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Sample records for peripheral arterial circulation

  1. Peripheral arterial disease: implications beyond the peripheral circulation.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Whayne, Thomas F

    2013-11-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects a considerable percentage of the population. The manifestations of this disease are not always clinically overt. As a result, PAD remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. PAD is not just a disease of the peripheral arteries, but also an indication of generalized vascular atherosclerosis. PAD patients also have a high prevalence of other arterial diseases, such as coronary/carotid artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysms. PAD is also a predictor of increased risk of lung and other cancers. The most often used examination for the establishment of the diagnosis of PAD, the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), is also a predictor of generalized atherosclerosis, future cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Several markers that have been linked with PAD (e.g. C-reactive protein, serum bilirubin levels) may also have predictive value for other conditions besides PAD (e.g. kidney dysfunction). The management of PAD should therefore not be restricted to the peripheral circulation but should include measurements to manage and decrease the systemic atherosclerotic burden of the patient. PMID:23221278

  2. Peripheral circulation.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, M Harold; Davis, Michael J; Secher, Niels H; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Simmons, Grant H; Bender, Shawn B; Padilla, Jaume; Bache, Robert J; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2012-01-01

    Blood flow (BF) increases with increasing exercise intensity in skeletal, respiratory, and cardiac muscle. In humans during maximal exercise intensities, 85% to 90% of total cardiac output is distributed to skeletal and cardiac muscle. During exercise BF increases modestly and heterogeneously to brain and decreases in gastrointestinal, reproductive, and renal tissues and shows little to no change in skin. If the duration of exercise is sufficient to increase body/core temperature, skin BF is also increased in humans. Because blood pressure changes little during exercise, changes in distribution of BF with incremental exercise result from changes in vascular conductance. These changes in distribution of BF throughout the body contribute to decreases in mixed venous oxygen content, serve to supply adequate oxygen to the active skeletal muscles, and support metabolism of other tissues while maintaining homeostasis. This review discusses the response of the peripheral circulation of humans to acute and chronic dynamic exercise and mechanisms responsible for these responses. This is accomplished in the context of leading the reader on a tour through the peripheral circulation during dynamic exercise. During this tour, we consider what is known about how each vascular bed controls BF during exercise and how these control mechanisms are modified by chronic physical activity/exercise training. The tour ends by comparing responses of the systemic circulation to those of the pulmonary circulation relative to the effects of exercise on the regional distribution of BF and mechanisms responsible for control of resistance/conductance in the systemic and pulmonary circulations.

  3. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of ...

  4. Epigenetics and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Jonathan; Biros, Erik; Bingley, John; Iyer, Vikram; Krishna, Smriti M

    2016-04-01

    The term epigenetics is usually used to describe inheritable changes in gene function which do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These typically include non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and histone modifications. Smoking and older age are recognised risk factors for peripheral artery diseases, such as occlusive lower limb artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, and have been implicated in promoting epigenetic changes. This brief review describes studies that have associated epigenetic factors with peripheral artery diseases and investigations which have examined the effect of epigenetic modifications on the outcome of peripheral artery diseases in mouse models. Investigations have largely focused on microRNAs and have identified a number of circulating microRNAs associated with human peripheral artery diseases. Upregulating or antagonising a number of microRNAs has also been reported to limit aortic aneurysm development and hind limb ischemia in mouse models. The importance of DNA methylation and histone modifications in peripheral artery disease has been relatively little studied. Whether circulating microRNAs can be used to assist identification of patients with peripheral artery diseases and be modified in order to improve the outcome of peripheral artery disease will require further investigation.

  5. Angioplasty and stent placement -- peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; ...

  6. Abnormal peripheral circulation in type 2 diabetic patients with normal ankle-brachial index associates with coronary atherosclerosis, large artery stiffness, and peripheral vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Suzuki, Eiji; Egawa, Katsuya; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Inubushi, Toshiro; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2005-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that impaired peripheral circulation in diabetes arises from different aspects of vascular abnormalities even when accompanied by a normal ankle-brachial index (ABI>0.9). One hundred fourteen type 2 diabetic patients with normal ABI and 33 age-matched non-diabetic subjects consecutively admitted to our hospital were enrolled. The Agatston coronary artery calcium score (CACS), as a marker of coronary atherosclerosis, was obtained using electron-beam computed tomography. An automatic device was used to measure brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) as an index of arterial distensibility. Total flow volume and resistive index (RI), as a marker of peripheral vascular resistance, at the popliteal artery were evaluated using gated two-dimensional cine-mode phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Diabetic patients had baPWV (P<0.001) and RI (P<0.001) higher than those in the non-diabetic subjects, indicating that those parameters are characteristically altered in diabetic patients. When diabetic patients were grouped into three subgroups according to their levels of total flow volume, those with the lowest range showed the highest log-transformed CACS (P<0.001), baPWV (P<0.001), and RI (P<0.001) among the groups. Total flow volume was negatively correlated with log-transformed CACS (P<0.001), baPWV (P<0.001), and RI (P<0.001). Waveform at the popliteal artery could be clearly separated into systolic and early and late diastolic blood flows, which were negatively correlated with log-transformed CACS (P<0.001), RI (P<0.001), and baPWV (P<0.001), respectively. These results suggest that impaired peripheral circulation in diabetes is attributable to coronary atherosclerosis, large artery stiffness, and peripheral vascular resistance even when ABI is normal.

  7. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease Does Not Affect Circulating Monocyte Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Krzanowski, Marek; Malinowski, Krzysztof P.; Nizankowski, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes are mononuclear cells characterized by distinct morphology and expression of CD14 and CD16 surface receptors. Classical, quiescent monocytes are positive for CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) but do not express Fc gamma receptor III (CD16). Intermediate monocytes coexpress CD16 and CD14. Nonclassical monocytes with low expression of CD14 represent mature macrophage-like monocytes. Monocyte behavior in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and during vessel wall directed treatment is not well defined. This observation study aimed at monitoring of acute changes in monocyte subpopulations during percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in PAD patients. Patients with Rutherford 3 and 4 PAD with no signs of inflammatory process underwent PTA of iliac, femoral, or popliteal segments. Flow cytometry for CD14, CD16, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD11c, and CD45RA antigens allowed characterization of monocyte subpopulations in blood sampled before and after PTA (direct angioplasty catheter sampling). Patients were clinically followed up for 12 months. All 61 enrolled patients completed 12-month follow-up. Target vessel failure occurred in 12 patients. While absolute counts of monocyte were significantly lower after PTA, only subtle monocyte activation after PTA (CD45RA and β-integrins) occurred. None of the monocyte parameters correlated with long-term adverse clinical outcome. Changes in absolute monocyte counts and subtle changes towards an activation phenotype after PTA may reflect local cell adhesion phenomenon in patients with Rutherford 3 or 4 peripheral arterial disease.

  8. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  9. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery. Such people should seek medical care immediately. Did You Know... When people suddenly develop a painful, ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  10. Activation of circulating platelets in patients with peripheral arterial disease during digital subtraction angiography and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Alexander Matthias; Bruch, Leonhard; Schulte, Karl Ludwig

    2003-01-01

    Platelet activation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and cerebral ischaemia, the three main clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis. Circulating-activated platelets are thought to trigger ischaemic complications after angiography, angioplasty and vascular surgery. We studied activation of circulating thrombocytes in patients with PAD and evaluated the influence on platelet activation of intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the area of the lower extremities. Our study included 16 control subjects with PAD (clinical stage IIb according to Fontaine), 25 healthy control subjects and 34 PAD patients (clinical stage IIb according to Fontaine), 14 of whom we examined during DSA, 10 during PTA and 10 which we studied during both interventions. To characterize platelet ex vivo activation, the expression of activation-dependent platelet antigens (CD62 and CD63) was measured using flow cytometry. Platelet sensitization was analysed by an additional in vitro activation. Our results show that angioplasty in peripheral vessels causes activation and presumably slight migration or a reduction in the life span of circulating thrombocytes immediately after the PTA procedure and up to 4 h afterwards. DSA was also found to be associated with platelet activation, sensitization and presumptive minor migration or shortened life span of circulating platelets. Immediately after the intervention, PTA seems to influence platelet migration or shortened lifetime of platelets to a greater extent than DSA. We postulate that this is mainly induced by dilatation. More activated and sensitized thrombocytes circulated in patients with PAD compared to healthy control subjects. This supports our assumption that preactivated platelets are particularly involved in activation, sensitization and migration processes or affected by a reduced life span. PMID:12679127

  11. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - peripheral artery- discharge; PAD - PTA discharge; PVD - ...

  12. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  13. Therapeutic angiogenesis in peripheral arterial disease: can biotechnology produce an effective collateral circulation?

    PubMed

    Collinson, D J; Donnelly, R

    2004-07-01

    The physiological processes of angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and arteriogenesis contribute to the growth of collateral vessels in response to obstructive arterial disease causing lower limb or myocardial ischaemia, but in clinical practice the endogenous angiogenic response is often suboptimal or impaired, e.g. by factors such as ageing, diabetes or drug therapies. Therapeutic angiogenesis is an application of biotechnology to stimulate new vessel formation via local administration of pro-angiogenic growth factors in the form of recombinant protein or gene therapy, or by implantation of endothelial progenitor cells that will synthesize multiple angiogenic cytokines. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have sought to establish 'proof of concept' for therapeutic angiogenesis in PAD and myocardial ischaemia using different treatment modalities, but the results have been inconsistent. This review summarises the mechanisms of angiogenesis and the results of recent trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of different gene therapy, recombinant protein and cellular-based treatment approaches to enhance collateral vessel formation.

  14. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  15. Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  16. Re-assessing the enhanced permeability and retention effect in peripheral arterial disease using radiolabeled long circulating nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    England, Christopher G; Im, Hyung-Jun; Feng, Liangzhu; Chen, Feng; Graves, Stephen A; Hernandez, Reinier; Orbay, Hakan; Xu, Cheng; Cho, Steve Y; Nickles, Robert J; Liu, Zhuang; Lee, Dong Soo; Cai, Weibo

    2016-09-01

    As peripheral arterial disease (PAD) results in muscle ischemia and neovascularization, it has been claimed that nanoparticles can passively accumulate in ischemic tissues through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. At this time, a quantitative evaluation of the passive targeting capabilities of nanoparticles has not been reported in PAD. Using a murine model of hindlimb ischemia, we quantitatively assessed the passive targeting capabilities of (64)Cu-labeled PEGylated reduced graphene oxide - iron oxide nanoparticles ((64)Cu-RGO-IONP-PEG) through the EPR effect using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Serial laser Doppler imaging was performed to monitor changes in blood perfusion upon surgical induction of ischemia. Nanoparticle accumulation was assessed at 3, 10, and 17 days post-surgery and found to be highest at 3 days post-surgery, with the ischemic hindlimb displaying an accumulation of 14.7 ± 0.5% injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Accumulation of (64)Cu-RGO-IONP-PEG was lowest at 17 days post-surgery, with the ischemic hindlimb displaying only 5.1 ± 0.5%ID/g. Furthermore, nanoparticle accumulation was confirmed by photoacoustic imaging (PA). The combination of PET and serial Doppler imaging showed that nanoparticle accumulation in the ischemic hindlimb negatively correlated with blood perfusion. Thus, we quantitatively confirmed that (64)Cu-RGO-IONP-PEG passively accumulated in ischemic tissue via the EPR effect, which is reduced as the perfusion normalizes. As (64)Cu-RGO-IONP-PEG displayed substantial accumulation in the ischemic tissue, this nanoparticle platform may function as a future theranostic agent, providing both imaging and therapeutic applications.

  17. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise ... The main symptoms of PAD are pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or ... or thighs. These symptoms most often appear during walking or ...

  18. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  19. Cell Therapy of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Zankhana; Losordo, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    The age-adjusted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the US population was estimated to approach 12% in 1985, and as the population ages, the overall population having peripheral arterial disease is predicted to rise. The clinical consequences of occlusive peripheral arterial disease include intermittent claudication, that is, pain with walking, and critical limb ischemia (CLI), which includes pain at rest and loss of tissue integrity in the distal limbs, which may ultimately lead to amputation of a portion of the lower extremity. The risk factors for CLI are similar to those linked to coronary artery disease and include advanced age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The worldwide incidence of CLI was estimated to be 500 to 1000 cases per million people per year in 1991. The prognosis is poor for CLI subjects with advanced limb disease. One study of >400 such subjects in the United Kingdom found that 25% required amputation and 20% (including some subjects who had required amputation) died within 1 year. In the United States, ≈280 lower-limb amputations for ischemic disease are performed per million people each year. The first objective in treating CLI is to increase blood circulation to the affected limb. Theoretically, increased blood flow could be achieved by increasing the number of vessels that supply the ischemic tissue with blood. The use of pharmacological agents to induce new blood vessel growth for the treatment or prevention of pathological clinical conditions has been called therapeutic angiogenesis. Since the identification of the endothelial progenitor cell in 1997 by Asahara and Isner, the field of cell-based therapies for peripheral arterial disease has been in a state of continuous evolution. Here, we review the current state of that field. PMID:23620237

  20. The role of vascular biomarkers for primary and secondary prevention. A position paper from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on peripheral circulation: Endorsed by the Association for Research into Arterial Structure and Physiology (ARTERY) Society.

    PubMed

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Aboyans, Victor; Brodmann, Marianne; Cífková, Renata; Cosentino, Francesco; De Carlo, Marco; Gallino, Augusto; Landmesser, Ulf; Laurent, Stéphane; Lekakis, John; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Naka, Katerina K; Protogerou, Athanasios D; Rizzoni, Damiano; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Van Bortel, Luc; Weber, Thomas; Yamashina, Akira; Zimlichman, Reuven; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Cockcroft, John; O'Rourke, Michael; Park, Jeong Bae; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Sillesen, Henrik; Townsend, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    While risk scores are invaluable tools for adapted preventive strategies, a significant gap exists between predicted and actual event rates. Additional tools to further stratify the risk of patients at an individual level are biomarkers. A surrogate endpoint is a biomarker that is intended as a substitute for a clinical endpoint. In order to be considered as a surrogate endpoint of cardiovascular events, a biomarker should satisfy several criteria, such as proof of concept, prospective validation, incremental value, clinical utility, clinical outcomes, cost-effectiveness, ease of use, methodological consensus, and reference values. We scrutinized the role of peripheral (i.e. not related to coronary circulation) noninvasive vascular biomarkers for primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention. Most of the biomarkers examined fit within the concept of early vascular aging. Biomarkers that fulfill most of the criteria and, therefore, are close to being considered a clinical surrogate endpoint are carotid ultrasonography, ankle-brachial index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity; biomarkers that fulfill some, but not all of the criteria are brachial ankle pulse wave velocity, central haemodynamics/wave reflections and C-reactive protein; biomarkers that do no not at present fulfill essential criteria are flow-mediated dilation, endothelial peripheral arterial tonometry, oxidized LDL and dysfunctional HDL. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether a specific vascular biomarker is overly superior. A prospective study in which all vascular biomarkers are measured is still lacking. In selected cases, the combined assessment of more than one biomarker may be required.

  1. Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Peripheral Artery Disease (P.A.D.) What is P.A.D.? Arteries Clogged With Plaque Peripheral arterial disease (P. ... button on your keyboard.) Why Is P.A.D. Dangerous? Click for more information Blocked blood flow ...

  2. [Peripheral artery disease and acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. When presented in the context of an acute coronary syndrome a differential diagnosis with aorta dissection should be made, because peripheral arterial disease may be asymptomatic despite the absence or asymmetry of femoral pulses.

  3. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty deposits inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. If you have PAD, your arms, and more ... also more likely in people who already have atherosclerosis in other arteries, such as the arteries in ...

  4. Poorer clock draw test scores are associated with greater functional impairment in peripheral artery disease: The Walking and Leg Circulation Study II

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Laura J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Liu, Kiang; Tian, Lu; Guralnik, Jack M; Criqui, Michael H; Liao, Yihua; McDermott, Mary M

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that, in the absence of clinically recognized dementia, cognitive dysfunction measured by the clock draw test (CDT) is associated with greater functional impairment in men and women with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants were men and women aged 60 years and older with Mini-Mental Status Examination scores ≥ 24 with PAD (n = 335) and without PAD (n = 234). We evaluated the 6-minute walk test, 4-meter walking velocity at usual and fastest pace, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and accelerometer-measured physical activity. CDTs were scored using the Shulman system as follows: Category 1 (worst): CDT score 0–2; Category 2: CDT score 3; Category 3 (best): CDT score 4–5. Results were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, ankle–brachial index (ABI), and comorbidities. In individuals with PAD, lower CDT scores were associated with slower 4-meter usual-paced walking velocity (Category 1: 0.78 meters/second; Category 2: 0.83 meters/second; Category 3: 0.86 meters/second; p-trend = 0.025) and lower physical activity (Category 1: 420 activity units; Category 2: 677 activity units; Category 3: 701 activity units; p-trend = 0.045). Poorer CDT scores were also associated with worse functional performance in individuals without PAD (usual and fast-paced walking velocity and SPPB, p-trend = 0.022, 0.043, and 0.031, respectively). In conclusion, cognitive impairment identified with CDT is independently associated with greater functional impairment in older, dementia-free individuals with and without PAD. Longitudinal studies are necessary to explore whether baseline CDT scores and changes in CDT scores over time can predict long-term decline in functional performance in individuals with and without PAD. PMID:21636676

  5. Noninvasive evaluation of peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R W

    1978-08-01

    Doppler ultrasound is the most simple, inexpensive, accurate and versatile of the available noninvasive screening techniques to assess peripheral vascular diseases. The four fundamental components of peripheral arterial evaluation with this technique are assessment of blood velocity signal, measurement of resting ankle pressure, determination of segmental leg blood pressures, and measurement of ankle pressure response to exercise or reactive hyperemia. Plethysmography permits graphic recording of pulse-wave morphology, determination of digit blood pressure, and pulsatile responses to compression maneuvers. These techniques are useful in objectively quantifying peripheral arterial occlusive disease, predicting the results of operative therapy, monitoring the success of arterial reconstruction during surgery, and following the physiologic status of the patient after surgery.

  6. Peripheral artery disease of the legs - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral vascular disease - self-care; Intermittent claudication - self-care ... may prescribe the following medicines to control your peripheral artery disease. DO NOT stop taking these medicines ...

  7. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... LIBRARY Hello, Guest! My alerts Sign In Join Facebook Twitter Home About this Journal Editorial Board General Statistics Circulation Cover Doodle → Blip the Doodle Go Red For Women's Issue Information for Advertisers Author Reprints Commercial Reprints Customer Service and Ordering ...

  8. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium has been associated with peripheral arterial disease in cross-sectional studies but prospective evidence is lacking. Our goal was to evaluate the association of urine cadmium concentrations with incident peripheral arterial disease in a large population-based cohort. Methods and Results A prospective cohort study was performed with 2,864 adult American Indians 45-74 years old from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989-91 and were followed through two follow-up examination visits in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999. Participants were free of peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, at baseline and had complete baseline information on urine cadmium, potential confounders and ankle brachial index determinations in the follow-up examinations. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and corrected for urinary dilution by normalization to urine creatinine.. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were computed using Cox-proportional hazards models for interval-censored data. A total of 470 cases of incident peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, were identified. After adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking status and pack-years, the hazard ratio comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations was 1.41 (1.05, 1.81). The hazard ratio comparing the highest to the lowest tertile was 1.96 (1.32, 2.81). The associations persisted after excluding participants with ankle brachial index > 1.4 only as well as in subgroups defined by sex and smoking status. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, was independently associated with incident peripheral arterial disease, providing further support for cadmium as a cardiovascular disease risk factor. PMID:24255048

  9. Peripheral arterial disease of the lower extremities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Persons with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are at increased risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and mortality from coronary artery disease. Smoking should be stopped and hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and hypothyroidism treated. Statins reduce the incidence of intermittent claudication and improve exercise duration until the onset of intermittent claudication in persons with PAD and hypercholesterolemia. The serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol should be reduced to < 70 mg/dl. Antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins should be given to persons with PAD. β-Blockers should be given if coronary artery disease is present. Cilostazol improves exercise time until intermittent claudication. Exercise rehabilitation programs should be used. Revascularization should be performed if indicated. PMID:22662015

  10. Peripheral arterial disease in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2007-01-01

    Smoking should be stopped and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism treated in elderly patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower extremities. Statins reduce the incidence of intermittent claudication and improve exercise duration until the onset of intermittent claudication in patients with PAD and hypercholesterolemia. Antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel, especially clopidogrel, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins should be given to all elderly patients with PAD without contraindications to these drugs. Beta blockers should be given if coronary artery disease is present. Exercise rehabilitation programs and cilostazol increase exercise time until intermittent claudication develops. Chelation therapy should be avoided. Indications for lower extremity percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or bypass surgery are (1) incapacitating claudication in patients interfering with work or lifestyle; (2) limb salvage in patients with limb-threatening ischemia as manifested by rest pain, nonhealing ulcers, and/or infection or gangrene; and (3) vasculogenic impotence. PMID:18225466

  11. Clinical Assessment of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Marc A.; Griffin, Kathryn J.; Scott, D. Julian A.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) describes the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis affecting the circulation in the legs. The severity of PAD is classified according to symptom severity, time course, and anatomical distribution. The signs and symptoms of PAD reflect the degree of circulatory compromise and whether there has been a gradual reduction in the circulation or an abrupt, uncompensated decrease. Accurate clinical assessment underpins decisions on management strategy and should objectively assess the severity of the ischemia and need for revascularization. Clinical history should discriminate symptoms of PAD from other conditions presenting with leg pain, elucidate cardiovascular risk factors and the effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life. Clinical examination includes signs of general cardiovascular disease and associated conditions before assessing the circulation and viability of the limb. Palpation of peripheral pulses must be augmented by determination of the ankle brachial pressure index using hand held Doppler. A whole patient approach to management is required and must include modification of cardiovascular risk status as well as dealing with the local circulatory manifestation of PAD. PMID:25435653

  12. Clinical assessment of patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Marc A; Griffin, Kathryn J; Scott, D Julian A

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) describes the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis affecting the circulation in the legs. The severity of PAD is classified according to symptom severity, time course, and anatomical distribution. The signs and symptoms of PAD reflect the degree of circulatory compromise and whether there has been a gradual reduction in the circulation or an abrupt, uncompensated decrease. Accurate clinical assessment underpins decisions on management strategy and should objectively assess the severity of the ischemia and need for revascularization. Clinical history should discriminate symptoms of PAD from other conditions presenting with leg pain, elucidate cardiovascular risk factors and the effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life. Clinical examination includes signs of general cardiovascular disease and associated conditions before assessing the circulation and viability of the limb. Palpation of peripheral pulses must be augmented by determination of the ankle brachial pressure index using hand held Doppler. A whole patient approach to management is required and must include modification of cardiovascular risk status as well as dealing with the local circulatory manifestation of PAD. PMID:25435653

  13. Peripheral airways obstruction in idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (primary).

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Bonetti, P; Lupi-Herrera, E; Martinez-Guerra, M L; Barrios, R; Seoane, M; Sandoval, J

    1983-05-01

    The mechanical properties of the lung were studied in ten nonsmokers with idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH) (mean pulmonary artery pressure 65.7 +/- 30 mm Hg). In the routine lung test, residual volume was found to be abnormal (greater than 120 percent of the predicted) in seven patients, and measured airway resistance was normal in eight out of the ten patients. A decreased FEF 75-85 percent, abnormal values for the helium-air flow ratios and increased closing capacities were documented in eight of ten patients in whom lung elastic recoil was normal (six of ten) or increased (four of ten). These features suggest peripheral airways obstruction (PAO) which was also supported by histopathologic findings in three cases (one biopsy and two necropsies). The observed changes in lung compliance could be related to the behavior of the coupling of the air-space and vascular compartments. The etiology of PAO in IPAH patients is not known, but our results indicate that both the peripheral airways and the pulmonary circulation are affected. The knowledge of PAO in IPAH patients could help to better understand the observed V/Q inequality in this entity. PMID:6839814

  14. [New technique of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate peripheral circulation in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Eiji

    2006-11-01

    Waveform analysis at the popliteal artery using the new technique of gated two-dimensional cine-mode phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging is beneficial to assess peripheral circulation in both normal and diseased arteries. The normal subjects had a typically triphasic waveform, which could be clearly separated into systolic, and early and late diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. Diabetic patients are reported to have two types of insufficient arterial blood flow to the lower limbs associated with the vessel wall properties. Firstly, patients with atherosclerotic occlusion in the lower-leg arteries distal to the aortic bifurcation, resulting in a low ankle-brachial index, show an abnormal monophasic waveform. Secondly, patients with stiffer arteries characteristically show abnormal flow reversal in late diastole, suggesting higher vascular resistance.

  15. The year in cardiology 2014: peripheral circulation.

    PubMed

    Aboyans, Victor; Brodmann, Marianne; De Carlo, Marco; Clement, Denis; Mazzolai, Lucia; van Bortel, Lucas; van Sambeek, Marc R H; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos

    2015-03-01

    In 2014, the debate on the indication of revascularization in case of asymptomatic carotid disease continued, while another one regarding the use of surgery vs. stenting addressed some new issues regarding the long-term cardiac risk of these patients. Renal arteries interventions trials were disappointing, as neither renal denervation nor renal artery stenting was found associated with better blood pressure management or outcome. In contrast, in lower-extremities artery disease, the endovascular techniques represent in 2014 major alternatives to surgery, even in distal arteries, with new insights regarding the interest of drug-eluting balloons. Regarding the aorta, the ESC published its first guidelines document on the entire vessel, emphasizing on the role of every cardiologist for screening abdominal aorta aneurysm during echocardiography. Among vascular wall biomarkers, the aorta stiffness is of increasing interest with new data and meta-analysis confirming its ability to stratify risk, whereas carotid intima-media thickness showed poor performances in terms of reclassifying patients into risk categories beyond risk scores. Regarding the veins, new data suggest the interest of D-dimers and residual venous thrombosis to help the decision of anti-coagulation prolongation or discontinuation after the initial period of treatment for deep vein thrombosis.

  16. Patterns of disease distribution of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Shi, Yang; Wang, Yutang; Li, Xiaoying

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis that is associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular (CV) events. Peripheral arterial disease involves the arteries distal to the aortic bifurcation in a nonuniform manner. Studies have shown that symptoms and prognosis of patients with PAD vary according to the location and size of the affected artery. Several modalities have been used to identify the location of PAD, including noninvasive evaluations and invasive procedures. Peripheral arterial disease has a risk factor profile similar to that associated with coronary artery disease (ie, age, gender, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia). Many studies have shown that the distribution, extent, and progression of PAD are influenced by CV risk factors but the findings are not consistent. Management strategies for PAD are different for proximal and distal PAD. The objective of this review is to discuss the patterns of diseases distribution in patients with PAD.

  17. 'Multi-associations': predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Gerhard; Pocivalnik, Mirjam; Riedl, Regina; Pichler-Stachl, Elisabeth; Morris, Nicholas; Zotter, Heinz; Müller, Wilhelm; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2011-08-01

    Interpretation of peripheral circulation in ill neonates is crucial but difficult. The aim was to analyse parameters potentially influencing peripheral oxygenation and circulation. In a prospective observational cohort study in 116 cardio-circulatory stable neonates, peripheral muscle near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with venous occlusion was performed. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI), mixed venous oxygenation (SvO(2)), fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE), haemoglobin flow (Hbflow), oxygen delivery (DO(2)), oxygen consumption (VO(2)), and vascular resistance (VR) were assessed. Correlation coefficients between NIRS parameters and demographic parameters (gestational age, birth weight, age, actual weight, diameter of calf, subcutaneous adipose tissue), monitoring parameters (heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), mean blood pressure (MAP), core/peripheral temperature, central/peripheral capillary refill time) and laboratory parameters (haemoglobin concentration (Hb-blood), pCO(2)) were calculated. All demographic parameters except for Hbflow and DO(2) correlated with NIRS parameters. Heart rate correlated with TOI, SvO(2), VO(2) and VR. SaO(2) correlated with FOE/FTOE. MAP correlated with Hbflow, DO(2), VO(2) and VR. Core temperature correlated with FTOE. Peripheral temperature correlated with all NIRS parameters except VO(2). Hb-blood correlated with FOE and VR. pCO(2) levels correlated with TOI and SvO(2). The presence of multiple interdependent factors associated with peripheral oxygenation and circulation highlights the difficulty in interpreting NIRS data. Nevertheless, these findings have to be taken into account when analysing peripheral oxygenation and circulation data.

  18. Surgical intervention for peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Shant M; Conte, Michael S

    2015-04-24

    The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is increasing worldwide, with recent global estimates exceeding 200 million people. Advanced PAD leads to a decline in ambulatory function and diminished quality of life. In its most severe form, critical limb ischemia, rest pain, and tissue necrosis are associated with high rates of limb loss, morbidity, and mortality. Revascularization of the limb plays a central role in the management of symptomatic PAD. Concomitant with advances in the pathogenesis, genetics, and medical management of PAD during the last 20 years, there has been an ongoing evolution of revascularization options. The increasing application of endovascular techniques has resulted in dramatic changes in practice patterns and has refocused the question of which patients should be offered surgical revascularization. Nonetheless, surgical therapy remains a cornerstone of management for advanced PAD, providing versatile and durable solutions to challenging patterns of disease. Although there is little high-quality comparative effectiveness data to guide patient selection, existing evidence suggests that outcomes are dependent on definable patient factors such as distribution of disease, status of the limb, comorbid conditions, and conduit availability. As it stands, surgical revascularization remains the standard against which emerging percutaneous techniques are compared. This review summarizes the principles of surgical revascularization, patient selection, and expected outcomes, while highlighting areas in need of further research and technological advancement.

  19. Peripheral circulation in hypertensive and normotensive acromegalics.

    PubMed

    Spácil, J; Marek, J

    1989-01-01

    Clinical examination and blood pressure measurement over the ankle in 31 patients with acromegaly, showing signs of active disease, did not reveal manifestations of obliterative arterial disease in the lower limbs. Sixteen of the patients had a normal blood pressure; in none of them did the authors find a deviation of blood flow in the foot and in the calf at rest and during reactive hyperaemia following 5-minute ischaemia. Fifteen patients with hypertension were found to have increased resting blood flow in the foot and calf and increased blood flow in the foot during reactive hyperaemia. PMID:2766753

  20. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Peripheral Arterial Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease? Many people ... flow, so the symptoms will go away. Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms of P. ...

  1. Endovascular Intervention for Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thukkani, Arun K.; Kinlay, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Advances in endovascular therapies during the past decade have broadened the options for treating peripheral vascular disease percutaneously. Endovascular treatment offers a lower risk alternative to open surgery in many patients with multiple comorbidities. Noninvasive physiological tests and arterial imaging precede an endovascular intervention and help localize the disease and plan the procedure. The timing and need for revascularization are broadly related to the 3 main clinical presentations of claudication, critical limb ischemia, and acute limb ischemia. Many patients with claudication can be treated by exercise and medical therapy. Endovascular procedures are considered when these fail to improve quality of life and function. In contrast, critical limb ischemia and acute limb ischemia threaten the limb and require more urgent revascularization. In general, endovascular treatments have greater long-term durability for aortoiliac disease than femoral popliteal disease. Infrapopliteal revascularization is generally reserved for critical and acute limb ischemia. Balloon angioplasty and stenting are the mainstays of endovascular therapy. New well-tested innovations include drug-eluting stents and drug-coated balloons. Adjunctive devices for crossing chronic total occlusions or debulking plaque with atherectomy are less rigorously studied and have niche roles. Patients receiving endovascular procedures need a structured surveillance plan for follow-up care. This includes intensive treatment of cardiovascular risk factors to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke, which are the main causes of death. Limb surveillance aims to identify restenosis and new disease beyond the intervened segments, both of which may jeopardize patency and lead to recurrent symptoms, functional impairment, or a threatened limb. PMID:25908731

  2. Exercise Training and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Tara L.; Lloyd, Pamela G.; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12–15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50–1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking ~5 times/wk, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Pre-clinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including: improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a life style pattern, that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations, is the most desirable and beneficial. PMID:23720270

  3. Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ≥40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 μg/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population. PMID:15687053

  4. GP IIb/IIIa Blockade During Peripheral Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Tepe, Gunnar Wiskirchen, Jakub; Pereira, Philippe; Claussen, Claus D.; Miller, Stephen; Duda, Stephan H.

    2008-01-15

    The activation of the platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptor is the final and common pathway in platelet aggregation. By blocking this receptor, platelet aggregation can be inhibited independently of the stimulus prompted the targeting of this receptor. Several years ago, three drugs have been approved for coronary artery indications. Since that time, there is increasing evidence that GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockade might have also an important role in peripheral arterial intervention. This article summarizes the action and differences of GP Ilb/IIIa receptor inhibitors and its possible indication in peripheral arteries.

  5. Peripheral arterial disease and revascularization of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, R O; Brownrigg, J; Hinchliffe, R J

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes is a complex disease with many serious potential sequelae, including large vessel arterial disease and microvascular dysfunction. Peripheral arterial disease is a common large vessel complication of diabetes, implicated in the development of tissue loss in up to half of patients with diabetic foot ulceration. In addition to peripheral arterial disease, functional changes in the microcirculation also contribute to the development of a diabetic foot ulcer, along with other factors such as infection, oedema and abnormal biomechanical loading. Peripheral arterial disease typically affects the distal vessels, resulting in multi-level occlusions and diffuse disease, which often necessitates challenging distal revascularisation surgery or angioplasty in order to improve blood flow. However, technically successful revascularisation does not always result in wound healing. The confounding effects of microvascular dysfunction must be recognised--treatment of a patient with a diabetic foot ulcer and peripheral arterial disease should address this complex interplay of pathophysiological changes. In the case of non-revascularisable peripheral arterial disease or poor response to conventional treatment, alternative approaches such as cell-based treatment, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the use of vasodilators may appear attractive, however more robust evidence is required to justify these novel approaches.

  6. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Kenjale, Aarti A.; Ham, Katherine L.; Stabler, Thomas; Robbins, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Johanna L.; VanBruggen, Mitch; Privette, Grayson; Yim, Eunji; Kraus, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) results in a failure to adequately supply blood and oxygen (O2) to working tissues and presents as claudication pain during walking. Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is essential for vascular health and function. Plasma nitrite (NO2−) is a marker of vascular NO production but may also be a protected circulating “source” that can be converted to NO during hypoxic conditions, possibly aiding perfusion. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of inorganic nitrate in the form of beetroot (BR) juice would increase plasma NO2− concentration, increase exercise tolerance, and decrease gastrocnemius fractional O2 extraction, compared with placebo (PL). This was a randomized, open-label, crossover study. At each visit, subjects (n = 8) underwent resting blood draws, followed by consumption of 500 ml BR or PL and subsequent blood draws prior to, during, and following a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) test. Gastrocnemius oxygenation during the CPX was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. There were no changes from rest for [NO2−] (152 ± 72 nM) following PL. BR increased plasma [NO2−] after 3 h (943 ± 826 nM; P ≤ 0.01). Subjects walked 18% longer before the onset of claudication pain (183 ± 84 s vs. 215 ± 99 s; P ≤ 0.01) and had a 17% longer peak walking time (467 ± 223 s vs. 533 ± 233 s; P ≤ 0.05) following BR vs. PL. Gastrocnemius tissue fractional O2 extraction was lower during exercise following BR (7.3 ± 6.2 vs. 10.4 ± 6.1 arbitrary units; P ≤ 0.01). Diastolic blood pressure was lower in the BR group at rest and during CPX testing (P ≤ 0.05). These findings support the hypothesis that NO2−-related NO signaling increases peripheral tissue oxygenation in areas of hypoxia and increases exercise tolerance in PAD. PMID:21454745

  7. How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood flow to the affected limb. Angioplasty and Stent Placement Your doctor may recommend angioplasty to restore ... widens the artery and restores blood flow. A stent (a small mesh tube) may be placed in ...

  8. [Peripheral circulation in critically ill patients: non-invasive methods for the assessment of the peripheral perfusion].

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Michel E; Lima, Alexandre; Bakker, Jan; van Bommel, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral tissues, such as skin and muscles, are sensitive to alterations in perfusion. During circulatory shock, these tissues are the first to receive less blood and the last to recover after treatment. By monitoring peripheral circulation, disturbance of the systemic circulation can be detected at an early stage. Peripheral perfusion is often disturbed in critically ill patients. Peripheral perfusion may remain disturbed, even if conventional hemodynamic parameters such as blood pressure and heart frequency normalize after treatment. Persistent abnormal peripheral perfusion is related to a poorer clinical course. With current non-invasive methods, peripheral circulation in critically ill patients can easily be assessed at the bedside. Interventions that improve peripheral circulation may speed up recovery in critically ill patients.

  9. The arterial circulation of the left suprarenal gland.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, H; Ferrari, A

    1991-01-01

    The findings in a study of the general circulation of the suprarenal glands in 25 cases, and particularly of the left glands in 50 cases, are presented. The vessels arose from three pedicles: superior, middle and inferior. The inferior pedicle was the most irregular, with a frequent contribution from the gonadal artery to the inferior part of the gland; this artery should not be regarded as merely an accessory vessel. On the left side an inconstant posterior pedicle, separate from the others, was found in 26% of cases. Two forms of gonadal artery supplying the gland (8%) are described, an upper origin type at the renal artery level and an aberrant type.

  10. Marvels, Mysteries, and Misconceptions of Vascular Compensation to Peripheral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    ZIEGLER, MATTHEW A.; DISTASI, MATTHEW R.; BILLS, RANDALL G.; MILLER, STEVEN J.; ALLOOSH, MOUHAMAD; MURPHY, MICHAEL P.; AKINGBA, A. GEORGE; STUREK, MICHAEL; DALSING, MICHAEL C.; UNTHANK, JOSEPH L.

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a major health problem and there is a significant need to develop therapies to prevent its progression to claudication and critical limb ischemia. Promising results in rodent models of arterial occlusion have generally failed to predict clinical success and led to questions of their relevance. While sub-optimal models may have contributed to the lack of progress, we suggest that advancement has also been hindered by misconceptions of the human capacity for compensation and the specific vessels which are of primary importance. We present and summarize new and existing data from humans, Ossabaw miniature pigs, and rodents which provide compelling evidence that natural compensation to occlusion of a major artery (i) may completely restore perfusion, (ii) occurs in specific pre-existing small arteries, rather than the distal vasculature, via mechanisms involving flow-mediated dilation and remodeling (iii) is impaired by cardiovascular risk factors which suppress the flow-mediated mechanisms and (iv) can be restored by reversal of endothelial dysfunction. We propose that restoration of the capacity for flow-mediated dilation and remodeling in small arteries represents a largely unexplored potential therapeutic opportunity to enhance compensation for major arterial occlusion and prevent the progression to critical limb ischemia in the peripheral circulation. PMID:20141596

  11. Subintimal Angioplasty for Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Met, Rosemarie Lienden, Krijn P. Van; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Legemate, Dink A.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to summarize outcomes of subintimal angioplasty (SA) for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase databases were searched to perform a systematic review of the literature from 1966 through May 2007 on outcomes of SA for peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the infrainguinal vessels. The keywords 'percutaneous intentional extraluminal revascularization,' 'subintimal angioplasty,' 'peripheral arterial disease,' 'femoral artery,' 'popliteal artery,' and 'tibial artery' were used. Assessment of study quality was done using a form based on a checklist of the Dutch Cochrane Centre. The recorded outcomes were technical and clinical success, primary (assisted) patency, limb salvage, complications, and survival, in relation to the clinical grade of disease (intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia [CLI] or mixed) and location of lesion (femoropopliteal, crural, or mixed). Twenty-three cohort studies including a total of 1549 patients (range, 27 to 148) were included in this review. Methodological and reporting quality were moderate, e.g., there was selection bias and reporting was not done according to the reporting standards. These and significant clinical heterogeneity obstructed a meta-analysis. Reports about length of the lesion and TASC classification were too various to summarize or were not mentioned at all. The technical success rates varied between 80% and 90%, with lower rates for crural lesions compared with femoral lesions. Complication rates ranged between 8% and 17% and most complications were minor. After 1 year, clinical success was between 50% and 70%, primary patency was around 50% and limb salvage varied from 80% to 90%. In conclusion, taking into account the methodological shortcomings of the included studies, SA can play an important role in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, especially in the case of critical limb ischemia. Despite the moderate patency

  12. Women With Peripheral Arterial Disease Experience Faster Functional Decline Than Men With Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Liu, Kiang; Guralnik, Jack M.; Tian, Lu; Kibbe, Melina; Liao, Yihua; Tao, Huimin; Criqui, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that women with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) would have greater mobility loss and faster functional decline than men with PAD. Background Whether rates of mobility loss or functional decline differ between men and women with PAD is currently unknown. Methods Three hundred eighty men and women with PAD completed the 6-min walk, were assessed for mobility disability, and underwent measures of 4-m walking velocity at baseline and annually for up to 4 years. Computed tomography-assessed calf muscle characteristics were measured biannually. Outcomes included becoming unable to walk for 6 min continuously among participants who walked continuously for 6 min at baseline. Mobility loss was defined as becoming unable to walk for a quarter mile or to walk up and down 1 flight of stairs without assistance among those without baseline mobility disability. Results were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, physical activity, the ankle brachial index, comorbidities, and other confounders. Results At 4 years of follow-up, women were more likely to become unable to walk for 6 min continuously (hazard ratio: 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 4.06, p = 0.004), more likely to develop mobility disability (hazard ratio: 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 3.03, p = 0.030), and had faster declines in walking velocity (p = 0.022) and the distance achieved in the 6-min walk (p = 0.041) compared with men. Sex differences in functional decline were attenuated after additional adjustment for baseline sex differences in calf muscle area. Conclusions Women with PAD have faster functional decline and greater mobility loss than men with PAD. These sex differences may be attributable to smaller baseline calf muscle area among women with PAD. PMID:21292130

  13. Connective Tissue Reflex Massage for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Feriche-Fernández-Castanys, Belen; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva; Quesada-Rubio, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (Leriche-Fontaine classification) were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30 min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P < .05) in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg) and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg). A significant difference (P < .05) was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P < .05) for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD. PMID:19933770

  14. Connective tissue reflex massage for type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Feriche-Fernández-Castanys, Belen; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva; Quesada-Rubio, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (Leriche-Fontaine classification) were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30 min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P < .05) in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg) and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg). A significant difference (P < .05) was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P < .05) for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD. PMID:19933770

  15. Stretching exercises enhance vascular endothelial function and improve peripheral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kazuki; Kamiya, Kentaro; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Yokoyama, Misako; Nakamura-Ogura, Misao; Tabata, Minoru; Kamekawa, Daisuke; Akiyama, Ayako; Kato, Michitaka; Noda, Chiharu; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Masuda, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the acute effects of a single session of stretching exercises on vascular endothelial function and peripheral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This study evaluated 32 patients (mean age, 66 ± 9 years) who received phase I cardiac rehabilitation after acute myocardial infarction. Five types of stretching exercises were performed on the floor: wrist dorsiflexion, close-legged trunk flexion, open-legged trunk flexion, open-legged lateral trunk bending, and cross-legged trunk flexion. Each exercise entailed a 30-second stretching followed by a 30-second relaxation, and was repeated twice. Low- and high-frequency components (LF and HF) of heart rate variability (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz; HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) were analyzed, and HF and LF/HF were used as indices of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous activities, respectively. Reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) index was measured and used as a parameter for vascular endothelial function. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcPO2) on the right foot and chest was also measured, and the Foot-tcPO2/Chest-tcPO2 ratio was used as a parameter for peripheral circulation. The HF, RH-PAT index, and Foot-tcPO2/Chest-tcPO2 ratio were significantly higher after the exercises than before (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.05, respectively). There was no significant difference in the LF/HF ratio measured before and after stretching exercises. These findings demonstrate that stretching exercises improve vascular endothelial function and peripheral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  16. Gene Therapy Techniques for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Manninen, Hannu I.; Maekinen, Kimmo

    2002-03-15

    Somatic gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into selective somatic cells with resulting therapeutic benefits. Vascular wall and, subsequently, cardiovascular diseases have become an interesting target for gene therapy studies.Arteries are an attractive target for gene therapy since vascular interventions, both open surgical and endovascular, are well suited for minimally invasive, easily monitored gene delivery. Promising therapeutic effects have been obtained in animal models in preventing post-angioplasty restenosis and vein graft thickening, as well as increasing blood flow and collateral development in ischemic limbs.First clinical trials suggest a beneficial effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in achieving therapeutic angiogenesis in chronic limb ischemia and the efficacy of decoy oligonucleotides to prevent infrainguinal vein graft stenosis. However, further studies are mandatory to clarify the safety issues, to develop better gene delivery vectors and delivery catheters, to improve transgene expression, as well as to find the most effective and safe treatment genes.

  17. [Neural control of the peripheral circulation and blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Estañol, Bruno; Porras-Betancourt, Manuel; Sánchez-Torres, Gustavo; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Infante, Oscar; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio

    2009-12-01

    In the XIX century Claude Bernard discovered the action of the nervous system on the peripheral circulation. In the first half of the XX century Ewald Hering discovered the baro-receptor and the reflex control of the heart rate and blood pressure. Cowley and Guyton demonstrated that sino-aortic denervation induces persistent changes in the blood pressure in the dog. The autonomic nervous system is mainly responsible for the regulation of the circulation and blood pressure in the short term on a beat to beat basis. It controls the vasomotor tone, the heart rate and the cardiac output. With the advent of non invasive methods that measure the blood pressure on a beat to beat basis (Finapres) and with the methods of measurement of the variability of the blood pressure in the frequency domain (spectral analysis) we can currently measure many variables including heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, peripheral resistances and the baroreceptor sensitivity and make some inferences about their control mechanisms. These variables can be measured at rest in the supine position, standing up, during rhythmic breathing and during the Valsalva maneuver. In this article we present a review of the neural control of the blood pressure and heart rate.

  18. Complexity of lower extremity peripheral artery disease reflects the complexity of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Hatem, Engin; Karabay, Can Yücel; Gül, İlker; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Kalaycıoğlu, Ezgi; Turan, Turhan; Kara, Faruk; Arslan, Ahmet Oğuz; Dursun, İhsan; Çetin, Mustafa; Güler, Ahmet

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between peripheral artery disease complexity and coronary artery disease complexity in patients with peripheral artery disease. A total of 449 patients were enrolled. SYNTAX score, a marker of coronary artery disease complexity, was assessed by dedicated computer software and complexity of peripheral artery disease was determined by Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II classification. The SYNTAX score of patients with minimal peripheral artery disease, Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus A, Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus B, Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus C and Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus D were 5 (11), 12.5 (13.25), 20 (14), 20.5 (19) and 27.5 (19), respectively (values in brackets represent the interquartile range). SYNTAX score and Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus class was moderately correlated (r = 0.495, p < 0.001). In multivariate regression analysis male sex (B = 0.169, p < 0.001, CI95% = 0.270-0.735), Log10 SYNTAX score (B = 0.282, p < 0.001, CI95% = 0.431-0.782), Log10 creatinine (B = 0.081, p = 0.036, CI95% = 0.043-1.239), low-density lipoprotein (B = 0.114, p = 0.003, CI95% = 0.001-0.006) and high-density lipoprotein (B = -0.360, p < 0.001, CI95% = -0.063 to -0.041) were the independent predictors of Trans Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II class. We have shown that patients with complex peripheral artery disease had complex coronary artery disease.

  19. Doppler ultrasonography in lower extremity peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Verim, Samet; Taşçı, Ilker

    2013-04-01

    Systemic atherosclerosis is a condition which progresses with age, decreases quality of life, and life expectancy. Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis in the elderly. These individuals have a 2 to 4 fold higher risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. In addition, systemic atherosclerosis causes overall functional disability including restricted lower extremity movements. When used alone for diagnostic purposes, claudication is an unreliable sign of PAD in all age groups especially the elderly. Moreover, claudication is difficult to define due to the advancing age and degenerative changes in lumbar and peripheral joints. Doppler ultrasonography (US) is an easily available and noninvasive means of arterial visualization in the lower extremities. In this review, supporting evidence for the use of Doppler US in the diagnosis of PAD will be discussed. Past and present recommendations regarding Doppler US in the current PAD guidelines will be overviewed.

  20. Peripheral arterial disease in general and diabetic population.

    PubMed

    Rabia, K; Khoo, E M

    2007-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is stenosis or occlusion of peripheral arterial vessels by atherosclerotic plaque. It may present as intermittent claudication, rest pain and impotence. PAD of the lower limbs is the third most important site of atherosclerotic disease after coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Increasing age, family history, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and more decisively diabetes are significant risk factors. PAD is a clinical condition that has often been neglected, underdiagnosed, undertreated and has a serious outcome. It may lead to nonhealing wounds, gangrene and amputation of the lower limbs. Hence, early identification of patients at risk of PAD and timely referral to the vascular surgeon in severe cases is crucial. PMID:18705464

  1. Stenting for Peripheral Artery Disease of the Lower Extremities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Objective In January 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat received an application from University Health Network to provide an evidentiary platform on stenting as a treatment management for peripheral artery disease. The purpose of this health technology assessment is to examine the effectiveness of primary stenting as a treatment management for peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a progressive disease occurring as a result of plaque accumulation (atherosclerosis) in the arterial system that carries blood to the extremities (arms and legs) as well as vital organs. The vessels that are most affected by PAD are the arteries of the lower extremities, the aorta, the visceral arterial branches, the carotid arteries and the arteries of the upper limbs. In the lower extremities, PAD affects three major arterial segments i) aortic-iliac, ii) femoro-popliteal (FP) and iii) infra-popliteal (primarily tibial) arteries. The disease is commonly classified clinically as asymptomatic claudication, rest pain and critical ischemia. Although the prevalence of PAD in Canada is not known, it is estimated that 800,000 Canadians have PAD. The 2007 Trans Atlantic Intersociety Consensus (TASC) II Working Group for the Management of Peripheral Disease estimated that the prevalence of PAD in Europe and North America to be 27 million, of whom 88,000 are hospitalizations involving lower extremities. A higher prevalence of PAD among elderly individuals has been reported to range from 12% to 29%. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) estimated that the prevalence of PAD is 14.5% among individuals 70 years of age and over. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with PAD include advanced age, male gender, family history, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. PAD is a strong predictor of myocardial infarction (MI

  2. Alteplase and tenecteplase: applications in the peripheral circulation.

    PubMed

    Semba, C P; Sugimoto, K; Razavi, M K

    2001-06-01

    Alteplase (t-PA), a recombinant analogue of human tissue plasminogen activator, became the first genetically engineered thrombolytic approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1987 for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In addition to AMI, alteplase is currently approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and pulmonary embolism, and we anticipate approval for catheter clearance in late 2001 in a 2-mg vial configuration. With the withdrawal of human neonatal kidney cell-derived urokinase, alteplase has become an alternative agent in peripheral vascular applications. Because few interventionalists had prior experience with the handling and dosage of alteplase, the Advisory Panel to the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology established practice guidelines for use in noncoronary applications. Emerging clinical experience with contemporary dosing regimens shows a safety and efficacy profile similar to urokinase but with significantly reduced drug costs. Tenecteplase (TNK) is a genetically modified version of alteplase. TNK is the only plasminogen activator available that has shown a significantly enhanced safety profile versus alteplase in AMI. Approved for a 5-second, single-bolus injection in AMI, TNK possesses a longer half-life, increased resistance to plasminogen activator inhibitor, and improved fibrin specificity compared with alteplase. Because of its enhanced safety profile, TNK may be a desirable agent for peripheral vascular applications. Initial clinical studies with TNK in acute arterial and venous disease are ongoing. This article outlines the Advisory Panel guidelines for using alteplase and highlights features of tenecteplase.

  3. Peripheral arterial calcification: Prevalence, mechanism, detection, and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Zeller, Thomas; Jaff, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC), particularly medial (Mönckeberg's medial sclerosis) arterial calcification, is common in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and genetic pathways of VC are not fully known, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and the suppression of parathyroid hormone activity are central to the development of vessel mineralization and, consequently, bone demineralization. In addition to preventive measures, such as the modification of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors, current treatment strategies include the use of calcium-free phosphate binders, vitamin D analogs, and calcium mimetics that have shown promising results, albeit in small patient cohorts. The impact of intimal and medial VC on the safety and effectiveness of endovascular devices to treat symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remains poorly defined. The absence of a generally accepted, validated vascular calcium grading scale hampers clinical progress in assessing the safety and utility of various endovascular devices (e.g., atherectomy) in treating calcified vessels. Accordingly, we propose the peripheral arterial calcium scoring system (PACSS) and a method for its clinical validation. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular calcification and the development of optimal medical and endovascular treatment strategies are crucial as the population ages and presents with more chronic comorbidities. PMID:24402839

  4. Non-Invasive Therapy of Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Marcial, José M; Pérez, Reynerio; Vargas, Pedro; Franqui-Rivera, Hilton

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lifestyle changes, like the cessation of the use of tobacco as well as a modification of dietary and exercise habits, can be the most cost-effective interventions in patients with PAD. Smocking cessation is the most important intervention, since it increases survival in these patients. Antiplatelet therapy is an essential component in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower extremities. In addition to delaying arterial obstructive progression, these agents are most usefull in reducing adverse cardiovascular events such as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and vascular death. Mainstay of treatment continues to be aspirin monotherapy (75-325mg daily). Current treatment for lower extremity PAD is directed towards the relief of symptoms and improvement in QoL. The two agents which have consistently been found to be most efficient in achieving these goals are cilostazol and naftidrofuryl oxalate. Naftidrofuryl oxalate may emerge as the most efficient and cost-effective treatment for symptom relief. PMID:26742197

  5. Plasma viscosity increase with progression of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Poredos, P; Zizek, B

    1996-03-01

    Increased blood and plasma viscosity has been described in patients with coronary and peripheral arterial disease. However, the relation of viscosity to the extent of arterial wall deterioration--the most important determinant of clinical manifestation and prognosis of the disease--is not well known. Therefore, the authors studied plasma viscosity as one of the major determinants of blood viscosity in patients with different stages of arterial disease of lower limbs (according to Fontaine) and its relation to the presence of some risk factors of atherosclerosis. The study encompassed four groups of subjects: 19 healthy volunteers (group A), 18 patients with intermittent claudication up to 200 m (stage II; group B), 15 patients with critical ischemia of lower limbs (stage III and IV; group C), and 16 patients with recanalization procedures on peripheral arteries. Venous blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein without stasis for the determination of plasma viscosity (with a rotational capillary microviscometer, PAAR), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and glucose concentrations. In patients with recanalization procedure local plasma viscosity was also determined from blood samples taken from a vein on the dorsum of the foot. Plasma viscosity was most significantly elevated in the patients with critical ischemia (1.78 mPa.sec) and was significantly higher than in the claudicants (1.68 mPa.sec), and the claudicants also had significantly higher viscosity than the controls (1.58 mPa.sec). In patients in whom a recanalization procedure was performed, no differences in systemic and local plasma viscosity were detected, neither before nor after recanalization of the diseased artery. In all groups plasma viscosity was correlated with fibrinogen concentration (r=0.70, P < 0.01) and total cholesterol concentration (r=0.24, P < 0.05), but in group C (critical ischemia) plasma viscosity was most closely linked to the concentration of alpha-2

  6. Skin autofluorescence is increased in patients with carotid artery stenosis and peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Marjon J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Loeffen, Erik A H; Saleem, Ben R; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L; Smit, Andries J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2012-02-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. We evaluated skin autofluorescence (SAF), a non-invasive measurement of tissue AGE accumulation, in patients with carotid artery stenosis with and without coexisting peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). SAF was measured using the AGE Reader™ in 56 patients with carotid artery stenosis and in 56 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without diabetes, renal dysfunction or known atherosclerotic disease. SAF was higher in patients with carotid artery stenosis compared to the control group: mean 2.81 versus 2.46 (P = 0.002), but especially in the younger age group of 50-60 years old: mean 2.82 versus 1.94 (P = 0.000). Patients with carotid artery stenosis and PAOD proved to have an even higher SAF than patients with carotid artery stenosis only: mean 3.28 versus 2.66 (P = 0.003). Backward linear regression analysis showed that age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, renal function and the presence of PAOD were the determinants of SAF, but carotid artery stenosis was not. SAF is increased in patients with carotid artery stenosis and PAOD. The univariate and multivariate associations of SAF with age, smoking, diabetes, renal insufficiency and PAOD suggest that increased SAF can be seen as an indicator of widespread atherosclerosis. PMID:21336554

  7. Skin autofluorescence is increased in patients with carotid artery stenosis and peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Marjon J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Loeffen, Erik A H; Saleem, Ben R; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L; Smit, Andries J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2012-02-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. We evaluated skin autofluorescence (SAF), a non-invasive measurement of tissue AGE accumulation, in patients with carotid artery stenosis with and without coexisting peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). SAF was measured using the AGE Reader™ in 56 patients with carotid artery stenosis and in 56 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without diabetes, renal dysfunction or known atherosclerotic disease. SAF was higher in patients with carotid artery stenosis compared to the control group: mean 2.81 versus 2.46 (P = 0.002), but especially in the younger age group of 50-60 years old: mean 2.82 versus 1.94 (P = 0.000). Patients with carotid artery stenosis and PAOD proved to have an even higher SAF than patients with carotid artery stenosis only: mean 3.28 versus 2.66 (P = 0.003). Backward linear regression analysis showed that age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, renal function and the presence of PAOD were the determinants of SAF, but carotid artery stenosis was not. SAF is increased in patients with carotid artery stenosis and PAOD. The univariate and multivariate associations of SAF with age, smoking, diabetes, renal insufficiency and PAOD suggest that increased SAF can be seen as an indicator of widespread atherosclerosis.

  8. Evaluation and treatment of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: consensus definitions from Peripheral Academic Research Consortium (PARC).

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Conte, Michael S; Cutlip, Donald E; Dib, Nabil; Geraghty, Patrick; Gray, William; Hiatt, William R; Ho, Mami; Ikeda, Koji; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Jaff, Michael R; Jones, W Schuyler; Kawahara, Masayuki; Lookstein, Robert A; Mehran, Roxana; Misra, Sanjay; Norgren, Lars; Olin, Jeffrey W; Povsic, Thomas J; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Rundback, John; Shamoun, Fadi; Tcheng, James; Tsai, Thomas T; Suzuki, Yuka; Vranckx, Pascal; Wiechmann, Bret N; White, Christopher J; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2015-03-10

    The lack of consistent definitions and nomenclature across clinical trials of novel devices, drugs, or biologics poses a significant barrier to accrual of knowledge in and across peripheral artery disease therapies and technologies. Recognizing this problem, the Peripheral Academic Research Consortium, together with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, has developed a series of pragmatic consensus definitions for patients being treated for peripheral artery disease affecting the lower extremities. These consensus definitions include the clinical presentation, anatomic depiction, interventional outcomes, surrogate imaging and physiological follow-up, and clinical outcomes of patients with lower-extremity peripheral artery disease. Consistent application of these definitions in clinical trials evaluating novel revascularization technologies should result in more efficient regulatory evaluation and best practice guidelines to inform clinical decisions in patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease.

  9. Transradial versus Transfemoral Approach in Peripheral Arterial Interventions.

    PubMed

    Oren, Ohad; Oren, Michal; Turgeman, Yoav

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to compare the clinical and procedural characteristics, including iatrogenic complications, of transradial versus transfemoral approach in patients who underwent peripheral arterial interventions. We retrospectively analyzed data of 72 patients who had undergone interventions of peripheral arteries in the preceding 3 years. Of all the procedures, 39 were performed using the transfemoral approach and 33 using the transradial approach. We assessed baseline clinical factors as well as procedure-related parameters (volume of contrast media, the amount of radiation, and duration of radiation exposure), rates of primary success, and acute vascular, access-site, or neurological complications. Patients whose interventions were done via transradial access had similar demographic characteristics to those who had transfemoral angioplasties. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors was similar in the two groups, but patients in the transradial subset were significantly more likely to have dyslipidemia (90.9 vs.71.7%, p value = 0.04) and less likely to have baseline chronic kidney disease (3.0 vs. 23.0%, p value = 0.01). The length of admission was shorter for patients who underwent transradial interventions compared with the transfemoral approach (1.1 vs. 1.3 days, p value = 0.04). Fluoroscopy time, the amount of radiation, and the volume of contrast media were similar between the two groups. Rates of primary success and periprocedural complications did not differ between the two groups. The transradial route appears to be a viable, safe, and noninferior alternative to the transfemoral approach for treatment of atherosclerotic stenosis in peripheral arterial territories. Prospective studies are needed. PMID:27574380

  10. Overview of Classification Systems in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Rulon L.; Jazaeri, Omid; Yi, J.; Smith, M.; Gupta, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD), secondary to atherosclerotic disease, is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. While PAD is common, it is estimated that the majority of patients with PAD are undiagnosed and undertreated. The challenge to the treatment of PAD is to accurately diagnose the symptoms and determine treatment for each patient. The varied presentations of peripheral vascular disease have led to numerous classification schemes throughout the literature. Consistent grading of patients leads to both objective criteria for treating patients and a baseline for clinical follow-up. Reproducible classification systems are also important in clinical trials and when comparing medical, surgical, and endovascular treatment paradigms. This article reviews the various classification systems for PAD and advantages to each system. PMID:25435665

  11. Endovascular Intervention in the Treatment of Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Couto, Marian; Figueróa, Alejandro; Sotolongo, Antonio; Pérez, Reynerio; Ojeda, José Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular therapy has emerged as an essential part of the management we can offer patients suffering from peripheral arterial disease. The AHA/ACCF guidelines deemed ballon angioplasty as a reasonable alternative for patients with limb threatening lower extremity ischemia who are not candidates for an autologus venous graft. Endovascular treatment is most useful for the treatment of critical limb ischemia and should ensure adequate proximal flow before engaging in interventions of distal disease.To increase procedure success rate, a thorough diagnostic evaluation is fundamental. This evaluation must take into account amount of calcium, no flow occlusion, length of occlusion, and presence of collaterals. There are different tools and procedure techniques available. Among these are the medicated ballon angioplasty and atherectomy by laser or high-speed drill, among others. Further studies may consolidate endovascular intervention as a safe and effective management for patients with lower extremity arterial disease and possibly cause a change in the actual practice guidelines. PMID:26742196

  12. Contemporary and optimal medical management of peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Matthew C; Johnson, Heather M; Mason, Peter J

    2013-08-01

    Atherosclerotic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a highly prevalent condition associated with a significant increase in risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PAD is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Treatment is focused on (1) lowering cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease event rates and (2) improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Multidisciplinary and intersociety guidelines guide optimal medical therapy. Substantial evidence supports implementation of tobacco cessation counseling and pharmacotherapy to help achieve tobacco abstinence, antiplatelet therapy, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) therapy, and antihypertensive therapy for the purpose of lowering cardiovascular event rates and improving survival.

  13. Effect of ambrisentan on peripheral circulation in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Hayakazu; Asano, Yoshihide; Hatano, Masaru; Aozasa, Naohiko; Toyama, Tetsuo; Akamata, Kaname; Miyazaki, Miki; Taniguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Takehiro; Ichimura, Yohei; Noda, Shinji; Kuwano, Yoshihiro; Yanaba, Koichi; Sato, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by disturbed blood circulation. The effect of ambrisentan, an endothelin-A receptor-selective antagonist, on impaired peripheral circulation in SSc remains largely elusive. Here we show SSc patients, whose clinical symptoms such as cyanosis and Raynaud's phenomenon, were ameliorated by the treatment with ambrisentan. Additionally, objective evaluations with thermography showed improvement of hand coldness in steady-state and cold challenge tests. Ambrisentan might have a potential to improve peripheral circulation in SSc.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of the Internal Iliac Artery in Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Huetink, K. Steijling, J.J.F.; Mali, W.P.T.M.

    2008-03-15

    In patients with peripheral arterial disease not much is known about the relationship between the localization of the pain and the localization of arterial occlusions in the iliac arteries. Occlusions high in the iliac arteries are assumed to be able to induce pain in the buttocks and upper leg as well as pain in the calves. Several case reports show that the symptoms of arteriosclerotic lesions in the internal iliac artery are often atypical and not easy to diagnose. In this report, 3 patients with internal iliac artery occlusions who were treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) are described. One patient had isolated pain in the buttock region. In the other 2 patients the initial pain was focused on the buttock region with extension to the calves during exercise. After PTA, 2 patients were free of symptoms, while in the other patient the symptoms improved but did not disappear. Future research should clarify the relation between certain arterial occlusions and the location of the pain.

