient in treating periodontal disease. When used properly, ultrasound-based instrument is kind to the soft tissues, require less healing time, and are less tiring for the operator. Microultrasonic instruments have been developed with the aim of improving root-surface debridement. The dye/paper method of mapping ultrasound fields demonstrated cavitational activity in an ultrasonic cleaning bath. Piezosurgery resulted in more favorable osseous repair and remodeling in comparison with carbide and diamond burs. The effect of ultrasound is not limited to fracture healing, but that bone healing after osteotomy or osteodistraction could be stimulated as well. PMID:20142946
As the population ages and life expectancy increases, clinicians today find themselves in the wake of an ever-growing demand for high-quality aesthetic dental treatment, by increasingly informed patients. The long-term success of both cosmetic and restorative dentistry is dependent on well designed restorations and the health of the periodontal tissues. Overhanging restorations, full crown restorations with poor marginal fit, and implant-supported prosthetics with inadequate hygiene access all increase the risk for periodontal sequelae and interproximal caries. When planning restorative treatment, consideration should be given to the restorative design, the need for hygiene access and the location of intended implants. In addition, the patient's manual dexterity and ability to manipulate oral hygiene aids is a crucial consideration, as is adequate access for the hygienist to manually debride and maintain the restorations.
Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha
Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit.
Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha
Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855
Komiya-Ito, Akiyo; Tomita, Sachiyo; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yoshihiro; Tsunoda, Masatake; Saito, Atsushi
We report a case involving a 12-year follow-up after treatment for chronic periodontitis with furcation involvement. A 54-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of hypersensitivity. Clinical examination at the first visit revealed 15% of sites with a probing depth ≥4 mm and 35% of sites with bleeding on probing. Initial periodontal therapy was implemented based on a clinical diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis. Surgical periodontal therapy was subsequently performed at selected sites. For #44, regenerative periodontal therapy using enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain(®)) was selected. For #16, which exhibited a 2- to 3-wall vertical bony defect and class III (mesio-distal) furcation involvement, bone graft was scheduled. Other sites with residual periodontal pockets were treated by open flap debridement. For #37, with a gutter-shaped root, odontoplasty was performed. After reevaluation, the patient was placed on supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). During 12 years of SPT, the periodontal condition remained uneventful in most of the teeth. However, bone resorption was observed in the distal aspect of #37, making the prognosis poor. This indicates the need to continuously monitor risk factors, including inflammation and traumatic occlusion, during SPT. Although some problems still remain, severe periodontitis with furcation involvement was successfully maintained longitudinally with an adequate level of patient compliance and careful SPT.
Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Cyrino, Renata Magalhães; Lages, Eugênio José Pereira
Background and Objective Prospective studies that investigated the influence of surgical and nonsurgical procedures in the recurrence of periodontitis and tooth loss in periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) programs have not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate longitudinally the recurrence of periodontitis in regular compliers (RC) and irregular compliers (IC) individuals undergoing surgical and non-surgical procedures over 5 years in a program of PMT. Materials and Methods A total of 212 individuals participated in this study. Full-mouth periodontal examination including bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were determined at all PMT visits over 5 years. The recurrence of periodontitis was evaluated in RC and IC individuals undergoing surgical and non-surgical procedures in PMT. The influences of risk variables of interest were tested through univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results Recurrence of periodontitis was significantly lower among RC when compared to IC. Individuals with recurrence of periodontitis and undergoing surgical procedures showed higher probing depth and clinical attachment loss than those who received non-surgical procedures. Recurrence of periodontitis was higher in individual undergoing surgical procedures and irregular compliance during PMT. Conclusions Irregular compliance and surgical procedures in individuals undergoing PMT presented higher rates of recurrence of periodontitis when compared to regular compliant patients undergoing non-surgical procedures. PMID:26496187
Koole, Sebastiaan; Thevissen, Eric; Lindén, Ulf; Klinge, Björn; de Bruyn, Hugo
A case-based approach was used in a two-day periodontal continuing professional development course as a strategy to stimulate active learning. The present study investigates the outcome of this course format in terms of feasibility, perceived efficiency as a learning approach and reported individual learning goals. The study was performed in five identical courses entitled'risk analysis and treatment in periodontal patients'at Malmö University between 2011-2014. Before the course, clinical cases were used to activate participants' prior knowledge and to attune their focus on the course content. During the course, cases were discussed to synchronise theory with practical application. A pre- and end-course questionnaire were developed to evaluate participants' characteristics (age, clinical expertise, experience and expectations), perceptions on feasibility and instructiveness and emerged individual learning goals. The participants (39 dentists and 78 dental hygienists) reported an average preparation time of 62 minutes (range 2-190) and had positive perceptions on the accessibility, instructiveness and difficulty of cases. Expectations ranged between refreshing, acquiring new knowledge and mastering the course subject. Most reported learning goals were related to daily clinical practice including the development of a treatment plan, when to continue non-surgical treatment or to extract teeth/perform surgery, the approach to periodontitis, how to motivate non-compliant patients and when to refer. Conclusion: The use of clinical cases to stimulate active learning in a short-term continuing professional development periodontal course was positively perceived by the dentists and dental hygienists in terms of feasibility and learning potential.
Sanghani, Nehal N; S, Savita
Objectives: This study was aimed at the clinical and microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of subgingivally delivered Indian propolis extract as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis presenting a minimum of two pockets (probing depth ≥5 mm) were selected. Sites were assigned randomly into control sites (n=20) which received SRP alone or test sites (n=20) which received SRP and locally delivered propolis. At selected sites, the clinical parameters were assessed and subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline, 15 days and one month. The samples were cultured anerobically for periodontal pathogens. Results: The results indicated that there was a significant improvement in both clinical and microbiological parameters (p<0.01) in the test sites compared to the control sites at the end of the study. Conclusion: Subgingival delivery of propolis showed promising results as an adjunct to SRP in patients with chronic periodontitis when assessed by clinical and microbiological parameters. PMID:25386520
Emani, Shilpa; Thomas, Raison; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom Singh
Background: The present cross-sectional survey study was conducted to assess whether the transtheoretical model for oral hygiene behavior was interrelated in theoretically consistent directions in chronic periodontitis patients and its applicability to assess the compliance of the chronic periodontitis patients to the treatment suggested. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 chronic periodontitis patients were selected for the proposed study. The selected patients were given four questionnaires that were constructed based on transtheoretical model (TTM), and the patients were divided subsequently into five different groups (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance groups) based on their answers to the questionnaires. Then, each patient was given four appointments for their periodontal treatment spaced with a time gap of 10 days. The patients visit for each appointments scheduled to them was documented. The results obtained were assessed using TTM. Results: Higher mean pro scores of decisional balance, self-efficacy, and process of change scores was recorded in maintenance group followed by action group, preparation group, contemplation group, and precontemplation group, respectively, whereas higher mean cons score was recorded in precontemplation group followed by contemplation group, preparation group, action group, and maintenance group, respectively. The difference scores of TTM constructs were statistically highly significant between all the five groups. Furthermore, the number of appointment attended in were significantly more than maintenance group followed by action group, preparation group, contemplation group, and precontemplation group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that transtheoretical model can be successfully applied to chronic periodontitis patients to assess their compliance to the suggested periodontal treatment. PMID:27307663
Okui, Takafumi; Ito, Harue; Nakajima, Mayuka; Honda, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Yasuko; Tabeta, Koichi; Akazawa, Kohei
Sitafloxacin (STFX) is a newly developed quinolone that has robust antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic bacteria. We previously reported that oral administration of STFX during supportive periodontal therapy was as effective as conventional mechanical debridement under local anesthesia microbiologically and clinically for 3 months. The aim of the present study was to examine the short-term and long-term microbiological and clinical effects of systemic STFX and azithromycin (AZM) on active periodontal pockets during supportive periodontal therapy. Fifty-one patients receiving supportive periodontal therapy were randomly allocated to the STFX group (200 mg/day of STFX for 5 days) or the AZM group (500 mg/day of AZM for 3 days). The microbiological and clinical parameters were examined until 12 months after the systemic administration of each drug. The concentration of each drug in periodontal pockets and the antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates were also analyzed. The proportions of red complex bacteria, i.e., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, which are the representative periodontopathic bacteria, were significantly reduced at 1 month and remained lower at 12 months than those at baseline in both the STFX and AZM groups. Clinical parameters were significantly improved over the 12-month period in both groups. An increase in the MIC of AZM against clinical isolates was observed in the AZM group. These results indicate that monotherapy with systemic STFX and AZM might be an alternative treatment during supportive periodontal therapy in patients for whom invasive mechanical treatment is inappropriate. (This study has been registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network-Clinical Trials Registry [UMIN-CTR] under registration number UMIN000007834.) PMID:26729495
José Ricardo Kina; Yumi Umeda Suzuki, Thaís; Fumico Umeda Kina, Eunice; Kina, Juliana; Kina, Mônica
Background: Non-Inflammatory Destructive Periodontal Disease (NIDPD), is a severe destructive periodontal disease, that is characterized by the attachment loss and alveolar bone loss, without signs of the gingival inflammation, and the periodontal pocket development. Objective: Despite the fact that various cases of NIDPD have been reported; their etiology and disease evolution is still indefinite, and therefore, are open for discussion. Method: An NIDPD case was studied in order to demonstrate features of the disease, and discuss the possible etiology and treatment. Results: In this clinical case, the etiology of NIDPD seems to be an association of endogenous opportunist bacteria with anatomical aspects, occlusion pattern, emotional stress and mouth breathing condition. Conclusion: In spite of all cases described in the literature are comparable and may have similar etiology as related in this clinical case, additional research is needed to identify and clarify the role of the etiologic factors which determine the disease. PMID:27053968
Hermann, Péter; Borbély, Judit; Gera, István; Fejérdy, Pál; Soós, Borbála; Madléna, Melinda
In this study, risk determinants were assessed for periodontal disease in the oral health survey of a representative Hungarian adult population sample. 4153 individuals participated in the study after formal consent. Participants were questionned on level of education, dental office attendance, smoking habits, oral hygiene habits and general health conditions. Quality of fixed partial dentures (FPD) were evaluated. Periodontal health status was assessed with the CPI method according to WHO criteria. When the prevalence of CPI scores was assessed by educational level, significant differences were found between groups. With increasing levels of education, a significantly higher percentage of subjects visited the dental office regularly. Higher prevalence of CPI 0 was found among those with higher level of education but there was also high prevalence of CPI 2, representing bad oral hygiene in the highly educated group. Findings of our study showed high percentage (66%) of the population attending the dental office only in case of emergency. The investigation revealed destructive effect of unsatisfactory construction of FPD on the periodontium. Healthy periodontium (CPI 0) was found among 16% of those wearing no FPD and 9% among FPD-wearers. The prevalence of deep periodontal pockets (CPI 4) was 1,6 times higher among smokers as non-smokers. Oral health statistics play an important role in planning for improvement of dental health care. Hungary needs effective prevention programs and emphasize on regular dental office attendance of individuals to improve the nation's oral health status.
Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh
Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Periodontal disease is a chronic disease of the oral cavity comprising a group of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. In the field of periodontology, traditional clinical criteria are often insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Saliva, as a mirror of oral and systemic health, is a valuable source for clinically relevant information because it contains biomarkers specific for the unique physiologic aspects of periodontal diseases. This review highlights the various potentials of saliva as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal diseases. PMID:22368352
Kantaputra, Piranit Nik; Bongkochwilawan, Chotika; Lubinsky, Mark; Pata, Supansa; Kaewgahya, Massupa; Tong, Huei Jinn; Ketudat Cairns, James R; Guven, Yeliz; Chaisrisookumporn, Nipon
Enamel-renal-gingival syndrome (ERGS; OMIM #204690), a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in FAM20A, is characterized by nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, amelogenesis imperfecta, hypoplastic type, gingival fibromatosis and other dental abnormalities, including hypodontia and unerupted teeth with large dental follicles. We report three patients and their families with findings suggestive of ERGS. Mutation analysis of FAM20A was performed in all patients and their family members. Patients with homozygous frameshift and compound heterozygous mutations in FAM20A had typical clinical findings along with periodontitis. The other had a novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 10, mild gingival fibromatosis and renal calcifications. The periodontitis in our patients may be a syndrome component, and similar findings in previous reports suggest more than coincidence. Fam20a is an allosteric activator that increases Fam20c kinase activity. It is hypothesized that lack of FAM20A activation of FAM20C in our patients with FAM20A mutations might have caused amelogenesis imperfecta, abnormal bone remodeling and periodontitis. Nephrocalcinosis appears not to be a consistent finding of the syndrome and the missense mutation may correlate with mild gingival fibromatosis. Here we report three patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in FAM20A and findings that extend the phenotypic spectrum of this disorder, showing that protein truncation is associated with greater clinical severity.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 16 March 2017; doi:10.1038/jhg.2017.26.
Ram, V Shankar; Parthiban; Sudhakar, Uma; Mithradas, Nimisha; Prabhakar, Ramachandra
Periodontitis, is an inflammatory state of the tooth supporting structures and if left untreated, the disease continues to progressive bone destruction and subsequent tooth loss. The increasing prevelance of periodontal disease paved way to the development of new diagnostic tests that could detect the presence of active disease,the course of the disease and its response to treatment. Bone is a metabolically active tissue and undergo continuous remodelling, a process that largely relies on the activity of osteoclasts to remove bone and of osteoblasts to form bone. In health ,bone resorption and formation are coupled to each other and its long term maintenance of skeletal balance is brought about by the systemic hormones and local mediators.In contrasts,during disease there is a pronounced in balance in bone turnover. Bone biomarkers which are produced either in health or in disease state are tell tale markers which would be used to monitor the health status. This review highlights, the recent advances in the use of biomarkers of bone remodelling,that could facilitate the screening, diagnosis and management of periodontal diseases.
Adachi, Makoto; Kiho, Kazuki; Sekine, Genta; Ohta, Takahisa; Matsubara, Makoto; Yoshida, Takakazu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Sumitomo, Shinichiro
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare. IMTs of the head and neck occur in all age groups, from neonates to old age, with the highest incidence occurring in childhood and early adulthood. An IMT has been defined as a histologically distinctive lesion of uncertain behavior. This article describes an unusual case of IMT mimicking apical periodontitis in the mandible of a 42-year-old man. At first presentation, the patient showed spontaneous pain and percussion pain at teeth #28 to 30, which continued after initial endodontic treatment. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion at the site. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging showed osteolytic lesions, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm requiring incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination indicated an IMT. The lesion was removed en bloc under general anesthesia, and the patient manifested no clinical evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Lesions of nonendodontic origin should be included in the differential diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Every available diagnostic tool should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging is very helpful for differential diagnosis in IMTs mimicking apical periodontitis.
Feghali, Karine; Feldman, Mark; La, Vu Dang; Santos, Juliana; Grenier, Daniel
Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) is known to have a beneficial effect on several aspects of human health. Proanthocyanidins (PACs), the most abundant flavonoids extracted from red cranberry fruits, have been reported to possess antimicrobial, antiadhesion, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent in vitro studies have shown that cranberry PACs may be potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and management of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin affecting tooth-supporting tissues. After presenting an overview of cranberry phytochemicals and their potential for human health benefits, this review will focus on the effects of cranberry PACs on connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone destruction, as well as their potential for controlling periodontal diseases. Possible mechanisms of action of cranberry PACs include the inhibition of (i) bacterial and host-derived proteolytic enzymes, (ii) host inflammatory response, and (iii) osteoclast differentiation and activity. Given that cranberry PACs have shown interesting properties in in vitro studies, clinical trials are warranted to better evaluate the potential of these molecules for controlling periodontal diseases.
Wang, Xingxing; Han, Xu; Guo, Xiaojing; Luo, Xiaolong; Wang, Dalin
Background There is growing evidence that periodontal treatment may affect glycemic control in diabetic patients. And several systematic reviews have been conducted to assess the effect of periodontal treatment on diabetes outcomes. Researches of this aspect are widely concerned, and several new controlled trials have been published. The aim of this study was to update the account for recent findings. Methods A literature search (until the end of January 2014) was carried out using various databases with language restriction to English. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was selected if it investigated periodontal therapy for diabetic subjects compared with a control group received no periodontal treatment for at least 3 months of the follow-up period. The primary outcome was hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and secondary outcomes were periodontal parameters included probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Results Ten trials of 1135 patients were included in the analysis. After the follow-up of 3 months, treatment substantially lowered HbA1c compared with no treatment after periodontal therapy (–0.36%, 95%CI, −0.52% to −0.19%, P<0.0001). Clinically substantial and statistically significant reduction of PPD and CAL were found between subjects with and without treatment after periodontal therapy (PPD −0.42 mm, 95%CI: −0.60 to −0.23, P<0.00001; CAL −0.34 mm, 95%CI: −0.52 to −0.16, P = 0.0002). And there is no significant change of the level of HbA1c at the 6-month comparing with no treatment (–0.30%, 95%CI, −0.69% to 0.09%, P = 0.13). Conclusions Periodontal treatment leads to the modest reduction in HbA1c along with the improvement of periodontal status in diabetic patients for 3 months, and this result is consistent with previous systematic reviews. And the effect of periodontal treatment on HbA1c cannot be observed at 6-month after treatment. PMID:25255331
Jimenez, Monik; Hu, Frank B; Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Joshipura, Kaumudi J
Obesity induced inflammation may promote periodontal tissue destruction and bone resorption inducing tooth loss. We examined the association between measures of adiposity and self-reported periodontal disease, using data from 36,910 healthy male participants of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) who were free of periodontal disease at baseline and followed for ≤20 years (1986-2006). Self-reported height, weight, and periodontal disease data were collected at baseline, weight and periodontal disease were additionally collected on biennial follow-up questionnaires and waist and hip circumference were self-reported in 1987. These self-reported measures have been previously validated. The multivariable adjusted associations between BMI (kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and first report of periodontal disease diagnosis were evaluated using time-varying Cox models. We observed 2,979 new periodontal disease diagnoses during 596,561 person-years of follow-up. Significant associations and trends were observed between all measures of adiposity and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, smoking, race, dental profession, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and diabetes status at baseline. BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) compared to BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) was significantly associated with greater risk of periodontal disease (hazard ratios (HR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.45). Elevated WC and WHR were significantly associated with a greater risk of periodontal disease (HR for extreme quintiles: WC = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.11-1.46; WHR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.17-1.54). The associations of BMI and WC were significant even among nondiabetics and never smokers. Given the high prevalence of overweight, obesity, and periodontal disease this association may be of substantial public health importance.