  15. Lower Extremity Arterial Calcification as a Predictor of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hwa Seon; Jung Park, Mi; Nyeo Jeon, Kyung; Min Cho, Jae; Soo Bae, Kyung; Seob Choi, Dae; Boem Na, Jae; Cheol Choi, Ho; Young Choi, Hye; Eun Kim, Ji; Bueum Cho, Soo; Eun Park, Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background Until now, there has been no study on the relationship between the calcification of the lower extremity arteries and significant coronary arterial disease (CAD). Objectives To evaluate whether lower extremity calcium scores (LECS) are associated with CAD and whether this can predict multivessel-CAD in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients and Methods We retrospectively enrolled 103 PAD patients without cardiac symptoms or known CAD. All patients underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT) and lower extremity CT within 1 month and were categorized as nonsignificant CAD, single-CAD, or multivessel-CAD. The coronary calcium scores (CCS) were quantitatively measured according to the Agatston method and LECS were semi-quantitatively measured according to the presence of lower extremity calcification in the segment. The extent of CAD was evaluated according to the presence of ≥ 50% luminal diameter stenosis in the segment of CAD. Results LECS in multivessel-CAD were significantly higher than those in nonsignificant CAD (10.0 ± 5.8 versus 4.0 ± 3.1, P < 0.001). LECS significantly correlated with CCS (r = 0.831, P < 0.001) and the extent of CAD (r = 0.631, P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated LECS and log-transformed CCS were independent predictors for multivessel-CAD. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the diagnostic performance of LECS was 0.807 (95% confidence interval = 0.724-0.891, P < 0.001) for predicting multivessel-CAD. Conclusion Peripheral arterial calcification is significantly correlated with CAD extent in patients with PAD. Peripheral arterial calcification can be a useful marker for predicting multivessel-CAD. PMID:27703657

  16. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carolina; Miname, Marcio; Makdisse, Marcia; Kalil, Roberto; Santos, Raul D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Objective This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. Methods The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. Results The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Conclusion Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients. PMID:25029472

  17. Aortic augmentation index in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Mariella; Scandale, Giovanni; Carzaniga, Gianni; Cinquini, Michela; Minola, Marzio; Antoniazzi, Valeria; Dimitrov, Gabriel; Carotta, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Aortic augmentation index (AIx) is used to investigate arterial stiffness. The authors tested the hypothesis that patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) demonstrate a higher AIx and also evaluated several related factors. In 97 patients with PAD, identified by ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI ≤ 0.9), and 97 controls (ABPI ≥ 0.91< 1.4), AIx (%) was determined using tonometry of the radial artery. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in characteristics of age, sex, height, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, and heart rate. AIx was higher in patients with PAD (32 ± 9 vs 28 ± 9; P = .001). In multivariate regression analysis, AIx was independently associated with heart rate (β = -0.40, P = .0005). This study showed that AIx increased in patients with PAD and that heart rate is a determinant of AIx. Further studies are necessary to assess the pathophysiological and clinical importance of AIx in patients with PAD. PMID:25228305

  18. Relationship of Inflammatory Biomarkers with Severity of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Toyofuku, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The pentraxin family, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid P (SAP), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3), has been identified as playing a key role in inflammatory reactions such as in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examined the relationship between peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and serum levels of pentraxins. Methods. This study was undertaken via a retrospective review of PAD patients with surgical intervention for lesions of the common femoral artery. We evaluated the preoperative patient conditions, hemodynamic status, such as ankle brachial index (ABI), and clinical ischemic conditions according to Rutherford classification. Preoperatively, we collected blood samples for determining the serum levels of hs-CRP, SAP, and PTX3. Results. Twelve PAD patients with common femoral arterial lesions were treated and examined. The hemodynamic severity of PAD was not negatively correlated with hs-CRP, SAP, or PTX3. The clinical severity evaluated by Rutherford classification was significantly positively correlated with the serum level of PTX3 (p = 0.019). Conclusion. We demonstrated that PTX3 might be a better marker of PAD than hs-CRP and SAP. Furthermore, PTX3 might be a prognostic marker to evaluate the severity of PAD. PMID:27559483

  19. Relationship of Inflammatory Biomarkers with Severity of Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Igari, Kimihiro; Kudo, Toshifumi; Toyofuku, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The pentraxin family, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid P (SAP), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3), has been identified as playing a key role in inflammatory reactions such as in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examined the relationship between peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and serum levels of pentraxins. Methods. This study was undertaken via a retrospective review of PAD patients with surgical intervention for lesions of the common femoral artery. We evaluated the preoperative patient conditions, hemodynamic status, such as ankle brachial index (ABI), and clinical ischemic conditions according to Rutherford classification. Preoperatively, we collected blood samples for determining the serum levels of hs-CRP, SAP, and PTX3. Results. Twelve PAD patients with common femoral arterial lesions were treated and examined. The hemodynamic severity of PAD was not negatively correlated with hs-CRP, SAP, or PTX3. The clinical severity evaluated by Rutherford classification was significantly positively correlated with the serum level of PTX3 (p = 0.019). Conclusion. We demonstrated that PTX3 might be a better marker of PAD than hs-CRP and SAP. Furthermore, PTX3 might be a prognostic marker to evaluate the severity of PAD. PMID:27559483

  20. Digital venous angiography. A prospective evaluation in peripheral arterial trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, T C; Reiter, C B; Gold, R E; Pate, J W

    1984-01-01

    Digital venous angiography (DVA), a new radiographic technique, was prospectively compared to conventional intra-arterial angiography (CA) in a group of 153 patients with trauma and suspected peripheral arterial injury ( PAI ). Criteria for entry included: large hematoma, proximity to a major vessel, shotgun wounds, blunt injury of the extremities, and fractures or dislocations of areas with high risk of arterial injury. Patients with unequivocal clinical evidence of PAI were excluded. Study patients had both DVA and CA. Sixteen injuries were diagnosed: lacerations (9), transection (1), AV fistulae (2), thromboses (2) and minute intimal flaps (2). All patients with abnormal studies were surgically explored; there were no false-positives. There were no known false-negatives with CA. The intimal flaps were not recognized initially on DVA and their clinical significance is questioned. DVA, compared to CA in PAI , had decreased patient discomfort, cost, and morbidity. It has the potential for study of multiple areas of the body from a single I.V. catheter. DVA can probably replace CA for civilian penetrating wounds. CA may remain the standard for blunt and high velocity injuries. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6375594

  1. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Paraoxonases and Chemokines in Arteries of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Sepúlveda, Julio; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Guirro, Maria; García-Heredia, Anabel; Cabré, Noemí; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Fort-Gallifa, Isabel; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Camps, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative damage to lipids and lipoproteins is implicated in the development of atherosclerotic vascular diseases, including peripheral artery disease (PAD). The paraoxonases (PON) are a group of antioxidant enzymes, termed PON1, PON2, and PON3 that protect lipoproteins and cells from peroxidation and, as such, may be involved in protection against the atherosclerosis process. PON1 inhibits the production of chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in endothelial cells incubated with oxidized lipoproteins. PON1 and CCL2 are ubiquitously distributed in tissues, and this suggests a joint localization and combined systemic effect. The aim of the present study has been to analyze the quantitative immunohistochemical localization of PON1, PON3, CCL2 and CCL2 receptors in a series of patients with severe PAD. Portions of femoral and/or popliteal arteries from 66 patients with PAD were obtained during surgical procedures for infra-inguinal limb revascularization. We used eight normal arteries from donors as controls. PON1 and PON3, CCL2 and the chemokine-binding protein 2, and Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor, were increased in PAD patients. There were no significant changes in C–C chemokine receptor type 2. Our findings suggest that paraoxonases and chemokines play an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in peripheral artery disease. PMID:25993297

  2. Superficial Femoral Artery Plaque and Functional Performance in Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Liu, Kiang; Carroll, Timothy J.; Tian, Lu; Ferrucci, Luigi; Li, Debiao; Carr, James; Guralnik, Jack M.; Kibbe, Melina; Pearce, William H.; Yuan, Chun; McCarthy, Walter; Kramer, Christopher M.; Tao, Huimin; Liao, Yihua; Clark, Elizabeth Talley; Xu, Dongxiang; Berry, Jarett; Orozco, Jennifer; Sharma, Leena; Criqui, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We studied associations of magnetic resonance imaging measurements of plaque area and relative percent lumen reduction in the proximal superficial femoral artery with functional performance among participants with peripheral arterial disease. BACKGROUND The clinical significance of directly imaged plaque characteristics in lower extremity arteries is not well established. METHODS A total of 454 participants with an ankle brachial index <1.00 underwent magnetic resonance cross-sectional imaging of the proximal superficial femoral artery and completed a 6-min walk test, measurement of 4-m walking velocity at usual and fastest pace, and measurement of physical activity with a vertical accelerometer. RESULTS Adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, statin use, comorbidities, and other covariates, higher mean plaque area (1st quintile [least plaque]: 394 m, 2nd quintile: 360 m, 3rd quintile: 359 m, 4th quintile: 329 m, 5th quintile [greatest plaque]: 311 m; p trend <0.001) and smaller mean percent lumen area (1st quintile [greatest plaque]: 319 m, 2nd quintile: 330 m, 3rd quintile: 364 m, 4th quintile: 350 m, 5th quintile: 390 m; p trend <0.001) were associated with shorter distance achieved in the 6-min walk test. Greater mean plaque area was also associated with slower usual-paced walking velocity (p trend = 0.006) and slower fastest-paced 4-m walking velocity (p trend = 0.003). Associations of mean plaque area and mean lumen area with 6-min walk distance remained statistically significant even after additional adjustment for the ankle brachial index and leg symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Among participants with peripheral arterial disease, greater plaque burden and smaller lumen area in the proximal superficial femoral artery are associated independently with poorer functional performance, even after adjusting for the ankle brachial index and leg symptoms. PMID:21757163

  3. Accelerated Blood Clearance Phenomenon Reduces the Passive Targeting of PEGylated Nanoparticles in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyung-Jun; England, Christopher G; Feng, Liangzhu; Graves, Stephen A; Hernandez, Reinier; Nickles, Robert J; Liu, Zhuang; Lee, Dong Soo; Cho, Steve Y; Cai, Weibo

    2016-07-20

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a leading global health concern. Due to limited imaging and therapeutic options, PAD and other ischemia-related diseases may benefit from the use of long circulating nanoparticles as imaging probes and/or drug delivery vehicles. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated nanoparticles have shown shortened circulation half-lives in vivo when injected multiple times into a single subject. This phenomenon has become known as the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) effect. The phenomenon is of concern for clinical translation of nanomaterials as it limits the passive accumulation of nanoparticles in many diseases, yet it has not been evaluated using inorganic or organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles. Herein, we found that the ABC phenomenon was induced by reinjection of PEGylated long circulating organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles, which significantly reduced the passive targeting of (64)Cu-labeled PEGylated reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticles ((64)Cu-RGO-IONP-PEG) in a murine model of PAD. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed at 3, 10, and 17 days postsurgical induction of hindlimb ischemia. At day 3 postsurgery, the nanoparticles displayed a long circulation half-life with enhanced accumulation in the ischemic hindlimb. At days 10 and 17 postsurgery, reinjected mice displayed a short circulation half-life and lower accumulation of the nanoparticles in the ischemic hindlimb, in comparison to the naïve group. Also, reinjected mice showed significantly higher liver uptake than the naïve group, indicating that the nanoparticles experienced higher sequestration by the liver in the reinjected group. Furthermore, photoacoustic (PA) imaging and Prussian blue staining confirmed the enhanced accumulation of the nanoparticles in the liver tissue of reinjected mice. These findings validate the ABC phenomenon using long circulating organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles upon multiple administrations to the same

  4. Accelerated Blood Clearance Phenomenon Reduces the Passive Targeting of PEGylated Nanoparticles in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyung-Jun; England, Christopher G; Feng, Liangzhu; Graves, Stephen A; Hernandez, Reinier; Nickles, Robert J; Liu, Zhuang; Lee, Dong Soo; Cho, Steve Y; Cai, Weibo

    2016-07-20

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a leading global health concern. Due to limited imaging and therapeutic options, PAD and other ischemia-related diseases may benefit from the use of long circulating nanoparticles as imaging probes and/or drug delivery vehicles. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated nanoparticles have shown shortened circulation half-lives in vivo when injected multiple times into a single subject. This phenomenon has become known as the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) effect. The phenomenon is of concern for clinical translation of nanomaterials as it limits the passive accumulation of nanoparticles in many diseases, yet it has not been evaluated using inorganic or organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles. Herein, we found that the ABC phenomenon was induced by reinjection of PEGylated long circulating organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles, which significantly reduced the passive targeting of (64)Cu-labeled PEGylated reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticles ((64)Cu-RGO-IONP-PEG) in a murine model of PAD. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed at 3, 10, and 17 days postsurgical induction of hindlimb ischemia. At day 3 postsurgery, the nanoparticles displayed a long circulation half-life with enhanced accumulation in the ischemic hindlimb. At days 10 and 17 postsurgery, reinjected mice displayed a short circulation half-life and lower accumulation of the nanoparticles in the ischemic hindlimb, in comparison to the naïve group. Also, reinjected mice showed significantly higher liver uptake than the naïve group, indicating that the nanoparticles experienced higher sequestration by the liver in the reinjected group. Furthermore, photoacoustic (PA) imaging and Prussian blue staining confirmed the enhanced accumulation of the nanoparticles in the liver tissue of reinjected mice. These findings validate the ABC phenomenon using long circulating organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles upon multiple administrations to the same

  5. Peripheral chemoreception and arterial pressure responses to intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kumar, Ganesh K; Nanduri, Jayasri

    2015-04-01

    Carotid bodies are the principal peripheral chemoreceptors for detecting changes in arterial blood oxygen levels, and the resulting chemoreflex is a potent regulator of blood pressure. Recurrent apnea with intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a major clinical problem in adult humans and infants born preterm. Adult patients with recurrent apnea exhibit heightened sympathetic nerve activity and hypertension. Adults born preterm are predisposed to early onset of hypertension. Available evidence suggests that carotid body chemoreflex contributes to hypertension caused by IH in both adults and neonates. Experimental models of IH provided important insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying carotid body chemoreflex-mediated hypertension. This article provides a comprehensive appraisal of how IH affects carotid body function, underlying cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms, and the contribution of chemoreflex to the hypertension.

  6. Contemporary evaluation and management of lower extremity peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Foley, T Raymond; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Waldo, Stephen W

    2016-09-15

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) includes atherosclerosis of the aorta and lower extremities. Affecting a large segment of the population, PAD is associated with impaired functional capacity and reduced quality of life as well as an increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. The evaluation of PAD begins with the physical examination, incorporating non-invasive testing such as ankle-brachial indices to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic interventions are aimed at alleviating symptoms while preserving limb integrity and reducing overall cardiovascular risk. With this in mind, risk factor modification with exercise and medical therapy are the mainstays of treatment for many patients with PAD. Persistent symptoms or non-healing wounds should prompt more aggressive therapies with endovascular or surgical revascularisation. The following manuscript provides a comprehensive review on the contemporary evaluation and management of PAD.

  7. The exercise pressor reflex and peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-03-01

    The exercise pressor reflex contributes to increases in cardiovascular and ventilatory function during exercise. These reflexive increases are caused by both mechanical stimulation and metabolic stimulation of group III and IV afferents with endings in contracting skeletal muscle. Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have an augmented exercise pressor reflex. Recently, an animal model of PAD was established which allows further investigation of possible mechanisms involved in this augmented reflex. Earlier studies have identified ASIC3 channels, bradykinin receptors, P2X receptors, endoperoxide receptors, and thromboxane receptors as playing a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in healthy rats. This review focuses on recent studies using a rat model of PAD in order to determine possible mechanisms contributing to the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex seen in patients with this disease.

  8. Peripheral Chemoreception and Arterial Pressure Responses to Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R.; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kumar, Ganesh K.; Nanduri, Jayasri

    2015-01-01

    Carotid bodies are the principal peripheral chemoreceptors for detecting changes in arterial blood oxygen levels, and the resulting chemoreflex is a potent regulator of blood pressure. Recurrent apnea with intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a major clinical problem in adult humans and infants born preterm. Adult patients with recurrent apnea exhibit heightened sympathetic nerve activity and hypertension. Adults born preterm are predisposed to early onset of hypertension. Available evidence suggests that carotid body chemoreflex contributes to hypertension caused by IH in both adults and neonates. Experimental models of IH provided important insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying carotid body chemoreflex-mediated hypertension. This article provides a comprehensive appraisal of how IH affects carotid body function, underlying cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms, and the contribution of chemoreflex to the hypertension. PMID:25880505

  9. Conditions Presenting with Symptoms of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aditya M.; Norton, Patrick T.; Zhu, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is estimated to affect more than 20% of people older than 65 years. The vast majority of patients with symptoms suggestive of PAD have atherosclerosis often associated with conventional vascular risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and inflammation. A minority of people presenting with symptoms suggesting PAD have an alternative etiology. These groups of disorders are often underdiagnosed, and if diagnosed correctly the diagnosis may be delayed. Understanding these pathologies well is important, as they can be very debilitating and optimal treatment may vary significantly. Inappropriate treatment of these disorders can lead to worsening morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the underlying causes of nonatherosclerotic PAD, including the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. PMID:25435652

  10. Ozonized autohemotransfusion does not affect arterial vasodilation in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Antonino; Coppola, Ludovico; Luongo, Carlo; Arciello, Alessandro; Cacciapuoti, Federico; Lama, Diana; Luongo, Margherita; Ruggiero, Luigi; Pastore, Agostino; Gombos, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Ozonized autohemotransfusion has been used as a complementary therapy in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). To determine whether ozone therapy could acutely modify artery vasodilatory capacity, a flow-mediated dilation test was performed at the brachial artery level before and after an ozonized autohemotransfusion in 16 patients with PAD, mean (± SD) age 55±1.8 years, and 14 healthy volunteers matched for age, sex and body mass index. Before ozonized autohemotransfusion, the mean baseline diameter of the brachial artery was higher in PAD patients than in healthy subjects (4.6±0.54 mm versus 3.6±0.54 mm, P<0.001) while mean flow-mediated brachial artery dilation and percentage of increase in flow were significantly lower in PAD patients than in controls (6.3±6.1% versus 11.8±2.4%, P<0.02; 433±61% versus 580±46%, P<0.02, respectively). No significant changes were observed after ozonized autohemotransfusion, indicating that ozonized autohemotransfusion does not modify endothelium-dependent ischemia-induced vascular reactivity. PMID:22477241

  11. Fusion Guidance in Endovascular Peripheral Artery Interventions: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Anna M. Haan, Michiel W. de Graaf, Rick de Zwam, Willem H. van; Schurink, Geert Willem H.; Nelemans, Patricia J.; Wildberger, Joachim E. Das, Marco

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endovascular guidance by means of live fluoroscopy fusion with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA).MethodsFusion guidance was evaluated in 20 endovascular peripheral artery interventions in 17 patients. Fifteen patients had received preinterventional diagnostic MRA and two patients had undergone CTA. Time for fluoroscopy with MRA/CTA coregistration was recorded. Feasibility of fusion guidance was evaluated according to the following criteria: for every procedure the executing interventional radiologists recorded whether 3D road-mapping provided added value (yes vs. no) and whether PTA and/or stenting could be performed relying on the fusion road-map without need for diagnostic contrast-enhanced angiogram series (CEAS) (yes vs. no). Precision of the fusion road-map was evaluated by recording maximum differences between the position of the vasculature on the virtual CTA/MRA images and conventional angiography.ResultsAverage time needed for image coregistration was 5 ± 2 min. Three-dimensional road-map added value was experienced in 15 procedures in 12 patients. In half of the patients (8/17), intervention was performed relying on the fusion road-map only, without diagnostic CEAS. In two patients, MRA roadmap showed a false-positive lesion. Excluding three patients with inordinate movements, mean difference in position of vasculature on angiography and MRA/CTA road-map was 1.86 ± 0.95 mm, implying that approximately 95 % of differences were between 0 and 3.72 mm (2 ± 1.96 standard deviation).ConclusionsFluoroscopy with MRA/CTA fusion guidance for peripheral artery interventions is feasible. By reducing the number of CEAS, this technology may contribute to enhance procedural safety.

  12. Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, Carolin Jochum, Susanne; Sadick, Maliha; Huck, Kurt; Ziegler, Peter; Fink, Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Diehl, Steffen J.

    2009-07-15

    We sought to study the accuracy of dual-energy computed tomographic angiography (DE-CTA) for the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity by using the dual-energy bone removal technique compared with a commercially available conventional bone removal tool. Twenty patients underwent selective digital subtraction angiography and DE-CTA of the pelvis and lower extremities. CTA data were postprocessed with two different applications: conventional bone removal and dual-energy bone removal. All data were reconstructed and evaluated as 3D maximum-intensity projections. Time requirements for reconstruction were documented. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and concordance of DE-CTA regarding degree of stenosis and vessel wall calcification were calculated. A total of 359 vascular segments were analyzed. Compared with digital subtraction angiography, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, of CTA was 97.2%, 94.1%, and 94.7% by the dual-energy bone removal technique. The conventional bone removal tool delivered a sensitivity of 77.1%, a specificity of 70.7%, and an accuracy of 72.0%. Best results for both postprocessing methods were achieved in the vascular segments of the upper leg. In severely calcified segments, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy stayed above 90% by the dual-energy bone removal technique, whereas the conventional bone removal technique showed a substantial decrease of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. DE-CTA is a feasible and accurate diagnostic method in the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Results obtained by DE-CTA are superior to the conventional bone removal technique and less dependent on vessel wall calcifications.

  13. Are circulating microRNAs peripheral biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Subodh; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss, multiple cognitive abnormalities and intellectual impairments. Currently, there are no drugs or agents that can delay and/or prevent the progression of disease in elderly individuals, and there are no peripheral biomarkers that can detect AD early in its pathogenesis. Research has focused on identifying biomarkers for AD so that treatment can be begun as soon as possible in order to restrict or prevent intellectual impairments, memory loss, and other cognitive abnormalities that are associated with the disease. One such potential biomarker is microRNAs that are found in circulatory biofluids, such as blood and blood components, serum and plasma. Blood and blood components are primary sources where miRNAs are released in either cell-free form and then bind to protein components, or are in an encapsulated form with microvesicle particles. Exosomal miRNAs are known to be stable in biofluids and can be detected by high throughput techniques, like microarray and RNA sequencing. In AD brain, enriched miRNAs encapsulated with exosomes crosses the blood brain barrier and secreted in the CSF and blood circulations. This review summarizes recent studies that have identified miRNAs in the blood, serum, plasma, exosomes, cerebral spinal fluids, and extracellular fluids as potential biomarkers of AD. Recent research has revealed only six miRNAs - miR-9, miR-125b, miR-146a, miR-181c, let-7g-5p, and miR-191-5p - that were reported by multiple investigators. Some studies analyzed the diagnostic potential of these six miRNAs through receiver operating curve analysis which indicates the significant area-under-curve values in different biofluid samples. miR-191-5p was found to have the maximum area-under-curve value (0.95) only in plasma and serum samples while smaller area-under-curve values were found for miR-125, miR-181c, miR-191-5p, miR-146a, and miR-9. This article shortlisted the

  14. Progression of asymptomatic peripheral artery disease over 1 year.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Emile R; Bundens, Warner; Denenberg, Julie; Medenilla, Elizabeth; Hiatt, William R; Criqui, Michael H

    2012-02-01

    The pathophysiology and time course of an individual converting from asymptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) to symptomatic claudication is unclear. The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize the extent of atherosclerotic disease in individuals with an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI), but without claudication; and over 1 year of follow-up to (2) evaluate the progression of PAD using ultrasound imaging, (3) determine changes in the ABI and leg pain symptoms, and (4) correlate PAD progression with changes in the ABI and leg symptoms. We hypothesized that PAD progression would be associated with the development of claudication and changes in the ABI, 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD), and walking quality of life. Individuals with a reduced ABI but without typical intermittent claudication noted on community screening were invited to undergo baseline and 1-year follow-up assessment, including duplex ultrasound. The initial and repeat evaluations included measurement of the ABI, lower extremity duplex arterial mapping, and assessment of leg pain and functional status. Of the 50 people studied, 44 (88%) had significant atherosclerotic lesions in the lower extremity arteries, affecting 80 legs. A total of 33 of 50 individuals (66%) returned for the 1-year follow-up visit. On ultrasound examination, two of 18 normal legs developed PAD, and in 48 legs with PAD at baseline, 17 legs (35%) developed new or progressive lesions. Thirteen legs developed new claudication. Overall, there was no significant worsening in the ABI, 6-MWD, or the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). However, legs with new lesions or lesion progression were significantly more likely to develop claudication, and the 13 legs (seven subjects) developing claudication showed a significant decline in the 6-MWD. In conclusion, these data indicate that a significant number of people with asymptomatic PAD show progression over 1 year, that such individuals are more likely to develop

  15. Study on the correlation of vertebral artery dominance, basilar artery curvature and posterior circulation infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Ya-Fang; Dong, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Hong-Xuan; Zhao, He-Qing; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-09-01

    Vertebral artery dominance (VAD), which is a common congenital variation of vertebral artery, may be associated with an increased risk of cerebral posterior circulation infarction (PCI). The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation of VAD with incidence and laterality of PCI, and oblige the correlation of VAD and basilar artery (BA) curvature. Incidence of separate territory infarction in posterior circulation and incidence of BA curvature were compared between 78 VAD patients and 68 controls. VA dominance, laterality of BA curvature and separate territory infarction, and their directional relationships were observed in VAD group. The incidence of BA curvature in VAD group was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.000). 89.7 % (35/39) of patients had an opposite directional relationship between dominant VA and BA curvature. The total incidence of PCI in VAD group was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.001). The incidences of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and BA territory infarction were both significantly higher than those in controls [11.5 % (9/78) vs. 1.5 % (1/68), P = 0.016; 20.5 % (16/78) vs. 7.4 % (5/68), P = 0.024]. No differences were found in superior cerebellar artery and posterior cerebral artery territory infarction between two groups. 77.8 % (7/9) of PICA infarction were on the opposite side of dominant VA. 75.0 % (12/16) of BA infarction were on the side of dominant VA. The incidence of PCI in BA curvature patients was significantly higher than that in BA straight patients. The incidence of BA curvature is higher in VAD patients, and BA usually bends to the opposite side of dominant VA. The incidence of PCI is higher in VAD patients, especially in PICA infarction and BA infarction patients.

  16. Evaluation and Treatment of Patients With Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manesh R.; Conte, Michael S.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Dib, Nabil; Geraghty, Patrick; Gray, William; Hiatt, William R.; Ho, Mami; Ikeda, Koji; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Jaff, Michael R.; Jones, W. Schuyler; Kawahara, Masayuki; Lookstein, Robert A.; Mehran, Roxana; Misra, Sanjay; Norgren, Lars; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Povsic, Thomas J.; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Rundback, John; Shamoun, Fadi; Tcheng, James; Tsai, Thomas T.; Suzuki, Yuka; Vranckx, Pascal; Wiechmann, Bret N.; White, Christopher J.; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Krucoff, Mitchell W.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of consistent definitions and nomenclature across clinical trials of novel devices, drugs, or biologics poses a significant barrier to accrual of knowledge in and across peripheral artery disease therapies and technologies. Recognizing this problem, the Peripheral Academic Research Consortium, together with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, has developed a series of pragmatic consensus definitions for patients being treated for peripheral artery disease affecting the lower extremities. These consensus definitions include the clinical presentation, anatomic depiction, interventional outcomes, surrogate imaging and physiological follow-up, and clinical outcomes of patients with lower-extremity peripheral artery disease. Consistent application of these definitions in clinical trials evaluating novel revascularization technologies should result in more efficient regulatory evaluation and best practice guidelines to inform clinical decisions in patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease. PMID:25744011

  17. Ischemia-modified albumin in type 2 diabetic patients with and without peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Shao-gang; WEI, Chun-ling; HONG, Bing; YU, Wei-nan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between serum ischemia-modified albumin and the risk factor profile in type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease and to identify the risk markers for peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: Participants included 290 patients (35.2% women) with type 2 diabetes. The ankle-brachial pressure index was measured using a standard protocol, and peripheral arterial disease was defined as an ankle-brachial index <0.90 or ≥1.3. The basal ischemia-modified albumin levels and clinical parameters were measured and analyzed. The risk factors for peripheral arterial disease were examined by multiple logistic analyses. RESULTS: Age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, urine albumin, homocysteine, and ischemia-modified albumin were significantly higher in patients with peripheral arterial disease than in disease-free patients (p<0.05), while ankle-brachial index was lower in the former group (p<0.05). Ischemia-modified albumin was positively associated with HbA1c and homocysteine levels (r = 0.220, p = 0.030; r = 0.446, p = 0.044, respectively), while no correlation was found with ankle-brachial index. Multiple logistic analyses indicated that HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, homocysteine and ischemia-modified albumin were independent risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in the diabetic subjects. CONCLUSION: The baseline ischemia-modified albumin levels were significantly higher and positively associated with HbA1c and homocysteine levels in type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease. Ischemia-modified albumin was a risk marker for peripheral arterial disease. Taken together, these results might be helpful for monitoring diabetic peripheral arterial disease. PMID:22012037

  18. Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease The Coronary Arterial Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Perloff, Joseph K

    2012-01-01

    Background: The coronary circulation in cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) includes the extramural coronary arteries, basal coronary blood flow, flow reserve, the coronary microcirculation, and coronary atherogenesis. Methods: Coronary arteriograms were analyzed in 59 adults with CCHD. Dilated extramural coronaries were examined histologically in six patients. Basal coronary blood flow was determined with N-13 positron emission tomography in 14 patients and in 10 controls. Hyperemic flow was induced by intravenous dipyridamole pharmacologic stress. Immunostaining against SM alpha-actin permitted microcirculatory morphometric analysis. Non-fasting total cholesterols were retrieved in 279 patients divided into four groups: Group A---143 cyanotic unoperated, Group B---47 rendered acyanotic by reparative surgery, Group C---41 acyanotic unoperated, Group D---48 acyanotic before and after operation. Results: Extramural coronary arteries were mildly or moderately dilated to ectatic in 49/59 angiograms. Histologic examination disclosed loss of medial smooth muscle, increased medial collagen, and duplication of internal elastic lamina. Basal coronary flow was appreciably increased. Hyperemic flow was comparable to controls. Remodeling of the microcirculation was based upon coronary arteriolar length, volume and surface densities. Coronary atherosclerosis was absent in both the arteriograms and the necropsy specimens. Conclusions: Extramural coronary arteries in CCHD dilate in response to endothelial vasodilator substances supplemented by mural attenuation caused by medial abnormalities. Basal coronary flow was appreciably increased, but hyperemic flow was normal. Remodeling of the microcirculation was responsible for preservation of flow reserve. The coronaries were atheroma-free because of the salutory effects of hypocholesterolemia, hypoxemia, upregulated nitric oxide, low platelet counts, and hyperbilirubinrmia. PMID:22845810

  19. Herpes zoster infection increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Te-Yu; Yang, Fu-Chi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Tse-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Varicella-zoster virus infection can cause meningoencephalitis, myelitis, ocular disorders, and vasculopathy. However, no study has investigated the association between herpes zoster (HZ) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We identified newly diagnosed HZ from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database recorded during 2000 to 2010, with a follow-up period extending until December 31, 2011. In addition, we included a comparison cohort that was randomly frequency-matched with the HZ cohort according to age, sex, and index year. We analyzed the risk of PAD with respect to sex, age, and comorbidities by using Cox proportional-hazards regression models. In total, 35,391 HZ patients and 141,556 controls were enrolled in this study. The risk of PAD was 13% increased in the HZ cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. The Kaplan–Meier survival curve showed that the risk of PAD was significantly higher in the HZ cohort than in the non-HZ cohort (P < 0.001). This nationwide population-based cohort study revealed a higher risk of PAD in patients with HZ infection than in those without the infection. Careful follow-up and aggressive treatment is recommended for patients with HZ to reduce the risk of PAD. PMID:27583856

  20. Hemodynamic Conditions in a Failing Peripheral Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    McGah, Patrick M.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Beach, Kirk W.; Zierler, R. Eugene; Riley, James J.; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms of restenosis in autogenous vein bypass grafts placed for peripheral artery disease are not completely understood. We seek to investigate the role of hemodynamic stress in a case study of a revised bypass graft that failed due to restenosis. Methods The morphology of the lumen is reconstructed from a custom 3D ultrasound system. Scans were taken at one, six, and sixteen months after a patch angioplasty procedure. Computational hemodynamic simulations of the patient-specific model provide the blood flow features and the hemodynamic stresses on the vessel wall at the three time points studied. Results The vessel was initially free of any detectable lesions, but a 60% diameter reducing stenosis developed over the 16 month interval of study. As determined from the simulations, chaotic and recirculating flow occurred downstream of the stenosis due to the sudden widening of the lumen at the patch location. Curvature and a sudden increase in the lumen cross-sectional area induce these flow features that are hypothesized to be conducive to intimal hyperplasia. Favorable agreement was found between simulation results and in vivo Doppler ultrasound velocity measurements. Conclusions Transitional and chaotic flow occurs at the site of the revision, inducing a complex pattern of wall shear are computed with the hemodynamic simulations. This supports the hypothesis that the hemodynamic stresses in the revised segment, produced by the coupling of vessel geometry and chaotic flow, led to the intimal hyperplasia and restenosis of the graft. PMID:22551907

  1. Optimization of intravascular brachytherapy treatment planning in peripheral arteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengdong; Haigron, Pascal; Shu, Huazhong; Yu, Wenxue; Moisan, Cécile; Manens, Jean-Pierre; Lucas, Antoine; Luo, Limin

    2007-09-01

    This work deals with the treatment planning optimization for intravascular brachytherapy (IVB) in peripheral arteries. The objective is both to quantitatively study the validity of different hypotheses required for a reliable application of the treatment with current techniques, and to contribute to the definition and the specification of a new optimized procedure taking into account the actual patient's vessel geometry. The detection of vascular luminal surface was performed by an image analysis process, i.e., virtual active navigation, applied to standard CT data. Dose distribution was calculated according to the formalism proposed and recommended by the AAPM in TG43 and TG60. A method combining simulated annealing and BFGS algorithms was applied to optimize the parameters associated with the dwell points such as their number, positions, and dwell times. Dose-surface histogram (DSH) was used to evaluate the dose distribution results. Four levels of accuracy in target surface description were tested. The application of this optimization method to four different CT data sets including patient data, phantom and animal models showed that the treatment plan can be improved when the actual vessel geometry has been taken into account.

  2. Lower extremity amputation in peripheral artery disease: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Aparna; Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Patel, Manesh R; Jones, W Schuyler

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease affects over eight million Americans and is associated with an increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, functional limitation, and limb loss. In its most severe form, critical limb ischemia, patients are often treated with lower extremity (LE) amputation (LEA), although the overall incidence of LEA is declining. In the US, there is significant geographic variation in the performing of major LEA. The rate of death after major LEA in the US is approximately 48% at 1 year and 71% at 3 years. Despite this significant morbidity and mortality, the use of diagnostic testing (both noninvasive and invasive testing) in the year prior to LEA is low and varies based on patient, provider, and regional factors. In this review we discuss the significance of LEA and methods to reduce its occurrence. These methods include improved recognition of the risk factors for LEA by clinicians and patients, strong advocacy for noninvasive and/or invasive imaging prior to LEA, improved endovascular revascularization techniques, and novel therapies. PMID:25075192

  3. Gene and stem cell therapy in peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Kalka, C; Baumgartner, Iris

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis strongly associated with a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In a considerable proportion of patients with PAOD, revascularization either by endovascular means or by open surgery combined with best possible risk factor modification does not achieve limb salvage or relief of ischaemic rest pain. As a consequence, novel therapeutic strategies have been developed over the last two decades aiming to promote neovascularization and remodelling of collaterals. Gene and stem cell therapy are the main directions for clinical investigation concepts. For both, preclinical studies have shown promising results using a wide variety of genes encoding for growth factors and populations of adult stem cells, respectively. As a consequence, clinical trials have been performed applying gene and stem cell-based concepts. However, it has become apparent that a straightforward translation into humans is not possible. While several trials reported relief of symptoms and functional improvement, other trials did not confirm this early promise of efficacy. Ongoing clinical trials with an improved study design are needed to confirm the potential that gene and cell therapy may have and to prevent the gaps in our scientific knowledge that will jeopardize the establishment of angiogenic therapy as an additional medical treatment of PAOD. This review summarizes the experimental background and presents the current status of clinical applications and future perspectives of the therapeutic use of gene and cell therapy strategies for PAOD.

  4. Challenges associated with peripheral arterial disease in women

    PubMed Central

    Barochiner, Jessica; Aparicio, Lucas S; Waisman, Gabriel D

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an increasingly recognized disorder that is associated with functional impairment, quality-of-life deterioration, increased risk of cardiovascular ischemic events, and increased risk of total and cardiovascular mortality. Although earlier studies suggested that PAD was more common in men, recent reports based on more sensitive tests have shown that the prevalence of PAD in women is at least the same as in men, if not higher. PAD tends to present itself asymptomatically or with atypical symptoms more frequently in women than in men, and is associated with comorbidities or situations particularly or exclusively found in the female sex, such as osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, the use of oral contraceptives, and a history of complications during pregnancy. Fat-distribution patterns and differential vascular characteristics in women may influence the interpretation of diagnostic methods, whereas sex-related vulnerability to drugs typically used in subjects with PAD, differences in risk-factor distribution among sexes, and distinct responses to revascularization procedures in men and women must be taken into account for proper disease management. All these issues pose important challenges associated with PAD in women. Of note, this group has classically been underrepresented in research studies. As a consequence, several sex-related challenges regarding diagnosis and management issues should be acknowledged, and research gaps should be addressed in order to successfully deal with this major health issue. PMID:24648743

  5. [Perioperative myocardial ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive diseases].

    PubMed

    Rapp, H J; Buselmeier, P; Gasteiger, P; Hoberg, E; Striebel, J P

    1990-04-01

    Patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) often have coronary artery disease (CAD) which means an increased risk during anesthesia. The prevalence of CAD is nearly 50% among such patients. Owing to claudication, diagnostic stress tests can rarely be performed in PVD patients. In order to evaluate the frequency of transient perioperative myocardial ischemia, Holter monitoring was performed in 30 consecutive PVD patients with ASA II-III and AVK scale (Fontaine) II-IV who were undergoing femoropopliteal bypass surgery. Patients who had left bundle branch block and left ventricular hypertrophy or were taking digitalis medication were excluded from Holter monitoring. The ST-segment analysis of the frequency modulated recordings (n = 19) revealed episodes of myocardial ischemia in 26% of the patients. Most (75%) of the episodes occurred preoperatively, and 25%, during or after the anesthesia or during preparation for it. Risk factors for CAD were more often found in patients with ST segment alterations than in patients without ST segment deviations, even though the preoperative antianginal medication administered was comparable in the two subgroups. It is concluded that in a considerable subset of PVD patients silent myocardial ischemia occurs, which can be related to the different perioperative intervals by means of ST segment analyses of Holter recordings. The ST segment may allow a better insight into the cardiac state of PVD patients. Further studies are necessary in larger populations to test our suspicion.

  6. Lifestyle and dietary risk factors for peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) usually refers to ischemia of the lower limb vessels. Currently, the estimated number of cases in the world is 202 million. PAD is the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity. The measurement of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recommended as a first-line noninvasive test for screening and diagnosis of PAD. An ABI <0.90 is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and this measurement is useful to identify patients at moderate to high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there is insufficient evidence to assess the benefits and harms of screening for PAD with the ABI in asymptomatic adults. Lifestyle modifications, including smoking cessation, dietary changes and physical activity, are currently the most cost-effective interventions. Inverse associations with PAD have been reported for some subtypes of dietary fats, fiber, antioxidants (vitamins E and C), folate, vitamins B6, B12 and D, flavonoids, and fruits and vegetables. A possible inverse association between better adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the risk of symptomatic PAD has also been reported in a large randomized clinical trial. Therefore, a Mediterranean-style diet could be effective in the primary and secondary prevention of PAD, although further experimental studies are needed to better clarify this association.  (Circ J 2014; 78: 553-559).

  7. Detrimental arterial inflammatory effect of microparticles circulating in preeclamptic women: ex vivo evaluation in human arteries.

    PubMed

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Meziani, Ferhat; Sananès, Nicolas; Boisramé, Thomas; Langer, Bruno; Schneider, Francis; Ragot, Thierry; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Tesse, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Elevated plasmatic levels of lympho-monocyte and platelet microparticles (MPs) have been reported in preeclampsia. Previous studies suggest that MPs could participate in preeclampsia vascular impairment. In this study, we investigated the ex vivo vascular effects of MPs from preeclamptic women on arteries from normotensive pregnant women. Omental arteries were collected from normal pregnant women undergoing cesarean section and incubated during 24 h with MPs from normal pregnant or preeclamptic women. Vascular contraction to serotonin and phenylephrine was studied on a wire myograph with or without pharmacological selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and/or cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). Expression of iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB and production of superoxide anion and 8-isoprostane were also assessed by immunohistological or biochemical staining and/or Western blot or ELISA assay, respectively. Microparticles from preeclamptic women, but not those from normal pregnant women, induced hyporeactivity to vasocontracturant agonists in omental arteries. Selective inhibitor of iNOS partially restored this arterial contraction, suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in vascular contractility alteration. Conversely, COX-2 induced 8-isoprostane release, a vasoconstricting metabolite modulating the agonist-induced contraction. COX-2 selective inhibitor almost abolished the arterial contraction in the same vessels. Interestingly, the association of iNOS and COX-2 selective inhibitors restored the contraction to control levels. Moreover, iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions are upregulated and superoxide anion levels increased in vessels incubated with MPs from preeclamptic women. In conclusion, circulating MPs from preeclamptic women induce vascular inflammation and enhance oxidative stress. These results suggest a possible role of MPs during preeclampsia-induced arterial dysfunction.

  8. Is vertebral artery hypoplasia a predisposing factor for posterior circulation cerebral ischemic events? A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Kosmidou, Maria; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral artery hypoplasia is not currently considered an independent risk factor for stroke. Emerging evidence suggest that vertebral artery hypoplasia may contribute to posterior circulation ischemic events, especially when other risk factors coexist. In the present literature review, we present published data to discuss the relationship between a hypoplastic vertebral artery and posterior circulation cerebral ischemia. Despite difficulties and controversies in the accurate definition and prevalence estimation of vertebral artery hypoplasia, ultrasound studies reveal that the reduced blood flow observed ipsilateral to the hypoplastic vertebral artery may result in local cerebral hypoperfusion and subsequent focal neurological symptomatology. That risk of cerebral ischemia is related to the severity of the hypoplasia, suggesting that the smaller of paired arteries are more vulnerable to occlusion. Existing cohort studies further support clinical observations that hypoplastic vertebral artery enhances synergistically the vascular risk for posterior circulation ischemic events and is closely associated with both atherosclerotic and prothrombotic processes.

  9. Progenitor cell release plus exercise to improve functional performance in peripheral artery disease: the PROPEL Study.

    PubMed

    Domanchuk, Kathryn; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Criqui, Michael H; Tian, Lu; Liu, Kiang; Losordo, Douglas; Stein, James; Green, David; Kibbe, Melina; Zhao, Lihui; Annex, Brian; Perlman, Harris; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pearce, William; Taylor, Doris; McDermott, Mary M

    2013-11-01

    Functional impairment, functional decline, and mobility loss are major public health problems in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Few medical therapies significantly improve walking performance in PAD. We describe methods for the PROgenitor cell release Plus Exercise to improve functionaL performance in PAD (PROPEL) Study, a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to determine whether granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) combined with supervised treadmill walking exercise improves six-minute walk distance more than GM-CSF alone, more than supervised treadmill exercise alone, and more than placebo plus attention control in participants with PAD, respectively. PROPEL Study participants are randomized to one of four arms in a 2 by 2 factorial design. The four study arms are GM-CSF plus supervised treadmill exercise, GM-CSF plus attention control, placebo plus supervised exercise therapy, or placebo plus attention control. The primary outcome is change in six-minute walk distance at 12-week follow-up. Secondary outcomes include change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), change in maximal treadmill walking time, and change in circulating CD34+ cells at 12-week follow-up. Outcomes are also measured at six-week and six-month follow-up. Results of the PROPEL Study will have important implications for understanding mechanisms of improving walking performance and preventing mobility loss in the large and growing number of men and women with PAD.

  10. Heart Attacks, Strokes, and Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Giant-Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Annals of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Heart Attacks, Strokes, and Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Giant-Cell Arteritis The full report is titled “Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Early and Late ...

  11. Effect of the alternative magnetic stimulation on peripheral circulation for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Yambe, T; Inoue, A; Sekine, K; Shiraishi, Y; Watanabe, M; Yamaguchi, T; Shibata, M; Maruyama, M; Konno, S; Nitta, S

    2005-10-01

    Regenerative medicine for patients with peripheral atherosclerosis attracts considerable attention around the world. However, ethical problems persist in gene therapy. This study evaluates the effect of alterative magnetic stimulation on peripheral circulation. The effect of magnetic stimulation as a medical treatment was examined using a thermograph for 11 healthy volunteers. The thermograph was used to measure the rise in skin temperature. The experimental results suggested an improvement in the peripheral circulation. The results of our study suggest the effectiveness of alternative magnetic stimulation on atherosclerosis. We intend to extend our study in order to establish a methodology for regenerative medical treatment for patients with peripheral atherosclerosis. Further, we wish to advance the current research in the field of angiogenesis.

  12. Just leg pain? Think again: What health leaders must know about peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Papia, Giuseppe; Mayer, Perry; Kelton, David; Queen, Douglas; Elliott, James A; Kuhnke, Janet L

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 800,000 Canadians have Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD). Peripheral arterial disease is also a leading cause of limb amputation. Yet public and clinical awareness of PAD is very limited. This article discusses the "Just Leg Pain? Think Again" awareness campaign the Canadian Association of Wound Care has launched in response. This article also summarizes PAD risk factors, screening, linkage with diabetes, treatment and care interventions, PAD care innovations, and the need for policy leadership on this issue. PMID:26487729

  13. CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO WALKING IN PATIENTS WITH PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Meneses, Annelise Lins; Parker, Donald E.; Montgomery, Polly S.; Khurana, Aman; Gardner, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Purposes To assess the cardiovascular responses during constant load walking and to identify predictors of this response in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. Methods Seventy-nine patients with PAD performed a constant load treadmill test (2 mph, 0% grade). During the test, systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were obtained at the fourth minute to the last minute of exercise. Patients were also characterized on demographic measures, cardiovascular risk factors, baseline exercise performance and vascular measures. Results During constant load walking, there was a significant increase (p<0.01) in systolic BP (+12 ± 10 mmHg), diastolic BP (+6 ± 9 mmHg), and HR (+5 ± 5 bpm). The HR responses was negatively correlated with ischemic window (r= −0.23; p<0.05), expressed as an area under the curve of the resting ankle systolic BP and its recovery from maximal graded treadmill test, and positively correlated with the HR during the first minute of recovery from maximal graded treadmill test (r= 0.27; p<0.05). The increase in cardiovascular variables during constant load walking was greater in subjects with higher body mass index and in men (p<0.05). Conclusion Patients with PAD had an increased cardiovascular response during constant load walking, and these responses were greater in obese patients and in men. The clinical implication is that PAD patients engaged in walking training programs, particularly men and those with obesity, require frequent assessment of cardiovascular parameters to avoid exaggerated increases in BP and HR during constant load walking. PMID:21502888

  14. Increased prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in osteoporotic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mangiafico, Roberto Antonio; Russo, Enzo; Riccobene, Stefania; Pennisi, Pietra; Mangiafico, Marco; D'Amico, Ferdinando; Fiore, Carmelo Erio

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a population of osteoporotic postmenopausal women. The presence of PAD was assessed by ankle brachial index (ABI) in 345 ambulatory osteoporotic postmenopausal women, and in 360 community-based, age- and race-matched postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD) (control group). PAD was detected in 63/345 (18.2%) osteoporotic women and in 14/360 (3.8%) control subjects (P < 0.0001). The mean ABI values were significantly lower in the osteoporosis group than in the control group (0.98 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.06, P < 0.0001). No difference in cardiovascular risk factors was observed between osteoporotic patients and controls, or between osteoporotic patients with and without PAD. Osteoporotic patients with PAD had lower femoral neck BMD T scores than those without PAD (-4.2 +/- 0.7 vs. -2.3 +/- 0.7, P < 0.0001). Only 4 PAD patients (5.1%) had intermittent claudication. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with PAD within osteoporotic patients were lower femoral neck BMD T score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.05-0.70, P = 0.01) and systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.02, 95% CI, 1.00-1.03, P = 0.01). This study shows for the first time an increased prevalence of PAD among osteoporotic postmenopausal women, with a lower femoral neck BMD T score being a significant independent predictor. The findings suggest that vascular status evaluation should be done in osteoporotic postmenopausal women in order to identify candidate patients for preventive and therapeutic cardiovascular interventions. PMID:16502119

  15. Dynamic adaptation of the peripheral circulation to cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Stephen S; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-01-01

    Humans residing or working in cold environments exhibit a stronger cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) reaction in the peripheral microvasculature than those living in warm regions of the world, leading to a general assumption that thermal responses to local cold exposure can be systematically improved by natural acclimatization or specific acclimation. However, it remains unclear whether this improved tolerance is actually due to systematic acclimatization, or alternately due to the genetic pre-disposition or self-selection for such occupations. Longitudinal studies of repeated extremity exposure to cold demonstrate only ambiguous adaptive responses. In field studies, general cold acclimation may lead to increased sympathetic activity that results in reduced finger blood flow. Laboratory studies offer more control over confounding parameters, but in most studies, no consistent changes in peripheral blood flow occur even after repeated exposure for several weeks. Most studies are performed on a limited amount of subjects only, and the variability of the CIVD response demands more subjects to obtain significant results. This review systematically surveys the trainability of CIVD, concluding that repeated local cold exposure does not alter circulatory dynamics in the peripheries, and that humans remain at risk of cold injuries even after extended stays in cold environments.

  16. Decrease in circulating myeloid dendritic cell precursors in patients with intracranial large artery atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Xia; Li, Bing-Ling; Lin, Zhong-Qiu; Zhang, Ni; Peng, Xiong; Gong, Zhi-Hua; Long, Liu-Cheng; Zhou, Xuan; Xiang, Ding-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial large artery atherosclerosis (ILAA) is a major cause of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the levels of circulating dendritic cell precursors (DCP) could reflect the severity of intracranial large artery atherosclerosis (ILAA). For this purpose, a series of angiography were taken to determine the severity and extent of coronary artery and intracranial large artery stenosis, and flow cytometry were taken to determine the levels of circulating mDC precursors and pDC precursors in patients with severe intracranial large artery atherosclerosis (ILAA) (n = 101) and mild intracranial large artery atherosclerosis (ILAA) (n = 123) according to the angiography. Circulating mDC precursors were lower in patients with severe intracranial large artery atherosclerosis (ILAA) than in mild intracranial large artery atherosclerosis (ILAA) (P < 0.05), but circulating pDC precursors were not significant differences (P > 0.05). According to these data, circulating mDC precursors could predict the severity of ILAA, which also could be able to reflect the severity of ILAA.

  17. Peripheral Arterial Disease Study (PERART): Prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Alzamora, María Teresa; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Sorribes, Marta; Forés, Rosa; Toran, Pere; Vicheto, Marisa; Pera, Guillem; Reina, María Dolores; Albaladejo, Carlos; Llussà, Judith; Bundó, Magda; Sancho, Amparo; Heras, Antonio; Rubiés, Joan; Arenillas, Juan Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI) is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease) is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and symptomatic) in a general population of both sexes and determine its predictive value related to morbimortality (cohort study). Methods/Design This cross-over, cohort study consists of 2 phases: firstly a descriptive, transversal cross-over study to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, and secondly, a cohort study to evaluate the predictive value of AAI in relation to cardiovascular morbimortality. From September 2006 to June 2007, a total of 3,010 patients over the age of 50 years will be randomly selected from a population adscribed to 24 healthcare centres in the province of Barcelona (Spain). The diagnostic criteria of peripheral arterial disease will be considered as an AAI < 0.90, determined by portable Doppler (8 Mhz probe) measured twice by trained personnel. Cardiovascular risk will be calculated with the Framingham-Wilson tables, with Framingham calibrated by the REGICOR and SCORE groups. The subjects included will be evaluted every 6 months by telephone interview and the clnical history and death registries will be reviewed. The appearance of the following cardiovascular events will be considered as variables of response: transitory ischaemic accident, ictus, angina, myocardial infartction, symptomatic abdominal aneurysm and vascular mortality. Discussion In this study we hope to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, especially the silent forms, in the general population and establish its relationship with cardiovascular morbimortality. A low

  18. Expression of a retinoic acid signature in circulating CD34 cells from coronary artery disease patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Circulating CD34+ progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cells, including endothelial cells. Knowledge is still scarce about the transcriptional programs used by CD34+ cells from peripheral blood, and how these are affected in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Results We performed a whole genome transcriptome analysis of CD34+ cells, CD4+ T cells, CD14+ monocytes, and macrophages from 12 patients with CAD and 11 matched controls. CD34+ cells, compared to other mononuclear cells from the same individuals, showed high levels of KRAB box transcription factors, known to be involved in gene silencing. This correlated with high expression levels in CD34+ cells for the progenitor markers HOXA5 and HOXA9, which are known to control expression of KRAB factor genes. The comparison of expression profiles of CD34+ cells from CAD patients and controls revealed a less naïve phenotype in patients' CD34+ cells, with increased expression of genes from the Mitogen Activated Kinase network and a lowered expression of a panel of histone genes, reaching levels comparable to that in more differentiated circulating cells. Furthermore, we observed a reduced expression of several genes involved in CXCR4-signaling and migration to SDF1/CXCL12. Conclusions The altered gene expression profile of CD34+ cells in CAD patients was related to activation/differentiation by a retinoic acid-induced differentiation program. These results suggest that circulating CD34+ cells in CAD patients are programmed by retinoic acid, leading to a reduced capacity to migrate to ischemic tissues. PMID:20565948

  19. Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Hikita, Hiroyuki; Shigeta, Takatoshi; Kimura, Shigeki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular mortality in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients is higher in critical limb ischemia (CLI) than in intermittent claudication (IC). We sought to evaluate differential characteristics of coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and prognostic biomarkers for cardiovascular events between CLI and IC patients. Coronary angiography was performed on 242 PAD patients (age 73 ± 8 years) with either CLI or IC. High-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), eicosapentaenoic acid-arachidonic acid ratio (EPA/AA), and lipoprotein(a), as biomarkers for prognostic factors, were measured from blood samples. The study patients were divided into a CLI-group (n = 42) and IC-group (n = 200). The Gensini score as an indicator of coronary angiographic severity was higher in the CLI-group than in the IC-group (39.1 ± 31.2 vs. 8.5 ± 8.3, p < 0.0001). Hs-TnT and lipoprotein(a) values were higher in the CLI-group than in the IC-group (0.152 ± 0.186 ng/mL vs. 0.046 ± 0.091, p < 0.0001, 45.9 ± 23.3 mg/dL vs. 26.2 ± 27.7, p = 0.0002, respectively) and EPA/AA was lower in the CLI-group than in the IC-group (0.22 ± 0.11 vs. 0.38 ± 0.29, p = 0.0049, respectively). Greater CAD severity, higher hs-TnT, and lipoprotein(a), and lower EPA/AA were observed in the CLI-group, which may explain higher cardiovascular events in patients with CLI.

  20. Inconsistent Correlation Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Peripheral Arterial Tonometry

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Sara P.; Passos, Valéria Maria A.; Brant, Luisa C.C.; Bensenor, Isabela J.M.; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P.; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To estimate the association between 2 markers for atherosclerosis, measurements of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and to evaluate the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this association. We applied the 2 diagnostic tests to 588 participants from the ELSA-Brazil longitudinal study cohort. The PAT measurements, obtained with the EndoPAT2000, were the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), the Framingham RHI (F-RHI), and the mean basal pulse amplitude (BPA). We used the mean of the mean scores of carotid IMT of the distal layers of the left and right common carotids obtained by ultrasonography after 3 cardiac cycles. We used linear regression and the Spearman correlation coefficient to test the relationship between the 2 markers, and multiple linear regressions to exam the relationship between the RHI/F-RHI scores and the mean BPA and IMT scores after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. In the multivariate analysis, RHI (but not F-RHI) was positively correlated with the mean of the means of the IMT values after adjusting for sex and risk factors connected with both measures (β = 0.05, P = 0.02). Mean BPA did not remain significantly associated with IMT after adjusting for common risk factors. We found that the higher the IMT (or the worse the IMT), the higher the RHI (or the better the endothelial function). F-RHI was not associated with IMT. These 2 results are against the direction that one would expect and may imply that digital endothelial function (RHI and F-RHI) and IMT correspond to distinct and independent stages of the complex atherosclerosis process and represent different pathways in the disease's progression. Therefore, IMT and PAT measures may be considered complementary and not interchangeable. PMID:26287431

  1. Pathogenesis of the limb manifestations and exercise limitations in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, William R; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Larson, Christopher J; Brass, Eric P

    2015-04-24

    Patients with peripheral artery disease have a marked reduction in exercise performance and daily ambulatory activity irrespective of their limb symptoms of classic or atypical claudication. This review will evaluate the multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the exercise impairment in peripheral artery disease based on an evaluation of the current literature and research performed by the authors. Peripheral artery disease results in atherosclerotic obstructions in the major conduit arteries supplying the lower extremities. This arterial disease process impairs the supply of oxygen and metabolic substrates needed to match the metabolic demand generated by active skeletal muscle during walking exercise. However, the hemodynamic impairment associated with the occlusive disease process does not fully account for the reduced exercise impairment, indicating that additional pathophysiologic mechanisms contribute to the limb manifestations. These mechanisms include a cascade of pathophysiological responses during exercise-induced ischemia and reperfusion at rest that are associated with endothelial dysfunction, oxidant stress, inflammation, and muscle metabolic abnormalities that provide opportunities for targeted therapeutic interventions to address the complex pathophysiology of the exercise impairment in peripheral artery disease.

  2. Segmental Comparison of Peripheral Arteries by Doppler Ultrasound and CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Ram Kumar; Ganesan, Prakash; Mayavan, Manibharathi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diseases of peripheral arterial system are one of the common causes of limb pain, especially in elderly patients. Here we analyse non invasive imaging of peripheral arterial segments. Aim Aim of the study was to compare arterial diseases of extremities using Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography, and to find the better non-invasive modality of choice. Materials and Methods Fifty patients {14 patients with upper limb complaints (15 upper limbs) and 36 patients with lower limb complaints (72 lower limbs)} of peripheral arterial disease underwent Doppler ultrasound (USG) and CT Angiogram (CTA). Arterial systems divided into anatomic segments and luminal narrowing were compared using gray scale Doppler ultrasound and axial images of arterial phase of CT angiogram. Using statistical methods, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography were determined. Results Six hundred and nineteen arterial segments were studied with CT angiography and Doppler ultrasound. Of which 226 diseased segments were identified in CT angiography. Doppler overestimated narrowing by one grade in 47 segments, by two grade in 11 segments, by three grades in 30 segments and by four grades in 22 segments; underestimated by one grade in 28 segments, by two grades in 9 segments, by three grades in 5 segments and by four grades in 3 segments. Significant statistical difference exists between Doppler USG and CT angiography. Doppler showed good correlation with CT angiography in 74%, but, Doppler overestimated stenosis grade in a significant percentage. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Doppler USG compared with CT angiography was 93.36%, 82.44%, and 86.42%. Conclusion Duplex Doppler can be the first investigation in excluding peripheral arterial disease, especially for evaluation of infra inguinal region of lower limbs and from second part of the subclavian artery in upper limbs. PMID:27042556

  3. The impact of peripheral arterial disease: A proposal for a new classification.

    PubMed

    Vaquero Morillo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Clasically, intermittent claudication, an intermediate stage in peripheral arterial disease, has been considered as a benign condition when considering only the muscular pain on walking. In this paper our aim is to attract attention about the effects linked to ischemic pain and the oxidative injury resulting from episodes of ischemia/reperfusion. Throughout this process alterations in calcium homeostasis as well as uncontrolled generation of reactive oxygen species, in association with the mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory phenomena, could lead to accelerate atherosclerosis, with an increased cardiovascular risk stated by means of a reduced ankle-brachial index. Taking this idea into account we propose a possible new classification for the management of the peripheral arterial disease, combining the Fontaine and Rutherford classifications and thinking about the described systemic effects in order to change the traditional management of peripheral arterial disease.

  4. Noninvasive assessment of mechanical properties of peripheral arteries.

    PubMed

    Buntin, C M; Silver, F H

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound examination was used to noninvasively determine the changes in mechanical properties associated with age for the common carotid, brachial, popliteal, femoral, and tibial arteries. Forty-two normal male subjects, ranging in age from 8 to 60 years of age, were examined. The subjects were placed in one of three age groups: less than 29 years of age, 29 to 38, and greater than 38. Mechanical properties including percentage variation in diameter, pressure-strain, and circumferential elastic modulus were determined from changes in wall thickness and pulse pressure. Percentage variation in diameter (PVD) was seen to decrease with age for all arteries except the brachial, which remained relatively constant. Pressure-strain (Ep) and circumferential elastic moduli (Eo) were seen to increase with age in all arteries except the brachial, which remained relatively constant. Values of Ep and Eo were normalized into a stiffness index by dividing by the value found for the brachial artery. Stiffness indexes for the common carotid and femoral arteries were observed to increase more rapidly with age than the indexes obtained for the popliteal and tibial arteries. It is proposed that the stiffness index and changes in this parameter that occur with age may be useful in noninvasively assessing the progression of atherosclerosis.

  5. Proximal Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusion, Collateral Vessels, and Walking Performance in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Carroll, Timothy J.; Kibbe, Melina; Kramer, Christopher M.; Liu, Kiang; Guralnik, Jack M.; Keeling, Aoife N.; Criqui, Michael H.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Yuan, Chun; Tian, Lu; Liao, Yihua; Berry, Jarrett; Zhao, Lihui; Carr, James

    2013-01-01

    Objective We studied associations of MRI-measured SFA occlusions with functional performance, leg symptoms, and collateral vessel number in PAD. We studied associations of collateral vessel number with functional performance in PAD. Background Associations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusion and collateral vessel number with functional performance among individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have not been reported. Methods 457 participants with an ankle brachial index (ABI) < 1.00 had MRI measurement of the proximal SFA with twelve consecutive 2.5 millimeter cross-sectional images. An occluded SFA was defined as an SFA in which at least one segment was occluded. A non-occluded SFA was defined as absence of any occluded slices. Collateral vessels were visualized with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Lower extremity functional performance was measured with the six-minute walk, four-meter walking velocity at usual and fastest pace, and the short physical performance battery (SPPB) (0-12 scale, 12=best). Results Adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidities, and other confounders, the presence of an SFA occlusion was associated with poorer six-minute walk performance (1,031 vs. 1,169 feet, P=0.006), slower fast-paced walking velocity (1.15 vs. 1.22 meters/second, P =0.042), and lower SPPB score (9.07 vs. 9.75, P=0.038) compared to the absence of an SFA occlusion. More numerous collateral vessels were associated with better six-minute walk performance (0-3 collaterals-1,064 feet, 4-7 collaterals-1,165 feet, ≥ 8 collaterals-1,246 feet, P trend=0.007), faster usual-paced walking speed (0-3 collaterals-0.84 meters/second, 4-7 collaterals-0.88 meters/second, ≥ 8 collaterals-0.91 meters/second, P trend=0.029), and faster rapid-paced walking speed (0-3 collaterals-1.17 meters/second, 4-7 collaterals-1.22 meters/second, ≥ 8 collaterals-1.29 meters/second, P trend=0.002), adjusting for age, sex, race

  6. Mechanical Recanalization of Subacute Vessel Occlusion in Peripheral Arterial Disease with a Directional Atherectomy Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Massmann, Alexander Katoh, Marcus; Shayesteh-Kheslat, Roushanak; Buecker, Arno

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively examine the technical feasibility and safety of directional atherectomy for treatment of subacute infrainguinal arterial vessel occlusions. Methods: Five patients (one woman, four men, age range 51-81 years) with peripheral arterial disease who experienced sudden worsening of their peripheral arterial disease-related symptoms during the last 2-6 weeks underwent digital subtraction angiography, which revealed vessel occlusion in native popliteal artery (n = 4) and in-stent occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (n = 1). Subsequently, all patients were treated by atherectomy with the SilverHawk (ev3 Endovascular, USA) device. Results: The mean diameter of treated vessels was 5.1 {+-} 1.0 mm. The length of the occlusion ranged 2-14 cm. The primary technical success rate was 100%. One patient experienced a reocclusion during hospitalization due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. There were no further periprocedural complications, in particular no peripheral embolizations, until hospital discharge or during the follow-up period of 1 year. Conclusion: The recanalization of infrainguinal arterial vessel occlusions by atherectomy with the SilverHawk device is technically feasible and safe. In our limited retrospective study, it was associated with a high technical success rate and a low procedure-related complication rate.

  7. Circulating resistin protein and mRNA concentrations and clinical severity of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Sopic, Miron; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Andjelkovic, Kristina; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have implicated a strong link between circulating plasma resistin and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resistin mRNA and its plasma protein concentrations between the patients with CAD of different clinical severity. Material and methods This study included 33 healthy subjects as the control group (CG) and 77 patients requiring coronary angiography. Of the latter 30 was CAD negative whereas 47 were CAD positive [18 with stable angina pectoris (SAP) and 29 with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)]. Circulating resistin was measured by ELISA; PBMC resistin mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Results Resistin protein was significantly higher in the ACS group compared to the CG (P = 0.001) and the CAD negative group (P = 0.018). Resistin mRNA expression did not vary across the study groups, despite the positive correlation seen with plasma resistin (ρ = 0.305, P = 0.008). In patients, plasma resistin and PBMC resistin mRNA negatively correlated with HDL-C (ρ = -0.404, P < 0.001 and ρ = -0.257, P = 0.032, respectively). Furthermore, the highest plasma resistin tertile showed the lowest HDL-C (P = 0.006). Plasma resistin was positively associated with serum creatinine (ρ = 0.353, P = 0.002). Conclusion Significant increase of plasma resistin in patients with ACS compared to CG and CAD negative patients was observed. Despite no change in PBMC resistin mRNA in different disease conditions a positive association between resistin mRNA and resistin plasma protein was evident. Both plasma resistin and PBMC resistin mRNA were negatively associated with plasma HDL-C, and plasma resistin positively with serum creatinine. PMID:26110037

  8. Effect of beta adrenoceptors and thyroid hormones on velocity and acceleration of peripheral arterial flow in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Chemla, D; Levenson, J; Valensi, P; LeCarpentier, Y; Pourny, J C; Pithois-Merli, I; Simon, A

    1990-02-15

    Brachial artery flow patterns were studied in 10 hyperthyroid and 10 normal subjects. Mean blood velocity and flow were evaluated by pulsed Doppler, and peak systolic acceleration was calculated by computer-assisted digitization of the instantaneous velocity curve. Compared to control subjects, hyperthyroid patients had higher velocity and flow (p less than 0.01, p less than 0.02) and higher peak systolic acceleration (p less than 0.01). In hyperthyroid patients, measurements were repeated after (1) mechanical exclusion of the hand from brachial circulation, (2) short-term beta-blocker treatment and (3) inducement of the euthyroid state. Exclusion of the hand reduced velocity and flow (p less than 0.001) but did not change peak systolic acceleration. Beta blockade induced disparate changes of velocity and flow but reduced peak systolic acceleration (p less than 0.05). In the euthyroid state, decreased blood velocity (p less than 0.01), flow (p less than 0.02) and acceleration (p less than 0.02) were observed. A hyperkinetic arterial circulation consisting of an increase in both velocity and acceleration is thus observable in hyperthyroidism. Hand exclusion showed that velocity seems to be influenced by peripheral factors while beta blockade suggests that acceleration is dependent of beta 1 adrenoceptors. Comparison between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism indicates that both mean blood velocity and peak systolic acceleration are influenced by thyroid hormones. PMID:1968312

  9. Peripheral arterial disease, type 2 diabetes and postprandial lipidaemia: Is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    Valdivielso, Pedro; Ramírez-Bollero, José; Pérez-López, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease, manifested as intermittent claudication or critical ischaemia, or identified by an ankle/brachial index < 0.9, is present in at least one in every four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several reasons exist for peripheral arterial disease in diabetes. In addition to hyperglycaemia, smoking and hypertension, the dyslipidaemia that accompanies type 2 diabetes and is characterised by increased triglyceride levels and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations also seems to contribute to this association. Recent years have witnessed an increased interest in postprandial lipidaemia, as a result of various prospective studies showing that non-fasting triglycerides predict the onset of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease better than fasting measurements do. Additionally, the use of certain specific postprandial particle markers, such as apolipoprotein B-48, makes it easier and more simple to approach the postprandial phenomenon. Despite this, only a few studies have evaluated the role of postprandial triglycerides in the development of peripheral arterial disease and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes, focusing on the role of postprandial triglycerides and particles. PMID:25317236

  10. Peripheral arterial disease, type 2 diabetes and postprandial lipidaemia: Is there a link?

    PubMed

    Valdivielso, Pedro; Ramírez-Bollero, José; Pérez-López, Carmen

    2014-10-15

    Peripheral arterial disease, manifested as intermittent claudication or critical ischaemia, or identified by an ankle/brachial index < 0.9, is present in at least one in every four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several reasons exist for peripheral arterial disease in diabetes. In addition to hyperglycaemia, smoking and hypertension, the dyslipidaemia that accompanies type 2 diabetes and is characterised by increased triglyceride levels and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations also seems to contribute to this association. Recent years have witnessed an increased interest in postprandial lipidaemia, as a result of various prospective studies showing that non-fasting triglycerides predict the onset of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease better than fasting measurements do. Additionally, the use of certain specific postprandial particle markers, such as apolipoprotein B-48, makes it easier and more simple to approach the postprandial phenomenon. Despite this, only a few studies have evaluated the role of postprandial triglycerides in the development of peripheral arterial disease and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes, focusing on the role of postprandial triglycerides and particles. PMID:25317236

  11. [Sulodexide in conservative treatment of peripheral arterial diseases].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, M R; Kosykh, I V; Yu, Tolstikhin V; Kuznetsova, V F; Magnitsky, I A

    2015-01-01

    Presented in the article is a review of the literature, analysing principles of conservative therapy of patients with obliterating diseases of lower limb arteries and most commonly used drugs to treat them, followed by discussing the mechanisms of action and efficacy of such pharmacological agents as pentoxyphyllin, cilostazol, naphthidrofuryl, aktovegin, sulodexide. Described in details are subtle mechanisms of action of sulodexide as an endothelioprotector, its clinical efficacy in intermittent claudication. PMID:26824094

  12. Protein C and/or S deficiency presenting as peripheral arterial insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y P; Kwon, T-W; Ahn, J-H; Kang, G H; Han, M S; Kim, Y H; Kwak, J H; Lee, S G

    2005-07-01

    Although protein C and/or S deficiency has frequently been associated with venous thromboembolic events, instances of arterial thromboses have been reported. However, the exact incidence of protein C and/or S deficiency in patients with peripheral arterial insufficiency has not been established. Furthermore, given the lack of adequate studies to define the natural history and angiographic findings of these patients, the treatment has not been well delineated. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the prevalence, characteristic angiographic findings and optimal treatments in patients with peripheral arterial insufficiency associated with protein C and/or S deficiency. Between September 2000 and August 2004, 133 patients who presented with peripheral arterial insufficiency underwent hypercoagulability tests before the initiation of any treatments. Of these, 11 patients (8.3%) with protein C and/or S deficiency were included in this study. There were nine males and two females. The ages ranged from 38 years to 72 years (mean 57 years). All patients showed characteristic angiographic findings: long segment thrombotic occlusion of a main peripheral artery without evidence of atherosclerosis or with mild atherosclerotic changes in the aorta and other major arterial trees. Surgical or endovascular procedures were performed in nine patients: bypass graft in four, thrombectomy in four and catheter-directed thrombolysis in one. Conservative treatment with full anticoagulation was performed in two patients. All patients received pre- and post-operative anticoagulation. Except for one amputated case, clinical and vascular laboratory improvements were achieved in 10 patients. Mean follow-up period was 21 months (range 4-45 months). However, one patient, in whom re-vascularization surgery was performed successfully, discontinued warfarin therapy himself at 10 months after surgery, graft occlusion and limb loss occurred at 30 months after surgery. This

  13. Emergency coronary and peripheral arteries combined with percutaneous intervention in the elderly: success or therapeutic excess?

    PubMed

    Pepe, Martino; Furgieri, Alessandro; Miranda, Marianna; Cafaro, Alessandro; Paradies, Valeria; Iacovelli, Fortunato; Castriota, Fausto; Liso, Armando

    2015-09-01

    Acute lower extremities peripheral artery disease represents a clinical emergency. Peripheral artery disease incidence ranges from 2.5 to 22% and has progressively increased due to the world population aging phenomenon and associates with coronary artery disease with a rate of 40-60%. The authors present the case of an 89-year-old man coming to their attention with acute lower extremities ischemia and unstable angina. Despite the short-to-midterm favorable outcome, doubts remain about the opportunity of treating 'very old' patients. The lack of dedicated randomized trials and of defined guidelines is a problem the scientific community needs to face considering that patients over 85 years represent a raising quote of the whole population of our catheterization laboratories. PMID:26403439

  14. [Assessment of the peripheral circulation in children with nephrotic syndrome treated with cyclosporin A].