Köseoğlu, Serhat; Fidancıoğlu, Ahmet; Sağlam, Mehmet; Savran, Levent
Purpose. As documented in the literature, bony defects can be managed by an orthodontic approach. Methods. This case report describes the treatment of a bony defect caused by orthodontic malposition through phase I periodontal therapy and a simple removable orthodontic appliance used for the first time in a 20-year-old girl. Results. The periodontal pocket was reduced from 8 mm to 3 mm shortly after treatment. Conclusion. This case report concludes that orthodontic therapy can be used successfully in treatment of bony defects caused by mesially tilted molars. PMID:26421197
National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.
Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…
de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Sílvia Regina; Coutinho, Sônia Bechara
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ≥4 mm and an attachment loss ≥3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene. PMID:22249477
Jin, L J; Armitage, G C; Klinge, B; Lang, N P; Tonetti, M; Williams, R C
Periodontal diseases constitute one of the major global oral health burdens, and periodontitis remains a major cause of tooth loss in adults worldwide. The World Health Organization recently reported that severe periodontitis exists in 5-20% of adult populations, and most children and adolescents exhibit signs of gingivitis. Likely reasons to account for these prevalent diseases include genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors, as well as individual and socio-economic determinants. Currently, there are fundamental gaps in knowledge of such fundamental issues as the mechanisms of initiation and progression of periodontal diseases, which are undefined; inability to identify high-risk forms of gingivitis that progress to periodontitis; lack of evidence on how to prevent the diseases effectively; inability to detect disease activity and predict treatment efficacy; and limited information on the effects of integration of periodontal health as a part of the health care program designed to promote general health and prevent chronic diseases. In the present report, 12 basic, translational, and applied research areas have been proposed to address the issue of global periodontal health inequality. We believe that the oral health burden caused by periodontal diseases could be relieved significantly in the near future through an effective global collaboration.
Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo
Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect <10% of the young population in Latin America, but the data are based on only a few studies. A more precise assessment of the distribution and severity of periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition.
Bringuier, Amélie; Khelaifia, Saber; Richet, Hervé; Aboudharam, Gérard
A real-time PCR assay developed to quantify Methanobrevibacter oralis indicated that its inoculum significantly correlated with periodontitis severity (P = 0.003), despite a nonsignificant difference in prevalence between controls (3/10) and patients (12/22) (P = 0.2, Fisher test). The M. oralis load can be used as a biomarker for periodontitis. PMID:23254133
Farag, A.; Vaquette, C.; Theodoropoulos, C.; Hamlet, S.M.; Hutmacher, D.W.; Ivanovski, S.
The periodontal ligament is the key tissue facilitating periodontal regeneration. This study aimed to fabricate decellularized human periodontal ligament cell sheets for subsequent periodontal tissue engineering applications. The decellularization protocol involved the transfer of intact human periodontal ligament cell sheets onto melt electrospun polycaprolactone membranes and subsequent bi-directional perfusion with NH4OH/Triton X-100 and DNase solutions. The protocol was shown to remove 92% of DNA content. The structural integrity of the decellularized cell sheets was confirmed by a collagen quantification assay, immunostaining of human collagen type I and fibronectin, and scanning electron microscopy. ELISA was used to demonstrate the presence of residual basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the decellularized cell sheet constructs. The decellularized cell sheets were shown to have the ability to support recellularization by allogenic human periodontal ligament cells. This study describes the fabrication of decellularized periodontal ligament cell sheets that retain an intact extracellular matrix and resident growth factors and can support repopulation by allogenic cells. The decellularized hPDL cell sheet concept has the potential to be utilized in future “off-the-shelf” periodontal tissue engineering strategies. PMID:25270757
Matsue, M; Masunaga, H; Ogata, Y; Miyamoto, M; Endo, H; Tawara, H; Yamaguchi, S; Matsue, I
Seven juvenile periodontally diseased patients were evaluated for clinical, microbiologic and local or systemic host factors. Three patients showed the localized from of periodontitis clinically and radiographically and by deep periodontal pockets associated with the molars and incisors. Four were in the generalized froms, in which in most cases all teeth were affected. The results in both diseased froms on the predominant cultivable subgingival microflora, the composition of which was not different from that in adult periodontitis, consisted of significantly increased proportions of Gram-negative anaerobic rods, Bacteroides sp. and B. gingivalis, Haemophilus sp. and H. actinomycetemcomitans were detected in 1/3 of the localized and 2/4 of the generalized periodontitis. They were of no value in distinguishing activity that enhanced disease in the generalized from. Elevated serum IgG responses were noted with B. gingivalis. No markedly functional abnormalities of neutrophils from peripheral blood have been demonstrated, however it might function with systemic factors, like an insulin-dependent diabetes. Morphologic characteristics of the oral and periodontal tissue in localized periodontitis were that the pattern of destruction was confined to specific teeth groups characterized by extensive the bucco-lingual width ratio of the dental crown to alveolar bone width. These observations indicate that the generalized form of juvenile periodontitis lesions were associated not only with the presence of subgingival bacteria, but also with conditions such as local morphologic and systemic or constitutional factors, individual variation in relation to destructive and protective aspects of the defense mechanisms.
Velosa-Porras, Juliana; Escobar-Arregoces, Francina; Latorre-Uriza, Catalina; Ferro-Camargo, María B; Ruiz, Álvaro J; Uriza-Carrasco, Luis F
Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in the impact of oral health on cardiovascular disease, particularly regarding the effects of chronic infections such as periodontitis on the endothelium. The aim of this study was to evaluate in healthy smokers whether there are any significant differences in the frequency of endothelial dysfunction between subjects with chronic moderate to severe periodontal disease and periodontally healthy subjects. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted. The target population was adults older than 40 years of age. Blood tests were performed to determine values of CBC, glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDLC. Periodontal examinations and probing were conducted with a Florida Probe®, and standardized procedures were used to measure flow-mediated dilation. Out of 150 subjects [69 male (46%) and 81 female (54%)], 75 (50%) had chronic periodontitis. The mean value for baseline flow-mediated dilation was 4.04% and the mean value for final flow-mediated dilation was 4.66%, with a 0.62% mean difference showing a statistically significant increase (p<0.001).This study found no significant difference in the flow-mediated dilation values between periodontally healthy subjects and those with periodontitis, in contrast to the literature, which suggests a negative impact of periodontal disease on endothelial function.
Kungsadalpipob, Kajorn; Chanchareonsook, Prohpring; Limpongsanurak, Sompop; Vanichjakvong, Ornanong; Sutdhibhisal, Sanutm; Wongkittikraiwan, Nopmanee; Sookprome, Chulamanee; Kamolpornwijit, Wiboon; Jantarasaengaram, Surasak; Manotaya, Saknan; Siwawej, Vatcharapong; Barlow, William E.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Williams, Michelle A.
Several studies have suggested an association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm delivery, but this has not been a consistent finding. In 2006–2007, the authors examined the relation between maternal periodontal disease and preterm delivery among 467 pregnant Thai women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (<37 weeks’ gestation) and 467 controls who delivered a singleton infant at term (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Periodontal examinations were performed within 48 hours after delivery. Participants’ periodontal health status was classified into 4 categories according to the extent and severity of periodontal disease. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Preterm delivery cases and controls were similar with regard to mean probing depth, mean clinical attachment loss, and mean percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing. After controlling for known confounders, the authors found that severe clinical periodontal disease was not associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 2.16). In addition, there was no evidence of a linear increase in risk of preterm delivery or its subtypes associated with increasing severity of periodontal disease (Ptrend > 0.05). The results of this case-control study do not provide convincing evidence that periodontal disease is associated with preterm delivery or its subtypes among Thai women. PMID:19131565
Foia, Liliana; Toma, Vasilica; Ungureanu, Didona; Aanei, Carmen; Costuleanu, M
The interrelation between diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal disease has been intensively studied for more than 50 years, a real bidirectional influence existing between patient's glycemic level disorder and periodontal territories alteration. Several studies developed in this direction emerged to the evidences that reveal a general increase of prevalence, extent and severity of gingivitis and periodontitis. Inflammation plays an important role in this interrelation, orchestrating both the periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus pathogeny and complications. Conversely, periodontal disease--infectious disease characterized by a significant inflammatory component--can seriously impair metabolic control of some diabetic patient. Moreover, treatment of periodontal disease and reduction of oral signs of inflammation may have a beneficial result on the diabetic condition (1). Less clear are the mechanisms governing this interrelation (even the literature is abundant in this direction), and, very probably, periodontal diseases serve as initiators of insulin resistance (in a way similar to obesity), thereby aggravating glycemic control. Further research is so imposed in order to clarify this aspect of the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease.
Kerishnan, Jesinda P.; Mohammad, Sani; Alias, Muhamad Shaifunizam; Mu, Alan Kang-Wai; Vaithilingam, Rathna Devi; Baharuddin, Nor Adinar; Safii, Syarida H.; Abdul Rahman, Zainal Ariff; Chen, Yu Nieng
Background Periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases associated with the host’s immune response against periodontopathogenic infection. Failure to accurately diagnose the stage of periodontitis has limited the ability to predict disease status. Therefore, we aimed to look for reliable diagnostic markers for detection or differentiation of early stage periodontitis using the immunoprotemic approach. Method In the present study, patient serum samples from four distinct stages of periodontitis (i.e., mild chronic, moderate chronic, severe chronic, and aggressive) and healthy controls were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by silver staining. Notably, we consistently identified 14 protein clusters in the sera of patients and normal controls. Results Overall, we found that protein levels were comparable between patients and controls, with the exception of the clusters corresponding to A1AT, HP, IGKC and KNG1 (p < 0.05). In addition, the immunogenicity of these proteins was analysed via immunoblotting, which revealed differential profiles for periodontal disease and controls. For this reason, IgM obtained from severe chronic periodontitis (CP) sera could be employed as a suitable autoantibody for the detection of periodontitis. Discussion Taken together, the present study suggests that differentially expressed host immune response proteins could be used as potential biomarkers for screening periodontitis. Future studies exploring the diagnostic potential of such factors are warranted. PMID:27635317
Pásztor, Norbert; Kárpáti, Krisztina; Szöllősi, János; Keresztúri, Márk; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Gorzó, István; Radnai, Márta
About 30% of male infertility cases are idiopathic. Previous studies reported a positive correlation between deep periodontal pockets and sperm sub-motility, which suggests that periodontitis might have a role in idiopathic semen abnormality pathospermia. We evaluated correlations between periodontal infection parameters and the results of sperm analysis of men with idiopathic infertility. In this observational study, semen quality and periodontal status were analyzed for 95 otherwise healthy men attending an andrology unit for sperm analysis. Half the men in the sperm pathology and normozoospermia groups (50.8% and 50%, respectively) had poor periodontal status. Among the 95 participants, 38% had oligozoospermia, 28% had asthenozoospermia, 16% had cryptozoospermia, and 15% were classified as normozoospermic. Sperm pathology category was not associated with frequency of deep periodontal pockets or calculus. Bleeding on probing was significantly lower among men with asthenozoospermia than among those with normozoospermia. Poor periodontal status was not associated with any sperm pathology category or parameter. In contrast with previous findings, the present results indicate that pathospermia and poor semen quality are not associated with periodontal infection in men with idiopathic infertility. (J Oral Sci 58, 247-253, 2016).
Gundannavar, Gayatri; Rosh, Radhika M; Chandrasekaran, Shoba; Hussain, Ahad M
This case report presents two female patients whose chief complaint was discoloration of teeth. On careful clinical examination it was found that the patients had features of amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis. This article will give an insight of clinical and radiographic features of amelogenesis imperfecta with localised aggressive periodontitis, which is a rare clinical entity.
The validity of the Periodontal Treatment Need System and the Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need as screening tests for allocation of patients to dental students was assessed and compared. Sixty-one patients reporting to the Department of Periodontology at the University of Oslo were studied. (MLW)
Ogawa, Hiroshi; Damrongrungruang, Teerasak; Hori, Sayaka; Nouno, Kaname; Minagawa, Kumiko; Sato, Misuzu; Miyazaki, Hideo
The association between adipokines and inflammatory periodontal diseases has been studied over the last two decades. This review was intended to explore the observation that periodontal therapy may lead to an improvement of adipokines in diabetic patients. In summary, substantial evidence suggests that diabetes is associated with increased prevalence, extent and severity of periodontitis. Numerous mechanisms have been elucidated to explain the impact of diabetes on the periodontium. However, current knowledge concerning the role of major adipokines indicates only some of their associations with the pathogenesis of periodontitis in type 2 diabetes. Conversely, treatment of periodontal disease and reduction of oral inflammation may have positive effects on the diabetic condition, although evidence for this remains somewhat equivocal.
Kaur, Gagandeep; Mohindra, Kanika; Singla, Shifali
Autoimmune reactions reflect an imbalance between effector and regulatory immune responses, typically develop through stages of initiation and propagation, and often show phases of resolution (indicated by clinical remissions) and exacerbations (indicated by symptomatic flares). The fundamental underlying mechanism of autoimmunity is defective elimination and/or control of self-reactive lymphocytes. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammatory conditions that directly affect teeth-supporting structures, which are the major cause of tooth loss. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal disease. Evidence of involvement of immunopathology has been reported in periodontal disease. Bacteria in the dental plaque induce antibody formation. Autoreactive T-cells, natural killer cells, ANCA, heat shock proteins, autoantibodies, and genetic factors are reported to have an important role in the autoimmune component of periodontal disease. The present review describes the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal diseases and also the mechanisms underlying these responses.
Califano, Joseph V
Children and adolescents are subject to several periodontal diseases. Although there is a much lower prevalence of destructive periodontal diseases in children than in adults, children can develop severe forms of periodontitis. In some cases, this destructive disease is a manifestation of a known underlying systemic disease. In other young patients, the underlying cause for increased susceptibility and early onset of disease is unknown. These diseases are often familial, suggesting a genetic predisposition for aggressive disease. Current modalities for managing periodontal diseases of children and adolescents may include antibiotic therapy in combination with non-surgical and/or surgical therapy. Since early diagnosis ensures the greatest chance for successful treatment, it is important that children receive a periodontal examination as part of their routine dental visits.
Tuleutaeva, S; Ashirbekova, Z; Manapova, D; Almurat, S; Kharchenko, V
The aim of the article was to study the occurrence of periodontal diseases in children with type I diabetes mellitus. The examination of 78 children revealed periodontal diseases in 40 children with type I diabetes. OHI-S, CPITN, PMA indices were determined. Pathological changes in periodontal tissues were revealed in 100% of cases. The following were identified: gingival hemorrhage (100%), over - and under-gingival dental tartar (100%), inflammation of gingival papilla (87,5%) marginal (80%) and alveolar gingiva (55%). Spread of periodontal disease among children with I type diabetes is characterized as high and is equal to 100%. Degree of periodontal sickness is evaluated as average and is M=2,28; SD=0,47 according to CPITN index. Treatment and preventive measures should be carried out taking into account major somatic disease.
Santos-García, Rocío; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Cordero, Mario D.; Rios-Santos, José V.; Jaramillo-Santos, María R.; Climent, Mariano H.
Objetive: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with unknown etiology, which affects predominantly women. Mitochondrial alteration could have a role in the pathophysilogical mechanisms of inflammatory conditions as FM and periodontitis. The aim of the present study was assay the relationship between both diseases and mitochondrial dysfunction. Patient and Methods: We study the presence of periodontitis in twelve patients diagnosed of FM and mitochondrial dysfunction described. The diagnosis of FM was established according to ACR criteria and clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: Only one patients of twelve included and agreed to participate in the study were diagnosed with periodontitis. Conclusions: Pending studies with larger numbers of patients, we can conclude that mitochondrial dysfunction in FM is a itself event not related with periodontitis. Periodontitis could be considered a exclusion criterion in all studies about mitochondrial dysfunction in patients. Key words:Peridontitis, fibromyalgia, mitocondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress. PMID:24558523
Wilensky, Asaf; Chaushu, Stella; Shapira, Lior
Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of humans. The microbial etiology of the disease is well documented, as is the major role of the host response in disease pathogenesis. As natural killer cells are one of the most important components of innate immunity against bacteria and viruses, they can be expected to act as major players in the development of the disease. Through direct interaction with periodontal pathogens, natural killer cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that subsequently may lead to tissue destruction. Indeed, using a murine periodontitis model, such mechanisms have been shown to be involved in bacterial-induced alveolar bone loss. In the present review we document the available literature and evidence base regarding the origin, biology and characteristics of natural killer cells, and their interactions with periodontal pathogens. The potential role of natural killer cells in periodontal pathogenesis and the mechanisms involved are discussed.
Shen, Y X; Guo, S J; Wu, Y F
Chronic periodontitis is a progressive, infectious inflammation disease, caused by the dysbiosis of oral resident flora, leading to the destruction of periodontium. The onset of pathogenic microorganisms is the etiological factor of periodontitis, while the immuno-inflammatory response affects the progression of the disease. Under chronic periodontitis, oxidative stress occurs when excessive reactive oxygen species are produced and exceed the compensative capacity of the organism. Oxidative stress leads to the destruction of periodontium, in a direct way(damaging the biomolecule) or an indirect way(enhancing the produce of inflammatory cytokine and destructive enzymes). Therefore, as the antagonist of the reactive oxygen species, antioxidants may be helpful to treat the chronic periodontitis. This paper reviewed relevant literatures about the destructive role of excessive reactive oxygen species and protective role of antioxidants in chronic periodontitis.
Cabanilla, Leyvee; Molinari, Gail
Periodontal diseases and conditions, as defined by The 1999 International Workshop for Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions presented some significant paradigm shifts based on evidence that the transition from plaque-associated reversible gingival diseases to periodontitis can occur in children and adolescents with characteristics which were previously thought to be typical of adult periodontitis. The purposes of this paper are to present the periodontal diseases and conditions described in the 1999 workshop sponsored by the American Academy of Periodontology, review the risk factors for the development of periodontal diseases in the pediatric and adolescent populations, and present appropriate clinical periodontal assessment and management for these age groups.
Victor, Ligia Valéria; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; de Carvalho Filho, Jonas; Cortelli, José Roberto
This cross-sectional study evaluated the periodontal status and the presence of periodontopathogens in 132 young, black ethnic subjects who live in Salvador/Bahia-Brazil and have never smoked. Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were measured and analyzed by ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05) according to gender and age. The presence of A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, E.corrodens and F.nucleatum was determined by PCR and was analyzed by ANOVA, Wilcoxon, Student-t tests (p<0.05). Mean values of PPD and CAL were 2.18 and 1.0mm, respectively. Clinical parameters did not show differences between subjects of varying gender and age. The microbial prevalence was observed to be 95.45% for E.corrodens followed by F.nucleatum with 68.18%, A.actinomycetemcomitans with 45.45% and P gingivalis with 40.9%. An association between the presence of pathogens and gender and age was not observed (p<0.05). PPD, CAL and PI were not associated with P.gingivalis; however, GI appeared in higher frequencies among subjects without P.gingivalis. In this young, black ethnic, Brazilian population, a high percentage (96.96%) of subjects harbored at least one selected periodontal pathogen, but most subjects showed a healthy periodontal status. Further investigations are required to evaluate the actual influence of the presence of these bacterial species. PMID:24031206
Spooner, Ralee; Weigel, Kris M.; Harrison, Peter L.; Lee, KyuLim; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Yilmaz, Özlem
Porphyromonas gingivalis and Filifactor alocis are fastidious anaerobic bacteria strongly associated with chronic forms of periodontitis. Our understanding of the growth activities of these microorganisms in situ is very limited. Previous studies have shown that copy numbers of ribosomal-RNA precursor (pre-rRNA) of specific pathogen species relative to genomic-DNA (gDNA) of the same species (P:G ratios) are greater in actively growing bacterial cells than in resting cells. The method, so-called steady-state pre-rRNA-analysis, represents a novel culture-independent approach to study bacteria. This study employed this technique to examine the in situ growth activities of oral bacteria in periodontitis before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Sub-gingival paper-point samples were taken at initial and re-evaluation appointments. Pre-rRNA and gDNA levels of P. gingivalis and F. alocis were quantified and compared using reverse-transcriptase qPCR. The results indicate significantly reduced growth activity of P. gingivalis, but not F. alocis, after therapy. The P:G ratios of P. gingivalis and F. alocis were compared and a low-strength, but statistically significant inter-species correlation was detected. Our study demonstrates that steady-state pre-rRNA-analysis can be a valuable culture-independent approach to studying opportunistic bacteria in periodontitis. PMID:27642101
Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian Ardakani, Ahmad; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Haerian Ardakani, Alireza; Zafarbakhsh, Akram
Statement of the Problem Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are commensal protozoa which inhabit the human oral cavity. These parasites are found in patients with poor oral hygiene and might be a reason for progressive periodontal diseases. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the frequency of these protozoa in saliva and plaque samples. Materials and Method In this clinical trial, samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected from 46 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. The samples were assessed for the frequency of parasites. Results The frequency of Entamoeba gingivalis was reduced in saliva (p= 0.007) and plaque (p= 0.027) three weeks after the treatment. Likewise, the frequency of Trichomonas tenax reduced in saliva (p= 0.030); however, the decrease was not significant in plaque (p= 0.913). Trichomonas tenax frequency in dental plaque directly related to the severity of periodontitis (r= 0.565, p≤ 0.000). In contrast, the number of Entamoeba gingivalis in both saliva (r= -0.405, p≤ 0.005) and plaque (r= -0.304, p= 0.040) was inversely related with the severity of the periodontal disease. Conclusion Nonsurgical periodontal treatment could reduce the number of Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis in the oral environment of patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:27602391
Topcuoglu, Nursen; Kulekci, Guven
DNA microarray analysis is a computer based technology, that a reverse capture, which targets 10 periodontal bacteria (ParoCheck) is available for rapid semi-quantitative determination. The aim of this three-year retrospective study was to display the microarray analysis results for the subgingival biofilm samples taken from patient cases diagnosed with different forms of periodontitis. A total of 84 patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP,n:29), generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP, n:25), peri-implantitis (PI,n:14), localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP,n:8) and refractory chronic periodontitis (RP,n:8) were consecutively selected from the archives of the Oral Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory. The subgingival biofilm samples were analyzed by the microarray-based identification of 10 selected species. All the tested species were detected in the samples. The red complex bacteria were the most prevalent with very high levels in all groups. Fusobacterium nucleatum was detected in all samples at high levels. The green and blue complex bacteria were less prevalent compared with red and orange complex, except Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitas was detected in all LAP group. Positive correlations were found within all the red complex bacteria and between red and orange complex bacteria especially in GCP and GAP groups. Parocheck enables to monitoring of periodontal pathogens in all forms of periodontal disease and can be alternative to other guiding and reliable microbiologic tests.
Chen, Fa-Ming; Jin, Yan
The management of periodontal tissue defects that result from periodontitis represents a medical and socioeconomic challenge. Concerted efforts have been and still are being made to accelerate and augment periodontal tissue and bone regeneration, including a range of regenerative surgical procedures, the development of a variety of grafting materials, and the use of recombinant growth factors. More recently, tissue-engineering strategies, including new cell- and/or matrix-based dimensions, are also being developed, analyzed, and employed for periodontal regenerative therapies. Tissue engineering in periodontology applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological techniques that can restore lost alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cementum. It is based on an understanding of the role of periodontal formation and aims to grow new functional tissues rather than to build new replacements of periodontium. Although tissue engineering has merged to create more opportunities for predictable and optimal periodontal tissue regeneration, the technique and design for preclinical and clinical studies remain in their early stages. To date, the reconstruction of small- to moderate-sized periodontal bone defects using engineered cell-scaffold constructs is technically feasible, and some of the currently developed concepts may represent alternatives for certain ideal clinical scenarios. However, the predictable reconstruction of the normal structure and functionality of a tooth-supporting apparatus remains challenging. This review summarizes current regenerative procedures for periodontal healing and regeneration and explores their progress and difficulties in clinical practice, with particular emphasis placed upon current challenges and future possibilities associated with tissue-engineering strategies in periodontal regenerative medicine.
Reinhardt, Richard A.; Stoner, Julie A.; Golub, Lorne M.; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Nummikoski, Pirkka V.; Sorsa, Timo; Payne, Jeffrey B.
Background Analysis of biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) may be helpful in forecasting vulnerability to future attachment loss. This paper sought to correlate GCF biomarkers of inflammation and bone resorption with subsequent periodontal attachment and bone loss in a longitudinal trial of a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-inhibitor. Methods GCF was collected from two periodontal pockets (mean 5.1 ± SD 1.0 mm) at baseline and annually in postmenopausal females with moderate/advanced periodontitis undergoing periodontal maintenance every 3–4 months during a two-year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline (SDD, 20 mg bid). Subjects were randomized to SDD (n = 64) or placebo (n = 64). GCF was analyzed for inflammation markers interleukin-1β (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), total collagenase activity (hydrolysis of synthetic octapeptide), MMP-8 (Western blot), and bone resorption marker carboxyterminal telopeptide cross-link fragment of type I collagen (ICTP; radioimmunoassay). Generalized estimating equations were used to associate these biomarkers, categorized into tertiles, with subsequent clinical attachment (automated disk probe) or interproximal bone loss (radiography). Odds ratio (OR) values compared highest to lowest tertile groups. Results Increases in GCF IL-1β and MMP-8 during the first year of periodontal maintenance were associated with increased odds of subsequent (year 2) periodontal attachment loss (OR = 1.67, p = 0.01 and OR = 1.50, p = 0.02, respectively), driven by the placebo group. Elevated baseline ICTP also was associated with increased odds of 1- and 2-year alveolar bone density loss (OR = 1.98, p = 0.0001) in placebo, not SDD, and bone height loss (OR = 1.38, p = 0.06), again driven by placebo. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that elevated GCF biomarkers of inflammation and bone resorption from a small number of moderate/deep sites hold promise in
Corrêa, Mônica G.; Sacchetti, Silvana B.; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Casarin, Renato Corrêa Viana; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Casati, Marcio Z.
This study investigated some immunological features by experimental periodontitis (EP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease interact in destructive processes in arthritic rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: EP +RA; RA; EP; and Negative Control. RA was induced by immunizations with type-II collagen and a local immunization with Complete Freund’s adjuvant in the paw. Periodontitis was induced by ligating the right first molars. The serum level of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACCPA) were measured before the induction of EP (T1) and at 28 days after (T2) by ELISA assay. ACCPA levels were also measured in the gingival tissue at T2. The specimens were processed for morphometric analysis of bone loss, and the gingival tissue surrounding the first molar was collected for the quantification of interleukin IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α using a Luminex/MAGpix assay. Paw edema was analyzed using a plethysmometer. Periodontitis increased the RF and ACCPA levels in the serum and in the gingival tissue, respectively. Besides, the level of paw swelling was increased by EP and remained in progress until the end of the experiment, when EP was associated with RA. Greater values of IL-17 were observed only when RA was present, in spite of PE. It can be concluded that periodontitis increases rheumatic factor serum levels and citrullinated proteins level in gingival tissues and alter cytokine balance in arthritic rats; at the same time, arthritis increases periodontal destruction, confirming the bidirectional interaction between diseases. PMID:28358812
Purpose The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Methods Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. Results New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. Conclusions After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit. PMID:27800213
Patil, Vijayetha P.; Gokhale, Neeraja; Acharya, Anirudh; Kangokar, Praveenchandra
Introduction The prevalence of periodontitis is significantly higher among people with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Majority of tissue destruction in periodontitis is considered to be the result of an aberrant inflammatory/immune response to microbial plaque and involve prolonged release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is increased evidence for compromised antioxidant capacity in periodontal tissues and fluids which may be an added factor for tissue damage in periodontitis. Aim To study the possible role of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant status in blood among chronic periodontitis patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods The study comprised of total 100 subjects among which 25 were normal healthy controls, 25 were gingivitis patients, 25 were chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and 25 were having chronic periodontitis with type 2 diabetes (CP with DM). ROS levels were determined as MDA (Malondialdehyde) and antioxidant status as plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamin C and erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity. Results There was significant increase in MDA levels in all the patient groups compared with healthy controls (p<0.05). The decrease in TAC, Vitamin C and SOD levels among CP with DM patients as compared to controls was highly significant (p<0.01). There was a positive correlation between the probing pocket depth and MDA levels among periodontitis patients with diabetes (r=0.566, p=0.003). Conclusion There is increased oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes indicating a common factor involvement in tissue damage. More severe tissue destruction in periodontitis is associated with excessive ROS generation which is positively correlated in type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:27190790
Sato, H; Tawara, H; Yamaguchi, S; Lee, J H; Ishikawa, I; Masunaga, H; Nishibori, M; Hirota, Y; Matsue, M; Matsue, I
The morphological characteristics of periodontal tissue in periodontal disease have been interpreted differently by a number of clinical observers. Many have reported that the malposition and functional malocclusion of teeth is injurious to the periodontium. We reported in Part I that a system for evaluating periodontal status was developed for the diagnosis and management of the interproximal area at the initial stage of bone resorption. The patient group consisted of 36 adults, from 21 to 55 years of age. The severity score represented the calculated loss of periodontal support tissues: loss of alveolar bone, evaluated roentgenologically, bone level and pattern in vertical and horizontal form, periodontal pocket and gingival inflammation. Because poor oral hygiene and other factors caused swelling by gingival inflammation, we obtained study specimens from patients with chronic periodontal disease after a few tooth brushing instructions, and scalings during initial therapy in order to detect initial and established pathological changes in periodontal tissue. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between periodontal disease status and morphological diagnostic indicators and different degrees of harmony and disharmony in the lower jaw. In all age groups the average percentage of bone loss and intraosseous defects tended to be higher in the groups categorized as Type III and Type F, and in the area that showed a very deep concave Spee curve to the occlusal plane in Pattern D. We considered that these morphological characteristics might be of secondary importance for diagnosis. Oral local factors were the primary extrinsic factor in the pathogenesis of horizontal and vertical interproximal bone absorption in the area of the premolars and molars.
Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.
Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and
Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K A Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J
Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39-4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51-4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94-6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T
Goldberg, P V; Higginbottom, F L; Wilson, T G
The successful integration of periodontal and restorative dentistry for both natural teeth and implants requires knowledge and application of both mechanical and biological principles. In areas of aesthetic concern, an adequate band of attached gingiva can increase patient comfort, reduce the probability of gingival recession following tooth preparation and simplify restorative procedures. While some restorative margins need to be placed at or below the margin of the free gingiva, this should be considered to be a compromise, and margins should not be placed more than 0.5 mm into a healthy gingival sulcus. Approximately 2-3 mm of healthy, natural supra-alveolar tooth surface is needed for attachment of the gingival tissues to the tooth. This dimension is called the biological width. If adequate biological width does not exist, surgical or orthodontic procedures to expose healthy tooth structure are recommended before final restorations are placed. Retraction of soft tissues for impressions is best accomplished with mechanical methods rather than lasers or electrosurgery because of the potentially harmful effects of these devices to the cementum, bone and soft tissues surrounding the teeth. Implants function best and withstand occlusal forces optimally when loaded in a vertical direction. Therefore, planning implant placement is critical for success. Because of increased proprioception, it is suggested that natural teeth be used to guide the occlusion in partially edentulous patients. Cantilevers should be used with caution and with appropriate attention to occlusal forces. While occlusal trauma does not cause periodontal disease, it may contribute to bone loss around teeth and implants. In the opinion of the authors, provisional restorations are an integral part of dental and periodontal therapy. They can be used to establish aesthetic and physiological contours that can be easily cleaned by patients and they can also be used as a guide for any needed surgical
Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Everett, Matthew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Otis, Linda L.
We have developed a hand-held in vivo scanning device for use in the oral cavity. We produced, using this scanning device, in vivo OCT images of dental tissues in human volunteers. All the OCT images were analyzed for the presence of clinically relevant anatomical structures. The gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction were visible in all the images. The cemento-enamel junction was discernible in 64% of the images and the alveolar bone presumptively identified for 71% of the images. These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in vivo OCT images of human dental tissue.
Colston, B.W., LLNL
We have developed a hand-held in vivo scanning device for use in the oral cavity. We produced, using this scanning device, in vivo OCT images of dental tissues in human volunteers. All the OCT images were analyzed for the presence of clinically relevant anatomical structures. The gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction were visible in all the images. The cemento-enamel junction was discernible in 64% of the images and the alveolar bone presumptively identified for 71% of the images. These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in vivo OCT images of human dental tissue.
Basquill, Linda C; Basquill, Patrick J
On December 19, 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released the Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings--2003. The publication was the first comprehensive dental infection control update since 1993. Although the guidelines are not directed toward a particular dental specialty, some recommendations may have a significant impact on the practice of periodontics because of the nature of the procedures that are considered routine to the specialty. This article deals with some of the issues addressed in the guidelines, highlighting topics of special interest to periodontists.
Andersen, Roger C.; Loebel, Nicolas G.; Andersen, Dane M.
Photodynamic therapy has been demonstrated to effectively kill human periopathogens in vitro. However, the translation of in vitro work to in vivo clinical efficacy has been difficult due to the number of variables present in any given patient. Parameters such as photosensitizer concentration, duration of light therapy and amount of light delivered to the target tissue all play a role in the dose response of PDT in vivo. In this 121 patient study we kept all parameters the same except for light dose which was delivered at either 150 mW or 220 mW. This clearly demonstrated the clinical benefits of a higher light dose in the treatment of periodontitis.
Linden, G J
This study investigated the extent of and reasons for variation in the periodontal referral patterns of general dental practitioners in Northern Ireland. A questionnaire was circulated to all general dental practitioners in Northern Ireland. This questionnaire investigated the management of periodontal disease in the general dental service and referral for specialist periodontal advice and treatment. A usable return was made by 355 (68%) of those surveyed. The mean number of periodontal referrals by each respondent in the past year was 6.5 (SD 7.7), range 0 to 80. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that independent predictors of high referral rate were practice location close to the referral centre (p<0.0001); dissatisfaction with ability to treat periodontal disease under the National Health Service (p=0.001); that previous refusals of referral had not dissuaded a dentist from continuing to offer referral (p=0.002); not offering root planing as a treatment (p=0.005); and perceived inadequate postgraduate education in periodontology (p=0.03). It is concluded that considerable variation exists between general dental practitioners working in Northern Ireland in relation to the referral of patients for specialist periodontal advice and treatment. It is further concluded that in many cases non-disease factors, such as the accessibility of the specialist service, have powerful effects on the decisions made by dentists and patients in relation to periodontal referral.