    PubMed

    Czupryniak, Aneta; Kałuzyńska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Półtorak-Krawczyk, Anna; Ostrowski, Bartosz; Wiecek, Bogusław; Nowicki, Michał

    2006-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive agent used in children for the treatment of steroid-dependent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). Despite its benefitial effect on a course of the disease CsA may exert nephrotoxic effects because of its vasoconstrictive properties. CsA-dependent disorders of the peripheral flow (Raynaud phenomenon--RP) have been recently described. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of CsA on the peripheral circulation. The study group comprised 16 children (12 male, 4 female; mean age 9.8 +/- 4.5 years) treated with CsA for at least 6 months due to INS (mean treatment time 39 +/- 27 months). Thirteen age- and sex-matched individuals served as controls. Peripheral circulation disorders were evaluated by means of a cold stress test (both hands were held in lukewarm water (20 degrees C) for 1 minute and thereafter the changes in the hand temperature were recorded with thermographic camera (Inframetrics SC1000). RP assessment was performed according to the method described by Ammer and Ring. The temperature gradient of 4 degrees C or greater maintained between metacarpal and peripheral areas of a hand after 10 minutes was considered diagnostic for RP. According to these criteria RP was confirmed in only 3 patients from the study group and in 2 controls. However, the time of the temperature increase in the first 5 minutes after cooling was considerably shorter in the children with INS (0.26 +/- 0.26 degrees C/min vs 0.51 +/- 0.29 degrees C/min, p=0.02). No correlation between CsA serum concentration, CsA dose and impairment of the hand temperature increase was found. The study confirmed that in children suffering from INS treated with CsA peripheral blood flow disorders can be seen. It seems that impaired vessel reactivity may result from the vasoconstrictive effect of CsA.

  15. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Sharma, Mona; Singh, Nidhi; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh K; Rath, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side, the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures. PMID:25802820

  16. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Sharma, Mona; Singh, Nidhi; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh K; Rath, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side, the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures.

  17. Arterial circulation of the spinal cord and brain in the Monodontidae (order Cetacea).

    PubMed

    Vogl, A W; Fisher, H D

    1981-11-01

    In this paper we document retial supply of the spinal cord and describe the arterial vascular pattern of the brain in the whale family Monodontidae. Observations are based on gross dissections of four brains, two each of Monodon monoceros and Delphinapterus leucas, and one spinal cord from M. monoceros. Vessels of the spinal cord arise from extradural retia in the neural canal. Arteries originating from the retia penetrate the dura between successive spinal roots (mainly ventral) and not in association with them, unlike radicular arteries of other mammals. Also, these vessels are uniformly distributed and contribute equally to a plexus surrounding the cord. An A. radicularis magna is not present, and neither are distinct anterior or posterior spinal arteries. Circulation to the brain is effected by two pairs of arteries originating from intracranial retia. The rostral pair supplies most of the forebrain (prosencephalon), whereas the more caudal pair supplies mainly the midbrain (mesencephalon) and hindbrain (rhombencephalon). The circulatory pattern is characterized by 1) complete independence of anterior cerebral arteries (no anastomoses); 2) extensive cortical supply by the anterior choroidal arteries; 3) absence of subdural communicating vessels between rostral and caudal trunks; 4) union of caudal trunks to form a small basilar artery; and 5) absence of vertebral arteries and hence of a vertebral basilar system. There are some obvious differences between subdural arteries in the Monodontidae and those in other mammals; however, their general patterns of distribution are similar, and we suggest that most of the vessels, at least in the cranium, are homologous. PMID:7299826

  18. Late Stent Expansion and Neointimal Proliferation of Oversized Nitinol Stents in Peripheral Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hugh Q. Nikanorov, Alexander; Virmani, Renu; Jones, Russell; Pacheco, Erica; Schwartz, Lewis B.

    2009-07-15

    For peripheral endovascular intervention, self-expanding (SE) stents are commonly oversized in relation to target arteries to assure optimal wall apposition and prevent migration. However, the consequences of oversizing have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SE stent oversizing (OS) with respect to the kinetics of late stent expansion and the long-term histological effects of OS. Pairs of overlapped 8 x 28-mm Nitinol SE stents were implanted into the iliofemoral arteries of 14 Yucatan swine. Due to variations in target artery size, the stent-to-artery ratio ranged from 1.2:1 to 1.9:1. Lumen and stent diameters were assessed by quantitative angiography at the time of implantation. Following angiographic assessment at 6 months, stented arteries were perfusion-fixed, sectioned, and stained for histological analysis. Immediately following implantation, the stents were found to be expanded to a range of 4.7-7.1 mm, largely conforming to the diameter of the recipient target artery. The stents continued to expand over time, however, and all stents had enlarged to nearly their 8-mm nominal diameter by 6 months. The histological effects of OS were profound, with marked increases in injury and luminal area stenosis, including a statistically significant linear correlation between stent-to-artery ratio and area stenosis. In this experimental model of peripheral endovascular intervention, oversized Nitinol SE stents are constrained by their target artery diameter upon implantation but expand to their nominal diameter within 6 months. Severe OS (stent-to-artery ratio >1.4:1) results in a profound long-term histological response including exuberant neointimal proliferation and luminal stenosis.

  19. Role of HO/CO in the Control of Peripheral Circulation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sacerdoti, David; Mania, Despina; Pesce, Paola; Gaiani, Silvia; Gatta, Angelo; Bolognesi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies show that the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide system (HO/CO) plays an important role in the homeostasis of circulation and in the pathophysiology of hypertension. No data are available on its role in the control of peripheral circulation in humans. We evaluated the effects of inhibition of HO with stannous mesoporphyrin IX (SnMP) (200 μM) locally administered by iontophoresis, on human skin blood flow, evaluated by laser-Doppler flowmetry, in the presence and absence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition with L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (100 μM). We also evaluated the effect of HO inhibition on vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine (ACh) and vasoconstriction caused by noradrenaline (NA). SnMP and L-NAME caused a similar 20–25% decrease in skin flow. After nitric oxide (NO) inhibition with L-NAME, HO inhibition with SnMP caused a further 20% decrease in skin perfusion. SnMP decreased vasodilatation induced by ACh by about 70%, while it did not affect vasoconstriction to NA. In conclusion, HO/CO participates in the control of peripheral circulation, independently from NO, and is involved in vasodilatation to ACh. PMID:22500215

  20. B-Flow Imaging in Lower Limb Peripheral Arterial Disease and Bypass Graft Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    D'Abate, Fabrizio; Ramachandran, Veni; Young, Mark A; Farrah, John; Ahmed, Mudasar H; Jones, Keith; Hinchliffe, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Doppler ultrasonography plays a key role in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease, but is often limited by pitfalls that may be overcome by B-flow imaging. Thus far, there is little information on B-flow imaging for the assessment of peripheral arterial disease and bypass grafts in lower limbs. This article describes the authors' early experience with B-flow in the lower extremities. Sixty patients were included among a large cohort of patients routinely referred to the vascular laboratory for peripheral arterial disease and bypass graft assessments. Two experienced vascular sonographers performed all scans, comparing color Doppler ultrasonography with B-flow imaging. All scans were performed using a combination of the 9 L linear and C2-9 curvilinear transducers with the LOGIQ E9 system (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, USA). Our experience indicates that this relatively unexplored technology has the potential to significantly improve peripheral blood flow evaluation. Nevertheless, B-flow imaging is not exempt from limitations and should be considered complementary to color Doppler ultrasonography.

  1. Myocardial and Peripheral Ischemia Causes an Increase in Circulating Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A in Non-atherosclerotic, Non-heparinized Pigs.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Lasse Bach; Poulsen, Christian Bo; Shim, Jeong; Bek, Marie; Jacobsen, Kevin; Conover, Cheryl A; Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Oxvig, Claus

    2015-12-01

    The usefulness of circulating pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as a biomarker for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is widely debated. We used the pig as a model to assess PAPP-A dynamics in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Induction of myocardial ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery caused a systemic rise in PAPP-A. However, the ischemic myocardium was excluded as the source of PAPP-A. Interestingly, induction of ischemia in peripheral tissues by ligation of the left femoral artery caused a systemic rise in PAPP-A originating from the left hind limb. This is the first study to demonstrate PAPP-A elevations in the absence of atherosclerosis or heparin during myocardial ischemia. Our findings thus add to the current discussion of the usefulness of PAPP-A as a biomarker for ACS.

  2. Endovascular surgery for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, S S; Eton, D; Moore, W S

    1992-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is a new multidisciplinary field that applies the recently innovated techniques of angioscopy, intraluminal ultrasound, balloon angioplasty, laser, mechanical atherectomy, and stents. This field can be defined as a diagnostic and therapeutic discipline that uses catheter-based systems to treat vascular disease. As such, it integrates the subspecialties of vascular surgery, interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, and biomedical engineering for the common purpose of improving arterial hemodynamics. Endovascular surgery offers many potential benefits: long incisions are replaced with a puncture wound, the need for postoperative intensive care is significantly reduced, major cardiac and pulmonary complications from general anesthesia are side stepped, and the dollar savings could be dramatic as the need for intensive care unit and in-hospital stay diminishes. Despite these technological advancements, endovascular surgery is still in its infancy and currently has limited applications. This review provides an updated summary of endovascular surgery today and addresses some of the obstacles still preventing its widespread use. PMID:1385944

  3. [Clinical study on total intravenous anesthesia with droperidol, fentanyl, and ketamine--18. Effect on peripheral circulation as judged by core-peripheral temperature gradient].

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, H; Iwakawa, T; Ohtomo, N; Kitayama, M; Miyahara, A; Matsuki, A

    1993-04-01

    Effect of total intravenous anesthesia with droperidol, fentanyl and ketamine (DFK) on peripheral circulation was studied by examining core-peripheral temperature gradient in twenty five patients who underwent abdominal surgery. A core temperature probe was attached on the forehead and peripheral probe on the palm of the hand of the side on which the blood pressure cuff was not applied. The temperature gradient was less than three degrees centigrade in 60% of the patients and the gradient was significantly less as compared with that of isoflurane anesthesia even at 300 minutes after the start of surgical operation. This advantage would have been caused by such factors as circulatory stimulating effect of ketamine, sympathetic blocking effect by droperidol and adequate postoperative analgesia by fentanyl and norketamine, a metabolite of ketamine. The results suggest that DFK would exert a beneficial effect on peripheral circulation, particularly during prolonged surgical procedures.

  4. Acute Changes in Peripheral Vascular Tonus and Systemic Circulation during Static Stretching.

    PubMed

    Inami, Takayuki; Baba, Reizo; Nakagaki, Akemi; Shimizu, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effect of static stretching (SS) on peripheral vascular tonus and to clarify the effect of SS on systemic circulation. Twenty healthy young male volunteers performed a 1-min SS motion of the right triceps surae muscle, repeated five times. The peripheral vascular tonus (|d/a| ratio) was obtained using second derivatives of the photoplethysmogram readings before, during, and after SS. Heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were also measured. The |d/a| ratio and BP were transiently, but significantly, elevated during SS and returned to baseline immediately after SS. Furthermore, we observed a significant correlation between the amount of change in the |d/a| ratio and the ankle range of motion during SS (r = 0.793 to 0.832, P = 0.01). These responses may be caused by mechanical stress during SS.

  5. A 1D model of the arterial circulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Aslanidou, Lydia; Trachet, Bram; Reymond, Philippe; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Segers, Patrick; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    At a time of growing concern over the ethics of animal experimentation, mouse models are still an indispensable source of insight into the cardiovascular system and its most frequent pathologies. Nevertheless, reference data on the murine cardiovascular anatomy and physiology are lacking. In this work, we developed and validated an in silico, one dimensional model of the murine systemic arterial tree consisting of 85 arterial segments. Detailed aortic dimensions were obtained in vivo from contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography in 3 male, C57BL/6J anesthetized mice and 3 male ApoE(-/-) mice, all 12-weeks old. Physiological input data were gathered from a wide range of literature data. The integrated form of the Navier-Stokes equations was solved numerically to yield pressures and flows throughout the arterial network. The resulting model predictions have been validated against invasive pressure waveforms and non-invasive velocity and diameter waveforms that were measured in vivo on an independent set of 47 mice. In conclusion, we present a validated one-dimensional model of the anesthetized murine cardiovascular system that can serve as a versatile tool in the field of preclinical cardiovascular research.

  6. [Effect of prostaglandin E1 treatment on peripheral circulation during extracorporeal circulation--with special reference to its influence on body temperature recovery].

    PubMed

    Tabata, R; Mori, A; Watarida, S; Onoe, M; Shiraishi, S; Nojima, T; Matsuno, S

    1992-01-01

    In patients undergoing open heart surgery, we assessed the effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) treatment, 0.1 micrograms/min/kg dosage, during extracorporeal circulation. This treatment resulted in a marked perfusion pressure reduction. As a result, PGE1-treated group showed less urine volume than untreated control group. However, the degree of urine volume reduction relative to the decrease in blood pressure was less in PGE1-treated group than in untreated control group, suggesting a diuretic action of PGE1. We infer from these results that renal blood flow was maintained even after PGE1-induced intense perfusion pressure reduction, allowing for avoidance of renal impairment during extracorporeal circulation. In PGE1-treated adults, recovery of rectal temperature after hypothermic extracorporeal circulation was poorer but that of muscle temperature was better than in untreated adults. This phenomenon can be interpreted as representing improvement of blood-mediated heat transfer from deep regions of trunk to muscles and superficial skin due to PGE1-induced improvement of peripheral circulation. The ameliorative effect of PGE1 on peripheral circulation during extracorporeal circulation was further confirmed by the fact that the amount of NaHCO3 required for correction of metabolic acidosis was significantly lower in PGE1-treated group than in untreated control group. These results indicate that PGE1 treatment during extracorporeal circulation makes body temperature control easier, favorably affects postoperative body temperature recovery and improves peripheral tissue metabolism.

  7. Estimation of arterial and cardiopulmonary total peripheral resistance baroreflex gain values: validation by chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation.

    PubMed

    Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Kim, Jong-Kyung; Li, Ying; Sala-Mercado, Javier; Hammond, Robert L; Scislo, Tadeusz J; O'Leary, Donal S

    2006-05-01

    Feedback control of total peripheral resistance (TPR) by the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex systems is an important mechanism for short-term blood pressure regulation. Existing methods for measuring this TPR baroreflex mechanism typically aim to quantify only the gain value of one baroreflex system as it operates in open-loop conditions. As a result, the normal, integrated functioning of the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of TPR remains to be fully elucidated. To this end, the laboratory of Mukkamala et al. (Mukkamala R, Toska K, and Cohen RJ. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 284: H947-H959, 2003) previously proposed a potentially noninvasive technique for estimating the closed-loop (dimensionless) gain values of the arterial TPR baroreflex (GA) and the cardiopulmonary TPR baroreflex (GC) by mathematical analysis of the subtle, beat-to-beat fluctuations in arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and stroke volume. Here, we review the technique with additional details and describe its experimental evaluation with respect to spontaneous hemodynamic variability measured from seven conscious dogs, before and after chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation. The technique was able to correctly predict the group-average changes in GA and GC that have previously been shown to occur following chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation. That is, reflex control by the arterial TPR baroreflex was virtually abolished (GA = -2.1 +/- 0.6 to 0.3 +/- 0.2; P < 0.05), while reflex control by the cardiopulmonary TPR baroreflex more than doubled (GC = -0.7 +/- 0.4 to -1.8 +/- 0.2; P < 0.05). With further successful experimental testing, the technique may ultimately be employed to advance the basic understanding of TPR baroreflex functioning in both humans and animals in health and disease.

  8. The Peripheral Arterial disease study (PERART/ARTPER): prevalence and risk factors in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre, population-based study in 3786 individuals >49 years, randomly selected in 28 primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain). Peripheral arterial disease was evaluated using the ankle-arm index. Values < 0.9 were considered as peripheral arterial disease. Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6% (6.7-8.4), (males 10.2% (9.2-11.2), females 5.3% (4.6-6.0); p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed the following risk factors: male sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.59]; age OR 2.00 per 10 years (1.64-2.44); inability to perform physical activity [OR 1.77 (1.17-2.68) for mild limitation to OR 7.08 (2.61-19.16) for breathless performing any activity]; smoking [OR 2.19 (1.34-3.58) for former smokers and OR 3.83 (2.23-6.58) for current smokers]; hypertension OR 1.85 (1.29-2.65); diabetes OR 2.01 (1.42-2.83); previous cardiovascular disease OR 2.19 (1.52-3.15); hypercholesterolemia OR 1.55 (1.11-2.18); hypertriglyceridemia OR 1.55 (1.10-2.19). Body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 OR 0.57 (0.38-0.87) and walking >7 hours/week OR 0.67 (0.49-0.94) were found as protector factors. Conclusions The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is low, higher in males and increases with age in both sexes. In addition to previously described risk factors we found a protector effect in physical exercise and overweight. PMID:20529387

  9. Assessment of the mechanical properties of peripheral arteries in chain saw operators using a photosensor.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Miyoshi, T

    1994-01-01

    In order to evaluate the severity of peripheral vascular disorders, and to detect changes in the digital arteries of workers who use chain saws, the mechanical properties of the digital arteries of 22 such workers were examined using a photosensor. The elastic properties and the nonlinearity of digital arteries were assessed through observation of the changes in the vascular volume ratio (V/Vo) against the volume (Vo) at mean blood pressure (Pm). A significant negative correlation was found between age and V/Vo at a transmural pressure of 30 mmHg (V30/Vo), which suggested that V30/Vo tended to decrease with aging. Although it was impossible to calculate V30/Vo for chain saw operators because of the vague changes in the volume pulse wave, this nonlinearity was more clearly observed through changes in the relative vascular volume (V/V40) along with a reduction in cuff pressure (Pc) to 40 mmHg below systolic blood pressure. A group of similarly aged healthy controls and three groups of workers with a different severity of vibration-induced white finger (VWF), i.e., no symptoms of VWF, mild VWF and severe VWF, were classified according to the changes in their V/V40 and the reduction in Pc. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the peripheral vascular disorders in workers using chain saws are due to the opening disturbance of the arteries with nonlinear changes in the peripheral artery, which is related to functional and organic abnormality of the arteries.

  10. Assessment of the mechanical properties of peripheral arteries in chain saw operators using a photosensor.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Miyoshi, T

    1994-01-01

    In order to evaluate the severity of peripheral vascular disorders, and to detect changes in the digital arteries of workers who use chain saws, the mechanical properties of the digital arteries of 22 such workers were examined using a photosensor. The elastic properties and the nonlinearity of digital arteries were assessed through observation of the changes in the vascular volume ratio (V/Vo) against the volume (Vo) at mean blood pressure (Pm). A significant negative correlation was found between age and V/Vo at a transmural pressure of 30 mmHg (V30/Vo), which suggested that V30/Vo tended to decrease with aging. Although it was impossible to calculate V30/Vo for chain saw operators because of the vague changes in the volume pulse wave, this nonlinearity was more clearly observed through changes in the relative vascular volume (V/V40) along with a reduction in cuff pressure (Pc) to 40 mmHg below systolic blood pressure. A group of similarly aged healthy controls and three groups of workers with a different severity of vibration-induced white finger (VWF), i.e., no symptoms of VWF, mild VWF and severe VWF, were classified according to the changes in their V/V40 and the reduction in Pc. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the peripheral vascular disorders in workers using chain saws are due to the opening disturbance of the arteries with nonlinear changes in the peripheral artery, which is related to functional and organic abnormality of the arteries. PMID:7591851

  11. [Peripheral arterial occlusive diseases: opinion of lay audience].

    PubMed

    Blättler, W; Largiadèr, J; Humbel, G

    2003-10-22

    An audience of about 500 elderly people were interviewed about their knowledge and therapeutic opinion on peripheral vascular disease. After a brief introduction by vascular surgeons 12 questions were presented for vote and answered with the use of a poll system. The audience proved well informed about the risk factors but confounded the symptoms. The participants declined to accept any limitation of their walking ability, overestimated the mid-term results of an eventual revascularisation and underestimated their risks and costs. 80% asked for a stop of smoking as a prerequisite for an intervention and again 80% were willing to pay by them-selves if the insurances would not reimburse them for an operation that would just improve their quality of life status. The honorarium for the surgeon was put up high. The poll shows that an audience can be enabled within a short period of time to deliberate therapeutic decisions and socio-economic problems. The answers reflect an overestimation of the medical possibilities but also a willingness to ask for and make personal contributions to a treatment which is not compelling in many cases.

  12. Peripheral circulation monitored by surface temperature and autonomic nervous function in hypobaric hypoxic environment: effects of submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Fukuda-Matsuda, Eri; Yamada, Makiko; Tanobe, Kyoko; Saito, Shigeru

    2007-02-01

    Hypothermia and frostbite are frequently seen in accidents in remote wilderness environment, especially in hypobaric hypoxic conditions. The aim of this study was to clarify how hypobaric hypoxic conditions affects peripheral circulation. Peripheral skin temperature and autonomic nervous functions were assessed in two 1000-m ascent exercises. Subjects (n = 15) ascended from 1000 m above sea level in Study 1, and ascended from 2400 m in Study 2. Conditions other than environmental oxygen pressure were mostly identical in both studies. The autonomic nervous activities were decreased solely in Study 2. The relative sympathetic activity was significantly increased in the lower barometric pressure in Study 2 (p < 0.01). Peripheral skin temperature was significantly decreased after the exercise in Study 2 (p < 0.01). In conclusion, hypobaric hypoxia itself induced peripheral low temperature during exercise at high altitudes. Relative sympathetic hyperactivity may be responsible for the compromised peripheral circulation.

  13. Hindlimb-unloading suppresses B cell population in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation associated with OPN expression in circulating blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ezura, Yoichi; Nagata, Junji; Nagao, Masashi; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Rittling, Susan; Denhardt, David T; Noda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Rodent hindlimb unloading (HU) by tail-suspension is a model to investigate disuse-induced bone loss in vivo. Previously, we have shown that osteopontin (OPN, also known as Spp1) is required for unloading-induced bone loss. However, how unloading affects OPN expression in the body is not fully understood. Here, we examined OPN expression in peripheral blood of mice subjected to HU. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that OPN expression is increased in circulating peripheral blood cells. This HU-induced increase in OPN mRNA expression was specific in circulating peripheral blood cells, as OPN was not increased in the blood cells in bone marrow. HU-induced enhancement in OPN expression in peripheral blood cells was associated with an increase in the fraction of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells in the peripheral blood. In contrast, HU decreased the fraction size of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. We further examined if B-lymphogenesis is affected in the mice deficient for osteopontin subjected to HU. In bone marrow, HU decreased the population of the B-lymphocyte lineage cells significantly, whereas it did not alter the population of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. HU also increased the cells in T-lymphocyte lineage in bone marrow. Interestingly, these changes were observed similarly both in OPN-deficient and wild-type mice. These results indicate for the first time that HU increases OPN expression in circulating cells and suppresses bone marrow B-lymphogenesis.

  14. A Primary Care Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this work are: (1) Be able to recognize characteristic symptoms of intermittent claudication (2) Diagnose PAD on the basis of history, physical exam, and simple limb blood pressure measurements (3) Recognize the significance of peripheral artery disease as a marker for coronary or cerebrovascular atherosclerosis (4) Provide appropriate medical management of atherosclerosis risk factors-- including use of antiplatelet therapy to reduce risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and death (5) Manage symptoms of intermittent claudication with program of smoking cessation, exercise, and medication The diagnosis of intermittent claudication secondary to peripheral artery disease (PAD) can often be made on the basis of history and physical examination. Additional evaluation of PAD is multi-modal and the techniques used will vary depending on the nature and severity of the patient's presenting problem. Most patients can be appropriately managed without referral for specialized diagnostic services or interventions.

  15. Contribution of the vertebral artery to cerebral circulation in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zippel, K. C.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Mladinich, C. R.; Hargens, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Blood supplying the brain in vertebrates is carried primarily by the carotid vasculature. In most mammals, cerebral blood flow is supplemented by the vertebral arteries, which anastomose with the carotids at the base of the brain. In other tetrapods, cerebral blood is generally believed to be supplied exclusively by the carotid vasculature, and the vertebral arteries are usually described as disappearing into the dorsal musculature between the heart and head. There have been several reports of a vertebral artery connection with the cephalic vasculature in snakes. We measured regional blood flows using fluorescently labeled microspheres and demonstrated that the vertebral artery contributes a small but significant fraction of cerebral blood flow (approximately 13% of total) in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Vascular casts of the anterior vessels revealed that the vertebral artery connection is indirect, through multiple anastomoses with the inferior spinal artery, which connects with the carotid vasculature near the base of the skull. Using digital subtraction angiography, fluoroscopy, and direct observations of flow in isolated vessels, we confirmed that blood in the inferior spinal artery flows craniad from a point anterior to the vertebral artery connections. Such collateral blood supply could potentially contribute to the maintenance of cerebral circulation during circumstances when craniad blood flow is compromised, e.g., during the gravitational stress of climbing.

  16. Morphological Studies on the Peripheral Circulation of the Ovary in One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Doaa M; Abd-Elhafez, Enas A

    2016-08-01

    Histological examination of the peripheral circulation of the ovary of 18 females of the one-humped camel revealed a series of blood vessels with special structures. Throttle or occlusive artery was recorded in the ovarian zona vasculosa and in the cortex, and it showed an intimal cushion-like thickening made up of intimal bolsters that formed of smooth muscle fibres and glomus cells. The smooth muscle cells of the tunica media and the tunica adventitia of throttle artery pursued a circumferential pattern. Anastomosis arteriovenosa included simple bridge-like anastomotic vessels between arteria and venae, and glomus vessels of typical structure were demonstrated. Glomus organs were recorded in the ovary and were comprised of the tortuous glomus vessels and the related afferent and efferent vessels. Glomus cell complexes also were commonly occur at the cortex ovarii that possessed an extremely convoluted course with a hyperplastic wall and a narrow lumen. Atypical glomus vessels were demonstrated within the ovarian zona vasculosa, and the wall of these vessels was relatively thick and consisted of double tunica media with an intimal bolster. Some vessels contained an intimal bolster device of exclusively glomus cell structure (glomus bolster) with a tunica elastic interna demarcated it from the glomus cell media. Some venae represented several layers of longitudinally arranged smooth muscle fibres in the tunica media. Other venae showed wall with variable thickness. Venae with double muscular tunica media were recorded in the medulla. Some venae showed double internal elastic lamina. Also, venae with thick adventitia contained dispersed smooth muscle fibres were determined. Spirally oriented arteriole and venule were demonstrated within the cortex and medulla ovarii. Gestation sclerosis was demonstrated in ovarian zona vasculosa of pregnant females.

  17. [SICI-GISE position paper on the requirements for diagnostic and interventional procedures in patients with peripheral arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, Alberto; Setacci, Carlo; Rubino, Paolo; Stabile, Eugenio; Castriota, Fausto; Reimers, Bernhard; Inglese, Luigi; Berti, Sergio; Sbarzaglia, Paolo; Biamino, Giancarlo; Guagliumi, Giulio

    2013-10-01

    Interventional procedures on peripheral vessels are the field of a novel specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and minimally invasive endovascular treatment of diseases involving the cerebral, thoracic and abdominal arteries (including renal and visceral arteries), as well as the peripheral arteries (femoro-popliteal arteries and the arteries below the knee). At present, physicians with three different types of medical training, each involving particular strengths and characteristics, specialize in endovascular treatment of patients with peripheral arterial disease: vascular surgeons, interventional radiologists and interventional cardiologists. Treatment of high-risk patients in terms of anatomical and clinical (serious comorbidities) complexity raised the need for the interventional cardiologist to face issues related to technical aspects of the procedure, multilevel pathology management and adequate indication. To achieve this goal, interventional cardiologists require particular facilities and clinical skills. The objectives of this position paper from the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (SICI-GISE) are (i) to define the theoretical background and practical training required to ensure that interventional cardiologists maintain high-quality standards also in the field of treatment of peripheral arterial disease, by establishing shared rules and drafting papers; (ii) to standardize the procedures of interventional cardiology operational units that treat patients with peripheral arterial disease in Italy on the basis of scientific evidence, and (iii) to establish common requirements in terms of facilities and regulations. PMID:24121895

  18. ACTIVATING PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE PATIENTS TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Reed, George; Greenland, Philip; Mazor, Kathy M.; Pagoto, Sherry; Ockene, Judith K.; Graff, Rex; Merriam, Philip A.; Leung, Kathy; Manheim, Larry; Kibbe, Melina R.; Olendzki, Barbara; Pearce, William H.; Ockene, Ira S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease patients are less likely than other high-risk patients to achieve ideal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) levels. This randomized controlled trial assessed whether a telephone counseling intervention, designed to help peripheral arterial disease patients request more intensive cholesterol lowering therapy from their physician, achieves lower LDL-cholesterol levels than two control conditions. Methods 355 peripheral arterial disease participants with baseline LDL-cholesterol ≥ 70 mg/dl were enrolled. The primary outcome was change in LDL-cholesterol level at twelve-month follow-up. There were three parallel arms: telephone counseling intervention, attention control condition, and usual care. The intervention consisted of patient-centered counseling, delivered every six weeks, encouraging participants to request increases in cholesterol-lowering therapy from their physician. The attention control condition consisted of telephone calls every six weeks providing information only. The usual care condition participated in baseline and follow-up testing. Results At 12-month follow-up, participants in the intervention improved their LDL-cholesterol level, compared to those in attention control (−18.4 mg/dl vs. −6.8 mg/dl, p= 0.010) but not compared to those in usual care (−18.4 mg/dl vs. −11.1 mg/dl, p= 0.208). Intervention participants were more likely to start a cholesterol-lowering medication or increase their cholesterol-lowering medication dose than those in the attention control (54% vs. 18%, p=0.001) and usual care (54% vs. 31%, P<0.001) conditions. Conclusion Telephone counseling that helped peripheral arterial disease patients request more intensive cholesterol-lowering therapy from their physician achieved greater LDL-cholesterol declines than an attention control arm that provided health information alone. PMID:21605733

  19. Pharmacology in Peripheral Arterial Disease: What the Interventional Radiologist Needs to Know

    PubMed Central

    Atturu, Gnaneswar; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Russell, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a progressive disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Risk factor control, using diet and lifestyle modification, exercise, and pharmacological methods, improves symptoms and reduces associated cardiovascular events in these patients. Antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants may be used to reduce the incidence of acute events related to thrombosis. The armamentarium available for symptom relief and disease modification is discussed. Novel treatments such as therapeutic angiogenesis are in their evolutionary phase with promising preclinical data. PMID:25435658

  20. Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S; Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A

    2014-10-01

    A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 28:1281-1299, 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of 'large' arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the 'smaller' arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50 μm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment for circulatory diseases within the lung. PMID:24610385

  1. Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S; Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A

    2014-10-01

    A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 28:1281-1299, 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of 'large' arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the 'smaller' arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50 μm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment for circulatory diseases within the lung.

  2. Role of Metals and Aspects of Socioeconomic Status (SES) in Peripheral Arterial Disease in the US Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis are serious pathological changes and are responsible for various disease conditions such as peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The prevalence of PAD, commonly assessed by Ankle–Brachial Index (ABI), is over 10% in the US population over...

  3. The effect of oral uptake of nicotine in snus on peripheral skin blood circulation evaluated by thermography

    PubMed Central

    Høiland, Ina Isabella; de Weerd, Louis; Mercer, James B

    2014-01-01

    While health risks from smoking cigarettes are well known, little is known about the health risks of using smokeless tobacco (ST). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect that ST in the form of oral use of snus with nicotine and snus without nicotine has on peripheral skin blood circulation. 21 young habitual users of snus with nicotine participated in this study. Under controlled conditions the subjects were exposed to a 30 minute period of oral use of snus with nicotine (SN+) and snus without nicotine (SN-). The peripheral skin blood circulation was indirectly monitored on the hands by measuring skin temperature using infrared thermography. The skin blood circulation in the hands showed a statistical significant decrease in the SN+ experiments, while skin blood circulation was hardly effected in the SN- experiments. It is concluded that the use of smokeless tobacco in the form of oral use of snus containing nicotine causes a decrease in peripheral skin blood circulation while such an effect is not seen in snus without nicotine. This knowledge may be of use when treating patients that require adequate peripheral skin circulation or in the military when soldiers are exposed cold conditions.

  4. The effect of oral uptake of nicotine in snus on peripheral skin blood circulation evaluated by thermography.

    PubMed

    Høiland, Ina Isabella; de Weerd, Louis; Mercer, James B

    2014-01-01

    While health risks from smoking cigarettes are well known, little is known about the health risks of using smokeless tobacco (ST). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect that ST in the form of oral use of snus with nicotine and snus without nicotine has on peripheral skin blood circulation. 21 young habitual users of snus with nicotine participated in this study. Under controlled conditions the subjects were exposed to a 30 minute period of oral use of snus with nicotine (SN+) and snus without nicotine (SN-). The peripheral skin blood circulation was indirectly monitored on the hands by measuring skin temperature using infrared thermography. The skin blood circulation in the hands showed a statistical significant decrease in the SN+ experiments, while skin blood circulation was hardly effected in the SN- experiments. It is concluded that the use of smokeless tobacco in the form of oral use of snus containing nicotine causes a decrease in peripheral skin blood circulation while such an effect is not seen in snus without nicotine. This knowledge may be of use when treating patients that require adequate peripheral skin circulation or in the military when soldiers are exposed cold conditions.

  5. Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jenny B.; Phillips, Evan H.; Riggins, Ti’Air E.; Sangha, Gurneet S.; Chakraborty, Sreyashi; Lee, Janice Y.; Lycke, Roy J.; Hernandez, Clarissa L.; Soepriatna, Arvin H.; Thorne, Bradford R. H.; Yrineo, Alexa A.; Goergen, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a broad disorder encompassing multiple forms of arterial disease outside of the heart. As such, PAD development is a multifactorial process with a variety of manifestations. For example, aneurysms are pathological expansions of an artery that can lead to rupture, while ischemic atherosclerosis reduces blood flow, increasing the risk of claudication, poor wound healing, limb amputation, and stroke. Current PAD treatment is often ineffective or associated with serious risks, largely because these disorders are commonly undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Active areas of research are focused on detecting and characterizing deleterious arterial changes at early stages using non-invasive imaging strategies, such as ultrasound, as well as emerging technologies like photoacoustic imaging. Earlier disease detection and characterization could improve interventional strategies, leading to better prognosis in PAD patients. While rodents are being used to investigate PAD pathophysiology, imaging of these animal models has been underutilized. This review focuses on structural and molecular information and disease progression revealed by recent imaging efforts of aortic, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease models in mice, rats, and rabbits. Effective translation to humans involves better understanding of underlying PAD pathophysiology to develop novel therapeutics and apply non-invasive imaging techniques in the clinic. PMID:25993289

  6. Wall Morphology, Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress: MR Findings in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Liao, Yihua; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James; McDermott, Mary; Markl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by 2D phase contrast (PC) MRI with three-directional velocity encoding. Methods: During one year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After IRB approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age=70±12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contraindications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-, and T2-weighted MRI. ECG-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity, and WSS along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. Results: The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress, and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Conclusions: Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with 3 directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling, and plaque progression. PMID:24326757

  7. Increased Arterial Diameters in the Posterior Cerebral Circulation in Men with Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A.; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males – females; normal – impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity. PMID:24475221

  8. Increased arterial diameters in the posterior cerebral circulation in men with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Uçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males-females; normal-impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging-based computational modelling of blood flow and nanomedicine deposition in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shaolie S.; Zhang, Yongjie; Fu, Xiaoyi; Brunner, Gerd; Singh, Jaykrishna; Hughes, Thomas J. R.; Shah, Dipan; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is generally attributed to the progressive vascular accumulation of lipoproteins and circulating monocytes in the vessel walls leading to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. This is known to be regulated by the local vascular geometry, haemodynamics and biophysical conditions. Here, an isogeometric analysis framework is proposed to analyse the blood flow and vascular deposition of circulating nanoparticles (NPs) into the superficial femoral artery (SFA) of a PAD patient. The local geometry of the blood vessel and the haemodynamic conditions are derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed at baseline and at 24 months post intervention. A dramatic improvement in blood flow dynamics is observed post intervention. A 500% increase in peak flow rate is measured in vivo as a consequence of luminal enlargement. Furthermore, blood flow simulations reveal a 32% drop in the mean oscillatory shear index, indicating reduced disturbed flow post intervention. The same patient information (vascular geometry and blood flow) is used to predict in silico in a simulation of the vascular deposition of systemically injected nanomedicines. NPs, targeted to inflammatory vascular molecules including VCAM-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1, are predicted to preferentially accumulate near the stenosis in the baseline configuration, with VCAM-1 providing the highest accumulation (approx. 1.33 and 1.50 times higher concentration than that of ICAM-1 and E-selectin, respectively). Such selective deposition of NPs within the stenosis could be effectively used for the detection and treatment of plaques forming in the SFA. The presented MRI-based computational protocol can be used to analyse data from clinical trials to explore possible correlations between haemodynamics and disease progression in PAD patients, and potentially predict disease occurrence as well as the outcome of an intervention. PMID:25878124

  10. [Peripheral blood circulation in the skin and the regulatory mechanisms in the course of primary transmural myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Khalepo, O V; Molotkov, O V; Eshkina, S L

    2009-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to study the indicators characterizing the peripheral blood circulation in the skin, regulatory mechanisms, and the compensatory capacities of the microcirculatory bed in 32 patients aged 45-60 years in the course of primary transmural myocardial infarction during exercise tests. Significant disturbances of the mechanism responsible for regulating the peripheral blood circulation system and chiefly its active components were detected in the presence of adequate blood filling of microvessels. There was a drastic decrease in the reserves of skin microvascular endothelial activity during ionophoresis of sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine, the maximum degree of disturbances being observed on day 10 of myocardial infarction development.

  11. Association of Hypertension With Erectile Function in Chronic Peripheral Arterial Insufficiency Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spessoto, Luis Cesar Fava; Facio, Fernando Nestor; de Arruda, Jose Germano Ferraz; Arruda, Pedro Francisco F.; Gatti, Marcio; Antoniassi, Thiago Silveira; Facio, Maria Fernanda Warick; de Godoy, Jose Maria Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk factors may influence the improvement or worsening of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of systemic hypertension on ED in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Methods The effect of hypertension on ED was assessed in 125 consecutive patients in a cross-sectional quantitative study. The ages of the patients ranged from 19 to 88 years old (mean: 59.82 ± 10.48 years). The only exclusion criterion was the amputation of one or both legs. The ankle-arm index was assessed and the international index of ED questionnaire was applied to all participants in the study. Results Of the 125 patients, 22 (17.6%) had mild (grade 1), 50 (40.0%) had moderate (grade 2) and 53 (42.4%) had severe (grade 3) ED. Hypertensive patients have more ED, with ED in hypertensive patients being associated to chronic arterial disease. However, in comparison with normotensive patients, hypertension exerts an immediate protective effect on erectile function. Conclusions In conclusion, although erectile function is initially protected by systemic arterial hypertension in patients with chronic arterial disease, both chronic arterial disease and ED deteriorate over the long term in hypertensive patients. PMID:27429678

  12. Estimation of cardiac output and total peripheral resistance in preterm infants by arterial waveform analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Gregory S H; Tracy, Mark B; Hinder, Murray; Redmond, Stephen J; Savkin, Andrey V; Lovell, Nigel H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether arterial blood pressure waveform analysis could be useful for estimating left ventricular outflow (LVO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) in preterm infants. A cohort of 27 infants were studied, with 89 measurements of left ventricular outflow (LVO) using Doppler echocardiography and arterial pressure using catheters, performed in 0, 12, 24 and 36 hours after birth. TPR was computed as mean arterial pressure divided by LVO. The diastolic decay rate (1/τ) was obtained via fitting an exponential function to the last one third of each arterial pulse, with the mean rate computed from 50 pulses selected from each infant. This decay rate was considered to be inversely related to TPR while positively related to LVO. The results of regression analysis have confirmed that the diastolic decay rate had significant positive and negative relationships with LVO and TPR respectively(r = 0.383, P = 0.0002 and r = -0.379, P = 0.0002 respectively). These preliminary results demonstrated the potential utility of arterial pressure waveform analysis for estimating LVO and TPR in preterm infants, but more advanced multi-parameter models may be needed to improve accuracy of the estimation.

  13. Ankle Brachial Index: simple non-invasive estimation of peripheral artery disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieniak, Marcin; Cieślicki, Krzysztof; Żyliński, Marek; Górski, Piotr; Murgrabia, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Gerard

    2014-11-01

    According to international guidelines, patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) are burdened with high cardiovascular risk. One of the simplest, non-invasive methods for PAD detection is the ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement. The ABI is calculated as the ratio of systolic blood pressure at the ankle (pressure in the posterior tibial artery or the dorsal artery) to the systolic pressure in the arm (in the brachial artery) when the body is in a horizontal position. The physiological value of the ABI is assumed to be between 1 and 1.3; however, these limits vary from study to study. A value less than 0.9 indicates PAD. Some authors propose also measuring the ABI on both sides of the body to highlight possible differences in blood pressure between the opposite arterial segments. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ABI diagnostic criteria used in different publications. Additionally, ABI measurements were performed on 19 healthy patients in age ranged from 20 to 63 years. The results showed a slight dependence between age and the differences between the values obtained from left and right sides of the body.

  14. [The concentration of free lidocaine in arterial, central venous and peripheral vein plasma following intravenous injection].

    PubMed

    Nolte, H; al Saydali, B; Weissenberg, W

    1990-03-01

    Ten intensive care patients and five healthy volunteers each received a bolus injection of lidocaine HCl (100 mg, 2%) over an injection period of 5 s. After 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 25 min arterial, central venous and peripheral venous blood samples were collected. In four of the volunteers, arterial and central venous samples were also taken about 10 s after the end of injection. The fluorescence polarization method by means of the Abbott-TDx system was used, and plasma concentrations of lidocaine were determined. The measurements showed that lidocaine levels in central venous plasma 10 s after the end of administration were higher than those in arterial plasma. By 30 s after administration the opposite situation had developed, so that arterial concentrations were higher than those in central venous plasma. This relation did not change throughout the study, though the two levels became closer, as is shown by the ratios (Table 3, Fig. 2). Concentrations in peripheral venous plasma increased more slowly but remained far below those in arterial and central venous plasma, at least for the first 8 min. After 15 min lidocaine levels were almost the same in all three samples. During the entire study there were no ECG changes, and neither heart rate nor blood pressure showed any significant deviation from the values obtained at the beginning. The volunteers had minor toxic manifestations, such as dizziness, tinnitus and a metallic taste in the mouth; one person had a sensation of pressure in his chest, which improved following oxygen administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Serum Sclerostin as an Independent Marker of Peripheral Arterial Stiffness in Renal Transplantation Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Bang-Gee; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Lee, Chung-Jen; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Ho, Guan-Jin; Lee, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is thought to be implicated in the development of arterial stiffness and vascular calcification. As a Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor, it is interesting to investigate whether sclerostin or dickkopf-1 (DKK1) level is correlated with arterial stiffness in renal transplant (RT) recipients. Fasting blood samples were obtained for biochemical data, sclerostin, DKK1, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) determinations. In this study, we applied automatic pulse wave analyzer (VaSera VS-1000) to measure brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and either sides of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity value, which greater than 14.0 m/s was determined as high arterial stiffness. Among 68 RT recipients, 30 patients (44.1%) were in the high arterial stiffness group. Compared with patients in the low arterial stiffness group, patients in the high arterial stiffness group had higher prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.002), diabetes (P < 0.001), metabolic syndrome (P = 0.025), longer posttransplant duration (P = 0.005), higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.018), and higher fasting glucose (P = 0.004), total cholesterol (P = 0.042), blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.020), phosphorus (P = 0.042), and sclerostin levels (P = 0.001). According to our multivariable forward stepwise linear regression analysis, age (β = 0.272, P = 0.014), phosphorus (β = 0.308, P = 0.007), and logarithmically-transformed OPG (log-OPG; β = 0.222, P = 0.046) were positively associated with sclerostin levels, and multivariate logistic regression analysis, sclerostin (odds ratio 1.052, 95% confidence interval 1.007–1.099, P = 0.024), and posttransplant duration (odds ratio 1.024, 95% confidence interval 1.004–1.045, P = 0.019) were the independent predictors of peripheral arterial stiffness in RT recipients. In this study, serum sclerostin level, but not DKK1, was

  16. [Prevalence of peripheral artery disease among diabetics in Parakou in 2013].

    PubMed

    Codjo, H L; Adoukonou, T A; Wanvoegbe, A; Dohou, H; Bankolé, C; Alassani, A; Dovonou, C A; Houénassi, D M

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of peripheral artery disease and its associated factors among diabetics. The cross-sectional study was conducted and included all diabetics admitted to the diabetic clinic at the Parakou University hospital during the period of 1st February and 31st July 2013. The diagnosis of peripheral artery disease was based on the Ankle Brachial Index (ABI)<0.9. The socio-demographics data, the data concerning the diabetes and its complications were recorded in each patient. They were 401 diabetics and 59.5 % were females. The mean age was 53.7±11.5 years. Among the diabetics, 168 fulfilled the criteria of PAD, the overall prevalence was 41.9 %. In total, 31.5 % were symptomatics according to Leriche and Fontaine classification. The main associated factors were the increase of age (P=0.01), the absence of activity with high income (P=0.004), the absence of physical activity (P=0.023), the duration of diabetes (P=0.007), the presence of peripheral neuropathy (P=0.003), the glycosylated hemoglobin≥7 % (P<0.001). After a multivariate analysis, only diabetes control was independently associated with arteriopathy (P=0,004). The PAD was more frequent among diabetics in Parakou. The associated factors must be taken into account in order to improve the management of the disease and to reduce the burden of the PAD.

  17. Exercise interventions and peripheral arterial function: implications for cardio-metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shane A; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Brown, Michael D; Haus, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for the development of obesity and other cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the development of CVD and is associated with a sedentary lifestyle in otherwise healthy adults. In addition, vascular endothelial dysfunction may be exacerbated in sedentary individuals who are obese and insulin resistant, since excess body fat is associated with elevated levels of pro-atherogenic inflammatory adipokines and cytokines that reduce the nitric oxide (NO) and other upstream paracrine signaling substances which reduces vascular health. Since blood flow-related shear stress is a major stimulus to NO release from the endothelium, disturbed flow or low shear stress is the likely mechanism by which vascular endothelial function is altered with inactivity. Evidence shows that regular physical exercise has beneficial effects on CVD and the risk factors that promote peripheral arterial function and health. Both aerobic and resistance exercise training are generally believed to improve endothelial function and are commonly recommended for CV health, including the management of obesity, hypertension, and insulin resistance. However, many factors including age, disease status, and race appear to influence these outcomes. Although evidence supporting the health benefits of exercise is compelling, the optimum prescription (volume and intensity) and the exact mechanism underlying the effects of exercise training on arterial function and cardiometabolic risk has yet to be identified. The focus of this review will be on the evidence supporting exercise interventions for peripheral arterial function. PMID:25529367

  18. Exercise interventions and peripheral arterial function: implications for cardio-metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shane A; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Brown, Michael D; Haus, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for the development of obesity and other cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the development of CVD and is associated with a sedentary lifestyle in otherwise healthy adults. In addition, vascular endothelial dysfunction may be exacerbated in sedentary individuals who are obese and insulin resistant, since excess body fat is associated with elevated levels of pro-atherogenic inflammatory adipokines and cytokines that reduce the nitric oxide (NO) and other upstream paracrine signaling substances which reduces vascular health. Since blood flow-related shear stress is a major stimulus to NO release from the endothelium, disturbed flow or low shear stress is the likely mechanism by which vascular endothelial function is altered with inactivity. Evidence shows that regular physical exercise has beneficial effects on CVD and the risk factors that promote peripheral arterial function and health. Both aerobic and resistance exercise training are generally believed to improve endothelial function and are commonly recommended for CV health, including the management of obesity, hypertension, and insulin resistance. However, many factors including age, disease status, and race appear to influence these outcomes. Although evidence supporting the health benefits of exercise is compelling, the optimum prescription (volume and intensity) and the exact mechanism underlying the effects of exercise training on arterial function and cardiometabolic risk has yet to be identified. The focus of this review will be on the evidence supporting exercise interventions for peripheral arterial function.

  19. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses for more profitable strategies in peripheral artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Minno, Giovanni; Spadarella, Gaia; Cafaro, Giovanni; Petitto, Maurizio; Lupoli, Roberta; Di Minno, Alessandro; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the peripheral arteries, a thrombus superimposed on atherosclerosis contributes to the progression of peripheral artery disease (PAD), producing intermittent claudication (IC), ischemic necrosis, and, potentially, loss of the limb. PAD with IC is often undiagnosed and, in turn, undertreated. The low percentage of diagnosis (∼30%) in this setting of PAD is of particular concern because of the potential worsening of PAD (amputation) and the high risk of adverse vascular outcomes (vascular death, coronary artery disease, stroke). A Medline literature search of the highest-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials documents that, due to risk of bias, imprecision, and indirectness, the overall quality of the evidence concerning diagnostic tools and antithrombotic interventions in PAD is generally low. Areas of research emerge from the information collected. Appropriate treatments for PAD patients will only derive from ad-hoc studies. Innovative imaging techniques are needed to identify PAD subjects at the highest vascular risk. Whether IC unresponsive to physical exercise and smoking cessation identifies those with a heritable predisposition to more severe vascular events deserves to be addressed. Devising ways to improve prevention of vascular events in patients with PAD implies a co-ordinated approach in vascular medicine. PMID:25045928

  20. Effects of spinal cord stimulation on peripheral blood circulation in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingyuan; Thorkilsen, Marielouise Muus; Qin, Chao; Farber, Jay P; Linderoth, Bengt; Foreman, Robert D

    2007-07-01

    Objective.  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on peripheral circulation in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Materials and Methods.  Four weeks after streptozotocin or vehicle was injected (i.p.) in male Sprague-Dawley rats, SCS-induced vasodilation was examined. Results.  Plasma glucose concentration was significantly higher in diabetic rats than in the control animals. Motor threshold (MT) was significantly higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. SCS-induced vasodilation was attenuated at 90% of the MT, but not at 30% and 60% of MT in diabetic rats when compared to control rats (p < 0.001, N = 13). Furthermore, increasing SCS from 30% to 90% of MT typically produced a progressive increase in blood flow in control rats but not in diabetic rats (p < 0.01, N = 13). Conclusion.  This study suggested that SCS-induced vasodilation improves peripheral blood flow, although the pathways were partially impaired in the diabetic condition.

  1. Gene expression profiling of circulating tumor cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hensler, Michal; Vančurová, Irena; Becht, Etienne; Palata, Ondřej; Strnad, Pavel; Tesařová, Petra; Čabiňaková, Michaela; Švec, David; Kubista, Mikael; Bartůňková, Jiřina; Špíšek, Radek; Sojka, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that are released from a tumor into the bloodstream. The presence of CTCs in peripheral blood has been associated with metastasis formation in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, the molecular characterization of CTCs may improve diagnostics and support treatment decisions. We performed gene expression profiling to evaluate the enriched CTCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of breast cancer patients using an expression panel of 55 breast cancer-associated genes. The study revealed several significantly differentially expressed genes in the CTC-positive samples, including a few that were exclusively expressed in these cells. However, the expression of these genes was barely detectable in the PBMC samples. Some genes were differentially expressed in PBMCs, and the expression of these genes was correlated with tumor grade and the formation of metastasis. In this study, we have shown that the enriched CTCs of breast cancer patients overexpress genes involved in proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as genes that play important roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process that may occur in these cells. PMID:27141386

  2. A ruptured aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the extracranial vertebral artery to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with bilateral vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chonan, Masashi; Nishimura, Shinjitu; Kimura, Naoto; Ezura, Masayuki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2014-02-01

    We report an extremely rare case of a small ruptured aneurysm of the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the vertebral artery (VA) to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA); this aneurysm was associated with bilateral VA occlusion. A 72-year-old woman with sudden headache, nausea, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was admitted to our hospital. On admission, no evidence of cerebral signs or cranial nerve palsy was found. Computed tomography imaging showed SAH predominantly in the posterior fossa, and digital subtraction angiography revealed bilateral VA occlusion and the left VA aneurysm located proximal to the VA union. In addition, a small aneurysm was observed at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation located between the extracranial left VA and the left PICA. The patient underwent radical surgery on the day of the onset of the symptoms associated with SAH. However, the VA aneurysm was unruptured and surgically trapped. The small aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation was ruptured during the surgery and was electrocoagulated; the collateral circulation was preserved, and no neurologic deficits were observed. The postoperative course was uneventful. SAH with the occlusion of major vessels should be diagnosed with utmost caution to allow preoperative neurologic and radiological assessments.

  3. The Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease after Parathyroidectomy in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The changes of the risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with end-stage renal disease after parathyroidectomy are scant. Methods We used a nationwide health insurance claims database to select all dialysis-dependent patients with end-stage renal disease aged 18 years and older for the study population in 2000 to 2006. Of the patients with end-stage renal disease, we selected 947 patients who had undergone parathyroidectomy as the parathyroidectomy group and frequency matched 3746 patients with end-stage renal disease by sex, age, years since the disease diagnosis, and the year of index date as the non-parathyroidectomy group. We used a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with the use of a robust sandwich covariance matrix estimate, accounting for the intra-cluster dependence of hospitals or clinics, to measure the risk of peripheral arterial disease for the parathyroidectomy group compared with the non-parathyroidectomy group after adjusting for sex, age, premium-based income, urbanization, and comorbidity. Results The mean post-op follow-up periods were 5.08 and 4.52 years for the parathyroidectomy and non-parathyroidectomy groups, respectively; the incidence density rate of PAD in the PTX group was 12.26 per 1000 person-years, significantly lower than the data in the non-PTX group (24.09 per 1000 person-years, adjusted HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.94). Conclusion Parathyroidectomy is associated with reduced risk of peripheral arterial disease in patients with end-stage renal disease complicated with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:27284924

  4. Detecting lower extremity vascular dynamics in patients with peripheral artery disease using diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Michael A.; Kim, Hyun-Keol K.; Kim, In-Kyong; Dayal, Rajeev; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2011-02-01

    Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) affects over 10 million Americans and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While in many cases the ankle-brachial index (ABI) can be used for diagnosing the disease, this parameter is not dependable in the diabetic and elderly population. These populations tend to have calcified arteries, which leads to elevated ABI values. Dynamic optical tomography (DDOT) promises to overcome the limitations of the current diagnostic techniques and has the potential to initiate a paradigm shift in the diagnosis of vascular disease. We have performed initial pilot studies involving 5 PAD patients and 3 healthy volunteers. The time traces and tomographic reconstruction obtained from measurements on the feet show significant differences between healthy and affected vasculatures. In addition, we found that DOT is capable of identifying PAD in diabetic patients, who are misdiagnosed by the traditional ABI screening.

  5. The Toll of Vascular Insufficiency: Implications for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Sachdev, Ulka

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) can result in limb loss within six months of diagnosis in a subset of patients who cannot undergo endovascular or surgical revascularization yet continues to maintain a marginal position in cardiovascular research. While a body of literature continues to grow describing the role of danger signaling and innate immunity in cardiac biology, the role of these pathways in the ischemic myopathy associated with PAD has not been extensively studied. The following report will review the current literature on the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in cardiovascular biology as well as in nonischemic myopathy. While attenuation of TLR signaling has not been shown to be clinically useful in the treatment of infectious inflammation, it may show promise in the management of severe arterial insufficiency. PMID:26998496

  6. Nitinol Stent Fatigue in a Peripheral Human Artery Subjected to Pulsatile and Articulation Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Sean Michael

    2011-07-01

    Nitinol self-expanding stents are used to treat peripheral occluded vessels such as the superficial femoral artery or the carotid. The complex vessel articulation requires a stent device that is flexible and kink resistant yet durable. The present study shows how the latest advances in commercially available engineering software tools permit engineering simulations of the many aspects of the Nitinol stent design and analysis. Two stent geometries are evaluated: a helical type stent design, and a more traditional straight strut, with multiple crowns design. The fatigue performance of the two stents is compared. The results show that advanced nonlinear finite element simulations and fatigue predictions of the Nitinol stent are possible today inside realistic simulated human arteries. The finite element analysis software used in this study is SimXpert, Marc, and Mentat (MSC Software, Santa Ana, CA).

  7. Effects of peripheral dynamic movements on the lower-limb circulation assessed by thermography: three one-group studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaerki, Anne; Laehdeniemi, Matti

    2002-03-01

    Peripheral dynamic movements are used as part of postoperative protocols and for preventing vascular complications during bed rest. The effects of peripheral movements have not been studied. The purposes of these studies were to explain the effects of peripheral dynamic movements on lower limb circulation. The aim was also to explain how other factors like sex, age, BMI, medication, smoking, sports activity etc. affect the circulation. Healthy young subjects (N=19), healthy elderly subjects (N=19) and diabetic subjects (N=21) participated in the studies between 1997 and 1999. The study design was the same in each study. Infrared technology and image processing belong to our focus fields of applied research and IR is widely used in our real time industrial applications including also ongoing research of new possibilities. This paper presents the results of our newest application of IR thermography, where it was used to measure the skin temperature over the soleus muscle during and after dynamic ankle movements. The results showed that the skin temperature increased further during the recovery period after movements, and temperature was highest after 3- 5 minutes. Diabetic male subjects were the only subgroup that had immediate decrease during recovery period. The studies showed that smoking had a negative effect on circulation. BMI had also negative correlation (-0,356), showing that subjects with higher BMI had less increase. The results proved that peripheral movements were effective for increasing circulation in the soleus muscle and the effect was still seen after 15 minutes.

  8. Peripheral arterial disease and digital gangrene: a rare presentation of diabetic hand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Santokh; Chand, Gian; Charan, Shiv; Arora, Sahil; Singh, Parampreet

    2013-10-01

    Digital gangrene in upper limbs may be due to systemic sclerosis, trauma, connective tissue disorders, vasculitic disorders and various myeloproliferative disorders or as a part of tropical diabetes hand syndrome which follows trauma. Peripheral arterial disease in diabetics commonly involves lower limbs. The present case, 45-year-old diabetic, presented with dry gangrene in fingertips of both hands for last two weeks without any history of trauma or lower limb gangrene. On examination and workup of the patient was found to have bilateral upper limb arterio-occlusive disease involving ulnar vessels as a macrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus. This presentation of diabetic hand syndrome is very, very rare, hence being reported.

  9. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Circulation Disorder in Scleroderma Patients Using an Optical Sensor with a Pressurization Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Blood circulation function of peripheral blood vessels in skin dermis was evaluated employing an optical sensor with a pressurization mechanism using the blood outflow and reflow characteristics. The device contains a light source and an optical sensor. When applied to the skin surface, it first exerts the primary pressure (higher than the systolic blood pressure), causing an outflow of blood from the dermal peripheral blood vessels. After two heartbeats, the pressure is lowered (secondary pressure) and blood reflows into the peripheral blood vessels. Hemoglobin concentration, which changes during blood outflow and reflow, is derived from the received light intensity using the Beer-Lambert law. This method was evaluated in 26 healthy female volunteers and 26 female scleroderma patients. In order to evaluate the blood circulation function of the peripheral blood vessels of scleroderma patients, pressurization sequence which consists of primary pressure followed by secondary pressure was adopted. Blood reflow during the first heartbeat period after applying the secondary pressure of 40mmHg was (mean±SD) 0.059±0.05%mm for scleroderma patients and 0.173±0.104%mm for healthy volunteers. Blood reflow was significantly lower in scleroderma patients than in healthy volunteers (p<0.05). This result indicates that the information necessary for assessing blood circulation disorder of peripheral blood vessels in scleroderma patients is objectively obtained by the proposed method. PMID:27479094

  10. Hidden Plasmodium falciparum parasites in human infections: different genotype distribution in the peripheral circulation and in the placenta.

    PubMed

    Schleiermacher, Dietlind; Le Hesran, Jean-Yves; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Perraut, Ronald; Gaye, Alioune; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2002-12-01

    Sequestration of the mature Plasmodium falciparum forms complicates detection, quantification and molecular analysis of human infections. Whether the circulating parasites represent all or only a subset of co-infecting genotypes is unclear. We have investigated this issue and compared placenta and peripheral blood msp1 and msp2 genotypes in 58 women delivering with an ICT-positive placenta in Guediawaye, Senegal. Most placenta (91%) and blood samples (98%) were multiply infected. Multiplicity of infection was positively correlated in both tissues. However, the placental and circulating genotype profiles differed markedly. Only 10% of matched peripheral blood/placenta samples had identical genotypes, whereas 74% had only partially concordant genotypes, with some alleles detected in both tissues, together with additional allele(s) detected in one tissue only. Eight women (14%) had totally discordant placental and peripheral blood genotypes. Thus, in the vast majority of cases, some sequestered genotypes remain hidden, undetected in the peripheral circulation, indicating that analysis of peripheral parasites generates a partial picture of a P. falciparum infection.

  11. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Circulation Disorder in Scleroderma Patients Using an Optical Sensor with a Pressurization Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Blood circulation function of peripheral blood vessels in skin dermis was evaluated employing an optical sensor with a pressurization mechanism using the blood outflow and reflow characteristics. The device contains a light source and an optical sensor. When applied to the skin surface, it first exerts the primary pressure (higher than the systolic blood pressure), causing an outflow of blood from the dermal peripheral blood vessels. After two heartbeats, the pressure is lowered (secondary pressure) and blood reflows into the peripheral blood vessels. Hemoglobin concentration, which changes during blood outflow and reflow, is derived from the received light intensity using the Beer–Lambert law. This method was evaluated in 26 healthy female volunteers and 26 female scleroderma patients. In order to evaluate the blood circulation function of the peripheral blood vessels of scleroderma patients, pressurization sequence which consists of primary pressure followed by secondary pressure was adopted. Blood reflow during the first heartbeat period after applying the secondary pressure of 40mmHg was (mean±SD) 0.059±0.05%mm for scleroderma patients and 0.173±0.104%mm for healthy volunteers. Blood reflow was significantly lower in scleroderma patients than in healthy volunteers (p<0.05). This result indicates that the information necessary for assessing blood circulation disorder of peripheral blood vessels in scleroderma patients is objectively obtained by the proposed method. PMID:27479094

  12. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Circulation Disorder in Scleroderma Patients Using an Optical Sensor with a Pressurization Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Blood circulation function of peripheral blood vessels in skin dermis was evaluated employing an optical sensor with a pressurization mechanism using the blood outflow and reflow characteristics. The device contains a light source and an optical sensor. When applied to the skin surface, it first exerts the primary pressure (higher than the systolic blood pressure), causing an outflow of blood from the dermal peripheral blood vessels. After two heartbeats, the pressure is lowered (secondary pressure) and blood reflows into the peripheral blood vessels. Hemoglobin concentration, which changes during blood outflow and reflow, is derived from the received light intensity using the Beer-Lambert law. This method was evaluated in 26 healthy female volunteers and 26 female scleroderma patients. In order to evaluate the blood circulation function of the peripheral blood vessels of scleroderma patients, pressurization sequence which consists of primary pressure followed by secondary pressure was adopted. Blood reflow during the first heartbeat period after applying the secondary pressure of 40mmHg was (mean±SD) 0.059±0.05%mm for scleroderma patients and 0.173±0.104%mm for healthy volunteers. Blood reflow was significantly lower in scleroderma patients than in healthy volunteers (p<0.05). This result indicates that the information necessary for assessing blood circulation disorder of peripheral blood vessels in scleroderma patients is objectively obtained by the proposed method.

  13. Peripheral artery disease in korean patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: prevalence and association with coronary artery disease severity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Song, Pil Sang; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Kyung Pyo; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Duk-kyung; Choi, Seung-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an important marker for the risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the prevalence of PAD in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with CAD and the relationship between ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and CAD severity. A total of 711 patients undergoing PCI for CAD from August 2009 to August 2011 were enrolled. PAD diagnosis was made using the ABPI. The prevalence of PAD was 12.8%. In PAD patients, mean values of right and left ABPI were 0.71 ± 0.15 and 0.73 ± 0.15. Patients with PAD had a higher prevalence of left main coronary disease (14.3% vs 5.8%, P = 0.003), more frequently had multivessel lesions (74.9% vs 52.1%, P < 0.001) and had higher SYNTAX score (18.2 ± 12.3 vs 13.1 ± 8.26, P = 0.002). Using multivariate analysis, we determined that left main CAD (OR, 2.954; 95% CI, 1.418-6.152, P = 0.004) and multivessel CAD (OR, 2.321; 95% CI, 1.363-3.953, P = 0.002) were both independently associated with PAD. We recommend that ABPI-based PAD screening should be implemented in all patients undergoing PCI with CAD, especially in severe cases. PMID:23341717

  14. Obesity-related pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats correlates with increased circulating inflammatory cytokines and lipids and with oxidant damage in the arterial wall but not with hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, David C.; Garat, Chrystelle V.; Crossno, Joseph T.; MacLean, Paul S.; Sullivan, Timothy M.; Erickson, Paul F.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Harral, Julie W.; Reusch, Jane E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is causally linked to a number of comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal dysfunction, and cancer. Obesity has also been linked to pulmonary disorders, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It was long believed that obesity-related PAH was the result of hypoventilation and hypoxia due to the increased mechanical load of excess body fat. However, in recent years it has been proposed that the metabolic and inflammatory disturbances of obesity may also play a role in the development of PAH. To determine whether PAH develops in obese rats in the absence of hypoxia, we assessed pulmonary hemodynamics and pulmonary artery (PA) structure in the diet-resistant/diet-induced obesity (DR/DIO) and Zucker lean/fatty rat models. We found that high-fat feeding (DR/DIO) or overfeeding (Zucker) elicited PA remodeling, neomuscularization of distal arterioles, and elevated PA pressure, accompanied by right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy. PA thickening and distal neomuscularization were also observed in DIO rats on a low-fat diet. No evidence of hypoventilation or chronic hypoxia was detected in either model, nor was there a correlation between blood glucose or insulin levels and PAH. However, circulating inflammatory cytokine levels were increased with high-fat feeding or calorie overload, and hyperlipidemia and oxidant damage in the PA wall correlated with PAH in the DR/DIO model. We conclude that hyperlipidemia and peripheral inflammation correlate with the development of PAH in obese subjects. Obesity-related inflammation may predispose to PAH even in the absence of hypoxia. PMID:25610600

  15. Immunological parameters, including CXCL8 (IL-8) characterize cerebro- and cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery diseases.

    PubMed

    Szomjak, E; Der, H; Kerekes, G; Veres, K; Csiba, L; Toth, J; Peter, M; Soltesz, P; Szodoray, P

    2010-04-01

    The most commonly occurring atherosclerotic manifestations are peripheral artery diseases (PAD). Immune-mediated processes contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, and affect the diseases outcome. The aim of the present study was to assess various immune-competent cells, cytokines and chemokines in patients with PAD and to evaluate whether the base immunological values reflect the subsequent development of cardio/cerebrovascular symptoms. One hundred sixty patients with PAD were followed-up for 42 months. At the time of enrolment, we determined blood lymphocyte subpopulations, both T-helper (Th)1/Th2-type intracytoplasmic cytokines and soluble cytokines, chemokines. Intracellular cytokines were measured on phorbol-myristate-acetate- and ionomycine- stimulated cells. Lymphocyte subgroups were quantified by flow cytometry, soluble cytokines by ELISA and intracellular cytokine levels were measured by flow cytometry. The ankle-brachial index (ABI), indicator of atherosclerosis, was also evaluated. The clinical results were correlated with the immune-parameters to assess the input of immune-inflammatory events in the propagation of vascular manifestation. CD4(+) T-cell proportions in patients with PAD with cerebro- cardio-vascular manifestations were decreased, which further reduced in patients with fatal outcome. Of circulating chemokines, IL-8 (CXCL-8) was increased in patients with subsequent cerebro- cardio-vascular manifestations, compared to those without the symptoms, and further raised in patients with fatal outcome. The percentage of interferon (IFN)-gamma positive cells showed clear negative correlation with ABI. We conclude that altered peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cytokine/chemokine imbalance play important roles in the proinflammatory cascade and reflect disease severity in patients with PAD.