Mahalingam, Arulpari; Parthasarathy, Harinath; Katamreddy, Vineela; Subbareddy, Venkat
Introduction Periodontal disease is the major cause of adult tooth loss and is commonly characterized by a chronic inflammation caused by infection due to oral bacteria. Members of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) family recognize conserved microbial structures, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides and activate signalling pathways that result in immune responses against microbial infections. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the mRNA expression of Toll-Like Receptor 2 and 4 in tissues with or without chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue samples were collected from controls (30 subjects with healthy periodontal tissues) and experimental group (30 subjects with chronic periodontitis). Total RNA was extracted and RT-PCR was done for evaluation of TLR-2 and TLR-4. Mann Whitney U-test, Pearson Chi-square Test was used for statistics. Results The results showed that there is a significant (p-value= 0.004) association between TLR-4 and the experimental group comprising of chronic periodontitis patients in comparison to the insignificant (p-value= 0.085) TLR-2 expression. Conclusion This study concludes that TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressed in the gingival tissues recognize different bacterial cell wall components thus helping us to associate its potential in diagnosing periodontal disease. Hence, in the future, these scientific findings can pave the way in using TLR as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal disease. PMID:27504418
De Iuliis, V; Ursi, S; Di Tommaso, L M; Caruso, M; Marino, A; D Ercole, S; Caputi, S; Sinjari, B; Festa, F; Macri, M; Martinotti, S; Vitullo, G; Toniato, E
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disorder affecting the supporting teeth structures, including gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, causing loss of connective tissue, reabsorption of alveolar bone and formation of periodontal pockets. The aim of this study is to find a correlation between bacterial growth and periodontal disease. Fifty-seven patients aged between 21 and 65 years, median age 46 years, were enrolled. According to gingival pocket depth, ranging from 3 to 7 mm, patients were divided into two groups: the first (30 patients, 53%) with deep pockets ³ 5 mm and the second (27 patients, 47%) less than 5 mm. The samples taken were processed for microbiological analysis by absolute quantitative real-time Taq-Man technique. Patients affected by periodontal disease were 32 (56%) and patients with gingival bleeding were 35 (61%). This data showed that the presence, the type and the bacterial load in gingival pockets were strongly correlated with gingival depth, periodontal disease and gingival bleeding. Quantitative microbiological analysis is a key point to improve patient compliance, allowing to choose the specific antibiotic treatment. avoiding antibiotic resistance and ensuring the successful outcome of therapy for periodontal disease.
Corlan Puşcu, Dorina; Ciuluvică, Radu Constantin; Anghel, Andreea; Mălăescu, Gheorghe Dan; Ciursaş, Adina Nicoleta; Popa, Gabriel Valeriu; Agop Forna, Doriana; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Siloşi, Izabela
Periodontal disease is one of the most frequent diseases affecting people all over the world. The relation between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus raised the interest both of dentists and doctors treating metabolic diseases, as the two conditions influence one another. In our study, we analyzed a number of 75 patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease that presented to the medical consultory for conditions of the dental maxillary system. The clinical study showed that periodontal disease and diabetes may affect young adults as well, still this pathological association more frequently appears after the age of 50. The disease was identified especially in the women living in urban area. The clinical examination of the dental maxillary system identified the presence of gingival ulcerations, dental calculus, gingival bleeding, radicular leftovers with anfractuous margins, fixed prostheses with an inappropriate cervical adjustment. Of the systemic diseases associated to periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, there was observed that 66.66% of the patients also suffered from cardiovascular diseases (high blood pressure, ischemic cardiopathy, heart failure), and 37.33% suffered from obesity. The histopathological and immunohistochemical tests highlighted the presence of an inflammatory chronic, intense reaction, mainly formed of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, heterogeneously disseminated and alteration of the structure of marginal and superficial periodontium. The inflammatory reaction in the patients with periodontal disease and diabetes was more intense than in the patients with periodontal disease without diabetes.
Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H
There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.
Ledić, Karla; Marinković, Sonja; Puhar, Ivan; Spalj, Stjepan; Popović-Grle, Sanja; Ivić-Kardum, Marija; Samarzija, Miroslav; Plancak, Darije
The aim of this study was to explore whether a periodontal disease could be a risk indicator for a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The examined group comprised 93 patients with COPD (mean age 65.8 years). The control group comprised 43 systemically healthy individuals (mean age 62.1 years). Respiratory and periodontal conditions were examined in both groups. COPB subjects had significantly worse periodontal conditions than controls (p < 0.05) with regard to each parameter of periodontal condition, except for gingival inflammation. COPD patients had higher Plaque Index than control patients (82.84 +/- 22.81 vs. 57.15 +/- 26.96; p < 0.001), higher periodontal depth (3.02 +/- 0.92 vs. 2.57 +/- 0.79 mm; p = 0.007), higher gingival recession (1.97 +/- 1.09 vs. 0.91 +/- 0.79 mm; p < 0.001), and higher mean clinical attachment loss (CAL) (4.12 +/- 1.74 vs. 2.91 +/- 1.27 mm; p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression model, after controlling for other risk indicators, showed that periodontal disease, presented as CAL > or = 4 mm at > or = 60% sites, was associated with odds ratio of 3.2 (95% CI 1.0-9.8) for the COPB group. Data suggest that periodontal disease could be a risk indicator for COPD.
Bottino, Marco C; Thomas, Vinoy
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting nearly 50% of adults in the United States. If left untreated, it can lead to the destruction of both soft and mineralized tissues that constitute the periodontium. Clinical management, including but not limited to flap debridement and/or curettage, as well as regenerative-based strategies with periodontal membranes associated or not with grafting materials, has been used with distinct levels of success. Unquestionably, no single implantable biomaterial can consistently guide the coordinated growth and development of multiple tissue types, especially in very large periodontal defects. With the global aging population, it is extremely important to find novel biomaterials, particularly bioactive membranes and/or scaffolds, for guided tissue (GTR) and bone regeneration (GBR) to aid in the reestablishment of the health and function of distinct periodontal tissues. This chapter offers an update on the evolution of biomaterials (i.e. membranes and bioactive scaffolds) as well as material-based strategies applied in periodontal regeneration. The authors start by providing a brief summary of the histological characteristics and functions of the periodontium and its main pathological condition, namely periodontitis. Next, a review of commercially available GTR/GBR membranes is given, followed by a critical appraisal of the most recent advances in the development of bioactive materials that enhance the chance for clinical success of periodontal tissue regeneration.
Zermeño-Ibarra, Jorge A; Delgado-Pastrana, Soledad; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P
The aim of this study was to examine the association between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in subjects who attended the clinic of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, San Luis de Potosi, México. This was cross-sectional study involving 88 subjects--60 without overweight-obesity and 28 with overweight-obesity. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: dental bacterial plaque, index of calculus, gingivitis, probing depth and periodontal disease index (PDI). When comparing the group of subjects with overweight-obesity to the control, there were statistically significant differences in the variables calculus (p = 0.0015), gingivitis (p = 0.0050) and periodontal disease (p = 0.0154). Regarding the logistic regression analysis, the dependent variable was subjects with and without overweight-obesity and the independent variables were sex, age and periodontal disease. We found statistically significant differences (p = 0.0162) with OR = 3.16 in periodontal disease. Periodontal disease showed statistically significant differences in the group of subjects with overweight-obesity. The oral health of subjects with overweight-obesity should be supervised and checked in order to prevent oral alterations.
Shiloah, J; Scarbecz, M; Bland, P S; Hottel, T L
Traditional periodontics clinical examinations in dental education frequently assess a narrow set of clinical skills and do not adequately assess the ability of students to independently manage a periodontal patient. As an alternative, the authors developed a comprehensive periodontics competency case experience (CCCE) for senior dental students and surveyed students regarding their experience with the CCCE. Students challenging the CCCE must treat a patient with moderate periodontitis and must independently decide when a state of periodontal and oral health has been achieved. Students are also required to conduct an oral presentation to periodontology faculty. Dental students who completed the CCCE had a favourable impression of the experience, compared with the traditional clinical examinations taken in the junior year. The majority of students rated all the components of the CCCE as 'somewhat' or 'very helpful'. About 72.4% of students felt that being able to work independently on the examination was very helpful for learning about the clinical management of patients with periodontal disease, followed by 'simulation of care in private practice' (65.5%), and oral photography experience (55.2%). The greatest difficulty reported by students was finding an acceptable patient. About 62.1% of students rated 'finding the right patient' as very difficult. Students reported having to screen a mean of 5.9 patients (SD: 4.5) to find a qualified patient. The results of the survey will be useful in improving the examination as an assessment tool in periodontal therapy.
Purpose The aim of this article is to review a group of lesions associated with periodontal ligament (PDL) widening. Materials and Methods An electronic search was performed using specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and Scopus to find relevant studies by using keywords such as “periodontium”, “periodontal ligament”, “periodontal ligament space”, “widened periodontal ligament”, and “periodontal ligament widening”. Results Out of nearly 200 articles, about 60 were broadly relevant to the topic. Ultimately, 47 articles closely related to the topic of interest were reviewed. When the relevant data were compiled, the following 10 entities were identified: occlusal/orthodontic trauma, periodontal disease/periodontitis, pulpo-periapical lesions, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, progressive systemic sclerosis, radiation-induced bone defect, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, and osteomyelitis. Conclusion Although PDL widening may be encountered by many dentists during their routine daily procedures, the clinician should consider some serious related conditions as well. PMID:28035300
Dias, P E M; Beaini, T L; Melani, R F H
Age estimation by counting incremental lines in cementum added to the average age of tooth eruption is considered an accurate method by some authors, while others reject it stating weak correlation between estimated and actual age. The aim of this study was to evaluate this technique and check the influence of periodontal disease on age estimates by analyzing both the number of cementum lines and the correlation between cementum thickness and actual age on freshly extracted teeth. Thirty one undecalcified ground cross sections of approximately 30 µm, from 25 teeth were prepared, observed, photographed and measured. Images were enhanced by software and counts were made by one observer, and the results compared with two control-observers. There was moderate correlation ((r)=0.58) for the entire sample, with mean error of 9.7 years. For teeth with periodontal pathologies, correlation was 0.03 with a mean error of 22.6 years. For teeth without periodontal pathologies, correlation was 0.74 with mean error of 1.6 years. There was correlation of 0.69 between cementum thickness and known age for the entire sample, 0.25 for teeth with periodontal problems and 0.75 for teeth without periodontal pathologies. The technique was reliable for periodontally sound teeth, but not for periodontally diseased teeth.
In periodontitis, dysbiotic microbial communities exhibit synergistic interactions for enhanced protection from host defenses, nutrient acquisition, and persistence in an inflammatory environment. This review discusses evidence that periodontitis-associated communities are 'inflammo-philic' (=loving or attracted to inflammation) in that they have evolved to not only endure inflammation but also to take advantage of it. In this regard, inflammation can drive the selection and enrichment of these pathogenic communities by providing a source of nutrients in the form of tissue breakdown products (e.g. degraded collagen peptides and heme-containing compounds). In contrast, those species that cannot benefit from the altered ecological conditions of the inflammatory environment, or for which host inflammation is detrimental, are likely to be outcompeted. Consistent with the concept that inflammation fosters the growth of dysbiotic microbial communities, the bacterial biomass of human periodontitis-associated biofilms was shown to increase with increasing periodontal inflammation. Conversely, anti-inflammatory treatments in animal models of periodontitis were shown to diminish the periodontal bacterial load, in addition to protecting from bone loss. The selective flourishing of inflammophilic bacteria can perpetuate inflammatory tissue destruction by setting off a 'vicious cycle' for disease progression, in which dysbiosis and inflammation reinforce each other. Therefore, the control of inflammation appears to be central to the treatment of periodontitis, as it is likely to control both dysbiosis and disease progression.
Sbordone, L; Di Genio, M; Bortolaia, C
Strong relationships have been very often described between various form of periodontal disease (PD) and certain bacterial species, so that nowadays periodontal disease is recognized as an infectious disease. Destruction of periodontal supporting tissues happens as a response to very intricate host-parasite interactions. When the clinician will be able to fully understand and identify such phenomena it would be possible to succeed in a properly diagnosis and control of the active phase of periodontal disease. The first step in such a direction would be to analyze the common characteristic of some bacterial species, the so called suspected periodontopathogens. Such species namely Gram-negative, associated with the outbreak of periodontal disease have in common the capacity to disrupt the integrity of the host defences by means of the so called virulence factors. These factors may enhance the bacterial colonization or may interfere with the host response that ultimately results in periodontal support breakdown. The present review focuses on the virulence factors of the main suspected periodontopathogens evaluating the effects on the host immune response and directly on the periodontal tissues.
El-Shinnawi, Una; Soory, Mena
There is a significant prevalence of subjects with periodontitis presenting with other inflammatory conditions such as coronary heart disease, insulin resistance and arthritis. This pattern of disease presentation underscores the importance of inflammatory loading from chronic diseases, in driving their pathogeneses in a multidirectional manner. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and other agents play an important role in this process; for example, a single nucleotide polymorphism of the TNF-α gene is associated with significant periodontal attachment loss in patients with coronary heart disease. Changes in gene expression associated with inflammation and lipid metabolism in response to oral infection with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) have been demonstrated in mouse models, independent of the demonstration of atherosclerotic lesions. Insulin resistance is considered to be a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition, associated with altered glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, central obesity and coronary heart disease. It is accompanied by elevated levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α also relevant to the progression of periodontitis. There is evidence that uncontrolled periodontal disease contributes to maintenance of systemic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with increased risk of periodontitis in subjects with RA. The periodontal pathogen Pg is significant in contributing to citrullination of proteins resulting in immune dysregulation and autoimmune responses, seen in RA. However, they are both multifactorial chronic diseases with complex etiopathogeneses that affect their presentation. Consistent but weak associations are seen for surrogate markers of periodontitis such as tooth loss, with multiple systemic conditions. Effective treatment of periodontitis would be important in reducing systemic inflammatory loading from chronic local inflammation and in achieving systemic health. Lack of a consistent cause and effect relationship
Mahanonda, Rangsini; Champaiboon, Chantrakorn; Subbalekha, Keskanya; Sa-Ard-Iam, Noppadol; Rattanathammatada, Warattaya; Thawanaphong, Saranya; Rerkyen, Pimprapa; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Nagano, Keiji; Lang, Niklaus P; Pichyangkul, Sathit
The presence of inflammatory infiltrates with B cells, specifically plasma cells, is the hallmark of periodontitis lesions. The composition of these infiltrates in various stages of homeostasis and disease development is not well documented. Human tissue biopsies from sites with gingival health (n = 29), gingivitis (n = 8), and periodontitis (n = 21) as well as gingival tissue after treated periodontitis (n = 6) were obtained and analyzed for their composition of B cell subsets. Ag specificity, Ig secretion, and expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and granzyme B were performed. Although most of the B cell subsets in healthy gingiva and gingivitis tissues were CD19(+)CD27(+)CD38(-) memory B cells, the major B cell component in periodontitis was CD19(+)CD27(+)CD38(+)CD138(+)HLA-DR(low) plasma cells, not plasmablasts. Plasma cell aggregates were observed at the base of the periodontal pocket and scattered throughout the gingiva, especially apically toward the advancing front of the lesion. High expression of CXCL12, a proliferation-inducing ligand, B cell-activating factor, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-21 molecules involved in local B cell responses was detected in both gingivitis and periodontitis tissues. Periodontitis tissue plasma cells mainly secreted IgG specific to periodontal pathogens and also expressed receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, a bone resorption cytokine. Memory B cells resided in the connective tissue subjacent to the junctional epithelium in healthy gingiva. This suggested a role of memory B cells in maintaining periodontal homeostasis.
Chandra, Anuja; Yadav, Om Prakash; Narula, Sugandha; Dutta, Angel
Objective: India suffers lot of disparities in terms of oral health care and 95% of the Indian population suffers from periodontal disease. The aim of this review is to estimate the risk factors responsible for periodontal diseases as well as prevalence for the same in the last decade to make an attempt to develop a strategy to improve formulation of an effective oral health care policy in India. Materials and Methods: Keywords such as “prevalence of periodontal diseases,” “epidemiology,” “periodontitis in India,” and “oral hygiene status in India” were searched for appropriate studies to obtain a bibliographic database. The references of selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications that included studies conducted in India estimating periodontal diseases with adequate sample size. Clinical parameters, sample size, and findings for each study were tabulated from 2006 to 2015 (till September 15, 2015) in chronological order to observe the prevalence as well as epidemiology of periodontal disease in India. Results: The projection of periodontal disease is disturbing. In addition, the majority of studies done have used the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) as its epidemiological tool that can grossly underestimate the presence of deep pockets. Conclusion: Current knowledge has shown that periodontitis does not present a linear progression and is not age-dependent. Moreover, its distribution and severity are strongly influenced by host susceptibility and risk factors. A structured all-inclusive survey of all districts of the states is a prerequisite for the constitution of an apt and cogent health care policy in our country. PMID:27114945
Preethi, Penubolu Lakshmi; Rao, Suresh Rango; Madapusi, Balaji Thodur; Narasimhan, Malathi
Background: Ki-67 which is a non-histone nuclear protein which is expressed in proliferating cells, during all the active phases of the cell cycle. Increased Ki-67 expression has been seen in several inflammatory and malignant conditions like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, pancreatitis and squamous cell carcinoma. Aim: The aim of the present study is to analyze the expression of Ki-67 in gingival tissues by immunohistochemistry in smokers and non-smokers with healthy gingiva and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Gingival biopsies (n = 32) were obtained from smokers who had clinically healthy gingiva (n = 8), smokers with periodontitis (n = 8), chronic periodontitis (n = 8) and healthy gingiva (n = 8). The expression of Ki-67 was evaluated immunohistochemically. Statistical analysis used: Mean and standard deviation were estimated for the gingival tissue extract sample for each study group. Mean values were compared between different study groups by, one way ANOVA, post hoc analysis. In this study P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The mean number of Ki-67 positive cells/field was higher in the smokers with periodontitis group. When the mean Ki-67 positive cells were compared between different groups, statistical significant difference was observed between healthy and both the periodontitis groups (P = 0.000) and between smokers group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Ki-67 was maximally expressed in smoker with periodontitis followed by chronic periodontitis patients, healthy smokers and healthy control patients which shed light on the toxic effects of tobacco in dysregulating the cell cycle and cellular proliferation. The findings of this study also help us to understand the role of the cell cycle in resolution of periodontal inflammation which is a salient feature in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. PMID:24872622
Dangaria, Smit J.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Walker, Cameron; Druzinsky, Robert; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a specialized connective tissue that connects the surface of the tooth root with the bony tooth socket. The healthy PDL harbors stem cell niches and extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments that facilitate periodontal regeneration. During periodontal disease, the PDL is often compromised or destroyed, reducing the life-span of the tooth. In order to explore new approaches toward the regeneration of diseased periodontal tissues, we have tested the effect of periodontal ECM signals, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and the cell adhesion peptide Arg-Gly- Asp (RGD) on the differentiation of two types of periodontal progenitor cells, PDL progenitor cells (PDLPs) and dental follicle progenitor cells (DFCs). Our studies documented that CTGF and FGF2 significantly enhanced the expression of collagens I & III, biglycan and periostin in tissue engineered regenerates after 4 weeks compared to untreated controls. Specifically, CTGF promoted mature PDL-like tissue regeneration as demonstrated by dense periostin localization in collagen fiber bundles. CTGF and FGF2 displayed synergistic effects on collagen III and biglycan gene expression, while effects on mineralization were antagonistic to each other: CTGF promoted while FGF2 inhibited mineralization in PDL cell cultures. Incorporation of RGD peptides in hydrogel matrices significantly enhanced attachment, spreading, survival and mineralization of the encapsulated DFCs, suggesting that RGD additives might promote the use of hydrogels for periodontal mineralized tissue engineering. Together, our studies have documented the effect of three key components of the periodontal ECM on the differentiation of periodontal progenitor populations. PMID:19433344
Alfonso-Rodríguez, Camilo Andrés; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L.; Alaminos, Miguel; Toledano, Manuel
Aims to design calcium and zinc-loaded bioactive and cytocompatible nanoparticles for the treatment of periodontal disease. Methods PolymP-nActive nanoparticles were zinc or calcium loaded. Biomimetic calcium phosphate precipitation on polymeric particles was assessed after 7 days immersion in simulated body fluid, by scanning electron microscopy attached to an energy dispersive analysis system. Amorphous mineral deposition was probed by X-ray diffraction. Cell viability analysis was performed using oral mucosa fibroblasts by: 1) quantifying the liberated deoxyribonucleic acid from dead cells, 2) detecting the amount of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme released by cells with damaged membranes, and 3) by examining the cytoplasmic esterase function and cell membranes integrity with a fluorescence-based method using the Live/Dead commercial kit. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Precipitation of calcium and phosphate on the nanoparticles surfaces was observed in calcium-loaded nanoparticles. Non-loaded nanoparticles were found to be non-toxic in all the assays, calcium and zinc-loaded particles presented a dose dependent but very low cytotoxic effect. Conclusions The ability of calcium-loaded nanoparticles to promote precipitation of calcium phosphate deposits, together with their observed non-toxicity may offer new strategies for periodontal disease treatment. PMID:27820866
Hinders, Mark K.; Lynch, John E.; McCombs, Gayle B.
A new ultrasonic periodontal probe has been developed that offers the potential for earlier detection of periodontal disease activity, non-invasive diagnosis, and greater reliability of measurement. A comparison study of the ultrasonic probe to both a manual probe, and a controlled-force probe was conducted to evaluate its clinical effectiveness. Twelve patients enrolled into this study. Two half-month examinations were conducted on each patient, scheduled one hour apart. A one-way analysis of variance was performed to compare the results for the three sets of probing depth measurements, followed by a repeated measures analysis to assess the reproducibility of the different probing techniques. These preliminary findings indicate that manual and ultrasonic probing measure different features of the pocket. Therefore, it is not obvious how the two depth measurements correspond to each other. However, both methods exhibited a similar tendency toward increasing pocket depths as Gingival Index scores increased. Based on the small sample size, further studies need to be conducted using a larger population of patients exhibiting a wider range of disease activity. In addition, studies that allow histological examination of the pocket after probing will help further evaluate the clinical effectiveness the ultrasonic probe. Future studies will also aid in the development of more effective automated feature recognition algorithms that convert the ultrasonic echoes into pocket depth readings.
Balasubramanian, K; Arshad, L Mohamed; Priya, B Dhathri
Cosmetic procedures involving gingival reconstruction have become an integral part of current periodontal practice. The ability to cover unsightly exposed, sensitive roots and recontour soft tissue recessions have added an esthetic angle to the traditional concept of biological and functional periodontal health. The recession of the gingiva, either localized or generalized, may be associated with one or more surfaces, resulting in attachment loss and root exposure, which can lead to clinical problems such as diminished cosmetic appeal and aesthetic concern. Marginal gingival recession, therefore, can cause major functional and aesthetic problems and should not be viewed as merely a soft tissue defect, but rather as the destruction of both the soft and hard tissue. Treatment proposals for this type of defect have evolved based on the knowledge for healing the gingiva and the attachment system. This case report describes a clinical case of severe Miller Class II gingival recession treated by two stages of surgery that combined a free gingival graft and connective tissue grafting. First, a free gingival graft (FGG) was performed to obtain an adequate keratinized tissue level. Three months later, a connective tissue graft (CTG)was performed to obtain root coverage. The results indicated that the FGG allows for a gain in the keratinized tissue level and the CTG allows for root coverage with decreased recession level after 6 months. Therefore, for this type of specific gingival recession, the combined use of FGG and CTG still serves as a Gold Standard in predictable root coverage.
Mittal, Vishnu; Bhullar, Raman Preet K.; Bansal, Rachita; Singh, Karanprakash; Bhalodi, Anand; Khinda, Paramjit K.
The Diagnosis and classification of periodontal diseases has remained a dilemma since long. Two distinct concepts have been used to define diseases: Essentialism and Nominalism. Essentialistic concept implies the real existence of disease whereas; nominalistic concept states that the names of diseases are the convenient way of stating concisely the endpoint of a diagnostic process. It generally advances from assessment of symptoms and signs toward knowledge of causation and gives a feasible option to name the disease for which etiology is either unknown or it is too complex to access in routine clinical practice. Various classifications have been proposed by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) in 1986, 1989 and 1999. The AAP 1999 classification is among the most widely used classification. But this classification also has demerits which provide impediment for its use in day to day practice. Hence a classification and diagnostic system is required which can help the clinician to access the patient's need and provide a suitable treatment which is in harmony with the diagnosis for that particular case. Here is an attempt to propose a practicable classification and diagnostic system of periodontal diseases for better treatment outcome. PMID:24379855
Azaripour, Adriano; Willershausen, Ines; Kämmerer, Philipp; Willershausen, Brita
Two patients were diagnosed with combined endodontic-periodontal lesions. Endodontic treatment was performed, followed by surgery. In addition, the regeneration process was supported by the application of an enamel matrix derivate alone or in combination with guided bone regeneration techniques. At recall visits after 24 months, the teeth were asymptomatic and marked bone regeneration had occurred in both patients. The successful post-endodontic treatment of combined endodontic-periodontal lesions, using periodontal surgery and as adjunct guided tissue regenerative techniques, is presented. Further, the possibility of saving teeth, even with severely apparent pathology, should be highlighted.
Laudenbach, Joel M; Simon, Ziv
Physicians may encounter patients with dental and periodontal diseases in the context of outpatient medical practice. It is important for physicians to be aware of common dental and periodontal conditions and be able to assess for the presence and severity of these diseases. This article reviews common dental and periodontal conditions, their cardinal signs and symptoms, outpatient-setting assessment techniques, as well as common methods of treatment. Physicians detecting gross abnormalities on clinical examination should refer the patient to a dentist for further evaluation and management.
Sabatoski, Claudio Vinicius; Bueno, Regis Claret; Reyes Pacheco, Ariel Adriano; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro
A 41-year-old man had a significant loss of bone and supporting tissues with pathologic migration of several teeth and several missing teeth. He was treated with an interdisciplinary therapeutic protocol that included nonsurgical periodontal therapy based on strict control of supragingival plaque, subgingival periodontal therapy, orthodontic and endodontic treatment, and replacement of restorations. The orthodontic therapy was performed in a severely reduced bone support and the presence of pathological tooth migration after periodontal disease control. The interdisciplinary treatment protocol was the key to achieve a significant improvement in his facial and dental esthetics, masticatory function, and quality of life. PMID:26587295
Pinto, Graça; Silva, Maria Daniela; Peddey, Mark; Sillankorva, Sanna; Azeredo, Joana
The human periodontium health is commonly compromised by chronic inflammatory conditions and has become a major public health concern. Dental plaque, the precursor of periodontal disease, is a complex biofilm consisting mainly of bacteria, but also archaea, protozoa, fungi and viruses. Viruses that specifically infect bacteria - bacteriophages - are most common in the oral cavity. Despite this, their role in the progression of periodontal disease remains poorly explored. This review aims to summarize how bacteriophages interact with the oral microbiota, their ability to increase bacterial virulence and mediate the transfer of resistance genes and suggests how bacteriophages can be used as an alternative to the current periodontal disease therapies.
Pavlic, Verica; Vujic-Aleksic, Vesna; Zubovic, Nina; Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana
Buerger’s disease (BD) is a relatively rare thrombotic, occlusive and non-atherosclerotic clinical syndrome of unknown etiology. In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies confirmed the strong association between chronic anaerobic periodontal infection and development of cardiovascular diseases, including BD. Therefore, the aim of this study is to clarify association between periodontal pathogens and Buerger’s disease. Confirmation of presence and identification of periopathogens in patients with BD can be considered crucial in developing novel therapies for BD. Further, periodontal therapy will lead to eventual improvement of BD patients’ condition. PMID:24554799
Juan, M C; Alcañiz, M; Monserrat, C; Grau, V; Knoll, C
Periodontal diseases are the major cause of tooth loss. The study of the evolution of these diseases is crucial to achieve adequate planning and treatment. Depth probing is essential to know the periodontal disease stage. In this paper we present a new system for Computer-Aided Periodontal Disease Diagnosis using computer vision. The system automates the depth probing and incorporates a colour camera fitted together with a plastic probe that automatically and exactly obtains the depth probing measure. The system has been tested by several periodontists and with 125 teeth of different patients. The differences between the values taken by the system and two periodontists have not been significant.
Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.
In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.
Novak, M J; Polson, A M; Caton, J; Freeman, E; Meitner, S
A 22-year-old black male was referred for periodontal therapy because of radiographic evidence of advanced bone loss associated with the posterior teeth. Clinical examination revealed gingivitis, normal sulcus depths, and minimal loss of clinical attachment. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry, and neutrophil function were within normal limits. Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural analysis of an extracted tooth revealed no loss of attachment; large areas of the cementum were collagen-poor and, ultrastructurally, resembled afibrillar cementum. It is proposed that the periodontal attachment mechanism present in this case was associated with a localized failure in normal periodontal development.
Teeuw, Wijnand J; Kosho, Madeline X F; Poland, Dennis C W; Gerdes, Victor E A; Loos, Bruno G
Objective The early diagnosis of (pre)diabetes mellitus is essential for the prevention of diabetes complications. It has been suggested that gum disease (periodontitis) might be an early complication of diabetes and may be a useful risk indicator for diabetes screening. Therefore, a dental office could be a good location for screening for (pre)diabetes in patients with periodontitis using a validated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) dry spot analysis. Research design and methods A total of 313 individuals from a university dental clinic participated. From 126 patients with mild/moderate periodontitis, 78 patients with severe periodontitis and 109 subjects without periodontitis, HbA1c values were obtained by the analysis of dry blood spots. Differences in mean HbA1c values and the prevalence of (pre)diabetes between the groups were analyzed. Results The mild/moderate and severe periodontitis groups showed significantly higher HbA1c values (6.1%±1.4% (43 mmol/mol±15 mmol/mol) and 6.3%±1.3% (45 mmol/mol±15 mmol/mol), respectively) compared with the control group (5.7%±0.7% (39 mmol/mol±8 mmol/mol), p=0.003). In addition, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines for diagnosis, there was a significant over-representation of subjects with suspected diabetes (23% and 14%) and pre-diabetes (47% and 46%) in the severe periodontitis group and mild/moderate periodontitis groups, respectively, compared with the control group (10% and 37%, p=0.010). Notably, 18.1% of patients with suspected new diabetes were found among subjects with severe periodontitis compared with 9.9% and 8.5% among subjects with mild/moderate periodontitis and controls, respectively (p=0.024). Conclusions The dental office, with particular focus on patients with severe periodontitis, proved to be a suitable location for screening for (pre)diabetes; a considerable number of suspected new diabetes cases were identified. The early diagnosis and treatment of (pre
Steffens, João Paulo; Glaci Reinke, Stella Maria; Angel Muñoz, Miguel; Santos, Fábio André dos; Luiz Pilatti, Gibson
There may be an interaction between periodontal disease and some systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The objective of this review was to verify, by means of a review of clinical trials, if there is a positive association between periodontal disease and the glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) patients. Eleven articles that fi t the study criteria were revised. It was concluded that periodontal disease may influence the metabolic control of DM-2. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow up are necessary for a better clarification of this issue.
Morris, P L; Whitley, B D; Orr, M B; Laws, A J
Detailed examinations were made of the central permanent incisors and periodontia of 30 or 40 ewes on each of one control farm and three periodontal disease (P.D.) farms. The study confirmed that incisor crown lengthening, protrusion and loosening were significant features of P.D. Periodontitis (assessed by increased sulcus depth and bleeding after probing) about the lingual sulcus was a significant feature of P.D. Labial gingivitis and labial periodontitis were not significant features. A relatively long lower jaw did not appear to be a feature of P.D. 87.
Nuti, Niccolò; Ferrari, Marco
Summary A 59-year-old man suffering from Paget’s disease of bone and periodontal disease was examined in anticipation of bisphosphonate treatment. The previous therapy with clodronate resulted ineffective and markers of bone turnover were markedly elevated. Periodontal disease was correctly approached and treated with an excellent outcome. 5 mg zoledronate iv infusion induced a remarkable reduction of bone markers which persisted on time within the normal range. After zoledronate treatment no signs of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) were observed. A correct management of periodontal disease is mandatory in pagetic patients on bisphosphonate treatment. PMID:26604949
Dadlani, Himanshu; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Mehta, Dhoom Singh
Pathological tooth migration is a characteristic sign of an advanced form of chronic periodontitis. The etiology of pathological tooth migration is complex and multifactorial. Usually treatment of pathological migration includes a multidisciplinary approach. However, in some cases, spontaneous repositioning of the pathologically migrated teeth has been reported following periodontal therapy alone. In the present report, following periodontal surgery, there was a spontaneous repositioning of the migrated teeth and restoration of dento-facial esthetics. The treatment options in cases of pathological tooth migration, based on the severity, are also discussed. PMID:24174739
Kumaresan, Dhanangchaayan; Balasundaram, Aruna; Naik, Vanaja Krishna; Appukuttan, Deva Priya
Objective: Periostin is a matricellular protein highly expressed in periosteum, periodontal ligament and is essential for tissue integrity and maturation. It plays a role in collagen fibrillogenesis and is downregulated in periodontal disease. Biostimulation utilizing low-level laser therapy (LLLT) influences periodontal ligament fibroblast proliferation. This study was conducted with the objective of estimating periostin levels in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients following LLLT as an adjunct to root surface debridement (RSD). Materials and Methods: Thirty periodontally healthy participants (Group I) and sixty CP participants were recruited. Based on the therapeutic intervention, CP patients were allocated to either RSD (Group II) or to RSD with LLLT (Group III) group. Clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) periostin levels were assessed at the baseline and at the 3rd month. Results: Periostin levels were significantly lower in CP patients when compared to healthy individuals at the baseline (P < 0.01). Following nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT), periostin levels significantly increased in both Group II and III, when compared to baseline values (P < 0.001). Comparison of mean periostin levels between both the treatment groups showed a significant increase in LLLT group than RSD at the 3rd month (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, LLLT application was found to have additional benefits over RSD with respect to clinical periodontal parameters and GCF periostin levels. Moreover, periostin may be used as a possible biomarker to evaluate the outcome following NSPT. PMID:28042273
Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Gonçalves, Barbara Mulatinho Lopo; Fontes, Tatiana Vasconcellos
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has decreased the incidence and prevalence of several oral manifestations such as oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, and Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected patients. Regarding periodontal disease the findings are not clear. This disease represents a group of chronic oral diseases characterized by infection and inflammation of the periodontal tissues. These tissues surround the teeth and provide periodontal protection (the gingival tissue) and periodontal support (periodontal ligament, root cementum, alveolar bone). Clinical, immunological, and microbiological aspects of these diseases, such as linear gingival erythema (LGE), necrotizing periodontal diseases (NPD) (necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis [NUG], necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis [NUP] and necrotizing stomatitis), and chronic periodontitis, have been widely studied in HIV-infected individuals, but without providing conclusive results. The purpose of this review was to contribute to a better overall understanding of the probable impact of HIV-infection on the characteristics of periodontal infections.
Damgaard, C; Holmstrup, P; Van Dyke, T E; Nielsen, C H
Periodontitis is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease in tooth supporting tissues, induced by bacteria growing in a biofilm on tooth surfaces. Components of the complement system are present in the periodontal tissue and the system is activated in periodontitis. Continuous complement activation and modulation by bacteria within the biofilm in periodontal pockets, however, may enhance local tissue destruction, providing the biofilm with both essential nutrients and space to grow. A more profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in complement-derived tissue degradation may facilitate the development of new treatment concepts for periodontitis. Further studies on the role of complement in periodontitis pathogenesis may also contribute to the understanding of why some individuals fail to resolve periodontitis. Here, we review evidence that links complement to the pathogenesis of periodontitis with an emphasis on interaction of complement with bacteria from periodontitis-associated biofilm.
Palys, Michael D.; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.; Giannobile, William V.