  16. 2D Rotational Angiography for Fast and Standardized Evaluation of Peripheral and Visceral Artery Stenoses

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Marcus Opitz, Armin; Minko, Peter; Massmann, Alexander; Berlich, Joachim; Buecker, Arno

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of rotational digital subtraction angiography (rDSA) for evaluation of peripheral and visceral artery stenoses compared to conventional digital subtraction angiography (cDSA). Methods: A phantom study was performed comparing the radiation dose of cDSA with two projections and rDSA by means of the 2D Dynavision technique (Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany). Subsequently, 33 consecutive patients (18 women, 15 men; mean {+-} SD age 67 {+-} 15 years) were examined by both techniques. In total, 63 vessel segments were analyzed by two observers with respect to stenoses, image contrast, and vessel sharpness. Results: Radiation dose was significantly lower with rDSA. cDSA and rDSA revealed 21 and 24 flow-relevant stenotic lesions and vessel occlusions (70-100%), respectively. The same stenosis grade was assessed in 45 segments. By means of rDSA, 10 lesions were judged to have a higher and 8 lesions a lower stenosis grade compared to cDSA. rDSA yielded additive information regarding the vessel anatomy and pathology in 29 segments. However, a tendency toward better image quality and sharper vessel visualization was seen with cDSA. Conclusion: rDSA allows for multiprojection assessment of peripheral and visceral arteries and provides additional clinically relevant information after a single bolus of contrast medium. At the same time, radiation dose can be significantly reduced compared to cDSA.

  17. Drug delivering technology for endovascular management of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Karan; Spelber, David A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Mohammad, Atif; Prasad, Anand; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Banerjee, Subhash

    2014-08-01

    Endovascular intervention has become a well-recognized treatment modality for peripheral artery disease; however, mid- and long-term outcomes have been plagued by limited durability. Plain balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stents have historically suffered from high restenosis rates leading to the need for frequent repeat revascularization procedures. The innovation of locally administered, drug-delivering balloons and stents has been a direct result of technological innovations directed toward prevention and treatment of this limitation. Over the last 5 years, numerous clinical trials investigating the use of drug-coated stents and drug-coated balloons indicate a significant improvement in endovascular treatment durability and outcomes. This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the current evidence for the use of drug-coated stents and drug-coated balloons in the treatment of femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal peripheral artery disease. Additionally, it provides an overview of the development of this technology, highlights landmark ongoing and completed clinical trials, examines evidence to support the use of drug-coated technologies in combination with other modalities, and examines promising new technological developments. Last, it summarizes the challenges and safety concerns that have delayed U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of these devices.

  18. A Clinical Decision Support System for Femoral Peripheral Arterial Disease Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yurtkuran, Alkın; Tok, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges of providing reliable healthcare services is to diagnose and treat diseases in an accurate and timely manner. Recently, many researchers have successfully used artificial neural networks as a diagnostic assessment tool. In this study, the validation of such an assessment tool has been developed for treatment of the femoral peripheral arterial disease using a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN). A data set for training the RBFNN has been prepared by analyzing records of patients who had been treated by the thoracic and cardiovascular surgery clinic of a university hospital. The data set includes 186 patient records having 16 characteristic features associated with a binary treatment decision, namely, being a medical or a surgical one. K-means clustering algorithm has been used to determine the parameters of radial basis functions and the number of hidden nodes of the RBFNN is determined experimentally. For performance evaluation, the proposed RBFNN was compared to three different multilayer perceptron models having Pareto optimal hidden layer combinations using various performance indicators. Results of comparison indicate that the RBFNN can be used as an effective assessment tool for femoral peripheral arterial disease treatment. PMID:24382983

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Nigerians with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ikem, R. T.; Oluwadiya, K. S.; Bolarinwa, R. A.; Adebayo, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a major risk factor for nonhealing foot ulcers in people with diabetes. A number of traditional risk factors have been reported to be associated with PAD; however, there may be a need to consider nontraditional risk factors especially in some vulnerable populations. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with PAD in diabetics. Methods. One hundred and fifty type 2 diabetics and an equal number of age- and sex-matched apparently healthy controls were studied. Assessment of PAD was made using history, palpation of lower limb vessels, and measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI). Statistically significant differences between categorical and continuous variables were determined using Chi square (χ2) and Student t-tests, respectively. Regression analysis was done to determine the associated risk factors for PAD. Results. Prevalence of PAD using ABI was 22.0% and 8.0% among diabetic and nondiabetic populations, respectively. Peripheral arterial disease was associated with age, male gender, waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusion. This study highlights the high prevalence of PAD in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in apparently healthy controls; age, male gender, abdominal obesity, and high hs-CRP values were the associated risk factors. PMID:27800544

  20. Angiographic circulation time and cerebral blood flow during balloon test occlusion of the internal carotid artery

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kenichi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Inoue, Takashi; Fujimura, Miki; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Kondo, Ryushi; Endo, Hidenori; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Teiji

    2014-01-01

    Angiography-based balloon test occlusion (BTO) has been empirically used to predict tolerance to permanent carotid artery occlusion. We tested the hypothesis that the laterality of the hemispheric circulation time (HCT) of the contrast medium at cerebral angiography would reflect bilateral asymmetry of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) during BTO. Thirty-one consecutive patients who underwent BTO of the internal carotid artery were retrospectively analyzed. HCT was defined as the interval between the time-to-peak in the middle cerebral artery and the cortical veins calculated using time-density curve. The difference in HCT between the occluded and nonoccluded side was calculated at the carotid or dominant vertebral angiograms obtained during BTO. We estimated the correlation between the difference in HCT and bilateral asymmetry of the CBF, which was quantitatively determined by single-photon emission computed tomography. The HCT was 5.3±1.5 seconds and regional CBF was 41.3±11.3 mL/100 g per minute in the occluded side, compared with 3.6±0.9 seconds and 48.4±14.9 mL/100 g per minute in the nonoccluded side, respectively. The difference in HCT was strongly correlated with the asymmetry ratio of the CBF (r2=0.89, P<0.0001). Angiographically based measurement of the cerebral circulation time can provide valuable information concerning cerebral hemodynamics. PMID:24103905

  1. Autonomic control of the cerebral circulation during normal and impaired peripheral circulatory control

    PubMed Central

    Cencetti, S; Lagi, A; Cipriani, M; Fattorini, L; Bandinelli, G; Bernardi, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether oscillations in the cerebrovascular circulation undergo autonomic modulation in the same way as cardiovascular oscillations.
DESIGN—Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular oscillations were monitored at rest and during sympathetic stimulation (head up tilt). The association with and transmission of the oscillations in the sympathetic (low frequency, LF) and respiratory (high frequency, HF) bands was assessed.
SUBJECTS—13 healthy volunteers, 10 subjects with vasovagal syncope, and 12 patients with complicated non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Power spectrum analysis of cerebral blood flow velocity, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate. Coherence analysis was used to study the association between each pair of oscillations. Phase analysis showed the delay of the oscillations in the cardiovascular signals with respect to the cerebrovascular signals.
RESULTS—The power in the sympathetic (LF) components in all the oscillations increased during head up tilt (p < 0.01) in the controls and in the subjects with vasovagal syncope, but not in patients with diabetes. Significant coherence (> 0.5) in the LF band was present between cerebrovascular and cardiovascular oscillations in most of the controls and in subjects with vasovagal syncope, but not in the diabetic patients (< 50% of the patients). In the LF band, cerebrovascular oscillations preceded the cardiovascular oscillations (p < 0.05) at rest in all groups: the phase shifts were reduced (p < 0.05) during head up tilt for all cardiovascular signals in healthy and syncopal subjects, but only for heart rate in diabetic patients.
CONCLUSIONS—The cerebrovascular resistance vessels are subject to autonomic modulation; low frequency oscillations in cerebral blood flow velocity precede the resulting fluctuations in other cardiovascular signals. Autonomic neuropathy and microvascular stiffness in diabetic patients reduces this modulation

  2. The Role of Coagulation and Inflammation After Angioplasty in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlgren, C.M. Sten-Linder, M.; Egberg, N.; Kalin, B.; Blohme, L.; Swedenborg, J.

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. Restenosis remains a frequent complication after angioplasty in peripheral arterial disease. Inflammation plays a critical role in the vascular response to injury. Effective medical treatment to improve patency after angioplasty is still elusive. The aims of this prospective clinical study were to investigate changes in blood coagulation and inflammatory markers after angioplasty and their significance for restenosis. Methods. Thirty-four patients with peripheral arterial disease underwent angioplasty of the iliac and superficial femoral arteries. Ten patients undergoing diagnostic angiography were included in the study as controls. Plasma levels of tissue factor, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, D-dimer, P-selectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen were analyzed before and after angioplasty. Patients were followed up with angiography after 6 months to assess restenosis. Results. CRP was elevated the day after angioplasty (6.6 mg/l, p = 0.0001) and tended to peak after 1 week (11 mg/l, p = 0.09). There was a significant increase of D-dimer and P-selectin 1-4 hr after angioplasty (0.4 mg/l, p = 0.001 and 68 ng/ml, p = 0.05, respectively). None of the biochemical markers was a statistically significant predictor of restenosis. Conclusion. We have observed a much more prolonged inflammatory response than previously noted, but only minor changes in coagulation activity after angioplasty. The biochemical markers, before and after angioplasty, were not related to restenosis. Further studies are needed to delineate the molecular mechanisms behind these observations and their involvement in thrombosis and restenosis. If these pathways are further defined, improved treatment strategies, including antithrombotic treatments and statins, could be tailored to modulate postprocedural inflammation.

  3. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Rabia, K; Khoo, E M

    2007-06-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in diabetic patients and in different ethnic groups at a primary care setting, and to evaluate risk factors associated with PAD in these diabetic patients. A cross sectional study of 200 diabetic patients over 18 years old who attended a primary care clinic at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was carried out. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using structured questionnaires for demographic characteristics and risk factors evaluation. Blood pressure measurements, assessment of peripheral neuropathy and ankle brachial pressures were performed. PAD was diagnosed by an ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) of <0.9 on either leg. The overall prevalence of PAD was 16% in this diabetic population. The prevalence of PAD was 5.8% in Malays, 19.4% in Chinese and 19.8% in Indians. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was 41%, foot ulcer 9.5%, and gangrene 3.0%. The presence of foot ulcer was weakly associated with PAD (P=0.052). No significant relationships were found between age, gender, smoking status, duration of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and PAD. PAD is common in the diabetic population of this study. PMID:18705445

  4. [Clinical peculiarities of atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries in patients with abdominal aortic calcification].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikov, M V; Zelinskiĭ, V A

    2016-01-01

    The authors analysed clinical peculiarities of atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries (hereinafter referred to as APA) in patients presenting with abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). In order to determine the incidence rate of AAC in the population of patients with APA we analysed medical records of a total of 1,800 patients. The study itself included a total of 193 patients with APA further subdivided into two groups: 108 patients with AAC (Study Group) and 85 patients without AAC. Beside general clinical examination all patients were subjected to transthoracic echocardiography, duplex scanning of the aorta and lower-limb arteries, extended lipidogram and coagulogram. AAC was verified by means of computed tomography. It was determined that in one third of cases AAC was combined with abdominal aortic calcification, with APA on the background of AAC having certain peculiarities, i.e., high incidence of multisegmental lesions (68%) with predominant localization of the process in the aortoiliac and femoropopliteal segments (43%); frequent involvement of the terminal portion of the aorta and pelvic arteries. Patients with AAC also were noted to have a series of peculiarities in the indices of lipid metabolism, as well as signs of procoagulant syndrome and alterations of the structural and functional characteristics of the myocardium. It was stated that peculiarities of APA on the background of AAC should be taken into consideration while working out the program of diagnosis, treatment (including surgical), and rehabilitation of patients. PMID:27626248

  5. Mechanisms of decompensation and organ failure in cirrhosis: From peripheral arterial vasodilation to systemic inflammation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Mauro; Moreau, Richard; Angeli, Paolo; Schnabl, Bernd; Arroyo, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis has been most influential in the field of cirrhosis and its complications. It has given rise to hundreds of pathophysiological studies in experimental and human cirrhosis and is the theoretical basis of life-saving treatments. It is undisputed that splanchnic arterial vasodilation contributes to portal hypertension and is the basis for manifestations such as ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, but the body of research generated by the hypothesis has revealed gaps in the original pathophysiological interpretation of these complications. The expansion of our knowledge on the mechanisms regulating vascular tone, inflammation and the host-microbiota interaction require a broader approach to advanced cirrhosis encompassing the whole spectrum of its manifestations. Indeed, multiorgan dysfunction and failure likely result from a complex interplay where the systemic spread of bacterial products represents the primary event. The consequent activation of the host innate immune response triggers endothelial molecular mechanisms responsible for arterial vasodilation, and also jeopardizes organ integrity with a storm of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, the picture of advanced cirrhosis could be seen as the result of an inflammatory syndrome in contradiction with a simple hemodynamic disturbance. PMID:26192220

  6. Intravascular ultrasound imaging of peripheral arteries as an adjunct to balloon angioplasty and atherectomy.

    PubMed

    Korogi, Y; Hirai, T; Takahashi, M

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews many of the applications of intravascular ultrasound (US) imaging for peripheral arterial diseases. In vitro studies demonstrate an excellent correlation between ultrasound measurements of lumen and plaque cross-sectional area compared with histologic sections. In vivo clinical studies reveal the enhanced diagnostic capabilities of this technology compared with angiography. Intravascular US imaging can provide valuable information on the degree, eccentricity, and histologic type of stenosis before intervention, and on the morphological changes in the arterial wall and the extent of excision after intervention. Intravascular US may also serve as a superior index for gauging the diameter of balloon, stent, laser probe, and/or atherectomy catheter appropriate for a proposed intervention. Significant new insights into the mechanisms of balloon angioplasty and atherectomy have been established by intravascular US findings. Intravascular US imaging has been shown to be a more accurate method than angiography for determining the cross-sectional area of the arterial lumen, and for assessing severity of stenosis. Quantitative assessment of the luminal cross-sectional area after the balloon dilatation should be more accurate than angiography as intimal tears or dissections produced by the dilatation may not be accurately evaluated with angiography. At the present time, intravascular US is still a controversial imaging technique. Outcome studies are currently being organized to assess the clinical value and cost effectiveness of intravascular ultrasound in the context of these interventional procedures. PMID:8653738

  7. [Peripheral artery disease in patients younger than 50 years old: Which etiology?].

    PubMed

    Cotard, S; Nouni, A; Jaquinandi, V; Gladu, G; Kaladji, A; Mahé, G

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) encompasses disease of all arteries of the body except the coronary arteries. The main etiology whatever the patient's age is atherosclerosis. Different etiologies can induce PAD especially when patients are younger than 50 years old and have no cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, diabetes…). PAD that appears before 50 years old can be named juvenile PAD (JPAD) although there is no consensus about the definition. The aim of this work is to present the different etiologies of JPAD according to their hereditary, acquired or mixed origins. The following hereditary causes are addressed: Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, homocystinuria, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, osteogenesis imperfecta "mid-aortic" syndrome. Among the acquired etiologies, inflammatory JPADs without extravascular signs such as atherosclerosis and Buerger's disease, inflammatory JPADs with extravascular signs as Takayasu's disease, Behçet's disease and Cogan's syndrome, JPADs like aortitis, embolic JPADs, iatrogenic JPADs, and mechanical or traumatic JPADs are described. Finally, mixed origins as thrombotic disease and fibromuscular dysplasia are presented. This work will assist clinicians in the diagnosis of JPAD.

  8. [Peripheral artery disease in patients younger than 50 years old: Which etiology?].

    PubMed

    Cotard, S; Nouni, A; Jaquinandi, V; Gladu, G; Kaladji, A; Mahé, G

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) encompasses disease of all arteries of the body except the coronary arteries. The main etiology whatever the patient's age is atherosclerosis. Different etiologies can induce PAD especially when patients are younger than 50 years old and have no cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, diabetes…). PAD that appears before 50 years old can be named juvenile PAD (JPAD) although there is no consensus about the definition. The aim of this work is to present the different etiologies of JPAD according to their hereditary, acquired or mixed origins. The following hereditary causes are addressed: Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, homocystinuria, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, osteogenesis imperfecta "mid-aortic" syndrome. Among the acquired etiologies, inflammatory JPADs without extravascular signs such as atherosclerosis and Buerger's disease, inflammatory JPADs with extravascular signs as Takayasu's disease, Behçet's disease and Cogan's syndrome, JPADs like aortitis, embolic JPADs, iatrogenic JPADs, and mechanical or traumatic JPADs are described. Finally, mixed origins as thrombotic disease and fibromuscular dysplasia are presented. This work will assist clinicians in the diagnosis of JPAD. PMID:27319272

  9. Regional differences in peripheral circulation between upper and lower extremity in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Okumura, H; Aramaki, T; Katsuta, Y; Terada, H; Satomura, K; Akaike, M; Sekiyama, T

    1990-09-01

    In 42 patients with compensated cirrhosis and 31 control subjects, blood flow (BF) and vascular resistance (VR) were measured at the forearm and calf, using a pneumoplethysmograph. In some of the subjects deep-body temperature (DBT) was also measured by the zero heat flow method. In cirrhosis, BF and DBT were significantly higher and VR was significantly lower in the forearm than in the calf. Corresponding differences were not observed in control subjects. When these indices of the forearm were compared between cirrhosis and controls, BF and DBT were significantly higher and VR was significantly lower in cirrhosis than in controls. In cirrhotics in whom the gradient between forearm BF and calf BF was 1 ml.dl-1.min-1 or more (forearm greater than calf), the vascular response of the forearm to cold stimulation was reduced, whereas in the remaining patients and in controls the forearm BF and VR responded significantly. These results suggest that there is a regional difference in peripheral circulation in cirrhotics, partly with participation of impaired sympathetic nervous activity, which may account for the selective distribution observed in the clinical manifestations of vascular spider, palmar erythema, and warm hand, inclined toward the upper extremities or the upper part of the body.

  10. Circulating microRNAs correlated with the level of coronary artery calcification in symptomatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Ling, Shukuan; Sun, Weijia; Liu, Tong; Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Zhao, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Jin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Zi; Song, Hailin; Li, Qi; Liu, Shujuan; Chai, Meng; Dai, Qinyi; He, Yi; Fan, Zhanming; Zhou, Yu Jie; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) co-related with the severity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), and testify whether the selected miRNAs could reflect the obstructive coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients. Patients with chest pain and moderated risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) were characterized with coronary artery calcium score (CACS) from cardiac computed tomography (CT). We analyzed plasma miRNA levels of clinical matched 11 CAC (CACS > 100) and 6 non-CAC (CACS = 0) subjects by microarray profile. Microarray analysis identified 34 differentially expressed miRNAs between CAC and non CAC groups. Eight miRNAs (miR-223, miR-3135b, miR-133a-3p, miR-2861, miR-134, miR-191-3p, miR-3679-5p, miR-1229 in CAC patients) were significantly increased in CAC plasma in an independent clinical matched cohort. Four miRNAs (miR-2861, 134, 1229 and 3135b) were correlated with the degree of CAC. Validation test in angiographic cohort showed that miR-134, miR-3135b and miR-2861 were significantly changed in patients with obstructive CAD . We identified three significantly upregulated circulating miRNAs (miR-134, miR-3135b and 2861) correlated with CAC while detected obstructive coronary disease in symptomatic patients. PMID:26537670

  11. Paclitaxel Drug-Eluting Stents in Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease is a condition in which atherosclerotic plaques partially or completely block blood flow to the legs. Although percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and metallic stenting have high immediate success rates in treating peripheral arterial disease, long-term patency and restenosis rates in long and complex lesions remain unsatisfactory. Objective The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness and budget impact of Zilver paclitaxel self-expanding drug-eluting stents for the treatment of de novo or restenotic lesions in above-the-knee peripheral arterial disease. Data Sources Literature searches were performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews. For the economic review, a search filter was applied to limit search results to economics-related literature. Data sources for the budget impact analysis included expert opinion, published literature, and Ontario administrative data. Review Methods Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies were included in the clinical effectiveness review, and full economic evaluations were included in the economic literature review. Studies were included if they examined the effect of Zilver paclitaxel drug-eluting stents in de novo or restenotic lesions in above-the-knee arteries. For the budget impact analysis, 3 scenarios were constructed based on different assumptions. Results One randomized controlled trial reported a significantly higher patency rate with Zilver paclitaxel drug-eluting stents for lesions ≤ 14 cm than with angioplasty or bare metal stents. One observational study showed no difference in patency rates between Zilver paclitaxel drug-eluting stents and paclitaxel drug-coated balloons. Zilver paclitaxel drug-eluting stents were associated with

  12. Hydration Status Is Associated with Aortic Stiffness, but Not with Peripheral Arterial Stiffness, in Chronically Hemodialysed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bia, Daniel; Galli, Cintia; Valtuille, Rodolfo; Zócalo, Yanina; Wray, Sandra A.; Armentano, Ricardo L.; Cabrera Fischer, Edmundo I.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adequate fluid management could be essential to minimize high arterial stiffness observed in chronically hemodialyzed patients (CHP). Aim. To determine the association between body fluid status and central and peripheral arterial stiffness levels. Methods. Arterial stiffness was assessed in 65 CHP by measuring the pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a central arterial pathway (carotid-femoral) and in a peripheral pathway (carotid-brachial). A blood pressure-independent regional arterial stiffness index was calculated using PWV. Volume status was assessed by whole-body multiple-frequency bioimpedance. Patients were first observed as an entire group and then divided into three different fluid status-related groups: normal, overhydration, and dehydration groups. Results. Only carotid-femoral stiffness was positively associated (P < 0.05) with the hydration status evaluated through extracellular/intracellular fluid, extracellular/Total Body Fluid, and absolute and relative overhydration. Conclusion. Volume status and overload are associated with central, but not peripheral, arterial stiffness levels with independence of the blood pressure level, in CHP. PMID:26167301

  13. Dual Energy CT Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Disease: Feasibility of Using Lower Contrast Medium Volume

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Abdulrahman; Sun, Zhonghua; Poovathumkadavi, Abduljaleel; Assar, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Objective One of the main drawbacks associated with Dual Energy Computed Tomography Angiography (DECTA) is the risk of developing contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of the present study was firstly, to design an optimal CT imaging protocol by determining the feasibility of using a reduced contrast medium volume in peripheral arterial DECTA, and secondly, to compare the results with those obtained from using routine contrast medium volume. Methods Thirty four patients underwent DECTA for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease. They were randomly divided into two groups: Group 1 (routine contrast volume group) with n = 17, injection rate 4–5 ml/s, and 1.5 ml/kg of contrast medium, and Group 2 ((low contrast volume group), with n = 17, injection rate 4–5ml/s, and contrast medium volume 0.75 ml/kg. A fast kilovoltage—switching 64-slice CT scanner in the dual-energy mode was employed for the study. A total of 6 datasets of monochromatic images at 50, 55, 60, 65, 70 and 75 keV levels were reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at 50%. A 4-point scale was the tool for qualitative analysis of results. The two groups were compared and assessed quantitatively for image quality on the basis of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR). Radiation and contrast medium doses were also compared. Results The overall mean CT attenuation and mean noise for all lower extremity body parts was significantly lower for the low volume contrast group (p<0.001), and varied significantly between groups (p = 0.001), body parts (p<0.001) and keVs (p<0.001). The interaction between group body parts was significant with CT attenuation and CNR (p = 0.002 and 0.003 respectively), and marginally significant with SNR (p = 0.047), with minimal changes noticed between the two groups. Group 2 (low contrast volume group) displayed the lowest image noise between 65 and 70 keV, recorded the highest SNR and CNR at 65 keV, and

  14. An unusual case with vasculo-Behçet's disease: peripheral arterial aneurysm in an elderly woman.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz-Oner, Sibel; Can, Meryem; Ozen, Gulsen; Oz, Buge; Baltacioglu, Feyyaz; Tuzun, Hasan; Direskeneli, Haner

    2014-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, multi-systemic disorder that can affect all sizes of arteries and veins. Vascular involvement of BD is generally observed in young men and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Arterial lesions can appear as aneurysms, stenosis and occlusions in BD. We, here, present the case of a woman who developed a peripheral arterial aneurysm in her sixth decade, 20 years after disease onset. BD patients with aneurysms should be consulted at any age for pre- and post-operative assessment for immunosuppressive treatment to reduce recurrences, complications and disease activation.

  15. An innovative method to measure the peripheral arterial elasticity: spring constant modeling based on the arterial pressure wave with radial vibration.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ching-Chuan

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we propose an innovative method for the direct measurement of the peripheral artery elasticity using a spring constant model, based on the arterial pressure wave equation, vibrating in a radial direction. By means of the boundary condition of the pressure wave equation at the maximum peak, we can derive the spring constant used for evaluating peripheral arterial elasticity. The calculated spring constants of six typical subjects show a coincidence with their proper arterial elasticities. Furthermore, the comparison between the spring constant method and pulse wave velocity (PWV) was investigated in 70 subjects (21-64 years, 47 normotensives and 23 hypertensives). The results reveal a significant negative correlation for the spring constant vs. PWV (correlation coefficient = -0.663, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis also indicates the same close relationship. Furthermore, within-operator and between-operator analyses show significantly high reproducibility. Therefore, the use of the spring constant method to assess the arterial elasticity is carefully verified, and it is shown to be effective as well as fast. This method should be useful for healthcare, not only in improving clinical diagnosis of arterial stiffness but also in screening subjects for early evidence of cardio-vascular diseases and in monitoring responses to therapy in the future.

  16. The Use of Heparin during Endovascular Peripheral Arterial Interventions: A Synopsis.

    PubMed

    Wiersema, Arno M; Watts, Christopher; Durran, Alexandra C; Reijnen, Michel M P J; van Delden, Otto M; Moll, Frans L; Vos, Jan Albert

    2016-01-01

    A large variety exists for many aspects of the use of heparin as periprocedural prophylactic antithrombotics (PPAT) during peripheral arterial interventions (PAI). This variation is present, not only within countries, but also between them. Due to a lack of (robust) data, no systematic review on the use of heparin during PAI could be justified. A synopsis of all available literature on heparin during PAI describes that heparin is used on technical equipment to reduce the thrombogenicity and in the flushing solution with saline. Heparin could have a cumulative anticoagulant effect when used in combination with ionic contrast medium. No level-1 evidence exists on the use of heparin. A measurement of actual anticoagulation status by means of an activated clotting time should be mandatory.

  17. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Digital Gangrene: A Rare Presentation of Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Santokh; Chand, Gian; Charan, Shiv; Arora, Sahil; Singh, Parampreet

    2013-01-01

    Digital gangrene in upper limbs may be due to systemic sclerosis, trauma, connective tissue disorders, vasculitic disorders and various myeloproliferative disorders or as a part of tropical diabetes hand syndrome which follows trauma. Peripheral arterial disease in diabetics commonly involves lower limbs. The present case, 45-year-old diabetic, presented with dry gangrene in fingertips of both hands for last two weeks without any history of trauma or lower limb gangrene. On examination and workup of the patient was found to have bilateral upper limb arterio-occlusive disease involving ulnar vessels as a macrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus. This presentation of diabetic hand syndrome is very, very rare, hence being reported. PMID:24298503

  18. The Use of Heparin during Endovascular Peripheral Arterial Interventions: A Synopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wiersema, Arno M.; Watts, Christopher; Durran, Alexandra C.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; van Delden, Otto M.; Moll, Frans L.; Vos, Jan Albert

    2016-01-01

    A large variety exists for many aspects of the use of heparin as periprocedural prophylactic antithrombotics (PPAT) during peripheral arterial interventions (PAI). This variation is present, not only within countries, but also between them. Due to a lack of (robust) data, no systematic review on the use of heparin during PAI could be justified. A synopsis of all available literature on heparin during PAI describes that heparin is used on technical equipment to reduce the thrombogenicity and in the flushing solution with saline. Heparin could have a cumulative anticoagulant effect when used in combination with ionic contrast medium. No level-1 evidence exists on the use of heparin. A measurement of actual anticoagulation status by means of an activated clotting time should be mandatory. PMID:27190678

  19. Endovascular stents: a review of their use in peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Kudagi, Vinod S; White, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    Technological advances in the past decade have shifted revascularization strategies from traditional open surgical approaches toward lower-morbidity percutaneous endovascular treatments for patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The continuing advances in stent design, more than any other advances, have fueled the growth of catheter-based procedures by improving the safety, durability, and predictability of percutaneous revascularization. Although the 2007 TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) guidelines recommend endovascular therapy for type A and B aortoiliac and femoropopliteal lesions, recent developments in stent technology and increased experience of interventionists have suggested that a strategy of endovascular therapy first is appropriate in experienced hands for TASC type D lesions. The role of endovascular interventions is also expanding in the treatment of limb-threatening ischemia.

  20. Iopamidol 150 in intra-arterial digital angiography of the peripheral vasculature: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rossi, P; Pavone, P; Castrucci, M; Piscitelli, G

    1988-05-01

    The results of a comparative double-blind clinical trial involving peripheral intra-arterial DSA performed with low iodine iopamidol concentrations (150 and 200 mg. I/ml.) are reported. Forty-six patients were examined for vital signs, local (heat and pain sensations) and systemic reactions and monitored throughout the procedure. No untoward effect was observed apart from mild local reactions, which on the other hand did not produce any movement artifacts. Image quality was good to optimal in 98% of the cases. In no case were higher concentrations of contrast medium (cm) needed. No significant differences between the two concentrations of cm used were observed with respect to either contrast ability or tolerability.

  1. New developments in the clinical use of drug-coated balloon catheters in peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Naghi, Jesse; Yalvac, Ethan A; Pourdjabbar, Ali; Ang, Lawrence; Bahadorani, John; Reeves, Ryan R; Mahmud, Ehtisham; Patel, Mitul

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) involving the lower extremity is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Clinical manifestations of PAD span the spectrum from lifestyle limiting claudication to ulceration and gangrene leading to amputation. Advancements including balloon angioplasty, self-expanding stents, drug-eluting stents, and atherectomy have resulted in high technical success rates for endovascular therapy in patients with PAD. However, these advances have been limited by somewhat high rates of clinical restenosis and clinically driven target lesion revascularization. The recent introduction of drug-coated balloon technology shows promise in limiting neointimal hyperplasia induced by vascular injury after endovascular therapies. This review summarizes the contemporary clinical data in the emerging area of drug-coated balloons. PMID:27418859

  2. [Obesity as pathology of adipocytes: number of cells, volume of arterial bloodstream,local pools of circulation in vivo, natriuretic peptides and arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Dmitriev, V A

    2015-03-01

    The non-specific systemic biological reaction of arterial pressure from the level of organism. vasomotor center and proximal section of arterial bloodstream is appealed to compensate disorders of metabolism and microcirculation in distal section of arteries. This phenomenon occurs in several cases. The primarily local disorders of metabolism at autocrine level, physiological (aphysiological) death of cells, "littering" of intercellular medium become the cause of disorder of microcirculation in paracrin cenosises and deteriorate realization of biological functions of homeostasis, trophology, endoecology and adaptation. The local compensation of affected perfusion in paracrin cenosises at the expense of function of peripheral peristaltic pumps, redistribution of local bloodflow in biological reaction of endothelium-depended vaso-dilation has no possibility to eliminate disorders in realization of biological functions. The systemic increase of arterial pressure under absence of specific symptoms of symptomatic arterial hypertension is a test to detect disorder of biological functions of homeostasis, trophology, biological function of endoecology and adaptation. Allforms of arterial hypertension develop by common algorithm independently from causes of disorders of blood flow, microcirculation in distal section of arteries. The non-specific systemic compensation ofdisorders of metabolism from level of organism, in proximal section of arterial bloodstream always is the same one and results in aphysiological alterations in organs-targets. To comprehend etiological characteristics of common pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is possible in case of application of such technically complicated and still unclear in differential diagnostic of deranged functions modes of metabolomics.

  3. Elevation in Peripheral Blood Circulating Tumor Cell Number Correlates with Macroscopic Progression in UICC Stage IV Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Bela; Floro, Lajos; Sipos, Ferenc; Toth, Bernadett; Sreter, Lydia; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Cytokeratin(CK) based real-time RT-PCR assays (QRT-PCR) are now available for peripheral blood circulating tumor cell (CTC) evaluations in colorectal cancer(CRC) patients. Results are non-existent for the application of these techniques to the determination of progression and therapy response in Dukes stage D CRC patients. Patients and methods: Each month 30 ml peripheral blood of 30 Dukes D patients (17 with progression) were drawn. CEA, CA19-9, CA72-A and TPA-M determinations were made. CK20, thymidilate synthase(TS) QRT-PCR was performed, as well. Buffy coat was used for immunmagnetic cancer cell isolation and CTC counting. Correlation between elevated CTC and macroscopic progression within 3 months was determined by Chi2 test. Results: Microscopic CTC single cell, doublet, cluster number were found in correlation with CK20 QRT-PCR results (p < 0.01). There was a significant increase in microscopic CTC number, CK20 and decrease in TS QRT-PCR levels (p < 0.05) in the peripheral blood of the non-responder as compared to responder patients. Elevation of the CTC was in significant correlation with macroscopic progression of the disease in 3 months (p < 0.01). Conclusions: CTC number reflects the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of CRC patients. Elevation of circulating tumor cell number in peripheral blood is in correlation with macroscopic progression. PMID:18334735

  4. Arterial calcification: Finger-pointing at resident and circulating stem cells.

    PubMed

    Vasuri, Francesco; Fittipaldi, Silvia; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2014-11-26

    The term ''Stammzelle'' (stem cells) originally appeared in 1868 in the works of Ernst Haeckel who used it to describe the ancestor unicellular organism from which he presumed all multicellular organisms evolved. Since then stem cells have been studied in a wide spectrum of normal and pathological conditions; it is remarkable to note that ectopic arterial calcification was considered a passive deposit of calcium since its original discovering in 1877; in the last decades, resident and circulating stem cells were imaged to drive arterial calcification through chondro-osteogenic differentiation thus opening the idea that an active mechanism could be at the basis of the process that clinically shows a Janus effect: calcifications either lead to the stabilization or rupture of the atherosclerotic plaques. A review of the literature underlines that 130 years after stem cell discovery, antigenic markers of stem cells are still debated and the identification of the osteoprogenitor phenotype is even more elusive due to tissue degradation occurring at processing and manipulation. It is necessary to find a consensus to perform comparable studies that implies phenotypic recognition of stem cells antigens. A hypothesis is based on the singular morphology and amitotic mechanism of division of osteoclasts: it constitutes the opening to a new approach on osteoprogenitors markers and recognition. Our aim was to highlight all the present evidences of the active calcification process, summarize the different cellular types involved, and discuss a novel approach to discover osteoprogenitor phenotypes in arterial wall. PMID:25426251

  5. Secondary flow structure in a model curved artery: 3D morphology and circulation budget analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we examined the rate of change of circulation within control regions encompassing the large-scale vortical structures associated with secondary flows, i.e. deformed Dean-, Lyne- and Wall-type (D-L-W) vortices at planar cross-sections in a 180° curved artery model (curvature ratio, 1/7). Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments were performed independently, under the same physiological inflow conditions (Womersley number, 4.2) and using Newtonian blood-analog fluids. The MRV-technique performed at Stanford University produced phase-averaged, three-dimensional velocity fields. Secondary flow field comparisons of MRV-data to PIV-data at various cross-sectional planes and inflow phases were made. A wavelet-decomposition-based approach was implemented to characterize various secondary flow morphologies. We hypothesize that the persistence and decay of arterial secondary flow vortices is intrinsically related to the influence of the out-of-plane flow, tilting, in-plane convection and diffusion-related factors within the control regions. Evaluation of these factors will elucidate secondary flow structures in arterial hemodynamics. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-0828903, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE). The MRV data were acquired at Stanford University in collaboration with Christopher Elkins and John Eaton.

  6. Arterial calcification: Finger-pointing at resident and circulating stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Vasuri, Francesco; Fittipaldi, Silvia; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2014-01-01

    The term ‘‘Stammzelle’’ (stem cells) originally appeared in 1868 in the works of Ernst Haeckel who used it to describe the ancestor unicellular organism from which he presumed all multicellular organisms evolved. Since then stem cells have been studied in a wide spectrum of normal and pathological conditions; it is remarkable to note that ectopic arterial calcification was considered a passive deposit of calcium since its original discovering in 1877; in the last decades, resident and circulating stem cells were imaged to drive arterial calcification through chondro-osteogenic differentiation thus opening the idea that an active mechanism could be at the basis of the process that clinically shows a Janus effect: calcifications either lead to the stabilization or rupture of the atherosclerotic plaques. A review of the literature underlines that 130 years after stem cell discovery, antigenic markers of stem cells are still debated and the identification of the osteoprogenitor phenotype is even more elusive due to tissue degradation occurring at processing and manipulation. It is necessary to find a consensus to perform comparable studies that implies phenotypic recognition of stem cells antigens. A hypothesis is based on the singular morphology and amitotic mechanism of division of osteoclasts: it constitutes the opening to a new approach on osteoprogenitors markers and recognition. Our aim was to highlight all the present evidences of the active calcification process, summarize the different cellular types involved, and discuss a novel approach to discover osteoprogenitor phenotypes in arterial wall. PMID:25426251

  7. Gene Therapy and Cell-Based Therapies for Therapeutic Angiogenesis in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakagami, Hironori; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy and cell-based therapy have emerged as novel therapies to promote therapeutic angiogenesis in critical limb ischemia (CLI) caused by peripheral artery disease (PAD). Although researchers initially focused on gene therapy using proangiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factors (HGF), cell therapy using bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (M-PBMNCs), and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have also been extensively studied. Based on the elaborate studies and favorable results of basic research, some clinical phase I/II trials have been performed, and the results demonstrate the safety of these approaches and their potential for symptomatic improvement in CLI. However, the phase 3 clinical trials have thus far been limited to gene therapy using the HGF gene. Further studies using well-designed larger placebo-controlled and long-term randomized control trials (RCTs) will clarify the effectiveness of gene therapy and cell-based therapy for the treatment of CLI. Furthermore, the development of efficient gene transfer systems and effective methods for keeping transplanted cells healthy will make these novel therapies more effective and ease the symptoms of CLI. PMID:24294599

  8. Lower extremity manifestations of peripheral artery disease: the pathophysiologic and functional implications of leg ischemia.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary McGrae

    2015-04-24

    Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) is frequently underdiagnosed, in part because of the wide variety of leg symptoms manifested by patients with PAD and in part because of the high prevalence of asymptomatic PAD. In primary care medical practices, 30% to 60% of patients with PAD report no exertional leg symptoms and ≈45% to 50% report exertional leg symptoms that are not consistent with classic intermittent claudication. The prevalence and extent of functional impairment and functional decline in PAD may also be underappreciated. Functional impairment and functional decline are common in PAD, even among those who are asymptomatic. Lower extremity ischemia is also associated with pathophysiologic changes in calf skeletal muscle, including smaller calf muscle area, increased calf muscle fat content, impaired leg strength, and impaired metabolic function. People with severe PAD have poorer peroneal nerve conduction velocity compared with people with mild PAD or no PAD. The degree of ischemia-related pathophysiologic changes in lower extremity muscles and peripheral nerves of people with PAD are associated with the degree of functional impairment. New interventions are needed to improve functional performance and prevent mobility loss in the large number of patients with PAD, including in those who are asymptomatic or who have exertional leg symptoms other than claudication.

  9. Retrograde flow detection in the radial artery as a means to assess palmar collateral circulation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Hack, W W; Leenhoven, T; vd Lei, J; Okken, A

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether Doppler ultrasound can be used in newborn infants to assess the adequacy of palmar collateral circulation. Retrograde flow in the radial artery, distal to the site of manual occlusion of the vessel, was studied by Doppler technique. Forty-seven newborn infants, who underwent percutaneous radial artery cannulation were studied. Prior to cannulation palmar collateral circulation was tested in each infant, using the timed Allen test and was considered to be adequate. Pulsatile retrograde flow could be demonstrated in 11 out of 47 infants, but not in 36 of the 47 studied. During the period of cannulation none of the infants showed any sign of vascular insufficiency of the hand. It can be concluded that in newborn infants, the detection of pulsatile retrograde flow in the radial artery, using a Doppler flow meter, does not appear to have advantages over the Allen test as an indicator of adequate palmar collateral circulation.

  10. H2O2-responsive antioxidant polymeric nanoparticles as therapeutic agents for peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Byeongsu; Kang, Changsun; Kim, Jinsub; Yoo, Donghyuck; Cho, Byung-Ryul; Kang, Peter M; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-09-25

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common circulatory disorder in which narrowed arteries limit blood flow to the lower extremity and affect millions of people worldwide. Therapeutic angiogenesis has emerged as a promising strategy to treat PAD patients because surgical intervention has been showing limited success. Leg muscles of PAD patients have significantly high level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the increased production of ROS is a key mechanism of initiation and progression of PAD. We have recently developed H2O2-responsive polymer PVAX, which is designed to rapidly scavenge H2O2 and release vanillyl alcohol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of PVAX nanoparticles for PAD using a cell culture model and a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. PVAX nanoparticles significantly enhanced the expression of angiogenic inducers such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). PVAX nanoparticles promoted revascularization and restoration of blood perfusion into ischemic tissues by upregulating angiogenic VEGF and PECAM-1. This work demonstrates that H2O2-responsive PVAX nanoparticles facilitate therapeutic angiogenesis and hold tremendous translational potential as therapeutic systems for ischemic diseases such as PAD. PMID:27521705

  11. Increased aortic stiffness and related factors in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Mariella; Scandale, Giovanni; Carzaniga, Gianni; Cinquini, Michela; Minola, Marzio; Dimitrov, Gabriel; Carotta, Maria

    2013-10-01

    A number of conditions have been associated with functional changes of large arteries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with aortic stiffness in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The authors studied 86 patients with PAD (ankle-brachial pressure index [ABPI] ≤0.9) and 86 controls. Aortic stiffness was determined by pulse wave velocity (aPWV) using applanation tonometry. In PAD patients, aPWV was higher compared with controls (11 ± 3 vs 9.8 ± 1.8; P=.002). In multiple regression analysis, aPWV was independently associated with pulse pressure (β=0.05, P=.01) in the PAD patients and with age in the control group (β=0.08, P=.0005). The results of this study confirm an aPWV increase in patients with PAD and emphasize the association between blood pressure and aPWV. Further studies are necessary to assess whether higher aortic stiffening adds prognostic value to ABPI, which is the most powerful prognostic indicator in PAD. PMID:24088278

  12. H2O2-responsive antioxidant polymeric nanoparticles as therapeutic agents for peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Byeongsu; Kang, Changsun; Kim, Jinsub; Yoo, Donghyuck; Cho, Byung-Ryul; Kang, Peter M; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-09-25

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common circulatory disorder in which narrowed arteries limit blood flow to the lower extremity and affect millions of people worldwide. Therapeutic angiogenesis has emerged as a promising strategy to treat PAD patients because surgical intervention has been showing limited success. Leg muscles of PAD patients have significantly high level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the increased production of ROS is a key mechanism of initiation and progression of PAD. We have recently developed H2O2-responsive polymer PVAX, which is designed to rapidly scavenge H2O2 and release vanillyl alcohol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of PVAX nanoparticles for PAD using a cell culture model and a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. PVAX nanoparticles significantly enhanced the expression of angiogenic inducers such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). PVAX nanoparticles promoted revascularization and restoration of blood perfusion into ischemic tissues by upregulating angiogenic VEGF and PECAM-1. This work demonstrates that H2O2-responsive PVAX nanoparticles facilitate therapeutic angiogenesis and hold tremendous translational potential as therapeutic systems for ischemic diseases such as PAD.

  13. The fibrinogen gamma 10034C>T polymorphism is not associated with Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Babak; Uitz, Elisabeth; Dehchamani, Dadbeh; Pilger, Ernst; Renner, Wilfried

    2010-10-01

    Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin plays an essential role in hemostasis and results in stabilization of the fibrin clot. Fibrinogen consists of three pairs of non-identical polypeptide chains, encoded by different genes (fibrinogen alpha [FGA], fibrinogen beta [FGB] and fibrinogen gamma [FGG]). A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3' untranslated region of the FGG gene (FGG 10034C>T, rs2066865) has been associated with deep venous thrombosis and myocardial infarction. Aim of the present study was to analyze the role of this polymorphism in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The study was designed as case-control study including 891 patients with documented PAD and 777 control subjects. FGG genotypes were determined by exonuclease (TaqMan) assays. FGG genotype frequencies were not significantly different between PAD patients (CC: 57.3%, CT: 36.7%, TT: 5.8%) and control subjects (CC: 60.9%, CT: 33.5%, TT 5.6%; p=0.35). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis including age, sex, smoking, diabetes, arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, the FGG 10034 T variant was not significantly associated with the presence of PAD (Odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.84 - 1.37; p = 0.60). The FGG 10034C>T polymorphism was furthermore not associated with age at onset of PAD. We conclude that the thrombophilic FGG 10034 T gene variant does not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to PAD.

  14. Molecular Imaging of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Survival and Homing in Murine Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    van der Bogt, Koen E.A.; Hellingman, Alwine A.; Lijkwan, Maarten A.; Bos, Ernst-Jan; de Vries, Margreet R.; Fischbein, Michael P.; Quax, Paul H.; Robbins, Robert C.; Hamming, Jaap F.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow mononuclear cell (MNC) therapy is a promising treatment for peripheral artery disease (PAD). This study aims to provide insight into cellular kinetics using molecular imaging following different transplantation methods. Methods and Results MNCs were isolated from F6 transgenic mice (FVB background) that express firefly luciferase (Fluc) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Male FVB and C57Bl6 mice (n=50) underwent femoral artery ligation and were randomized into 4 groups receiving: (1) single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 2×106 MNC; (2) four weekly i.m. injections of 5×105 MNC; (3) 2×106 MNCs intravenously (i.v.); and (4) PBS. Cellular kinetics, measured by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI), revealed near-complete donor cell death 4 weeks after i.m. transplantation. Following i.v. transplantation, BLI monitored cells homed in on the injured area in the limb, as well as to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Ex vivo BLI showed presence of MNCs in the scar tissue and adductor muscle. However, no significant effects on neovascularisation were observed as monitored by Laser-Doppler-Perfusion-Imaging and histology. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to assess kinetics of transplanted MNCs in PAD using in vivo molecular imaging. MNC survival is short lived and MNCs do not significantly stimulate perfusion in this model. PMID:22239892

  15. Therapeutic arteriogenesis in peripheral arterial disease: combining intervention and passive training.

    PubMed

    Bondke Persson, A; Buschmann, E-E; Lindhorst, R; Troidl, K; Langhoff, R; Schulte, K-L; Buschmann, I

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is on the rise in an aging population, significantly affecting quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Besides medical treatment and surgical or interventional revascularization, supervised exercise programs are a primary treatment modality for PAD. Training may significantly increase pain-free walking time (+ 180 %) while avoiding the associated complications of (repeated) invasive revascularization. Training effects rely on an improvement of risk factor management, muscle function, economy of movement, hemorheology, vascular growth and collateral vessel growth. Exercise training upregulates pulsatile fluid shear stress on the vascular endothelium, prompting an improvement of endothelial function (eNOS, NO) and an outgrowth of preexistent collaterals (arteriogenesis) to functional conductance arteries outside the ischemic area at risk. However, the necessary intense minimum training intervals compromise patient compliance, and the impaired functional status of many PAD patients limits active exercise training. Strategies are necessary to a) increase training compliance, b) make the benefits of exercise training available to patients unable to exercise actively and c) therapeutically enhance the adaptive growth of biological bypasses (arteriogenesis). A modified form of “passive exercise training” derived from enhanced external counterpulsation (low-pressure ECP) which was originally developed for the therapy of heart failure, may prove to be an option for this group of patients. Therefore, this review article suggests a tailored combination therapy, consisting of a facilitating revascularization procedure to restore arterial inflow, succeeded by supervised exercise training, which has yielded promising therapeutic results in clinical trials. Further studies, using appropriate imaging methods and controls, are under way to (a) establish the efficacy of low-pressure EECP in PAD patients and (b) to directly

  16. Frequency of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients With Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Matic, Milan; Matic, Aleksandra; Djuran, Verica; Gajinov, Zorica; Prcic, Sonja; Golusin, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that about 15% (10% - 30% in most of the studies) of the total adult population has some aspects of the Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI). Frequency of the Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) in the adult population is 3% - 4%. Studies dealing with etiopathogenesis of leg ulcers show that between 10% and 18% of all ulcers are of mixed, arterial-venous origin. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to find out if there is a higher frequency of PAD among CVI patients in comparison with the control group, as well as to discover some common risk factors for CVI and PAD. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the dermatovenereological clinic, clinical center of Vojvodina, Serbia. A total of 162 examinees were included. All patients were examined for the existence of CVI and staged according to CEAP (Clinical, etiology, anatomy and patophysiology) classification. In this way, 3 groups were formed: Patients with the mild forms of CVI (stage 1 - 4 by CEAP classification), 57 patients; patients with the severe forms of CVI (stage 5 and 6 by CEAP classification), 55 patients; control group (no CVI), 50 patients. Also, the Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) was assessed in all subjects, and its value of ≤ 0.9 was set as criteria for diagnosis of PAD. The same sample was divided according to the presence of PAD into two groups. The most important risk factors for CVI and PAD were identified for each patient through complete examination, medical record and appropriate questionnaire. Results: Our results showed that the risk factors for CVI were high Body Mass Index (BMI), hypertension, predominantly standing position during work and positive family history for CVI. In the same sample it was found that 28 (17.28%) patients had PAD. Relevant risk factors for PAD in the present study were: high BMI, hypertension, diabetes and a positive family history for PAD. Comparison of frequency of PAD among patients

  17. Risk Stratification of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Using Aortic Augmentation Index

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Marianne; Husmann, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Central augmentation index (cAIx) is an indicator for vascular stiffness. Obstructive and aneurysmatic vascular disease can affect pulse wave propagation and reflection, causing changes in central aortic pressures. Aim To assess and compare cAIx in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and / or abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods cAIx was assessed by radial applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) in a total of 184 patients at a tertiary referral centre. Patients were grouped as having PAD only, AAA only, or both AAA and PAD. Differences in cAIx measurements between the three patient groups were tested by non-parametric tests and stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis to investigate associations with obstructive or aneurysmatic patterns of vascular disease. Results In the study sample of 184 patients, 130 had PAD only, 20 had AAA only, and 34 patients had both AAA and PAD. Mean cAIx (%) was 30.5 ± 8.2 across all patients. It was significantly higher in females (35.2 ± 6.1, n = 55) than males (28.4 ± 8.2, n = 129), and significantly higher in patients over 80 years of age (34.4 ± 6.9, n = 22) than in those under 80 years (30.0 ± 8.2, n = 162). Intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference in cAIx between the three patient groups (AAA: 27.3 ± 9.5; PAD: 31.4 ± 7.8; AAA & PAD: 28.8 ± 8.5). cAIx was significantly lower in patients with AAA, higher in patients with both AAA and PAD, and highest in patients with PAD only (beta = 0.21, p = 0.006). Conclusion Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness in high-risk patients indicates that cAIx differs according to the pattern of vascular disease. Measurements revealed significantly higher cAIx values for patients with obstructive peripheral arterial disease than for patients with aneurysmatic disease. PMID:26452151

  18. Quantification of Lower Leg Arterial Calcifications by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Patsch, Janina M.; Zulliger, Martin A.; Vilayphou, Nicolas; Samelson, Elizabeth J.; Cejka, Daniel; Diarra, Danielle; Berzaczy, Gundula; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Link, Thomas M.; Weber, Michael; Loewe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcifications and bone health seem to be etiologically linked via common risk factors such as aging and subclinical chronic inflammation. Epidemiologic studies have shown significant associations between low bone mineral density (BMD), fragility fractures and calcifications of the coronary arteries and the abdominal aorta. In the last decade, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has emerged as in-vivo research tool for the assessment of peripheral bone geometry, density, and microarchitecture. Although vascular calcifications are frequently observed as incidental findings in HR-pQCT scans, they have not yet been incorporated into quantitative HR-pQCT analyses. We developed a semi-automated algorithm to quantify lower leg arterial calcifications (LLAC), captured by HR-pQCT. The objective of our study was to determine validity and reliability of the LLAC measure. HR-pQCT scans were downscaled to a voxel size of 250 µm. After subtraction of bone volumes from the scans, LLAC were detected and contoured by a semi-automated, dual-threshold seed-point segmentation. LLAC mass (in mg hydroxyapatite; HA) was calculated as the product of voxel-based calcification volume (mm3) and mean calcification density (mgHA/cm3)/1000. To determine validity, we compared LLAC to coronary artery calcifications (CAC), as quantified by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and Agatston scoring in forty-six patients on chronic hemodialysis. Moreover, we investigated associations of LLAC with age, time on dialysis, type-2 diabetes mellitus, history of stroke, and myocardial infarction. In a second step, we determined intra- and inter-reader reliability of the LLAC measure. In the validity study, LLAC were present (>0 mgHA) in 76% of patients, 78% of patients had CAC (>0 mgHA). Median LLAC was 6.65 (0.08 – 24.40) mgHA and median CAC as expressed by Agatston score was 266.3 (15.88 – 1877.28). We found a significant positive correlation between

  19. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reduces total peripheral resistance during chronic infusion: direct arterial mesenteric relaxation is not involved

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) delivered over 1 week results in a sustained fall in blood pressure in the sham and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rat. We hypothesized 5-HT lowers blood pressure through direct receptor-mediated vascular relaxation. In vivo, 5-HT reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), increased heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac index, and reduced total peripheral resistance during a 1 week infusion of 5-HT (25 µg/kg/min) in the normotensive Sprague Dawley rat. The mesenteric vasculature was chosen as an ideal candidate for the site of 5-HT receptor mediated vascular relaxation given the high percentage of cardiac output the site receives. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA transcripts for the 5-HT2B, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT7 receptors are present in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric arteries. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot validated the presence of the 5-HT2B, 5- HT1B and 5-HT7 receptor protein in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric artery. Isometric contractile force was measured in endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery and mesenteric resistance arteries in which the contractile 5- HT2A receptor was antagonized. Maximum concentrations of BW-723C86 (5- HT2B agonist), CP 93129 (5-HT1B agonist) or LP-44 (5-HT7 agonist) did not relax the superior mesenteric artery from DOCA-salt rats vs. vehicle. Additionally, 5-HT (10–9 M to 10–5 M) did not cause relaxation in either contracted mesenteric resistance arteries or superior mesenteric arteries from normotensive Sprague- Dawley rats. Thus, although 5-HT receptors known to mediate vascular relaxation are present in the superior mesenteric artery, they are not functional, and are therefore not likely involved in a 5-HT-induced fall in total peripheral resistance and MAP. PMID:22559843

  20. Changes in D-dimer and inflammatory biomarkers before ischemic events in patients with peripheral artery disease: The BRAVO Study.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary McGrae; Liu, Kiang; Green, David; Greenland, Philip; Tian, Lu; Kibbe, Melina; Tracy, Russell; Shah, Sanjiv; Wilkins, John T; Huffman, Mark; Zhao, Lihui; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Auerbach, Amanda; Liao, Yihua; Skelly, Christopher L; McCarthy, Walter; Lloyd Jones, Donald

    2016-02-01

    Whether circulating biomarker levels increase shortly before an ischemic heart disease (IHD) event is unknown. We studied whether levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) are higher within 2 months of an IHD event compared to time periods more than 2 months before the IHD event. We assembled 595 participants with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and followed them for up to 3 years. Blood samples were obtained every 2 months. The primary outcome was IHD events: myocardial infarctions, unstable angina, or IHD death. We used a nested case-control design. Fifty participants (cases) had events and were each matched by age, sex, duration in the study, and number of blood draws to two controls without events. Among cases, the mean D-dimer value of 1.105 obtained within 2 months of the event was higher than values obtained 10 months (0.68 mg/L, p<0.001), 12 months (0.71 mg/L, p=0.001), 16 months (0.65 mg/L, p=0.008), 20 months (p=0.032), 22 months (p=0.033), 26 months (p=0.038), and 32 months (p=0.04) before the event. Compared to controls, median D-dimer levels in cases were higher 4 months (p=0.017), 6 months (p=0.005), and 8 months (p=0.028) before the event. Values of CRP and SAA obtained within two months of an IHD event not consistently higher than values obtained during the prior months. In PAD participants with an IHD event, D-dimer was higher within 2 months of the event, compared to most values obtained 10 to 32 months previously. D-dimer was also higher in cases as compared to controls during most visits within 8 months of the IHD event.

  1. Ischemia as a potential etiologic factor in idiopathic unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss: Analysis of posterior circulation arteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulho; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Jang, Min Uk; Hong, Sung-Kwang; Lee, Joong-Seob; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Choi, Hui-Chul; Lee, Jun Ho

    2016-01-01

    The association between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and the radiologic characteristics of the vertebrobasilar artery is unclear. We hypothesized that the degree and direction of vertebrobasilar artery curvature in the posterior circulation contribute to the occurrence of ISSNHL. We consecutively enrolled patients diagnosed with unilateral ISSNHL in two tertiary hospitals. Magnetic resonance images were performed in all patients to exclude specific causes of ISSNHL, such as vestibular schwannoma, chronic mastoiditis, and anterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct. We measured the following parameters of posterior circulation: vertebral and basilar artery diameter, the degree of basilar artery curvature (modified smoker criteria), and vertebral artery dominance. Pure tone audiometries were performed at admission and again 1 week and 3 months later. A total of 121 ISSNHL patients (mean age, 46.0 ± 17.3 years; 48.8% male) were included in these analyses. The proportion of patients with the left side hearing loss was larger than the proportion with the right side hearing loss (left, 57.9%; right, 42.1%). The majority of patients were characterized by a left dominant vertebral artery and right-sided basilar artery curvature. The direction of the basilar artery curvature was significantly associated with hearing loss lateralization (p = 0.036). Age and sex matched multivariable analyses revealed the absence of diabetes and right-sided basilar artery curvature as significant predictors for left sided hearing loss. There was no statistical difference between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk score (high versus low) and hearing outcomes at 3 months. In ISSNHL, the laterality of hearing loss was inversely associated with the direction of basilar artery curvature. Our results, therefore, indicate the importance of vascular assessment when evaluating ISSNHL.

  2. Ankle-brachial pressure index estimated by laser Doppler in patients suffering from peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Tomasz; Kuczmik, Waclaw B; Kazibudzki, Marek; Nowakowski, Przemyslaw; Orawczyk, Tomasz; Glanowski, Michal; Kucharzewski, Marcin; Ziaja, Damion; Szaniewski, Krzysztof; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2007-07-01

    Ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurements are widely used for evaluating the functional state of circulation in the lower limbs. However, there is some evidence that the value of ABI does not accurately reflect the degree of walking impairment in symptomatic patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD). We investigated the diagnostic value of ABI estimated by means of laser Doppler flowmetry (IT) for evaluating limb ischemia. We wanted to know whether laser Doppler could be more sensitive than the Doppler method in predicting walking capacity in patients with stable intermittent claudication. We analyzed a group of 30 patients with intermittent claudication (Fontain II, II/III) who were admitted for reconstructive treatment. There were 21 men and 9 women, aged 46-74 (mean 61) years. All patients underwent the treadmill test, and pain-free walking distances were measured. In each patient, we measured ABI using the two different methods: Doppler ultrasound device (ABI-Doppler) and laser Doppler (ABI-laser Doppler). The claudication distances were 25-200 m (mean 73 +/- 50.2 m). ABI-Doppler was 0.2-0.7 (0.582 +/- 0.195). ABI-laser Doppler measurements were 0.581 (+/-0.218). A correlation was found between ABI-Doppler and claudication distance (r = 0.46, P = 0.009). Also, ABI-laser Doppler values significantly correlated with claudication distances (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). The ABI evaluated by laser Doppler correlated well with claudication distances in patients with PAOD. Comparison of Doppler and laser Doppler measurements used for determining ABI showed that both methods have similar predictive power for walking capacity; however, higher correlation was observed between claudication distances and ABI measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. ABI-laser Doppler measurements are easier, are quicker, and seem to be better suited for noncompliant patients. Further investigation should be undertaken to determine whether laser Doppler is superior to the Doppler

  3. Study on DNA damaging effects of 4-nonylphenol using erythrocytes from peripheral circulation, gill and kidney of fish Channapunctatus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Madhu; Chadha, Pooja

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect of 4-nonylphenol (NP) on blood cells of fish Channapunctatus. Fish were exposed to three sublethal concentrations (0.15 mg l⁻¹; 0.31 mg l⁻¹ and 0.63 mg l⁻¹) of 4-NP for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. Blood cells from kidney, gills and peripheral circulation were analyzed for the presence of micronuclei and other changes in the erythrocytes. Significant changes were observed in all the experimental groups tested when compared with control. Highest genotoxicity was observed in blood cells obtained from gills (MN-2.92%, aberrant cell- 70.64%), followed by kidney (MN-1.34%, aberrant cells-64.94%), were least effect was observed in blood cells obtained from peripheral circulation (MN-0.88%, aberrant cells-46.27%).Therefore, micronucleus test performed on blood cells obtained from different sources showed that gills were more sensitive as compared to peripheral blood and kidney revealing genotoxic effect of 4-NP on fish C. punctatus.

  4. Population-Based Study of Incidence, Risk Factors, Outcome, and Prognosis of Ischemic Peripheral Arterial Events

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Dominic P.J.; Banerjee, Amitava; Fairhead, Jack F.; Hands, Linda; Silver, Louise E.; Rothwell, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background— There are few published data on the incidence and long-term outcomes of critical limb ischemia, acute limb ischemia, or acute visceral ischemia with which to inform health service planning, to monitor prevention, and to enable risk prediction. Methods and Results— In a prospective population-based study (Oxfordshire, UK; 2002–2012), we determined the incidence and outcome of all acute peripheral arterial events in a population of 92 728. Risk factors were assessed by comparison with the underlying population. A total of 510 acute events occurred in 386 patients requiring 803 interventions. Two hundred twenty-one patients (59.3%) were ≥75 years of age, and 98 (26.3%) were ≥85 years old. Two hundred thirty patients (62.3%) were independent before the event, but 270 (73.4%) were dead or dependent at the 6-month follow-up, and 328 (88.9%) were dead or dependent at 5 years. The 30-day survival was lowest for patients with acute visceral ischemia (28.2%) compared with acute limb ischemia (75.3%) and critical limb ischemia (92.6%; P<0.001). Risk factors (all P<0.001) were hypertension (age- and sex-adjusted risk ratio, 2.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.95–3.90), smoking (adjusted risk ratio, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.37–3.34), and diabetes mellitus (adjusted risk ratio, 3.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.69–5.35), particularly for critical limb ischemia (adjusted risk ratio, 5.96; 95% confidence interval, 3.15–11.26). Two hundred eighty-eight patients (77.2%) had known previous cardiovascular disease, and 361 (96.8%) had vascular risk factors, but only 203 (54.4%) were on an antiplatelet and only 166 (44.5%) were on a statin. Although 260 patients (69.7%) were taking antihypertensives, 42.9% of all blood pressures recorded during the 5 years before the event were >140/90 mm Hg. Of 88 patients (23.6%) with incident cardioembolic events, 62 had known atrial fibrillation (diagnosed before the event), of whom only 14.5% were

  5. Characterization of Evolving Biomechanical Properties of Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts in the Arterial Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Udelsman, Brooks V.; Khosravi, Ramak; Miller, Kristin S.; Dean, Ethan W.; Bersi, Matthew R.; Rocco, Kevin; Yi, Tai; Humphrey, Jay D.; Breuer, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    We used a murine model to assess the evolving biomechanical properties of tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) implanted in the arterial circulation. The initial polymeric tubular scaffold was fabricated from (poly)lactic acid (PLA) and coated with a 50:50 copolymer of (poly)caprolactone and (poly)lactic acid (P[PC/LA]). Following seeding with syngeneic bone marrow derived mononuclear cells, the TEVGs (n=50) were implanted as aortic interposition grafts in wild-type mice and monitored serially using ultrasound. A custom biaxial mechanical testing device was used to quantify in vitro the circumferential and axial mechanical properties of grafts explanted at 3 or 7 months. At both times, the TEVGs were much stiffer than native tissue in both directions. Repeat mechanical testing of some TEVGs treated with elastase or collagenase suggested that elastin did not contribute significantly to the overall stiffness whereas collagen did contribute. Traditional histology and immunostaining revealed smooth muscle cell layers, significant collagen deposition, and increasing elastin production in addition to considerable scaffold at both 3 and 7 months, which likely dominated the high stiffness seen in mechanical testing. These results suggest that PLA has inadequate in vivo degradation, which impairs cell-mediated development of vascular neotissue having properties closer to native arteries. Assessing contributions of individual components, such as elastin and collagen, to the developing neovessel is needed to guide computational modeling that may help to optimize the design of the TEVG. PMID:24702863

  6. Characterization of evolving biomechanical properties of tissue engineered vascular grafts in the arterial circulation.

    PubMed

    Udelsman, Brooks V; Khosravi, Ramak; Miller, Kristin S; Dean, Ethan W; Bersi, Matthew R; Rocco, Kevin; Yi, Tai; Humphrey, Jay D; Breuer, Christopher K

    2014-06-27

    We used a murine model to assess the evolving biomechanical properties of tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) implanted in the arterial circulation. The initial polymeric tubular scaffold was fabricated from poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and coated with a 50:50 copolymer of poly(caprolactone) and poly(lactic acid)(P[PC/LA]). Following seeding with syngeneic bone marrow derived mononuclear cells, TEVGs (n=50) were implanted as aortic interposition grafts in wild-type mice and monitored serially using ultrasound. A custom biaxial mechanical testing device was used to quantify the in vitro circumferential and axial mechanical properties of grafts explanted at 3 or 7 months. At both times, TEVGs were much stiffer than native tissue in both directions. Repeated mechanical testing of some TEVGs treated with elastase or collagenase suggested that elastin did not contribute significantly to the overall stiffness whereas collagen did contribute. Traditional histology and immunostaining revealed smooth muscle cell layers, significant collagen deposition, and increasing elastin production in addition to considerable scaffold at both 3 and 7 months, which likely dominated the high stiffness seen in mechanical testing. These results suggest that PLA has inadequate in vivo degradation, which impairs cell-mediated development of vascular neotissue having properties closer to native arteries. Assessing contributions of individual components, such as elastin and collagen, to the developing neovessel is needed to guide computational modeling that may help to optimize the design of the TEVG. PMID:24702863

  7. Association of Circulating Matrix Metalloproteinases with Carotid Artery Characteristics: The ARIC Carotid MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaubatz, John W.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Wasserman, Bruce A.; He, Max; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hoogeveen, Ron C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) with carotid artery characteristics measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a cross-sectional investigation among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI Study participants. Methods and Results A stratified random sample was recruited based on intima-media thickness (IMT) from a previous ultrasound examination. A high-resolution gadolinium-enhanced MRI exam of the carotid artery was performed in 2004–2005 on 1,901 ARIC cohort participants. Multiple carotid wall characteristics including wall thickness, lumen area, calcium area, lipid core and fibrous cap measures were evaluated for associations with plasma MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1. Plasma MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-7 were significantly higher among participants in the high IMT group compared to those in the low IMT group. Normalized wall index was independently associated with MMP-3, MMP-7, and TIMP-1. MMP-7 was positively associated with carotid calcification. Mean fibrous cap thickness was significantly higher in individuals with elevated TIMP-1 levels. In addition, TIMP-1 was positively associated with measures of lipid core. Conclusions Circulating levels of specific MMPs and TIMP-1 were associated with carotid wall remodeling and structural changes related to plaque burden in the elderly. PMID:20167662

  8. Community-based walking exercise for peripheral artery disease: An exploratory pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mays, Ryan J; Hiatt, William R; Casserly, Ivan P; Rogers, R Kevin; Main, Deborah S; Kohrt, Wendy M; Ho, P Michael; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2015-08-01

    Supervised walking exercise is an effective treatment to improve walking ability of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), but few exercise programs in community settings have been effective. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a community-based walking exercise program with training, monitoring and coaching (TMC) components to improve exercise performance and patient-reported outcomes in PAD patients. This was a randomized, controlled trial including PAD patients (n=25) who previously received peripheral endovascular therapy or presented with stable claudication. Patients randomized to the intervention group received a comprehensive community-based walking exercise program with elements of TMC over 14 weeks. Patients in the control group did not receive treatment beyond standard advice to walk. The primary outcome in the intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses was peak walking time (PWT) on a graded treadmill. Secondary outcomes included claudication onset time (COT) and patient-reported outcomes assessed via the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). Intervention group patients (n=10) did not significantly improve PWT when compared with the control group patients (n=10) (mean ± standard error: +2.1 ± 0.7 versus 0.0 ± 0.7 min, p=0.052). Changes in COT and WIQ scores were greater for intervention patients compared with control patients (COT: +1.6 ± 0.8 versus -0.6 ± 0.7 min, p=0.045; WIQ: +18.3 ± 4.2 versus -4.6 ± 4.2%, p=0.001). This pilot using a walking program with TMC and an ITT analysis did not improve the primary outcome in PAD patients. Other walking performance and patient self-reported outcomes were improved following exercise in community settings. Further study is needed to determine whether this intervention improves outcomes in a trial employing a larger sample size.