Crevicular fluid pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (ICTP) is predictive for future alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in dogs. The present study sought to relate ICTP to a panel of subgingival species in subjects exhibiting various clinical presentations such as health (n=7), gingivitis (n=8) and periodontitis (n=21). 28 subgingival plaque and GCF samples were taken from mesiobuccal sites in each of 36 subjects. The presence and levels of 40 subgingival taxa were determined in plaque samples using whole genomic DNA probes and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. GCF ICTP levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Clinical assessments made at the same sites included: BOP, gingival redness, plaque, pocket depth, and attachment level. Differences among ICTP levels in the 3 subject groups were sought using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Relationships between ICTP levels and clinical parameters as well as subgingival species were determined by regression analysis. The results demonstrated significant differences among disease categories for GCF ICTP levels for healthy (1.1+0.6 pg/site (mean±SEM)) gingivitis (14.8±6.6 pg/site) and peridontitis subjects (30.3+5.7 pg/site) (p=0.0017). ICTP levels related modestly to several clinical parameters. Regression analysis indicated that ICTP levels correlated strongly with mean subject levels of several periodontal pathogens including B. forsythus, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, P. nigrescens and T. denticola (p<0.01). The data indicate that there is a positive relationship between the putative bone resorptive marker ICTP and periodontal pathogens. PMID:9846794
Susin, Cristiano; Fiorini, Tiago; Lee, Jaebum; De Stefano, Jamie A; Dickinson, Douglas P; Wikesjö, Ulf M E
Clinical studies have evaluated the effect of conventional periodontal surgical therapy. In general, although some clinical gain in tissue support may be attained, these therapies do not support regeneration of the periodontal attachment. Even though the biological possibility of periodontal regeneration has been demonstrated, the clinical application of this intrinsic potential appears difficult to harness; thus also conceptually most intriguing candidate protocols face clinical challenges. In this review, we explore the bioclinical principles, condiciones sine quibus non, that unleash the innate potential of the periodontium to achieve clinically meaningful periodontal regeneration (i.e. space-provision, wound stability and conditions for primary intention healing). Moreover, limiting factors and detrimental practices that may compromise clinical and biological outcomes are reviewed, as is tissue management in clinical settings.
Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R
A total of 171 taxa was represented among 1,900 bacterial isolates from 60 samples of sites affected with moderate periodontitis in 22 mature adult humans. The composition of the subgingival sulcus flora was statistically significantly different from that of the adjacent supragingival flora and the subgingival flora of 14 people with healthy gingiva, but was not significantly different from that of sulci affected with severe periodontitis in 21 young human adults. The sulcus floras of moderate periodontitis and severe periodontitis shared many of their predominant bacterial species, but there were differences in the relative proportions of some of these species. Similar relationships were found for seven taxa of treponemes that were cultured from the samples. PMID:6642641
Farsi, J M A
The aim of this study was to report on dental visit patterns and their association with periodontal health among young Saudi Arabian students. A representative sample of 3090 students was randomly selected. The students' dental visit patterns were assessed with a questionnaire. Clinical examinations were carried out using the community periodontal index of treatment needs. Age, sex and education level were significantly associated with the periodontal health. The prevalence of periodontal disease was significantly lower among subjects who were taught the right way to brush their teeth by the dentist. The highest occurrence of healthy periodontium (23.9%) and the lowest need for complex treatment (0%) were found among students who had annual reminders for check-ups (only 2.8% of the students).
Huynh, Hong T. T.; Pignoly, Marion; Nkamga, Vanessa D.; Drancourt, Michel; Aboudharam, Gérard
In previous studies, the abundance and diversity of methanogenic archaea in the dental microbiota have been analysed by the detection of specific DNA sequences by PCR-based investigations and metagenomic studies. Few data issued regarding methanogens actually living in dental plaque. We collected dental plaque specimens in 15 control individuals and 65 periodontitis patients. Dental plaque specimens were cultured in an anoxic liquid medium for methanogens in the presence of negative control tubes. Dental plaque methanogens were cultured from 1/15 (6.67%) control and 36/65 (55.38%) periodontitis patient samples (p<0.001). The cultures yielded Methanobrevibacter oralis in one control and thirty-one patients, Methanobrevibacter smithii in two patients and a potential new species named Methanobrevibacter sp. strain N13 in three patients with severe periodontitis. Our observations of living methanogens, strengthen previous observations made on DNA-based studies regarding the role of methanogens, in periodontitis. PMID:25830311
Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha
Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. Aims and Objectives: A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. Results: None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Conclusion: Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population. PMID:25177632
Grudyanov, A I; Tkacheva, O N; Avraamova, T V
The aim of the study was to assess correlative risk of progression of inflammatory periodontal lesions, the development of a systemic inflammatory reaction and cardiovascular diseases. The study involved 89 patients with chronic periodontal disease (CPD) of varying degrees. High cardiovascular disease risk was revealed in 8.8% of patients with moderate and 13.3% of patients with severe periodontal disease. It is proved that an additional factor contributing to the pathogenic relationship between periodontal inflammatory changes and the development of cardiovascular disease is systemic inflammatory response with increased hrC-reactive protein >3.4 mg/l and interleukin-6 to11.0±3.4 mg/l. Changes of blood lipid spectrum with a reduction in apolipoprotein A1 were associated with progression and development of the CPD. Correlations of somatic and dental pathology requires dentists and cardiologists joint efforts to modify common risk factors.
Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Nadanovsky, Paulo
This article reports a critical analysis of epidemiologic studies that evaluated periodontal disease as a cause of cardiovascular disease. Thirty-five studies were identified through a manual search of the special abstracts volumes of the Journal of Dental Research, as well as an electronic search on MEDLINE, LILACS, and ISI and inspection of the articles' bibliographies. Inclusion criteria were: articles in any language published between 1989 and 2000 reporting the presence or absence of an association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. Available studies are scarce, and interpretations are limited by potential bias and confounding. The studies analyzed (whether separately or jointly) fail to provide convincing epidemiologic evidence for a causal association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. Although the possibility that oral diseases can cause cardiovascular diseases cannot be discarded, until better data are available, periodontal disease should not be incriminated as a cause of cardiovascular disease.
Shaddox, Luciana M; Walker, Clay B
Periodontitis affects roughly one-third of the US population. A timely diagnosis of chronic periodontitis at its earliest stage is essential to avoid more challenging severe stages of the disease. Most cases of slight and moderate chronic periodontitis can be successfully managed by mechanical removal and/or reduction of subgingival bacterial biofilms and calculus. However, any factor that affects either the local environment or the host response may contribute to progression of the disease and a poor treatment response. Thus, it is essential that clinicians are aware of etiologic and risk factors associated with disease development and progression in order to plan and execute a successful treatment. This paper reviews a variety of risk factors, both local and systemic, that can impact the successful treatment of chronic periodontitis. PMID:23662085
Lavezzi, P; Mengalli, P; Savoldi, E
Periodontal disease, an affection of bacterial etiology, causes the destruction of the periodontal tissue. From both the diagnostic and the prognostic points of view, it is extremely important to evaluate the changes occurring in the alveolar bone in patients affected with periodontal disease. The information obtained by conventional radiographic techniques is usually poor due to the overlapping of anatomical structures and to the lack of an axial view of the structures. CT, thanks to millimetrical sections of the dental structures along the planes which parallel the hard palate, allows the evaluation of: 1) the size and the relationship between teeth roots, with no overlapping of anatomical structures; 2) bone thickness; 3) very early bone lesions around the teeth roots. The authors suggest CT as a valuable tool in the study of periodontal disease in its early stage and in the evaluation of advanced lesions, both before treatment and during follow-up, when it is important to check the results of conservative treatment.
Sculean, Anton; Schwarz, Frank; Becker, Jurgen; Brecx, Michel
Regenerative periodontal therapy aims at reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures such as new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Findings from basic research indicate that enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) has a key role in periodontal wound healing. Histological results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. This review aims to present an overview of evidence-based clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD.
Background Periodontal disease (PD) is the most widespread oral disease in dogs and has been associated with serious systemic diseases. The disease is more prevalent in small breeds compared to large breeds and incidence increases with advancing age. In prevalence studies 84% of beagles over the age of 3 and 100% of poodles over the age of 4 were diagnosed with PD. Current knowledge of the rate of progression of PD is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the rate of PD progression in miniature schnauzers, an at risk small breed of dog. Dogs (n = 52, age 1.3-6.9 years) who had received a regular oral care regime prior to this study were assessed for levels of gingivitis and periodontitis around the whole gingival margin in every tooth under general anaesthetic. Assessments were conducted approximately every six weeks for up to 60 weeks following the cessation of the oral care regime. Results All of the 2155 teeth assessed entered the study with some level of gingivitis. 23 teeth entered the study with periodontitis, observed across 12 dogs aged between 1.3 and 6.9 years. 35 dogs had at least 12 teeth progress to periodontitis within 60 weeks. Of the teeth that progressed to periodontitis, 54% were incisors. The lingual aspect of the incisors was significantly more likely to be affected (p < 0.001). The severity of gingivitis in periodontitis-affected teeth was variable with 24% of the aspects affected having very mild gingivitis, 36% mild gingivitis and 40% moderate gingivitis. Periodontitis progression rate was significantly faster in older dogs. Only one dog (age 3.5) did not have any teeth progress to periodontitis after 60 weeks. Conclusions This is the first study to have assessed the progression rate of periodontitis in miniature schnauzers and highlights that with no oral care regime, the early stages of periodontitis develop rapidly in this breed. An oral care regime and twice yearly veterinary dental health checks should be
Hasan, A; Palmer, R M
An appreciation of dental plaque and the host response provides an essential basis from which to understand the disease process and treatment rationale. This information will help the reader to understand not only the way that plaque may have an impact on oral tissues but also why regular effective cleaning may improve periodontal health and why some individuals appear to have a greater susceptibility to periodontitis than others, either intrinsically or in relation to various systemic factors.
Chen, Fa-Ming; Sun, Hai-Hua; Lu, Hong; Yu, Qing
Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease, is the most common cause of tooth loss in adults. Attempts to regenerate the complex system of tooth-supporting apparatus (i.e., the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and root cementum) after loss/damage due to periodontitis have made some progress recently and provide a useful experimental model for the evaluation of future regenerative therapies. Concentrated efforts have now moved from the use of guided tissue/bone regeneration technology, a variety of growth factors and various bone grafts/substitutes toward the design and practice of endogenous regenerative technology by recruitment of host cells (cell homing) or stem cell-based therapeutics by transplantation of outside cells to enhance periodontal tissue regeneration and its biomechanical integration. This shift is driven by the general inability of conventional therapies to deliver satisfactory outcomes, particularly in cases where the disease has caused large tissue defects in the periodontium. Cell homing and cell transplantation are both scientifically meritorious approaches that show promise to completely and reliably reconstitute all tissue and connections damaged through periodontal disease, and hence research into both directions should continue. In view of periodontal regeneration by paradigms that unlock the body's innate regenerative potential has been reviewed elsewhere, this paper specifically explores and analyses the stem cell types and cell delivery strategies that have been or have the potential to be used as therapeutics in periodontal regenerative medicine, with particular emphasis placed on the efficacy and safety concerns of current stem cell-based periodontal therapies that may eventually enter into the clinic.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on functional characteristics of leukocyte adhesion molecules, on their localization and specific ligands. In fact, leukocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to endothelium is an essential step in promoting adequate immune response to bacterial infections. Since periodontal health is highly dependent on neutrophil function against the microbial dental plaque, defects in chemotaxis and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium often result in severe, early onset periodontitis. Furthermore, oral lesions may be the only clinical manifestation of neutrophil impairment.
Pires, Juliana Rico; dos Santos, Isac Pinheiro; de Camargo, Lilian Flosi; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; de Toledo, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa; Monteiro, Sally Cristina Moutinho
Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition that has been associated to a risk factor for the development of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship still needs to be clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk in obese patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 obese patients were evaluated for anthropometric data (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, body fat), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glycemia and periodontal parameters (visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL)). Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to the periodontal characteristics found: Group O-PD: Obese patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 45), 22 men and 23 women; and Group O-sPD: Obese patients without chronic periodontitis (n = 42), 17 men and 25 women. Patients had a BMI mean of 35.2 (±5.1) kg/m2 . Group O-PD showed a similarity between the genders regarding age, SBP, DBP, cholesterol, HDL, GBI, VPI, PPD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥4 mm. O-PD women showed greater glycemia level and smoking occurrence, but O-PD men presented a 13% - risk over of developing coronary artery disease in 10 years than O-PD women, 9% - risk over than O-sPD men and 15% - risk over than O-sPD women, by the Framingham Score. Conclusions: It was concluded that obesity and periodontal disease are cardiovascular risk factors and that the two associated inflammatory conditions potentially increases the risk for heart diseases. PMID:24744538
Maloney, W J
Mark Twain provides a humorous and insightful look into the origins of periodontal therapy and anesthesia in "Happy Memories of the Dental Chair". The main character of this story is Dr. John Riggs, the father of periodontics. Dr. Horace Wells, a pioneer in the field of anesthesia, also appears in the story. Twain presents his autobiographical experiences with dentistry in his literary work in a form that can be seen to be similar to a case report in a professional dental journal.
Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale
Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p < 0.0001, F = 12.24; PERMANOVA) and in microbial diversity (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Samples from healthy horses were less diverse (1.78, SD 0.74; Shannon diversity index) and were dominated by the genera Gemella and Actinobacillus, while the periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.
The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on the treatment of "refractory " periodontitis. Patients should be informed of the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. No treatment is very likely to result in further progression of the disease and eventual tooth loss. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.
Siqueira, José F.; Antunes, Henrique S.; Rôças, Isabela N.; Rachid, Caio T. C. C.
Introduction Bacteria present in the apical root canal system are directly involved with the pathogenesis of post-treatment apical periodontitis. This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in cryopulverized apical root samples from root canal-treated teeth with post-treatment disease. Methods Apical root specimens obtained during periradicular surgery of ten adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis were cryogenically ground. DNA was extracted from the powder and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. Results All samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 11 phyla and 103 genera composed by 538 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 3% of dissimilarity. Over 85% of the sequences belonged to 4 phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria. In general, these 4 phyla accounted for approximately 80% of the distinct OTUs found in the apical root samples. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in 6/10 samples. Fourteen genera had representatives identified in all cases. Overall, the genera Fusobacterium and Pseudomonas were the most dominant. Enterococcus was found in 4 cases, always in relatively low abundance. Conclusions This study showed a highly complex bacterial community in the apical root canal system of adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. This suggests that this disease is characterized by multispecies bacterial communities and has a heterogeneous etiology, because the community composition largely varied from case to case. PMID:27689802
Chandra Sekhar, Prasanth; Betsy, Joseph; Presanthila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan
This clinical study was to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) intensity ratio R620/R575 in the quantification and discrimination of periodontitis and gingivitis from healthy gingiva. DR spectral measurements were carried out with white-light illumination from 70 healthy sites in 30 healthy volunteers, and 63 gingivitis- and 58 periodontitis-infected sites in 60 patients. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival index were recorded in patient population. Diagnostic accuracies for discrimination of gingivitis and periodontitis from healthy gingiva were determined by comparison of spectral signatures with clinical parameters. Divergence of average DR spectral intensity ratio between control and test groups was studied using analysis of variance. The mean DR spectrum on normalization at 620 nm showed marked differences between healthy tissue, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Hemoglobin concentration and apparent SO2 (oxygen saturation) were also calculated for healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites. DR spectral intensities at 545 and 575 nm showed a decreasing trend with progression of disease. Among the various DR intensity ratios studied, the R620/R575 ratio provided a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94% for discrimination of healthy tissues from gingivitis and a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 100% for discrimination of gingivitis from periodontitis.
Zahid, Talal M; Wang, Bing-Yan; Cohen, Robert E
Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of physiologic processes. Thyroid disease can lead to imbalance in the homeostasis of the body and affect the healing capacity of tissues. However, limited data are available regarding the relationship between thyroid hormone imbalance (thyroid disease) and periodontal health. This review is carried out to summarize the relationship between thyroid disease and periodontal status. PUBMED and MEDLINE searches of both human and animal studies were performed to investigate the relationship between thyroid disease, periodontal status, and dental implants. Results suggest that thyroid diseases may affect the status of periodontal diseases, especially in hypothyroid conditions. The duration from disease onset to treatment of thyroid disorders may be critical, since uncontrolled thyroid disease may result in destruction of the periodontium. Further controlled studies are needed to explore the relationship between thyroid hormone imbalance and periodontal status. Periodontal therapies, including dental implant placement, appear to be safe with no increase in treatment failure, so long as the status of the thyroid gland is controlled.
Sheikh, Zeeshan; Qureshi, Javairia; Alshahrani, Abdullah M; Nassar, Heba; Ikeda, Yuichi; Glogauer, Michael; Ganss, Bernhard
Certain cell populations within periodontal tissues possess the ability to induce regeneration, provided they have the opportunity to populate the wound or defect. Guided regeneration techniques have been investigated for regenerating periodontal tissues and such therapies usually utilize barrier membranes. Various natural and synthetic barrier membranes have been fabricated and tested to prevent epithelial and connective tissue cells from invading while allowing periodontal cells to selectively migrate into the defect. This paper focuses on the literature relevant to the use and potential of resorbable collagen membranes in GBR procedures, sites of periodontal and intrabony defects, in cases of socket and alveolar ridge preservation and at implant sites. The results of their use in GBR procedures has shown them to be effective and comparable with non-resorbable membranes with regards to clinical attachment gain, probing depth reduction and defect bone filling. They have also shown to prevent epithelial ingrowth into the defect space during the initial wound healing phase postsurgically. Collagen membranes have also been used for root coverage and GBR procedures and have shown good success rates comparable to subepithelial connective tissue grafts and expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membranes. The future for periodontal tissue engineering is very exciting with the use of barrier membranes expected to continue playing a critical role. However, long-term clinical trials are required to further evaluate and confirm the efficacy of the available collagen barrier membranes for periodontal and bone regeneration use.
Gama, Andrea; Navet, Benjamin; Vargas, Jorge William; Castaneda, Beatriz; Lézot, Frédéric
Dental and periodontal tissue development is a complex process involving various cell-types. A finely orchestrated network of communications between these cells is implicated. During early development, communications between cells from the oral epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme govern the dental morphogenesis with successive bud, cap and bell stages. Later, interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells occur during dental root elongation. Root elongation and tooth eruption require resorption of surrounding alveolar bone to occur. For years, it was postulated that signaling molecules secreted by dental and periodontal cells control bone resorbing osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation. Reverse signaling originating from bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts) toward dental cells was not suspected. Dental defects reported in osteopetrosis were associated with mechanical stress secondary to defective bone resorption. In the last decade, consequences of bone resorption over-activation on dental and periodontal tissue formation have been analyzed with transgenic animals (RANK (Tg) and Opg (-∕-) mice). Results suggest the existence of signals originating from osteoclasts toward dental and periodontal cells. Meanwhile, experiments consisting in transitory inhibition of bone resorption during root elongation, achieved with bone resorption inhibitors having different mechanisms of action (bisphosphonates and RANKL blocking antibodies), have evidenced dental and periodontal defects that support the presence of signals originating bone cells toward dental cells. The aim of the present manuscript is to present the data we have collected in the last years that support the hypothesis of a role of bone resorption in dental and periodontal development.
Shue, Li; Yufeng, Zhang; Mony, Ullas
Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various methods of regenerative periodontal therapy, including the use of barrier membranes, bone replacement grafts, growth factors and the combination of these procedures have been investigated. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering has considerably improved the available treatment options above. They fall into two broad classes: ceramics and polymers. The available ceramic-based materials include calcium phosphate (eg, tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite), calcium sulfate and bioactive glass. The bioactive glass bonds to the bone with the formation of a layer of carbonated hydroxyapatite in situ. The natural polymers include modified polysaccharides (eg, chitosan,) and polypeptides (collagen and gelatin). Synthetic polymers [eg, poly(glycolic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)] provide a platform for exhibiting the biomechanical properties of scaffolds in tissue engineering. The materials usually work as osteogenic, osteoconductive and osteoinductive scaffolds. Polymers are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). They are shown to exclude epithelial downgrowth and allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. An attempt to overcome the problems related to a collapse of the barrier membrane in GTR or epithelial downgrowth is the use of a combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials. This article reviews various biomaterials including scaffolds and membranes used for periodontal treatment and their impacts on the experimental or clinical management of periodontal defect.
Hughes, F J; Ghuman, M; Talal, A
Periodontitis affects around 15 per cent of human adult populations. While periodontal treatment aimed at removing the bacterial cause of the disease is generally very successful, the ability predictably to regenerate the damaged tissues remains a major unmet objective for new treatment strategies. Existing treatments include the use of space-maintaining barrier membranes (guided tissue regeneration), use of graft materials, and application of bioactive molecules to induce regeneration, but their overall effects are relatively modest and restricted in application. The periodontal ligament is rich in mesenchymal stem cells, and the understanding of the signalling molecules that may regulate their differentation has increased enormously in recent years. Applying these principles for the development of new tissue engineering strategies for periodontal regeneration will require further work to determine the efficacy of current experimental preclinical treatments, including pharmacological application of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) or Wnts, use of autologous stem cell reimplantation strategies, and development of improved biomaterial scaffolds. This article describes the background to this problem, addresses the current status of periodontal regeneration, including the background biology, and discusses the potential for some of these experimental therapies to achieve the goal of clinically predictable periodontal regeneration.
Fried, Hana; Leao, Anna Thereza
Periodontics has experienced several important conceptual changes in the last few decades. As such, it is important to have a periodontics curriculum built upon the expertise of specialists in that discipline and reflecting those changes. The main goal of this study was to attain a consensus, through the use of the Delphi technique, on the topics that should be included in a periodontics curriculum for undergraduate dental students. A sample of periodontics lecturers from nine dental schools in two Brazilian cities was used, and a Delphi technique approach was followed to investigate sample member perceptions on the subject. Participants received four postal mail questionnaires asking them to rate and rerate eighty-nine topics for possible inclusion in the curriculum. A descriptive analysis was conducted, and topic frequencies were calculated. Topics rated as highly important for inclusion were the following: health, ailment, prevention, etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. The Delphi technique approach proved successful in involving periodontics lecturers in the design of a periodontics curriculum for undergraduate dental students.
Lee, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jung-Seok; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the association of periodontitis with lifestyle-related comorbidities (LCs) using data in the Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database from 2002 to 2013. This was a retrospective study involving a large national cohort with patient samples (representing 2% of the total Korean population) stratified on the basis of sociodemographic information. Using this precisely extracted database, the correlations between LCs (cerebral infarction, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, and obesity) and periodontitis were investigated while adjusting for confounding bias. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate differences in variable factors. Among a total of 1,025,340 samples, 321,103 (31.3%) cases were diagnosed with periodontitis. Statistically significant associations were found between all LCs except myocardial infarction and periodontitis (P < 0.005). Periodontitis is significantly and positively correlated with LCs (except for myocardial infarction) after adjusting for confounding bias. In particular, lifestyle-related diseases, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis seem to be intimately related to periodontitis. PMID:26376407
Thomson, WM; Zeng, J; Broadbent, JM; Foster Page, LA; Shalev, I; Moffitt, TE; Caspi, A; Williams, SM; Braithwaite, AW; Robertson, SP; Poulton, R
Aim To examine the association between telomere erosion and periodontitis in a longstanding prospective cohort study of New Zealand adults. Specific hypotheses tested were: (1) that exposure to periodontitis at ages 26 and 38 was associated with accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion; and (2) that accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion was associated with higher rates of periodontitis by ages 26 and 38. Materials and Methods Periodontal attachment loss data were collected at ages 26 and 38. Blood samples taken at the same ages were analysed to obtain estimates of leucocyte telomere length and erosion over a 12-year period. Results Overall, mean telomere length reduced by 0.15 T/S ratio (adjusted) from age 26 to 38 among the 661 participants reported on here. During the same period, the mean attachment loss increased by 10%, after adjusting for sex, socio-economic status and smoking. Regression models showed that attachment loss did not predict telomere length, and that telomere erosion did not predict attachment loss. Conclusions Although both periodontitis and telomere length are age-dependent, they do not appear to be linked, suggesting that determination of leucocyte telomere length may not be a promising clinical approach at this age for identifying people who are at risk for periodontitis. PMID:26713854
Roberts, Helen M; Ling, Martin R; Insall, Robert; Kalna, Gabriela; Spengler, Julia; Grant, Melissa M; Chapple, Iain LC
Aim To investigate the chemotactic accuracy of peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with chronic periodontitis compared with matched healthy controls, before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Material & Methods Neutrophils were isolated from patients and controls (n = 18) by density centrifugation. Using the Insall chamber and video microscopy, neutrophils were analysed for directional chemotaxis towards N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine [fMLP (10 nM), or CXCL8 (200 ng/ml)]. Circular statistics were utilized for the analysis of cell movement. Results Prior to treatment, neutrophils from patients with chronic periodontitis had significantly reduced speed, velocity and chemotactic accuracy compared to healthy controls for both chemoattractants. Following periodontal treatment, patient neutrophils continued to display reduced speed in response to both chemoattractants. However, velocity and accuracy were normalized for the weak chemoattractant CXCL8 while they remained significantly reduced for fMLP. Conclusions Chronic periodontitis is associated with reduced neutrophil chemotaxis, and this is only partially restored by successful treatment. Dysfunctional neutrophil chemotaxis may predispose patients with periodontitis to their disease by increasing tissue transit times, thus exacerbating neutrophil-mediated collateral host tissue damage. PMID:25360483
Ramesh, Asha; Varghese, Sheeja Saji; Doraiswamy, Jayakumar Nadathur; Malaiappan, Sankari
Herbal medicines have long been used as a traditional mode of therapy for various ailments in India. They are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to ward off common diseases. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the world population. Gingivitis is the mild form whereas periodontitis results in an irreversible loss of supporting structures of the teeth. Even though periodontal pathogens form a crucial component in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the disease initiation and progression. Studies have shown a direct correlation between increased levels of biomarkers for tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the focus of attention has revolved back to herbal medicines due to their wide spectrum of biological and medicinal activities, lower costs, and higher safety margin. Internet databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched, and the most relevant articles were considered for review. This review briefly describes the various herbs with antioxidant capacity and their potency in the treating periodontal disease.
Oppermann, Rui V; Haas, Alex N; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Susin, Cristiano
A decade has passed since we first reviewed the epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Latin America. At that time, lack of population-based studies was the norm and our conclusions were based on very limited evidence. The aim of the present comprehensive review was to update and expand our previous work by providing a broad overview of Latin America and its current social, economic and demographic status and by focusing on the epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Latin American adults published in the last 15 years. The amount of periodontal epidemiological data available has increased but is still restricted to a few countries only. The scope of the literature available has also broadened to include oral health-related quality of life and systemic interactions; however, most studies had methodological limitations that might have biased their results. In general, periodontitis was very prevalent, but severe periodontal destruction was localized. Besides being associated with well-established risk factors, periodontitis was associated with demographics and socio-economic factors in Latin American populations. To advance epidemiological knowledge, population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, using appropriate methodologies, should be the future focus of the research agenda of researchers and public health planners in Latin American countries.
Al-Fouzan, Khalid S.
The interrelationship between periodontal and endodontic disease has always aroused confusion, queries, and controversy. Differentiating between a periodontal and an endodontic problem can be difficult. A symptomatic tooth may have pain of periodontal and/or pulpal origin. The nature of that pain is often the first clue in determining the etiology of such a problem. Radiographic and clinical evaluation can help clarify the nature of the problem. In some cases, the influence of pulpal pathology may cause the periodontal involvement and vice versa. The simultaneous existence of pulpal problems and inflammatory periodontal disease can complicate diagnosis and treatment planning. An endo-perio lesion can have a varied pathogenesis which ranges from simple to relatively complex one. The differential diagnosis of endodontic and periodontal diseases can sometimes be difficult, but it is of vital importance to make a correct diagnosis for providing the appropriate treatment. This paper aims to discuss a modified clinical classification to be considered for accurately diagnosing and treating endo-perio lesion. PMID:24829580
Ebersole, J. L.; Stevens, J.; Steffen, M. J.; Dawson, D.; Novak, M. J.
Background and Objective: Periodontal disease has been linked with an increased risk of various systemic diseases. A plausible biologic explanation for this link includes the opportunity for oral pathogens to translocate to the circulation as a result of breakdown in integrity of the oral epithelium. This study refined a methodology used to detect endotoxin activity in the serum of subjects with indolent periodontal infections. Material and Methods: The QCL® Kinetic Chromogenic Assay (Cambrex) is a kinetic measure of endotoxin activity. Sera from 211 pregnant women with periodontitis enrolled in the Obstetrics and Periodontal Therapy Trial were used to develop the assay further and to evaluate the detection of endotoxin activity that might accompany a low-level bacteremia in chronic periodontitis. Results: We optimized the system to increase the sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay. The refined system was able to detect endotoxin activity in serum at > 0.0125 EU/mL. At baseline (13–16 wk of gestation), 35.5% of the women were positive for endotoxin activity (1.62 ± 2.21; range: 0.38–15 EU/mL). Conclusion: This report describes a sensitive measure of endotoxin activity in serum. The procedure allowed us to document levels of this microbial virulence factor in serum of individuals with indolent infections such as periodontal disease. PMID:20465752
Suzuki, Asami; Ji, Guijin; Numabe, Yukihiro; Ishii, Keisuke; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Kamoi, Kyuichi
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genomic markers for periodontitis, using large-scale single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association studies comparing healthy volunteers and patients with periodontitis. Genomic DNA was obtained from 19 healthy volunteers and 22 patients with severe periodontitis, all of whom were Japanese. The subjects were genotyped at 637 SNPs in 244 genes on a large scale, using the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Statistically significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies were analyzed with Fisher's exact test. We found statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) between the healthy volunteers and patients with severe periodontitis in the following genes; gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory 1 (PIK3R1), dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4), fibrinogen-like 2 (FGL2), and calcitonin receptor (CALCR). These results suggest that SNPs in the GNRH1, PIK3R1, DPP4, FGL2, and CALCR genes are genomic markers for severe periodontitis. Our findings indicate the necessity of analyzing SNPs in genes on a large scale (i.e., genome-wide approach), to identify genomic markers for periodontitis.
Gama, Andrea; Navet, Benjamin; Vargas, Jorge William; Castaneda, Beatriz; Lézot, Frédéric
Dental and periodontal tissue development is a complex process involving various cell-types. A finely orchestrated network of communications between these cells is implicated. During early development, communications between cells from the oral epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme govern the dental morphogenesis with successive bud, cap and bell stages. Later, interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells occur during dental root elongation. Root elongation and tooth eruption require resorption of surrounding alveolar bone to occur. For years, it was postulated that signaling molecules secreted by dental and periodontal cells control bone resorbing osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation. Reverse signaling originating from bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts) toward dental cells was not suspected. Dental defects reported in osteopetrosis were associated with mechanical stress secondary to defective bone resorption. In the last decade, consequences of bone resorption over-activation on dental and periodontal tissue formation have been analyzed with transgenic animals (RANKTg and Opg−∕− mice). Results suggest the existence of signals originating from osteoclasts toward dental and periodontal cells. Meanwhile, experiments consisting in transitory inhibition of bone resorption during root elongation, achieved with bone resorption inhibitors having different mechanisms of action (bisphosphonates and RANKL blocking antibodies), have evidenced dental and periodontal defects that support the presence of signals originating bone cells toward dental cells. The aim of the present manuscript is to present the data we have collected in the last years that support the hypothesis of a role of bone resorption in dental and periodontal development. PMID:26594180
Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L
When defining the relationship between psychosocial factors and periodontitis several issues should be considered: most published studies support a positive association periodontitis, and several psycho-social factors: social isolation, socio-economic status, personality factors, anxiety, depression and life stress; many studies are cross-sectional in nature, include relatively small sample sizes and have inadequate control of potential confounding factors; varying methods to assess both psychosocial factors and periodontitis were used; psychological variables are usually measured by self-report scales and the informers may supply incorrect information and the situation bias may also take place that is the condition of instability of the clinical phenomenon being evaluated; the demographic makeup of the population under study (age, gender, education level, race) and control of potential confounding variables (smoking, oral hygiene status) differs markedly across studies. The findings indicate that the main mechanisms by which psychosocial factors promote gingivitis and periodontitis development included: 1) behavioural mechanisms, whereby the given factor exacerbates lifestyles known to potentiate periodontal disease (e.g., neglect of oral hygiene, changes in diet, increase in smoking), and 2) direct pathophysiological effects on host resistance. As a result, interferences on the association between psychosocial factors and periodontal disease require careful considerations.
Sadowsky, C; BeGole, E A
The periodontal health of a group of ninety-six patients who had received comprehensive fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment during adolescence between 12 and 35 years previously was evaluated. Comparisons were made with a group of 103 adults who were similar with regard to race, sex, age, socioeconomic status, dental awareness, and oral hygiene status but had malocclusions that had not been orthodontically treated. There were no statistically significant differences in the general prevalence of periodontal disease between the two groups. However, more detailed analysis revealed that the orthodontic group had a greater prevalence of mild to moderate periodontal disease in the maxillary posterior and mandibular anterior regions of the mouth, as compared to the control group. The results suggested that orthodontic treatment in adolescence is not a major factor in determining the long-term periodontal health status. No significant amount of either damage or benefit to the periodontal structures could be directly attributed to orthodontic therapy. Conversely, the lack of orthodontic therapy in adolescence does not appear to influence subsequent development or nondevelopment of periodontal disease in adults.
Bonner, Mark; Amard, Véronique; Bar-Pinatel, Charlotte; Charpentier, Frédéric; Chatard, Jean-Michel; Desmuyck, Yvan; Ihler, Serge; Rochet, Jean-Pierre; Roux de La Tribouille, Véronique; Saladin, Luc; Verdy, Marion; Gironès, Núria; Fresno, Manuel; Santi-Rocca, Julien
Periodontitis is a public health issue, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. However, the aetiology of the disease is still unclear: genetics of patients cannot explain the dispersed or isolated localisation of gingival pockets, while bacteria-based models are insufficient to distinguish gingivitis and periodontitis. The possible role of parasites in the establishment of periodontitis has been poorly studied until now. The aim of this project was to study a potential link between colonisation of gingival crevices by the amoeba Entamoeba gingivalis and periodontitis. In eight different dental clinics in France, samples were taken in periodontal pockets (72) or healthy sites (33), and submitted to microscopic observation and molecular identification by PCR with a new set of primers designed to specifically detect E. gingivalis. This blind sample analysis showed the strong sensitivity of PCR compared with clinical diagnosis (58/72 = 81%), and microscopy (51/65 = 78%). The results of this work show that the parasites detected by microscopy mainly - if not exclusively - belong to the species E. gingivalis and that the presence of the parasite is correlated with periodontitis.
Bonner, Mark; Amard, Véronique; Bar-Pinatel, Charlotte; Charpentier, Frédéric; Chatard, Jean-Michel; Desmuyck, Yvan; Ihler, Serge; Rochet, Jean-Pierre; Roux de La Tribouille, Véronique; Saladin, Luc; Verdy, Marion; Gironès, Núria; Fresno, Manuel; Santi-Rocca, Julien
Periodontitis is a public health issue, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. However, the aetiology of the disease is still unclear: genetics of patients cannot explain the dispersed or isolated localisation of gingival pockets, while bacteria-based models are insufficient to distinguish gingivitis and periodontitis. The possible role of parasites in the establishment of periodontitis has been poorly studied until now. The aim of this project was to study a potential link between colonisation of gingival crevices by the amoeba Entamoeba gingivalis and periodontitis. In eight different dental clinics in France, samples were taken in periodontal pockets (72) or healthy sites (33), and submitted to microscopic observation and molecular identification by PCR with a new set of primers designed to specifically detect E. gingivalis. This blind sample analysis showed the strong sensitivity of PCR compared with clinical diagnosis (58/72 = 81%), and microscopy (51/65 = 78%). The results of this work show that the parasites detected by microscopy mainly – if not exclusively – belong to the species E. gingivalis and that the presence of the parasite is correlated with periodontitis. PMID:24983705
Higaki, Nobuaki; Goto, Takaharu; Ichikawa, Tetsuo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a role in complex cognitive behavioural planning, decision-making, and social behaviours. However, the effects of sensory integration during motor tasks on PFC activation have not been studied to date. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral sensory information and external information on PFC activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was increased around bilateral Brodmann areas 46 and 10 during visual and auditory information integration during an occlusal force (biting) task. After local anesthesia, CBF values were significantly decreased, but occlusal force was similar. In conclusion, the effects of peripheral sensory information from the periodontal ligament and external information have minimal impacts on occlusal force maintenance but are important for PFC activation. PMID:27833164
Croxson, L J; Purdell-Lewis, D
Community and individual involvement are essential needs in preventive programmes for periodontal health. Campaigns should be directed towards a better individual understanding of the importance of healthy gum tissues if a functional healthy dentition is to be retained over a lifetime. Effective awareness campaigns require not only participation and education of the general public, but also all levels of health care professionals. Awareness programmes need to be carefully planned and their messages clear, non-conflicting and regularly reinforced. The complete programme should be based on, and include, specific aims, goals, strategies, monitoring and evaluation. Oral health and hygiene promotion campaigns need careful coordination between the relevant agencies or institutions involved in their implementation, such as government agencies, professional associations, industry, aid groups and education organisations.