  9. Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease Is Associated With More Adverse Lower Extremity Characteristics Than Intermittent Claudication

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tian, Lu; Liu, Kiang; Liao, Yihua; Green, David; Sufit, Robert; Hoff, Frederick; Nishida, Takashi; Sharma, Leena; Pearce, William H.; Schneider, Joseph R.; Criqui, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed functional performance, calf muscle characteristics, peripheral nerve function, and quality of life in asymptomatic persons with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Methods and Results PAD participants (n=465) had an ankle brachial index <0.90. Non-PAD participants (n=292) had an ankle brachial index of 0.90 to 1.30. PAD participants were categorized into leg symptom groups including intermittent claudication (n=215) and always asymptomatic (participants who never experienced exertional leg pain, even during the 6-minute walk; n=72). Calf muscle was measured with computed tomography. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, ankle brachial index, comorbidities, and other confounders. Compared with participants with intermittent claudication, always asymptomatic PAD participants had smaller calf muscle area (4935 versus 5592 mm2; P<0.001), higher calf muscle percent fat (16.10% versus 9.45%; P<0.001), poorer 6-minute walk performance (966 versus 1129 ft; P=0.0002), slower usual-paced walking speed (P=0.0019), slower fast-paced walking speed (P<0.001), and a poorer Short-Form 36 Physical Functioning score (P=0.016). Compared with an age-matched, sedentary, non-PAD cohort, always asymptomatic PAD participants had smaller calf muscle area (5061 versus 5895 mm2; P=0.009), poorer 6-minute walk performance (1126 versus 1452 ft; P<0.001), and poorer Walking Impairment Questionnaire speed scores (40.87 versus 57.78; P=0.001). Conclusions Persons with PAD who never experience exertional leg symptoms have poorer functional performance, poorer quality of life, and more adverse calf muscle characteristics compared with persons with intermittent claudication and a sedentary, asymptomatic, age-matched group of non-PAD persons. PMID:18458172

  10. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase attenuates the blood pressure response to plantar flexion exercise in peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Rachel C.; Ross, Amanda J.; Blaha, Cheryl A.; Cauffman, Aimee E.; Kaufman, Marc P.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2015-01-01

    Prostanoids are produced during skeletal muscle contraction and subsequently stimulate muscle afferent nerves, thereby contributing to the exercise pressor reflex. Humans with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have an augmented exercise pressor reflex, but the metabolite(s) responsible for this augmented response is not known. We tested the hypothesis that intravenous injection of ketorolac, which blocks the activity of cyclooxygenase, would attenuate the rise in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) evoked by plantar flexion exercise. Seven PAD patients underwent 4 min of single-leg dynamic plantar flexion (30 contractions/min) in the supine posture (workload: 0.5–2.0 kg). MAP and HR were measured on a beat-by-beat basis; changes from baseline in response to exercise were determined. Ketorolac did not affect MAP or HR at rest. During the first 20 s of exercise with the most symptomatic leg, ΔMAP was significantly attenuated by ketorolac (2 ± 2 mmHg) compared with control (8 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.005), but ΔHR was similar (6 ± 2 vs. 5 ± 1 beats/min). Importantly, patients rated the exercise bout as “very light” to “fairly light,” and average pain ratings were 1 of 10. Ketorolac had no effect on perceived exertion or pain ratings. Ketorolac also had no effect on MAP or HR in seven age- and sex-matched healthy subjects who performed a similar but longer plantar flexion protocol (workload: 0.5–7.0 kg). These data suggest that prostanoids contribute to the augmented exercise pressor reflex in patients with PAD. PMID:26055794

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Allopurinol in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Alan J.; Struthers, Allan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are limited by intermittent claudication in the distance they can walk. Allopurinol has been shown in coronary arterial disease to prolong exercise before angina occurs, likely by prevention of oxygen wastage in tissues and reduction of harmful oxidative stress. Methods In this study we evaluated whether allopurinol could prolong the time to development of leg pain in participants with PAD. In a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial participants were randomized to receive either allopurinol 300 mg twice daily or placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome was change in exercise capacity on treadmill testing at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were 6-minute walking distance, Walking Impairment Questionnaire, SF-36 questionnaire, flow-mediated dilatation, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Outcome measures were repeated midstudy and at the end of study. The mean age of the 50 participants was 68.4 ± 1.2 years with 39 of 50 (78%) male. Results Five participants withdrew during the study (2 active, 3 placebo). There was a significant reduction in uric acid levels in those who received active treatment of 52.1% (P < 0.001), but no significant change in either the pain-free or the maximum walking distance. Other measures of exercise capacity, blood vessel function, and the participants' own assessment of their health and walking ability also did not change during the course of the study. Conclusions Although allopurinol has been shown to be of benefit in a number of other diseases, in this study there was no evidence of any improvement after treatment in patients with PAD. PMID:26277090

  12. Advancing Beyond the ‘Heart-Healthy Diet’ for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nosova, Emily V.; Conte, Michael S.; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a burdensome cardiovascular condition that results from chronic inflammatory insults to the arterial vasculature. Key risk factors include age, gender, Type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, smoking, lack of physical fitness and poor diet, the latter three being modifiable in the development and progression of PAD. A growing body of evidence indicates that imbalanced nutrient intake may contribute to the development and progression of PAD. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about nutritional patterns among patients with PAD, and to ascertain whether certain health- promoting foods and nutrients could benefit patients with this condition. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review to examine primary source evidence for or against the nutrients that are commonly associated with PAD, and their potential utility as therapies. Results We summarized nine categories of nutrients, as well as four diets endorsed by the American Heart Association that may be prescribed to patients with or at risk for PAD. The nutrients reviewed included omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), folate and B-series vitamins, and anti-oxidants. The diet plans described include the DASH diet, Mediterranean diet, low-fat diet, low carbohydrate diet, Dr. Dean Ornish’s Spectrum® Diet and Dr. Andrew Weil’s Anti-Inflammatory Diet. Conclusion PAD is a chronic inflammatory condition that is associated with longstanding poor nutrition habits. We advocate for an intensified use of diet in PAD therapy, and we specifically recommend following eating patterns that are rich in nutrients with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. PMID:25534981

  13. Risk of Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yu, Mei-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with atherosclerosis, but the relationship between SLE and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) remains unclear. We sought to investigate this relationship by comparing cardiovascular complications in patients with and without SLE. Data on patients from 2000 to 2011 were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The SLE cohort was frequency-matched according to age, sex, and history of diabetes mellitus (DM) with patients without SLE (control cohort). We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular complications, including hypertension, DM, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, coronary artery disease, and hyperlipidemia. The study included 10,144 patients with SLE and 10,144 control patients. The incidence of PAOD was 9.39-fold higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.70–11.15) in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. Moreover, SLE was an independent risk factor for PAOD. The adjusted risk of PAOD was highest in patients with SLE who were aged ≤34 years (hazard ratio = 47.6, 95% CI = 26.8–84.4). The risk of PAOD was highest during the first year of follow-up and decreased over time. Patients with SLE exhibit a higher incidence and an independently higher risk of PAOD compared with the general population. The PAOD risk is markedly elevated in patients with SLE who are young and in whom the disease is at an early stage. PMID:26579830

  14. Gender‐Specific Risk Factors for Peripheral Artery Disease in a Voluntary Screening Population

    PubMed Central

    Hiramoto, Jade S.; Katz, Ronit; Weisman, Steven; Conte, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Women have high rates of peripheral artery disease (PAD) despite fewer cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, compared to men. We sought to determine the gender‐specific prevalence of low ankle brachial index (ABI) and the relationship to C‐reactive protein (CRP) levels and CVD risk factors in the Life Line Screening population. Methods and Results Between April 2005 and August 2011, 133 750 women and 71 996 men had ABI and CRP measured at a Life Line Screening Center. Women were slightly older than men, whereas men were more likely to be current smokers, have diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary artery disease (CAD) (P<0.001 for each). Women were more likely to have ABI≤1.0, compared to men (26.6% versus 14.4%, respectively; P<0.001), as well as ABI≤0.9 (4.1% women versus 2.6% men; P<0.001). Women had higher median CRP levels (1.94 mg/L; interquartile range [IQR], 0.89, 4.44 mg/L), compared to men (1.35 mg/L; IQR, 0.73, 2.80 mg/L; P<0.001). Men and women shared similar risk factors for ABI≤0.9, including older age, black race, smoking, DM, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, CAD, and elevated CRP levels. In an adjusted model, there were significant interactions between gender and age (P<0.001), CRP (P<0.001), CAD (P=0.03), and DM (P=0.06) with ABI as the outcome. The associations between age, CRP, CAD, and DM with ABI≤0.9 were stronger in men than in women. Conclusions Women participating in the Life Line Screening had higher CRP levels and a higher prevalence of PAD, compared to men. Neither higher CRP levels nor conventional CVD risk factors explained the excess prevalence of PAD in women. PMID:24627420

  15. Sex differences in the outcomes of peripheral arterial disease: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohamad A.; Lindsay, Thomas F.; Mamdani, Muhammad; Wang, Xuesong; Verma, Subodh; Al-Omran, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of sex in the outcomes of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has been poorly studied. We sought to investigate differences in the long-term adverse cardiovascular and limb outcomes between men and women with PAD. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study with up to 7 years of follow-up using linked administrative databases in Ontario, Canada. Patients aged 40 years or older who visited a vascular surgeon between Apr. 1, 2004, and Mar. 31, 2007 (index date), and carried a diagnosis of PAD comprised the study cohort. The primary outcome was a composite of death or hospital admission for stroke or myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes included lower limb amputation or revascularization. We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to compute unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and HRs adjusted for baseline covariates. Results: A total of 6915 patients were studied, of whom 2461 (35.6%) were women. No significant differences in the risk of the primary outcome were observed between men and women (adjusted HR 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.05]). Women were less likely than men to undergo minor amputation (adjusted HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.62-0.85]) and arterial bypass surgery (adjusted HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.71-0.94]) but were more likely to be admitted to hospital for acute myocardial infarction (adjusted HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.00-1.31]). There were no sex differences in the rates of major amputation or transluminal percutaneous angioplasty. Interpretation: We identified no significant differences in the composite risk of major adverse cardiovascular events between women and men with PAD, although our findings suggest men may be at increased risk for adverse limb events compared with women. Cardiovascular health campaigns should focus on both women and men to promote early diagnosis and management of PAD. PMID:27280110

  16. Differentiating between light and deep sleep stages using an ambulatory device based on peripheral arterial tonometry.

    PubMed

    Bresler, Ma'ayan; Sheffy, Koby; Pillar, Giora; Preiszler, Meir; Herscovici, Sarah

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and assess an automatic algorithm based on the peripheral arterial tone (PAT) signal to differentiate between light and deep sleep stages. The PAT signal is a measure of the pulsatile arterial volume changes at the finger tip reflecting sympathetic tone variations and is recorded by an ambulatory unattended device, the Watch-PAT100, which has been shown to be capable of detecting wake, NREM and REM sleep. An algorithm to differentiate light from deep sleep was developed using a training set of 49 patients and was validated using a separate set of 44 patients. In both patient sets, Watch-PAT100 data were recorded simultaneously with polysomnography during a full night sleep study. The algorithm is based on 14 features extracted from two time series of PAT amplitudes and inter-pulse periods (IPP). Those features were then further processed to yield a prediction function that determines the likelihood of detecting a deep sleep stage epoch during NREM sleep periods. Overall sensitivity, specificity and agreement of the automatic algorithm to identify standard 30 s epochs of light and deep sleep stages were 66%, 89%, 82% and 65%, 87%, 80% for the training and validation sets, respectively. Together with the already existing algorithms for REM and wake detection we propose a close to full stage detection method based solely on the PAT and actigraphy signals. The automatic sleep stages detection algorithm could be very useful for unattended ambulatory sleep monitoring assessing sleep stages when EEG recordings are not available. PMID:18460762

  17. Instruction of Circulating Endothelial Progenitors In Vitro towards Specialized Blood-Brain Barrier and Arterial Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ponio, Julie Boyer-Di; El-Ayoubi, Fida; Glacial, Fabienne; Ganeshamoorthy, Kayathiri; Driancourt, Catherine; Godet, Maeva; Perrière, Nicolas; Guillevic, Oriane; Couraud, Pierre Olivier; Uzan, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Objective The vascular system is adapted to specific functions in different tissues and organs. Vascular endothelial cells are important elements of this adaptation, leading to the concept of ‘specialized endothelial cells’. The phenotype of these cells is highly dependent on their specific microenvironment and when isolated and cultured, they lose their specific features after few passages, making models using such cells poorly predictive and irreproducible. We propose a new source of specialized endothelial cells based on cord blood circulating endothelial progenitors (EPCs). As prototype examples, we evaluated the capacity of EPCs to acquire properties characteristic of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (blood-brain barrier (BBB)) or of arterial endothelial cells, in specific inducing culture conditions. Approach and Results First, we demonstrated that EPC-derived endothelial cells (EPDCs) co-cultured with astrocytes acquired several BBB phenotypic characteristics, such as restricted paracellular diffusion of hydrophilic solutes and the expression of tight junction proteins. Second, we observed that culture of the same EPDCs in a high concentration of VEGF resulted, through activation of Notch signaling, in an increase of expression of most arterial endothelial markers. Conclusions We have thus demonstrated that in vitro culture of early passage human cord blood EPDCs under specific conditions can induce phenotypic changes towards BBB or arterial phenotypes, indicating that these EPDCs maintain enough plasticity to acquire characteristics of a variety of specialized phenotypes. We propose that this property of EPDCs might be exploited for producing specialized endothelial cells in culture to be used for drug testing and predictive in vitro assays. PMID:24392113

  18. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun; Spertus, John

    2015-05-18

    Improvement in quality of life (QoL) is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) and ankle-brachial index (ABI), and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001). PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p's < 0.001). As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001). ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15). Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  19. Rapid reemergence of T cells into peripheral circulation following treatment of severe and uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Hviid, L; Kurtzhals, J A; Goka, B Q; Oliver-Commey, J O; Nkrumah, F K; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Frequencies and absolute numbers of peripheral T-cell subsets were monitored closely following acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 22 Ghanaian children from an area of hyperendemicity for seasonal malaria transmission. The children presented with cerebral or uncomplicated malaria (CM or UM, respectively) or with severe malarial anemia. For all patients the frequencies and absolute numbers of peripheral T cells were lower than normal during the acute stage of disease. This lowering was most pronounced in the CM group and least pronounced in the UM group. Of particular interest, the CM patients showed markedly reduced frequencies of CD4+ cells, the number of which also normalized slower than in the other clinical groups. In all patients, the T-cell frequencies gradually approached normal values after the initiation of therapy, whereas the absolute numbers rapidly reverted from lower than normal to higher than normal before returning to steady-state levels. Furthermore, the initially reduced T-cell surface density of the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex, which rapidly normalized, was a general finding for all three clinical groups, suggesting a state of peripheral T-cell hyporesponsiveness during acute malaria. The data presented suggest a rapid therapy-induced reemergence of T cells that had been temporarily removed from the peripheral circulation as a consequence of the malaria attack and that the degree of the disease-induced T-cell reallocation correlates with disease severity. PMID:9317012

  20. Possible advantages of stem cell transfusion into the peripheral circulation, as opposed to localized transplantation in situ.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin; McNiece, Ian; Haider, Husnain Khawaja; Calne, Roy Yorke; Cao, Tong

    2005-08-01

    Studies to date have overlooked the possible limitations of transplanting stem cells locally (in situ), directly at the site of tissue or organ damage. This approach is contrary to the intrinsic physiological process of tissue and organ regeneration in vivo, which is thought to involve the activation of stem cells resident within the transplanted tissues or their mobilization from ectopic sites, in particular the bone marrow. Signaling pathways and other molecular processes within stem cells transplanted in situ may not be primed to achieve optimal tissue regeneration and may even be confused by the sudden rapid transition in the cellular microenvironment encountered during transplantation. Moreover, there is a risk of the transplanted cells giving rise to undesired lineages at the transplantation site. A novel alternative would be to transfuse stem cells into the peripheral blood circulation, followed by induced homing to the site of tissue damage. This could better replicate the natural physiological process of tissue repair in vivo. Transfusion into the peripheral blood circulation could be a strategy to augment the inadequate mobilization of endogenous adult stem cells from ectopic sites for tissue repair, which may be the case for older patients. The transfused stem cells can then be induced to home in on a damaged tissue or organ, via the controlled release of specific cytokines or chemokines (i.e., stromal cell derived factor-1) emanating from that particular tissue or organ. The gradient of released cytokines/ chemokines within the peripheral blood circulation would then direct the chemotactic migration and homing of the transfused stem cells to the target tissue or organ.

  1. Test–retest reliability of peripheral arterial tonometry in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Katherine A; West, Sheila G; McCrea, Cindy E; Campbell, Janice M; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Jenkins, David JA; Kendall, Cyril WC

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is an important contributor to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, routine assessment via angiography or flow-mediated dilation is difficult due to technical limitations. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) is a promising alternative method for non-invasive assessment of endothelial dysfunction. This study assessed the test–retest reliability of PAT in adults with the metabolic syndrome (n = 20) and provides sample size and power estimates for study design. Participants completed five PAT tests each separated by 1 week. The PAT-derived reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) showed robust repeatability (intra-class correlation = 0.74). A parallel-arm study powered at 0.90 would require 22 participants to detect an absolute change in RHI of 0.40 units (equal to ∼25% change in this sample), whereas a crossover study would require 12 participants. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that PAT can be used to assess endothelial dysfunction in adults with the metabolic syndrome as reliably as in healthy samples. PMID:24659234

  2. Epicatechin and catechin modulate endothelial activation induced by platelets of patients with peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, R; Loffredo, L; Nocella, C; Bartimoccia, S; Bucci, T; De Falco, E; Peruzzi, M; Chimenti, I; Biondi-Zoccai, G; Pignatelli, P; Violi, F; Frati, G

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activation contributes to the alteration of endothelial function, a critical initial step in atherogenesis through the production and release of prooxidant mediators. There is uncertainty about the precise role of polyphenols in interaction between platelets and endothelial cells (ECs). We aimed to investigate whether polyphenols are able to reduce endothelial activation induced by activated platelets. First, we compared platelet activation and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 10 healthy subjects (HS) and 10 patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Then, we evaluated the effect of epicatechin plus catechin on platelet-HUVEC interaction by measuring soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), NOx production, and eNOS phosphorylation (p-eNOS) in HUVEC. Compared to HS, PAD patients had enhanced platelet activation. Conversely, PAD patients had lower FMD than HS. Supernatant of activated platelets from PAD patients induced an increase of sCAMs release and a decrease of p-eNOS and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability compared to unstimulated HUVEC. Coincubation of HUVEC, with supernatant of PAD platelets patients, pretreated with a scalar dose of the polyphenols, resulted in a decrease of sCAMs release and in an increase of p-eNOS and NO bioavailability. This study demonstrates that epicatechin plus catechin reduces endothelial activation induced by activated platelets.

  3. Epicatechin and Catechin Modulate Endothelial Activation Induced by Platelets of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carnevale, R.; Loffredo, L.; Nocella, C.; Bartimoccia, S.; Bucci, T.; De Falco, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Chimenti, I.; Biondi-Zoccai, G.; Pignatelli, P.; Violi, F.; Frati, G.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activation contributes to the alteration of endothelial function, a critical initial step in atherogenesis through the production and release of prooxidant mediators. There is uncertainty about the precise role of polyphenols in interaction between platelets and endothelial cells (ECs). We aimed to investigate whether polyphenols are able to reduce endothelial activation induced by activated platelets. First, we compared platelet activation and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 10 healthy subjects (HS) and 10 patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Then, we evaluated the effect of epicatechin plus catechin on platelet-HUVEC interaction by measuring soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), NOx production, and eNOS phosphorylation (p-eNOS) in HUVEC. Compared to HS, PAD patients had enhanced platelet activation. Conversely, PAD patients had lower FMD than HS. Supernatant of activated platelets from PAD patients induced an increase of sCAMs release and a decrease of p-eNOS and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability compared to unstimulated HUVEC. Coincubation of HUVEC, with supernatant of PAD platelets patients, pretreated with a scalar dose of the polyphenols, resulted in a decrease of sCAMs release and in an increase of p-eNOS and NO bioavailability. This study demonstrates that epicatechin plus catechin reduces endothelial activation induced by activated platelets. PMID:25180068

  4. Combination of Cilostazol and L-Carnitine Improves Walking Performance in Peripheral Arterial Disease Model Rats.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Toshinori; Sahara, Hiroeki; Orito, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    Cilostazol and L-carnitine have been used as a first-line drug and supplement, respectively, in patients with peripheral arterial disease with intermittent claudication. In this study, the effect of the combination of cilostazol and L-carnitine has been investigated in rats with unilateral hindlimb ischemia. For 28 days, cilostazol and L-carnitine were administrated separately or as a combination. The distance walked before gait disturbance developed was measured using a treadmill for 5 days a week. The capillary density of the ischemic hindlimb was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining at days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Angiogenic gene expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR at days 7 and 28. The greatest increase in the distance was observed in the combination therapy group when compared to the other groups. The capillary density in the adductor muscles of rats treated with cilostazol alone and combination therapy increased at day 28. Angiopoietin-2/Angiopoietin-1 expression ratios were higher, suggesting the promotion of angiogenesis, with cilostazol alone and combination therapy at day 7. This is the first study to show functional improvement of the hind limb following combination therapy with cilostazol and L-carnitine in experimental animals. This study also revealed that cilostazol promotes angiogenesis, and L-carnitine additively contributes to functional improvement via a non-angiogenic mechanism.

  5. An integrative review of interventions to reduce peripheral arterial disease risk factors in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, Diana K

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to describe and assess randomized controlled trials of interventions to reduce peripheral arterial disease (PAD) risk factors among African Americans, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with PAD and the poorer outcomes in African Americans with PAD. The reviewed studies include non-pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure and lipids in African-American patients with the causal PAD risk factors of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Database searches identified 21 studies that met the inclusion criteria for the review. These studies included interventions utilizing four different strategies: education/enhanced care, diet, physical activity and meditation. Though between-group differences were seen in a minority of the studies, changes within groups was demonstrated more frequently. Overall, the interventions with the education/enhanced care focus had the greatest effects. The review highlighted the need for additional research involving younger patients, the need for enrolling more African-American males in these types of interventional studies and the need to increase recruiting among African Americans who do not have primary healthcare. Given the limited knowledge about PAD and associated risk factors, African Americans' efforts to increase knowledge about PAD risk factors and risk reduction aimed at these factors is extremely important in an aging American population.

  6. Uncoupling Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Peripheral Artery Disease with Therapeutic Peptide-loaded Microgels

    PubMed Central

    Zachman, Angela L.; Wang, Xintong; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M.; Fitzpatrick, Sean T.; Lee, Sue H.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Skala, Melissa C.; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by vessel occlusion and ischemia in the limbs. Treatment for PAD with surgical interventions has been showing limited success. Moreover, recent clinical trials with treatment of angiogenic growth factors proved ineffective as increased angiogenesis triggered severe inflammation in a proportionally coupled fashion. Hence, the overarching goal of this research was to address this issue by developing a biomaterial system that enables controlled, dual delivery of pro-angiogenic C16 and anti-inflammatory Ac-SDKP peptides in a minimally-invasive way. To achieve the goal, a peptide-loaded injectable microgel system was developed and tested in a mouse model of PAD. When delivered through multiple, low volume injections, the combination of C16 and Ac-SDKP peptides promoted angiogenesis, muscle regeneration, and perfusion recovery, while minimizing detrimental inflammation. Additionally, this peptide combination regulated inflammatory TNF-α pathways independently of MMP-9 mediated pathways of angiogenesis in vitro, suggesting a potential mechanism by which angiogenic and inflammatory responses can be uncoupled in the context of PAD. This study demonstrates a translatable potential of the dual peptide-loaded injectable microgel system for PAD treatment. PMID:25154665

  7. Uncoupling angiogenesis and inflammation in peripheral artery disease with therapeutic peptide-loaded microgels.

    PubMed

    Zachman, Angela L; Wang, Xintong; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M; Fitzpatrick, Sean T; Lee, Sue H; Guelcher, Scott A; Skala, Melissa C; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by vessel occlusion and ischemia in the limbs. Treatment for PAD with surgical interventions has been showing limited success. Moreover, recent clinical trials with treatment of angiogenic growth factors proved ineffective as increased angiogenesis triggered severe inflammation in a proportionally coupled fashion. Hence, the overarching goal of this research was to address this issue by developing a biomaterial system that enables controlled, dual delivery of pro-angiogenic C16 and anti-inflammatory Ac-SDKP peptides in a minimally-invasive way. To achieve the goal, a peptide-loaded injectable microgel system was developed and tested in a mouse model of PAD. When delivered through multiple, low volume injections, the combination of C16 and Ac-SDKP peptides promoted angiogenesis, muscle regeneration, and perfusion recovery, while minimizing detrimental inflammation. Additionally, this peptide combination regulated inflammatory TNF-α pathways independently of MMP-9 mediated pathways of angiogenesis in vitro, suggesting a potential mechanism by which angiogenic and inflammatory responses can be uncoupled in the context of PAD. This study demonstrates a translatable potential of the dual peptide-loaded injectable microgel system for PAD treatment. PMID:25154665

  8. Pneumoconiosis increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Hao; Lin, Te-Yu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    This nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study was used to evaluate the association between pneumoconiosis and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We identified 3374 patients with pneumoconiosis from the catastrophic illness registry who were newly diagnosed from 2000 to 2005; 13,496 patients without pneumoconiosis from Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) were randomly frequency matched according to sex, age, and index year and used as a nonpneumoconiosis group. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of PAD in the pneumoconiosis group compared with the nonpneumoconiosis group. The mean follow-up years were 7.44 years in the pneumoconiosis group and 8.17 years in the nonpneumoconiosis group. The incidence density rate of PAD was 1.25 times greater in the pneumoconiosis group than in the nonpneumoconiosis group (8.37 vs 6.70 per 1000 person-years). After adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidities, the adjusted HRs of PAD for the pneumoconiosis group were 1.30 (95% CI = 1.08-1.57), compared with the nonpneumoconiosis group. The combined impacts of patients with pneumoconiosis and diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma showed a significant by joint association with PAD risk compared with patients with no pneumoconiosis and no counterpart comorbidity. Patients with pneumoconiosis have an independently higher risk of developing PAD. Physicians should include pneumoconiosis in evaluating PAD risk.

  9. Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Dai, Ming-Shen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hung, Yuan; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause several life-threatening complications, particularly in cardiovascular and neurological systems. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the association between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and CO poisoning. We constructed a population-based retrospective cohort study to clarify the risks between PAD and CO poisoning. This population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified patients with CO poisoning and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of diagnosis of CO poisoning at a ratio of 1 patient to 4 control patients. We analyzed the risks for patients with CO poisoning and PAD by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 9046 patients with CO poisoning and 36,183 controls were included. The overall risks for developing PAD were 1.85-fold in the patients with CO poisoning compared with the comparison cohort after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed a higher risk for PAD development among patients with CO poisoning. PMID:26448007

  10. Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Six Middle Eastern Countries

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Hassan A.; El-Menyar, Ayman; Zubaid, Mohammad; Rashed, Wafa A.; Ridha, Mustafa; Almahmeed, Wael; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Amin, Haitham; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2011-01-01

    To describe prevalence and impact of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), data were collected over 5 months from 6 Middle Eastern countries. Patients were divided into 2 groups (with and without PAD). Out of 6705 consecutive ACS patients, PAD was reported in 177 patients. In comparison to non-PAD, PAD patients were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors. They were more likely to have high Killip class, high GRACE risk score, and non-ST elevation ACS (NSTEACS) at presentation. Thrombolytics, antiplatelet use, and coronary intervention were comparable in both groups. When presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), patients with PAD had worse outcomes, while in NSTEACS; PAD was associated with higher rate of heart failure in comparison to non-PAD patients. In diabetics, PAD was associated with 2-fold increase in mortality when compared to non-PAD (P = 0.028). After adjustment, PAD was associated with high mortality in STEMI (adjusted OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.23–5.65, P = 0.01). Prevalence of PAD in ACS in the Gulf region is low. Patients with PAD and ACS constitute a high risk group and require more attention. PAD in patients with STEMI is an independent predictor of in-hospital death. PMID:22220279

  11. Chronic venous ulceration of leg associated with peripheral arterial disease: an underappreciated entity in developing country.

    PubMed

    Nag, Falguni; De, Abhishek; Hazra, Avijit; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Surana, Trupti V

    2014-10-01

    Chronic venous ulcer can often be associated with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which usually remains undiagnosed adding significantly to the morbidity of these patients. The Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) is suggested for PAD evaluation. Many PAD studies were conducted in western countries, but there is a scarcity of data on the prevalence of PAD in clinical venous ulcer patient in developing countries. We conducted a study in a tertiary care hospital of eastern part of India to find out the prevalence of PAD in venous ulcer patients, and also to find the sensitivity of ABPI as a diagnostic tool in these patients. We evaluated clinically diagnosed patients with venous ulcer using ABPI and Colour Doppler study for the presence of PAD. Possible associations such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, hypertension and atherosclerosis were studied. All results were analysed using the software Statistica version 6. PAD was present in 23 (27·71%) patients. Older age, longer duration, smoking, high BMI and hypertension were found to be significantly associated with PAD. A very strong level of agreement was found between venous Doppler and ABPI. Assessment for the presence of PAD is important in all clinically diagnosed venous ulcer patients. ABPI being a simple, non-invasive outpatient department (OPD)-based procedure, can be routinely used in cases of venous ulcer to find out the hidden cases of PAD even in developing countries. PMID:23170845

  12. Epicatechin and catechin modulate endothelial activation induced by platelets of patients with peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, R; Loffredo, L; Nocella, C; Bartimoccia, S; Bucci, T; De Falco, E; Peruzzi, M; Chimenti, I; Biondi-Zoccai, G; Pignatelli, P; Violi, F; Frati, G

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activation contributes to the alteration of endothelial function, a critical initial step in atherogenesis through the production and release of prooxidant mediators. There is uncertainty about the precise role of polyphenols in interaction between platelets and endothelial cells (ECs). We aimed to investigate whether polyphenols are able to reduce endothelial activation induced by activated platelets. First, we compared platelet activation and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 10 healthy subjects (HS) and 10 patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Then, we evaluated the effect of epicatechin plus catechin on platelet-HUVEC interaction by measuring soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), NOx production, and eNOS phosphorylation (p-eNOS) in HUVEC. Compared to HS, PAD patients had enhanced platelet activation. Conversely, PAD patients had lower FMD than HS. Supernatant of activated platelets from PAD patients induced an increase of sCAMs release and a decrease of p-eNOS and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability compared to unstimulated HUVEC. Coincubation of HUVEC, with supernatant of PAD platelets patients, pretreated with a scalar dose of the polyphenols, resulted in a decrease of sCAMs release and in an increase of p-eNOS and NO bioavailability. This study demonstrates that epicatechin plus catechin reduces endothelial activation induced by activated platelets. PMID:25180068

  13. Use of prostheses in lower limb amputee patients due to peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Chamlian, Therezinha Rosane

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the indication of prosthesis during rehabilitation and the maintenance of their use or abandonment rate after discharge, as well as mortality of lower limb amputees due to peripheral arterial disease. Methods A retrospective and cross-sectional study carried out with lower limb amputee patients, at transfemoral and transtibial levels, due to vascular conditions. The sample was composed of 310 patients (205 men, 105 women, mean age 61.8 years), transfemoral (142) and transtibial (150) levels, unilateral or bilateral (18). A total of 217 were fitted with prosthesis and 93 did not. Nonparametric statistical tests with equality of two proportions, 95% confidence interval and p value <0,05 were used. Results Out of 195 patients we contacted, 151 were fitted with prosthesis and 44 not. Of those that were fitted with prosthesis, 54 still use it, 80 abandoned and 17 died. In the group without prosthesis, 27 were on wheelchair and 17 died. Mortality is statistically higher among patients who were not fitted with prosthesis and 34 death occur, on average, 3.91 years after amputation. Survival time of patients who were not fitted with prosthesis was smaller than those were fitted. Conclusion The use of prosthesis in lower limb amputees, due to vascular conditions, during rehabilitation is high. However, maintenance of prosthesis is not frequent after discharge. Early and high mortality is observed mainly among diabetic patients. PMID:25628194

  14. MR Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Stents: In Vitro Evaluation of 22 Different Stent Types.

    PubMed

    Burg, Matthias C; Bunck, Alexander C; Seifarth, Harald; Buerke, Boris; Kugel, Harald; Hesselmann, Volker; Köhler, Michael; Heindel, Walter; Maintz, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate stent lumen visibility of a large sample of different peripheral arterial (iliac, renal, carotid) stents using magnetic resonance angiography in vitro. Materials and Methods. 21 different stents and one stentgraft (10 nitinol, 7 316L, 2 tantalum, 1 cobalt superalloy, 1 PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1 platinum alloy) were examined in a vessel phantom (vessel diameters ranging from 5 to 13 mm) filled with a solution of Gd-DTPA. Stents were imaged at 1.5 Tesla using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence. Image analysis was performed measuring three categories: Signal intensity in the stent lumen, lumen visibility of the stented lumen, and homogeneity of the stented lumen. The results were classified using a 3-point scale (good, intermediate, and poor results). Results. 7 stents showed good MR lumen visibility (4x nitinol, 2x tantalum, and 1x cobalt superalloy). 9 stents showed intermediate results (5x nitinol, 2x 316L, 1x PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1x platinum alloy) and 6 stents showed poor results (1x nitinol, and 5x 316L). Conclusion. Stent lumen visibility varies depending on the stent material and type. Some products show good lumen visibility which may allow the detection of stenoses inside the lumen, while other products cause artifacts which prevent reliable evaluation of the stent lumen with this technique. PMID:22091380

  15. In vitro hemorheological effects of parenteral agents used in peripheral arterial disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Katalin; Sandor, Barbara; Toth, Andras; Koltai, Katalin; Papp, Judit; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Kalman; Kesmarky, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. In PAD hemorheological parameters were defined as risk factors in a number of studies and several therapeutic agents were tried in these conditions. Our study aims to investigate and compare the in vitro hemorheological effects of various drugs generally used in the parenteral treatment of intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. Blood samples of healthy male volunteers were incubated with iloprost, alprostadil, pentoxifylline, sulodexide or pentosan polysulfate at calculated therapeutic serum concentration. Hematocrit (Hct) was determined by microhematocrit centrifuge. Plasma and apparent whole blood viscosities (WBV) were evaluated by capillary viscometer. Red blood cell aggregation was measured by LORCA (laserassisted optical rotational cell analyzer) aggregometer, and LORCA ektacytometer was used for measuring erythrocyte deformability at 37°C. Iloprost, alprostadil, and pentoxifylline incubation did not have any significant effect on plasma and apparent WBV. Elongation index increased in samples incubated with alprostadil at low shear stresses 0.95 and 0.53 Pa (p < 0.05). Sulodexide significantly improved WBV and Hct/WBV ratio (p < 0.05). Incubation with pentosan polysulfate resulted in higher WBV, lower Hct/WBV ratio and deterioration in the aggregation parameters (p < 0.05). Sulodexide may have beneficial effect on a macrorheological parameter; alprostadil may improve a microrheological parameter. Hemorheological alterations could be important in PAD patients with hampered vasodilator capacity.

  16. MR Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Stents: In Vitro Evaluation of 22 Different Stent Types

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Matthias C.; Bunck, Alexander C.; Seifarth, Harald; Buerke, Boris; Kugel, Harald; Hesselmann, Volker; Köhler, Michael; Heindel, Walter; Maintz, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate stent lumen visibility of a large sample of different peripheral arterial (iliac, renal, carotid) stents using magnetic resonance angiography in vitro. Materials and Methods. 21 different stents and one stentgraft (10 nitinol, 7 316L, 2 tantalum, 1 cobalt superalloy, 1 PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1 platinum alloy) were examined in a vessel phantom (vessel diameters ranging from 5 to 13 mm) filled with a solution of Gd-DTPA. Stents were imaged at 1.5 Tesla using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence. Image analysis was performed measuring three categories: Signal intensity in the stent lumen, lumen visibility of the stented lumen, and homogeneity of the stented lumen. The results were classified using a 3-point scale (good, intermediate, and poor results). Results. 7 stents showed good MR lumen visibility (4x nitinol, 2x tantalum, and 1x cobalt superalloy). 9 stents showed intermediate results (5x nitinol, 2x 316L, 1x PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1x platinum alloy) and 6 stents showed poor results (1x nitinol, and 5x 316L). Conclusion. Stent lumen visibility varies depending on the stent material and type. Some products show good lumen visibility which may allow the detection of stenoses inside the lumen, while other products cause artifacts which prevent reliable evaluation of the stent lumen with this technique. PMID:22091380

  17. Comparing Supervised Exercise Therapy to Invasive Measures in the Management of Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, Thomas; McHugh, Seamus; Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A.; Lee, Michael J.; McCaffrey, Noel; Moneley, Daragh; Leahy, Austin L.; Naughton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Consensus rightly demands the incorporation of supervised exercise training (SET) into PAD treatment protocols. However, the exact role of SET particularly its relationship with intervention requires further clarification. While supervised exercise is undoubtedly an excellent tool in the conservative management of mild PAD its use in more advanced disease as an adjunct to open or endovascular intervention is not clearly defined. Indeed its use in isolation in this cohort is incompletely reported. The aim of this review is to clarify the exact role of SET in the management of symptomatic PAD and in particular to assess its role in comparison with or as an adjunct to invasive intervention. A systematic literature search revealed a total 11 randomised studies inclusive of 969 patients. All studies compared SET and intervention with monotherapy. Study results suggest that exercise is a complication-free treatment. Furthermore, it appears to offer significant improvements in patients walk distances with a combination of both SET and intervention offering a superior walking outcome to monotherapy in those requiring invasive measures. PMID:26601122

  18. Optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging of vascular recovery in a model of peripheral arterial disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Kristin M.; Sit, Wesley W.; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M.; Duvall, Craig L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) leads to an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life. The mouse hind limb ischemia (HLI) model is the most commonly used system for studying the mechanisms of collateral vessel formation and for testing new PAD therapies, but there is a lack of techniques for acquiring physiologically-relevant, quantitative data intravitally in this model. In this work, non-invasive, quantitative optical imaging techniques were applied to the mouse HLI model over a time course. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaged changes in blood flow (Doppler OCT) and microvessel morphology (speckle variance OCT) through the skin of haired mice with high resolution. Hyperspectral imaging was also used to quantify blood oxygenation. In ischemic limbs, blood oxygenation in the footpad was substantially reduced after induction of ischemia followed by complete recovery by three weeks, consistent with standard measures. Three dimensional images of the vasculature distal to vessel occlusion acquired with speckle variance OCT revealed changes in OCT flow signal and vessel morphology. Taken together, OCT and hyperspectral imaging enable intravital acquisition of both functional and morphological data which fill critical gaps in understanding structure-function relationships that contribute to recovery in the mouse HLI model. Therefore, these optical imaging methods hold promise as tools for studying the mechanisms of vascular recovery and evaluating novel therapeutic treatments in preclinical studies.

  19. Herpes zoster infection increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Te-Yu; Yang, Fu-Chi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Tse-Yen

    2016-08-01

    Varicella-zoster virus infection can cause meningoencephalitis, myelitis, ocular disorders, and vasculopathy. However, no study has investigated the association between herpes zoster (HZ) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD).We identified newly diagnosed HZ from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database recorded during 2000 to 2010, with a follow-up period extending until December 31, 2011. In addition, we included a comparison cohort that was randomly frequency-matched with the HZ cohort according to age, sex, and index year. We analyzed the risk of PAD with respect to sex, age, and comorbidities by using Cox proportional-hazards regression models.In total, 35,391 HZ patients and 141,556 controls were enrolled in this study. The risk of PAD was 13% increased in the HZ cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that the risk of PAD was significantly higher in the HZ cohort than in the non-HZ cohort (P < 0.001).This nationwide population-based cohort study revealed a higher risk of PAD in patients with HZ infection than in those without the infection. Careful follow-up and aggressive treatment is recommended for patients with HZ to reduce the risk of PAD. PMID:27583856

  20. Therapeutic angiogenesis for peripheral artery diseases by autologous bone marrow cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Satoaki; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a terminal stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD). The number of patients with CLI is increasing, and the disease has a major impact on patients' quality of life. In spite of the marked advances in surgery and interventional angioplasty, a large number of patients require revascularization. To treat these patients, cell based angiogenesis is attracting a great deal of attention as a new strategy. "Therapeutic angiogenesis" is a term that has become widely used in the last decade. Despite negative results in several clinical trials of cytokine-based angiogenesis, cell based therapy produced effective angiogenesis. This cell-based angiogenesis originates from persistent basic research. The first clinical randomized pilot study was reported in 2002. Up to now, more than 30 clinical studies on the use of mononuclear cells or progenitor cells for the treatment have been published. As the prognosis of the patients with CLI is poor, it has been discussed with respect to their safety and feasibility. With the increasing number of treated patients, the accumulated outcomes from these clinical studies are demonstrating this therapy to be reliable. They reveal indications of the stage of the patients with PAD and the timing of treatments. However, clinical data concerning long time prognosis and a standardized protocol have not been discussed sufficiently. This review summarises data from recent clinical outcomes from 17 studies (11 involving BMMNC that included >10 patients, 6 involving PBMNC that included >10 patients) that are treating patients with PAD by autologous cell transplantation.

  1. An integrative review of interventions to reduce peripheral arterial disease risk factors in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, Diana K

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to describe and assess randomized controlled trials of interventions to reduce peripheral arterial disease (PAD) risk factors among African Americans, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with PAD and the poorer outcomes in African Americans with PAD. The reviewed studies include non-pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure and lipids in African-American patients with the causal PAD risk factors of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Database searches identified 21 studies that met the inclusion criteria for the review. These studies included interventions utilizing four different strategies: education/enhanced care, diet, physical activity and meditation. Though between-group differences were seen in a minority of the studies, changes within groups was demonstrated more frequently. Overall, the interventions with the education/enhanced care focus had the greatest effects. The review highlighted the need for additional research involving younger patients, the need for enrolling more African-American males in these types of interventional studies and the need to increase recruiting among African Americans who do not have primary healthcare. Given the limited knowledge about PAD and associated risk factors, African Americans' efforts to increase knowledge about PAD risk factors and risk reduction aimed at these factors is extremely important in an aging American population. PMID:19486853

  2. Peripheral artery occlusive disease in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with nilotinib or imatinib.

    PubMed

    Kim, T D; Rea, D; Schwarz, M; Grille, P; Nicolini, F E; Rosti, G; Levato, L; Giles, F J; Dombret, H; Mirault, T; Labussière, H; Lindhorst, R; Haverkamp, W; Buschmann, I; Dörken, B; le Coutre, P D

    2013-06-01

    Several retrospective studies have described the clinical manifestation of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) in patients receiving nilotinib. We thus prospectively screened for PAOD in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP CML) being treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), including imatinib and nilotinib. One hundred and fifty-nine consecutive patients were evaluated for clinical and biochemical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Non-invasive assessment for PAOD included determination of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and duplex ultrasonography. A second cohort consisted of patients with clinically manifest PAOD recruited from additional collaborating centers. Pathological ABI were significantly more frequent in patients on first-line nilotinib (7 of 27; 26%) and in patients on second-line nilotinib (10 of 28; 35.7%) as compared with patients on first-line imatinib (3 of 48; 6.3%). Clinically manifest PAOD was identified in five patients, all with current or previous nilotinib exposure only. Relative risk for PAOD determined by a pathological ABI in first-line nilotinib-treated patients as compared with first-line imatinib-treated patients was 10.3. PAOD is more frequently observed in patients receiving nilotinib as compared with imatinib. Owing to the severe nature of clinically manifest PAOD, longitudinal non-invasive monitoring and careful assessment of risk factors is warranted.

  3. Recruiting African Americans with peripheral artery disease for a behavioral intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Love, Brittany; Nwachokor, Daniel; Collins, Tracie

    2016-08-01

    We report recruitment strategies for an NIH-funded trial focused on African Americans with peripheral artery disease (PAD). We present complete recruitment efforts for this 1-year trial, 5-year study. Eligibility included the following: African American, a resting ankle-brachial index (ABI) ⩽ 0.99, a short physical performance battery (SPPB) score of 10 or lower, English speaking, telephone access, and absence of coronary ischemia during a submaximal treadmill test. Recruitment included mailings of brochures to zip codes in which more than 50% of residents were African American, advertisements, community events, and physician/clinic referrals. We telephone-screened 3511 persons, of whom 792 did not recall the method by which they learned about the study. We randomized 174 participants. Mailings yielded the highest percentage of randomized participants (n=60, 34.4%), followed by television advertisements (n=42, 24.1%), followed by community events (n=24, 13.8%). In conclusion, to recruit African Americans with PAD for a clinical trial, investigators should consider mailings of brochures, television advertisements, and community events. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER NCT01321086.

  4. Distribution and innervation of putative peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    PubMed

    Reyes, Catalina; Fong, Angelina Y; Milsom, William K

    2015-06-15

    Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors have been isolated to the common carotid artery, aorta, and pulmonary artery of turtles. However, the putative neurotransmitters associated with these chemoreceptors have not yet been described. The goal of the present study was to determine the neurochemical content, innervations, and distribution of putative oxygen-sensing cells in the central vasculature of turtles and to derive homologies with peripheral arterial chemoreceptors of other vertebrates. We used tract tracing together with immunohistochemical markers for cholinergic cells (vesicular acetylcholine transporter [VAChT]), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis), and serotonin (5HT) to identify putative oxygen-sensing cells and to determine their anatomical relation to branches of the vagus nerve (Xth cranial nerve). We found potential oxygen-sensing cells in all three chemosensory areas innervated by branches of the Xth cranial nerve. Cells containing either 5HT or VAChT were found in all three sites. The morphology and size of these cells resemble glomus cells found in amphibians, mammals, tortoises, and lizards. Furthermore, we found populations of cholinergic cells located at the base of the aorta and pulmonary artery that are likely involved in efferent regulation of vessel resistance. Catecholamine-containing cells were not found in any of the putative chemosensitive areas. The presence of 5HT- and VAChT-immunoreactive cells in segments of the common carotid artery, aorta, and pulmonary artery appears to reflect a transition between cells containing the major neurotransmitters seen in fish (5HT) and mammals (ACh and adenosine).

  5. Association Between Albuminuria and Duration of Diabetes and Myocardial Dysfunction and Peripheral Arterial Disease Among Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease in the BARI 2D Study

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Jorge; Rana, Jamal S.; Lombardero, Manuel S.; Albert, Stewart G.; Davis, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Frank P.; Mooradian, Arshag D.; Robertson, David G.; Srinivas, V. S.; Gebhart, Suzanne S. P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of prior duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin level at study entry, and microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria on the extent and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral arterial disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied baseline characteristics of the 2368 participants of the BARI 2D (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes) study, a randomized clinical trial that evaluates treatment efficacy for patients with type 2 diabetes and angiographically documented stable CAD. Patients were enrolled from January 1, 2001, through March 31, 2005. Peripheral arterial disease was ascertained by an ankle-brachial index (ABI) of 0.9 or less, and extent of CAD was measured by presence of multivessel disease, a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of less than 50%, and myocardial jeopardy index. RESULTS: Duration of diabetes of 20 or more years was associated with increased risk of ABI of 0.9 or less (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.26), intermittent claudication (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.10-2.35), and LVEF of less than 50% (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.37-3.02). Microalbuminuria was associated with intermittent claudication (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.02) and ABI of 0.9 or less (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.98-1.75), whereas macroalbuminuria was associated with abnormal ABI, claudication, and LVEF of less than 50%. There was a significant association between diabetes duration and extent of CAD as manifested by number of coronary lesions, but no other significant associations were observed between duration of disease, glycated hemoglobin levels, or albumin-to-creatinine ratio and other manifestations of CAD. CONCLUSION: Duration of diabetes and microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria are important predictors of severity of peripheral arterial disease and left ventricular dysfunction in a cohort of patients selected for the presence of CAD. PMID:20042560

  6. Suspension model for blood flow through a catheterized arterial stenosis with peripheral layer of plasma free from cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponalagusamy, R.

    2016-06-01

    The present article describes the blood flow in a catheterized artery with radially symmetric and axially asymmetric stenosis. To understand the effects of red cell concentration, plasma layer thickness and catheter size simultaneously, blood is considered by a two-layered model comprising a core region of suspension of all the erythrocytes (particles) supposed to be a particle-fluid mixture and a peripheral zone of cell-free plasma. The analytical expressions for flow features, such as fluid phase and particle phase velocities, flow rate, wall shear stress and resistive force are obtained. It is witnessed that the presence of the catheter causes a substantial increase in the frictional forces on the walls of arterial stenosis and catheter, shear stress and flow resistance, in addition to that, have occurred due to the presence of red cells concentration (volume fraction density of the particles) and the absence of peripheral plasma layer near the wall of the stenosed artery. The introduction of an axially asymmetric nature of stenosis and plasma layer thickness causes significant reduction in flow resistance. One can notice that the two-phase fluid (suspension model) is more profound to the thickness of peripheral plasma layer and catheter than the single-phase fluid.

  7. Acute Ischemic Stroke Involving Both Anterior and Posterior Circulation Treated by Endovascular Revascularization for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion via Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Atsushi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of acute ischemic stroke involving both the anterior and posterior circulation associated with a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA), treated by endovascular revascularization for acute basilar artery (BA) occlusion via the PPTA. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man experienced sudden loss of consciousness and quadriplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an extensive acute infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere, and magnetic resonance angiography showed occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and BA. Because the volume of infarction in the territory of the right MCA was extensive, we judged the use of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator to be contraindicated. Cerebral angiography revealed hypoplasia of both vertebral arteries and the presence of a PPTA from the right internal carotid artery. A microcatheter was introduced into the BA via the PPTA and revascularization was successfully performed using a Merci Retriever with adjuvant low-dose intraarterial urokinase. After treatment, his consciousness level and right motor weakness improved. Although persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses such as a PPTA are relatively rare vascular anomalies, if the persistent primitive artery is present, it can be an access route for mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27446523

  8. System identification of dynamic closed-loop control of total peripheral resistance by arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljuri, A. N.; Bursac, N.; Marini, R.; Cohen, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity in space flight missions (days) impairs the mechanisms responsible for defense of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cardiac output (CO) against orthostatic stress in the post-flight period. The mechanisms responsible for the observed orthostatic intolerance are not yet completely understood. Additionally, effective counter measures to attenuate this pathophysiological response are not available. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of our proposed system identification method to predict closed-loop dynamic changes in TPR induced by changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and right atrial pressure (RAP). For this purpose we designed and employed a novel experimental animal model for the examination of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors in the dynamic closed-loop control of total peripheral resistance (TPR), and applied system identification to the analysis of beat-to-beat fluctuations in the measured signals. Grant numbers: NAG5-4989. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The power of collateral circulation: a case of asymptomatic chronic total occlusion of the left main coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Saraon, Tajinderpal; Chadow, Hal L; Castillo, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Total occlusion of the left main coronary artery predominantly presents with recurrent angina or myocardial infarction. Long-term survival and myocardial function depends on the well-developed right to left collaterals. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who was referred because of incidental finding of low ejection fraction during work-up for syncope 5 months prior. The patient denied any recurrence or any other symptom after that episode and claimed an unchanged exercise capacity. He had hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and history of 15-pack/year smoking. Except for class II morbid obesity, he had completely normal vital signs, physical examination, and lab tests on admission. The echocardiogram was suggestive of previous anterior wall myocardial infarction and demonstrated a low left ventricle ejection fraction with diffuse hypokinesis of the left ventricle. The patient underwent cardiac catheterization, which revealed total occlusion of the left main coronary artery, dominant right coronary artery with a 95% stenosis in the proximal segment, and collaterals from the right to the left coronary arteries. The patient was immediately referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. This case demonstrates the power of collateral circulation in protecting the patient from symptoms and death despite total occlusion of the left main coronary artery and severe stenosis of the proximal right coronary artery.

  10. Intermittent hypoxia and arterial blood pressure control in humans: role of the peripheral vasculature and carotid baroreflex.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Joshua C; Boulet, Lindsey M; Tymko, Michael M; Foster, Glen E

    2016-09-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) occurs in association with obstructive sleep apnea and likely contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to examine the putative early adaptations at the level of the peripheral vasculature and carotid baroreflex (CBR) that may promote the development of hypertension. Ten healthy male participants (26 ± 1 yr, BMI = 24 ± 1 kg/m(2)) were exposed to 6 h of IH (1-min cycles of normoxia and hypoxia) and SHAM in a single-blinded, counterbalanced crossover study design. Ambulatory blood pressure was measured during each condition and the following night. Vascular strain of the carotid and femoral artery, a measure of localized arterial stiffness, and hemodynamic shear patterns in the brachial and femoral arteries were measured during each condition. Brachial artery reactive hyperemia flow-mediated vasodilation was assessed before and after each condition as a measure of endothelial function. CBR function and its control over leg vascular conductance (LVC) were measured after each condition with a variable-pressure neck chamber. Intermittent hypoxia 1) increased nighttime pulse pressure by 3.2 ± 1.3 mmHg, 2) altered femoral but not brachial artery hemodynamics, 3) did not affect brachial artery endothelial function, 4) reduced vascular strain in the carotid and possibly femoral artery, and 5) shifted CBR mean arterial pressure (MAP) to higher MAP while blunting LVC responses to CBR loading. These results suggest limb-specific vascular impairments, reduced vascular strain, and CBR resetting combined with blunted LVC responses are factors in the early pathogenesis of IH-induced development of hypertension. PMID:27402667

  11. Intermittent hypoxia and arterial blood pressure control in humans: role of the peripheral vasculature and carotid baroreflex.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Joshua C; Boulet, Lindsey M; Tymko, Michael M; Foster, Glen E

    2016-09-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) occurs in association with obstructive sleep apnea and likely contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to examine the putative early adaptations at the level of the peripheral vasculature and carotid baroreflex (CBR) that may promote the development of hypertension. Ten healthy male participants (26 ± 1 yr, BMI = 24 ± 1 kg/m(2)) were exposed to 6 h of IH (1-min cycles of normoxia and hypoxia) and SHAM in a single-blinded, counterbalanced crossover study design. Ambulatory blood pressure was measured during each condition and the following night. Vascular strain of the carotid and femoral artery, a measure of localized arterial stiffness, and hemodynamic shear patterns in the brachial and femoral arteries were measured during each condition. Brachial artery reactive hyperemia flow-mediated vasodilation was assessed before and after each condition as a measure of endothelial function. CBR function and its control over leg vascular conductance (LVC) were measured after each condition with a variable-pressure neck chamber. Intermittent hypoxia 1) increased nighttime pulse pressure by 3.2 ± 1.3 mmHg, 2) altered femoral but not brachial artery hemodynamics, 3) did not affect brachial artery endothelial function, 4) reduced vascular strain in the carotid and possibly femoral artery, and 5) shifted CBR mean arterial pressure (MAP) to higher MAP while blunting LVC responses to CBR loading. These results suggest limb-specific vascular impairments, reduced vascular strain, and CBR resetting combined with blunted LVC responses are factors in the early pathogenesis of IH-induced development of hypertension.

  12. Flow Cytometric Quantification of Peripheral Blood Cell β-Adrenergic Receptor Density and Urinary Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jonathan A; Wanner, Nicholas; Cheong, Hoi I; Queisser, Kimberly; Barrett, Patrick; Park, Margaret; Hite, Corrine; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by severe angiogenic remodeling of the pulmonary artery wall and right ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, there is an increasing need for novel biomarkers to dissect disease heterogeneity, and predict treatment response. Although β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) dysfunction is well documented in left heart disease while endothelial cell-derived microparticles (Ec-MPs) are established biomarkers of angiogenic remodeling, methods for easy large clinical cohort analysis of these biomarkers are currently absent. Here we describe flow cytometric methods for quantification of βAR density on circulating white blood cells (WBC) and Ec-MPs in urine samples that can be used as potential biomarkers of right heart failure in PAH. Biotinylated β-blocker alprenolol was synthesized and validated as a βAR specific probe that was combined with immunophenotyping to quantify βAR density in circulating WBC subsets. Ec-MPs obtained from urine samples were stained for annexin-V and CD144, and analyzed by a micro flow cytometer. Flow cytometric detection of alprenolol showed that βAR density was decreased in most WBC subsets in PAH samples compared to healthy controls. Ec-MPs in urine was increased in PAH compared to controls. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between Ec-MPs and Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in PAH patients. Therefore, flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood cell βAR density and urinary Ec-MPs may be useful as potential biomarkers of right ventricular function in PAH. PMID:27270458

  13. Flow Cytometric Quantification of Peripheral Blood Cell β-Adrenergic Receptor Density and Urinary Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jonathan A.; Wanner, Nicholas; Cheong, Hoi I.; Queisser, Kimberly; Barrett, Patrick; Park, Margaret; Hite, Corrine; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V.; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by severe angiogenic remodeling of the pulmonary artery wall and right ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, there is an increasing need for novel biomarkers to dissect disease heterogeneity, and predict treatment response. Although β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) dysfunction is well documented in left heart disease while endothelial cell-derived microparticles (Ec-MPs) are established biomarkers of angiogenic remodeling, methods for easy large clinical cohort analysis of these biomarkers are currently absent. Here we describe flow cytometric methods for quantification of βAR density on circulating white blood cells (WBC) and Ec-MPs in urine samples that can be used as potential biomarkers of right heart failure in PAH. Biotinylated β-blocker alprenolol was synthesized and validated as a βAR specific probe that was combined with immunophenotyping to quantify βAR density in circulating WBC subsets. Ec-MPs obtained from urine samples were stained for annexin-V and CD144, and analyzed by a micro flow cytometer. Flow cytometric detection of alprenolol showed that βAR density was decreased in most WBC subsets in PAH samples compared to healthy controls. Ec-MPs in urine was increased in PAH compared to controls. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between Ec-MPs and Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in PAH patients. Therefore, flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood cell βAR density and urinary Ec-MPs may be useful as potential biomarkers of right ventricular function in PAH. PMID:27270458

  14. Role of Cilostazol Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients with Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming Ying; Pai, Mei-Ann; Wu, Tsai-Kun; Chen, Chang Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its relevant complications are more common in hemodialysis (HD) patients, while the evidence regarding antiplatelet therapy in CKD patients is scarce. We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of cilostazol on outcomes in HD patients with asymptomatic PAD (aPAD). Methods. This cohort study enrolled 217 HD patients (median follow-up time: 5.75 years). Associations between cilostazol use and the outcomes were evaluated by time-dependent Cox regression analysis. Results. During follow-up, 39.5% (47/119) patients used cilostazol for aPAD and 31.8% (69/217) patients died. Cilostazol users had significantly lower CVD and all-cause mortalities (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 0.11 [0.03, 0.51] and 0.2 [0.08, 0.52]) than nonusers. Both death risks were nonsignificantly higher in cilostazol users than in HD patients without aPAD. The unadjusted and adjusted HR [95% CI] of CVD death risk were 0.4 [0.07, 2.12] and 0.14 [0.02, 0.8] for patients with aPAD during follow-up and were 0.74 [0.16, 3.36] and 0.19 [0.04, 0.93] for those with aPAD at initial. Conclusions. In HD patients with aPAD, lower CVD and all-cause mortality rates were observed in low-dose cilostazol user. Further evidences from large-scale prospective study and randomization trial are desired to confirm the effect of cilostazol. PMID:27747241

  15. Relation between peripheral chemoreceptors stimulation and pulmonary arterial blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Lagneaux, D

    1986-06-01

    As interactions between peripheral chemoreceptors stimulation (PCS) and pulmonary vasomotor tone remain controversial, experiments were made in rats in order to clear up the effects of PCS on pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). Different stimulations varying in intensities were used, in rats nervously intact (IR-rats), after vagotomy (XT-rats), after chemodenervation obtained without vagotomy (CDN not XT-rats) or with XT (CDN + XT) and finally after alpha 1-receptors blockade (P-rats = pretreated rats). The observed variations were analysed in view of disentangling reflex part of PCS from a direct activity on the pulmonary vascular bed. Ventilation, PAP and systemic blood pressure (BP) were studied in anaesthetized rats. N2 test, NaCN test, 20 s of 5% O2 inhalation and almitrine bismesylate (ALM) were used as PCS, ranged in the order of their relative intensities, from the ventilatory responses observed in IR-rats. In IR-rats, N2-and CN test produced a similar transient increase of PAP, slightly more extended than the hyperventilation. After XT, the responses were prolonged, but amplified only in CN test. Ventilatory responses disappear after CDN, but as far as pulmonary hypertension is concerned, CDN + XT is more potent than CDN without XT to reduce or even suppress them. This fact is particularly evident with ALM who is the strongest PCS used. Similar reduction of PAP rise was also produced in P-rats in which ventilatory responses remain unchanged. Prolonged hypoxic inhalation induced a progressive fall of systolic BP and of PAP. The return to normal air breathing is followed by BP restoration and a long-lasting PAP increase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Variability of residual platelet function despite clopidogrel treatment in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit; Schwonberg, Jan; Toennes, Stefan W; Mani, Helen; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2010-04-01

    Residual platelet function despite treatment with clopidogrel may predict an unfavourable cardiovascular outcome. The majority of studies have investigated the effects of clopidogrel administration in conjunction with aspirin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the platelet response to clopidogrel in the absence of aspirin in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and to investigate whether non-responsiveness to clopidogrel is reproducible during long-term follow-up. Fifty-four clinically stable PAOD patients on a maintenance dose of 75 mg/d clopidogrel were enrolled in this study. Platelet function was assessed at baseline and after a median follow-up of 18 months using light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) with 2 microM ADP as an agonist. HPLC-coupled mass spectrometry was used to detect clopidogrel and clopidogrel carboxylic acid, the main metabolite of clopidogrel. Residual platelet function, as defined by late aggregation values within the reference range (i.e., >43%), was observed in 35.2% of patients at baseline and 17.6% during follow-up. During the observation period, 26.5% had switched from responder to non-responder status or vice versa. Among non-responders, either clopidogrel or its metabolite was detected in 89.5% and 83.3% of patients at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. We conclude that non-responsiveness to clopidogrel as determined by ADP-induced LTA is not stable over time. This phenomenon cannot be attributed to non-compliance alone. PMID:20153859

  17. Prevalence and risk factors associated with peripheral artery disease in elderly patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Ding-Wei; Li, Chiu-Leong; Kuok, Un-I; Cheung, Kin; Lio, Weng-In; Xin, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid growth of the elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) population is posing a special challenge for renal teams. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been reported to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, the prevalence and associated risk factors for PAD in elderly PD patients have not yet been fully investigated. Methods A total of 69 elderly PD patients were included in the present study. PAD was defined as either an ankle-brachial index < 0.9 or a history of intermittent claudication, lower-limb amputation, foot ulcers, or gangrene. On enrollment, clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected. Results The overall prevalence of PAD was 31.9%. Compared with non-PAD patients, PAD patients were significantly older and more likely to be female and have longer PD duration and lower diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, = 0.002, 0.018, and 0.007, respectively). Serum albumin level (P < 0.001) and residual renal Kt/V value (P < 0.001) were significantly lower, but the serum C-reactive protein level (P = 0.005) was significantly higher, in PAD patients compared with non-PAD patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum albumin level (odds ratio = 1.485, P = 0.040) and residual renal Kt/V value (odds ratio = 1.725, P = 0.016) were independently associated with PAD. Conclusion A high prevalence of PAD appeared among elderly PD patients in Macao. Serum albumin level and residual renal Kt/V value were independently related to PAD. PMID:23112578

  18. Link between Peripheral Artery Disease and Heart Rate Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Chen, Chien-Fu; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chen, Jui-Hsin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) and low heart rate variability (HRV) are highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients, and both are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aims to examine the suggested relationship between PAD and HRV, and the relationship of parameters before and after hemodialysis. This study enrolled 161 maintenance hemodialysis patients. PAD was defined as ABI < 0.9 in either leg. HRV was performed to assess changes before and after hemodialysis. The change in HRV (△HRV) was defined as post-hemodialysis HRV minus pre-hemodialysis HRV. Patients’ clinical parameters were collected from the dialysis records. All HRV parameters except high frequency (HF) % were lower in patients with PAD than patients without PAD, though not achieving significant level. In patients without PAD, HF (P = 0.013), low frequency (LF) % (P = 0.028) and LF/HF (P = 0.034) were significantly elevated after hemodialysis, whereas no significant HRV parameters change was noted in patients with PAD. Serum intact parathyroid hormone was independently associated with △HF (β = -0.970, P = 0.032) and △LF% (β = -12.609, P = 0.049). Uric acid level (β = -0.154, P = 0.027) was negatively associated with △LF/HF in patients without PAD. Our results demonstrated that some of the HRV parameters were significantly increased after hemodialysis in patients without PAD, but not in patients with PAD, reflecting a state of impaired sympatho-vagal equilibrium. Severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperuricemia contributed to lesser HRV parameters increase after hemodialysis in patients without PAD. PMID:26237669

  19. Angiogenic response to passive movement and active exercise in individuals with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hoier, B; Walker, M; Passos, M; Walker, P J; Green, A; Bangsbo, J; Askew, C D; Hellsten, Y

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerosis and is associated with microcirculatory impairments in skeletal muscle. The present study evaluated the angiogenic response to exercise and passive movement in skeletal muscle of PAD patients compared with healthy control subjects. Twenty-one PAD patients and 17 aged control subjects were randomly assigned to either a passive movement or an active exercise study. Interstitial fluid microdialysate and tissue samples were obtained from the thigh skeletal muscle. Muscle dialysate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were modestly increased in response to either passive movement or active exercise in both subject groups. The basal muscle dialysate level of the angiostatic factor thrombospondin-1 protein was markedly higher (P < 0.05) in PAD patients compared with the control subjects, whereas soluble VEGF receptor-1 dialysate levels were similar in the two groups. The basal VEGF protein content in the muscle tissue samples was ∼27% lower (P < 0.05) in the PAD patients compared with the control subjects. Analysis of mRNA expression for a range of angiogenic and angiostatic factors revealed a modest change with active exercise and passive movement in both groups, except for an increase (P < 0.05) in the ratio of angiopoietin-2 to angiopoietin-1 mRNA in the PAD group with both interventions. PAD patients and aged individuals showed a similar limited angiogenic response to active exercise and passive movement. The limited increase in muscle extracellular VEGF combined with an elevated basal level of thrombospondin-1 in muscle extracellular fluid of PAD patients may restrict capillary growth in these patients.

  20. Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease: The Dong-gu Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Su-Hyun; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Shin, Min-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, few studies have evaluated the association between vitamin D status and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We therefore aimed to investigate whether low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with increased risk of PAD in the Korean population. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 8,960 subjects aged 50 years or older without known myocardial infarction or stroke. PAD was defined by an ankle brachial blood pressure index <0.9. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of PAD. Of the 8,960 subjects, 3.0% had PAD and the age and sex adjusted prevalence of PAD decreased with the increasing 25(OH)D quartile. After adjusting for potential confounders and parathyroid hormones, serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with a significantly decreased risk of PAD (OR for one SD increase, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.0, P for trend=0.040). Compared with the first 25(OH)D quartile, the odds of PAD were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.62-1.21), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.46-0.97), and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.49-1.04) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. In this cross-sectional study, we found that low serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with an increased risk of PAD, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and parathyroid hormone. Our findings suggest that low vitamin D levels may contribute to PAD in the Korean population. PMID:27689032

  1. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Depletion After Hepatic Arterial {sup 90}Yttrium Microsphere Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Brian I.; Metes, Diana M.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The short- and long-term effects of {sup 90}Yttrium microspheres therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on peripheral blood lymphocytes are unknown and were therefore examined. Methods and Materials: Ninety-two HCC patients were enrolled in a {sup 90}Yttrium therapy study and routine blood counts were examined as part of standard clinical monitoring. Results: We found an early, profound, and prolonged lymphopenia. In a subsequent cohort of 25 additional HCC patients, prospective flow cytometric immune-monitoring analysis was performed to identify specific changes on distinct lymphocyte subsets (i.e., CD3, CD4, CD8 T, and CD19 B lymphocytes) and NK cells absolute numbers, in addition to the granulocytes and platelets subsets. We found that the pretreatment lymphocyte subset absolute numbers (with the exception of NK cells) had a tendency to be lower compared with healthy control values, but no significant differences were detected between groups. Posttherapy follow-up revealed that overall, all lymphocyte subsets, except for NK cells, were significantly (>50% from pretherapy values), promptly (as early as 24 h) and persistently (up to 30 months) depleted post-{sup 90}Yttrium microspheres therapy. In contrast, granulocytes increased rapidly (24 h) to compensate for lymphocyte depletion, and remained increased at 1-year after therapy. We further stratified patients into two groups, according to survival at 1 year. We found that lack of recovery of CD19, CD3, CD8, and especially CD4 T cells was linked to poor patient survival. No fungal or bacterial infections were noted during the 30-month follow-up period. Conclusions: The results show that lymphocytes (and not granulocytes, platelets, or NK cells) are sensitive to hepatic arterial {sup 90}Yttrium without associated clinical toxicity, and lack of lymphocyte recovery (possibly leading to dysregulation of adaptive cellular immunity) posttherapy indicates poor survival.

  2. Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease: The Dong-gu Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Su-Hyun; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, few studies have evaluated the association between vitamin D status and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We therefore aimed to investigate whether low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with increased risk of PAD in the Korean population. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 8,960 subjects aged 50 years or older without known myocardial infarction or stroke. PAD was defined by an ankle brachial blood pressure index <0.9. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of PAD. Of the 8,960 subjects, 3.0% had PAD and the age and sex adjusted prevalence of PAD decreased with the increasing 25(OH)D quartile. After adjusting for potential confounders and parathyroid hormones, serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with a significantly decreased risk of PAD (OR for one SD increase, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.0, P for trend=0.040). Compared with the first 25(OH)D quartile, the odds of PAD were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.62-1.21), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.46-0.97), and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.49-1.04) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. In this cross-sectional study, we found that low serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with an increased risk of PAD, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and parathyroid hormone. Our findings suggest that low vitamin D levels may contribute to PAD in the Korean population. PMID:27689032

  3. Lower Extremity Ischemia, Calf Skeletal Muscle Characteristics, and Functional Impairment in Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Hoff, Frederick; Ferrucci, Luigi; Pearce, William H.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Tian, Lu; Liu, Kiang; Schneider, Joseph R.; Sharma, Leena; Tan, Jin; Criqui, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether lower ankle brachial index (ABI) levels are associated with lower calf skeletal muscle area and higher calf muscle percentage fat in persons with and without lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING Three Chicago-area medical centers. PARTICIPANTS Four hundred thirty-nine persons with PAD (ABI<0.90) and 265 without PAD (ABI 0.90–1.30). MEASUREMENTS Calf muscle cross-sectional area and the percentage of fat in calf muscle were measured using computed tomography at 66.7% of the distance between the distal and proximal tibia. Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer. Functional measures included the 6-minute walk, 4-meter walking speed, and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). RESULTS Adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidities, and other potential confounders, lower ABI values were associated with lower calf muscle area (ABI<0.50, 5,193 mm2; ABI 0.50–0.90, 5,536 mm2; ABI 0.91–1.30, 5,941 mm2; P for trend <.001). These significant associations remained after additional adjustment for physical activity. In participants with PAD, lower calf muscle area in the leg with higher ABI was associated with significantly poorer performance in usual- and fast-paced 4-meter walking speed and on the SPPB, adjusting for ABI, physical activity, percentage fat in calf muscle, muscle area in the leg with lower ABI, and other confounders (P<.05 for all comparisons). CONCLUSION These data support the hypothesis that lower extremity ischemia has a direct adverse effect on calf skeletal muscle area. This association may mediate previously established relationships between PAD and functional impairment. PMID:17341243

  4. Administrative data are not sensitive for the detection of peripheral artery disease in the community.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yongzhe; Sebastianski, Meghan; Makowsky, Mark; Tsuyuki, Ross; McMurtry, M Sean

    2016-08-01

    We sought to evaluate whether case ascertainment using administrative health data would be a feasible way to identify peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients from the community. Subjects' ankle-brachial index (ABI) scores from two previous prospective observational studies were linked with International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Canadian Classification of Interventions (CCI) codes from three administrative databases from April 2002 to March 2012, including the Alberta Inpatient Hospital Database (ICD-10-CA/CCI), Ambulatory Care Database (ICD-10-CA/CCI), and the Practitioner Payments Database (ICD-9-CM). We calculated diagnostic statistics for putative case definitions of PAD consisting of individual code or sets of codes, using an ABI score ⩽ 0.90 as the gold standard. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate additional predictive factors for PAD. Different combinations of diagnostic codes and predictive factors were explored to find out the best algorithms for identifying a PAD study cohort. A total of 1459 patients were included in our analysis. The average age was 63.5 years, 66% were male, and the prevalence of PAD was 8.1%. The highest sensitivity of 34.7% was obtained using the algorithm of at least one ICD diagnostic or procedure code, with specificity 91.9%, positive predictive value (PPV) 27.5% and negative predictive value (NPV) 94.1%. The algorithm achieving the highest PPV of 65% was age ⩾ 70 years and at least one code within 443.9 (ICD-9-CM), I73.9, I79.2 (ICD-10-CA/CCI), or all procedure codes, validated with ABI < 1.0 (sensitivity 5.56%, specificity 99.4% and NPV 84.6%). In conclusion, ascertaining PAD using administrative data scores was insensitive compared with the ABI, limiting the use of administrative data in the community setting. PMID:27114456

  5. Role of disease status and type D personality in outcomes in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Aquarius, Annelies E; Denollet, Johan; Hamming, Jaap F; De Vries, Jolanda

    2005-10-01

    Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often experience diminishing quality of life (QOL) in many domains of their lives. However, factors associated with impaired QOL and perceived stress in these patients are not completely understood. The relative effects of disease status and type D ("distressed") personality (tendencies to experience negative emotions and be socially inhibited) on these patient-based outcomes were examined. It has been argued that type D personality might depend on disease status; therefore, its effect was examined in a combined sample of 150 patients with PAD and 150 healthy controls. The Type D Scale-14, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument-100, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 Item assessed type D personality, QOL, and perceived stress, respectively. PAD severity (mild, moderate, or severe) was not associated with QOL or perceived stress. However, patients with PAD reported decreased QOL (p < 0.05) compared with healthy controls. Type D patients reported significantly poorer QOL than non-type D patients across PAD and healthy subgroups (p < 0.0001). After controlling for disease status (presence or absence of PAD), type D personality remained associated with increased risk for impaired QOL (odds ratio [OR] 7.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.39 to 15.96, p < 0.0001) and perceived stress (OR 6.45, 95% CI 3.42 to 12.18, p < 0.0001). Hence, type D personality was associated with impaired QOL beyond the impairment already related to PAD and with increased stress in this high-risk population. In conclusion, type D personality is not merely a function of PAD but seems to represent a different determinant of patient-based outcomes.

  6. Community walking speed, sedentary or lying down time, and mortality in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tian, Lu; Kibbe, Melina R; Greenland, Philip; Green, David; Liu, Kiang; Zhao, Lihui; Wilkins, John T; Huffman, Mark D; Shah, Sanjiv J; Liao, Yihua; Gao, Ying; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Criqui, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    We studied whether slower community walking speed and whether greater time spent lying down or sleeping were associated with higher mortality in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants with an ankle-brachial index (ABI) < 0.90 were identified from Chicago medical centers. At baseline, participants reported their usual walking speed outside their home and the number of hours they spent lying down or sleeping per day. Cause of death was adjudicated using death certificates and medical record review. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, comorbidities, ABI, and other confounders. Of 1314 PAD participants, 189 (14.4%) died, including 63 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. Mean follow-up was 34.9 months ± 18.1. Relative to average or normal pace (2-3 miles/hour), slower walking speed was associated with greater CVD mortality: no walking at all: hazard ratio (HR) = 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.46-11.89; casual strolling (0-2 miles/hour): HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.16-4.32; brisk or striding (>3 miles/hour): HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.07-4.30. These associations were not significant after additional adjustment for the six-minute walk. Relative to sleeping or lying down for 8-9 hours, fewer or greater hours sleeping or lying down were associated with higher CVD mortality: 4-7 hours: HR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.06-4.05; 10-11 hours: HR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.86-8.89; ⩾ 12 hours: HR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.47-9.62. These associations were maintained after adjustment for the six-minute walk. In conclusion, slower walking speed outside the home and less than 8 hours or more than 9 hours lying down per day are potentially modifiable behaviors associated with increased CVD mortality in patients with PAD. PMID:26873873

  7. Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease: The Dong-gu Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Su-Hyun; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, few studies have evaluated the association between vitamin D status and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We therefore aimed to investigate whether low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with increased risk of PAD in the Korean population. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 8,960 subjects aged 50 years or older without known myocardial infarction or stroke. PAD was defined by an ankle brachial blood pressure index <0.9. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of PAD. Of the 8,960 subjects, 3.0% had PAD and the age and sex adjusted prevalence of PAD decreased with the increasing 25(OH)D quartile. After adjusting for potential confounders and parathyroid hormones, serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with a significantly decreased risk of PAD (OR for one SD increase, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.0, P for trend=0.040). Compared with the first 25(OH)D quartile, the odds of PAD were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.62-1.21), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.46-0.97), and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.49-1.04) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. In this cross-sectional study, we found that low serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with an increased risk of PAD, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and parathyroid hormone. Our findings suggest that low vitamin D levels may contribute to PAD in the Korean population.

  8. The Contemporary Safety and Effectiveness of Lower Extremity Bypass Surgery and Peripheral Endovascular Interventions in the Treatment of Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rehring, Thomas F.; Rogers, R. Kevin; Shetterly, Susan M.; Wagner, Nicole M.; Gupta, Rajan; Jazaeri, Omid; Hedayati, Nasim; Jones, W. Schuyler; Patel, Manesh R.; Ho, P. Michael; Go, Alan S.; Magid, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Treatment for symptomatic peripheral artery disease includes lower extremity bypass surgery (LEB) and peripheral endovascular interventions (PVIs); however, limited comparative effectiveness data exist between the 2 therapies. We assessed the safety and effectiveness of LEB and PVI in patients with symptomatic claudication and critical limb ischemia. Methods and Results— In a community-based clinical registry at 2 large integrated healthcare delivery systems, we compared 883 patients undergoing PVI and 975 patients undergoing LEB between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. Rates of target lesion revascularization were greater for PVI than for LEB in patients presenting with claudication (12.3±2.7% and 19.0±3.5% at 1 and 3 years versus 5.2±2.4% and 8.3±3.1%, log-rank P<0.001) and critical limb ischemia (19.1±4.8% and 31.6±6.3% at 1 and 3 years versus 10.8±2.5% and 16.0±3.2%, log-rank P<0.001). However, in comparison with PVI, LEB was associated with increased rates of complications up to 30 days following the procedure (37.1% versus 11.9%, P<0.001). There were no differences in amputation rates between the 2 groups. Findings remained consistent in sensitivity analyses by using propensity methods to account for treatment selection. Conclusions— In patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease, in comparison with LEB, PVI was associated with fewer 30-day procedural complications, higher revascularization rates at 1 and 3 years, and no difference in subsequent amputations. PMID:26362632

  9. Relationship between endogenous concentrations of vasoactive substances and measures of peripheral vasodilator function in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Casey, Darren P; Nichols, Wilmer W; Conti, C Richard; Braith, Randy W

    2010-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between plasma concentrations of nitrite/nitrate (NO(x)) and endothelin (ET)-1 and non-invasive measures of peripheral vasodilator function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). 2. Twenty-two patients with angiographic CAD underwent non-invasive measurement of peripheral vasodilator function in the brachial conduit artery (flow-mediated dilation (FMD) testing via ultrasound) and in the forearm resistance arteries (via venous occlusion plethysmography) during reactive hyperaemia after 5 min ischaemia. In addition, plasma NO(x) and ET-1 concentrations were determined. 3. The plasma concentration of NO(x) was related to the peak brachial FMD response when expressed as either the relative (%) or absolute (mm) change in diameter (r = 0.73, P < 0.001; and r = 0.64, P < 0.01, respectively). Moreover, plasma concentrations of NO(x) demonstrated a relationship with forearm vasodilation estimated by total forearm blood flow following 5 min ischaemia (r = 0.63, P < 0.01) and the flow debt repayment of the forearm (r = 0.54, P < 0.01). Finally, ET-1 concentrations were inversely related to FMD% (r = -0.45, P < 0.05). 4. The findings of the present study demonstrate a relationship between the plasma concentrations of NO(x) and measures of vascular reactivity in conduit and resistance arteries in patients with CAD. Therefore, measurement of plasma NO(x) may serve as a reliable marker for peripheral vasodilator dysfunction in patients with CAD. PMID:19515062

  10. The effects of conventional extracorporeal circulation versus miniaturized extracorporeal circulation on microcirculation during cardiopulmonary bypass-assisted coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yuruk, Koray; Bezemer, Rick; Euser, Mariska; Milstein, Dan M.J.; de Geus, Hilde H.R.; Scholten, Evert W.; de Mol, Bas A.J.M.; Ince, Can

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To reduce the complications associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery, many modifications have been made to conventional extracorporeal circulation systems. This trend has led to the development of miniaturized extracorporeal circulation systems. Cardiac surgery using conventional extracorporeal circulation systems has been associated with significantly reduced microcirculatory perfusion, but it remains unknown whether this could be prevented by an mECC system. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that microcirculatory perfusion decreases with the use of a conventional extracorporeal circulation system and would be preserved with the use of an miniaturized extracorporeal circulation system. METHODS Microcirculatory density and perfusion were assessed using sublingual side stream dark-field imaging in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery before, during and after the use of either a conventional extracorporeal circulation system (n = 10) or a miniaturized extracorporeal circulation system (n = 10). In addition, plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance were assessed up to 5 days post-surgery to monitor renal function. RESULTS At the end of the CPB, one patient in the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation-treated group and five patients in the conventional extracorporeal circulation-treated group received one bag of packed red blood cells (300 ml). During the CPB, the haematocrit and haemoglobin levels were slightly higher in the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation-treated patients compared with the conventional extracorporeal circulation-treated patients (27.7 ± 3.3 vs 24.7 ± 2.0%; P = 0.03; and 6.42 ± 0.75 vs 5.41 ± 0.64 mmol/l; P < 0.01). The density of perfused vessels with a diameter <25 µm (i.e. perfused vessel density) decreased slightly in the conventional extracorporeal circulation-treated group from 16

  11. Imaging of vascular dynamics within the foot using dynamic diffuse optical tomography to diagnose peripheral arterial disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, M. A.; Kim, H. K.; Hoi, J. W.; Kim, I.; Dayal, R.; Shrikande, G.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is the narrowing of the functional area of the artery generally due to atherosclerosis. It affects between 8-12 million people in the United States and if untreated this can lead to ulceration, gangrene and ultimately amputation. The current diagnostic method for PAD is the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The ABI is a ratio of the patient's systolic blood pressure in the foot to that of the brachial artery in the arm, a ratio below 0.9 is indicative of affected vasculature. However, this method is ineffective in patients with calcified arteries (diabetic and end-stage renal failure patients), which falsely elevates the ABI recording resulting in a false negative reading. In this paper we present our results in a pilot study to deduce optical tomography's ability to detect poor blood perfusion in the foot. We performed an IRB approved 30 patient study, where we imaged the feet of the enrolled patients during a five stage dynamic imaging sequence. The patients were split up into three groups: 10 healthy subjects, 10 PAD patients and 10 PAD patients with diabetes and they were imaged while applying a pressure cuff to their thigh. Differences in the magnitude of blood pooling in the foot and rate at which the blood pools in the foot are all indicative of arterial disease.

  12. Endovascular treatments for posterior cerebral artery aneurysms and vascular insufficiency of fetal-type circulation after parent artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Kato, Noriyuki; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Hosoo, Hisayuki; Yamazaki, Tomosato; Yasuda, Susumu; Matsumura, Akira

    2016-10-01

    We present a retrospective analysis of endovascular treatments for posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms and discuss the susceptibility of a fetal-type PCA to vascular insufficiency after parent artery occlusion. Among 1207 aneurysms treated with endovascular therapy between March 1997 and March 2013 in our institution, 10 patients (0.8%) presented PCA aneurysms. The principal strategy was to employ selective coil embolization for the aneurysm. However, in certain cases of fusiform or dissecting aneurysms, we performed parent artery occlusion with coils. Clinical and radiological data were collected from hospital charts and evaluated retrospectively. The mean age was 52.7±15.6years (range, 12-65years). Five patients (50%) were admitted with a subarachnoid hemorrhage, and one patient presented with slowly developing paralysis. The remaining four patients were diagnosed incidentally. Five patients underwent selective coil embolization, and five patients underwent parent artery occlusion. All endovascular therapies were successfully performed. However, two patients in the parent artery occlusion group suffered cerebral infarction, and both patients exhibited a fetal-type PCA. The remaining three patients in the parent artery occlusion group exhibited an adult-type PCA and did not suffer a cerebral infarction. Endovascular treatment with either selective coil embolization or parent artery occlusion is safe and effective as the long as the anatomical type of the PCA is considered. Patients with a fetal-type PCA may develop vascular insufficiency upon parent artery occlusion. Neurosurgeons should attempt to preserve the parent artery using a flow-diverting stent or stent-assisted technique for a fetal-type PCA aneurysm. PMID:27523585

  13. Molecular detection of peripheral blood breast cancer mRNA transcripts as a surrogate biomarker for circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Adriana; Garcia, Arnal; Alonso, Carmen; Millet, Pilar; Cornet, Mónica; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Baiget, Montserrat; Barnadas, Agusti

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are becoming a scientifically recognized indicator of primary tumors and/or metastasis. These cells can now be accurately detected and characterized as the result of technological advances. We analyzed the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) using a panel of selected genes. The analysis of a single marker, without an EpCAM based enrichment approach, allowed the positive identification of 35% of the metastatic breast cancer patients. The analysis of five genes (SCGB2, TFF1, TFF3, Muc1, KRT20) performed in all the samples increased the detection to 61%. We describe a sensitive, reproducible and easy to implement approach to characterize CTC in patients with metastasic breast cancer.

  14. Circulating "LncPPARδ" From Monocytes as a Novel Biomarker for Coronary Artery Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yue; Yang, Yujia; Chen, Xiongwen; He, Duofeng; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Wen, Xiulan; Hu, Jiayong; Fu, Chunjiang; Qiu, Dongfeng; Jose, Pedro A; Zeng, Chunyu; Zhou, Lin

    2016-02-01

    To investigate long noncoding RNA NONHSAT112178 (LncPPARδ) as a biomarker for coronary artery disease (CAD) in peripheral blood monocyte cells, RT-qPCR was performed to validate the microarray results, receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to study the potential of LncPPARδ as a biomarker. Diagnostic models from LncPPARδ alone or combination of risk factors were constructed by Fisher criteria. The expression of genes neighboring the LncPPARδ gene was examined with RT-qPCR in THP-1 cell line treated with LncPPARδ siRNA. Using a diagnostic model by Fisher criteria, the consideration of risk factors increased the optimal sensitivity from 70.00% to 82.00% and decreased the specificity from 94.00% to 78.00%. The consideration of risk factors also increased area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from 0.727 to 0.785 (P = 0.001), from 0.712 to 0.768 (P = 0.01), and from 0.769 to 0.835 (P = 0.07), in the original, training, and test sets, respectively. Finally, we found that the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), Adipose Differentiation-Related Protein (ADRP), and Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) were affected by LncPPARδ silencing.Our present study indicated that LncPPARδ, especially combined with risk factors, can be a good biomarker for CAD. LncPPARδ regulates the expression of neighboring protein-coding genes, PPARδ and its direct target genes ADRP and ANGPTL4. PMID:26871769

  15. Circulating and renal vein levels of microRNAs in patients with renal artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moo Yong; Herrmann, Sandra M.; Saad, Ahmed; Widmer, Robert Jay; Tang, Hui; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C.; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2015-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression and have been implicated in atherosclerosis. Kidney injury distal to atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is aggravated by atherosclerosis. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that renal miR expression would be altered in patients with ARAS. Methods Patients with essential hypertension (EH; n = 13) or ARAS (n = 13) underwent a 3-day protocol study under controlled conditions. For miR levels, blood samples were collected from EH and ARAS renal vein (RV) and inferior vena cava or peripheral vein of matched normotensive healthy volunteers (HV; n = 13) and patients with coronary atherosclerosis (CA; n = 11). Single-renal blood flow was measured in EH and ARAS using computer tomography to calculate renal gradients and release of miRs. Results Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was lower in ARAS compared with the other groups. Systemic levels of most miRs were elevated in CA. RV miR levels were lower than systemic levels in both ARAS and EH. GFR-adjusted RV levels of miR-21, 155 and 210 were reduced only in ARAS patients compared with systemic levels in HV, although cross-kidney gradients were not different from EH. RV levels of miR-21, 126, 155 and 210 correlated with GFR. Conclusions Levels of atherosclerosis-related miR-21, 126, 155 and 210 are decreased in the stenotic-kidney vein of ARAS compared with EH patients, likely due to decreased GFR. Yet, these miRs might be implicated in modulating renal injury in ARAS, and their RV level may be a marker reflecting their renal expression. PMID:25362000

  16. Association of Small Dense LDL Serum Levels and Circulating Monocyte Subsets in Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Kastl, Stefan P.; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Lenz, Max; Hofbauer, Sebastian L.; Wonnerth, Anna; Koller, Lorenz; Katsaros, Katharina M.; Pongratz, Thomas; Goliasch, Georg; Niessner, Alexander; Gaspar, Ludovit; Huber, Kurt; Maurer, Gerald; Dostal, Elisabeth; Wojta, Johann; Oravec, Stanislav; Speidl, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease in which monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role. Circulating monocytes can be divided into three distinct subtypes, namely in classical monocytes (CM; CD14++CD16-), intermediate monocytes (IM; CD14++CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (NCM; CD14+CD16++). Low density lipoprotein particles are heterogeneous in size and density, with small, dense LDL (sdLDL) crucially implicated in atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine whether monocyte subsets are associated with sdLDL serum levels. Methods We included 90 patients with angiographically documented stable coronary artery disease and determined monocyte subtypes by flow cytometry. sdLDL was measured by an electrophoresis method on polyacrylamide gel. Results Patients with sdLDL levels in the highest tertile (sdLDL≥4mg/dL;T3) showed the highest levels of pro-inflammatory NCM (15.2±7% vs. 11.4±6% and 10.9±4%, respectively; p<0.01) when compared with patients in the middle (sdLDL=2-3mg/dL;T2) and lowest tertile (sdLDL=0-1mg/dL;T1). Furthermore, patients in the highest sdLDL tertile showed lower CM levels than patients in the middle and lowest tertile (79.2±8% vs. 83.9±7% and 82.7±5%; p<0.01 for T3 vs. T2+T1). Levels of IM were not related to sdLDL levels (5.6±4% vs. 4.6±3% vs. 6.4±3% for T3, T2 and T1, respectively). In contrast to monocyte subset distribution, levels of circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were not associated with sdLDL levels. Conclusion The atherogenic lipoprotein fraction sdLDL is associated with an increase of NCM and a decrease of CM. This could be a new link between lipid metabolism dysregulation, innate immunity and atherosclerosis. PMID:25849089

  17. The Completeness of Intervention Descriptions in Randomised Trials of Supervised Exercise Training in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Brabyn, Sally; Cook, Liz; Peckham, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the use of supervised exercise training as a primary therapy for improving the functional status of people with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Several reviews have focused on reporting the outcomes of exercise interventions, but none have critically examined the quality of intervention reporting. Adequate reporting of the exercise protocols used in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is central to interpreting study findings and translating effective interventions into practice. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the completeness of intervention descriptions in RCTs of supervised exercise training in people with PAD. A systematic search strategy was used to identify relevant trials published until June 2015. Intervention description completeness in the main trial publication was assessed using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist. Missing intervention details were then sought from additional published material and by emailing authors. Fifty-eight trials were included, reporting on 76 interventions. Within publications, none of the interventions were sufficiently described for all of the items required for replication; this increased to 24 (32%) after contacting authors. Although programme duration, and session frequency and duration were well-reported in publications, complete descriptions of the equipment used, intervention provider, and number of participants per session were missing for three quarters or more of interventions (missing for 75%, 93% and 80% of interventions, respectively). Furthermore, 20%, 24% and 26% of interventions were not sufficiently described for the mode of exercise, intensity of exercise, and tailoring/progression, respectively. Information on intervention adherence/fidelity was also frequently missing: attendance rates were adequately described for 29 (38%) interventions, whereas sufficient detail about the intensity of exercise performed was presented for only 8 (11

  18. Elevated Blood Urea Nitrogen is Associated With Critical Limb Ischemia in Peripheral Arterial Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Gary, Thomas; Pichler, Martin; Schilcher, Gernot; Hafner, Franz; Hackl, Gerald; Rief, Peter; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    As renal function is often impaired in atherosclerosis patients, accelerating atherosclerosis per se and creating a vicious cycle, we investigated the association of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients. Our cross-sectional study included 1521 PAOD patients, with normal and impaired renal function treated at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Patients on renal replacement therapy were excluded. The cohort was divided into tertiles according to the serum BUN levels. An optimal cutoff value for the continuous BUN was calculated by applying a receiver-operating curve analysis to discriminate between CLI and non-CLI. In our cohort, CLI increased significantly with an increase in BUN (13.1% in the first tertile, 18.7% in the second tertile, 29.0% in the third tertile, P for trend < 0.001). A BUN of 17.7  mg/dL was identified as an optimal cutoff. Accordingly, there were 2 groups of patients: 636 patients with BUN ≤ 17.7 and 885 patients with BUN > 17.7. CLI was more frequent in BUN > 17.7 patients (342 [38.6%]) than in BUN  ≤ 17.7 patients (134 [21.1%]) (P < 0.001); the same applied to prior myocardial infarction (45 [5.1%] vs 15 [2.4%], P = 0.007) and congestive heart failure (86 [9.7%] vs 31 [4.9%], P < 0.001). A BUN > 17.7 was associated with an odds ratio of 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-1.9, P < 0.001) for CLI even after the adjustment for other established vascular risk factors such as age ≥ 75 and type 2 diabetes. An increased BUN is significantly associated with a high risk for CLI and other vascular endpoints. The BUN is an easily determinable, broadly available, and inexpensive marker that could be used to identify patients at high risk for vascular endpoints.

  19. The Completeness of Intervention Descriptions in Randomised Trials of Supervised Exercise Training in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Brabyn, Sally; Cook, Liz; Peckham, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the use of supervised exercise training as a primary therapy for improving the functional status of people with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Several reviews have focused on reporting the outcomes of exercise interventions, but none have critically examined the quality of intervention reporting. Adequate reporting of the exercise protocols used in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is central to interpreting study findings and translating effective interventions into practice. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the completeness of intervention descriptions in RCTs of supervised exercise training in people with PAD. A systematic search strategy was used to identify relevant trials published until June 2015. Intervention description completeness in the main trial publication was assessed using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist. Missing intervention details were then sought from additional published material and by emailing authors. Fifty-eight trials were included, reporting on 76 interventions. Within publications, none of the interventions were sufficiently described for all of the items required for replication; this increased to 24 (32%) after contacting authors. Although programme duration, and session frequency and duration were well-reported in publications, complete descriptions of the equipment used, intervention provider, and number of participants per session were missing for three quarters or more of interventions (missing for 75%, 93% and 80% of interventions, respectively). Furthermore, 20%, 24% and 26% of interventions were not sufficiently described for the mode of exercise, intensity of exercise, and tailoring/progression, respectively. Information on intervention adherence/fidelity was also frequently missing: attendance rates were adequately described for 29 (38%) interventions, whereas sufficient detail about the intensity of exercise performed was presented for only 8 (11

  20. [Peripheral arterial pseudo-aneurysm in Behçet's disease: Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Abissegue, Y; Ouldsalek, E; Lyazidi, Y; El Ochi, M R; El Fatemi, B; Chtata, H T; Bensaid, Y; Taberkant, M

    2016-05-01

    Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiopathogenesis. Arterial events such as pseudo-aneurysms are rare and may be the mode of occurrence of the disease. These pseudo-aneurysms tend, regardless of size, to progress rapidly to life-threatening rupture. We report two cases of arterial pseudo-aneurysms that ruptured. Treatment consisted of surgical repair in one case and arterial ligation in the other; the postoperative course was uneventful in both cases.

  1. Combined effects of noise and hand-arm vibration on auditory organ and peripheral circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakita, T.; Miura, H.; Futatsuka, M.

    1991-12-01

    This paper first presents an overview of an epidemiological study on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in relation to vibration-induced white finger (VWF). Secondly, the results obtained in a model experiment with a chain-saw under laboratory conditions are discussed from the viewpoints of elucidating the etiological mechanisms of VWF and NIHL. In the epidemiological study, in which 499 chain-saw workers were examined, chain-saw workers with VWF showed a significantly greater hearing loss at high frequencies than those without VWF. Next, an experimental study was designed to determine whether a combination of noise and vibration produced more pronounced changes in temporary shifts of finger skin temperature and temporary threshold shift (TTS) of hearing than those resulting from exposure to either stress alone. The results suggested that noise might play a part in inducing the constriction of the peripheral vessels seen with local exposure to vibration, and that hand-arm vibration may produce an additive effect on the noise-induced TTS. Furthermore, finger skin temperature and finger blood flow were measured simultaneously as indicators of peripheral circulatory movement for five healthy subjects. The relation between the synergistic action of noise and vibration and the participation of the sympathetic nervous system are also discussed.

  2. Nestin Positive Bone Marrow Derived Cells Responded to Injury Mobilize into Peripheral Circulation and Participate in Skin Defect Healing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Pang, Danlin; Hu, Chenghu; Lv, Yajie; He, Tao; An, Yulin; Tang, Zhangui; Deng, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Exogenously infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are thought to migrate to injury site through peripheral blood stream and participate in tissue repair. However, whether and how endogenous bone marrow MSCs mobilized to circulating and targeted to tissue injury has raised some controversy, and related studies were restricted by the difficulty of MSCs identifying in vivo. Nestin, a kind of intermediate filament protein initially identified in neuroepithelial stem cells, was recently reported as a credible criteria for MSCs in bone marrow. In this study, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled bone marrow replacement model to trace the nestin positive bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) of skin defected-mice. We found that after skin injured, numbers of nestin+ cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow both increased. A remarkable concentration of nestin+ BMDCs around skin wound was detected, while few of these cells could be observed in uninjured skin or other organs. This recruitment effect could not be promoted by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), suggests a different mobilization mechanism from ones G-CSF takes effect on hematopoietic cells. Our results proposed nestin+ BMDCs as mobilized candidates in skin injury repair, which provide a new insight of endogenous MSCs therapy. PMID:26633897

  3. Optimal Scanning Protocols for Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Stents: An in Vitro Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Abdulrahman; Sun, Zhonghua; Al Safran, Zakariya; Poovathumkadavi, Abduljaleel; Albader, Suha; Ifdailat, Husam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the optimal dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scanning protocol for peripheral arterial stents while achieving a low radiation dose, while still maintaining diagnostic image quality, as determined by an in vitro phantom study. Methods: Dual-energy scans in monochromatic spectral imaging mode were performed on a peripheral arterial phantom with use of three gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) protocols, three pitch values, and four kiloelectron volts (keV) ranges. A total of 15 stents of different sizes, materials, and designs were deployed in the phantom. Image noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and the four levels of monochromatic energy for DECT imaging of peripheral arterial stents were measured and compared to determine the optimal protocols. Results: A total of 36 scans with 180 datasets were reconstructed from a combination of different protocols. There was a significant reduction of image noise with a higher SNR from monochromatic energy images between 65 and 70 keV in all investigated preset GSI protocols (p < 0.05). In addition, significant effects were found from the main effect analysis for these factors: GSI, pitch, and keV (p = 0.001). In contrast, there was significant interaction on the unstented area between GSI and ASIR (p = 0.015) and a very high significant difference between keV and ASIR (p < 0.001). A radiation dose reduction of 50% was achieved. Conclusions: The optimal scanning protocol and energy level in the phantom study were GSI-48, pitch value 0.984, and 65 keV, which resulted in lower image noise and a lower radiation dose, but with acceptable diagnostic images. PMID:26006234

  4. Circulating immune complexes of calves with bronchopneumonia modulate the function of peripheral blood leukocytes: In vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Buač, Marijana; Mojsilović, Slavko; Mišić, Dušan; Vuković, Dejan; Savić, Olivera; Valčić, Olivera; Marković, Dragana; Gvozdić, Dragan; Ilić, Vesna; Fratrić, Natalija

    2016-06-01

    In this work we studied if circulating immune complexes (CIC) of calves with bronchopneumonia have the capacity to modulate function of peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy cattle. CIC of three month old calves (6 healthy and 6 diseased) were isolated by PEG precipitation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and granulocytes from healthy calves and cows were the CIC responder cells in in vitro tests. The most remarkable increase of adhesiveness to polystyrene and ROS synthesis (assessed by NBT test) was detected in cows' granulocytes stimulated with CIC of diseased calves. Results of MTT test showed that CIC of both healthy and diseased calves reduced granulocytes' viability. The strongest effect of inhibition of cows' granulocytes resulted from CIC of diseased calves. CIC only moderately reduced spontaneous viability of calves' MNCs. Again, the strongest effect of CIC isolated from diseased calves was observed. In contrast to the low impact of CIC on non-stimulated cells, their inhibitory effect on viability of mitogen stimulated MNCs was very strong. With CFSE assay we showed that both types of CIC stimulated spontaneous, but inhibited mitogen induced proliferation of calves' MNCs. Propidium iodide staining reviled that CIC increased apoptosis/necrosis of both non-stimulated and mitogen stimulated MNCs. CIC of both healthy and diseased calves modulated the function of peripheral blood MNCs and granulocytes, but a stronger effect of CIC of diseased calves was shown. The age of the donors (calves or cows) of the responder cells, and the activation state of these cells, were also of influence. PMID:27234551

  5. A Novel Index Using Ankle Hemodynamic Parameters to Assess the Severity of Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanno, Jun; Gatate, Yodo; Kasai, Takatoshi; Nakano, Shintaro; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Sato, Osamu; Ichioka, Shigeru; Kuro-o, Makoto; Nishimura, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower extremities, the presence of flow-limiting stenoses can be objectively detected by the ankle-brachial index (ABI). However, the severity of ischemic symptoms is not necessarily associated with the ABI value. Atherosclerotic plaque in lower extremity PAD induces ankle arterial stiffness and reduces ankle vascular resistance, which may decrease ankle blood flow and cause ischemic symptoms. We hypothesized that the ankle hemodynamic index (AHI), defined as the ratio of ankle arterial stiffness to ankle vascular resistance, could be used to assess the blood supply deficiency in a diseased lower limb in patients with PAD. The 85 consecutive patients with PAD who were retrospectively analyzed in this study had Rutherford grade 1 to grade 6 ischemia diagnosed as PAD and significant stenotic lesions (>50% diameter stenosis) of the lower extremity on contrast angiography. The AHI was calculated as the product of the ankle pulse pressure and the ratio of heart rate to ankle mean arterial pressure (ankle pulse pressure × heart rate/ankle mean arterial pressure). The Rutherford grade was significantly correlated with the AHI (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), but not with the ABI (r = 0.07, P = 0.52). Multiple ordinal regression analysis showed that anemia (odds ratio 0.66, P = 0.002) and AHI (odds ratio 1.04, P = 0.02) were independently associated with Rutherford grade. Our study shows that AHI, a novel parameter based on the ABI measurement, is well correlated with ischemic symptoms, and may be a useful means to assess the arterial blood supply of the lower extremities of patients with PAD. PMID:27760183

  6. Don't Forget the Pulses! Aortoiliac Peripheral Artery Disease Masquerading as Lumbar Radiculopathy-A Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Lin, James D; Morrissey, Nicholas J; Levine, William N

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons commonly encounter patients with lumbar radiculopathy. These patients typically seek treatment for lower back or buttock pain radiating down the leg. It can be challenging to differentiate between orthopedic, neurologic, and vascular causes of leg pain, such as peripheral artery disease (PAD), especially aortoiliac PAD, which can present with hip, buttock, and thigh pain. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a series of patients with thigh pain initially diagnosed as radiculopathy who underwent unproductive diagnostic tests and procedures, and ultimately were given delayed diagnoses of aortoiliac PAD. PMID:27552456

  7. Contemporary medical management of peripheral arterial disease: a focus on risk reduction and symptom relief for intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kush; Eberhardt, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is primarily caused by progressive systemic atherosclerosis manifesting in the lower extremities. This review addresses the epidemiology, clinical presentation and evaluation, and medical management of PAD, with a focus on intermittent claudication. Key advances in the recognition of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic individuals with mildly abnormal ankle-brachial index, newer reflections on exercise therapy, and a review of established and investigational agents for the treatment of symptomatic PAD, such as cilostazol, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, are highlighted.

  8. Polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T) gene and homocysteine levels: a comparison in Brazilian patients with coronary arterial disease, ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Adriano; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Ribeiro, Daniel Dias; Sousa, Marinez Oliveira; de Castro Santos, Maria Elizabeth Rennó; Mota, Ana Paula Lucas; Dusse, Luci Maria Sant'Ana; das Graças Carvalho, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to compare plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) in different arterial events as well as to investigate an association between homocysteine levels and C677T polymorphism in Brazilian patients. A total of 145 subjects were enrolled in this study including 43 patients with coronary arterial disease (CAD), 21 with ischemic stroke (IS), 44 with peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD) and 37 control subjects. A preliminary analysis showed significant difference for tHcy plasma levels between patients with CAD (P = 0.003) or PAOD (P = 0.03) compared to controls. However, after adjustment for sex, age, total cholesterol, LDL, diabetes, tabagism or C677T polymorphism, no significant differences were detected in tHcy levels among patients groups and controls. No significant correlation was demonstrated for C677T polymorphism and homocysteine levels. These results indicate that increased Hcy levels may not be considered an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic diseases in Brazilian patients. PMID:18040753

  9. A Large Posttraumatic Subclavian Artery Aneurysm Complicated by Artery Occlusion and Arteriobronchial Fistula Successfully Treated Using a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Czeczotka, Jaroslaw; Elgalal, Marcin; Sapieha, Michal; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2011-02-15

    The treatment of posttraumatic aneurysms of peripheral arteries using covered stents is increasingly commonplace. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with a pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery complicated by an arteriobronchial fistula with hemorrhaging into the bronchial tree and distal subclavian artery occlusion. Despite the lack of artery patency, endovascular stent graft implantation was successful. Pseudoaneurysm exclusion and involution was achieved, together with a patent implant and maintained collateral circulation patency.

  10. Asymmetric dimethylarginine Correlates with Measures of Disease Severity, Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew M; Shin, David S; Weatherby, Carlton; Harada, Randall K; Ng, Martin K; Nair, Nandini; Kielstein, Jan; Cooke, John P

    2011-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with major cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Abnormalities in nitric oxide metabolism due to excess of the NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) may be pathogenic in PAD. We explored the association between ADMA levels and markers of atherosclerosis, function, and prognosis. Methods and Results 133 patients with symptomatic PAD were enrolled. Ankle brachial index (ABI), walking time, vascular function measures (arterial compliance and flow-mediated vasodilatation) and plasma ADMA level were assessed for each patient at baseline. ADMA correlated inversely with ABI (r = −0.238, p=0.003) and walking time (r = −0.255, p = 0.001), independent of other vascular risk factors. We followed up 125 (94%) of our 133 initial subjects with baseline measurements (mean 35 months). Subjects with ADMA levels in the highest quartile (>0.84 μmol/L) showed significantly greater occurrence of MACE compared to those with ADMA levels in the lower 3 quartiles (p = 0.001). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis revealed that ADMA was a significant predictor of MACE, independent of other risk factors including age, gender, blood pressure, smoking history, diabetes and ABI (Hazard ratio = 5.1, p<0.001). Measures of vascular function, such as compliance, FMVD and blood pressure, as well as markers of PAD severity, including ABI and walking time, were not predictive. Conclusion Circulating levels of ADMA correlate independently with measures of disease severity and major adverse cardiovascular events. Agents that target this pathway may be useful for this patient population. PMID:20484311

  11. Percutaneous Injection Therapy for a Peripheral Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm After Failed Transcatheter Coil Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyungwoo; Shin, Taebeom; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Younghwan

    2008-09-15

    Coil embolization to occlude the feeding artery of a pseudoaneurysm is an effective treatment to control hemoptysis. However, a feeding artery of the pseudoaneurysm may not be identified at pulmonary angiography, resulting in a failure to obtain embolization. We describe here two cases of a Rasmussen aneurysm that was successfully treated with percutaneous injection of thrombin (case 1) and N-butyl cyanoacrylate (case 2) under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance after failed transcatheter coil embolization.

  12. Insulin Delivery Into the Peripheral Circulation: A Key Contributor to Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Justin M; Kraft, Guillaume; Scott, Melanie F; Neal, Doss W; Farmer, Ben; Smith, Marta S; Hastings, Jon R; Allen, Eric J; Donahue, E Patrick; Rivera, Noelia; Winnick, Jason J; Edgerton, Dale S; Nishimura, Erica; Fledelius, Christian; Brand, Christian L; Cherrington, Alan D

    2015-10-01

    Hypoglycemia limits optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), making novel strategies to mitigate it desirable. We hypothesized that portal (Po) vein insulin delivery would lessen hypoglycemia. In the conscious dog, insulin was infused into the hepatic Po vein or a peripheral (Pe) vein at a rate four times of basal. In protocol 1, a full counterregulatory response was allowed, whereas in protocol 2, glucagon was fixed at basal, mimicking the diminished α-cell response to hypoglycemia seen in T1DM. In protocol 1, glucose fell faster with Pe insulin than with Po insulin, reaching 56 ± 3 vs. 70 ± 6 mg/dL (P = 0.04) at 60 min. The change in area under the curve (ΔAUC) for glucagon was similar between Pe and Po, but the peak occurred earlier in Pe. The ΔAUC for epinephrine was greater with Pe than with Po (67 ± 17 vs. 36 ± 14 ng/mL/180 min). In protocol 2, glucose also fell more rapidly than in protocol 1 and fell faster in Pe than in Po, reaching 41 ± 3 vs. 67 ± 2 mg/dL (P < 0.01) by 60 min. Without a rise in glucagon, the epinephrine responses were much larger (ΔAUC of 204 ± 22 for Pe vs. 96 ± 29 ng/mL/180 min for Po). In summary, Pe insulin delivery exacerbates hypoglycemia, particularly in the presence of a diminished glucagon response. Po vein insulin delivery, or strategies that mimic it (i.e., liver-preferential insulin analogs), should therefore lessen hypoglycemia. PMID:26085570

  13. Second derivative of the finger arterial pressure waveform: an insight into dynamics of the peripheral arterial pressure pulse.

    PubMed

    Simek, J; Wichterle, D; Melenovský, V; Malík, J; Svacina, S; Widimský, J

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated second derivative of the finger arterial pressure waveform (SDFAP) in 120 healthy middle-aged subjects and in 24 subjects with essential hypertension. SDFAP consists of 5 sequential waves 'a'-'e'. Their normalized magnitudes (B/A, C/A, D/A, and E/A) were calculated. In multivariate regression analysis, B/A and C/A correlated only with age. D/A independently correlated with age, heart period, mean blood pressure (MBP), body height, and gender. E/A independently correlated with age and MBP. D/A and E/A were higher (0.42+/-0.16 vs. 0.33+/-0.14, p = 0.05 and 0.63+/-0.15 vs. 0.45+/-0.14, p < 0.001), while B/A and C/A were lower (1.04+/-0.16 vs. 1.20+/-0.17, p = 0.002 and 0.09+/-0.15 vs. 0.26+/-0.20, p = 0.001) in hypertensives compared to sex- and age-matched controls. After the adjustment for MBP, heart period, and body mass index (ANCOVA), independent discriminative power was preserved only for indices B/A and C/A (p = 0.001 and 0.021, respectively). Therefore, B/A and C/A provide additional information about simple clinical characteristics and might reflect the structural alteration of the arterial wall in hypertensive subjects.

  14. Arterial damages in acute elbow dislocations: which diagnostic tests are required?

    PubMed

    Lutter, Christoph; Pfefferkorn, Ronny; Schoeffl, Volker

    2016-07-19

    Blunt vessel injuries of peripheral arteries caused by a direct trauma are rare. Studies have described the frequency of arterial ruptures following closed elbow dislocations in 0.3-1.7% of all cases. However, arterial damage does not always necessarily appear as a complete rupture of the vessel with a loss of peripheral circulation and ischaemic symptoms; a relatively strong periarticular system of collaterals can maintain circulation. Furthermore, the traumatic dislocation can also cause intimal tears, arterial dissections and aneurysms or thrombosis. In all cases of vessel injury, including total disruption, a peripheral pulse might still be palpable. 3 weeks after an acute elbow dislocation, we have diagnosed a patient with a long-segment stenosis of the brachial artery and a thrombosis of the radial artery. Therefore, the close anatomic proximity to the neurovascular structures should always be considered in cases of elbow dislocations, even if peripheral pulses are traceable.

  15. Severity of arterial hypoxaemia affects the relative contributions of peripheral muscle fatigue to exercise performance in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Markus; Romer, Lee M; Subudhi, Andrew W; Pegelow, David F; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of hypoxia severity on peripheral versus central determinants of exercise performance. Eight cyclists performed constant-load exercise to exhaustion at various fractions of inspired O2 fraction (FIO2 0.21/0.15/0.10). At task failure (pedal frequency < 70% target) arterial hypoxaemia was surreptitiously reversed via acute O2 supplementation (FIO2 = 0.30) and subjects were encouraged to continue exercising. Peripheral fatigue was assessed via changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch force (ΔQtw,pot) as measured pre- versus post-exercise in response to supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation. At task failure in normoxia (haemoglobin saturation (SpO2) ∼94%, 656 ± 82 s) and moderate hypoxia (SpO2 ∼82%, 278 ± 16 s), hyperoxygenation had no significant effect on prolonging endurance time. However, following task failure in severe hypoxia (SpO2 ∼67%; 125 ± 6 s), hyperoxygenation elicited a significant prolongation of time to exhaustion (171 ± 61%). The magnitude of ΔQtw,pot at exhaustion was not different among the three trials (−35% to −36%, P = 0.8). Furthermore, quadriceps integrated EMG, blood lactate, heart rate, and effort perceptions all rose significantly throughout exercise, and to a similar extent at exhaustion following hyperoxygenation at all levels of arterial oxygenation. Since hyperoxygenation prolonged exercise time only in severe hypoxia, we repeated this trial and assessed peripheral fatigue following task failure prior to hyperoxygenation (125 ± 6 s). Although Qtw,pot was reduced from pre-exercise baseline (−23%; P < 0.01), peripheral fatigue was substantially less (P < 0.01) than that observed at task failure in normoxia and moderate hypoxia. We conclude that across the range of normoxia to severe hypoxia, the major determinants of central motor output and exercise performance switches from a predominantly peripheral origin of fatigue to a hypoxia-sensitive central component of fatigue, probably involving brain

  16. Computational drug repositioning for peripheral arterial disease: prediction of anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Liang-Hui; Annex, Brian H.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) results from atherosclerosis that leads to blocked arteries and reduced blood flow, most commonly in the arteries of the legs. PAD clinical trials to induce angiogenesis to improve blood flow conducted in the last decade have not succeeded. We have recently constructed PADPIN, protein-protein interaction network (PIN) of PAD, and here we combine it with the drug-target relations to identify potential drug targets for PAD. Specifically, the proteins in the PADPIN were classified as belonging to the angiome, immunome, and arteriome, characterizing the processes of angiogenesis, immune response/inflammation, and arteriogenesis, respectively. Using the network-based approach we predict the candidate drugs for repositioning that have potential applications to PAD. By compiling the drug information in two drug databases DrugBank and PharmGKB, we predict FDA-approved drugs whose targets are the proteins annotated as anti-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory, respectively. Examples of pro-angiogenic drugs are carvedilol and urokinase. Examples of anti-inflammatory drugs are ACE inhibitors and maraviroc. This is the first computational drug repositioning study for PAD. PMID:26379552

  17. A frameshift mutation in HTRA1 expands CARASIL syndrome and peripheral small arterial disease to the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bin; Zeng, Jiabin; Lin, Yi; Lin, Yu; Lin, WenPing; Lin, Wei; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Ning

    2015-08-01

    Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is a rare hereditary cerebral artery disease. The HtrA serine protease 1 (HTRA1) gene has been identified as the causative gene of CARASIL. Here, we report a novel mutation in the HTRA1 gene in a CARASIL pedigree and explore its pathogenesis at the protein level. Subcutaneous tissue biopsy and HTRA1 gene analysis were performed in a CARASIL patient, and HTRA1 and TGF-β1 protein expression in subcutaneous tissue and cultured fibroblasts from the proband were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. A 28-year-old male proband and his brother experienced recurrent stroke, hair loss and low back pain. Abnormalities in the proband were found in the elastic plate of subcutaneous small arteries, and a novel homozygous frameshift mutation (c.161_162insAG), leading to the formation of a stop codon 159 amino acids downstream of the insertion (p.Gly56Alafs*160) was detected. Reduced HTRA1 protein and increased TGF-β1 expression were detected in subcutaneous tissue and in cultured fibroblasts. A frameshift mutation in the HTRA1 gene detected in a CARASIL pedigree resulted in reduced HTRA1 protein and increased TGF-β1 expression, which may cause severe CARASIL and peripheral small arterial disease.

  18. Non-invasive assessment of peripheral arterial disease: Automated ankle brachial index measurement and pulse volume analysis compared to duplex scan

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jane EA; Williams, Paul; Davies, Jane H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This cross-sectional study aimed to individually and cumulatively compare sensitivity and specificity of the (1) ankle brachial index and (2) pulse volume waveform analysis recorded by the same automated device, with the presence or absence of peripheral arterial disease being verified by ultrasound duplex scan. Methods: Patients (n=205) referred for lower limb arterial assessment underwent ankle brachial index measurement and pulse volume waveform recording using volume plethysmography, followed by ultrasound duplex scan. The presence of peripheral arterial disease was recorded if ankle brachial index <0.9; pulse volume waveform was graded as 2, 3 or 4; or if haemodynamically significant stenosis >50% was evident with ultrasound duplex scan. Outcome measure was agreement between the measured ankle brachial index and interpretation of pulse volume waveform for peripheral arterial disease diagnosis, using ultrasound duplex scan as the reference standard. Results: Sensitivity of ankle brachial index was 79%, specificity 91% and overall accuracy 88%. Pulse volume waveform sensitivity was 97%, specificity 81% and overall accuracy 85%. The combined sensitivity of ankle brachial index and pulse volume waveform was 100%, specificity 76% and overall accuracy 85%. Conclusion: Combining these two diagnostic modalities within one device provided a highly accurate method of ruling out peripheral arterial disease, which could be utilised in primary care to safely reduce unnecessary secondary care referrals. PMID:27493755

  19. Routine Use of Three-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Moving-Table MR Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease: Comparison with Selective Digital Subtraction Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Deutschmann, Hannes A.; Schoellnast, Helmut; Portugaller, Horst R.; Preidler, Klaus W.; Reittner, Pia; Tillich, Manfred; Pilger, Ernst; Szolar, Dieter H. M.

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced (CE) three-dimensional (3D) moving-table magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with that of selective digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for routine clinical investigation in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Methods. Thirty-eight patients underwent CE 3D moving-table MR angiography of the pelvic and peripheral arteries. A commercially available large-field-of-view adapter and a dedicated peripheral vascular phased-array coil were used. MR angiograms were evaluated for grade of arterial stenosis, diagnostic quality, and presence of artifacts. MR imaging results for each patient were compared with those of selective DSA. Results. Two hundred and twenty-six arterial segments in 38 patients were evaluated by both selective DSA and MR angiography. No complications related to MR angiography were observed. There was agreement in stenosis classification in 204 (90.3%) segments; MR angiography overgraded 16 (7%) segments and undergraded 6 (2.7%) segments. Compared with selective DSA, MR angiography provided high sensitivity and specificity and excellent interobserver agreement for detection of severe stenosis (97% and 95%, {kappa} = 0.9 {+-} 0.03) and moderate stenosis (96.5% and 94.3%, {kappa} = 0.9 {+-} 0.03). Conclusion. Compared with selective DSA, moving-table MR angiography proved to be an accurate, noninvasive method for evaluation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and may thus serve as an alternative to DSA in clinical routine.

  20. Production of endothelium-dependent relaxation responses by saphenous vein grafts in the canine arterial circulation.

    PubMed

    el Khatib, H; Lupinetti, F M; Sanofsky, S J; Behrendt, D M

    1991-09-01

    To determine if venous endothelium can acquire the ability to elicit endothelium-dependent relaxation responses, five dogs underwent femoral artery bypass with autogenous saphenous vein. The veins were harvested 15 to 17 months later. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was determined by measuring tension of deendothelialized coronary arteries mounted on a tensiometer and superfused with the effluent of the vein grafts. These grafts were perfused with acetylcholine and calcium ionophore A23187, which cause case vascular smooth muscle relaxation by means of endothelium-dependent relaxing factor production. Control arteries and veins were obtained from other dogs for comparison. In response to acetylcholine from 10(-9) to 10(-4) mol/L, the final cumulative relaxation produced in the detector coronary artery (mean +/- SD) was 64.2% +/- 25.7% by the control arteries, 14.2% +/- 5.5% by the vein bypass graft, and 5.3% +/- 5.6% by the control veins. In response to A23187 from 10(-8) to 10(-4) mol/L, the final cumulative relaxation was 66.2% +/- 19.0% by the control arteries, 30.6% +/- 8.9% by the vein bypass grafts, and 5.3% +/- 5.6% by the control veins. The differences were significant between the vein bypass grafts and the control arteries (p less than 0.04 for acetylcholine; p less than 0.04 for A23187) and the control veins (p less than 0.03 for acetylcholine; p less than 0.02 for A23187). Perfusion of saphenous veins used as chronic arterial bypass grafts with either acetylcholine or A23187 produced detector vessel relaxation, consistent with endothelium-dependent relaxing factor production. The magnitude of the relaxation response did not approach that from perfusion of control arteries. PMID:1887376

  1. Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography with Additional Steady-State Acquisition of the Infragenicular Arteries in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Yousef W.; Eiberg, Jonas P.; Logager, Vibeke B.; Just, Sven; Schroeder, Torben V.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if addition of infragenicular steady-state (SS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to first-pass imaging improves diagnostic performance compared with first-pass imaging alone in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) undergoing whole-body (WB) MRA. Twenty consecutive patients with PAD referred to digital-subtraction angiography (DSA) underwent WB-MRA. Using a bolus-chase technique, first-pass WB-MRA was performed from the supra-aortic vessels to the ankles. The blood-pool contrast agent gadofosveset trisodium was used at a dose of 0.03 mmol/kg body weight. Ten minutes after injection of the contrast agent, high-resolution (0.7-mm isotropic voxels) SS-MRA of the infragenicular arteries was performed. Using DSA as the 'gold standard,' sensitivities and specificities for detecting significant arterial stenoses ({>=}50% luminal narrowing) with first-pass WB-MRA, SS-MRA, and combined first-pass and SS-MRA were calculated. Kappa statistics were used to determine intermodality agreement between MRA and DSA. Overall sensitivity and specificity for detecting significant arterial stenoses with first-pass WB-MRA was 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.78) and 0.97 (0.94 to 0.99), respectively. In first-pass WB-MRA, the lowest sensitivity was in the infragenicular region, with a value of 0.42 (0.23 to 0.63). Combined analysis of first-pass WB-MRA and SS-MRA increased sensitivity to 0.81 (0.60 to 0.93) in the infragenicular region, with specificity of 0.94 (0.88 to 0.97). Sensitivity and specificity for detecting significant arterial stenoses with isolated infragenicular SS-MRA was 0.47 (0.27 to 0.69) and 0.86 (0.78 to 0.91), respectively. Intermodality agreement between MRA and DSA in the infragenicular region was moderate for first-pass WB-MRA ({kappa} = 0.49), fair for SS-MRA ({kappa} = 0.31), and good for combined first-pass/SS-MRA ({kappa} = 0.71). Addition of infragenicular SS-MRA to first-pass WB MRA

  2. Peripheral venous blood gas analysis: An alternative to arterial blood gas analysis for initial assessment and resuscitation in emergency and intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Shilpi; Rani, Raka; Malviya, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is the gold standard method for assessment of oxygenation and acid base analysis, yielding valuable information about a variety of disease process. This study is aimed to determine the extent of correlation between arterial and peripheral venous samples for blood gases and acid base status in critically ill and emergency department patients and to evaluate if venous sample may be a better alternative for initial assessment and resuscitation. The prospective study was conducted on 45 patients of either sex in the age group of 15-80 years of intensive care unit and emergency ward. Relevant history, presenting complaints, vital signs, and indication for testing were recorded. Arterial and peripheral venous samples were drawn simultaneously in a pre-heparinized syringe and analyzed immediately for blood gases and acid base status. Mean difference and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient was used to compare the result. After statistical evaluation, the present study shows minimal mean difference and good correlation (r > 0.9) between arterial and peripheral venous sample for blood gases and acid base status. Correlation in PO2 measurement was poor (r < 0.3). Thus, venous blood may be a useful alternative to arterial blood during blood gas analysis obviating the need for arterial puncture in difficult clinical situation especially trauma patients, for initial emergency department assessment and early stages of resuscitation.

  3. An Update on Methods for Revascularization and Expansion of the TASC Lesion Classification to Include Below-the-Knee Arteries: A Supplement to the Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II)

    PubMed Central

    Jaff, *Michael R.; White, Christopher J.; Hiatt, William R.; Fowkes, Gerry R.; Dormandy, John; Razavi, Mahmood; Reekers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC) guidelines were last updated in 2007 (TASC II) and represented the collaboration of international vascular specialties involved in the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Since the publication of TASC II, there have been innovations in endovascular revascularization strategies for patients with PAD. The intent of this publication is to provide a complete anatomic lower limb TASC lesion classification, including the infrapopliteal segment, and an updated literature review of new endovascular techniques and practice patterns employed by vascular specialists today. PMID:26730266

  4. Definitive Hematopoiesis in the Yolk Sac Emerges from Wnt-Responsive Hemogenic Endothelium Independently of Circulation and Arterial Identity.

    PubMed

    Frame, Jenna M; Fegan, Katherine H; Conway, Simon J; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

    2016-02-01

    Adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in low numbers in the midgestation mouse embryo from a subset of arterial endothelium, through an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. HSC-producing arterial hemogenic endothelium relies on the establishment of embryonic blood flow and arterial identity, and requires β-catenin signaling. Specified prior to and during the formation of these initial HSCs are thousands of yolk sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). EMPs ensure embryonic survival prior to the establishment of a permanent hematopoietic system, and provide subsets of long-lived tissue macrophages. While an endothelial origin for these HSC-independent definitive progenitors is also accepted, the spatial location and temporal output of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium over developmental time remain undefined. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of EMP emergence, and document the morphological steps of the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. Emergence of rounded EMPs from polygonal clusters of Kit(+) cells initiates prior to the establishment of arborized arterial and venous vasculature in the yolk sac. Interestingly, Kit(+) polygonal clusters are detected in both arterial and venous vessels after remodeling. To determine whether there are similar mechanisms regulating the specification of EMPs with other angiogenic signals regulating adult-repopulating HSCs, we investigated the role of embryonic blood flow and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during EMP emergence. In embryos lacking a functional circulation, rounded Kit(+) EMPs still fully emerge from unremodeled yolk sac vasculature. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling appears to be a common mechanism regulating hematopoietic emergence from hemogenic endothelium. These data illustrate the heterogeneity in hematopoietic output and spatiotemporal regulation of primary embryonic hemogenic endothelium.

  5. Definitive Hematopoiesis in the Yolk Sac Emerges from Wnt-Responsive Hemogenic Endothelium Independently of Circulation and Arterial Identity.

    PubMed

    Frame, Jenna M; Fegan, Katherine H; Conway, Simon J; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

    2016-02-01

    Adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in low numbers in the midgestation mouse embryo from a subset of arterial endothelium, through an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. HSC-producing arterial hemogenic endothelium relies on the establishment of embryonic blood flow and arterial identity, and requires β-catenin signaling. Specified prior to and during the formation of these initial HSCs are thousands of yolk sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). EMPs ensure embryonic survival prior to the establishment of a permanent hematopoietic system, and provide subsets of long-lived tissue macrophages. While an endothelial origin for these HSC-independent definitive progenitors is also accepted, the spatial location and temporal output of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium over developmental time remain undefined. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of EMP emergence, and document the morphological steps of the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. Emergence of rounded EMPs from polygonal clusters of Kit(+) cells initiates prior to the establishment of arborized arterial and venous vasculature in the yolk sac. Interestingly, Kit(+) polygonal clusters are detected in both arterial and venous vessels after remodeling. To determine whether there are similar mechanisms regulating the specification of EMPs with other angiogenic signals regulating adult-repopulating HSCs, we investigated the role of embryonic blood flow and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during EMP emergence. In embryos lacking a functional circulation, rounded Kit(+) EMPs still fully emerge from unremodeled yolk sac vasculature. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling appears to be a common mechanism regulating hematopoietic emergence from hemogenic endothelium. These data illustrate the heterogeneity in hematopoietic output and spatiotemporal regulation of primary embryonic hemogenic endothelium. PMID:26418893

  6. Sutureless skin closure of amputation stumps in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, M J; Jones, S M

    1982-01-01

    A sutureless technique of skin closure for the amputation stumps of patients with peripheral vascular disease is described. It offers less trauma to skin flaps, limits access to the wound by exogenous sources of bacterial contamination, and is very acceptable to the patient. PMID:7137833

  7. [The importance of multidisciplinary foot-care services in the management of diabetic patients with peripheral artery disease and diabetic foot ulcers].

    PubMed

    Ran, Xing-Wu; Zhao, Ji-Chun

    2012-09-01

    Diabetic peripheral artery disease and diabetic foot ulcers are leading causes of hospitalization, for patients with diabetes mellitus, and also are the most important causes of amputation of the lower extremity in those patients, which contribute to the increased mortality and cardiovascular death. The incidence of diabetic peripheral artery disease and diabetic foot ulcers shows increasing trend. Diabetic peripheral artery disease and diabetic foot ulcers can be successfully treated only by the multidisciplinary foot-care services which provide more comprehensive and integrated care as compared to ordinary medical team or single specialist. Multidisciplinary foot-care services are provided by the team consist of: diabetologist, diabetes nurse, vascular surgeon, general surgeon, orthopedist, orthopaedic surgeon, podiatrist and orthotist, interventional radiologist and a radiology coordinator, microbiologist, psychologist, educators, shoemaker and rehabilitation team. Contrary to developed countries, multidisciplinary foot-care team has not been constructed in most centres in China. Diabetic education, appropriate foot care, early detection of risk factors of foot ulcers and early intervention are key components in the overall management of diabetic foot disorders and have assumed important roles in programs focused on amputation prevention. Prompt and aggressive treatments of diabetic peripheral artery disease and diabetic foot ulcers can often prevent an exacerbation of the problem and the potential need for amputation, which include correction of biomechanical abnormalities, infection control, serial debridement of ulcers, peripheral revascularization and wound coverage, etc. It is very important to construct a multidisciplinary diabetic foot care team to more effectively improve the survival and prognosis of patients with diabetic peripheral artery disease and diabetic foot ulcers with comprehensive treatments.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Angiography of the Peripheral Vessels in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease: When Is an Additional Conventional Angiography Required?

    SciTech Connect

    Janka, R. Wenkel, E.; Fellner, C.; Lang, W.; Bautz, W.; Uder, M.

    2006-04-15

    The purpose of this work was to find out how often the clinician asks for a conventional angiography (CA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) after a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has been performed and how often the CA reveals additional information for therapy planning. Quality criteria for the MRA were defined and tested to see whether they can predict the need for an additional CA. In this prospective study, 81 patients suffering from PAOD (Fontaine classification IIa, n = 13; IIb, n = 33; III, n = 10; IV, n = 25) were examined with a 1.5-T MR-scanner with dedicated coils using a step-by-step technique. The vascular surgeon decided whether he could plan the therapy on the basis of the MRA or if he needed an additional CA. The MRA was assessed in terms of the image quality of the MRA and regarding therapeutic management of the patient in a two-grade scale: sufficient and insufficient. In 27/81 (33%) patients, the clinician asked for a CA, which revealed new information in only 11 patients. The relative number of MRAs with insufficient image quality was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the group with additional information on CA (8/11) compared to the group without additional information (0/16). The assessment of an MRA based on image quality and regarding therapeutic management of the patient might reduce the number of CAs for therapy planning in patients with PAOD.

  9. Effects of a cognitive-behavioral self-help program on depressed mood for people with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Garnefski, N; Kraaij, V; Wijers, E; Hamming, J

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether a new low-cost psychological self-help intervention program with minimal coaching could be effective in improving depressed mood in people with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Thirteen persons with PAD and depressive symptoms participated in the self-help program, grounded in cognitive-behavioral therapy. They completed pre-test, post-test and follow-up questionnaires, including the PHQ-9, to measure symptoms of depression. To evaluate changes in depression scores from pre- to post-test to follow-up measurement, non-parametric repeated measures Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed. The results showed that participants' depression scores significantly improved from pre-test to post-test and that there was no relapse from post-test to follow-up. The cognitive-behavioral self-help intervention could be an effective tool in people with PAD, to reduce symptoms of depression.

  10. A Comparison of Measures of Endothelial Function in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Age and Gender Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Richard B.; Vun, Simon V.; Spark, J. Ian

    2016-01-01

    This study compared flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral artery tonometry (PAT), and serum nitric oxide (NO) measures of endothelial function in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) against age/gender matched controls. 25 patients (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) with established PAD and an age/gender matched group of 25 healthy controls (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) were studied. Endothelial function was measured using the % FMD, reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using PAT and serum NO (μmol). Difference for each method between PAD and control patients and correlation between the methods were investigated. FMD and RHI were lower in patients with PAD (median FMD for PAD = 2.16% versus control = 3.77%, p = 0.034 and median RHI in PAD = 1.64 versus control = 1.92, p = 0.005). NO levels were not significantly different between the groups (PAD median = 7.70 μmol, control median = 13.05 μmol, p = 0.662). These results were obtained in elderly patients and cannot be extrapolated to younger individuals. FMD and PAT both demonstrated a lower hyperaemic response in patients with PAD; however, FMD results in PAD patients were unequivocally reduced whereas half the PAD patients had RHI values above the established threshold for endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that FMD is a more appropriate method for the measurement of NO-mediated endothelial function. PMID:26942010

  11. Immediate results and long-term cardiovascular outcomes of endovascular therapy in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians with peripheral arterial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Li; Jimmy Juang, Jyh-Ming; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Hsieh, Chien-An; Jang, Shih-Jung; Cheng, Shih-Tsung; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical outcomes of endovascular therapy (EVT) in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians with peripheral arterial disease. Methods A retrospective analysis of 511 patients (654 affected legs) who underwent EVT between July 2005 and December 2013 was conducted in a prospectively maintained database. Immediate results and long-term vascular outcomes were analyzed and compared between octogenarians and nonoctogenarians. Results Octogenarians were more likely to be female and have atrial fibrillation (AF), whereas nonoctogenarians had higher rates of obesity, claudication, and medical comorbidities. There were no differences in the rates of EVT success, 30-day major adverse vascular events, and 6-month functional improvement between groups. Over the 10-year follow-up period, the rates of 3-year limb salvage, sustained clinical success, freedom from major cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, and composite vascular events were similar between groups, but the survival rate was better in nonoctogenarians than in octogenarians (73% vs 63%, respectively, P=0.004). In Cox regression analysis, dependence on dialysis and AF were significant predictors of death (odds ratio [OR] 4.44 in dialyzed and 2.83 in AF patients), major cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events (OR 3.49 and 2.45), and composite vascular events (OR 3.14 and 2.25). Conclusion EVT in octogenarians was feasible, without an increased risk of periprocedural complications. The rates of limb salvage, sustained clinical success, and long-term vascular events were comparable between groups. Dialysis dependence and AF are independent predictors for poor prognosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease. However, these observations require further confirmation in larger scale studies. PMID:27217735

  12. Peripheral Arterial Disease in Older People with Intellectual Disability in The Netherlands Using the Ankle-Brachial Index: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Kranendonk, S. E.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Older people with an intellectual disability (ID) have been shown to have similar to increased cardiovascular risks as compared to the general population. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), atherosclerosis distal from the aortic bifurcation, is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of PAD has not been…

  13. Covered Stents in the Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Aneurysms: Procedural Results and Midterm Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Beregi, Jean-Paul; Prat, Alain; Willoteaux, Serge; Vasseur, Marc-Antoine; Boularand, Valerie; Desmoucelle, Frederic

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate initial and midterm results of percutaneous treatment of peripheral aneurysms using covered stents. Methods: Between June 1994 and December 1997 we used covered stents (EndoPro System or Passager) on 19 patients with peripheral aneurysms (7 iliac, 5 subclavian, 3 femoral, 3 popliteal, 1 carotid). Results: Successful aneurysm exclusion was achieved in 18 of 19 patients (95%). In the short term (<30 days), one patient died of puncture site hemorrhage complicated by myocardial infarction; two femoral stents were surgically removed because of leakage. At subsequent follow-up (mean 20 months) two further unrelated deaths occurred. At 1 year (intention-to-treat) the stent was patent in 13 of 19 patients (68%) and the aneurysm was excluded in 17 of 19 (89%). Conclusion: Treatment of peripheral aneurysms with covered stents has a high rate of immediate procedural success. Continued exclusion of the aneurysms is achieved in a large proportion of patients but there is a relatively high rate of stent thrombosis.