Vijayalakshmi, R.; Anitha, V.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Sudhakar, Uma
Dentists need to make clinical decisions based on limited scientific evidence. In clinical practice, a clinician must weigh a myriad of evidences every day. The goal of evidence-based dentistry is to help practitioners provide their patients with optimal care. This is achieved by integrating sound research evidence with personal clinical expertise and patient values to determine the best course of treatment. Periodontology has a rich background of research and scholarship. Therefore, efficient use of this wealth of research data needs to be a part of periodontal practice. Evidence-based periodontology aims to facilitate such an approach and it offers a bridge from science to clinical practice. The clinician must integrate the evidence with patient preference, scientific knowledge, and personal experience. Most important, it allows us to care for our patients. Therefore, evidence-based periodontology is a tool to support decision-making and integrating the best evidence available with clinical practice. PMID:20142947
Non-surgical removal of plaque and calculus has been part of the initial phase of the management of patients with gingivitis and periodontitis for decades. It consists of patient motivation and oral hygiene instruction as well as mechanical removal of supra and subgingival plaque deposits. The purpose of this review was to assess recent changes. The article reports on changes in our understanding of plaque as a biofilm, developments in patient plaque control, chemical plaque control and scaling instruments. It also comments on full-mouth disinfection, the use of lasers and host modulation. Modern technology has made removal of microbial deposits by the patient and dental professionals more efficient. However, other advancements need to be used in conjunction with mechanical debridement at this time.
Kebschull, M.; Guarnieri, P.; Demmer, R.T.; Boulesteix, A.L.; Pavlidis, P.; Papapanou, P.N.
The 2 major forms of periodontitis, chronic (CP) and aggressive (AgP), do not display sufficiently distinct histopathological characteristics or microbiological/immunological features. We used molecular profiling to explore biological differences between CP and AgP and subsequently carried out supervised classification using machine-learning algorithms including an internal validation. We used whole-genome gene expression profiles from 310 ‘healthy’ or ‘diseased’ gingival tissue biopsies from 120 systemically healthy non-smokers, 65 with CP and 55 with AgP, each contributing with ≥ 2 ‘diseased’ gingival papillae (n = 241; with bleeding-on-probing, probing depth ≥ 4 mm, and clinical attachment loss ≥ 3 mm), and, when available, a ‘healthy’ papilla (n = 69; no bleeding-on-probing, probing depth ≤ 4 mm, and clinical attachment loss ≤ 4 mm). Our analyses revealed limited differences between the gingival tissue transcriptional profiles of AgP and CP, with genes related to immune responses, apoptosis, and signal transduction overexpressed in AgP, and genes related to epithelial integrity and metabolism overexpressed in CP. Different classifying algorithms discriminated CP from AgP with an area under the curve ranging from 0.63 to 0.99. The small differences in gene expression and the highly variable classifier performance suggest limited dissimilarities between established AgP and CP lesions. Future analyses may facilitate the development of a novel, ‘intrinsic’ classification of periodontitis based on molecular profiling. PMID:24122488
Ji, Suk; Choi, Youngnim
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation of the periodontium caused by persistent bacterial infection that leads to the breakdown of connective tissue and bone. Because the ability to reconstruct the periodontium is limited after alveolar bone loss, early diagnosis and intervention should be the primary goals of periodontal treatment. However, periodontitis often progresses without noticeable symptoms, and many patients do not seek professional dental care until the periodontal destruction progresses to the point of no return. Furthermore, the current diagnosis of periodontitis depends on time-consuming clinical measurements. Therefore, there is an unmet need for near-patient testing to diagnose periodontitis. Saliva is an optimal biological fluid to serve as a near-patient diagnostic tool for periodontitis. Recent developments in point-of-care (POC) testing indicate that a diagnostic test for periodontitis using saliva is now technically feasible. A number of promising salivary biomarkers associated with periodontitis have been reported. A panel of optimal biomarkers must be carefully selected based on the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The biggest hurdle for the POC diagnosis of periodontitis using saliva may be the process of validation in a large, diverse patient population. Therefore, we propose the organization of an International Consortium for Biomarkers of Periodontitis, which will gather efforts to identify, select, and validate salivary biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontitis.
Meenawat, Ajita; Govila, Vivek; Goel, Sudhir; Verma, Sunil; Punn, Karan; Srivastava, Vivek; Dolas, Rameshwar Shantaram
Background and Objective: Smoking is an important environmental risk factor involved in the causation and progression of periodontal disease. Smoking can impair various components of the host immune response and immune system. The virulence factors of periodontal pathogens stimulate inflammatory cytokine expression by mononuclear cells. IL-1β is the key mediator involved in the pathogenesis and disease progression. Therefore, whole gingival biopsy samples are assessed for this increased expression of IL-1. Materials and Methods: 29 male subjects’ age and gender matched were divided into three groups based on the periodontal and smoking status (Group A:healthy, Group B: non-smokers suffering from chronic periodontitis, Group C: smokers suffering from chronic periodontitis). Periodontal parameters like plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline and post scaling. The mRNA expression of IL-1β was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction and correlated with the periodontal and smoking status. Results: The improvement in the periodontal parameters was statistically significant in the non- smokers (Group B) and there was a 2 fold increase in the mRNA expression in this group. The smokers (Group C) showed lesser improvement in the periodontal parameters and there was an 8 fold increase in the mRNA expression of IL-1β. Conclusion: Association of smoking status with periodontal destruction can thus be correlated with the increased mRNA expression of IL-1β in chronic periodontitis patients. PMID:26392684
Leite, A C E; Carneiro, V M A; Morandini, A C; Ramos-Junior, E S; Guimarães, M C M
This study aimed to investigate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on white blood cell (WBC) count and levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF—β) in serum from subjects with severe periodontitis. Serum from 28 subjects with periodontitis (mean age: 34.36±6.24; 32% men) and 27 healthy controls (mean age: 33.18±6.42; 33% men) were collected prior to therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 23 subjects who completed therapy (9—12 months). A well—controlled periodontal treatment protocol was established in three stages: mechanical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planning), reinstrumentation of dental sites, and supportive periodontal therapy. Periodontal and systemic parameters such as the total number of WBCs and TGF—β levels, accessed by enzyme—linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were included. After therapy, all clinical periodontal parameters decreased (p<0.0001). There were no statistical differences in WBC count between experimental and control groups before or after therapy. However, after therapy, the mean value of lymphocytes in patients with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) was statistically higher than that of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) (p<0.0357). Additionally, TGF—β levels in LAgP and GCP patients were higher compared to controls before therapy (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). In LAgP patients, periodontal therapy was associated with increased number of lymphocytes.
Ishihara, Yoshihito; Tomikawa, Kazuya; Deguchi, Toru; Honjo, Tadashi; Suzuki, Koji; Kono, Takayuki; Kuboki, Takuo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo; Yamashiro, Takashi
Aggressive periodontitis is a great challenge to clinicians when providing orthodontic treatment because of the potential for progression of periodontal disease. In this article, we report the successful comprehensive orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion and severe crowding in an adult with generalized aggressive periodontitis. A woman, aged 22 years 7 months, with a chief complaint of incisal crowding was diagnosed with a skeletal Class I malocclusion associated with severe anterior crowding, possibly worsened by generalized aggressive periodontitis. In addition to a periodontal examination, a blood IgG antibody titer analysis and microbiologic examination for periodontal pathogens were used to diagnose the type of periodontal disease and determine the proper timing to initiate orthodontic treatment. The total active treatment period was 28 months, followed by periodontal prostheses and regeneration therapy. Consequently, satisfactory facial profile, occlusion, and periodontal health were maintained for at least 36 months. These results indicate that efficient screening is important for providing successful orthodontic treatment in patients with advanced periodontal disease. This report also demonstrates the diagnostic importance of blood IgG antibody titer assays and microbiologic examinations to detect periodontal pathogens.
Guo, Shujuan; Guo, Weihua; Ding, Yi; Gong, Jian; Zou, Qing; Xie, Dan; Chen, Yali; Wu, Yafei; Tian, Weidong
Periodontal ligament cell (PDLC) sheets have been shown to contribute to periodontal tissue regeneration. Dental follicle cells (DFCs), acknowledged as the precursor cells of PDLCs, have demonstrated stemness, embryonic features, heterogeneity, and pluripotency. Therefore, we hypothesized that DFC sheets might be more effective and suitable for periodontal tissue regeneration than PDLC sheets. In this study, we compared the biological characteristics of DFC sheets and PDLC sheets in vitro. To investigate the potential for periodontal tissue regeneration in vivo, complexes composed of two types of cell sheets combined with dentin matrix were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 6 weeks. Our results showed that, when forming cell sheets, DFCs secreted richer extracellular matrix than PDLCs. And compared to DFCs, DFC sheets expressed high levels of calcification-related genes, including alkaline phosphatase (alp), bone sialoprotein (bsp), osteopontin (opn), runt-related transcription factor (runx2), as well as the periodontal ligament-specific genes collagen III (col III) and periostin, while the gene expression of bsp, osteocalcin (ocn), and opn were greatly increased in PDLC sheets, when compared to PDLCs. col I expression did not change significantly. However, cementum protein 23 (cp-23) expression increased several fold in PDLC sheets compared to PDLCs but decreased in DFC sheets compared to DFCs. DFC and PDLC sheets were both positive for Collagen I (Col I), cementum attachment protein (CAP), ALP, BSP, OCN, and OPN protein expression, and Col I, ALP, BSP, and OPN expression were increased after cell sheets were formed. Furthermore, the levels of laminin and fibronectin were higher in DFCs and DFC sheets than that of PDLCs and PDLC sheets, respectively. In vivo, DFC and PDLC sheets could both regenerate periodontal tissue-like structures, but DFC sheets demonstrated stronger periodontal regeneration potential than PDLC sheets. Therefore, DFC sheets derived
Siqueira, Sergio Júnior; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Villalpando, Karina Teixeira; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Pimentel, Suzana Peres
Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by rapid attachment loss and bone destruction. This case report presents the 10-year results in a subject with generalized AgP treated by a regenerative periodontal therapeutic approach and the adjunctive use of antibiotics, following a systematic maintenance periodontal therapy. The use of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and adjunctive antibiotic therapy to treat AgP yielded improvements in clinical parameters and radiographic bony fill. This combined therapeutic approach following a systematic supportive periodontal therapy supports the long-term maintenance of teeth with previous advanced periodontal defects, demonstrating successful stability after 10-years follow-up. Clinical Relevance: The combined treatment protocol using EMD plus adjunctive antibiotic therapy, associated with a systematic supportive periodontal therapy, benefits the long-term maintenance of teeth with previous advanced periodontal defects in subjects presenting AgP, supporting this approach as an alternative in the treatment of AgP.
Boutin, Sébastien; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Zimmermann, Heiko; El Sayed, Nihad; Höpker, Tanja; Greiser, Halina K.; Becher, Heiko; Kim, Ti-Sun; Dalpke, Alexander H.
Periodontitis is characterized by chronic inflammation associated with alteration of the oral microbiota. In contrast to previous microbiome studies focusing a priori on comparison between extreme phenotypes, our study analyzed a random sample of 85 people. The aim of this study was to link microbial differences to disease’s prevalence and severity. Using next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and cluster analysis, we observed that the population can be divided into two major ecotypes: One mainly contained periodontal healthy/mild periodontitis individuals whereas the second ecotype showed a heterogeneous microbial distribution and clustered into three distinct sub-ecotypes. Those sub-ecotypes differed with respect to the frequency of diseased patients and displayed a gradual change in distinct subgingival microbiota that goes along with clinical disease symptoms. In ecotype 2, the subgroup with no clinical signs of disease was linked to an increase of F. nucleatum vincentii but also several other species, while only in “end-stage” dysbiosis classical red complex bacteria gained overweight. Therefore, the microbial disease ecotypes observed in our population can lead to an establishment of an early microbial risk profile for clinically healthy patients. PMID:28298910
Sharma, Sarang; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Sood, Vishal; Yadav, Priya
Mucosal fenestrations, wherein the tooth root apices are clinically discernible in the oral cavity subsequent to loss of overlying alveolar bone and mucosa, are rare pathologic entities. Palato gingival grooves- anatomic aberrations are also infrequent occurrences that notoriously predispose to periodontal pathologies of varying extent. Both conditions independently are known to popularly affect maxillary lateral incisors. Coexistent fenestration defect and palato gingival groove in the same tooth is extremely rare and undoubtedly is a perfect combination to precipitate severe endodontic-periodontal consequences. In this report, a 34-year-old patient presented to the dental department with complaint of esthetics in relation to exposed root of right maxillary lateral incisor. On closer inspection, a palato gingival groove in addition to fenestration defect was evident on the root surface along with a periodontal pocket of >5 mm. An interdisciplinary treatment was instituted which included endodontic treatment followed by root end resection, osseous bone graft placement and guided tissue regeneration procedures for repair of mucosal fenestration defect. Debridement of the palatal pocket, with saucerization of the groove and restoration with glass ionomer cement were simultaneously employed to correct the palatal defect. PMID:26229283
Boutin, Sébastien; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Zimmermann, Heiko; El Sayed, Nihad; Höpker, Tanja; Greiser, Halina K; Becher, Heiko; Kim, Ti-Sun; Dalpke, Alexander H
Periodontitis is characterized by chronic inflammation associated with alteration of the oral microbiota. In contrast to previous microbiome studies focusing a priori on comparison between extreme phenotypes, our study analyzed a random sample of 85 people. The aim of this study was to link microbial differences to disease's prevalence and severity. Using next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and cluster analysis, we observed that the population can be divided into two major ecotypes: One mainly contained periodontal healthy/mild periodontitis individuals whereas the second ecotype showed a heterogeneous microbial distribution and clustered into three distinct sub-ecotypes. Those sub-ecotypes differed with respect to the frequency of diseased patients and displayed a gradual change in distinct subgingival microbiota that goes along with clinical disease symptoms. In ecotype 2, the subgroup with no clinical signs of disease was linked to an increase of F. nucleatum vincentii but also several other species, while only in "end-stage" dysbiosis classical red complex bacteria gained overweight. Therefore, the microbial disease ecotypes observed in our population can lead to an establishment of an early microbial risk profile for clinically healthy patients.
Lu, Huaixiu; Xu, Minguang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shisen; Gu, Jing; Lin, Songshan
This study assessed the roles of chronic stress (CS) in the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and explored the underlying mechanisms of periodontitis. Using an animal model of periodontitis and CS, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the protein levels of the α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) and β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) were assessed. Furthermore, human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic the process of inflammation. The proliferation of the HPDLFs and the expression of α1-AR and β2-AR were assessed. The inflammatory-related cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were detected after pretreatment with the α1/β2-AR blockers phentolamine/propranolol, both in vitro and in vivo. Results show that periodontitis under CS conditions enhanced the expression of TH, α1-AR and β2-AR. Phentolamine significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokine levels. Furthermore, we observed a marked decrease in HPDLF proliferation and the increased expression of α1-ARfollowing LPS pretreatment. Pretreatment with phentolamine dramatically ameliorated LPS-inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, the blocking of α1-ARsignaling also hindered the upregulation of the inflammatory-related cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. These results suggest that CS can significantly enhance the pathological progression of periodontitis by an α1-adrenergic signaling-mediated inflammatory response. We have identified a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease, particularly in those patients suffering from concurrent CS.
Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Novak, M. John; Michalowicz, Bryan S.; Hodges, James S.; Steffen, Michelle J.; Ferguson, James E.; DiAngelis, Anthony; Buchanan, William; Mitchell, Dennis A.; Papapanou, Panos N.
Background Our previous studies reported on the obstetric, periodontal, and microbiologic outcomes of women participating in the Obstetrics and Periodontal Therapy (OPT) Study. This article describes the systemic antibody responses to selected periodontal bacteria in the same patients. Methods Serum samples, obtained from pregnant women at baseline (13 to 16 weeks; 6 days of gestation) and 29 to 32 weeks, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), and Treponema denticola. Results At baseline, women who delivered live preterm infants had significantly lower total serum levels of IgG antibody to the panel of periodontal pathogens (P = 0.0018), to P. gingivalis (P = 0.0013), and to F. nucleatum (P = 0.0200) than women who delivered at term. These differences were not significant at 29 to 32 weeks. Changes in IgG levels between baseline and 29 to 32 weeks were not associated with preterm birth when adjusted for treatment group, clinical center, race, or age. In addition, delivery of low birth weight infants was not associated with levels of antibody at baseline or with antibody changes during pregnancy. Conclusions Live preterm birth is associated with decreased levels of IgG antibody to periodontal pathogens in women with periodontitis when assessed during the second trimester. Changes in IgG antibody during pregnancy are not associated with birth outcomes. PMID:19485826