  14. Ketoprofen combined with artery graft entubulization improves functional recovery of transected peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Mehrtash, Moein; Nikonam, Nima; Mehrtash, Moied; Amini, Keyvan

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to assess the local effect of ketoprofen on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Eighty healthy male white Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of 20 animals each: In the transected group (TC), the left sciatic nerve was transected and nerve cut ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In the treatment group the defect was bridged using an artery graft (AG/Keto) filled with 10 microliter ketoprofen (0.1 mg/kg). In the artery graft group (AG), the graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In the sham-operated group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibres were studied at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post operation. Behavioural testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in AG/Keto than in AG group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical study clearly showed more positive location of reactions to S-100 in AG/Keto than in AG group. When loaded in an artery graft, ketoprofen improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of the sciatic nerve. Local usage of this easily accessible therapeutic medicine is cost saving and avoids the problems associated with systemic administration.

  15. Risk of Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yu, Mei-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with atherosclerosis, but the relationship between SLE and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) remains unclear. We sought to investigate this relationship by comparing cardiovascular complications in patients with and without SLE.Data on patients from 2000 to 2011 were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The SLE cohort was frequency-matched according to age, sex, and history of diabetes mellitus (DM) with patients without SLE (control cohort). We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular complications, including hypertension, DM, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, coronary artery disease, and hyperlipidemia.The study included 10,144 patients with SLE and 10,144 control patients. The incidence of PAOD was 9.39-fold higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.70-11.15) in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. Moreover, SLE was an independent risk factor for PAOD. The adjusted risk of PAOD was highest in patients with SLE who were aged ≤34 years (hazard ratio = 47.6, 95% CI = 26.8-84.4). The risk of PAOD was highest during the first year of follow-up and decreased over time.Patients with SLE exhibit a higher incidence and an independently higher risk of PAOD compared with the general population. The PAOD risk is markedly elevated in patients with SLE who are young and in whom the disease is at an early stage. PMID:26579830

  16. Dark chocolate and vascular function in patients with peripheral artery disease: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Alexandra; Koppensteiner, Renate; Steiner, Sabine; Niessner, Alexander; Goliasch, Georg; Gschwandtner, Michael; Hoke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate has positive effects on vascular function in healthy subjects and in patients at risk of atherosclerosis. The impact of dark chocolate on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) has not been investigated so far. In an investigator blinded, randomized, controlled, cross-over trial we assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and cocoa-free control chocolate on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and on microvascular function (assessed by Laser Doppler fluxmetry) in 21 patients with symptomatic (Fontaine stage II) PAD. Measurements were done in each patient on 2 single days, with an interval of 7 days, at baseline and at 2 hours after ingestion of 50 g dark chocolate or 50 g white chocolate, respectively. FMD remained unchanged after intake of dark chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 5.1 [IQR 4.4 to 7.3] and 5.5 [IQR 3.9 to 10.4]; p = 0.57, and after intake of white chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 6.4 [IQR 4.5 to 11.4] and 4.4 [IQR 2.6 to 8.7]; p = 0.14. Similarly, microcirculatory parameters were not significantly altered after intake of any chocolate compared with the respective baseline values. In conclusion, a single consumption of 50 g dark chocolate has no effect on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic PAD.

  17. Macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus with and without arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arend, O; Ruffer, M; Remky, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Previous fluorescein angiographic studies have shown alterations in the macular microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension. In both diseases capillary blood velocity was reduced and capillary density decreased. These changes were more pronounced in diabetic patients. We have examined the influence of arterial hypertension in combination with diabetes mellitus.
METHODS—62 patients with diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension (group 1) were matched with patients with diabetes mellitus but without arterial hypertension (group 2, match criteria: ETDRS stage of retinopathy). In all subjects fluorescein angiograms were performed with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Macular capillary blood velocity (CBV), perifoveal intercapillary area (PIA), the coefficient of variation of both parameters, the area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ), and the arteriovenous passage time (AVP) were assessed by digital image analysis.
RESULTS—Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly increased in the patients with arterial hypertension (systolic p=0.0008; diastolic p=0.03). Neither dynamic measures (AVP: 1.64 (0.49) seconds (group 1), 1.72 (0.58) seconds (group 2); CBV: 1.98 (0.39) mm/s (group 1), 2.09 (0.43) mm/s (group 2)) nor morphological measures (PIA: 7985 (3137) µm2 (group 1), 8338 (3376) µm2 (group 2); FAZ: 0.319 (0.206) mm2 (group 1), 0.363 (0.237) mm2 (group 2)) were significantly different between the two groups of diabetic patients.
CONCLUSION—Arterial hypertension did not result in more severe macular capillary dropout than diabetes without hypertension. This might be explained by the fact that most of the patients were being treated with antihypertensive drugs.

 PMID:11090480

  18. Effects of adaptive support ventilation and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation on peripheral circulation and blood gas markers of COPD patients with respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling; Wang, Yingxiao; Gan, Yonghua; Xu, Lijun

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of adaptive support ventilation (ASV) and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) on peripheral circulation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with respiratory failure. 86 COPD patients with respiratory failure were recruited in this study. Self-control method was used to compare the effect of ASV and SIMV on the parameters of ventilation machine, heart rate, blood pressure, central venous pressure (CVP), and blood gas markers. When the patients in ASV and SIMV groups were compared, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and peak airway pressure (PIP) showed significant difference. When minute ventilation (MV) was compared, no significant difference was shown. When peripheral circulation parameters were compared, peripheral circulation heart rate, SBP, DBP, and CVP showed significant difference. Compared with SIMV group, PaO2, pH, and SaO2 values were remarkably increased (P < 0.01) while no significant difference was found for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) when two groups were compared. In conclusion, when mechanical ventilation was used in COPD patients with respiratory failure, ASV can significantly improve clinical outcomes.

  19. Modeling of the blood flow in the lower extremities for dynamic diffuse optical tomography of peripheral artery disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, A.; Hoi, J. W.; Khalil, M. A.; Kim, H. K.; Shrikhande, G.; Dayal, R.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is caused by a reduction of the internal diameters of the arteries in the upper or lower extremities mainly due to atherosclerosis. If not treated, its worsening may led to a complete occlusion, causing the death of the cells lacking proper blood supply, followed by gangrene that may require chirurgical amputation. We have recently performed a clinical study in which good sensitivities and specificities were achieved with dynamic diffuse optical tomography. To gain a better understanding of the physiological foundations of many of the observed effects, we started to develop a mathematical model for PAD. The model presented in this work is based on a multi-compartment Windkessel model, where the vasculature in the leg and foot is represented by resistors and capacitors, the blood pressure with a voltage drop, and the blood flow with a current. Unlike existing models, the dynamics induced by a thigh-pressure-cuff inflation and deflation during the measurements are taken into consideration. This is achieved by dynamically varying the resistances of the large veins and arteries. By including the effects of the thigh-pressure cuff, we were able to explain many of the effects observed during our dynamic DOT measurements, including the hemodynamics of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes. The model was implemented in MATLAB and the simulations were normalized and compared with the blood perfusion obtained from healthy, PAD and diabetic patients. Our preliminary results show that in unhealthy patients the total system resistance is sensibly higher than in healthy patients.

  20. Involvement of central and peripheral histamine H(3) receptors in the control of the vascular tone and oxygen uptake in the mesenteric circulation of the rat.

    PubMed

    Obuchowicz, R; Pawlik, M W; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, S J; Pawlik, W W

    2004-03-01

    Data concerning cardiovascular effects of peripherally and centrally located histamine H(3) receptor stimulation are contradictory, and despite excessive studies their role in the control of the cardiovascular function have not been cleared yet. Effect of histamine H(3) receptors activation have been attributed to modulation of sympathetic system activity but exact role of peripherally and centrally located histamine H(3) receptors stimulation in the modulation of vascular tone of the mesentery and intestinal metabolism remains unexplored. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of centrally and peripherally located histamine H(3) receptors in the modulation of vascular tone of the mesentery and metabolic activity of intestinal tissue. In anesthetized rats total mesenteric blood flow (MBF), mucosal intestinal blood flow (LDBF), intestinal oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and arterial pressure (AP) were determined. Intestinal arterial conductance (C) was also calculated. Administration of the selective histamine H(3) receptor agonist imetit (10 micromol/kg i.a) evoked marked changes in hemodynamic and metabolic parameters; MBF, LDBF, C and VO(2) were significantly increased, whereas AP was significantly decreased. Pretreatment with histamine H(3) receptor antagonist clobenpropit (4 micromol/kg i.a.) abolished imetit-induced circulatory and oxygen uptake responses. Clobenpropit (4 micromol/kg i.a.) alone failed to affect the MBF, LDBF, AP, C and VO(2) values. Central administration of imetit (0.1 micromol i.c.v.) markedly increased AP and decreased MBF, LDBF, C and VO(2). Pretreatment with histamine H(3) receptor antagonist clobenpropit (0,4 micromol i.c.v.) diminished circulatory and metabolic responses to centrally injected imetit. Central histamine H(3) receptors blockade by clobenpropit evoked no significant changes in the mesenteric arterial and mucosal microcirculatory blood flow, intestinal metabolism and mean arterial pressure. We conclude that, peripheral

  1. Concentrations of C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin in uterine arterial and peripheral blood in bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Kostro, Krzysztof; Szczubiał, Marek

    2013-09-15

    Pyometra is a life-threatening reproductive disorder that affects the uterus of female dogs. This study was designed to identify the possible indicators of uterine inflammation by comparing C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations in uterine arterial and peripheral venous blood in bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. CRP, SAA, and Hp concentrations were higher in bitches with closed-cervix pyometra irrespective of the site of blood collection. Higher acute-phase protein concentrations were observed in peripheral compared with uterine arterial blood in bitches with closed-cervix pyometra, whereas the levels were comparable in dogs with open-cervix pyometra. Our results indicate that mean acute-phase protein concentrations differ according to pyometra type/severity and blood source and suggest the possible use of peripheral blood levels of CRP, SAA, and Hp to monitor inflammation during the course of pyometra. PMID:23810209

  2. Observing and Understanding Arterial and Venous Circulation Differences in a Physiology Laboratory Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermann, Caroline; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Lara, Marcus Vinícius S.; Neves, Ben-Hur S.; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to describe three simple practical experiments that aim to observe and discuss the anatomic and physiological functions and differences between arteries and veins as well as the alterations observed in skin blood flow in different situations. For this activity, students were divided in small groups. In each…

  3. Posterior Circulation Stroke After Bronchial Artery Embolization. A Rare but Serious Complication

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Tejero, Carlos; Fredes, Arturo; Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Angel de

    2013-06-15

    Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.

  4. Circulating miRNA in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rohini; Otgonsuren, Munkzhul; Younoszai, Zahra; Allawi, Hussain; Raybuck, Bryan; Younossi, Zobair

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease (CAD) is the cardiac manifestation of metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is strongly linked to CAD and hepatic steatosis is an independent risk factor for CAD and cardiac mortality. The pathogenic mechanism underlying this association remains poorly understood. In this study, we explored expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in patients with NAFLD and associated CAD. Results When compared to patients with NAFLD without CAD, patients with NAFLD and CAD had lower circulating levels of miR-132 (0.24±0.16 vs 0.30±0.11, p=0.03), while the circulating levels of miR-143 were higher (0.96±0.90 vs 0.64±0.77, p=0.02). The levels in circulation demonstrated trends opposite to previously observed intracellular levels in patients with CAD. In obese patients with NAFLD, lower circulating levels of miR-145 (1.42±1.00 vs 2.41±1.80), miR-211 (41.26±20.40 vs 57.56±25.45), miR-146a (2.13±1.40 vs 2.90±1.36) and miR-30c (6.92±4.99 vs 11.0±6.92) were detected when compared to lean patients with NAFLD. For miR-161 (0.59±1.19 vs 0.15±0.14) and miR-241 (0.28±0.29 vs 0.16±0.13), higher circulatory levels were detected in the obese patients with NAFLD. These observations suggest altered circulating levels of miRNAs that may serve to balance intracellular levels of miRNA in target tissues. Additional studies examining paired samples of target and producing tissues as well as respective plasma samples will help delineate the regulatory circuits governing the secretion and the uptake of miRNA in multitissue diseases. PMID:27493762

  5. A single serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) modulates peripheral arterial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking in young volunteers: a randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p < 0.01) and Framingham reactive hyperemia (+28.3 ± 19.2% blueberry treatment vs. -42.8 ± 20.0% smoking treatment, p < 0.0001), and the increase of systolic blood pressure (+8.4 ± 0.02% blueberry treatment vs. +13.1 ± 0.02% smoking treatment, mmHg, p < 0.05) after cigarette smoking. No effect was observed for arterial stiffness and other vital signs. In conclusion, data obtained suggest a protective role of blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  6. A systematic review of the limitations and approaches to improve detection and management of peripheral arterial disease in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Rosero, Eric B; Kane, Katherine; Clagett, G Patrick; Timaran, Carlos H

    2010-04-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a highly prevalent public health problem associated with major detrimental effects on quality of life and functional status, and it is also the main cause of limb amputation. More importantly, PAD has been classified as a coronary artery disease equivalent, meaning that patients with a diagnosis of PAD carry a risk for major coronary events equal to that of established coronary artery disease. PAD is also a potent predictor of stroke and death. Despite its frequent occurrence (8 to 10 million Americans are affected), little is known about the natural history of PAD in racial/ethnic minorities, particularly in Hispanics, who represent 12.5% of the United States population. Furthermore, the disease is commonly underdiagnosed and undertreated in this minority group, and outcomes are poorer in Hispanics as compared with whites. Limited access to health care, difficulties for recruitment in population-based studies, and limitations of the noninvasive screening tests are well-established barriers to determine the prevalence and natural history of PAD in Hispanics. Although the most widely used test for assessment of patients at risk for PAD is the ankle-brachial index (ABI), the test has substantial limitations in individuals with diabetes and arterial calcification, which are highly prevalent in Hispanics. The ABI should, therefore, be supplemented by the use of other noninvasive tests, such as the pulse volume recordings (PVR) and toe-brachial index. Besides the use of a combination of diagnostic techniques, the implementation of a research methodology that improves recruitment of Hispanics in population-based studies is necessary to obtain better knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease in this group. Community-based participatory research may be the most appropriate approach to study this ethnic minority because it overcomes barriers for limited access to health care and increases the possibility of overcoming distrust of

  7. [Outcomes of using autologous peripheral-blood stem cells in patients with chronic lower arterial insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, A V; Kiiasov, A P; Plotnikov, M V; Maianskaia, S D; Shamsutdinova, I I; Gazizov, I M; Mavlikeev, M O

    2011-01-01

    Presented herein are the outcomes of using autologous peripheral blood stem cells (SCs) in patients with stage II В lower limb chronic obliterating diseases (according to A.V. Pokrovsky's classification). Autologous SCs had previously been stimulated by means of the recombinant granulocytic colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for five days. On day six, we performed mobilization of the peripheral blood stem cells on the MSC+ unit by means of leukopheresis followed by intramuscular administration of half of the obtained dose into the affected extremity. The mean number of the transplanted mononuclears amounted to 6.73 ± 2.2 x 10(9) cells, with the number of CD34+ cells averaging 2.94 ± 2.312 x 10(7). Assessing the therapeutic outcomes at 3 and 6 months of follow-up showed a statistically significant increase in the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) [being at baseline 0.59 ± 0.04, at 3 months - 0.66 ± 0.04 (P=0.001), and after 6 months - 0.73 ± .08 (P=0.035)], accompanied and followed by improved measures of the treadmill test, with the pain-free walking distance at baseline equalling 102.2 ± 11.55 m, after 3 months - 129 ± 11.13 m (P<0.001), and after 6 months - 140 ± 13.11 m=0.021 vs baseline). The findings of the immunohistochemical study confirmed the development of neoangiogenesis in the skeletal muscle and a 25 percent increase in the capillary-network density following administration of autologous stem cells into the muscle. The method of transplanting peripheral-blood autologous stem cells for treatment of patients presenting with distal forms of chronic obliterating insufficiency of the lower limbs proved safe and efficient. The findings obtained during this study made it possible to recommend extending the indications for its application at the expense of patients with critical ischaemia. PMID:21983456

  8. [Dissecting aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery with later development of collateral circulation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, K; Uchiyama, T; Akai, F; Yamada, Y; Yugami, H; Tuji, K; Taneda, M

    2001-08-01

    Intracranial dissecting aneurysm (DA) is much less frequent than berry aneurysm. Such dissection involves mostly the vertebral and basilar arteries, followed by the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries. DA of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is relatively rare and little is known about its natural Development. Only 23 cases have been reported previously. Our present patient, a 44-year-old man, suddenly developed paresis of the left leg while bathing. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging indicated an area of high signal intensity in the territory of the ACA. Angiography on day 3 following onset showed a DA involving the left A2 segment. Antiplatelet therapy was administered. Further luminal narrowing in the lesion was demonstrated by repeat angiography on day 17. Occlusion of the distal A2 segment was demonstrated together with sufficient collateral supply on day 41. Symptoms resolved completely. DA of the ACA usually presents with ischemic attacks. Its etiology remains uncertain, and its natural course is unclear. Surgical intervention is recommended for patients with intracranial hemorrhage, while non surgical therapies have achieved good outcomes in ischemic cases.

  9. The influence of vessel wall elasticity and peripheral resistance on the carotid artery flow wave form: a CFD model compared to in vivo ultrasound measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurits, N M; Loots, G E; Veldman, A E P

    2007-01-01

    The Doppler flow wave form and its derived measures such as the pulsatility index provide clinically important tools for the investigation of arterial disease. The typical shape of Doppler flow wave forms is physiologically known to be largely determined by both peripheral resistance and elastic properties of the arterial wall. In the present study we systematically investigate the influence of both vessel wall elasticity and peripheral resistance on the flow wave form obtained from a CFD-simulation of blood flow in the carotid bifurcation. Numerical results are compared to in vivo ultrasound measurements. The in vivo measurement provides a realistic geometry, local elasticities and an input flow wave form for the numerical experiment. Numerical and experimental results are compared at three different sites in the carotid branches. Peripheral resistance has a profoundly decreasing effect on velocities in the external carotid artery. If elasticity is taken into account, the computed peak systolic velocities are considerably lower and a more realistic smoothing of the flow wave form is found. Together, the results indicate that only if both vessel wall elasticity and positive peripheral resistance are taken into account, experimentally obtained Doppler flow wave forms can be reproduced numerically.

  10. Excimer Laser Angioplasty: Initial Clinical Results With A Percutaneous Transluminal Procedure In Total Peripheral Artery Occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenek, Gregor; Laufer, Guenter; Hohla, Kristian L.; Grabenwoeger, Florian; Klepetko, Walter

    1989-04-01

    Laser energy has the potential to recanalize obstructive atherosclerotic vessels as an alternative or an adjunct to either bypass surgery or balloon angioplasty. But conventional lasers cause thermal side effects which may lead to extensive damage to neighboring layers. In contrast, excimer laser irradiation in the far ultraviolet range has proved to minimize or avoid these injuries to vessel walls. To evaluate the clinical feasibility of excimer laser angioplasty (ELA), we have performed basic investigations including histologic examination by light microscopy, scanning and electron microscopy, and temperature measurements, and later on in vivo animal trials. Using 308 nm irradiation (XeCl) we have treated the first patient ever to undergo ELA, and the procedure was successful: after recanalization of a total occlusion of a superficial femoral artery, dilatation resulted in sufficient blood supply to the periphery.

  11. Comparison of two progressive treadmill tests in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Riebe, D; Patterson, R B; Braun, C M

    2001-11-01

    In a vascular rehabilitation program, 28% of our frail elderly patients are unable to be tested with traditional progressive exercise protocols at program entry due to the high (2.0 miles/h or 3.2 km/h) initial treadmill speeds. The purpose of this investigation was to compare a new progressive treadmill protocol which has a reduced initial speed (1.0 mile/h or 1.6 km/h) to an established protocol performed at 2.0 miles/h (3.2 km/h) to determine the comparability and reproducibility of the new protocol. Eleven patients with arterial claudication performed three symptom-limited exercise tests in random order. Two tests used the new protocol while the remaining trial used the established protocol. Claudication pain was measured using a 5-point scale. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio and blood pressure at peak exercise were similar among the three trials. There were strong intraclass correlations for peak oxygen consumption (r = 0.97), onset of claudication (r = 0.96) and maximum walking time (r = 0.98) between the two trials using the new protocol. There was also a significant correlation between the new protocol and the established protocol for peak oxygen consumption (r = 0.90) and maximum walking time (r = 0.89). The new progressive treadmill protocol represents a valid, reliable protocol for patients with arterial claudication. This protocol may be useful for testing patients with a low functional capacity so that clinically appropriate exercise prescriptions can be established and the efficacy of treatments can be determined. PMID:11958386

  12. Comparison of the standard roller pump and a pulsatile centrifugal pump for extracorporeal circulation during routine coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Driessen, J J; Fransen, G; Rondelez, L; Schelstraete, E; Gevaert, L

    1991-01-01

    The present prospective study compared the standard nonpulsatile twin roller pump with the Sarns centrifugal pump, in the pulsatile mode, as arterial pumps for extracorporeal circulation during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in two consecutive groups of 25 patients receiving a standard anaesthetic and surgical protocol. The investigated parameters included haemodynamic profiles, oxygen exchange, blood gas and acid-base homeostasis, haematology, coagulation and complement consumption. With comparable settings for pump flow, gas flow and delivered oxygen concentrations, there was no difference between the groups in the main haemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, a tenfold lower dose of sodium nitroprusside was required to keep systemic vascular resistance within physiologic limits during CPB in the centrifugal group (C group) compared with the roller group (R group). During rewarming oxygen extraction was higher in the C group than in the R group. During the first eight hours after CPB no differences in haemodynamics, oxygenation parameters and pulmonary shunt between the groups were observed. During, as well as after, CPB there was no significant difference in blood gas and acid-base homeostasis between either group. Average postoperative blood loss via chest tubes, total transfusions of blood products, haemoglobin and coagulation did not differ between the two groups. However, the white blood cell count, corrected for changes in haematocrit, decreased during the early phase of CPB in the R group, but not in the C group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Racial disparities in outcomes of endovascular procedures for peripheral arterial disease: An evaluation of California hospitals, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Loja, Melissa N.; Brunson, Ann; Li, Chin-Shang; Carson, John G.; White, Richard H.; Romano, Patrick S.; Hedayati, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic disparities in treatment outcomes of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are well documented. Compared to non-Hispanic (NH) whites, blacks and Hispanics are more likely to undergo amputation and less likely to undergo bypass surgery for limb salvage. Endovascular procedures are being increasingly performed as first line of therapy for PAD. In this study, we examined the outcomes of endovascular PAD treatments based on race/ethnicity in a contemporary large population-based study. Methods We used Patient Discharge Data (PDD) from California’s Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) to identify all patients over the age of 35 who underwent a lower extremity arterial intervention from 2005 to 2009. A look-back period of five years was used to exclude all patients with prior lower extremity arterial revascularization procedures or major amputation. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare amputation-free survival and time to death within 365 days. Logistic regression was used for comparison of 1-month myocardial infarction (MI), 1-month major amputation, 1-month all-cause mortality, 12-month major amputation, 12-month reintervention, and 12-month all-cause mortality rates among NH white, black, and Hispanic patients. These analyses were adjusted for age, gender, insurance status, severity of PAD, comorbidities, history of coronary artery angioplasty or bypass surgery, or history of carotid endarterectomy. Results Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 41,507 individuals underwent PAD interventions, 25,635 (61.7%) of whom underwent endovascular procedures. There were 17,433 (68%) NH whites, 4,417 (17.2%) Hispanics, 1,979 (7.7%) blacks, 1,163 (4.5%) Asian/Native Hawaiians, and 643 (2.5%) others in this group. There was a statistically significant difference in the amputation-free survival within 365 days among the NH white, Hispanic and black groups (P < 0.0001); the hazard ratio for amputation within 365 days was 1

  14. Depressive Symptoms, Race, and Circulating C-Reactive Protein: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sheldon; DiLillo, Vicki G.; Lewis, Cora E.; Kiefe, Catarina; Whooley, Mary; Matthews, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the prospective association of depressive symptoms with circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and determine the direction of that association. Methods Using data from 2544 healthy participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (ages 33–45, 55% female, 42% black), we examined the prospective association of depressive symptoms, as measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), with circulating CRP five years later. Results Depressive symptoms at CARDIA Year 15 predicted CRP at Year 20, independent of demographic characteristics, biological and medical risk factors, health behaviors, and Year 15 CRP. This association, however, was conditional upon race such that the increase in CRP with increasing depressive symptoms was present in blacks but not whites. In neither blacks nor whites did Year 15 CRP predict Year 20 depressive symptoms. Among black participants, when examined in separate analyses, higher scores on the depressed affect and somatic symptoms subscales of the CES-D, and lower scores on the positive affect subscale were associated with greater Year 20 CRP. The interpersonal problems subscale was unrelated to CRP. When all four subscale scores were entered simultaneously in the same model, black participants' scores on the positive affect and somatic symptoms subscales emerged as independent predictors of Year 20 CRP whereas the depressed affect and interpersonal problems subscales did not. Conclusions Depressive symptoms may be more closely linked to inflammation in blacks than in whites. PMID:20668285

  15. Statin therapy and long-term adverse limb outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease: insights from the REACH registry

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhani, Dharam J.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Cannon, Christopher P.; Eagle, Kim A.; Smith, Sidney C.; Goto, Shinya; Ohman, E. Magnus; Elbez, Yedid; Sritara, Piyamitr; Baumgartner, Iris; Banerjee, Subhash; Creager, Mark A.; Bhatt, Deepak L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Due to a high burden of systemic cardiovascular events, current guidelines recommend the use of statins in all patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). We sought to study the impact of statin use on limb prognosis in patients with symptomatic PAD enrolled in the international REACH registry. Methods Statin use was assessed at study enrolment, as well as a time-varying covariate. Rates of the primary adverse limb outcome (worsening claudication/new episode of critical limb ischaemia, new percutaneous/surgical revascularization, or amputation) at 4 years and the composite of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke were compared among statin users vs. non-users. Results A total of 5861 patients with symptomatic PAD were included. Statin use at baseline was 62.2%. Patients who were on statins had a significantly lower risk of the primary adverse limb outcome at 4 years when compared with those who were not taking statins [22.0 vs. 26.2%; hazard ratio (HR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72–0.92; P = 0.0013]. Results were similar when statin use was considered as a time-dependent variable (P = 0.018) and on propensity analysis (P < 0.0001). The composite of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke was similarly reduced (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73–0.96; P = 0.01). Conclusion Among patients with PAD in the REACH registry, statin use was associated with an ∼18% lower rate of adverse limb outcomes, including worsening symptoms, peripheral revascularization, and ischaemic amputations. These findings suggest that statin therapy not only reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, but also favourably affects limb prognosis in patients with PAD. PMID:24585266

  16. Genetic variants influencing circulating lipid levels and risk of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Waterworth, Dawn M; Ricketts, Sally L; Song, Kijoung; Chen, Li; Zhao, Jing Hua; Ripatti, Samuli; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Zhang, Weihua; Yuan, Xin; Lim, Noha; Luan, Jian’an; Ashford, Sofie; Wheeler, Eleanor; Young, Elizabeth H; Hadley, David; Thompson, John R; Braund, Peter S; Johnson, Toby; Struchalin, Maksim; Surakka, Ida; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rodwell, Sheila A; Loos, Ruth J F; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Inouye, Michael; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Elliott, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Sanna, Serena; Scuteri, Angelo; Jackson, Anne; Mohlke, Karen L; Tuomilehto, Jaako; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexandre; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Mahley, Robert W; Grundy, Scott M; Hofman, Albert; McArdle, Wendy; Cardon, Lon; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Chambers, John C; Boehnke, Michael; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Salomaa, Veikko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Barroso, Inês; Epstein, Stephen E; Hakonarson, Hakon H; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Strachan, David P; Barter, Philip; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Peltonen, Leena; Wareham, Nicholas J; McPherson, Ruth; Mooser, Vincent; Sandhu, Manjinder S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Genetic studies might provide new insights into the biological mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism and risk of CAD. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study to identify novel genetic determinants of LDL-c, HDL-c and triglycerides. Methods and results We combined genome-wide association data from eight studies, comprising up to 17,723 participants with information on circulating lipid concentrations. We did independent replication studies in up to 37,774 participants from eight populations and also in a population of Indian Asian descent. We also assessed the association between SNPs at lipid loci and risk of CAD in up to 9,633 cases and 38,684 controls. We identified four novel genetic loci that showed reproducible associations with lipids (P values 1.6 × 10−8 to 3.1 × 10−10). These include a potentially functional SNP in the SLC39A8 gene for HDL-c, a SNP near the MYLIP/GMPR and PPP1R3B genes for LDL-c and at the AFF1 gene for triglycerides. SNPs showing strong statistical association with one or more lipid traits at the CELSR2, APOB, APOE-C1-C4-C2 cluster, LPL, ZNF259-APOA5-A4-C3-A1 cluster and TRIB1 loci were also associated with CAD risk (P values 1.1 × 10−3 to 1.2 × 10−9). Conclusions We have identified four novel loci associated with circulating lipids. We also show that in addition to those that are largely associated with LDL-c, genetic loci mainly associated with circulating triglycerides and HDL-c are also associated with risk of CAD. These findings potentially provide new insights into the biological mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism and CAD risk. PMID:20864672

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Remodeling in a Revised Peripheral Artery Bypass Graft Using 3D Ultrasound Imaging and Computational Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leotta, Daniel F.; Beach, Kirk W.; Riley, James J.; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    We report a study of the role of hemodynamic shear stress in the remodeling and failure of a peripheral artery bypass graft. Three separate scans of a femoral to popliteal above-knee bypass graft were taken over the course of a 16 month period following a revision of the graft. The morphology of the lumen is reconstructed from data obtained by a custom 3D ultrasound system. Numerical simulations are performed with the patient-specific geometries and physiologically realistic flow rates. The ultrasound reconstructions reveal two significant areas of remodeling: a stenosis with over 85% reduction in area, which ultimately caused graft failure, and a poststenotic dilatation or widening of the lumen. Likewise, the simulations reveal a complicated hemodynamic environment within the graft. Preliminary comparisons with in vivo velocimetry also showed qualitative agreement with the flow dynamics observed in the simulations. Two distinct flow features are discerned and are hypothesized to directly initiate the observed in vivo remodeling. First, a flow separation occurs at the stenosis. A low shear recirculation region subsequently develops distal to the stenosis. The low shear region is thought to be conducive to smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal growth. A poststenotic jet issues from the stenosis and subsequently impinges onto the lumen wall. The lumen dilation is thought to be a direct result of the high shear stress and high frequency pressure fluctuations associated with the jet impingement. PMID:21428682

  18. Peripheral blood gene expression profile of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in patients of different ethnicity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohd Hafiz Ngoo; Othman, Zulhabri; Noor, Hamdan Mohd; Arshad, Siti Suri; Yusof, Ahmad Khairuddin Mohd; Jamal, Rahman; Rahman, Abdul Rashid Abdul

    2012-09-01

    The molecular basis of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been widely studied in the western world but there is no published work on the Malaysian population. This study looked at the global gene expression profiling of the peripheral blood of patients with CAD from the 3 main ethnic groups in Malaysia. Male subjects selected were based on angiographically confirmed CAD (≥50% stenosis) and normal control subjects (0% stenosis) with age range of 55.6±5.3 and 51.0±5.5 years, respectively. The global gene expression of 12 angiographically documented CAD patients and 11 matched control subjects were performed. The combined group samples identified 6 up regulated differential expression (DE) genes (GHRL, LTA, CBS, HP, ITGA2B, and OLR1) and 12 down regulated DE genes (IL18R1, ITGA2B, IL18RAP, HP, OLR1, SOD2 ITGB3, IL1B, MMP9, PLA2G7, UTS2, and CBS) to be involved in CAD at the fold change of 1.3 with fault discovery rate (FDR) of 1%. Three genes, MMP9, IL1B, and SOD2 were down regulated in all the 3 ethnic groups making them potential biomarker candidates for CAD across all three ethnicities. Further verification in a cohort study is needed.

  19. ROS-Responsive Microspheres for On Demand Antioxidant Therapy in a Model of Diabetic Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Poole, KM; Nelson, CE; Joshi, RV; Martin, JR; Gupta, MK; Haws, SC; Kavanaugh, TE; Skala, MC; Duvall, CL

    2014-01-01

    A new microparticle-based delivery system was synthesized from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) and tested for “on demand” antioxidant therapy. PPS is hydrophobic but undergoes a phase change to become hydrophilic upon oxidation and thus provides a useful platform for ROS-demanded drug release. This platform was tested for delivery of the promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapeutic molecule curcumin, which is currently limited in use in its free form due to poor pharmacokinetic properties. PPS microspheres efficiently encapsulated curcumin through oil-in-water emulsion and provided sustained, on demand release that was modulated in vitro by hydrogen peroxide concentration. The cytocompatible, curcumin-loaded microspheres preferentially targeted and scavenged intracellular ROS in activated macrophages, reduced in vitro cell death in the presence of cytotoxic levels of ROS, and decreased tissue-level ROS in vivo in the diabetic mouse hind limb ischemia model of peripheral arterial disease. Interestingly, due to the ROS scavenging behavior of PPS, the blank microparticles also showed inherent therapeutic properties that were synergistic with the effects of curcumin in these assays. Functionally, local delivery of curcumin-PPS microspheres accelerated recovery from hind limb ischemia in diabetic mice, as demonstrated using non-invasive imaging techniques. This work demonstrates the potential for PPS microspheres as a generalizable vehicle for ROS-demanded drug release and establishes the utility of this platform for improving local curcumin bioavailability for treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25522975

  20. Reliability of the vascular claudication reporting in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease: a study with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Fabio; Lamberti, Nicola; Malagoni, Anna Maria; Zambon, Christel; Basaglia, Nino; Mascoli, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated whether altered reporting of ischemic symptoms occurs in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and stable claudication. Patients (n = 152) with claudication were enrolled (120 males; mean age: 71.0 ± 8.6 years): 74 with diabetes (DM-PAD) and 78 without (DMfree-PAD). The degree of muscle oxygenation at symptom onset and maximal speed (Smax) during an incremental treadmill test was recorded at the gastrocnemius by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and quantified by area under the curve of oxygenated hemoglobin (AUC-Hbo 2) and area under the curve of differential hemoglobin (AUC-dHb). The DM-PAD and DMfree-PAD showed similar exercise capacities inversely correlated with the degree of muscle oxygenation but significantly lower values of AUC-Hbo 2 and AUC-dHb for DM-PAD at symptom onset and Smax (-356 vs -122 and -1200 vs -359, P < .0001). During a NIRS-assisted test, the report of claudication in the presence of diabetes was delayed, occurring at a lower degree of oxygenation than in patients with PAD only, with potential implications for testing, functional staging, and balance disorders.

  1. Dynamic analysis with a fractional-order chaotic system for estimation of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chien-Ming; Du, Yi-Chun; Wu, Jian-Xing; Lin, Chia-Hung; Ho, Yueh-Ren; Chen, Tainsong

    2013-08-01

    Lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by narrowing or occlusion of vessels in patients like type 2 diabetes mellitus, the elderly and smokers. Patients with PAD are mostly asymptomatic; typical early symptoms of this limb-threatening disorder are intermittent claudication and leg pain, suggesting the necessity for accurate diagnosis by invasive angiography and ankle-brachial pressure index. This index acts as a gold standard reference for PAD diagnosis and categorizes its severity into normal, low-grade and high-grade, with respective cut-off points of ≥0.9, 0.9-0.5 and <0.5. PAD can be assessed using photoplethysmography as a diagnostic screening tool, displaying changes in pulse transit time and shape, and dissimilarities of these changes between lower limbs. The present report proposed photoplethysmogram with fractional-order chaotic system to assess PAD in 14 diabetics and 11 healthy adults, with analysis of dynamic errors based on various butterfly motion patterns, and color relational analysis as classifier for pattern recognition. The results show that the classification of PAD severity among these testees was achieved with high accuracy and efficiency. This noninvasive methodology potentially provides timing and accessible feedback to patients with asymptomatic PAD and their physicians for further invasive diagnosis or strict management of risk factors to intervene in the disease progression.

  2. Novel screening metric for the identification of at-risk peripheral artery disease patients using administrative claims data.

    PubMed

    Bali, Vishal; Yermilov, Irina; Coutts, Kayla; Legorreta, Antonio P

    2016-02-01

    Despite high morbidity and mortality associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD), it remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. The objective of this study was to develop a screening metric to identify undiagnosed patients at high risk of developing PAD using administrative data. Commercial claims data from 2010 to 2012 were utilized to develop and internally validate a PAD screening metric. Medicare data were used for external validation. The study population included adults, aged 30 years or older, with new cases of PAD identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis/procedure codes or the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) codes. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine PAD risk factors used in the development of the screening metric for the identification of at-risk PAD patients. The cumulative incidence of PAD was 6.6%. Sex, age, congestive heart failure, hypertension, chronic renal insufficiency, stroke, diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, hyperlipidemia, and angina were significant risk factors for PAD. A cut-off score of ⩾20 yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and c-statistics of 83.5%, 60.0%, 12.8%, 98.1%, and 0.78, respectively. By identifying patients at high risk for developing PAD using only administrative data, the use of the current pre-screening metric could reduce the number of diagnostic tests, while still capturing those patients with undiagnosed PAD. PMID:26608733

  3. Concise Review: Injectable Biomaterials for the Treatment of Myocardial Infarction and Peripheral Artery Disease: Translational Challenges and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Ungerleider, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, injectable biomaterial-based therapies for cardiovascular disease have been gaining attention, because they have shown therapeutic potential in preclinical models for myocardial infarction (MI) and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Naturally derived (e.g., alginate, hyaluronic acid, collagen, or extracellular matrix-based) or synthetic (e.g., peptide or polymer-based) materials can enhance stem cell survival and retention in vivo, prolong growth factor release from bulk hydrogel or particle constructs, and even stimulate endogenous tissue regeneration as a standalone therapy. Although there are many promising preclinical examples, the therapeutic potential of biomaterial-based products for cardiovascular disease has yet to be proved on a clinical and commercial scale. This review aims to briefly summarize the latest preclinical and clinical studies on injectable biomaterial therapies for MI and PAD. Furthermore, our overall goal is to highlight the major challenges facing translation of these therapies to the clinic (e.g., regulatory, manufacturing, and delivery), with the purpose of increasing awareness of the barriers for translating novel biomaterial therapies for MI and PAD and facilitating more rapid translation of new biomaterial technologies. PMID:25015641

  4. Prevalence, Clinical Significance, and Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Women: Is There a Role for Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Mazhari, Ramesh; Hsia, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), like coronary heart disease, is a clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis and is associated with increased mortality. Although atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for women as well as for men, PAD in women has received less attention than coronary heart disease or stroke. This paper reviews the prevalence of PAD, its risk factors, clinical significance, and management in women. One gender-specific therapeutic issue of particular interest to practitioners and the lay public is the role of postmenopausal hormone therapy. Prior to completion of the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study and the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Trials, postmenopausal hormone therapy was believed to exert antiatherosclerotic effects and to thereby reduce coronary heart disease risk in women on the basis of case-control and cohort studies. This review particularly focuses on the role, if any, of postmenopausal hormone therapy for prevention or treatment of PAD, which was a pre-specified secondary outcome for these three randomized trials. PMID:17315397

  5. Pulse Waves in the Lower Extremities as a Diagnostic Tool of Peripheral Arterial Disease and Predictor of Mortality in Elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Huang, Qi-Fang; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Fei-Ka; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-03-01

    Patients with peripheral arterial disease may have elongated upstroke time in pulse waves in the lower extremities. We investigated upstroke time as a diagnostic tool of peripheral arterial disease and predictor of mortality in an elderly (≥60 years) Chinese population. We recorded pulse waves at the left and right ankles by pneumoplethysmography and calculated the percentage of upstroke time per cardiac cycle. Diagnostic accuracy was compared with the conventional ankle-brachial index method (n=4055) and computed tomographic angiography (34 lower extremities in 17 subjects). Upstroke time per cardiac cycle at baseline (mean±SD, 16.4%±3.1%) was significantly (P<0.0001) associated with ankle-brachial index in men (n=1803; r=-0.44) and women (n=2252; r=-0.32) and had an overall sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 80%, respectively, for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (upstroke time per cardiac cycle, ≥21.7%) in comparison with computed tomographic angiography. During 5.9 years (median) of follow-up, all-cause and cardiovascular deaths occurred in 366 and 183 subjects, respectively. In adjusted Cox regression analyses, an upstroke time per cardiac cycle ≥21.7% (n=219; 5.4%) significantly (P<0.0001) predicted total and cardiovascular mortality. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.65) and 2.29 (1.58-3.32), respectively, when compared with that of 2.10 (1.48-3.00) and 2.44 (1.57-3.79), respectively, associated with an ankle-brachial index of ≤0.90 (n=115; 2.8%). In conclusion, pulse waves in the lower extremities may behave as an accurate and ease of use diagnostic tool of peripheral arterial disease and predictor of mortality in the elderly.

  6. The effect of rizatriptan, ergotamine, and their combination on human peripheral arteries: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Seidelin, Kaj; Stepanavage, Michael; Lines, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Aims To compare the peripheral vasoconstrictor effects of ergotamine, rizatriptan, and their combination, in normal subjects. Methods This was a double-blind, four-way, crossover study. Sixteen young male volunteers, selected as responders to the vasoconstrictor effect of 0.5 mg ergotamine i.v., were administered 10 mg oral rizatriptan, 0.25 mg i.v. ergotamine, 10 mg oral rizatriptan +0.25 mg i.v. ergotamine, and placebo. The vasoconstrictor effect on peripheral arteries was measured with strain gauge plethysmography up to 8 h after dosing. The 8 h assessment period was divided into two 4 h intervals to assess the immediate (0–4 h) vs sustained effect (4–8 h) of treatment. Results For the 0–4 h interval, the decreases in peripheral systolic blood pressure gradients were: placebo (−1 mmHg [95% CI: −3, 1])peripheral arteries compared with the sustained and more pronounced effect of 0.25 mg i.v. ergotamine. Furthermore, rizatriptan exerted no additional effect on ergotamine-induced constriction of peripheral arteries when the two drugs were given in combination. PMID:12100223

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells as a treatment for peripheral arterial disease: current status and potential impact of type II diabetes on their therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinglian; Tie, Guodong; Xu, Ting Yu; Cecchini, Katharine; Messina, Louis M

    2013-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), due to their paracrine, transdifferentiation, and immunosuppressive effects, hold great promise as a therapy for peripheral arterial disease. Diabetes is an important risk factor for peripheral arterial disease; however, little is known of how type II diabetes affects the therapeutic function of MSCs. This review summarizes the current status of preclinical and clinical studies that have been performed to determine the efficacy of MSCs in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. We also present findings from our laboratory regarding the impact of type II diabetes on the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs neovascularization after the induction of hindlimb ischemia. In our studies, we documented that experimental type II diabetes in db/db mice impaired MSCs' therapeutic function by favoring their differentiation towards adipocytes, while limiting their differentiation towards endothelial cells. Moreover, type II diabetes impaired the capacity of MSCs to promote neovascularization in the ischemic hindlimb. We further showed that these impairments of MSC function and multipotency were secondary to hyperinsulinemia-induced, Nox4-dependent oxidant stress in db/db MSCs. Should human MSCs display similar oxidant stress-induced impairment of function, these findings might permit greater leverage of the potential of MSC transplantation, particularly in the setting of diabetes or other cardiovascular risk factors, as well as provide a therapeutic approach by reversing the oxidant stress of MSCs prior to transplantation.

  8. Lumbar Sympathicolysis in Patients with Severe Peripheral Artery Disease: Hemodynamics of the Lower Limbs Determined by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Color Coded Duplex Sonography, and Temperature Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Bombor, Ingmar; Wissgott, Christian; Andresen, Reimer

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of CT-guided lumbar sympathicolysis on somatic regional oxygen saturation, arterial flow velocity, and skin temperature of the lower limbs in patients with advanced peripheral artery disease (PAD). CT-guided lumbar sympathicolysis was additionally performed after successful revascularization therapy in 61 patients with PAD in categories 5 and 6 according to Rutherford. Somatic regional oxygen saturation in the distal lower limbs was determined semiquantitatively with a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Before and after intervention, peak flow and end-diastolic flow velocity in the dorsalis pedis artery were determined by means of color-coded duplex sonography, and the skin temperature of the feet was measured with an infrared thermometer. After CT-guided lumbar sympathicolysis, somatic regional oxygen saturation, peak flow, end-diastolic flow velocity, and skin temperature in the lower limbs increased significantly. PMID:25788836

  9. Effectiveness of bedside investigations to diagnose peripheral artery disease among people with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brownrigg, J R W; Hinchliffe, R J; Apelqvist, J; Boyko, E J; Fitridge, R; Mills, J L; Reekers, J; Shearman, C P; Zierler, R E; Schaper, N C

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive tests for the detection of peripheral artery disease (PAD) among individuals with diabetes mellitus are important to estimate the risk of amputation, ulceration, wound healing and the presence of cardiovascular disease, yet there are no consensus recommendations to support a particular diagnostic modality over another and to evaluate the performance of index non-invasive diagnostic tests against reference standard imaging techniques (magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography and colour duplex ultrasound) for the detection of PAD among patients with diabetes. Two reviewers independently screened potential studies for inclusion and extracted study data. Eligible studies evaluated an index test for PAD against a reference test. An assessment of methodological quality was performed using the quality assessment for diagnostic accuracy studies instrument. Of the 6629 studies identified, ten met the criteria for inclusion. In these studies, the patients had a median age of 60-74 years and a median duration of diabetes of 9-24 years. Two studies reported exclusively on patients with symptomatic (ulcerated/infected) feet, two on patients with asymptomatic (intact) feet only, and the remaining six on patients both with and without foot ulceration. Ankle brachial index (ABI) was the most widely assessed index test. Overall, the positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) of an ABI threshold <0.9 ranged from 2 to 25 (median 8) and <0.1 to 0.7 (median 0.3), respectively. In patients with neuropathy, the NLR of the ABI was generally higher (two out of three studies), indicating poorer performance, and ranged between 0.3 and 0.5. A toe brachial index <0.75 was associated with a median positive likelihood ratio and NLRs of 3 and ≤ 0.1, respectively, and was less affected by neuropathy in one study. Also, in two separate studies, pulse oximetry used to measure the oxygen saturation of peripheral

  10. Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography at 3 Tesla Using a Hybrid Protocol in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Yousef W.; Eiberg, Jonas P.; Logager, Vibeke B.; Schroeder, Torben V.; Just, Sven; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3T whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) using a hybrid protocol in comparison with a standard protocol in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In 26 consecutive patients with PAD two different protocols were used for WB-MRA: a standard sequential protocol (n = 13) and a hybrid protocol (n = 13). WB-MRA was performed using a gradient echo sequence, body coil for signal reception, and gadoterate meglumine as contrast agent (0.3 mmol/kg body weight). Two blinded observers evaluated all WB-MRA examinations with regard to presence of stenoses, as well as diagnostic quality and degree of venous contamination in each of the four stations used in WB-MRA. Digital subtraction angiography served as the method of reference. Sensitivity for detecting significant arterial disease (luminal narrowing {>=} 50%) using standard-protocol WB-MRA for the two observers was 0.63 (95%CI: 0.51-0.73) and 0.66 (0.58-0.78). Specificities were 0.94 (0.91-0.97) and 0.96 (0.92-0.98), respectively. In the hybrid protocol WB-MRA sensitivities were 0.75 (0.64-0.84) and 0.70 (0.58-0.8), respectively. Specificities were 0.93 (0.88-0.96) and 0.95 (0.91-0.97). Interobserver agreement was good using both the standard and the hybrid protocol, with {kappa} = 0.62 (0.44-0.67) and {kappa} = 0.70 (0.59-0.79), respectively. WB-MRA quality scores were significantly higher in the lower leg using the hybrid protocol compared to standard protocol (p = 0.003 and p = 0.03, observers 1 and 2). Distal venous contamination scores were significantly lower with the hybrid protocol (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, observers 1 and 2). In conclusion, hybrid-protocol WB-MRA shows a better diagnostic performance than standard protocol WB-MRA at 3 T in patients with PAD.

  11. Analysis of T cell responses in liver allograft recipients. Evidence for deletion of donor-specific cytotoxic T cells in the peripheral circulation.

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, J M; Marsh, J W; Susskind, B; Mohanakumar, T

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of cell-mediated lympholysis in long-term liver allograft recipients indicated that there was a donor-specific unresponsiveness that could not be reversed by the addition of rIL-2 and/or mixed lymphocyte culture supernatant or by nonspecific stimulation of the cultures with PHA. Stimulation of recipient cells with semisyngeneic cells having both donor and third-party HLA antigens failed to reveal the presence of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) specific to the donor, whereas the CTL response to third-party antigens remained normal. Removal of B lymphocytes from the responding cell population did not influence the responses. Furthermore, limiting dilution analysis showed that the liver transplant recipients did not have detectable levels of CTL precursors (CTLp) reactive to the donor antigens, whereas their CTLp to third-party antigens remained normal. Donor-specific CTLp were present before and during the early post-transplant period; these cells were eliminated from the peripheral circulation by 10 mo after transplantation. Taken together, these results indicate that there is a deletion of CTLp specific to donor MHC antigens in the peripheral circulation of long-term liver allograft recipients that may account in part for the success of liver transplantation across MHC barriers. Images PMID:8450068

  12. Peripheral and central arterial pressure and its relationship to vascular target organ damage in carotid artery, retina and arterial stiffness. Development and validation of a tool. The Vaso risk study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) shows a better correlation to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality than office blood pressure. A loss of arterial elasticity and an increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity-mortality. Tools have been developed that allow estimation of the retinal arteriovenous index but not all studies coincide and there are contradictory results in relation to the evolution of the arteriosclerotic lesions and the caliber of the retinal vessels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between peripheral and central arterial pressure (clinic and ambulatory) and vascular structure and function as evaluated by the carotid artery intima-media thickness, retina arteriovenous index, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle-brachial index in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. In turn, software is developed and validated for measuring retinal vessel thickness and automatically estimating the arteriovenous index. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study involving a control group will be made, with a posterior 4-year follow-up period in primary care. The study patients will be type 2 diabetics, with a control group of non-diabetic individuals. Consecutive sampling will be used to include 300 patients between 34-75 years of age and no previous cardiovascular disease, one-half being assigned to each group. Main measurements: age, gender, height, weight and abdominal circumference. Lipids, creatinine, microalbuminuria, blood glucose, HbA1c, blood insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and endothelial dysfunction markers. Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Carotid ultrasound to evaluate IMT, and retinography to evaluate the arteriovenous index. ECG to assess left ventricle hypertrophy, ankle-brachial index, and pulse wave analysis (PWA) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) with the Sphigmocor System. Discussion We

  13. Peripheral arterial tonometry to measure the effects of vardenafil on sympathetic tone in men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Francomano, Davide; Donini, Lorenzo M; Lenzi, Andrea; Aversa, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate whether adrenergic overtone is involved in the pathophysiology of men with lifelong (LL) premature ejaculation (PE), we investigated differences in reactive hyperemia index (RHI) responses by using peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). 20 men with LL-PE (18-40 years) were enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study and compared with 10 age-matched controls without LL-PE. Primary endpoints were PAT modifications induced by vardenafil 10 mg on demand. Secondary endpoints were the improvement in intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) as measured by the stopwatch technique and variations in anxiety scores at Stai-X1 for state-anxiety and Stai-X2 for trait-anxiety. At baseline, men with LL-PE showed higher RHI variation (P < 0.001), Stai-X1 and Stai X2 scores (P < 0.0001, resp.), and prolactin levels (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Vardenafil treatment markedly reduced RHI variation in men with LL-PE (P < 0.01) when compared with placebo. Mean changes in geometric IELT were higher after taking vardenafil (0.6 ± 0.3 versus 4.5 ± 1.1 min, P < 0.01) when compared with placebo. STAI-X1 and STAI-X2 scores fell within the normal range after treatment with vardenafil (P < 0.01). Vardenafil was an effective treatment in men with LL-PE; improvements of IELT may be due to increased NO production which is able to reduce adrenergic overactivity and anxiety levels.

  14. Sleep Apnea is Independently Associated with Peripheral Arterial Disease in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neomi; Allison, Matthew; Teng, Yanping; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Ramos, Alberto R.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Yaggi, H. Klar; Gallo, Linda C.; Redline, Susan; Kaplan, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep apnea (SA) has been linked with various forms of cardiovascular disease, but little is known about its association with peripheral artery disease (PAD) measured using the ankle- brachial index (ABI). This relationship was evaluated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Approach and Results We studied 8,367 HCHS/SOL participants who were 45 to 74 years of age. Sleep symptoms were examined with the self-reported Sleep Health Questionnaire. SA was assessed using an in-home sleep study. Systolic blood pressure was measured in all extremities to compute the ABI. PAD was defined as ABI < 0.90 in either leg. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to investigate the association between moderate-to-severe SA, defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15, and the presence of PAD. Analyses were adjusted for covariates. The prevalence of PAD was 4.7% (n=390). The mean AHI was significantly higher among adults with PAD compared to those without (11.1 vs. 8.6 events/hour, p=0.046). After adjusting for covariates, moderate-to-severe SA was associated with a 70% increase in the odds of PAD (odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 – 2.5, p=0.0152). This association was not modified by sex (p=0.8739). However, there was evidence that the association between moderate-to-severe SA and PAD varied by Hispanic/Latino background (p < 0.01). Specifically, the odds were stronger in Mexican (adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.2) and in Puerto Rican Americans (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI: 0.97 – 4.2) than in other backgrounds. Conclusions Moderate-to-severe SA is associated with higher odds of PAD in Hispanic/Latino adults. PMID:25657310

  15. Thromboelastographic Changes Following Nonionic Contrast Medium Injection During Transfemoral Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, V.K. Handa, A.; Philips-Hughes, J.; Boardman, P.; Uberoi, R.; Hands, L.J.

    2006-12-15

    Background/Purpose. Patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) are known to be systemically hypercoagulable and there is concern that exposing them to contrast media during angiography may exacerbate that thrombotic tendency. Many in vitro studies in which blood is exposed to contrast media suggest that nonionic contrast medium (NICM) has a weaker anticoagulant effect than ionic contrast medium (ICM) and some studies suggest that NICM can lead to activation of coagulation thus increasing the risk of thrombotic events where it is employed. We have looked at the changes in coagulation adjacent to the site of contrast injection/potential angioplasty to determine the magnitude of change locally. Methods. We measured changes in the coagulability of aortic blood samples immediately before and within 2 min after injection of the last bolus of iohexol (NICM) prior to any intervention procedure in 30 patients with PAOD. Samples were analyzed using thromboelastography (TEG) to identify changes in the coagulability of the aortic blood samples. Results. TEG tracings of samples taken from the aorta after injection of NICM showed a significant increase in R time (time to fibrin formation) (p = 0.036) and in k time (dynamics of clot formation) (p = 0.028) and a reduction in Angle (decreased acceleration of fibrin build-up) (p = 0.013), Maximal amplitude (MA) (reduced ultimate clot strength) (p = 0.018) and Coagulation Index (CI) (p = 0.032). Conclusion. These changes in TEG parameters show that the local effect of NICM is a reduction in coagulation activity rather than the activation suggested by some previous studies.

  16. Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein Particles Are Associated with Poor Outcome after Angioplasty in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mosimann, Kathrin; Husmann, Marc; Thalhammer, Christoph; Wilkinson, Ian; Berneis, Kaspar; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In patients suffering from symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD), percutaneous revascularization is the treatment of choice. However, restenosis may occur in 10 to 60% in the first year depending on a variety of factors. Small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events, but their role in the process of restenosis is not known. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the association of sdLDL particles with the outcome of balloon angioplasty in PAD. The composite primary endpoint was defined as improved walking distance and absence of restenosis. Methods Patients with angiographically documented PAD of the lower extremities who were scheduled for lower limb revascularization were consecutively recruited for the study. At baseline and at three month follow-up triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL size and subclasses and HDL cholesterol and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were measured. Three months after the intervention duplex sonography was performed to detect restenosis. Results Sixty-four patients (53% male) with a mean age of 68.6±9.9 years were included. The proportion of small- dense LDL particles (class III and IV) was significantly lower (33.1±11.0% vs. 39.4±12.1%, p = 0.038) in patients who reached the primary end-point compared with those who did not. Patients with improved walking distance and without restenosis had a significantly higher LDL size at baseline (26.6±1.1 nm vs. 26.1±1.1 nm, p = 0.046) and at follow-up (26.7±1.1 nm vs. 26.2±0.9 nm, p = 0.044) than patients without improvement. Conclusions Small-dense LDL particles are associated with worse early outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous revascularization for symptomatic PAD. PMID:25265512

  17. Compliance Index, a Marker of Peripheral Arterial Stiffness, may Predict Renal Function Decline in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Te-Hui; Yang, Deng-Chi; Lin, Wei-Hung; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Chen, Ju-Yi; Ho, Chin-Shan; Cheng, Meng-Fu; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Wang, Ming-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Compliance index derived from digital volume pulse (CI-DVP), measuring the relationship between volume and pressure changes in fingertip, is a surrogate marker of peripheral arterial stiffness. This study investigated if CI-DVP can predict renal function deterioration, cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: In this prospective observational study, 149 CKD patients were included for final analysis. CI-DVP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were measured, decline in renal function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. Composite renal and cardiovascular outcomes were evaluated, including ≥50% eGFR decline, start of renal replacement therapy, and major adverse events. Results: Patients in CKD stages 3b to 5 had higher baPWV and lower CI-DVP values than those in patients with CKD stages 1 to 3a. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis showed that lower CI-DVP (p =0.0001) and greater proteinuria (p =0.0023) were independent determinants of higher eGFR decline rate. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that CI-DVP (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-1.00), baseline eGFR (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98) and serum albumin (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.42) were independent predictors for composite renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions: Compliance index, CI-DVP, was significantly associated with renal function decline in patients with CKD. A higher CI-DVP may have independent prognostic value in slower renal function decline and better composite renal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients. PMID:26180508

  18. Effect of Peripheral Arterial Disease on Functional and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure From HF-ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Jones, W. Schuyler; Clare, Robert; Ellis, Stephen J.; Mills, James S.; Fischman, David L.; Kraus, William E.; Whellan, David J.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Patel, Manesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have lower functional capacity and worse clinical outcomes than age and gender matched patients. Few data exist on the relationship of PAD with functional and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients. We sought to compare HF patients with and without PAD for baseline functional capacity, response to exercise training, and clinical outcomes. HF-ACTION was a randomized controlled trial comparing usual care to structured exercise training plus usual care in HF patients with an ejection fraction ≤ 35% and NYHA class II – IV heart failure symptoms. Cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing occurred at enrollment, 3 months, and 1 year. Clinical follow-up occurred up to 4 years. Of the 2331 HF-ACTION patients, 157 (6.8%) had PAD. At baseline, HF patients with PAD had a lower exercise duration (8.0 vs. 9.8 minutes, p<0.001), lower peak oxygen consumption (VO2) (12.5 vs. 14.6 mL/kg/min, p<0.001), and shorter six minute walking distance (306 vs. 371 meters, p<0.001) compared to HF patients without PAD. At three months, HF patients with PAD had less improvement on CPX testing [exercise duration (0.5 vs. 1.1 minutes; p=0.002) and peak VO2 (mean change; 0.1 vs. 0.6 mL/kg/min; p=0.04)] compared to HF patients without PAD. PAD was an independent predictor of all-cause death or hospitalization [hazard ratio (95% CI); 1.31 (1.06 – 1.62), p=0.011]. PAD patients with HF have depressed baseline exercise capacity and decreased response to exercise training. In conclusion, PAD is an independent predictor of all-cause death or hospitalization in HF patients. PMID:21565325

  19. Comparison of quality of life in patients with peripheral arterial disease caused by atherosclerosis obliterans or Buerger’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Karakoyun, Rojbin; Köksoy, Cüneyt; Şener, Zeynep; Gündüz, Umut; Karakaş, Barış; Karakoyun, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Buerger’s disease and atherosclerosis obliterans (ASO) are two peripheral arterial diseases (PAD) that are frequently encountered. The aim of this study was to compare quality of life (QOL) in patients with Buerger’s disease and ASO. Methods We prospectively followed 86 patients who were admitted to our hospital due to ASO or Buerger’s disease. Their ischaemia was evaluated according to the clinical category chronic limb ischaemia at the time of hospital admission and at six and 12 months. The QOL was measured at the time of hospital admission and at six and 12 months with the Short Form Health Status Survey (SF-36) and Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VASCUQOL). Results A total of 86 patients with ASO or Buerger’s disease (47 and 39, respectively) were included in the study. Pain parameters from both SF-36 and VASCUQOL scores were lower in patients with Buerger’s disease at the time of hospital admission and at six months. The impairment in QOL was found to be proportional to the extent of chronic limb ischaemia. Conversely, when patients with critical limb ischaemia were evaluated, no difference was observed between those with ASO or Buerger’s disease in terms of QOL. Amputations were found to have a negative effect on quality of life. Conclusion Buerger’s disease had a more pronounced negative effect on QOL than ASO, particularly in terms of pain score. When critical limb ischaemia was considered, ASO and Buerger’s disease impaired quality of life at the same rate. PMID:25000442

  20. Sex-specific predictors of improved walking with step-monitored, home-based exercise in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E; Montgomery, Polly S

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether baseline clinical characteristics and the duration and intensity of ambulation during our step-monitored home-based exercise program were predictive of changes in ambulatory outcomes at completion of the program in symptomatic patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Twenty-two men (ankle-brachial index (ABI) = 0.71 ± 0.19) and 24 women (ABI = 0.66 ± 0.23) completed the home exercise program, consisting of intermittent walking to mild-to-moderate claudication pain for 3 months. Ambulatory outcome measures were peak walking time (PWT) and claudication onset time (COT) during a treadmill test, and the distance recorded during a 6-minute walk distance test (6MWD). Men experienced significant increases (p<0.01) in COT, PWT, and 6MWD following the home exercise program, and women had significant increases in 6MWD (p<0.01) and PWT (p<0.05). In women, average exercise cadence during the home exercise sessions was the only predictor that entered the model for change in COT (p=0.082), and was the first predictor in the model for change in PWT (p=0.029) and 6MWD (p=0.006). In men, the ABI was the only predictor that entered the model for change in 6MWD (p=0.002), and ABI was a predictor along with metabolic syndrome in the model for change in COT (p=0.003). No variables entered the model for change in PWT. Faster ambulatory cadence during the step-monitored home-based exercise program may predict greater improvements in ambulatory function in women, whereas having less severe PAD and comorbid burden at baseline may predict greater improvements in ambulatory function in men. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00618670.

  1. Contemporary Risk Factor Control and Walking Dysfunction in Individuals with Peripheral Arterial Disease: NHANES 1999-2004

    PubMed Central

    Selvin, Elizabeth; Hirsch, Alan T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Selected studies have demonstrated less intense risk factor management and diminished mobility in individuals with PAD as compared to individuals with clinical recognized CHD. However, comparable data have not been reported from a nationally representative population. Objectives To assess the prevalence, treatment, and control of cardiovascular risk factors among individuals with PAD as defined by an ankle-brachial index (ABI) <0.90 (but without recognized CHD) as compared with individuals with recognized CHD (but without PAD). A second objective was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of measures of walking dysfunction to identify individuals with PAD. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed data from 7,571 participants aged 40 or older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population. Results The prevalence of PAD without CHD was 4.1% (95%CI 3.6, 4.5) compared to 7.9% (7.1, 8.9) for CHD (without PAD). Hypertension prevalence was similar, but treatment and control rates were lower among individuals with PAD compared to CHD (treatment: 69% vs 84%, p<0.001; control: 50% vs 63%, p=0.01). Treatment of hypercholesterolemia was lower among individuals with PAD (54% vs 79%, p<0.001) but control was similar (83% vs 85%, p=0.78). Diabetes awareness, treatment, and control did not differ between the two groups. Walking mobility limitations were specific, but insensitive, for the identification of individuals with PAD. Conclusion PAD in the absence of clinically recognized CHD is under-treated and poorly controlled in the general U.S. population. Leg symptoms are not adequate to identify individuals with PAD, who are at high risk of ischemic events. PMID:18395208

  2. Asthma Is Associated With a Subsequent Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chih-Wei; Shen, Te-Chun; Lu, Chiung-Ray; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, Cheng-Li; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Asthma has been associated with the atherosclerosis risk, but not clear of peripheral artery disease (PAD). We attempted to examine the risk of PAD in patients with asthma.From the insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 28,158 newly diagnosed asthma patients in 2000 to 2005 and 56,316 persons without asthma randomly selected into the comparison cohort, frequency matched by sex, age, and the date of diagnosis. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to estimate the incident PAD. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of PAD were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model after controlling for sex, age, and comorbidities.The incidence of PAD was 1.46 times higher in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort, with an aHR of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-1.45]. Incidence of PAD was higher in men, the aged, and those with comorbidities in both cohorts. The aHRs of PAD remained significant for the asthma cohort in all subgroups of sex, age, and the presence of comorbidity. The aHRs of PAD were 14.1 (95% CI = 8.18-24.5) in asthma patients with multiple emergency visits and 22.3 (95% CI = 15.6-31.9) for those with multiple hospitalizations.Although smoking is a potential confounding factor, this study suggests patients with asthma have a significantly higher risk of developing PAD than the general population. The results also support the notion that poor control of asthma status is a key factor in subsequent PAD development. PMID:26817901

  3. Atrial Fibrillation Increases the Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease With Relative Complications and Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Yen-Ting; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), an increasing prevalent cardiac arrhythmia due to aging general population, has many common risk factors with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, it is unclear whether AF is associated with a risk of PAD. We investigated the prevalence of AF and PAD in the general population and the risk of PAD among the AF population. This longitudinal, nationwide, population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database recorded during 2000 to 2011. In total, 3814 and 15,364 patients were included in the AF and non-AF cohorts, respectively. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used for examining the effects of AF on the risk of outcomes. The average follow-up periods of PAD were 4.96 ± 3.28 and 5.29 ± 3.35 years for the AF and non-AF cohorts, respectively. Overall, the risk of PAD showed a significantly higher risk in the AF cohort (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI=1.19-1.45) compared with the non-AF cohort. Similar results were observed for heart failure and stroke, where the AF cohort had a 1.83-fold and 2.53-fold higher risk of developing heart failure and stroke. The AF cohort also had a significant increased risk for mortality (adjusted HR=1.66, 95% CI=1.49-1.84). The present study indicated that the incidence of PAD, heart failure, stroke, and overall mortality is higher in patients with AF than in those without it. PMID:26945422

  4. Dual-Source CT Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Stents: In Vitro Evaluation of 22 Different Stent Types

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Michael; Burg, Matthias C.; Bunck, Alexander C.; Heindel, Walter; Seifarth, Harald; Maintz, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To test different peripheral arterial stents using four image reconstruction approaches with respect to lumen visualization, lumen attenuation and image noise in dual-source multidetector row CT (DSCT) in vitro. Methods and Materials. 22 stents (nitinol, steel, cobalt-alloy, tantalum, platinum alloy) were examined in a vessel phantom. All stents were imaged in axial orientation with standard parameters. Image reconstructions were obtained with four different convolution kernels. To evaluate visualization characteristics of the stent, the lumen diameter, intraluminal density and noise were measured. Results. The mean percentage of the visible stent lumen diameter from the nominal stent diameter was 74.5% ± 5.7 for the medium-sharp kernel, 72.8% ± 6.4 for the medium, 70.8% ± 6.4 for the medium-smooth and 67.6% ± 6.6 for the smooth kernel. Mean values of lumen attenuation were 299.7HU ± 127 (medium-sharp), 273.9HU ± 68 (medium), 270.7HU ± 53 (medium-smooth) and 265.8HU ± 43. Mean image noise was: 54.6 ± 6.3, 20.5 ± 1.7, 16.3 ± 1.7, 14.0 ± 2 respectively. Conclusion. Visible stent lumen diameter varies depending on stent type and scan parameters. Lumen diameter visibility increases with the sharpness of the reconstruction kernel. Smoother kernels provide more realistic density measurements inside the stent lumen and less image noise. PMID:22091369

  5. Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease among Adult Patients Attending Outpatient Clinic at a General Hospital in South Angola.

    PubMed

    Paquissi, Feliciano Chanana; Cuvinje, Arminda Bimbi Paquissi; Cuvinje, Almeida Bailundo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide, and is associated with all-cause mortality. However, no study has assessed this disease in Huambo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD in patients attending an outpatient clinic at a general hospital in Huambo, South Angola. Methods. A cross-sectional study, including 115 patients aged 40 years and older attending an outpatient service. The evaluation included a basic questionnaire for lifestyle and medical history and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement using hand-held Doppler. PAD was defined as an ABI ≤0.9 in either lower limb. Results. Of 115 patients, 62.60% were women with a median age of 52.5 (range of 40 to 91) years. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 95%: 33.91-52.17%). Among patients with PAD, 95.92% had mild disease and 4.08% moderate to severe disease. The main risk factor for PAD was age (≥60 years) (χ (2) = 3.917, P ≤ 0.05). The prevalence was slightly higher in men and hypertensive subjects, but without statistical significance with ORs of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.69-3.21) and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.64-3.17), respectively. Hypertension was also high in the group (66.95%). Conclusion. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6%, higher in those aged 60 years and older. More studies, with representative samples, are necessary to clarify PAD prevalence and associated risk factors. PMID:27293966

  6. Identification of candidate target genes for human peripheral arterial disease using weighted gene co‑expression network analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, De-Xin; Zhao, Hao-Min; Sun, Da-Jun; Yao, Jian; Ding, Da-Yong

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the potential treatment targets of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and provide further insights into the underlying mechanism of PAD, based on a weighted gene co‑expression network analysis (WGCNA) method. The mRNA expression profiles (accession. no. GSE27034), which included 19 samples from patients with PAD and 18 samples from normal control individuals were extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Subsequently, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using the Limma package and the co‑expression network modules were screened using the WGCNA approach. In addition, the protein‑protein interaction network for the DEGs in the most significant module was constructed using Cytoscape software. Functional enrichment analyses of the DEGs in the most significant module were also performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology‑Based Annotation System, respectively. A total of 148 DEGs were identified in PAD, which were used to construct the WGCN, in which two modules (gray module and turquoise module) were identified, with the gray module exhibiting a higher gene significance (GS) value than the turquoise module. In addition, a co‑expression network was constructed for 60 DEGs in the gray module. The functional enrichment results showed that the DEGs in the gray module were enriched in five Gene Ontology terms and four KEGG pathways. For example, cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS) and prostaglandin‑endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) were enriched in response to glucocorticoid stimulus. The results of the present study suggested that DEGs in the gray module, including CDKN1A, FOS and PTGS2, may be associated with the pathogenesis of PAD, by modulating the cell cycle, and may offer potential for use as candidate treatment

  7. Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease among Adult Patients Attending Outpatient Clinic at a General Hospital in South Angola

    PubMed Central

    Paquissi, Feliciano Chanana; Cuvinje, Arminda Bimbi Paquissi; Cuvinje, Almeida Bailundo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide, and is associated with all-cause mortality. However, no study has assessed this disease in Huambo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD in patients attending an outpatient clinic at a general hospital in Huambo, South Angola. Methods. A cross-sectional study, including 115 patients aged 40 years and older attending an outpatient service. The evaluation included a basic questionnaire for lifestyle and medical history and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement using hand-held Doppler. PAD was defined as an ABI ≤0.9 in either lower limb. Results. Of 115 patients, 62.60% were women with a median age of 52.5 (range of 40 to 91) years. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 95%: 33.91–52.17%). Among patients with PAD, 95.92% had mild disease and 4.08% moderate to severe disease. The main risk factor for PAD was age (≥60 years) (χ2 = 3.917, P ≤ 0.05). The prevalence was slightly higher in men and hypertensive subjects, but without statistical significance with ORs of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.69–3.21) and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.64–3.17), respectively. Hypertension was also high in the group (66.95%). Conclusion. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6%, higher in those aged 60 years and older. More studies, with representative samples, are necessary to clarify PAD prevalence and associated risk factors. PMID:27293966

  8. Identification of candidate target genes for human peripheral arterial disease using weighted gene co‑expression network analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, De-Xin; Zhao, Hao-Min; Sun, Da-Jun; Yao, Jian; Ding, Da-Yong

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the potential treatment targets of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and provide further insights into the underlying mechanism of PAD, based on a weighted gene co‑expression network analysis (WGCNA) method. The mRNA expression profiles (accession. no. GSE27034), which included 19 samples from patients with PAD and 18 samples from normal control individuals were extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Subsequently, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using the Limma package and the co‑expression network modules were screened using the WGCNA approach. In addition, the protein‑protein interaction network for the DEGs in the most significant module was constructed using Cytoscape software. Functional enrichment analyses of the DEGs in the most significant module were also performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology‑Based Annotation System, respectively. A total of 148 DEGs were identified in PAD, which were used to construct the WGCN, in which two modules (gray module and turquoise module) were identified, with the gray module exhibiting a higher gene significance (GS) value than the turquoise module. In addition, a co‑expression network was constructed for 60 DEGs in the gray module. The functional enrichment results showed that the DEGs in the gray module were enriched in five Gene Ontology terms and four KEGG pathways. For example, cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS) and prostaglandin‑endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) were enriched in response to glucocorticoid stimulus. The results of the present study suggested that DEGs in the gray module, including CDKN1A, FOS and PTGS2, may be associated with the pathogenesis of PAD, by modulating the cell cycle, and may offer potential for use as candidate treatment

  9. Allogeneic Blood Product Usage in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) with minimalized Extracorporeal Circulation System (MECC) Versus Standard On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Lisy, M.; Schmid, E.; Kozok, J.; Rosenberger, P.; Stock, U.A.; Kalender, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Intraoperative allogeneic blood product transfusion (ABPT) in cardiac surgery is associated with worse overall outcome, including mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ABPTs in minimalized extracorporeal cardiopulmonary (MECCTM) compared with standard open system on-pump coronary revascularization. Methods: Data of 156 patients undergoing myocardial revascularization between September 2008 and September 2010 were reviewed. 83 patients were operated by the MECC technique and 73 were treated by standard extracorporeal circulation (sECC). ABPT and overall early postoperative complications were analyzed. Results: Operative mortality and morbidity were similar in both groups. ABPT in the MECC group was significantly lower than in the sECC group both intraoperatively (7.2 vs. 60.3% of patients p<0.001) and during the first five postoperative days (19.3 vs. 57.5%; p<0.001). “Skin to skin”- (214 ± 45 vs. 232 ± 45 min; p=0.012), cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) - (82 ± 25 vs. 95 ± 26 min; p=0.014), and X-clamp- times (50 ± 16 vs. 56 ± 17 min; p=0.024) were significantly lower in the MECC group than in the sECC group. Length of ICU (intensive care unit) - and hospital stay were also significantly lower in the MECC group vs. the sECC group (26.7 ± 20.2 vs. 54.5 ± 68.9 h; p<0.001, and 12.0 ± 4.1 vs. 14.5 ± 4.6 days; p<0.001). Conclusion: Application of MECC as on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) results in significantly lower ABPT as well as shorter ICU and in-hospital stay. In order to achieve these benefits of MECC autologous retrograde priming, Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring, intraoperative cell salvage, meticulous hemostasis and strict peri- and postoperative volume management are crucial. PMID:27499818

  10. Soluble P-selectin Predicts Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease Incidence and Change in the Ankle Brachial Index: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Wassel, Christina L.; Berardi, Cecilia; Pankow, James S.; Larson, Nicholas B.; Decker, Paul A.; Hanson, Naomi Q.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Criqui, Michael H.; Allison, Matthew A.; Bielinski, Suzette J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of circulating P-selectin with prevalent and incident peripheral artery disease (PAD), the ankle brachial index (ABI), and change in the ABI. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a prospective population-based cohort study including 6814 European descent, African American, Hispanic and Chinese men and women aged 45–84 at baseline. Four clinical exams took place after the baseline exam. After excluding those with ABI>1.4, prevalent and incident PAD were defined as an ABI≤0.90. ABI progression was defined as progression from a normal ABI (0.91–1.4) to abnormal (≤0.90 or >1.4) at a later exam. Results In adjusted models, each SD (13 ng/mL) higher P-selectin was significantly associated with 0.007 lower ABI (95% CI ((−0.011, −0.004)), p<0.001), and an average change in the ABI of − 0.006 ((−0.010, −0.003, p<0.001). P-selectin was significantly associated with a 1.17-fold greater odds of prevalent PAD ((1.02, 1.33), p=0.03), and a 30% greater risk of incident PAD ((1.11, 1.53), p=0.001), as well as progression from a normal ABI to an ABI≤ 0.90 (p=0.003), but not to an ABI>1.4 (p=0.96). Addition of P-selectin to models containing traditional PAD risk factors and markers of inflammation/coagulation significantly improved the net reclassification for ABI progression (p=0.03), but was only marginally significant for incident PAD (p=0.06). Conclusions P-selectin is significantly associated with the development of PAD. However, further research is needed in population-based studies to confirm prospective associations of P-selectin with incident PAD and change in the ABI, as well as its potential predictive ability. PMID:25682040

  11. Sprint interval and traditional endurance training induce similar improvements in peripheral arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilation in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Rakobowchuk, Mark; Tanguay, Sophie; Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Howarth, Krista R; Gibala, Martin J; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2008-07-01

    Low-volume sprint interval training (SIT), or repeated sessions of brief, intense intermittent exercise, elicits metabolic adaptations that resemble traditional high-volume endurance training (ET). The effects of these different forms of exercise training on vascular structure and function remain largely unexplored. To test the hypothesis that SIT and ET would similarly improve peripheral artery distensibility and endothelial function and central artery distensibility, we recruited 20 healthy untrained subjects (age: 23.3 +/- 2.8 yr) and had them perform 6 wk of SIT or ET (n = 5 men and 5 women per group). The SIT group completed four to six 30-s "all-out" Wingate tests separated by 4.5 min of recovery 3 days/wk. The ET group completed 40-60 min of cycling at 65% of their peak oxygen uptake (Vo2peak) 5 days/wk. Popliteal endothelial function, both relative and normalized to shear stimulus, was improved after training in both groups (main effect for time, P < 0.05). Carotid artery distensibility was not statistically altered by training (P = 0.29) in either group; however, popliteal artery distensibility was improved in both groups to the same degree (main effect, P < 0.05). We conclude that SIT is a time-efficient strategy to elicit improvements in peripheral vascular structure and function that are comparable to ET. However, alterations in central artery distensibility may require a longer training stimuli and/or greater initial vascular stiffness than observed in this group of healthy subjects.

  12. [A Case of Ruptured Peripheral Cerebral Aneurysm at Abnormal Vessels Associated with Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis:Similarity to Moyamoya Disease].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hajime; Kohno, Kanehisa; Tanaka, Hideo; Fukumoto, Shinya; Ichikawa, Haruhisa; Onoue, Shinji; Fumoto, Noriyuki; Ozaki, Saya; Maeda, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of ruptured peripheral cerebral aneurysm at abnormal vessels associated with severe stenosis at the middle cerebral artery (MCA). A 66-year-old woman was admitted at our hospital with headache on foot. Computed tomography (CT) showed intracerebral hemorrhage in the left fronto-basal area. Three-dimensional-CT and conventional angiogram revealed abnormal vessels, which were similar to those seen in moyamoya disease, with a small enhancement close to the hematoma. On day 11, subsequent cerebral angiogram demonstrated an aneurysm at the peripheral portion of an abnormal vessel arising from the left A2. On day 17, soon after the diagnosis of the ruptured aneurysm was made (while still at the subacute stage), we operated on the aneurysm. Superficial temporal artery (STA)-MCA anastomosis was also performed to preserve cerebral blood flow and reduce hemodynamic stress. Several days after the operation, she had transient aphasia due to hyperperfusion of the MCA territory, but eventually recovered with no neurological deficit at discharge. Follow-up study revealed revascularization from the branches of the external carotid artery as well as the STA. On admission, we initially thought that this patient had abnormal vessels associated with arteriosclerotic MCA stenosis. However, the postoperative clinical course as well as the histopathological specimens of both the abnormal artery with the aneurysm and the STA revealed similar findings to those of moyamoya disease. Although this case did not satisfy the criteria for moyamoya disease, it is conceivable that a single arterial occlusive lesion associated with moyamoya-like vessels might develop in the same mechanism with that of moyamoya disease. PMID:27056872

  13. Lung Circulation.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Karthik; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2016-04-01

    The circulation of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two circulations: the pulmonary circulation, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial circulation, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary circulation accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone. Factors controlling pulmonary blood flow include vascular structure, gravity, mechanical effects of breathing, and the influence of neural and humoral factors. Pulmonary vascular tone is also altered by hypoxia, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. If the hypoxic stimulus persists for a prolonged period, contraction is accompanied by remodeling of the vasculature, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, genetic and environmental factors can also confer susceptibility to development of pulmonary hypertension. Under normal conditions, the endothelium forms a tight barrier, actively regulating interstitial fluid homeostasis. Infection and inflammation compromise normal barrier homeostasis, resulting in increased permeability and edema formation. This article focuses on reviewing the basics of the lung circulation (pulmonary and bronchial), normal development and transition at birth and vasoregulation. Mechanisms contributing to pathological conditions in the pulmonary circulation, in particular when barrier function is disrupted and during development of pulmonary hypertension, will also be discussed. PMID:27065170

  14. Changes in cardiopulmonary reserve and peripheral arterial function concomitantly with subclinical inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Damien; Harel, François; Touyz, Rhian M; Sirois, Martin G; Lavoie, Joel; Myers, Jonathan; Ducharme, Anique; Racine, Normand; O'Meara, Eileen; Gayda, Mathieu; Chabot-Blanchet, Malorie; Rouleau, Jean Lucien; de Denus, Simon; White, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background. Changes in cardiopulmonary reserve and biomarkers related to wall stress, inflammation, and oxidative stress concomitantly with the evaluation of peripheral arterial blood flow have not been investigated in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) compared with healthy subjects (CTL). Methods and Results. Eighteen HFpEF patients and 14 CTL were recruited. Plasma levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured at rest. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was measured at rest and peak exercise. Cardiopulmonary reserve was assessed using an exercise protocol with gas exchange analyses. Peripheral arterial blood flow was determined by strain gauge plethysmography. Peak VO2 (12.0 ± 0.4 versus 19.1 ± 1.1 mL/min/kg, P < 0.001) and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (1.55 ± 0.12 versus 2.06 ± 0.14, P < 0.05) were significantly decreased in HFpEF patients compared with CTL. BNP at rest and following stress, C-reactive-protein, interleukin-6, and TBARS were significantly elevated in HFpEF. Both basal and posthyperemic arterial blood flow were not significantly different between the HFpEF patients and CTL. Conclusions. HFpEF exhibits a severe reduction in cardiopulmonary reserve and oxygen uptake efficiency concomitantly with an elevation in a broad spectrum of biomarkers confirming an inflammatory and prooxidative status in patients with HFpEF. PMID:24719767

  15. The Effect of High Dose Cholecalciferol on Arterial Stiffness and Peripheral and Central Blood Pressure in Healthy Humans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bressendorff, Iain; Brandi, Lisbet; Schou, Morten; Nygaard, Birgitte; Frandsen, Niels Erik; Rasmussen, Knud; Ødum, Lars; Østergaard, Ove Vyff; Hansen, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D are associated with increased arterial stiffness and hypertension. Supplementation with vitamin D precursors has been proposed as a treatment option for these conditions. We examined the effect of oral cholecalciferol on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy normotensive adults. Methods 40 healthy adults were randomised in this double-blinded study to either oral cholecalciferol 3000 IU/day or matching placebo and were followed for 16 weeks to examine any effects on pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), peripheral and central blood pressure and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Results 22 subjects in the cholecalciferol arm and 18 subjects in the placebo arm completed the 16 weeks of follow-up. There was no difference in changes in PWV, AIx corrected for heart rate or central or peripheral blood pressure between the two groups. There was no correlation between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and any of these parameters. Conclusions Oral cholecalciferol 3000 IU/day does not affect arterial stiffness or blood pressure after 16 weeks of treatment in healthy normotensive adults. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00952562 PMID:27509187

  16. Role of central and peripheral opiate receptors in the effects of fentanyl on analgesia, ventilation and arterial blood-gas chemistry in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Fraser; May, Walter J.; Gruber, Ryan B.; Discala, Joseph F.; Puscovic, Veljko; Young, Alex P.; Baby, Santhosh M.; Lewis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of the peripherally restricted µ-opiate receptor (µ-OR) antagonist, naloxone methiodide (NLXmi) on fentanyl (25 µg/kg, i.v.)-induced changes in (1) analgesia, (2) arterial blood gas chemistry (ABG) and alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a gradient), and (3) ventilatory parameters, in conscious rats. The fentanyl-induced increase in analgesia was minimally affected by a 1.5 mg/kg of NLXmi but was attenuated by a 5.0 mg/kg dose. Fentanyl decreased arterial blood pH, pO2 and sO2 and increased pCO2 and A-a gradient. These responses were markedly diminished in NLXmi (1.5 mg/kg)-pretreated rats. Fentanyl caused ventilatory depression (e.g., decreases in tidal volume and peak inspiratory flow). Pretreatment with NLXmi (1.5 mg/kg, i.v.) antagonized the fentanyl decrease in tidal volume but minimally affected the other responses. These findings suggest that (1) the analgesia and ventilatory depression caused by fentanyl involve peripheral µ-ORs and (2) NLXmi prevents the fentanyl effects on ABG by blocking the negative actions of the opioid on tidal volume and A-a gradient. PMID:24284037

  17. [Laser Doppler flowmetry in newborn infants with low birth weight. The effect of differences in humidity on peripheral circulation].

    PubMed

    Hanssler, L; Roll, C; Breukmann, H

    1992-01-01

    In a group of 10 low birth weight infants we measured skin temperature using infrared thermography and laser Doppler flow in central and peripheral regions of the body. After elevation of incubator humidity from 40 to 80% skin temperature of the foot rose significantly (p less than 0.01). At the same time there was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) of laser Doppler flow. Temperature and laser Doppler flow in the area of the abdomen did not show significant changes. Low birth weight infants are able to regulate peripheral blood flow after changes of ambient humidity. With the method of laser Doppler flowmetry thermoregulatory responses in the microvascular bed can be measured in these infants.

  18. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... unable to feel pain. Or, you may have epidural or spinal anesthesia instead. The doctor will inject your spine with ... to feel pain. You may instead have an epidural or spinal anesthesia. The doctor will inject your spine with medicine ...

  19. Circulating Natural IgM Antibodies Against Angiogenin in the Peripheral Blood Sera of Patients with Osteosarcoma as Candidate Biomarkers and Reporters of Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Savitskaya, Yulia A.; Rico, Genaro; Linares, Luis; González, Roberto; Téllez, René; Estrada, Eréndira; Marín, Norma; Martínez, Elisa; Alfaro, Alfonso; Ibarra, Clemente

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tumor immunology research has led to the identification of a number of tumor-associated self antigens, suggesting that most tumors trigger an immunogenic response, as is the case in osteosarcoma, where the detection of natural serum IgM antibodies might achieve the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Natural IgM antibodies to tumor-associated proteins may expand the number of available tumor biomarkers for osteosarcoma and may be used together in a serum profile to enhance test sensitivity and specificity. Natural IgM antibodies can be consistently detected in the peripheral blood sera months to years before the tumor is diagnosed clinically. The study of the level of a potential biomarker many months (or years) prior to diagnosis is fundamentally important. Integrated circulating and imaging markers in clinical practice treating osteosarcoma have potential applications for controlling tumor angiogenesis. Objectives: To study the expression of natural IgM antibodies to the tumor antigens of angiogenesis in the peripheral blood sera of osteosarcoma patients and healthy individuals, and to develop serum-based predictive biomarkers. Methods: Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 117 osteosarcoma patients and 117 patients with other tumors. All diagnosis was histologically confirmed. Staging of patients was performed according to the Enneking Surgical Staging System. The control group consisted of 117 age- and sex- matched healthy individuals. In this study, novel immunoconjugates were designed, synthesized and then used to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect angiogenin (ANG)–IgM directly in the peripheral blood sera of humans. Results: Serum ANG–IgM levels are significantly higher in osteosarcoma patients than in healthy individuals (P < 0.005). Serum ANG–IgM levels varied widely, but were highly dependent on the concentration of IgM (r = 0.85; P < 0.0005). We found ANG–IgM in the

  20. High Prevalence of Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong; Yu, Cai-Guo; Xin, Zhong; Cao, Xi; Shi, Jing; Yang, Guang-Ran; Yuan, Ming-Xia; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we explored the relationship between sight-threatening PDR and PAD. We screened for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and PAD in hospitalized patients with T2D. Patients with a diabetic duration of more than 10 years, HbA1c ≥7.5%, eGFR ≥60mL/min/1.73m2 and with PDR or with no diabetic retinopathy (NDR) were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Severities of DR were graded by digital retinal photographs according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale. We assessed PAD by measuring Ankle Brachial Index (ABI), Toe Brachial Index (TBI) and Doppler ultrasound. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 software. Of the 1544 patients, 169 patients with extreme eye (57 PDR and 112 NDR) phenotypes met the inclusion criteria. Patients with PDR had a significantly higher proportion of low ABI (≤0.99) and high ABI (≥1.3) than patients with NDR (28.1% and 15.8% vs. 14.3% and 6.2% respectively, P<0.05). PDR patients also had lower TBI than NDR patients (0.56±0.09 vs. 0.61±0.08, P<0.01). The proportion of patients with abnormal duplex ultrasound was higher in PDR than in NDR (21.1% vs. 9.8%, P<0.001). This showed that PDR associated with PAD could be defined in multiple ways: abnormal ABI (≤0.9) (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.15–11.26), abnormal TBI (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.19–6.64), abnormal duplex (OR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.00–10.71), and critical limb ischemia (OR = 5.52, 95% CI: 2.14–14.26). Moreover, PDR was a stronger independent correlation factor for PAD than a diabetic duration of 10 years. In conclusion, PAD is more common in PDR than in NDR. It implies that PDR and PAD are mostly concomitant in T2D. We should focus on screening PAD in patients with PDR in clinical practice. PMID:25822410

  1. Circulating microRNAs indicate cardioprotection by sevoflurane inhalation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIAO; LIU, XIAOPENG; WANG, RUIKE; LUO, HUI; QIN, GANG; WANG, LU; YE, ZHI; GUO, QULIAN; WANG, E

    2016-01-01

    In patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB), it is important to attenuate myocardium injury during the surgery. The present study aimed to observe the cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane induction and maintenance compared with propofol intravenous anesthesia, and to detect its potential protection against acute myocardial injury with sensitive biomarkers. In total, 36 patients undergoing OPCAB were randomly assigned into two groups, receiving sevoflurane (n=18) or propofol (n=18) as the induction and maintenance anesthetic agent. The depth of anesthesia in the two groups was kept at a bispectral index value of 40–50. Physiological and hemodynamic parameters were recorded during the surgery. Cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and two microRNAs (miR-499 and miR-208b) were also measured during and subsequent to surgery. Nno statistically significant differences were observed in the physiological and hemodynamic parameters between the two groups prior to surgery. Following surgery, the cardiac output and stroke volume improved significantly in the sevoflurane group (P<0.05). In addition, patients in the sevoflurane group had lower miR-499 (P<0.05) and miR-208b (P<0.01) levels at 12 h after surgery when compared with the propofol group. However, no significant differences in cTnI, CK-MB and LDH levels were observed following surgery between the two groups. In conclusion, volatile induction and maintenance with sevoflurane resulted in some extent of cardiac function improvement in patients undergoing OPCAB. Cardioprotection by sevoflurane is suggested by reduced cardiac injury compared with propofol, and indicated by the sensitive biomarkers, circulating miR-499 and miR-208b. PMID:27284310

  2. Peripheral blood B lymphocytes derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension express a different RNA pattern compared with healthy controls: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Silvia; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laima; Huber, Lars C; Speich, Rudolf; Voelkel, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a progressive and still incurable disease. Research of IPAH-pathogenesis is complicated by the lack of a direct access to the involved tissue, the human pulmonary vasculature. Various auto-antibodies have been described in the blood of patients with IPAH. The purpose of the present work was therefore to comparatively analyze peripheral blood B lymphocyte RNA expression characteristics in IPAH and healthy controls. Methods Patients were diagnosed having IPAH according to WHO (mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mmHg, pulmonary capillary occlusion pressure ≤ 15 mmHg, absence of another explaining disease). Peripheral blood B-lymphocytes of patients and controls were immediately separated by density gradient centrifugation and magnetic beads for CD19. RNA was thereafter extracted and analyzed by the use of a high sensitivity gene chip (Affymetrix HG-U133-Plus2) able to analyze 47000 transcripts and variants of human genes. The array data were analyzed by two different softwares, and up-and down-regulations were defined as at least 1.3 fold with standard deviations smaller than fold-changes. Results Highly purified B-cells of 5 patients with IPAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure 51 ± 13 mmHg) and 5 controls were analyzed. Using the two different analyzing methods we found 225 respectively 128 transcripts which were up-regulated (1.3–30.7 fold) in IPAH compared with healthy controls. Combining both methods, there were 33 overlapping up-regulated transcripts and no down-regulated B-cell transcripts. Conclusion Patients with IPAH have a distinct RNA expression profile of their peripheral blood B-lymphocytes compared to healthy controls with some clearly up-regulated genes. Our finding suggests that in IPAH patients B cells are activated. PMID:18269757

  3. A Novel Two-Step Technique for Retrieving Fractured Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Segments Migrating into the Heart or the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Hao; Miao, Nan-Dong; Ren, Yong-Jun; Liu, Kang; Min, Xu-Li; Yang, Ke; Yang, Shi; Yang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To report the experience of a percutaneous technique for retrieving fractured peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) segments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery. Method. From April 2013 to July 2015, we performed percutaneous retrieval of fractured PICC segments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery in five cancer patients who had undergone chemotherapy via PICC. The fractures were diagnosed with chest plain radiography. The patients included three cases of breast cancer, one case of rectal cancer, and one case of lower limb Ewing's tumor. The fractures were retained in the vessels of the patients for 1 to 3 days. All the fractures were retrieved by using a novel two-step technique in the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) suite. This two-step technique involves inserting a pigtail catheter to the heart or the pulmonary artery to grasp the fractured catheter fragment and bring it to the lower segment of the inferior vena cava, followed by grasping and removing the catheter fragment with a retrieval loop system of the vena cava filter retrieval set. Result. The fractured PICC segments were removed successfully in all five patients via unilateral (four patients) or bilateral (one patient) femoral vein access. No complications occurred during the interventional procedure. Conclusion. Percutaneous retrieval can be a safe, convenient, and minimally invasive method for the removal of fractured PICC segments. The technique reported in this paper will be applicable for the retrieval of fractured PICC segments and other catheter fragments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery.

  4. Identification of novel molecular markers for detection of gastric cancer cells in the peripheral blood circulation using genome-wide microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Nobuyuki; Zembutsu, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Koji; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Tsuruma, Tetsuhiro; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Denno, Ryuichi; Hirata, Koichi

    2011-07-01

    Although metastasis or relapse is a leading cause of death for patients with gastric cancer, the hematogenous spread of cancer cells remains undetected at the time of initial therapy. The development of novel diagnostic molecular marker(s) to detect circulating gastric cancer cells is an issue of great clinical importance. We obtained peripheral blood samples from 10 patients with gastric cancer who underwent laparotomy and 4 healthy volunteers. Microarray analysis consisting of 30,000 genes or ESTs was carried out using eight gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric mucosae. We selected 53 genes up-regulated in gastric cancer compared to normal gastric mucosae from our microarray data set, and, among these, identified five candidate marker genes (TSPAN8, EPCAM, MMP12, MMP7 and REG3A) which were not expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 4 healthy volunteers. We further carried out semi-quantitative nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for HRH1, EGFR, CK20 and CEA in addition to the five newly identified genes using PBMCs of patients with gastric cancer, and found that expression of one or more genes out of the nine was detected in 80% of the patients with gastric cancer. Moreover, the numbers of genes expressed in PBMCs were ≤2 and ≥2 in all vascular invasion-negative cases and in 5 of 6 positive cases, respectively, showing significant differences between the two groups (P=0.041). Nested RT-PCR analysis for the set of nine marker genes using PBMCs may provide the potential for detection of circulating gastric cancer cells prior to metastasis formation in other organs.

  5. A decrease in the percentage of circulating mDC precursors in patients with coronary heart disease: a relation to the severity and extent of coronary artery lesions?

    PubMed

    Wen, Jin; Wen, Yan; Zhiliang, Li; Lingling, Chen; Longxing, Cao; Ming, Wang; Qiang, Fu

    2013-03-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in coronary heart disease. Dendritic cells (DCs) are principal players in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Although the percentage of circulating DC precursors in coronary heart disease have been investigated, circulating myeloid DC (mDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC) precursors have not been extensively studied, particularly in relation to the severity of coronary artery lesions in patients with coronary heart disease. In this study, we recruited controls (n = 29), patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP, n = 30), patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP, n = 56), and patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n = 50). The severity and extent of coronary artery lesions was evaluated by Gensini score, following coronary angiograms. The percentage of circulating mDC and pDC precursors was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Plasma levels of MCP-1 and MMP-9, which correlate with atherosclerosis and DC migration, were also measured. The percentage of circulating mDC precursors was reduced in patients with AMI and UAP compared with control and SAP patients, respectively (p < 0.01 for AMI vs. SAP and Control, p < 0.05 for UAP vs. SAP and Control). The percentage of circulating pDC precursors was not significant changed. The levels of plasma MMP-9 and MCP-1 and Genisi score were all increased in patients with AMI and UAP, compared to control and SAP patients, respectively (p < 0.01 for AMI vs. SAP and control, p < 0.05 for UAP vs. SAP and control). Overall, the percentage of circulating mDC precursors was negatively correlated with MCP-1 (p < 0.001), MMP-9 (p < 0.001) and Genisi scores (p < 0.001). Genisi scores were positively correlated with the levels of MCP-1 (p < 0.001) and MMP-9 (p < 0.001). Our study suggested that the percentage of circulating mDC precursors is negatively correlated with the severity and extent of coronary artery lesions in patients with coronary heart disease.

  6. The frequency of BDCA3-positive dendritic cells is increased in the peripheral circulation of Kenyan children with severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Urban, Britta C; Cordery, Damien; Shafi, Mohammed J; Bull, Peter C; Newbold, Christopher I; Williams, Thomas N; Marsh, Kevin

    2006-12-01

    The ability of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to adhere to host endothelial cells via receptor molecules such as ICAM-1 and CD36 is considered a hallmark for the development of severe malaria syndromes. These molecules are also expressed on leukocytes such as dendritic cells. Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that are crucial for the initiation of adaptive immune responses. In many human diseases, their frequency and function is perturbed. We analyzed the frequency of peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets and the plasma concentrations of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 in Kenyan children with severe malaria and during convalescence and related these parameters to the adhesion phenotype of the acute parasite isolates. The frequency of CD1c(+) dendritic cells in children with acute malaria was comparable to that in healthy controls, but the frequency of BDCA3(+) dendritic cells was significantly increased. Analysis of the adhesion phenotypes of parasite isolates revealed that adhesion to ICAM-1 was associated with the frequency of peripheral blood CD1c(+) dendritic cells, whereas the adhesion of infected erythrocytes to CD36 correlated with high concentrations of IL-10 and low concentrations of IL-12 in plasma.

  7. Direct communication between the left circumflex and the right coronary arteries: a very rare coronary anomaly circulation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos Danillo Peixoto; Cavalcanti, Rafael R César; Kajita, Alexandre H; Miranda, Thais; Kajita, Luiz J; Horta, Pedro E; Ribeiro, Expedito E; Lemos, Pedro Alves

    2016-02-01

    Coronary artery anomalies (CAA) are congenital changes in their origin, course, and/or structure. Intercoronary communication (ICC) is a very rare subset with uni- or bidirectional blood flow between two or more coronary arteries. We present the case of a 58-year-old man with an acute coronary syndrome whose coronary angiography incidentally showed a surprising and very rare communication between the right coronary and left circumflex arteries.

  8. Direct communication between the left circumflex and the right coronary arteries: a very rare coronary anomaly circulation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcos Danillo Peixoto; Cavalcanti, Rafael R. César; Kajita, Alexandre H.; Miranda, Thais; Kajita, Luiz J.; Horta, Pedro E.; Ribeiro, Expedito E.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies (CAA) are congenital changes in their origin, course, and/or structure. Intercoronary communication (ICC) is a very rare subset with uni- or bidirectional blood flow between two or more coronary arteries. We present the case of a 58-year-old man with an acute coronary syndrome whose coronary angiography incidentally showed a surprising and very rare communication between the right coronary and left circumflex arteries. PMID:26885496

  9. The hunt for brain Aβ oligomers by peripherally circulating multi-functional nanoparticles: Potential therapeutic approach for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Simona; Minniti, Stefania; Gregori, Maria; Sancini, Giulio; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Wandosell, Francisco; Salmona, Mario; Re, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed the ability of liposomes bi-functionalized with phosphatidic acid and an ApoE-derived peptide (mApoE-PA-LIP) to reduce brain Aβ in transgenic Alzheimer mice. Herein we investigated the efficacy of mApoE-PA-LIP to withdraw Aβ peptide in different aggregation forms from the brain, using a transwell cellular model of the blood-brain barrier and APP/PS1 mice. The spontaneous efflux of Aβ oligomers (Aβo), but not of Aβ fibrils, from the 'brain' side of the transwell was strongly enhanced (5-fold) in presence of mApoE-PA-LIP in the 'blood' compartment. This effect is due to a withdrawal of Aβo exerted by peripheral mApoE-PA-LIP by sink effect, because, when present in the brain side, they did not act as Aβo carrier and limit the oligomer efflux. In vivo peripheral administration of mApoE-PA-LIP significantly increased the plasma Aβ level, suggesting that Aβ-binding particles exploiting the sink effect can be used as a therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer disease. From the Clinical Editor: Alzheimer disease (AD) at present is an incurable disease, which is thought to be caused by an accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Many strategies in combating this disease have been focused on either the prevention or dissolving these peptides. In this article, the authors showed the ability of liposomes bi-functionalized with phosphatidic acid and with an ApoE- derived peptide to withdraw amyloid peptides from the brain. The data would help the future design of more novel treatment for Alzheimer disease. PMID:26410276

  10. The hunt for brain Aβ oligomers by peripherally circulating multi-functional nanoparticles: Potential therapeutic approach for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Simona; Minniti, Stefania; Gregori, Maria; Sancini, Giulio; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Wandosell, Francisco; Salmona, Mario; Re, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed the ability of liposomes bi-functionalized with phosphatidic acid and an ApoE-derived peptide (mApoE-PA-LIP) to reduce brain Aβ in transgenic Alzheimer mice. Herein we investigated the efficacy of mApoE-PA-LIP to withdraw Aβ peptide in different aggregation forms from the brain, using a transwell cellular model of the blood-brain barrier and APP/PS1 mice. The spontaneous efflux of Aβ oligomers (Aβo), but not of Aβ fibrils, from the 'brain' side of the transwell was strongly enhanced (5-fold) in presence of mApoE-PA-LIP in the 'blood' compartment. This effect is due to a withdrawal of Aβo exerted by peripheral mApoE-PA-LIP by sink effect, because, when present in the brain side, they did not act as Aβo carrier and limit the oligomer efflux. In vivo peripheral administration of mApoE-PA-LIP significantly increased the plasma Aβ level, suggesting that Aβ-binding particles exploiting the sink effect can be used as a therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer disease. From the Clinical Editor: Alzheimer disease (AD) at present is an incurable disease, which is thought to be caused by an accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Many strategies in combating this disease have been focused on either the prevention or dissolving these peptides. In this article, the authors showed the ability of liposomes bi-functionalized with phosphatidic acid and with an ApoE- derived peptide to withdraw amyloid peptides from the brain. The data would help the future design of more novel treatment for Alzheimer disease.

  11. Combination treatment of biomechanical support and targeted intra-arterial infusion of peripheral blood stem cells mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for the osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qiang; Wang, Weidong; Xu, Taotao; Zhang, Shanxing; Xiao, Luwei; Chen, Di; Jin, Hongting; Tong, Peijian

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the benefits of combination treatment with mechanical support and targeted intra-arterial infusion of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) via the medial circumflex femoral artery on the progression of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Fifty-five patients (89 hips) with early and intermediate stage ONFH were recruited and randomly assigned to combination treatment or mechanical support treatment (control group). All hips received mechanical support treatment (porous tantalum rod implantation). Then, hips in the combination treatment group were performed targeted intra-arterial infusion of PBSCs. At each follow-up, Harris hip score (HHS) and Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) classification were used to evaluate the symptoms and progression of osteonecrosis. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) was assessed as an endpoint at each follow-up. At 36 months, 9 of the 41 hips (21.95%) in the control group progressed to clinical failure and underwent THA whereas only 3 of the 48 hips (6.25%) in the combination treatment group required THA (p = 0.031). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significant difference in the survival time between the two groups (log-rank test; p = 0.025). Compared to the control group, combination treatment significantly improved the HHS at 36 months (p = 0.003). At the final follow-up examination, radiological progression was noted in 13 of 41 hips (31.71%) for the control group, but in only 4 of 48 hips (8.33%) for the combination treatment group (p = 0.005). The overall collapse rates were 15.15% (5/33 hips) and 8.11% (3/37 hips) in the control and combination treatment groups, respectively. Targeted intra-arterial infusion of PBSCs is capable of enhancing the efficacy of biomechanical support in the treatment of ONFH. This clinical trial confirmed that the combination treatment might be a safe and feasible

  12. Isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in extracorporeal circulation in patients over 65 years old – does age still matter?

    PubMed Central

    Walczak, Andrzej; Ostrowski, Stanisław; Wrona, Ewa; Bartczak, Karol; Jaszewski, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is conducted more and more commonly in patients in advanced age. Aim of the study To analyze the influence of age and concurrent risk factors on the complications and early mortality after CABG. Material and methods Medical records of 2194 patients were analyzed retrospectively. A group of 1303 patients who had undergone isolated CABG was selected. 106 (4.8%) patients were excluded due to missing data in their medical records. The remaining 1197 patients were divided into two subgroups by age: 1st group < 65 years (n = 662; 55.3%); 2nd group ≥ 65 years (n = 535; 44.7%). Results The total 30-day mortality was 3.93% and was six times higher in the older group (1.21 vs. 7.29%; p < 0.001). Complications were observed in 176 (14.70%) patients, more often in the older group (10.42% vs. 20.0%; p < 0.001). In this group all kinds of complications were noted more often and in particular: postoperative myocardial infarction (1.96% vs. 5.42%; p = 0.001), respiratory dysfunction (1.36% vs. 4.11%; p = 0.005), neurological complications (1.81% vs. 3.74%; p = 0.04) and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (0.30% vs. 1.68%, p = 0.03). The older patients required longer time under mechanical ventilation (24.0 ± 27.9 vs. 37.0 ± 74.1 hours; p = 0.004) and stayed longer in the intensive care unit: 2.5 ± 3.0 vs. 4.1 ± 7.84 days; p < 0.001. Independent predictors of death were: female sex [OR (95% CI) = 2.4 (1.2-4.5)], age ≥ 65 years [OR = 4.9 (2.1-11.1)], eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 [OR = 2.2 (1.0-4.7)], time at extracorporeal circulation > 72 minutes [OR = 5.5 (2.7-10.9)] and left main stem stenosis (> 50%) [OR = 2.4 (1.3-4.6)]. Conclusions Age still significantly influences postoperative complications and mortality after isolated CABG. PMID:26336419

  13. Global and regional burden of death and disability from peripheral artery disease: 21 world regions, 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Fowkes, F Gerald R; McDermott, Mary M; Criqui, Michael H; Aboyans, Victor; Norman, Paul E; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Naghavi, Mohsen; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E; Denenberg, Julie O; Mensah, George A; Ezzati, Majid; Murray, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive and systematic assessment of disability and mortality due to lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) is lacking. Therefore, we estimated PAD deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and years of life lost in 21 regions worldwide for 1990 and 2010. We used the GBD (Global Burden of Diseases 2010) study causes of death database, and the cause of death ensemble modeling approach to assess levels and trends of PAD deaths and years of life lost over time, by age, sex, and region. Assessment of DALYs employed estimates of PAD prevalence from systematic reviews of epidemiologic data using a Bayesian meta-regression method. In 1990, the age-specific PAD death rate per 100,000 population ranged from 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03 to 0.09) among those 40 to 44 years old to 16.63 (95% CI: 10.47 to 25.31) among the 80+ years group. In 2010, the corresponding estimates were 0.07 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.13) and 28.71 (95% CI: 18.3 to 43.06). Death rates increased consistently with age in 1990 and 2010, and the rates in 2010 were higher than they were in 1990 in all age categories. The largest relative change in median death rate of +6.03 per 100,000 (95% CI: 1.50 to 11.85) was noted in the Asia Pacific-High Income region and was largely driven by higher rates in women: +17.36 (95% CI: 1.79 to 32.01) versus +1.25 (95% CI: 0.13 to 2.39) in men. The overall relative change in median DALYs was larger in developing nations than in developed nations: 1.15 (95% CI: 0.80 to 1.66) versus 0.77 (95% CI: 0.55 to 1.08). Of note, the overall relative change in median DALYs was higher among both men and women in developing versus developed countries: men: 1.18 (95% CI: 0.82 to 1.65) versus 0.51 (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.81), and women: 1.11 (95% CI: 0.58 to 2.02) versus 1 (95% CI: 0.67 to 1.47). Within developed nations, the overall relative change in median DALY rates was larger in women than in men: +1.00 (95% CI: 0.67 to 1.47) versus +0.51 (95% CI: 0.3 to 0

  14. Presentation, treatment, and outcome differences between men and women undergoing revascularization or amputation for lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Bensley, Rodney P.; Dahlberg, Suzanne E.; Matyal, Robina; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark; Chaikof, Elliot L.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prior studies have suggested treatment and outcome disparities between men and women for lower extremity peripheral arterial disease after surgical bypass. Given the recent shift toward endovascular therapy, which has increasingly been used to treat claudication, we sought to analyze sex disparities in presentation, revascularization, amputation, and inpatient mortality. Methods We identified individuals with intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia (CLI) using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2009. We compared presentation at time of intervention (intermittent claudication vs CLI), procedure (open surgery vs percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting vs major amputation), and in-hospital mortality for men and women. Regional and ambulatory trends were evaluated by performing a separate analysis of the State Inpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Databases from four geographically diverse states: California, Florida, Maryland, and New Jersey. Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified 1,797,885 patients (56% male) with intermittent claudication (26%) and CLI (74%), who underwent 1,865,999 procedures (41% open surgery, 20% percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting, and 24% amputation). Women were older at the time of intervention by 3.5 years on average and more likely to present with CLI (75.9% vs 72.3%; odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–1.23; P < .01). Women were more likely to undergo endovascular procedures for both intermittent claudication (47% vs 41%; OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.25–1.28; P < .01) and CLI (21% vs 19%; OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.13–1.15; P < .01). From 1998 to 2009, major amputations declined from 18 to 11 per 100,000 in men and 16 to 7 per 100,000 in women, predating an increase in total CLI revascularization procedures that was seen starting in 2005 for both men and women. In-hospital mortality was

  15. Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Vascular Closure Device (Glubran 2 Seal) After Diagnostic and Interventional Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Del Corso, Andrea; Bargellini, Irene Cicorelli, Antonio; Perrone, Orsola; Leo, Michele; Lunardi, Alessandro; Alberti, Aldo; Tomei, Francesca; Cioni, Roberto; Ferrari, Mauro; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2013-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate safety and efficacy of a novel vascular closure device (Glubran 2 Seal) after peripheral angiography in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). From December 2010 to June 2011, all consecutive patients with PAOD undergoing peripheral angiography were prospectively enrolled onto the study after percutaneous antegrade or retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery. After angiography, the Glubran 2 Seal device was used to achieve hemostasis. The following data were registered: technical success and manual compression duration, patients' discomfort (scale 0-5), operators' technical difficulty (scale 0-5), and vascular complications. The site of hemostasis was evaluated by clinical inspection and color-coded Duplex ultrasound performed 1 day and 1 month after the procedure. One hundred seventy-eight patients were enrolled (112 male, mean age 70.8 years) with a total of 206 puncture sites, including 104 (50.5 %) antegrade accesses. The device was successful in 198(96.1 %) of 206 procedures, with 8 cases of manual compression lasting longer than 5 min (maximum 20 min). No major vascular complications were observed, resulting in 100 % procedural success. Minor complications occurred in seven procedures (3.4 %), including two cases of pseudoaneurysms, successfully treated by ultrasound-guided glue injection. The mean {+-} standard deviation score for patients' discomfort was 0.9 {+-} 0.7, whereas the mean score for operators' difficulty was 1.2 {+-} 0.9. In patients with PAOD, the Glubran 2 Seal represents a simple, painless, and efficient vascular closure device, able to achieve hemostasis both in antegrade and retrograde accesses.

  16. Comparison of in vitro human endothelial cell response to self-expanding stent deployment in a straight and curved peripheral artery simulator

    PubMed Central

    Ghriallais, Ríona Ní; McNamara, Laoise; Bruzzi, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Haemodynamic forces have a synergistic effect on endothelial cell (EC) morphology, proliferation, differentiation and biochemical expression profiles. Alterations to haemodynamic force levels have been observed at curved regions and bifurcations of arteries but also around struts of stented arteries, and are also known to be associated with various vascular pathologies. Therefore, curvature in combination with stenting might create a pro-atherosclerotic environment compared with stenting in a straight vessel, but this has never been investigated. The goal of this study was to compare EC morphology, proliferation and differentiation within in vitro models of curved stented peripheral vessel models with those of straight and unstented vessels. These models were generated using both static conditions and also subjected to 24 h of stimulation in a peripheral artery bioreactor. Medical-grade silicone tubes were seeded with human umbilical vein endothelial cells to produce pseudovessels that were then stented and subjected to 24 h of physiological levels of pulsatile pressure, radial distention and shear stress. Changes in cell number, orientation and nitric oxide (NO) production were assessed in straight, curved, non-stented and stented pseudovessels. We report that curved pseudovessels lead to higher EC numbers with random orientation and lower NO production per cell compared with straight pseudovessels after 24 h of biomechanical stimulation. Both stented curved and stented straight pseudovessels had lower NO production per cell than corresponding unstented pseudovessels. However, in contrast to straight stented pseudovessels, curved stented pseudovessels had fewer viable cells. The results of this study show, for the first time, that the response of the vascular endothelium is dependent on both curvature and stenting combined, and highlight the necessity for future investigations of the effects of curvature in combination with stenting to fully understand effects on

  17. ABPI against Colour Duplex Scan: A Screening Tool for Detection of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Low Resource Setting Approach to Validation.

    PubMed

    Weragoda, Janaka; Seneviratne, Rohini; Weerasinghe, Manuj C; Wijeyaratne, S M

    2016-01-01

    Background. In Sri Lanka the ABPI has not been used as a screening tool to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in epidemiological studies. This study was conducted to determine the best cutoff value of ABPI to detect PAD in Sri Lankan population. Methods. The ABPI measured by arterial Doppler to detect PAD was validated against colour duplex scan as the criterion using 165 individuals referred to vascular laboratory, National Hospital Sri Lanka. In all selected individuals ABPI was measured and lower limb colour duplex scan was performed. Narrowing of luminal diameter of lower limb arteries 50% or more was considered as haemodynamically significant and having PAD. The discriminative performance of the ABPI was assessed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). The sensitivity and specificity of different threshold levels of ABPI and the best cutoff value of ABPI to detect PAD were determined. Results. ABPI 0.89 was determined as the best cutoff value to identify individuals with PAD. At this level of ABPI high sensitivity (87%), specificity (99.1%), positive predictive value (98.9%), and negative predictive value (88.4%) were observed. Conclusion. ABPI ≤ 0.89 could be used as the best cut off value to detect PAD. PMID:27034837

  18. ABPI against Colour Duplex Scan: A Screening Tool for Detection of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Low Resource Setting Approach to Validation

    PubMed Central

    Seneviratne, Rohini; Weerasinghe, Manuj C.; Wijeyaratne, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In Sri Lanka the ABPI has not been used as a screening tool to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in epidemiological studies. This study was conducted to determine the best cutoff value of ABPI to detect PAD in Sri Lankan population. Methods. The ABPI measured by arterial Doppler to detect PAD was validated against colour duplex scan as the criterion using 165 individuals referred to vascular laboratory, National Hospital Sri Lanka. In all selected individuals ABPI was measured and lower limb colour duplex scan was performed. Narrowing of luminal diameter of lower limb arteries 50% or more was considered as haemodynamically significant and having PAD. The discriminative performance of the ABPI was assessed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). The sensitivity and specificity of different threshold levels of ABPI and the best cutoff value of ABPI to detect PAD were determined. Results. ABPI 0.89 was determined as the best cutoff value to identify individuals with PAD. At this level of ABPI high sensitivity (87%), specificity (99.1%), positive predictive value (98.9%), and negative predictive value (88.4%) were observed. Conclusion. ABPI ≤ 0.89 could be used as the best cut off value to detect PAD. PMID:27034837

  19. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on peripheral blood circulation in people with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiahui; Kwan, Rachel Lai-Chu; Zheng, Yongping; Cheing, Gladys Lai-Ying

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous blood flow provides nourishment that plays an essential role in maintaining skin health. We examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cutaneous circulation of dorsal feet. Twenty-two patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 21 healthy control subjects were randomly allocated to receive either PEMFs or sham PEMFs (0.5 mT, 12 Hz, 30 min). Blood flow velocity and diameter of the small vein were examined by using ultrasound biomicroscopy; also, microcirculation at skin over the base of the 1st metatarsal bone (Flux1) and distal 1st phalange (Flux2) was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry before and after intervention. Results indicated that PEMFs produced significantly greater changes in blood flow velocity of the smallest observable vein than did sham PEMFs (both P < 0.05) in both types of subjects. However, no significant difference was found in changes of vein diameter, nor in Flux1 and Flux2, between PEMFs and sham PEMFs groups in subjects with or without DM. We hypothesized that PEMFs would increase blood flow velocity of the smallest observable vein in people with or without DM. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:290-297, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hand-arm vibration, noise, temperature and static load--an experimental study of peripheral circulation while operating chain-saws.

    PubMed

    Miyakita, T; Miura, H; Futatsuka, M

    1990-01-01

    From the viewpoint of elucidating the etiological mechanism of vibration-induced white finger (VWF), a model experiment was designed using a chain-saw under laboratory conditions. Finger skin temperature and finger blood flow were measured simultaneously as indicators of peripheral circulatory movement, using a thermister and an apparatus for measuring tissue blood flow based on the thermal diffusion method. In the first project (Experiment A), five healthy subjects operated a chain-saw at a high working speed with-out actually cutting anything. In the second project (Experiment B), seven healthy subjects were exposed to three different kinds of experiments with combinations of hand-arm vibration, noise and tool weight at about 15 degrees C room temperature. In the third project (Experiment C), the effects of tool weight and grip force were examined. In the fourth project (Experiment D), patients suffering from vibration disease were exposed to hand-arm vibration and the noise of a chain-saw for 2 minutes. In experiment A, the mean value of the normalized finger skin temperature decreased gradually with cyclic changes corresponding to each exposure and break period. Changes in finger blood flow had almost the same pattern as the changes of skin temperature, but the recovery of blood flow during a 30 sec break period was notable and a slight elevation of the base line was observed. In experiment B, the mean value for the normalized finger skin temperature decreased much more when the subjects operated a chain-saw at a high working speed than when they operated the chain-saw with the noise isolated by double hearing protection. On the other hand, the results obtained in experiment C indicated that the effect of tool weight should be considered as an important factor for investigating the acute changes in peripheral circulation. In experiment D, some patients showed an unusual pattern in the change of blood flow during a post exposure period which was not seen in

  1. A novel method for the in vivo isolation of circulating tumor cells from peripheral blood of cancer patients using a functionalized and structured medical wire

    PubMed Central

    SAUCEDO-ZENI, NADIA; MEWES, STEFFI; NIESTROJ, ROBERT; GASIOROWSKI, LUKASZ; MURAWA, DAVID; NOWACZYK, PIOTR; TOMASI, TATIANA; WEBER, EKKEHARD; DWORACKI, GRZEGORZ; MORGENTHALER, NILS G.; JANSEN, HEIKE; PROPPING, CORINNA; STERZYNSKA, KAROLINA; DYSZKIEWICZ, WOJCIECH; ZABEL, MACIEJ; KIECHLE, MARION; REUNING, UTE; SCHMITT, MANFRED; LÜCKE, KLAUS

    2012-01-01

    The isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of patients afflicted with solid malignant tumors becomes increasingly important as it may serve as a ‘liquid biopsy’ with the potential of monitoring the course of the cancer disease and its response to cancer therapy, with subsequent molecular characterization. For this purpose, we functionalized a structured medical Seldinger guidewire (FSMW), normally used to obtain safe access to blood vessels and other organ cavities, with a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed to the cell surface expressed epithelial cell surface adhesion molecule (EpCAM). This medical device was optimized in vitro and its biocompatibility was tested according to the regulations for medical devices and found to be safe with no noteworthy side effects. Suitability, specificity and sensitivity of the FSMW to catch and enrich CTCs in vivo from circulating peripheral blood were tested in 24 breast cancer or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and in 29 healthy volunteers. For this, the FSMW was inserted through a standard venous cannula into the cubital veins of healthy volunteers or cancer patients for the duration of 30 min. After removal, CTCs were identified by immunocytochemical staining of EpCAM and/or cytokeratins and staining of their nuclei and counted. The FSMW successfully enriched EpCAM-positive CTCs from 22 of the 24 patients, with a median of 5.5 (0–50) CTCs in breast cancer (n=12) and 16 (2–515) CTCs in NSCLC (n=12). CTCs could be isolated across all tumor stages, including early stage cancer, in which distant metastases were not yet diagnosed, while no CTCs could be detected in healthy volunteers. In this observatory study, no adverse effects were noted. Evidently, the FSMW has the potential to become an important device to enrich CTCs in vivo for monitoring the course of the cancer disease and the efficacy of anticancer treatment. PMID:22825490

  2. Circulating leptin and NF-κB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Faustmann, Gernot; Tiran, Beate; Maimari, Theopisti; Kieslinger, Petra; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen; Roob, Johannes M; Winklhofer-Roob, Brigitte M

    2016-07-01

    Using the menstrual cycle as a model, this study focused on longitudinal changes and associations within a physiological network known to play a role in female fertility, including, as biologically active nodes, NF-κB, leptin and adiponectin, β-carotene, adipose tissue, and progesterone. In 28 women, leptin, adiponectin, β-carotene, and progesterone concentrations, NF-κB p65 and p50 activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (known to possess estrogen, progesterone and leptin receptors), total body fat (TBF) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) mass were determined at early (T1) and late follicular (T2) and mid (T3) and late (T4) luteal phase. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations were higher, while NF-κB p65 activation was lower at T3 compared with T1. NF-κB p65 activation was inversely related to leptin concentrations at T1, T3, and T4. β-Carotene was inversely related to leptin (T1,T2,T4) and SAT (T1,T3,T4). NF-κB p50 activation was inversely related to TBF (T4) and SAT (T3,T4), and leptin was positively related to TBF and SAT (T1-T4). Progesterone was inversely related to leptin (T2,T3), adiponectin (T3), TBF (T3,T4), and SAT (T2,T3,T4). By providing evidence of luteal phase-specific reduced NF-κB p65 activation in women under physiological conditions, this study bridges the gap between existing evidence of a Th1-Th2 immune response shift induced by reduced NF-κB p65 activation and a Th1-Th2 shift previously observed at luteal phase. For the first time, inverse regressions suggest inhibitory effects of leptin on NF-κB p65 activation at luteal phase, along with inhibitory effects of leptin as well as adiponectin on progesterone production in corpus luteum. © 2016 The Authors BioFactors published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 24(4):376-387, 2016. PMID:27093900

  3. The acute effect of maximal exercise on central and peripheral arterial stiffness indices and hemodynamics in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Melo, Xavier; Fernhall, Bo; Santos, Diana A; Pinto, Rita; Pimenta, Nuno M; Sardinha, Luís B; Santa-Clara, Helena

    2016-03-01

    This study compared the effects of a bout of maximal running exercise on arterial stiffness in children and adults. Right carotid blood pressure and artery stiffness indices measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), compliance and distensibility coefficients, stiffness index α and β (echo-tracking), contralateral carotid blood pressure, and upper and lower limb and central/aortic PWV (applanation tonometry) were taken at rest and 10 min after a bout of maximal treadmill running in 34 children (7.38 ± 0.38 years) and 45 young adults (25.22 ± 0.91 years) having similar aerobic potential. Two-by-two repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were used to detect differences with exercise between groups. Carotid pulse pressure (PP; η(2) = 0.394) increased more in adults after exercise (p < 0.05). Compliance (η(2) = 0.385) decreased in particular in adults and in those with high changes in distending pressure, similarly to stiffness index α and β. Carotid PWV increased more in adults and was related to local changes in PP but not mean arterial pressure (MAP). Stiffness in the lower limbs decreased (η(2) = 0.115) but apparently only in those with small MAP changes (η(2) = 0.111). No significant exercise or group interaction effects were found when variables were adjusted to height. An acute bout of maximal exercise can alter arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in the carotid artery and within the active muscle beds. Arterial stiffness and hemodynamic response to metabolic demands during exercise in children simply reflect their smaller body size and may not indicate a particular physiological difference compared with adults. PMID:26842667

  4. A Novel Two-Step Technique for Retrieving Fractured Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Segments Migrating into the Heart or the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Hao; Miao, Nan-Dong; Ren, Yong-Jun; Liu, Kang; Min, Xu-Li; Yang, Ke; Yang, Shi; Yang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To report the experience of a percutaneous technique for retrieving fractured peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) segments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery. Method. From April 2013 to July 2015, we performed percutaneous retrieval of fractured PICC segments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery in five cancer patients who had undergone chemotherapy via PICC. The fractures were diagnosed with chest plain radiography. The patients included three cases of breast cancer, one case of rectal cancer, and one case of lower limb Ewing's tumor. The fractures were retained in the vessels of the patients for 1 to 3 days. All the fractures were retrieved by using a novel two-step technique in the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) suite. This two-step technique involves inserting a pigtail catheter to the heart or the pulmonary artery to grasp the fractured catheter fragment and bring it to the lower segment of the inferior vena cava, followed by grasping and removing the catheter fragment with a retrieval loop system of the vena cava filter retrieval set. Result. The fractured PICC segments were removed successfully in all five patients via unilateral (four patients) or bilateral (one patient) femoral vein access. No complications occurred during the interventional procedure. Conclusion. Percutaneous retrieval can be a safe, convenient, and minimally invasive method for the removal of fractured PICC segments. The technique reported in this paper will be applicable for the retrieval of fractured PICC segments and other catheter fragments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery. PMID:27642604

  5. A Novel Two-Step Technique for Retrieving Fractured Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Segments Migrating into the Heart or the Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Lin; Xu, Hao; Miao, Nan-Dong; Ren, Yong-Jun; Liu, Kang; Min, Xu-Li; Yang, Ke; Yang, Shi; Yang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To report the experience of a percutaneous technique for retrieving fractured peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) segments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery. Method. From April 2013 to July 2015, we performed percutaneous retrieval of fractured PICC segments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery in five cancer patients who had undergone chemotherapy via PICC. The fractures were diagnosed with chest plain radiography. The patients included three cases of breast cancer, one case of rectal cancer, and one case of lower limb Ewing's tumor. The fractures were retained in the vessels of the patients for 1 to 3 days. All the fractures were retrieved by using a novel two-step technique in the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) suite. This two-step technique involves inserting a pigtail catheter to the heart or the pulmonary artery to grasp the fractured catheter fragment and bring it to the lower segment of the inferior vena cava, followed by grasping and removing the catheter fragment with a retrieval loop system of the vena cava filter retrieval set. Result. The fractured PICC segments were removed successfully in all five patients via unilateral (four patients) or bilateral (one patient) femoral vein access. No complications occurred during the interventional procedure. Conclusion. Percutaneous retrieval can be a safe, convenient, and minimally invasive method for the removal of fractured PICC segments. The technique reported in this paper will be applicable for the retrieval of fractured PICC segments and other catheter fragments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery. PMID:27642604

  6. Acute coronary syndromes are associated with a reduction of VLA-1+ peripheral blood T cells and their enrichment in coronary artery plaque aspirates.

    PubMed

    Asman, Arik; Chouraqui, Pierre; Marcu-Malina, Victoria; Matetzky, Shlomo; Segev, Amit; Fefer, Paul; Agranat, Oren; Koltakov, Alexander; Hod, Hanoch; Livneh, Avi; Bank, Ilan

    2014-04-01

    Memory T cells producing interferon (IFN)γ and expressing very late antigen-1 (VLA-1) integrin collagen receptors are found in carotid atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting their involvement in coronary artery disease (CAD) as well. To determine the role of VLA-1+ T cells in CAD percent of CD3+ T cells binding monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to VLA-1 in peripheral blood (PB), and in coronary plaque material aspirated during coronary arterography and arterial blood, were analyzed in a cohort of 117 patients with CAD and 34 controls without CAD. % VLA-1+ T cells in PB was 0.63 ± 0.09% in controls compared to 0.96 ± 0.95% in patients with CAD (p<0.009). The increase was due to a marked elevation of % VLA-1+ T cells in stable CAD (1.6 ± 0.27%) whereas % VLA-1+ T cells during acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and in patients with ischemia by thalium SPECT scan had significantly lower levels. % VLA-1+ T cells in coronary artery plaque material aspirated during therapeutic angiography in patients with ACS was significantly higher than in arterial blood (1.39 ± 0.96% vs 0.75 ± 0.84%, p<0.035, n=3). Thus, % VLA-1+ T cells increases in the PB during stable CAD but decreases in ACS. The finding of their enrichment in coronary blood containing atherosclerotic plaque aspirates suggests that a shift of VLA-1+ T cells from blood to atherosclerotic plaques may play a role in plaque instability in patients with ACS.

  7. Long-term pleiotropic effect of statins upon nitric oxide and C-reactive protein levels in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Bleda, S; De Haro, J; Florez, A; Varela, C; Esparza, L; Acin, F

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Peripheral arterial disease can be regarded as a systemic inflammatory disorder affecting the entire vascular system. In the early clinical stages, it is characterised by the deterioration of endothelial function, which does not progress with the development of the disease. This study analyses the pleiotropic effects upon the plasma nitrite and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in claudicating patients after 12 months of treatment with statins. Study design A prospective randomised controlled translational study was made in patients with Fontaine grade II ischaemia, treated with the best medical treatment with or without statins for 12 months from the time of diagnosis for assessing the pleiotropic effects of those statins. Methods Measurements of plasma high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), lipid profile and nitrites were made at baseline and after 1 month and 1 year of treatment with atorvastatin 40 mg/day. Results A significant reduction in nitrite levels was observed after 1 month of treatment (11.8±7.8 μM vs 5.7±1.8 μM, p=0.0001), but this effect did not persist after 1 year (11.8±7.8 μM vs 9.4±8.9 μM, p=0.27). HsCRP underwent a significant reduction after both 1 month (7 (2.2–12) vs 3.4 (1.6–5.5), p<0.01) and 1 year of treatment with atorvastatin (7 (2.2–12) vs 2.25 (1.67–6.7), p=0.02). Statin treatment reduced hsCRP levels in 9.64 (95% CI (1.60 to 17.68)) after 1 month and in 9.14 (95% CI (0.18 to 18.47)) after 1 year. Conclusions The long-term biological pleiotropic effects of statins provide information on the role of endothelial function and systemic inflammation in the aetiopathogenesis of peripheral arterial disease. Statins slow endothelial degradation at the start of the disease, with no effects over the long term. These drug substances reduce progressive inflammation throughout the treatment period. This supports the novel hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction is only a disease-triggering phenomenon

  8. Secondary flow structures in the presence of Type-IV stent fractures through a bent tube model for curved arteries: Effect of circulation thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Shadman; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    A common treatment for atherosclerosis is the opening of narrowed arteries resulting from obstructive lesions by angioplasty and stent implantation to restore unrestricted blood flow. ``Type-IV'' stent fractures involve complete transverse, linear fracture of stent struts, along with displacement of the stent fragments. Experimental data pertaining to secondary flows in the presence of stents that underwent ``Type-IV'' fractures in a bent artery model under physiological inflow conditions were obtained through a two-component, two-dimensional (2C-2D) PIV technique. Concomitant stent-induced flow perturbations result in secondary flow structures with complex, multi-scale morphologies and varying size-strength characteristics. Ultimately, these flow structures may have a role to play in restenosis and progression of atherosclerotic plaque. Vortex circulation thresholds were established with the goal of resolving and tracking iso-circulation secondary flow vortical structures and their morphological changes. This allowed for a parametric evaluation and quantitative representation of secondary flow structures undergoing deformation and spatial reorganization. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  9. Using peripheral blood circulating DNAs to detect CpG global methylation status and genetic mutations in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Iriyama, Chisako; Tomita, Akihiro; Hoshino, Hideaki; Adachi-Shirahata, Mizuho; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Circulating DNAs (CDs) can be used to detect genetic/epigenetic abnormalities in MDS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epigenetic changes can be detected more sensitively when using plasma DNA than PBMNC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutation ratio in CDs may reflect the ratio in stem cell population in bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using CDs can be a safer alternate strategy compared to bone marrow aspiration. -- Abstract: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder. Several genetic/epigenetic abnormalities are deeply associated with the pathogenesis of MDS. Although bone marrow (BM) aspiration is a common strategy to obtain MDS cells for evaluating their genetic/epigenetic abnormalities, BM aspiration is difficult to perform repeatedly to obtain serial samples because of pain and safety concerns. Here, we report that circulating cell-free DNAs from plasma and serum of patients with MDS can be used to detect genetic/epigenetic abnormalities. The plasma DNA concentration was found to be relatively high in patients with higher blast cell counts in BM, and accumulation of DNA fragments from mono-/di-nucleosomes was confirmed. Using serial peripheral blood (PB) samples from patients treated with hypomethylating agents, global methylation analysis using bisulfite pyrosequencing was performed at the specific CpG sites of the LINE-1 promoter. The results confirmed a decrease of the methylation percentage after treatment with azacitidine (days 3-9) using DNAs from plasma, serum, and PB mono-nuclear cells (PBMNC). Plasma DNA tends to show more rapid change at days 3 and 6 compared with serum DNA and PBMNC. Furthermore, the TET2 gene mutation in DNAs from plasma, serum, and BM cells was quantitated by pyrosequencing analysis. The existence ratio of mutated genes in plasma and serum DNA showed almost equivalent level with that in the CD34+/38- stem cell population in BM. These data suggest that genetic

  10. Circulating brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and frequency of BDNF positive T cells in peripheral blood in human ischemic stroke: Effect on outcome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Adeline; Yan, Jun; Csurhes, Peter; Greer, Judith; McCombe, Pamela

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of circulating BDNF and the frequency of BDNF-producing T cells after acute ischaemic stroke. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate peripheral blood leukocytes that were labelled with antibodies against markers of T cells, T regulatory cells (Tregs), and intracellular BDNF. There was a slight increase in serum BDNF levels after stroke. There was no overall difference between stroke patients and controls in the frequency of CD4(+) and CD8(+) BDNF(+) cells, although a subgroup of stroke patients showed high frequencies of these cells. However, there was an increase in the percentage of BDNF(+) Treg cells in the CD4(+) population in stroke patients compared to controls. Patients with high percentages of CD4(+) BDNF(+) Treg cells had a better outcome at 6months than those with lower levels. These groups did not differ in age, gender or initial stroke severity. Enhancement of BDNF production after stroke could be a useful means of improving neuroprotection and recovery after stroke.

  11. Detection of survivin-expressing circulating cancer cells in the peripheral blood of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mei; Yie, Shang-Mian; Wu, Sheng-Min; Chen, Shu; Lou, Be; He, Xu; Ye, Shang-Rong; Xie, Ke; Rao, Lin; Gao, En; Ye, Nai-Yao

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the detection of circulating cancer cells (CCC) expressing survivin mRNA could provide valuable information for predicting recurrence in patients with breast, lung, gastric and colorectal carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the detection of survivin-expressing CCC in the peripheral blood is also useful for predicting recurrence in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Blood samples obtained from 108 ESCC patients and 75 healthy volunteers were quantitatively investigated by a technique that detected reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products based on a hybridization-enzyme linked immunosorbent essay. Not all of the patients were available for the follow-up study. Only 48 patients who were treated with similar adjuvant therapy regimens were available and followed-up for 33 months after the initial assay test. Survivin-expressing CCC were detected in 51 (47.2%) patients. The presence of survivin-expressing CCC was found to be significantly associated with depth of invasion, vascular invasion, nodal status, and disease stages (P = 0.032, 0.019, 0.018, and 0.001, respectively). During the follow-up period, patients who had positive survivin expressions had a higher relapse rate and a shorter survival time than those who had negative survivin expressions (P = 0.002 and 0.016, respectively). Examination of survivin-expressing CCC could provide valuable information in the prediction of haematogenous recurrence as well as in the prognosis of ESCC. PMID:19521785

  12. Endoperoxide 4 receptors play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in rats with simulated peripheral artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Katsuya; Kim, Joyce S; Stone, Audrey J; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Kaufman, Marc P